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Sample records for model-based hydroacoustic blockage

  1. MODEL-BASED HYDROACOUSTIC BLOCKAGE ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPLOSIVE SOURCE DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, E; Ramirez, A; Harben, P

    2005-07-11

    We are continuing the development of the Hydroacoustic Blockage Assessment Tool (HABAT) which is designed for use by analysts to predict which hydroacoustic monitoring stations can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches (1) model-based assessment of blockage, and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The tool presents the analyst with a map of the world, and plots raypath blockages from stations to sources. The analyst inputs source locations and blockage criteria, and the tool returns a list of blockage status from all source locations to all hydroacoustic stations. We are currently using the tool in an assessment of blockage criteria for simple direct-path arrivals. Hydroacoustic data, predominantly from earthquake sources, are read in and assessed for blockage at all available stations. Several measures are taken. First, can the event be observed at a station above background noise? Second, can we establish backazimuth from the station to the source. Third, how large is the decibel drop at one station relative to other stations. These observational results are then compared with model estimates to identify the best set of blockage criteria and used to create a set of blockage maps for each station. The model-based estimates are currently limited by the coarse bathymetry of existing databases and by the limitations inherent in the raytrace method. In collaboration with BBN Inc., the Hydroacoustic Coverage Assessment Model (HydroCAM) that generates the blockage files that serve as input to HABAT, is being extended to include high-resolution bathymetry databases in key areas that increase model-based blockage assessment reliability. An important aspect of this capability is to eventually include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur and to identify the associated reflectors. To assess how well any given hydroacoustic discriminant works in separating earthquake and in-water explosion

  2. Hydroacoustic Blockage Calibration for Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Matzel, E; Upton, Z; Pulli, J J

    2003-07-11

    The core focus of this hydroacoustic research is to develop a better understanding of hydroacoustic blockage to better predict those stations that can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches: (1) model-based assessment of blockage and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The goal is to reliably determine all hydroacoustic stations that can be brought to bear on a discrimination analysis from any event location in the world s oceans. An important aspect of this capability is to include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur since reflected T-phases can allow station utilization when the direct path is otherwise completely blocked. We have conceptually designed an approach to automate assessment procedures that will allow both model-based and data-based methodologies to be utilized and in the future, integrated. We have modified the HydroCAM model-based network assessment code to include variable density bathymetry grids. This will improve the reliability of model-based blockage assessment as dense bathymetry grids are added to the bathymetry database where available and needed. We are also running the HydroCAM code to produce blockage grids in the Indian Ocean for many different blockage criteria. We have been building the database necessary to begin the data driven assessment of blockage. At present, the database is accumulating earthquake events within the Indian Ocean basin as recorded at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Over 130 events from 2001 and 2002 have been loaded. Now earthquake event data is automatically loaded into the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory database at 1-hour record lengths to accommodate future reflection phase analysis. Future work will focus on the utilization of reflected T-phases, the automated use of model-based blockage grids, and the enhancement and use of the data-based method for blockage assessment in the Indian Ocean. The analysis methodology will

  3. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  4. Blockages to Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, A.

    The paper examines the nature of creativity and blockages to its expression especially in home and school settings in South Africa. A definition of creativity is offered which stresses the production of an original outcome or achievement. The creative process is broken down into the steps of preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification.…

  5. Estimating Pump Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W.; Meng, S. Y.; Meng, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Blockage predicted for all components including inducers, impellers and diffusers. Pump performance predicted by semiempirical method shows excellent agreement with test results in Space Shuttle main-engine highpressure fuel turbopump. Comparisons of pump efficiency show equally good agreement of calculated values with experimental ones. Method improves current estimation methods based solely on subjective engineering judgment.

  6. Can T phases be used to map blockage?

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.; Hauk, T.

    1995-05-01

    The placement of stations in a CTBT hydroacoustic monitoring network is controlled, in large part, by the presence of bathymetric features or land masses that block propagation. In the absence of blocking features, propagation is very efficient in the SOFAR channel, allowing surveillance over large basins with hydrophone networks that are sparse compared to seismic networks. Blockage can be estimated from theoretical calculations of acoustic attenuation. While calibration of attenuation with controlled sources is best, it is also prohibitively expensive. The T phases generated by undersea earthquakes are known to be sensitive to interruptions of the SOFAR channel. Earthquakes along ridges may illuminate regions of interest to define blockage areas. Our initial examination of T phase amplitudes suggests that T phases can be used to map blockage or other strong path attenuation. The principal difficulty to be surmounted is the ambiguity between source coupling and path attenuation. We are attempting to quantify coupling with a probabilistic model, which would permit us to estimate attenuation and to quantify the reliability of the estimate.

  7. BBN technical memorandum W1310 hydroacoustic network capability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, J., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes work performed under contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the period 1 August to 30 November 1997. Four separate tasks were undertaken during this period which investigated various aspects of hydroacoustic network performance using the Hydroacoustic Coverage Assessment Model (HydroCAM). The purpose of this report is to document each of these tasks.

  8. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  9. Cascading blockages in channel bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, C.; Talbot, J.

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of Nc parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary Nc and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary Nc and N =1 for coupled channels. For N >1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N =1 but decreases for N >1 . This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  10. Cascading blockages in channel bundles.

    PubMed

    Barré, C; Talbot, J

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of N(c) parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary N(c) and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary N(c) and N=1 for coupled channels. For N>1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N=1 but decreases for N>1. This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  11. Hydroacoustic Estimates of Fish Density Distributions in Cougar Reservoir, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Batten, George W.; Mitchell, T. D.

    2012-09-01

    Day and night mobile hydroacoustic surveys were conducted once each month from April through December 2011 to quantify the horizontal and vertical distributions of fish throughout Cougar Reservoir, Lane County, Oregon.

  12. Installing a Hydroacoustic Station at the Crozet Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization2 Sponsored by the United States State Department Award No. NDF – 288 ABSTRACT The Comprehensive...Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) includes a network of eleven hydroacoustic stations for monitoring the Earth’s oceans...NNSA). 14. ABSTRACT The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) includes a network of eleven hydroacoustic

  13. Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station-centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No. 2 January 2003 - March 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Pulli, Jay J.; Upton, Zachary M.

    2003-04-21

    OAK A271 Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station-centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No. 2 January 2003 - March 2003. BBN's work from January through March of 2003 was focused on data collection, data analysis and software development. We continued our efforts to collect ground truth hydroacoustic data from sub-sea earthquakes in the Indian Ocean. These data are recorded on the International Monitoring System stations at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. The software development effort spanned two areas. Fixing problems and making small improvements to HydroCAM based on meetings at AFTAC in September 2002. We have also begun development of the software that will integrate local high-resolution bathymetry into lower-resolution global bathymetry for acoustic path predictions in HydroCAM. We hope that this will improve HydroCAM's ability to predict acoustic blockage. Unfortunately, due to corporate travel restrictions stemming from the war with Iraq, BBN will not be able to participate in the International Hydroacoustics Meeting in Hobart, Tasmania in May. However, we plan to provide Phil Harben with material to present and we plan to participate in the annual Seismic Research Review in Arizona this September.

  14. Hydro-acoustic and tsunami waves generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake: Modeling and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, Ali; Cecioni, Claudia; Bellotti, Giorgio; Kirby, James T.

    2015-02-01

    Detection of low-frequency hydro-acoustic waves as precursor components of destructive tsunamis can enhance the promptness and the accuracy of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). We reconstruct the hydro-acoustic wave field generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamigenic earthquake using a 2-D horizontal numerical model based on the integration over the depth of the compressible fluid wave equation and considering a mild sloped rigid seabed. Spectral analysis of the wave field obtained at different water depths and distances from the source revealed the frequency range of low-frequency elastic oscillations of sea water. The resulting 2-D numerical model gave us the opportunity to study the hydro-acoustic wave propagation in a large-scale domain with available computers and to support the idea of deep-sea observatory and data interpretation. The model provides satisfactory results, compared with in situ measurements, in the reproduction of the long-gravitational waves. Differences between numerical results and field data are probably due to the lack of exact knowledge of sea bottom motion and to the rigid seabed approximation, indicating the need for further study of poro-elastic bottom effects.

  15. Hydroacoustic basis for detection and characterization of eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    SciTech Connect

    Sabol, B.; McCarthy, E.; Rocha, K.

    1997-06-01

    Understanding the distribution and density of seagrasses is important for a variety of environmental applications. Physical techniques for detection and characterization are labor and cost intensive and provide little insight into spatial distribution. optical-based techniques are limited by water clarity - frequently resulting in systematic underestimation of the extent of seagrasses. Active hydroacoustic techniques have shown the ability to detect seagrasses but the phenomenology behind detection is poorly understood. Laboratory and in-situ hydroacoustic measurements are presented for eelgrass (Zostera marina), a common seagrass in the United States. Based on these data, hydroacoustic approaches for wide area detection and mapping are discussed and several are demonstrated within areas of established eelgrass beds in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

  16. Interference immunity of hydroacoustic power flux receive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, V. A.; Gordienko, E. L.; Krasnopistsev, N. V.; Nekrasov, V. N.

    2008-09-01

    Based on an analysis of experimental data and model simulations, the potential of small-size vector hydroacoustic receive systems measuring acoustic power flux (APF) are discussed in application to the detection of weak signals in the presence of ambient sea noise. It is shown that APF receivers are capable of measuring signal levels no less than 10 20 dB lower (depending on the signal-interference situation in the water area) than those measured by PRs. In order to extend the class of hydroacoustic systems whose potential can be correctly compared, it is proposed to modify the definition of interference immunity by introducing two separate qualifying notions: noise and interference.

  17. Acoustic propagation in rigid ducts with blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1982-01-01

    Acoustic levitation has been suggested for moving nonmagnetic material in furnaces for heat processing in space experiments. Basically, acoustic standing waves under resonant conditions are excited in the cavity of the furnace while the material blockage is located at a pressure node and thus at a maximum gradient. The position of the blockage is controlled by displacing the node as a result of frequency change. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of blockage on the longitudinal and transverse resonances of a cylindrical cavity, taking into account the results of a one-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. Based on a Green's function surface element method, 3-D analysis is tested experimentally and proved to be accurate over a wide range of geometric parameters and boundary shapes. The shift in resonance depends on the change in pressure gradient and duct shortening caused by the blockage.

  18. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance. Reservoir vital signs monitoring, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  19. Transcription Blockage Leads to New Beginnings

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Lima, Leonardo C.; Veloso, Artur; Ljungman, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Environmental agents are constantly challenging cells by damaging DNA, leading to the blockage of transcription elongation. How do cells deal with transcription-blockage and how is transcription restarted after the blocking lesions are removed? Here we review the processes responsible for the removal of transcription-blocking lesions, as well as mechanisms of transcription restart. We also discuss recent data suggesting that blocked RNA polymerases may not resume transcription from the site of the lesion following its removal but, rather, are forced to start over from the beginning of genes. PMID:26197343

  20. Hydroacoustic monitoring of drifting icebergs in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, J.; Hyvernaud, O.; Reymond, D.

    2009-12-01

    The french Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique has settled in French Polynesia a 'T-Wave' seismic network since 1960. These 10 high sensitivity broad band stations transmitted in real time enable to monitor natural submarine processes such as volcanic eruptions, colliding icebergs and seismic activity in the Pacific. During the 2008-2009 summer season in Antarctic, we have tracked the giant drifting iceberg B15a in the roaring fifties. During 4 months, we have recorded and located the hydroacoustic cracks which accompany the progressive breaking-up of B15a into small bergs and growlers. The use of arrival times and azimuth of IMS hydrophones triplet and enhanced hydroacoustic velocity model reduced significantly the error ellipse of locations. The locations have been compared with well-dated visible and infrared satellite images of iceberg B15a, providing some insights into the fracturation process.

  1. Hydroacoustic detection of submarine landslides on Kilauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Fox, Christopher G.; Duennebier, Frederick K.

    Landslides produced at the site where lava flows into the ocean at Kilauea volcano have been detected hydroacoustically. Up to 10 landslides per day were detected by a hydrophone on the Hawaii Undersea Geo-Observatory (HUGO), located 50 km south of the entry site. The largest of these landslides, partly subaerial events known as bench collapses, were detected by a network of hydrophones in the eastern Pacific, 5000-7000 km away from the source. The landslides display a characteristic spectral signature easily recognizable among other signals such as earthquake T-phases and anthropogenic noises. The fact that signals are detected at great distances suggests that hydroacoustic detection of landslides could be a powerful tool in tsunami monitoring and modeling efforts.

  2. The strainer blockage assessment methodology used

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, G.L.; Rao, D.V.

    1996-03-01

    On July 28, 1992 a spurious opening of a safety valve at Barseback Unit 2 in Sweden resulted in clogging of the Containment Vessel Spray System strainers in less than one hour. Instances of ECCS strainer clogging have occurred in U.S. BWRs. Given these precursors the USNRC staff initiated analyses to estimate the potential for loss of NPSH of the ECCS pumps in BWRs due to clogging of suction strainers by a combination of fibrous and particulate material. The BLOCKAGE code was developed in support of NUREG/CR-6224, a probabilistic scoping analysis of a BWR/4 with a Mark 1 containment. This paper addresses the key elements of the methodology used in the BLOCKAGE code to assess head loss across ECCS strainers. The debris generation model, the debris drywell transport, and the suppression pool models are discussed briefly. NUREG/CR-6224 provides in-depth discussions of the models used in BLOCKAGE. Additionally, user interface features of BLOCKAGE are discussed.

  3. Workgroup for Hydraulic laboratory Testing and Verification of Hydroacoustic Instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.

    2015-01-01

    An international workgroup was recently formed for hydraulic laboratory testing and verification of hydroacoustic instrumentation used for water velocity measurements. The activities of the workgroup have included one face to face meeting, conference calls and an inter-laboratory exchange of two acoustic meters among participating laboratories. Good agreement was found among four laboratories at higher tow speeds and poorer agreement at the lowest tow speed.

  4. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Deployments at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Cook, Christopher B.; Titzler, P. Scott; Moursund, Russell A.

    2002-11-12

    This report describes short-term studies conducted in late November and early December 2001 to optimize hydroacoustic sampling techniques for John Day Dam before the 2002 fish passage efficiency (FPE) study. Knowledge gained in this study should significantly improve hydroacoustic sampling and the accuracy of estimates of fish passage at two locations that have presented problems in past studies. The spillway has been most problematic because many fish detected there were not entrained. Without correction, non-commitment of fish can result in multiple detections and overestimation of fish passage and FPE. Trash-rack-mounted, down-looking transducers for sampling unguided fish at a submerged traveling screen (STS) also have posed problems because the beam was aimed so far downstream that researchers had concerns about fish aspect and detectability. The deployments, aiming angles, and ping rates described here should eliminate all problems encountered in previous studies. This report describes hydroacoustic evaluations. The spill-bay deployment identified in this study should completely eliminate multiple detections of fish by limiting the sample volume for counting fish to the deep high-discharge volume adjacent to the gate. Results from testing of transducers deployed in a turbine intake with an STS suggest that, after testing in 2002, it may be possible to cut the number of powerhouse transducers sampling STS units by 50% or to double the spatial sampling coverage with the same number of transducers, all while improving detectability.

  5. BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Bernahl, W.

    1996-12-01

    The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors``. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User`s Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution.

  6. Modeling Tsunamis and Hydroacoustic Waves from Megathrust Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotto, G. C.; Belair, G. M.; Kozdon, J. E.; Dunham, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    The immense damage caused by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake demonstrated the importance of understanding tsunami excitation by megathrust ruptures. Of particular interest are any faster-propagating seismic or hydroacoustic signals that could be used to rapidly predict tsunami wave heights. To study the full seismic, acoustic, and tsunami wavefields, we have developed a provably stable and accurate finite-difference method that couples an elastic solid to a compressible fluid subject to gravitational restoring forces. We introduce a new treatment of the dynamic (free surface) boundary condition on the moving sea surface in the presence of gravity that is valid for small-amplitude perturbations about an ocean initially in hydrostatic balance. This permits us to model surface gravity waves in the linearized limit, including dispersion from nonhydrostatic motions at short wavelengths. This is done using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators and weak enforcement of boundary conditions. Shallow coseismic slip during megathrust events causes seafloor uplift that excites both tsunamis and long-period (~10 s) hydroacoustic waves; the latter ocean sound waves travel at several km/s and reach the coast many minutes sooner than tsunami waves. These hydroacoustic waves might be used as part of local tsunami early warning systems. Our previous dynamic rupture simulations of the Tohoku event, which neglected surface gravity waves, revealed correlations between pressure perturbations recorded at the seafloor (associated with ~10 s hydroacoustic waves in the ocean) and near-trench seafloor uplift caused by shallow slip. Now that we can model tsunamis within the same code, we plan to quantify the correlation between these pressure perturbations and tsunami height. We are also investigating properties of these hydroacoustic modes, which involve significant motions of the solid Earth as well as the ocean. Phase and group velocity curves for a uniform ocean

  7. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N=56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants' learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old…

  8. Local blockage effect for wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Takafumi; Draper, Scott

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a combined theoretical and CFD study on the fluid-mechanical limit of power extraction by a closely-spaced lateral array of wind turbines. The idea of this study originates in recent studies on the array optimisation of tidal/marine turbines, for which the power coefficient of each turbine is known to increase significantly if the lateral spacing between turbines, or the local blockage, is optimised. The present study, using 3D Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of a boundary-layer flow over a closely-spaced lateral array of up to 9 actuator discs, suggests that a similar—albeit less significant—power increase due to the effect of local blockage can be achieved even for wind turbines. A possible theoretical approach to estimating this power increase is also discussed.

  9. Pipeline Blockage Unplugging and Locating Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    W. Thor Zollinger; Frank Carney

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a pulsed hydraulic system, specifically designed to unblock plugged piping. It uses the differences between the resonant vibrations of the fluid column and pipe walls to separate the blockage from the pipe wall, break it up, and clear the line. Using resonant frequencies, the system can stay below the design pressure of the system, preventing pipe failures from occurring, which is a major concern with DOE radioactive waste transfer lines.

  10. Models of blockage-induced selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, C.; Talbot, J.

    2017-04-01

    We examine blockage-induced selectivity in a particulate stream flowing through a channel. Each component of the mixture is characterized by the transit time, τ, necessary to pass through the channel. The model is motivated by filtration and other processes involving blockage. The transit time distribution of exiting particles depends on the entering particle distribution, \\psi(τ) , the intensity, λ, of the entering stream, and the blocking rule. With the simple rule that a blockage occurs whenever two particles are present in the channel, the properties of the exiting stream are directly related to the Laplace transform of the entering distribution, \\tilde\\psi(λ) . For any entering distribution, the exiting stream is enriched in faster moving components. The selectivity of a species in a binary mixture can be mapped to a thermodynamic system, namely a hard rod mixture at a given pressure and temperature that can model the adsorption of gas mixtures in nanopores. We also examine an alternative rule according to which blocking only occurs if a faster moving particle catches up to a slower one in the channel. The selectivity is quantitatively different compared to the simple blocking rule. In a binary mixture the majority component in the entering stream is further enhanced in the exiting stream, independently of the transit times.

  11. Nearshore Hydroacoustic Seafloor Mapping In The German Bight (North Sea): Hydroacoustic Interpretation With And Without Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. C.; Mielck, F.; Papenmeier, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nearshore habitats are in constant dynamic change. They need regular assessment and appropriate monitoring of areas of special interest. To accomplish this, hydroacoustic seabed characterization tools are applied to allow for cost-effective and efficient mapping of the seafloor. In this context single beam echosounders (SBES) systems provide a comprehensive view by analyzing the hardness and roughness characteristics of the seafloor. Interpolation between transect lines becomes necessary when gapless maps are needed. This study presents a simple method to process and visualize data recorded with RoxAnn (Sonavision, Edinburgh, UK) and similar SBES. Both, hardness and roughness data are merged to one combined parameter that receives a color code (RGB) according to the acoustic properties of the seafloor. This color information is then interpolated to obtain an area-wide map that provides unclassified and thus unbiased seabed information. The RGB color data can subsequently be used for classification and modeling purposes. Four surveys are shown from a morphologically complex nearshore area west of the island of Helgoland (SE North Sea). The area has complex textural and dynamic characteristics reaching from outcropping bedrock via sandy to muddy areas with mostly gradual transitions. RoxAnn data allow to discriminate all seafloor types that were suggested by ground-truth information (seafloor samples, video). The area appears to be fluctuating within certain limits. Sediment import (sand and fluid mud) paths can be reconstructed. Manually, six RoxAnn zones (RZ) were identified and left without hard boundaries to better match the seafloor types of the study site. The k-means fuzzy cluster analysis employed yields best results with 3 classes. We show that interpretations on the basis of largely non-classified, color-coded and interpolated data provide the best gain of information in the highest possible resolution. Classification with hard boundaries is necessary for

  12. Applications of ripple analysis in hydro-acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leducq, D.; Schlegel, R.

    Software developed for ripple analysis in hydro-acoustic applications is described. Noise and vibration analysis using this software is shown to be particularly effective. The importance of post treatment of the data in order to obtain dependable results is stressed. Examples are presented of the use of the ripple analysis software in measuring the noise and vibration produced by a pump. The software is used in the analysis of cavitation noise. Cavitation noise frequency graphs are presented to illustrate the experimented results. The advantages of the ripple analysis techniques in obtaining a better understanding of the underlying physics of the processes studied are stressed.

  13. Inhibiting bacterial toxins by channel blockage

    PubMed Central

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.

    2015-01-01

    Emergent rational drug design techniques explore individual properties of target biomolecules, small and macromolecule drug candidates, and the physical forces governing their interactions. In this minireview, we focus on the single-molecule biophysical studies of channel-forming bacterial toxins that suggest new approaches for their inhibition. We discuss several examples of blockage of bacterial pore-forming and AB-type toxins by the tailor-made compounds. In the concluding remarks, the most effective rationally designed pore-blocking antitoxins are compared with the small-molecule inhibitors of ion-selective channels of neurophysiology. PMID:26656888

  14. Bathymetric diffraction of basin-scale hydroacoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Prior, Mark; Campbell, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    The ocean is nearly transparent to low frequency sound permitting the observation of distant events such as earthquakes or explosions at fully basin scales. For very low frequency the ocean acts as a shallow-water waveguide and lateral variability in bathymetry can lead to out-of-plane effects. In this paper, data from the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is used to present two cases where robustly localized seismic events in locations clearly within the two-dimensional (2-D) shadow of a continent or large island generate T-phase signals that are received on a hydro-acoustic station. A fully three- dimensional parabolic equation model is used to demonstrate that lateral variability of the bathymetry can lead to diffraction, explaining both observations. The implications of this are that the CTBTO network has greater coverage than predicted by 2-D models and that inclusion of diffraction in future processing can improve the automatic global association of hydroacoustic events.

  15. Preliminary Results from an Hydroacoustic Experiment in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Delatre, M.; Brachet, C.; Haxel, J. H.; Matsumoto, H.; Goslin, J.; Brandon, V.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Guinet, C.; Samaran, F.

    2008-12-01

    We report initial results from a 14-month hydroacoustic experiment in the Indian Ocean conducted by CNRS/University of Brest and NOAA/Oregon State University. The objective was to monitor the low-level seismic activity associated with the three contrasting spreading ridges and deforming zones in the Indian Ocean. Three autonomous hydrophones, moored in the SOFAR channel, were deployed in October 2006 and recovered early 2008 by R/V Marion Dufresne, in the Madagascar Basin, and northeast and southwest of Amsterdam Island, complementing the two permanent hydroacoustic stations of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) located near Diego Garcia Island and off Cape Leeuwin. Our temporary network detected more than 2000 events. Inside the array, we located 592 events (compared to 49 in the NEIC earthquake catalog) with location errors less than 5 km and time error less than 2s. The hydrophone array detected on average 5 to 40 times more events per month than land-based networks. First-order observations indicate that hydroacoustic seismicity along the Southeast Indian ridge (SEIR) occurs predominantly along the transform faults. The Southwest Indian Ridge exhibits some periodicity in earthquake activity between adjacent ridge segments. Two large tectonic/volcanic earthquake swarms are observed along the Central Indian Ridge (near the triple junction) in September and December 2007. Moreover, many off ridge-axis events are also observed both south and north of the SEIR axis. Improved localization using the CTBTO records will help refine these preliminary results and further investigate extended volcanic sequences along the SEIR east of 80°E and other events outside of the temporary array. The records also display numerous vocalizations of baleen whales in the 20-40Hz bandwidth. The calls are attributed to fin whales, Antarctic blue whales and pygmy blue whales of Madagascar and Australian type. Their vocal activity is found to be highly seasonal

  16. Remote hydroacoustic sensing of large icebergs in the southern Indian Ocean: Implications for iceberg monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, L. G.; Green, D. N.; Young, N. W.; Snellen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Hydroacoustic signals generated by drifting icebergs that crack, disintegrate, and collide were identified on two hydrophone arrays in the Indian Ocean. These hydrophone arrays are deployed in the Sound Fixing and Ranging channel, enabling the detection of small sources over ranges of several thousand kilometers due to the low attenuation. Source locations estimated from the signal bearings at the arrays are used to monitor two very large icebergs, C20 and B17B. Spatial and temporal correlation of the location estimates with satellite observations confirm that the icebergs can be hydroacoustically resolved. Hydroacoustic generation rates at both C20 and B17B are highest at times of observed breakup. For C20, which underwent continuous breakup, clusters of events to the southeast of the main iceberg show that hydroacoustic observations can identify trails of icebergs that calved from the main berg whose dimensions are less than that easily resolved by moderate resolution satellite monitoring.

  17. Inhibiting bacterial toxins by channel blockage.

    PubMed

    Bezrukov, Sergey M; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M

    2016-03-01

    Emergent rational drug design techniques explore individual properties of target biomolecules, small and macromolecule drug candidates, and the physical forces governing their interactions. In this minireview, we focus on the single-molecule biophysical studies of channel-forming bacterial toxins that suggest new approaches for their inhibition. We discuss several examples of blockage of bacterial pore-forming and AB-type toxins by the tailor-made compounds. In the concluding remarks, the most effective rationally designed pore-blocking antitoxins are compared with the small-molecule inhibitors of ion-selective channels of neurophysiology. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployments at Lookout Point and Cougar Dams, Willamette Valley Project, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2010-08-18

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) and the acoustic imaging system at Cougar Dam (CGR) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. The general approach was a multi-step process from mount design to final system configuration. The optimization effort resulted in successful deployments of hydroacoustic equipment at LOP and CGR.

  19. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  20. Seismic and hydroacoustic analysis relevant to MH370

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, Richard J.

    2014-07-03

    The vicinity of the Indian Ocean is searched for open and readily available seismic and/or hydroacoustic stations that might have recorded a possible impact of MH370 with the ocean surface. Only three stations are identified: the IMS hydrophone arrays H01 and H08, and the Geoscope seismic station AIS. Analysis of the data from these stations shows an interesting arrival on H01 that has some interference from an Antarctic ice event, large amplitude repeating signals at H08 that obscure any possible arrivals, and large amplitude chaotic noise at AIS precludes any analysis at higher frequencies of interest. The results are therefore rather inconclusive but may point to a more southerly impact location within the overall Indian Ocean search region. The results would be more useful if they can be combined with any other data that are not readily available.

  1. BLOCKAGE 2.5 user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D.V.; Brideau, J.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Bernahl, W.

    1996-12-01

    The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code described in this User`s Manual was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate licensee compliance with NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors.`` As such, BLOCKAGE 2.5 provides a generalized framework into which a user can input plant-specific and insulation-specific data for performing analyses in accordance with Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 2. This user`s manual describes the capabilities of BLOCKAGE 2.5 along with a description of the graphics user`s interface provided for data entry. Each input/output dialog is described in detail along with special considerations related to developing and executing BLOCKAGE. Also, several sample problems are provided such that user can easily modify them to suit a particular plant of interest. The models used in BLOCKAGE 2.5 and their validation are presented in the accompanying NUREG/CR-6371. The BLOCKAGE models were designed to be parametric in nature, allowing the user flexibility to examine the impact of several modeling assumptions and to conduct sensitivity analyses. As a result, BLOCKAGE 2.5 results are known to be very sensitive to the user provided input. It is therefore strongly recommended that users become thoroughly familiar with BLOCKAGE models and their limitations as described in NUREG/CR-6224.

  2. Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station-centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No.4 July 2003 - September 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Zachary, M.; Pulli, Jay, J.

    2003-10-13

    OAK B272 Quarterly technical report summarizing BBN's efforts to improve DOE's hydroacoustic modeling and analysis capability for nuclear explosion monitoring. BBN's work during the third quarter of 2003 was focused on preparations for and participation in the 2003 Seismic Research Review Meeting, unit testing and bug fixes to HydroCAM 4.1, data collection and analysis, and procuring high-resolution bathymetric data. In an attempt to save money, BBN scaled back its labor in the third quarter, delaying some deliverables but saving contract funding in case our next increment is delayed. We have succeeded in finding the correct Naval contact that can help us procure high-resolution bathymetry data. Although these data may require the release of a classified version of HydroCAM, we are optimistic that we will be able to acquire and integrate high-resolution bathymetric data near the Indian Ocean IMS stations. HydroCAM 4.1, which includes the ability to make blockage predictions using varying resolution bathymetric data, has completed unit testing and is now under integration (release) testing. We hope to deliver that functionality to DOE and AFTAC in November. BBN improved its database of hydroacoustic events in the Indian Ocean by including meta-data for associated arrivals. For each earthquake event, BBN is now picking the direct arrival at each station (Diego Garcia North and South, and Cape Leeuwin) and associating that arrival with the origin information that we are compiling. The data for 2001, 2002 and 2003 (to date) will be delivered to LLNL for integration into the Knowledge Base during the fourth quarter of 2003.

  3. Hydroacoustic Signals Recorded by the International Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Orcutt, J.; Harben, P.

    2002-12-01

    Networks of hydrophones, such as the hydroacoustic part of the International Monitoring System (IMS), and hydrophone arrays, such as the U.S. Navy operates, record many types of signals, some of which travel thousands of kilometers in the oceanic sound channel. Abyssal earthquakes generate many such individual events and occasionally occur in swarms. Here we focus on signals generated by other types of sources, illustrating their character with recent data, mostly from the Indian Ocean. Shipping generates signals in the 5-40 Hz band. Large airgun arrays can generate T-waves that travel across an ocean basin if the near-source seafloor has appropriate depth/slope. Airgun array shots from our 2001 experiment were located with an accuracy of 25-40 km at 700-1000 km ranges, using data from a Diego Garcia tripartite sensor station. Shots at greater range (up to 4800 km) were recorded at multiple stations but their higher background noise levels in the 5-30 Hz band resulted in location errors of ~100 km. Imploding glass spheres shattered within the sound channel produce a very impulsive arrival, even after propagating 4400 km. Recordings of the sphere signal have energy concentrated in the band above 40 Hz. Natural sources such as undersea volcanic eruptions and marine mammals also produce signals that are clearly evident in hydrophone recordings. For whales, the frequency range is 20~120Hz and specific patterns of vocalization characterize different species. Volcanic eruptions typically produce intense swarms of acoustic activity that last days-weeks and the source area can migrate tens of kms during the period. The utility of these types of hydroacoustic sources for research and/or monitoring purposes depends on the accuracy with which recordings can be used to locate and quantitatively characterize the source. Oceanic weather, both local and regional, affect background noise levels in key frequency bands at the recording stations. Databases used in forward modeling of

  4. Modelling distribution of marine benthos from hydroacoustics and underwater video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, K. W.; Van Niel, K. P.; Radford, B.; Kendrick, G. A.; Grove, S. L.

    2008-08-01

    Broad-scale mapping of marine benthos is required for marine resource management and conservation. This study combines textural derivatives based on bathymetry from multibeam hydroacoustics with underwater video observations to model and map sessile biota between 10- and 60-m water depth over 35 km 2 in Point Addis Marine National Park (MNP), Vic., Australia. Classification tree models and maps were developed for macroalgae (all types, mixed red algae, Ecklonia, and rhodoliths) and sessile invertebrates (all types, sponges, and ascidians). Model accuracy was tested on 25% of the video observation dataset reserved from modelling. Models fit well for most macroalgae categories (correct classification rates of 67-84%), but are not as good for sessile invertebrate classes (correct classification rates of 57-62%). The poor fit of the sessile invertebrate models may be the combined result of grouping organisms with different environmental requirements and the effect of false absences recorded during video interpretation due to poor image quality. Probability maps, binary single-class maps, and multi-class maps supply spatially explicit, detailed information on the distribution of sessile benthic biota within the MNP and provide information at a landscape-scale for ecological investigations and marine management.

  5. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R. ); Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, J; Escher, Charles; Skalski, John R.

    2003-08-15

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2002. The ERDC contracted with MEVATEC Corporation to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians to help conduct the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. In this report, we present results of two studies of juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam that we carried out in the 2002 downstream passage season April 20 through July 15, 2002. The first study of Project-wide FPE provides hourly estimates of fish passage and associated variances for all operating turbine units, spill bays, and the two sluiceway entrances at Powerhouse 1 (B1), as well as estimates of a variety of fish-passage efficiency and effectiveness measures. This was the third consecutive year of full-project hydroacoustic sampling and passage estimation. The second study was more narrowly focused on B2 turbines and had two components: (1) to sample the FGE at two modified turbine intakes and compare them with efficiencies of other B2 units that were sampled in the first study, and (2) to evaluate proportions of fish passing up into gatewell slots versus through screen gaps at a few B2 turbine intakes.

  6. Hydroacoustic propagation grids for the CTBT knowledge databaes BBN technical memorandum W1303

    SciTech Connect

    J. Angell

    1998-05-01

    The Hydroacoustic Coverage Assessment Model (HydroCAM) has been used to develop components of the hydroacoustic knowledge database required by operational monitoring systems, particularly the US National Data Center (NDC). The database, which consists of travel time, amplitude correction and travel time standard deviation grids, is planned to support source location, discrimination and estimation functions of the monitoring network. The grids will also be used under the current BBN subcontract to support an analysis of the performance of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and national sensor systems. This report describes the format and contents of the hydroacoustic knowledgebase grids, and the procedures and model parameters used to generate these grids. Comparisons between the knowledge grids, measured data and other modeled results are presented to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the current approach. A recommended approach for augmenting the knowledge database with a database of expected spectral/waveform characteristics is provided in the final section of the report.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Effects of Blockage and Free Surface Proximity on Flow-field and Performance of a Hydrokinetic Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, Nitin; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-11-01

    Results from an experimental study to investigate the effect of blockage and free surface proximity on the performance of a constant chord, zero twist, fixed pitch hydro kinetic turbine in an open surface water channel will be presented. The presence of free surface and the size of turbine relative to the flow channel (blockage effect) affects the fluid dynamics around and in the near wake of turbine and hence the thrust-torque loading on turbine blades. Detailed parametric studies will be carried out to understand the effect of free surface proximity, Froude number (which depends on water velocity and depth of the channel), turbine proximity to channel walls and blockage on the turbine performance. Characterization of wake meandering and flow around the turbine is performed using a stereo-Particle Image Velocimetry technique for flows with various Froude number. The thrust and torque on turbine will be measured using a submerged thrust-torque sensor in-line with the turbine. The results of experiments will be compared with analytical models based on blade element momentum theory by modeling free surface and blockage effects. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Office of Naval Research through contract ONR N000141010923.

  8. An experimental investigation on heat transfer in a subchannel with a porous blockage -- The influence of flow on temperature distribution inside the porous blockage

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Kobayashi, J.; Isozaki, T.; Nishimura, M.; Kamide, H.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on convective heat transfer to a local blockage in a simulated subchannel of a Liquid Metal-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor. The experiment was performed with a 4-subchannel geometry water test facility. A porous blockage is located at the center subchannel and is surrounded by three unplugged subchannels. The blockages used in this study were solid metal, a porous blockage consisting of metal spheres, and a porous blockage with plates covering the side or top faces of the blockage to intentionally prevent either the axial and/or the lateral flows through the blockage. In the experiment, the heat flux provided by an electrical heater were set at 50(kW/m{sup 2}) and 20(kW/m{sup 2}) while the Reynolds number was varied from 3.5 x 10{sup 3} to 8.6 x 10{sup 3}. Temperature measurements of the water were made inside/outside the blockage. Finally, velocity profiles outside the blockage were measured with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and an Ultrasound Velocity Profile monitor (UVP). Normalized temperature inside the blockage revealed that the influence of buoyancy was negligibly small, and that the temperature depended on the flow rate and the configurations of the blockage. Comparison of temperature and velocity profiles between the blockage types as shown in Fig. A-1, showed that both lateral and axial flow influenced the heat removal from inside the upper part of the porous blockage, as well as the heater surface contacting the blockage. Father, lateral flow had a strong influence on the peak temperature inside the blockage than axial flow. The heat transfer characteristics showed that the predominant mode of heat was not conduction, but convection via lateral flow through the blockage and axial flow through the upper region of the blockage under higher flow rate conditions.

  9. Hydroacoustic seafloor classification in the SE North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. C.; Bartholomä, A.; Bürk, D.; Holler, P.; Mielck, F.; Reimers, H.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last years hydoacoustic investigations of the seafloor became a strong tool for habitat mapping. Directives of the European Union emphasize the need for reliable, high resolution and at the same time cost-effective methods to map the ecologic status of coastal marine areas which are highly dynamic and vulnerable to disturbances. Aside from the difficulties that arise from monitoring extended areas, standardized methods are still not existing. This results in habitat maps that cannot easily be brought together over larger areas. We present here initial results of the project WIMO ("Scientific concepts for monitoring the German Bight, SE North Sea") that aims at testing different hydroacoustic mapping tools in order to work out a standard routine for habitat mapping purposes. We studied five areas using an IMAGENEX YellowFin sidescan sonar, a BENTHOS 1624 sidescan sonar, a SONAVISION RoxAnn seafloor classification system among other seafloor classification systems, and a Kongsberg EM710 multibeam system. Sediment samples for groundtruthing were taken with a HELCOM grab sampler. The working areas are all in the coastal zone of the SE North Sea with water depth between 10 and 40 m. The parameters measured include depth and backscatter (multibeam), hardness and roughness (RoxAnn), seafloor sonographic imagery, and granulometry (grab samples). We present classification methods that implement selected parameters and all of the parameters, partly based on self-programmed routines. The results reveal that all methods are capable to gather information important for habitat assessment. However, the information provided by the different systems is not always the same and simply merging the data is no solution. We show different approaches to take advantage of the data and suggest combinations of instruments and parameters for efficient mapping standards.

  10. Advanced neutron source reactor probabilistic flow blockage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, C.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Phase I Level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor identified core flow blockage as the most likely internal event leading to fuel damage. The flow blockage event frequency used in the original ANS PRA was based primarily on the flow blockage work done for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) PRA. This report examines potential flow blockage scenarios and calculates an estimate of the likelihood of debris-induced fuel damage. The bulk of the report is based specifically on the conceptual design of ANS with a 93%-enriched, two-element core; insights to the impact of the proposed three-element core are examined in Sect. 5. In addition to providing a probability (uncertainty) distribution for the likelihood of core flow blockage, this ongoing effort will serve to indicate potential areas of concern to be focused on in the preliminary design for elimination or mitigation. It will also serve as a loose-parts management tool.

  11. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R.

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  12. Methods for monitoring hydroacoustic events using direct and reflected T waves in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Jeffrey A.; Bowman, J. Roger

    2006-02-01

    The recent installation of permanent, three-element hydrophone arrays in the Indian Ocean offshore Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin, Australia, provides an opportunity to study hydroacoustic sources in more detail than previously possible. We developed and applied methods for coherent processing of the array data, for automated association of signals detected at more than one array, and for source location using only direct arrivals and using signals reflected from coastlines and other bathymetric features. During the 286-day study, 4725 hydroacoustic events were defined and located in the Indian and Southern oceans. Events fall into two classes: tectonic earthquakes and ice-related noise. The tectonic earthquakes consist of mid-ocean ridge, trench, and intraplate earthquakes. Mid-ocean ridge earthquakes are the most common tectonic events and often occur in clusters along transform offsets. Hydroacoustic signal levels for earthquakes in a standard catalog suggest that the hydroacoustic processing threshold for ridge events is one magnitude below the seismic network. Fewer earthquakes are observed along the Java Trench than expected because the large bathymetric relief of the source region complicates coupling between seismic and hydroacoustic signals, leading to divergent signal characteristics at different stations. We located 1843 events along the Antarctic coast resulting from various ice noises, most likely thermal fracturing and ice ridge forming events. Reflectors of signals from earthquakes are observed along coastlines, the mid-Indian Ocean and Ninety East ridges, and other bathymetric features. Reflected signals are used as synthetic stations to reduce location uncertainty and to enable event location with a single station.

  13. Transport and screen blockage characteristics of reflective metallic insulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Brocard, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of a LOCA within a nuclear power plant, it is possible for insulation debris to be generated by the break jet. Such debris has the potential for PWR sump screen (or BWR RHR suction inlet) blockage and thus can affect the long-term recirculation capability. In addition to the variables of break jet location and orientation, the types and quantities of debris which could be generated are dependent on the insulation materials employed. This experimental investigation was limited to reflective metallic insulation and components thereof. The study was aimed at determining the flow velocities needed to transport the insulation debris to the sump screens and the resulting modes of screen blockage. The tests revealed that thin metallic foils (0.0025 in. and 0.004 in.) could transport at low flow velocities, 0.2 to 0.5 ft/sec. Thicker foils (0.008 in.) transported at higher velocities, 0.4 to 0.8 ft/sec, and as fabricated half cylinder insulation units required velocities in excess of 1.0 ft/sec for transport. The tests also provided information on screen blockage patterns that showed blockage could occur at the lower portion of the screen as foils readily flipped on the screen when reaching it.

  14. Hydroacoustic estimation of zooplankton biomass at two shoal complexes in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, B.V.; Hrabik, T.R.; Branstrator, D.K.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroacoustics can be used to assess zooplankton populations, however, backscatter must be scaled to be biologically meaningful. In this study, we used a general model to correlate site-specific hydroacoustic backscatter with zooplankton dry weight biomass estimated from net tows. The relationship between zooplankton dry weight and backscatter was significant (p < 0.001) and explained 76% of the variability in the dry weight data. We applied this regression to hydroacoustic data collected monthly in 2003 and 2004 at two shoals in the Apostle Island Region of Lake Superior. After applying the regression model to convert hydroacoustic backscatter to zooplankton dry weight biomass, we used geostatistics to analyze the mean and variance, and ordinary kriging to create spatial zooplankton distribution maps. The mean zooplankton dry weight biomass estimates from plankton net tows and hydroacoustics were not significantly different (p = 0.19) but the hydroacoustic data had a significantly lower coefficient of variation (p < 0.001). The maps of zooplankton distribution illustrated spatial trends in zooplankton dry weight biomass that were not discernable from the overall means.

  15. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish biomass and spatial distributions in shallow lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yuxi; Huang, Geng; Godlewska, Małgorzata; Cai, Xingwei; Li, Chang; Ye, Shaowen; Liu, Jiashou; Li, Zhongjie

    2017-03-01

    We conducted acoustical surveys with a horizontal beam transducer to detect fish and with a vertical beam transducer to detect depth and macrophytes in two typical shallow lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River in November 2013. Both lakes are subject to active fish management with annual stocking and removal of large fish. The purpose of the study was to compare hydroacoustic horizontal beam estimates with fish landings. The preliminary results show that the fish distribution patterns differed in the two lakes and were affected by water depth and macrophyte coverage. The hydroacoustically estimated fish biomass matched the commercial catch very well in Niushan Lake, but it was two times higher in Kuilei Lake. However, acoustic estimates included all fish, whereas the catch included only fish >45 cm (smaller ones were released). We were unable to determine the proper regression between acoustic target strength and fish length for the dominant fish species in the two lakes.

  16. Modeling of The hERG K+ Channel Blockage Using Online Chemical Database and Modeling Environment (OCHEM).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Yong

    2017-08-30

    Human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) K+ channel plays an important role in cardiac action potential. Blockage of hERG channel may result in long QT syndrome (LQTS), even cause sudden cardiac death. Many drugs have been withdrawn from the market because of the serious hERG-related cardiotoxicity. Therefore, it is quite essential to estimate the chemical blockage of hERG in the early stage of drug discovery. In this study, a diverse set of 3721 compounds with hERG inhibition data was assembled from literature. Then, we make full use of the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM), which supplies rich machine learning methods and descriptor sets, to build a series of classification models for hERG blockage. We also generated two consensus models based on the top-performing individual models. The consensus models performed much better than the individual models both on 5-fold cross validation and external validation. Especially, consensus model II yielded the prediction accuracy of 89.5 % and MCC of 0.670 on external validation. This result indicated that the predictive power of consensus model II should be stronger than most of the previously reported models. The 17 top-performing individual models and the consensus models and the data sets used for model development are available at https://ochem.eu/article/103592. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hydroacoustic seismicity along oceanic transform faults: Contrasts between the East Pacific Rise and Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, T.; Lin, J.; Zhong, Q.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the characteristics of seismicity of oceanic transform faults through analyzing hydroacoustic data recorded along the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) and slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), respectively. The investigated region on the EPR is within 15°S-15°N from the Garrett to Clipperton Transform Fault during time period of June 1996 to September 2002. Meanwhile, the investigated region on the MAR is within 15°-37°N from the Fifteen-Twenty to Oceanographer Transform Fault during time period of February 1999 to August 2003. Using space-time correlation analysis, we matched hydroacoustic events with earthquakes from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions for event magnitude greater than 4.8. Our analyses revealed systematic differences in the seismicity characteristics between the EPR and MAR: (1) Along the EPR, more than ninety percent of seismicity occurred within several kilometers from transform faults, a few percent occurred near over-lapping spreading centers, while the rest occurred along the ridge axis. Along the MAR, hydroacoustic seismicity is much more scattered near the ridge axis, transform faults, and non-transform offsets. (2) Near the EPR transform faults, the standard deviation of the separation distance of the hydroacoustic events from the morphologically-determined transform fault axis is s = 5.7 km. In contrast, the separation distance of hydroacoustic events to the transform faults is greater (s = 11.9 km), reflecting possibly more complex acoustic scattering due to complex MAR topography as well as more complex tectonic activity. (3) The mean hydroacoustic magnitude of the investigated EPR events is 3.3 (s = 0.6), while the mean hydroacoustic magnitude of the studied MAR events is 3.0 (s = 0.7). The mean hydroacoustic seismicity rate is 2.1 events per year per km of the EPR transform fault length, comparing to the mean seismicity rate of 0.5 events per year per km of the MAR transform fault length. (4

  18. Relations of Early Goal-Blockage Response and Gender to Subsequent Tantrum Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; Lewis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Infants and their mothers participated in a longitudinal study of the sequelae of infant goal-blockage responses. Four-month-old infants participated in a standard contingency learning and goal-blockage procedure during which anger and sad facial expressions to the blockage were coded. When infants were 12 and 20 months old, mothers completed a…

  19. The sound field in a hydroacoustic waveguide with an uneven hard bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkova, Yu. I.

    2017-01-01

    An analytic representation is constructed for a nonaxially symmetric sound field to simulate a hydroacoustic waveguide the bottom of which is hard and has an axially symmetric relief. A numerical analytic method for finding the velocity potential is proposed, for which undetermined coefficients for normal modes are determined from a corresponding infinite system of algebraic equations. The sound fields are studied with for variations of the problem parameters.

  20. Long Range Hydroacoustic Propagation from Small Explosives to Large Tectonic Events (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    A wide variety of hydroacoustic signals have been detected near Diego Garcia, in the Indian Ocean, and at other hydro-acoustic stations operated by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. The durations range from several seconds for signals from explosive shots in temperate latitudes, tens of seconds for explosions within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), several minutes for small earthquakes near the continental shelf, to over half an hour for propagation from a large tsunamigenic event, for source-receiver distances of several thousands of kilometers. The primary mechanisms used to explain the variability in duration are the existence of a distributed source region, source size, and dispersion. Travel time, and hence dispersion is computed using normal modes; bottom interacting higher order modes are neglected. For the explosive shots, the observed and predicted travel times and signal dispersion agree to within 2 s, under the assumptions that propagation is adiabatic and follows a geodesic path. Dispersion is predicted and observed to increase with propagation distance through the ACC. The duration of the underwater earthquakes along the continental shelf are independent of source size, and significantly exceeds the dispersion times computed for the given location, indicating a distributed source region; the azimuths derived from the hydro-acoustic signals further corroborate this. Finally, the long duration of the acoustic signal from the tsunamigenic event is used to derive the velocity and direction of rupture.

  1. Infertility caused by tubal blockage: An ayurvedic appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Shukla (Upadhyaya), Kamayani; Karunagoda, Kaumadi; Dei, L. P.

    2010-01-01

    Tubal blockage is one of the most important factors for female infertility. This condition is not described in Ayurvedic classics, as the fallopian tube itself is not mentioned directly there. The present study is an effort to understand the disease according to Ayurvedic principles. Correlating fallopian tubes with the Artavavaha (Artava-bija-vaha) Srotas, its block is compared with the Sanga Srotodushti of this Srotas. Charak's opinion that the diseases are innumerable and newly discovered ones should be understood in terms of Prakriti, Adhishthana, Linga, and Aayatana, is followed, to describe this disease. An effort has been made to evaluate the role of all the three Doshas in producing blockage, with classification of the disease done as per the Dasha Roganika. PMID:22131704

  2. Intermittent mechanical prosthesis blockage mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    C Neves, Paulo; Guerra, Miguel; Ponce, Paulo; Gama, Vasco; Vouga, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Valve blockage is one of the most serious complications of a mechanical prosthesis. Its annual incidence ranges from < 0.5% to 4.5% per patient / year. The diagnosis is not always done in time, as the clinical presentation is highly variable. In order to better understand the spectrum of clinical presentation of this complication, this paper presents the clinical case of a 64 year-old woman, whose personal medical history included aortic valve replacement with a monoleaflet Medtronic Hall® (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) 21mm, transferred from a peripheral hospital with the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome of the anterolateral wall, with ST-segment depression and intermittent cardiogenic shock. The authors reviewed also the blockage mechanisms and its implications on the diagnosis and management of this potentially lethal condition.

  3. A new 70-meter antenna quadripod with reduced RF blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucchissi, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The new subreflector mount (quadripod) for the 64-meter to 70-meter antenna extension project was the result of many trial designs aimed at reducing radio frequency spherical and plane wave blockage and minimizing structural weight while satisfying strength and natural frequency requirements. An optimum design emerged which has a gain improvement of 0.32 dB over the present 64-meter design. Some of the trial designs made and the final optimum configuration selected are described.

  4. Blockage of Flame Control Devices: Design and Maintenance Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    experienced vent blockage by the polymerization of some materials. Of the cargoes listed in subchapters D and 0 of Chapter 1 of CFR Title 46...Stainless Steel: See General References 4, 6, 7, and 8 Nickel, Monel, Inconel , and flastelloy 1. Charles R. Southwell, Allen L. Alexander, Materials...the cargoes in Table 151.05 in the regulations (46 CFR ) has shown the greatest tendency toward popcorn polymer formation. Methyl methacrylate and the

  5. Transcription blockage by stable H-DNA analogs in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Shristi; Ogloblina, Anna M.; Belotserkovskii, Boris P.; Dolinnaya, Nina G.; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G.; Mirkin, Sergei M.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequences that can form unusual secondary structures are implicated in regulating gene expression and causing genomic instability. H-palindromes are an important class of such DNA sequences that can form an intramolecular triplex structure, H-DNA. Within an H-palindrome, the H-DNA and canonical B-DNA are in a dynamic equilibrium that shifts toward H-DNA with increased negative supercoiling. The interplay between H- and B-DNA and the fact that the process of transcription affects supercoiling makes it difficult to elucidate the effects of H-DNA upon transcription. We constructed a stable structural analog of H-DNA that cannot flip into B-DNA, and studied the effects of this structure on transcription by T7 RNA polymerase in vitro. We found multiple transcription blockage sites adjacent to and within sequences engaged in this triplex structure. Triplex-mediated transcription blockage varied significantly with changes in ambient conditions: it was exacerbated in the presence of Mn2+ or by increased concentrations of K+ and Li+. Analysis of the detailed pattern of the blockage suggests that RNA polymerase is sterically hindered by H-DNA and has difficulties in unwinding triplex DNA. The implications of these findings for the biological roles of triple-stranded DNA structures are discussed. PMID:26101261

  6. Transcription blockage by stable H-DNA analogs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shristi; Ogloblina, Anna M; Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Dolinnaya, Nina G; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G; Mirkin, Sergei M; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2015-08-18

    DNA sequences that can form unusual secondary structures are implicated in regulating gene expression and causing genomic instability. H-palindromes are an important class of such DNA sequences that can form an intramolecular triplex structure, H-DNA. Within an H-palindrome, the H-DNA and canonical B-DNA are in a dynamic equilibrium that shifts toward H-DNA with increased negative supercoiling. The interplay between H- and B-DNA and the fact that the process of transcription affects supercoiling makes it difficult to elucidate the effects of H-DNA upon transcription. We constructed a stable structural analog of H-DNA that cannot flip into B-DNA, and studied the effects of this structure on transcription by T7 RNA polymerase in vitro. We found multiple transcription blockage sites adjacent to and within sequences engaged in this triplex structure. Triplex-mediated transcription blockage varied significantly with changes in ambient conditions: it was exacerbated in the presence of Mn(2+) or by increased concentrations of K(+) and Li(+). Analysis of the detailed pattern of the blockage suggests that RNA polymerase is sterically hindered by H-DNA and has difficulties in unwinding triplex DNA. The implications of these findings for the biological roles of triple-stranded DNA structures are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Development and validation of hydroacoustic monitoring concepts for the coastal German Bight (SE North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, Finn; Hass, H. Christian; Holler, Peter; Bartholomä, Alexander; Neumann, Andreas; Kröncke, Ingrid; Reimers, Hans-Christian; Capperucci, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    The joint research project WIMO (Wissenschaftliche Monitoringkonzepte für die Deutsche Bucht/Scientific Monitoring Concepts for the German Bight, NE North Sea) aims at providing methods for detection and analysis of seabed habitats using modern remote sensing techniques. Our subproject focuses on hydroacoustic techniques in order to gain information about seafloor environments and sediment dynamics. In a timeframe of four years, several key areas in the German Bight were repeatedly observed using different hydroacoustic gear (i. e. sidescan sonars, single/multibeam echo sounders and sub-bottom profilers). In order to ground-truth the acoustic data, hundreds of grab samples and underwater videos were taken. With these techniques it is possible to distinguish between different seafloor habitats, which range from muddy to sandy seafloors (esp. near the barrier islands) to rugged or vegetated/populated reefs around Helgoland. The conducted monitoring program revealed seasonal changes regarding the abundance of the sand mason worm (Lanice conchilega) and the brittle star (Amphiora filiformis) as well as ongoing sedimentary processes driven by tidal currents and wind/storms. It was also possible to determine relationships between sediment characteristics and benthos in some key areas. An essential part of our project included a comparison between the datasets obtained with different hydroacoustic devices, configurations, and evaluation methods in the same study areas. The investigation reveals that there could be distinct differences in interpreting the data and hence in the determination of prevailing seafloor habitats, especially in very heterogeneous areas and at transition zones between the habitats. Therefore, it is recommended to employ more than one hydroacoustic system (preferably a singlebeam device combined with a wide-swath sonar system) synchronously during a survey in order to gain more reliable and detailed information about the seafloor environments. The

  8. Experimental study of the diversion cross-flow caused by subchannel blockages. Volume 1. Single-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tapucu, A.; Gencay, S.; Troche, N.

    1984-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of two laterally interconnected channels with blockages in one of them has been studied experimentally and has been analyzed by means of the COBRA-IIIC Subchannel Code. It is observed that COBRA-IIIC describes the data adequately when the blockage area is less than 60% for smooth blockages and 30% for plate blockages.

  9. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA04, Crozet Islands, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Grenard, Patrick; Nielsen, Peter; Le Bras, Ronan; Brown, David; Bittner, Paulina; Wang, Haijun; Gore, Jane; Amir, Menachem; Bereza, Slava

    2017-04-01

    The incorporation of the hydroacoustic station HA04, Crozet Islands, France, into the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) is a 17 year saga that had a happy ending on 29 December 2016. On that day, following a major engineering and logistical undertaking, the station was successfully installed. While still in its initial testing phase, HA04 sends continuously quality data at the International Data Centre (IDC), pending official certification and promotion to mainstream operational status. Similarly to most other cabled hydroacoustic stations in the IMS, HA04 is comprised of two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of Possession Island (Crozet Islands) sending uninterrupted data to a shore facility via submarine fiber optic cables. The designed frequency pass-band is 1 - 100 Hz. Data are relayed to Vienna via a shore based satellite link in real time. According to CTBTO's standard requirements, the design life of HA04 is at least 20 years, maintenance-free for the underwater system. An outline of the main phases of this project, highlights from the installation operations and examples of received hydroacoustic signals associated with recent underwater seismic activity in the Indian Ocean as well as vocalizations from marine mammals acquired by the new HA04 are presented here. HA04 is scheduled to be fully integrated into the operational platform of IDC in the next six months, which will enable registered researchers to access archived monitoring data and processing software, or via the National Data Centres (NDCs).

  10. Seafloor classification using hydroacoustic methods in the shallow coastal North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, F.; Hass, H.

    2012-12-01

    Seabed environments reveal important insights into marine ecosystems and hydrodynamics. However, the knowledge regarding their distribution in the North Sea is still fragmentary since data interpretation and mapping is very time consuming. Hydroacoustic devices are able to provide rapid and reliable information on the acoustic characteristics of the seafloor that are instrumental for seafloor discrimination. In this study we compare data of two different hydroacoustic devices: Sidescan sonar data provide acoustic images of the seafloor including bedforms and grain-size distribution. The acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn (200 kHz) was used to measure backscatter intensities which indicate roughness (first echo return) and hardness (second echo return) parameters of the seafloor. The data were acquired in an exclusively sandy and relatively shallow investigation area in the Sylt-Rømø Basin (SE North Sea) which is typical for the European Wadden Sea. For ground-truthing surface-sediment samples were taken. The results reveal surficial sediments ranging from fine to coarse sand. Finer material is rather restricted to the shallow areas while coarser sediments characterize the deeper tidal channels. The determined roughness and hardness parameters also strongly increase within these inlets following the change in grain size. The sidescan sonar imagery shows flow-transverse subaqueous dunes of different sizes (0.7 to 35 m from crest to crest). Both, ebb- and flood-dominated structures occur. Altogether six physically different environmental units were defined using grain-size data of the grab samples as well as bedform and backscatter data provided by the sidescan sonar. Not all of these units can be discriminated by the RoxAnn. In particular those showing similar grain sizes or superimposed bedforms yield no clear signature in the hardness vs. roughness scatter plots. However, there are some areas characterized by fine sand that reveal completely different

  11. Comparative analysis of hydroacoustic lakebed classification in three different Brazilian reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgert, Stephan; Sotiri, Klajdi; Fuchs, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Until today, the surface of artificial water bodies around the world reached an area of around 500,000 km2 equaling one third of the surface of natural water bodies. Most of the constructed waster bodies are reservoirs with a variety of usage purposes, reaching from drinking water supply, electricity production, flood protection to recreation. All reservoirs have in common, that they disrupt riverine systems and their biochemical cycles and promote the accumulation of sediments upstream of the dam. The accumulated sediments contain organic matter, nutrients and/or pollutants which have a direct influence on the water quality within the impoundment. Consequently, detailed knowledge about the amount and the quality of accumulated sediments is an essential information for reservoir management. In many cases the extensive areas covered by the impoundments make it difficult and expensive to assess sediment characteristics with a high spatial resolution. Spatial extrapolations and mass balances based on point information may suffer from strong deviations. We combined sediment point measurements (core and grab sampling) with hydroacoustic sediment classification in order to precisely map sediment parameters. Three different reservoirs (Vossoroca, Capivari, Passauna) in the south-east of Brazil were investigated between 2011 and 2015. A single beam echosounder (EA 400, Kongsberg) with two frequencies (200 & 38 kHz) was used for the hydroacoustic classification. Over 50 core samples and 30 grab samples were taken for physical and chemical analysis to serve as ground truthing of the hydroacoustic measurements. All three reservoirs were covered with dense measurement transects allowing for a lakebed classification of the entire sediment surface. Significant correlations of physical parameters like grain size distribution and density as well chemical parameters like organic carbon content and total phosphorous with a selection of hydroacoustic parameters were obtained. They

  12. Relations of Early Goal Blockage Response and Gender to Subsequent Tantrum Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Infants and their mothers participated in a longitudinal study of the sequelae of infant goal blockage responses. Four-month-old infants participated in a standard contingency learning/goal blockage procedure during which anger and sad facial expressions to the blockage were coded. When infants were 12- and 20- months-old, mothers completed a questionnaire about their children's tantrums. Tantrum scores increased with age and boys tended to show more tantrum behavior than girls. Anger expressed to goal blockage at 4 months was unrelated to tantrum behavior. There was a gender by sad expression interaction. Girls who expressed sadness in response to the goal blockage had lower total tantrum scores than boys; otherwise there was no difference. These results suggest that tantrums of infants who display sad, not anger expression, in response to goal blockage, are differentially influenced by children's gender. PMID:22408573

  13. Ship Noise in the SW Indian Ocean Recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismic and Hydroacoustic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barruol, G.; Dreo, R.; Fontaine, F. R.; Scholz, J. R.; Sigloch, K.

    2016-12-01

    In the frame of the RHUM-RUM project (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel, www.rhum-rum.net), a network of 57 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) has been installed on the ocean floor around La Réunion Island, but also on the neighbouring Southwest and Central Indian Ridges. The OBS were equipped by wide- and broad-band three-components seismic and hydroacoustic sensors. They were deployed in Nov. 2012, and depending on the configuration, they recorded for 8 to 13 months. Interestingly, part of the network was located beneath a NE-SW trending lane of very dense ship traffic connecting SE-Asia and the South-Atlantic region. By combining the vessel position - provided by AIS GPS data - and our geophysical data recorded on the ocean floor, we analyze the seismic and hydroacoustic ship signatures. From spectral analyzes, we show clear signals over the whole high-frequency range available from our instruments (between 1 and 50 Hz). The RHUM-RUM network covering latitude between 17 and 34° South, this allows to detect numerous vessels and to compare the noise characteristics (frequency content, polarization) of each vessel. We also investigate the possibility of using the polarization of the noise emitted by ships passing above an ocean-bottom seismometer, to help retrieving the orientation of the OBS horizontal components on the ocean floor in the geographic reference frame.

  14. Hydroacoustic estimates of abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic prey fishes in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Doran M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Harvey, Chris J.; Kitchell, James F.; Schram, Stephen T.; Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, MIchael H.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Lamon, E. Conrad; Hrabik, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are a valuable prey resource for the recovering lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior. However, prey biomass may be insufficient to support the current predator demand. In August 1997, we assessed the abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic coregonines and rainbow smelt in western Lake Superior by combining a 120 kHz split beam acoustics system with midwater trawls. Coregonines comprised the majority of the midwater trawl catches and the length distributions for trawl caught fish coincided with estimated sizes of acoustic targets. Overall mean pelagic prey fish biomass was 15.56 kg ha−1 with the greatest fish biomass occurring in the Apostle Islands region (27.98 kg ha−1), followed by the Duluth Minnesota region (20.22 kg ha−1), and with the lowest biomass occurring in the open waters of western Lake Superior (9.46 kg ha−1). Biomass estimates from hydroacoustics were typically 2–134 times greater than estimates derived from spring bottom trawl surveys. Prey fish biomass for Lake Superior is about order of magnitude less than acoustic estimates for Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Discrepancies observed between bioenergetics-based estimates of predator consumption of coregonines and earlier coregonine biomass estimates may be accounted for by our hydroacoustic estimates.

  15. Detection, Location, and Characterization of Hydroacoustic Signals Using Seafloor Cable Networks Offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyehiro, K.; Sugioka, H.; Watanabe, T.

    2008-12-01

    The hydroacoustic monitoring by the International Monitoring System for CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty) verification system utilizes hydrophone stations (6) and seismic stations (5 and called T- phase stations) for worldwide detection. Some conspicuous signals of natural origin include those from earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or whale calls. Among artificial sources are non-nuclear explosions and airgun shots. It is important for the IMS system to detect and locate hydroacoustic events with sufficient accuracy and correctly characterize the signals and identify the source. As there are a number of seafloor cable networks operated offshore Japanese islands basically facing the Pacific Ocean for monitoring regional seismicity, the data from these stations (pressure and seismic sensors) may be utilized to increase the capability of IMS. We use these data to compare some selected event parameters with those by IMS. In particular, there have been several unconventional acoustic signals in the western Pacific,which were also captured by IMS hydrophones across the Pacific in the time period of 2007-present. These anomalous examples and also dynamite shots used for seismic crustal structure studies and other natural sources will be presented in order to help improve the IMS verification capabilities for detection, location and characterization of anomalous signals.

  16. The IDC Seismic, Hydroacoustic and Infrasound low and high noise models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David; Brachet, Nicolas; Mialle, Pierrick; Lebras, Ronan

    2010-05-01

    The International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna, Austria, is developing the capability to routinely determine the sensor noise levels for all Seismic, Hydroacoustic and Infrasound (SHI) stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) sending data to the IDC. This noise data can be used to provide state of health information to station maintenance personnel, and can be used in network detection capability analyses, and can also be used as a quality control measure in automatic processing. Station noise is being determined as a Power Spectral Density (PSD) using the Welch overlapping method. When PSD's for a given sensor are collected over time and considered together it is possible to generate a Probability Density Function (PDF) for the power spectra and determine low- and high-noise curves that bound the PDF. When used in data quality control applications warnings can be issued if the PSD for incoming data for a given sensor is not found to be bounded by the previously determined low and high noise models for that sensor. In this paper, low and high noise models will be presented for representative seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound stations, as well as preliminary global low and high noise models for each of these technologies.

  17. Prospects of hydroacoustic detection of ultra-high and extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Karlik, Ya. S.; Learned, J. G.; Svet, V. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    2001-07-01

    The prospects of construction of deep underwater neutrino telescopes in the world's oceans for the goals of ultra-high and super-high energy neutrino astrophysics (astronomy) using acoustic technologies are reviewed. The effective detection volume of the acoustic neutrino telescopes can be far greater than a cubic kilometer for extreme energies. In recent years, it was proposed that an existing hydroacoustic array of 2400 hydrophones in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka Peninsula could be used as a test base for an acoustic neutrino telescope SADCO (Sea-based Acoustic Detector of Cosmic Objects) which should be capable of detecting acoustic signals produced in water by the cosmic neutrinos with energies 1019-21 eV (e.g., topological defect neutrinos). We report on simulations of super-high energy electron-hadron and electron-photon cascades with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect taken into account. Acoustic signals emitted by neutrino-induced cascades with energies 1020-21 eV were calculated. The possibilities of using a converted hydroacoustic station MG-10 (MG-10M) of 132 hydrophones as a basic module for a deep water acoustic neutrino detector with the threshold detection energy 1015 eV in the Mediterranean Sea are analyzed (with the aim of searching for neutrinos with energies 1015-16 eV from Active Galactic Nuclei). .

  18. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Dissipative Coupled Weakly Compressible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, A.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Bellotti, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in deep sea measurement technology provide an increasing opportunity to detect and interpret hydro-acoustic waves as a component in improved Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). For the idealized case of a homogeneous water column above a moving but otherwise rigid bottom (in terms of assessing acoustic wave interaction), the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by local water depth at source area; i.e. the period of the first acoustic mode is given by four times the required time for sound to travel from the seabed to the surface. Spreading off from earthquake zone, the dominant spectrum is filtered and enriched by seamounts and barriers. This study focuses on the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with an underlying sedimentary layer, where the added complexity of the sediment layer rheology leads to both the lowering of dominant spectral peaks and wave attenuation across the full spectrum. To overcome the computational difficulties of three-dimensional models, we derive a depth integrated equation valid for varying water depth and sediment thickness. Damping behavior of the two layered system is initially taken into account by introducing the viscosity of fluid-like sedimentary layer. We show that low frequency pressure waves which are precursor components of tsunamis contain information of seafloor motion.

  19. Comparing hydroacoustic and T-phases from terrestrial and ocean-bottom recordings around La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelling, Branwen; Sigloch, Karin; Barruol, Guilhem; Ferrazzini, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    A survey of hydroacoustic signals detected on an array of 57 OBS stations in the Indian Ocean is presented. The OBSs were capable of recording broadband signals (0.01 Hz to 25 Hz). They covered a diverse geological setting, and ranged to depths as great as 5500 m. Once hydroacoustic phases were identified they were cross referenced with an earthquake catalogue in order to confirm their association with seismic activity. The results of this survey revealed 20 hydroacoustic events throughout the 13-month dataset, which were detected at 20 or more stations in the OBS network. The characteristics of these hydroacoustic signals were compared to the characteristics of T-phases, which propagated through the SOFAR channel to a coast-proximal seismic land station on La Réunion island. The waveforms, durations, and spectral contents of hydroacoustic and T-phase signals were similar. A power comparison revealed that the magnitudes of T-phases at the island stations were up to two orders of magnitude greater than the magnitudes of hydroacoustic arrivals at OBS stations at a similar distance from the seismic event. Despite this, hydroacoustic phases were observed on the OBS stations up to 10,000 km distance. A modeling investigation attempted to constrain the propagation mechanism by which hydroacoustic energy was reaching the deep ocean. Ray tracing revealed that in order for a ray to contribute energy to an arrival at an OBS it would have to reflect or diffract at extreme water depths, below the SOFAR waveguide. These observations imply that hydroacoustic arrivals on OBS stations can be used over teleseismic ranges just like T-phase observations on land-based stations and hydrophones. A better understanding of the propagation mechanism of this energy to the deep ocean will be necessary to exploit their full potential.

  20. Scientific concepts for hydroacoustic seafloor mapping in the coastal zone and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Bürk, Dietmar; Holler, Peter; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, Hans-Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hydroacoustic seafloor mapping is a reliable and cost-effective method to investigate and monitor the seafloor in high spatial and temporal resolution. The results are important for the evaluation of benthic habitats and help to identify vulnerable environments that require protection. Yet, how can we overcome the problems that occur when different gear produces different results, which are evaluated by people that have different points of view and different backgrounds? These aspects form an integer part of the project WIMO ("Scientific concepts for monitoring the German Bight, SE North Sea", Subproject 1.1: "Hydroacoustic Habitat Mapping"). It aims at comparing different hydroacoustic gear, methodologies and workflows in order to work out basic routines for universal use in marine benthic habitat mapping. The project investigates a number of target areas in the German Bight (North Sea) using different sidescan sonars (SSS), acoustic seafloor-classification systems (AGDS), multibeams, and different sampling and grain-size analytical methods as well as sea-floor imaging methods. We tested different gear on different ships, on the same ship but not synchronously, and as many instruments as possible measuring at the same time on the same ship. Our results suggest that guidelines and requirements for surveys can hardly be standardized as they depend largely on the water depth, the seabed, and on the vessel and the equipment available. All of these frame conditions usually differ from survey to survey. Taking this into account, we present a reasonable workflow for time and cost-effective benthic habitat mapping and monitoring. Transect-line distances as well as monitoring frequencies, number and positioning of ground-truth samples and seabed imaging are discussed. We recommend frequency combinations and appropriate swath widths and overlaps for SSS and show a way to ground-truth lower-frequency data using high-frequency data. Acoustic ground discrimination systems are

  1. Nonordinary excitation of hydroacoustic resonance in the hydroturbine circuit of the sayano-shushenskaya hydroelectric power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavosov, R. K.; Prozorov, A. G.

    2011-05-01

    Three cases of excitation of resonance oscillations in a circuit with an incompressible medium and a hydrodynamic source of narrow-band acoustic radiation are compared. It is asserted that the Francis turbine can transmit and reflect infrasonic disturbances. It is supposed that an array of immobile coaxial cylinders below the impeller will prevent hydroacoustic self-excitation in flow inside the water conduit.

  2. Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station Centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No. 5 October - December 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Zachary M.; Pulli, Jay J.

    2004-03-29

    OAK-B135 Quarterly Technical Report summarizing BBN's support of the DOE/NNSA GNEM program. This report details BBN's efforts to improve the modeling of explosions and other events underwater and their propagation to hydroacoustic sensor networks. OK to release, no restriction on copyright

  3. Aeroacoustic effects of body blockage in cavity flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Roger S.; Butler, Carroll B.; Shaw, Leonard L.; Dix, Richard E.

    1987-10-01

    In order to study the effects of unsteady (dynamic) and steady (static) pressure waves in a cavity at subsonic Mach numbers through transonic Mach numbers, an experimental test program, using a splitter plate and a generic cavity, was conducted. Since most cavities associated with air vehicles house sensors, equipment, or armament, ogive cylinder models were also fabricated and tested inside the cavity to determine their effect on the static and dynamic pressure measurements on the cavity ceiling and walls. The intent of the experiment was to document the effects on steady and unsteady pressures by varying parameters such as the Mach number, cavity dimensions, blockage, and cavity angle of attack. These results will provide engineers with a technology base to aid in the formulation of design requirements and preliminary designs for future air vehicles requiring external cavities.

  4. Validation of Blockage Interference Corrections in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A validation test has recently been constructed for wall interference methods as applied to the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The goal of this study was to begin to address the uncertainty of wall-induced-blockage interference corrections, which will make it possible to address the overall quality of data generated by the facility. The validation test itself is not specific to any particular modeling. For this present effort, the Transonic Wall Interference Correction System (TWICS) as implemented at the NTF is the mathematical model being tested. TWICS uses linear, potential boundary conditions that must first be calibrated. These boundary conditions include three different classical, linear. homogeneous forms that have been historically used to approximate the physical behavior of longitudinally slotted test section walls. Results of the application of the calibrated wall boundary conditions are discussed in the context of the validation test.

  5. Flow blockage analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Crabtree, J.A.; Felde, D.K.; Park, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor was designed to provide a research tool with capabilities beyond those of any existing reactors. One portion of its state-of-the-art design required high-speed fluid flow through narrow channels between the fuel plates in the core. Experience with previous reactors has shown that fuel plate damage can occur when debris becomes lodged at the entrance to these channels. Such debris disrupts the fluid flow to the plate surfaces and can prevent adequate cooling of the fuel. Preliminary ANS designs addressed this issue by providing an unheated entrance length for each fuel plate so that any flow disruption would recover, thus providing adequate heat removal from the downstream, heated portions of the fuel plates. As part of the safety analysis, the adequacy of this unheated entrance length was assessed using both analytical models and experimental measurements. The Flow Blockage Test Facility (FBTF) was designed and built to conduct experiments in an environment closely matching the ANS channel geometry. The FBTF permitted careful measurements of both heat transfer and hydraulic parameters. In addition to these experimental efforts, a thin, rectangular channel was modeled using the Fluent computational fluid dynamics computer code. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data to benchmark the hydrodynamics of the model. After this comparison, the model was extended to include those elements of the safety analysis that were difficult to measure experimentally. These elements included the high wall heat flux pattern and variable fluid properties. The results were used to determine the relationship between potential blockage sizes and the unheated entrance length required.

  6. Use of hydroacoustic measurements to characterize bottom sediments and guide sampling and remediation of organic contaminants in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael A; Conkle, Jeremy L; Pacheco, Porfirio; Gan, Jay

    2013-08-01

    Sampling of bed sediment for contamination characterization is often limited by the heterogeneity in sediment properties and distribution. In this study, we explored the use of hydroacoustic measurements to characterize sediment properties and guide sediment sampling in a small lake contaminated by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs. A dual frequency hydroacoustic survey was conducted to characterize sediment properties, distribution, and thickness in McGrath Lake, near Ventura, CA. Based upon these results, sediment core samples were collected from 15 sites on the lake, and sectioned into 20 cm intervals for sediment characterization and analysis of OCPs and PCBs. Very high concentrations of total DDT and total chlordane were found in the sediments, with mean values of 919 and 34.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of OCPs were highest at 60-80 cm depth near the inflow at the north end of the lake. Total PCB concentrations were much lower (mean concentration of 4.5 ng g(-1)). Using the hydroacoustic and chemical data, it was estimated that nearly 30,000 m(3) of DDT- and chlordane-contaminated sediment (above effects range median values) was present in the uppermost 1.2 m of sediment in the lake. A hydroacoustic survey can be a valuable tool used to delineate sediment distribution in a lake, identify areas with deeper organic sediment where hydrophobic contaminants would likely be found, and guide sampling. Sampling and chemical analyses are nonetheless needed to quantify contaminant levels in bottom sediments. When combined with hydroacoustic measurements, this approach can reasonably estimate the distributions and volumes of contaminated sediment important in the development of remediation strategies.

  7. Transcription blockage by homopurine DNA sequences: role of sequence composition and single-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P.; Neil, Alexander J.; Saleh, Syed Shayon; Shin, Jane Hae Soo; Mirkin, Sergei M.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of DNA to adopt non-canonical structures can affect transcription and has broad implications for genome functioning. We have recently reported that guanine-rich (G-rich) homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences cause significant blockage of transcription in vitro in a strictly orientation-dependent manner: when the G-rich strand serves as the non-template strand [Belotserkovskii et al. (2010) Mechanisms and implications of transcription blockage by guanine-rich DNA sequences., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 12816–12821]. We have now systematically studied the effect of the sequence composition and single-stranded breaks on this blockage. Although substitution of guanine by any other base reduced the blockage, cytosine and thymine reduced the blockage more significantly than adenine substitutions, affirming the importance of both G-richness and the homopurine-homopyrimidine character of the sequence for this effect. A single-strand break in the non-template strand adjacent to the G-rich stretch dramatically increased the blockage. Breaks in the non-template strand result in much weaker blockage signals extending downstream from the break even in the absence of the G-rich stretch. Our combined data support the notion that transcription blockage at homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences is caused by R-loop formation. PMID:23275544

  8. Transcription blockage by homopurine DNA sequences: role of sequence composition and single-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Neil, Alexander J; Saleh, Syed Shayon; Shin, Jane Hae Soo; Mirkin, Sergei M; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2013-02-01

    The ability of DNA to adopt non-canonical structures can affect transcription and has broad implications for genome functioning. We have recently reported that guanine-rich (G-rich) homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences cause significant blockage of transcription in vitro in a strictly orientation-dependent manner: when the G-rich strand serves as the non-template strand [Belotserkovskii et al. (2010) Mechanisms and implications of transcription blockage by guanine-rich DNA sequences., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 12816-12821]. We have now systematically studied the effect of the sequence composition and single-stranded breaks on this blockage. Although substitution of guanine by any other base reduced the blockage, cytosine and thymine reduced the blockage more significantly than adenine substitutions, affirming the importance of both G-richness and the homopurine-homopyrimidine character of the sequence for this effect. A single-strand break in the non-template strand adjacent to the G-rich stretch dramatically increased the blockage. Breaks in the non-template strand result in much weaker blockage signals extending downstream from the break even in the absence of the G-rich stretch. Our combined data support the notion that transcription blockage at homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences is caused by R-loop formation.

  9. Hfq Regulates Biofilm Gut Blockage That Facilitates Flea-Borne Transmission of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Rempe, Katherine A.; Hinz, Angela K.

    2012-01-01

    The plague bacillus Yersinia pestis can achieve transmission by biofilm blockage of the foregut proventriculus of its flea vector. Hfq is revealed to be essential for biofilm blockage formation and acquisition and fitness of Y. pestis during flea gut infection, consistent with posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms in plague transmission. PMID:22328669

  10. Translation with secondary structure: Dynamic blockages in totally asymmetric simple exclusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Leah

    2011-03-01

    The totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) is often used as a model for protein synthesis, with the lattice and particles representing the mRNA and ribosomes, respectively. Here we model the effect of secondary structure (folding) of the mRNA by introducing a dynamic blockage region in the lattice. If the region is unoccupied by particles, the blockage can close and prevent upstream particles from moving into it, representing the folding of that section of mRNA. Reopening of the blockage, allowing particles to pass, represents unfolding. We study the effects of the blockage size, closing/opening probabilities, and TASEP parameters on the particle current and blockage switching rates.

  11. Recent developments in the use of hydroacoustics for monitoring suspended-sediment transport in rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Topping, D. J.; Williams, C. A.; Wood, M. S.; Landers, M. N.; Straub, T. D.

    2010-12-01

    Hydroacoustic techniques, particularly acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP), have gained wide usage in rivers for measuring velocity, depth, and discharge. Velocity measurements with ADCPs are derived from frequency shifts in the energy returned from particles in suspension(i.e. Doppler shifts). It has long been recognized that the amount of energy returned, or “backscattered” by the suspended particles, is indicative of the number of particles in suspension as well as their size. The relations between backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and particle size were the subject of a series of theoretical developments, laboratory experiments, and field applications in the late 1980s and 1990s. This research was focused primarily on coastal applications for sand-sized particles with narrow particle-size distributions. Rivers provide a challenge to any monitoring technique because of the wide ranges in concentration and particle size. Concentrations can range from only a few milligrams per liter to over 10,000, and particle sizes range from fine clay to medium sand, depending on the particular hydrologic and geologic setting. Recent applications of hydroacoustics on the Colorado River in Arizona led to novel processing techniques that overcome some of the difficulties in monitoring these wide ranges. In this reach of river, the transport of silts and clays tends to be decoupled from sand transport due to the supply limitation imposed by an upstream dam. Applications of side-looking ADCPs to this reach indicated that backscatter was correlated with sand concentration, as expected based on previous studies. However, further data analyses suggested that fine sediment concentrations were highly correlated with energy losses along the profiling path (acoustic attenuation). That is, the sand particles tended to dominate the backscatter response while the silt and clay particles tended to dominate the attenuation response. Thus, it was shown that a profiling

  12. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic) - a sedimentological and macrofaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Beuck, L.; Hebbeln, D.

    2012-12-01

    The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES) in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled) were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the south-western summit area of Coral Patch seamount (area: ~ 8 km2, water depth: 560-760 m) and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area, and thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the macrofauna shows rather low abundance and diversity. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (area: 560 km2; water depth: 560-2660 m) and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, also these data predict most of the summit area to be dominated by

  13. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic) - a sedimentological and megafaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienberg, C.; Wintersteller, P.; Beuck, L.; Hebbeln, D.

    2013-05-01

    The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES) in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled) were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the southwestern summit area of Coral Patch seamount (water depth: 560-760 m) and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area and, thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the benthic megafauna shows rather scarce occurrence. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (water depth: 560-2660 m) and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, these data also predict most of the summit area to be dominated by exposed bedrock which would offer

  14. Lattice Boltzmann approach for hydro-acoustic waves generated by tsunamigenic sea bottom displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestininzi, P.; Abdolali, A.; Montessori, A.; Kirby, J. T.; La Rocca, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Tsunami waves are generated by sea bottom failures, landslides and faults. The concurrent generation of hydro-acoustic waves (HAW), which travel much faster than the tsunami, has received much attention, motivated by their possible exploitation as precursors of tsunamis. This feature makes the detection of HAW particularly well-suited for building an early-warning system. Accuracy and efficiency of the modeling approaches for HAW thus play a pivotal role in the design of such systems. Here, we present a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for the generation and propagation of HAW resulting from tsunamigenic ground motions and verify it against commonly employed modeling solutions. LBM is well known for providing fast and accurate solutions to both hydrodynamics and acoustics problems, thus it naturally becomes a candidate as a comprehensive computational tool for modeling generation and propagation of HAW.

  15. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  16. Users guide for the hydroacoustic coverage assessment model (HydroCAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, T., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    A model for predicting the detection and localization performance of hydroacoustic monitoring networks has been developed. The model accounts for major factors affecting global-scale acoustic propagation in the ocean. including horizontal refraction, travel time variability due to spatial and temporal fluctuations in the ocean, and detailed characteristics of the source. Graphical user interfaces are provided to setup the models and visualize the results. The model produces maps of network detection coverage and localization area of uncertainty, as well as intermediate results such as predicted path amplitudes, travel time and travel time variance. This Users Guide for the model is organized into three sections. First a summary of functionality available in the model is presented, including example output products. The second section provides detailed descriptions of each of models contained in the system. The last section describes how to run the model, including a summary of each data input form in the user interface.

  17. Hydroacoustic records of seafloor earthquakes, cryogenic sounds, and cetacean vocalizations in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateau, R.; Royer, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Brandon, V.; Haxel, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    From October 2006 to January 2008, three hydrophones were deployed in the southern Indian Ocean by the CNRS/University of Brest and the NOAA/Oregon State University. These hydrophones were moored in the SOFAR channel and recorded a total of 1780 discrete acoustic events, mainly earthquakes from the mid-ocean ridges and cryogenic acoustic signals from off Antarctica (due to ice shelf creeping and iceberg breaking). The low attenuation of acoustic waves in the SOFAR channel allows for the long-range detection of low-magnitude earthquakes (body-magnitude < 3), thus highly increasing the detection threshold compared to terrestrial seismic networks in the region. Our temporary hydroacoustic array complemented the 2 permanent stations of the Comprehensive nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) located near Diego Garcia Island and off Cape Leeuwin (Australia). Combining the records from the whole array significantly increased the coverage and accuracy of the event locations, and resulted in the detection of more than 9100 events during the same period. The new catalogue consists in 4377 ice-related events coming from the Antarctica margin and 3848 earthquakes located along the three Indian spreading ridges and the Java-Sumatra trench. Hydroacoustic records show an impressive variety of signals and locations. The seismogenic signals results from earthquakes activity in a variety of tectonic settings : Mid-ocean ridges spreading at variable rates, as well as transform faults, subduction zones, and intraplate deformation. The ice-quake activity, including tremor-like signals with clear harmonics, is typically located near Antarctica along the Wilkes Land coast and shows a seasonal variation. The hydrophone records also show seasonally varying biogenic signals caused by the vocalizations of 3 different cetacean species, including blue, fin, and Milke whales.

  18. Area-wide seafloor mapping in the SE North Sea using hydroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, Finn; Hass, H. Christian

    2013-04-01

    Mapping seafloor properties has become increasingly important for understanding marine ecosystems and providing basic data for sustainable management. However, the knowledge regarding the distribution of seabed environments in the German part of the North Sea is still fragmentary. It is mainly derived from single case studies and from a 1:250,000 scale map based on grab samples published in 1981. In recent years, hydroacoustic devices became a powerful tool to quickly obtain reliable information of the seafloor. In the years 2007-2012 various hydroacoustic surveys were performed in order to map the seafloor in the coastal zone of the NE German Bight comprising an area of approximately 1,500 km². Measurements were carried out with a sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) at a resolution of 25 cm. For ground truthing several hundred sediment samples were taken. The seafloor in the investigation area is mainly characterized by fine and medium sand. West off Sylt relics of former Pleistocene moraines stretch perpendicular to the coast in westerly directions. These relics consist of wide bands of coarse to medium sand and are basically linked to the morphological structures such as ridges and channels. The truncated push moraines from the Saalian glacial represent the seaward extension of the recent moraine core ('Geest') of Sylt. In addition a great number of smaller scaled structures, generally known as sorted bedforms were detected. Sidescan sonography of the same area carried out in two consecutive years reveals that these bedforms are dynamic and therefore subject to flow-directed movement across the seafloor. They are linked with large-scale sediment transport that occurs in this highly dynamic area as a result of vigorous tidal currents. Ongoing investigations aim at relating the occurrence of different bedforms to current speed and net sediment transport direction to calculate sediment budget. These govern erosion and accumulation processes that are

  19. Hydroacoustic Current Meters for the Measurement of Discharge in Shallow Rivers and Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, S.E.; Fisher, G.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is evaluating the use of hydroacoustic current meters for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers and streams. The USGS historically has made discharge measurements in shallow rivers using mechanical, impellor-type current meters attached to a wading rod. The evaluation project has focused on three categories of hydroacoustic meters: an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) called a Flowtracker3, an acoustic Doppler velocity profiler (BoogieDopp), and bottom-tracking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The USGS role in this project includes providing USGS discharge-computation methods and algorithms to instrument manufacturers and evaluating instruments in the laboratory and field. An ADV (Flowtracker) designed for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers, has been tested in a USGS tow tank and was found to meet USGS calibration standards for mechanical, impellor-type current meters. The Flowtracker was field tested by USGS offices in five states; the tests were conducted by comparing discharge measurements made with the ADV to discharge measurements made with mechanical, impellor-type current meters. In general, the comparisons of Flowtracker performance to mechanical-meter results were favorable. An acoustic Doppler velocity profiler (BoogieDopp) is being evaluated for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers. The Boogiedopp will measure vertical velocity profiles at stationary positions across a channel, and the velocity profiles will be used to compute discharge. Discharge-computation software based on USGS methods and algorithms is under development for the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler. The USGS will evaluate bottom-tracking ADCPs from two manufacturers for making discharge measurements in shallow water. The bottom-tracking feature allows ADCPs to compute discharge from a moving platform as the platform moves across the channel.

  20. Hydroacoustic and spatial analysis of sediment fluxes and accumulation rates in two Virginia reservoirs, USA.

    PubMed

    Clark, E V; Odhiambo, B K; Yoon, S; Pilati, L

    2015-06-01

    Watershed sediment fluxes and reservoir sediment accumulation rates were analyzed in two contrasting reservoir systems in central and western Virginia. Lake Pelham, located in the Piedmont geologic province, is a human-impacted reservoir with a watershed dominated by agricultural, residential and industrial land uses. Conversely, Lake Moomaw has a largely undeveloped watershed characterized by very steep slopes and forested land use located in the Valley and Ridge province. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and sediment delivery ratios (SDRs) were used to estimate soil losses in the two watersheds. Bathymetric and sediment accumulation surveys of the two reservoirs were also conducted using a multi-frequency hydroacoustic surveying system. The RUSLE/SDR erosion model estimates 2150 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for Lake Pelham and 2720 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for Lake Moomaw, a 410 and 13 % increase from assumed pristine (100 % forested) land use for the respective basins. Mean sediment accumulation rates of 1.51 and 0.60 cm year(-1) were estimated from the hydroacoustic survey of Lake Pelham and Lake Moomaw, respectively. Overall, Lake Moomaw has relatively low sediment accumulation rates; however, the reservoir is vulnerable to increases in sediment fluxes with further human development due to the steep slopes and highly erodible colluvial soils that characterize the basin. Higher erosion and sediment accumulation rates in Lake Pelham are most likely reflecting the impact of human development on sedimentation processes, where the loss of vegetal buffers and increase in impervious surfaces exacerbates both the surficial soil losses as well as intrinsic stream sediment production leading to the current annual reservoir capacity loss of 0.4 %.

  1. Hydroacoustic measures of Mysis relicta abundance and distribution in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Gal, G.; Boscarino, B.T.; O'Gorman, R.; Warner, D.M.; Johannsson, O.E.; Bowen, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Mysis relicta can be observed on echograms as a sound scattering layer when they migrate into the water column at night to feed on zooplankton. However, quantitative measures of mysid abundance with hydroacoustics requires knowledge of mysid target strength (TS), a method of removing fish echoes and contribution from noise, and an understanding of the effect of range on the ability of hydroacoustics to detect mysids (the detection limit). Comparisons of paired net data and acoustics data from July 7, 2005 yielded a mysid TS of -86.3 dB (9 mm animal) and a biomass TS of -58.4 dB (g dry wt)-1. With ambient noise levels (Sv of -125 dB at 1 m depth) and this TS, we can detect a mysid density of 1 m-3 at 60 m depth with a signal to noise ratio of 3 dB. We present a method to remove backscattering from both noise and fish and apply this method and the new TS data to whole lake acoustic data from Lake Ontario collected in July 25-31, 2005 with a 120 kHz echosounder as part of the annual standard fish survey in that lake. Mysis abundance was strongly depth dependent, with highest densities in areas with bottom depth > 100 m, and few mysids in areas with bottom depth 100 m, 100-75 m, 75-50 m, 50-30 m, < 30 m), the whole-lake average mysid density was 118 m-2 (CV 21%) and the whole-lake average mysid biomass was 0.19 g dry wt m-2 (CV 22%) in July 2005. The CVs of these densities also account for uncertainty in the TS estimates. This is comparable to whole-lake density estimates using vertical net tows in November, 2005 (93 m-2, CV 16%). Copyright ?? 2008 AEHMS.

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Spillway, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, John R.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2007-05-24

    The objective of this study was to determine detailed vertical, horizontal, intensive, and diel distributions of juvenile salmonid passage at the spillway at The Dalles Dam from April 12 to July16, 2006. These data are being applied in the Spillway Improvements Program to position release pipes for direct injury and mortality studies and to provide baseline data for assessment of the vortex suppression devices scheduled for deployment in 2007. We estimated fish distributions from hydroacoustic data collected with split-beam transducers arrayed across Bays 1 through 9 and 14. Spill at ~20 kcfs per bay was bulked at Bays 1-6, although the other bays were opened at times during the study to maintain a 40% spill percentage out of total project discharge. The vertical distribution of fish was skewed toward the surface during spring, but during summer, passage peaked at 2-3 m above the spillway ogee. Fish passage rates (number per hour) and fish densities (number per kcfs) were highest at Bay 6, followed by passage at Bay 5. This result comports with spillway horizontal distribution data from radio telemetry and hydroacoustic studies in 2004. The vertical and horizontal distribution of fish passage at bays 5 and 6 was much more variable during spring than summer and more variable at bay 5 than bay 6. Diel distribution data revealed that fish passage was highest during 0600-0700 h in spring; otherwise passage was reasonably uniform on a diel basis. This study substantiates the purpose of the spillway vortex suppression device to re-distribute downstream migrants away from Bay 6 toward Bays 1-5.

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish-Passage Efficiency at Bonneville Dam in 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Johnson, Peter N.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Nagy, William T.; Lawrence, Larry R.

    2002-10-11

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that scientists with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct the hydroacoustic fish-passage studies described in this report. The ERDC also contracted with MEVATEC Corporation and Dyntel to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians for the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing the Bonneville Project. This report presents results of two hydroacoustic studies of juvenile salmonids. One was a Project-wide study of fish-passage efficiency, and the other was more narrowly focused upon the approach, vertical distribution, and fish-guidance efficiency (FGE) of fish at Unit 15, where the Portland District extensively modified the gatewell and vertical barrier screen to improve gatewell flow and FGE. The goal of the larger of the two studies was to provide project-wide estimates of FPE, spill efficiency, and spill effectiveness for run-of-river fish passing the Bonneville Project during the 2001 out-migration. This type of study also provides estimates of the horizontal, vertical, and diel distributions of fish passage and FGE by turbine unit. These data will provide a baseline for evaluating the performance of future management efforts to improve juvenile fish passage. The goal of the second study was to assess the effect of gatewell and vertical-barrier-screen modifications on the FGE of Unit 15.

  4. Dissociated vertical deviation: an acquired nystagmus-blockage phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Guyton, David L

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is beginning to be understood, but does DVD serve a useful purpose? This study explores the hypothesis that DVD improves visual acuity in the fixing eye by helping to damp latent nystagmus, thus functioning as a nystagmus-blockage mechanism. Scleral search coil eye movement recordings of ten patients with dissociated vertical deviation were obtained and analyzed. Latent nystagmus-horizontal, vertical, and torsional-practically always appeared initially, when one eye was occluded, and became damped as DVD developed. The damping occurred over 0.3 to 3 seconds and was often only partial, identified as a decreasing slope of the slow phases of the nystagmus. Occasionally, if the DVD response diminished, the latent nystagmus reappeared. A DVD response could be recorded in total darkness in those individuals who could voluntarily imagine switching "fixation" (attention) from one eye to the other. A head tilt also damped latent nystagmus in one patient, and appeared to decrease the need for DVD. This evidence supports the view that DVD is an acquired (learned), often anticipatory, vergence response, occurring upon taking up unilateral fixation, serving to improve vision by damping or blocking latent nystagmus.

  5. Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-07-01

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

  6. A database and model to support proactive management of sediment-related sewer blockages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; McIntyre, Neil; Díaz-Granados, Mario; Maksimović, Cedo

    2012-10-01

    Due to increasing customer and political pressures, and more stringent environmental regulations, sediment and other blockage issues are now a high priority when assessing sewer system operational performance. Blockages caused by sediment deposits reduce sewer system reliability and demand remedial action at considerable operational cost. Consequently, procedures are required for identifying which parts of the sewer system are in most need of proactive removal of sediments. This paper presents an exceptionally long (7.5 years) and spatially detailed (9658 grid squares--0.03 km² each--covering a population of nearly 7.5 million) data set obtained from a customer complaints database in Bogotá (Colombia). The sediment-related blockage data are modelled using homogeneous and non-homogeneous Poisson process models. In most of the analysed areas the inter-arrival time between blockages can be represented by the homogeneous process, but there are a considerable number of areas (up to 34%) for which there is strong evidence of non-stationarity. In most of these cases, the mean blockage rate increases over time, signifying a continual deterioration of the system despite repairs, this being particularly marked for pipe and gully pot related blockages. The physical properties of the system (mean pipe slope, diameter and pipe length) have a clear but weak influence on observed blockage rates. The Bogotá case study illustrates the potential value of customer complaints databases and formal analysis frameworks for proactive sewerage maintenance scheduling in large cities.

  7. Blockage effects on the hydrodynamic performance of a marine cross-flow turbine.

    PubMed

    Consul, Claudio A; Willden, Richard H J; McIntosh, Simon C

    2013-02-28

    This paper explores the influence of blockage and free-surface deformation on the hydrodynamic performance of a generic marine cross-flow turbine. Flows through a three-bladed turbine with solidity 0.125 are simulated at field-test blade Reynolds numbers, O(10(5)-10(6)), for three different cross-stream blockages: 12.5, 25 and 50 per cent. Two representations of the free-surface boundary are considered: rigid lid and deformable free surface. Increasing the blockage is observed to lead to substantial increases in the power coefficient; the highest power coefficient computed is 1.23. Only small differences are observed between the two free-surface representations, with the deforming free-surface turbine out-performing the rigid lid turbine by 6.7 per cent in power at the highest blockage considered. This difference is attributed to the increase in effective blockage owing to the deformation of the free surface. Hydrodynamic efficiency, the ratio of useful power generated to overall power removed from the flow, is found to increase with blockage, which is consistent with the presence of a higher flow velocity through the core of the turbine at higher blockage ratios. Froude number is found to have little effect on thrust and power coefficients, but significant influence on surface elevation drop across the turbine.

  8. Hydroacoustic ray theory-based modeling of T wave propagation in the deep ocean basin offshore eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Huang, Chen-Fen; Lin, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Ban-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    T waves are conventionally defined as seismically generated acoustic energy propagating horizontally over long distances within the minimum sound speed layer in the ocean (SOFAR axis minimum). However, T waves have also been observed by ocean-bottom seismometers in ocean basins at depths greater than the SOFAR axis minimum. Previously, nongeometrical processes, such as local scattering at rough seafloor and water-sediment interface coupling, have been proposed as possible mechanisms for deep seafloor detection of T waves. Here we employ a new T wave modeling approach based on hydroacoustic ray theory to demonstrate that seismoacoustic energy can propagate to reach deep seafloor, previously considered as shadow zone of acoustic propagation. Our new hydroacoustic simulations explain well the observations of T waves on ocean-bottom seismometers at deep ocean basins east of Taiwan and shed new light on the mechanism for deep ocean T wave propagation.

  9. Blockage fault diagnosis method of combine harvester based on BPNN and DS evidence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Xu, Kai; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Kun; Wang, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    According to the complexity and the lack of intelligent analysis method of combine harvester blockage fault , this paper puts forward a method , based on the combination of BP neural network (BPNN)and DS evidence theory , for combine harvester blockage fault diagnosis. Choosing cutting table auger, conveyer trough, threshing cylinder and grain conveying auger as the study, this paper divides the condition of combine harvester into four categories, namely, normal, slightly blocking, blockage, severe blockage, which being as an identification framework for DS evidence theory. BP neural network is used for analysing speed information of monitoring points and distributing basic probability for each proposition in the identification framework. Dempster combination rule converged information at different time to obtain diagnostic results.Test results show that this method can timely and accurately judge the work state of combine harvester, the blocking fault warning time will be increased to 2 seconds and the success probability of blocking fault warning reach more than 90%.

  10. A rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the development of a rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios using volunteered geographic information from OpenStreetMap street centerlines and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The architecture of the application on the client-side and server-side was described. The major functionality of the application includes shapefile uploading, Web editing for spatial features, road blockage detection, and blockage points downloading. An example from the 2010 Haiti earthquake was included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the application. The results suggest that the prototype application can effectively detect (1) road blockage caused by earthquakes, and (2) some human errors caused by contributors of volunteered geographic information.

  11. Efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in the management of fallopian tube blockage

    PubMed Central

    Baria, Hetal P.; Donga, Shilpa B.; Dei, Laxmipriya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tubal blockage is one of the most common causative factors for female barrenness. It accounts for about 25-35% of female infertility. It is very difficult to manage, as the treatment choices for it are only tubal re-constructive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF). On the other hand, there is not established any reliable Ayurvedic treatment for the tubal blockage. It is the need of the time to establish an efficient and cost-effective therapy for this problem. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in fallopian tubal blockage. Materials and Methods: Patients of childbearing age with active marital life of 1 year or more, having complaint of failure to conceive with at least one fallopian tube blockage were selected. Total 19 patients were registered with 42.11% unilateral and 57.89% bilateral tubal blockage. Yavakshara Taila (5 ml) Intrauterine Uttarabasti was given for 6 days (with interval of 3 days in between), after completion of menstrual cycle for two consecutive cycles. Results: The tubal patency was found in 68.75% of patients and conception was achieved in 6.25% of patients. Conclusion: Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti an effective procedure for treating tubal blockage with no apparent evidence of complication. PMID:26730135

  12. Hydroacoustics for the discovery and quantification of Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) spawning aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egerton, J. P.; Johnson, A. F.; Le Vay, L.; McCoy, C. M.; Semmens, B. X.; Heppell, S. A.; Turner, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are vital life-history events that need to be monitored to determine the health of aggregating populations; this is especially true of the endangered Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Hydroacoustics were used to locate Nassau grouper FSAs at sites on the west end of Little Cayman (LCW), and east ends of Grand Cayman (GCE) and Cayman Brac (CBE). Fish abundance and biomass at each FSA were estimated via echo integration and FSA extent. Acoustic mean fish abundance estimates (±SE) on the FSA at LCW (893 ± 459) did not differ significantly from concurrent SCUBA estimates (1150 ± 75). Mean fish densities (number 1000 m-3) were significantly higher at LCW (33.13 ± 5.62) than at the other sites (GCE: 7.01 ± 2.1, CBE: 4.61 ± 1.16). We investigate different acoustic post-processing options to obtain target strength (TS), and we examine the different TS to total length (TL) formulas available. The SCUBA surveys also provided measures of TL through the use of laser callipers allowing development of an in situ TS to TL formula for Nassau grouper at the LCW FSA. Application of this formula revealed mean fish TL was significantly higher at LCW (65.4 ± 0.7 cm) than GCE (60.7 ± 0.4 cm), but not CBE (61.1 ± 2.5 cm). Use of the empirical TS to TL formula resulted in underestimation of fish length in comparison with diver measurements, highlighting the benefits of secondary length data and deriving specific TS to TL formulas for each population. FSA location examined with reference to seasonal marine protected areas (Designated Grouper Spawning Areas) showed FSAs were partially outside these areas at GCE and very close to the boundary at CBE. As FSAs often occur at the limits of safe diving operations, hydroacoustic technology provides an alternative method to monitor and inform future management of aggregating fish species.

  13. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA03, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access

  14. Multi-scale Hydroacoustic Remote Sensing of Sturgeon and Their Habitats in A Large, Turbid River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Delonay, A.; Vishy, C.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.; Chojnacki, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Restoration and management of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR) to support recovery of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) requires quantifying habitats used during all life stages in order to isolate specific habitats (if any) that present bottlenecks to reproduction and survival. All life stages of the pallid sturgeon take place in deep, turbid rivers where direct observation of habitat selection, movement, and behavior are impossible. Female pallid sturgeon reproduce only once every 3-5 years, but during a reproductive season they may migrate 10’s to 100’s of kilometers to spawn in patches of only several 100’s of square meters over a period of several hours. The broad ranges of spatial and temporal scales involved in understanding how particular life stages relate to their environment, as well as the technical challenges of working in a large river, dictate application of a multi-scale, remote-sensing approach. At the scale of the entire LMOR (1300 km), extensive hydroacoustic mapping using single-beam bathymetry, acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP), and substrate classification has been used to quantify the fundamental biophysical capacity of river segments in terms of frequency distributions of hydraulic variables. Coordinated telemetric tracking of reproductive fish provides an understanding of home range and habitat selection at reach to segment scales, over timeframes commensurate with 3-5 year reproductive cycles. Intensive reach-scale hydroacoustic mapping using multibeam bathymetry, ADCP, and high-resolution sidescan sonar, combined with intensive telemetric tracking, provide coincident measures of habitat availability and selection for upstream-migrating and spawning fish during reproductive seasons. These assessments measure habitat variables at sub-meter to bedform scales, commensurate with the scale at which fish occupy their habitat. For example, dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) imagery indicates that during

  15. Hydroacoustic detection and quantification of free gas -methane bubbles- in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.; Artemov, Y.; Gimpel, P.

    2003-04-01

    Extensive methane release as a free gas phase from cold vents is well known from deep (>2000m) and shallow (10s of meters) water depths. Supposedly, much more methane is transported into the water column by free gas than by dissolved gas, which is oxidized by anaerobic and aerobic processes and partly precipitated as carbonate. Rising gas bubbles are not affected by this 'filter' mechanisms. Because of the strength of the backscattered signal from gas bubbles in the water column, bubbles can be detected by single-beam or multi-beam echosounder systems. Thus, hydroacoustic systems with different frequencies can be used to 1) detect free gas in the water column, 2) map the distribution of active vent sites which release free gas, 3) monitor a possible periodicity in the release of bubbles induced by e.g. tides or currents, 4) quantify the gas volume and gas flux that is released in a local area or larger region. In the German research project LOTUS we use ship- mounted single-beam echosounders to map gas plumes (flares) and investigate their periodicity (Flare Imaging). Using specialized single-beam echosounder systems makes it possible to measure the bubble sizes and their distribution. In combination with the volume of the backscattering strength these measurements can be used to estimate the gas volume in a defined part of the water body. Though gas bubbles rise in the water column, they are - particularly methane - rapidly dissolved and thus become smaller. Their rising speed as well as their diminishing size can be determined, which helps to understand the dissolution behaviour of methane bubbles; they form a hydrate skin at distinct pressure and temperature conditions. For a detailed, long-term observation of active bubble-expulsing areas we developed a lander based 180 kHz multi beam system that 'looks' horizontally (GasQuant). The system records backscatter data from a 75° swath that covers an area of about 5300m2. Via calibration we can quantify the methane

  16. Hydroacoustic quantification of free-gas venting offshore Svalbard, Arctic: Changes in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.; Veloso, M.; De Batist, M. A.; Mienert, J.

    2013-12-01

    Hydroacoustic data from a seep site area offshore Spitsbergen have been collected since 2009 by RV Helmer Hanssen (U. Tromsoe) in order to monitor the dynamics of gas bubble seepage and evaluate the amount of CH4 released at the seafloor. A large number of acoustic flares have been detected during four years of data acquisition at an intensely seeping area close to the shelf edge in 240m water depth and further down-slope between 330 and 450m water depth covering the top of the gas hydrate stability zone. Water column data were collected with an EK60 split-beam echosounder system. Seep positions were determined by accounting for motion and using split-beam information to determine the ';flare spine' for seep location as accurately as possible. The inverse hydroacoustic method for flux estimation developed by Muyakshin et al. (2010) has been adapted to be used with the angle information derived from split-beam data and using gridding algorithms for generating acoustic maps for each of the four surveys. The method evaluates the flux using the backscattering volume strength (SV) above the seafloor produced by free gas release, a bubble size distribution (BSD) function obtained from video footage and models for bubble rising speed (BRS) taken from the literature. Methane flux calculations depending on these input parameters vary from 187 T/yr to 250 T/yr assuming a continuous discharge for the 240m deep shelf-edge site, when all data sets are merged. Compared to other fluxes e.g. from specific seep areas in the Black Sea (683 T/yr Greinert et al., 2010 JGR; 1376 T/yr Römer et al., 2012 MarGeo) or the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (181 T/yr Sauter et al., 2006 EPSL) the fluxes from offshore Svalbard are similar in range but on the lower end. However, studying the ';common area' which was insonified during all four years reveals a decreasing flux of about 20% although the actual seep positions have been very persistent. The reason for this is currently unknown. The

  17. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  18. Methods for Calibrating Basin-Wide Hydroacoustic Propagation in the Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, D; de Groot-Hedlin, C; Orcutt, J A; Harben, P H; Clarke, D B; Ramirez, A L

    2004-10-11

    This collaborative project was designed to test and compare methods for achieving full ocean basin propagation of hydroacoustic signals in the 5-100 Hz frequency band. Plans for a systematic calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for nuclear testing were under consideration in 2000/2001. The results from this project provide information to guide such planning for future ocean basin calibration work. Several acoustic source types were tested during two sea-going experiments and most were successful at generating signals that propagated hundreds to thousands of km to be recorded at the Indian Ocean IMS hydrophone stations. Development and numerical modeling of imploding glass sphere sources was one component of this testing. The intent was to design a relatively simple-to-use source that is not subject to restrictions that can limit use of explosive charges, but whose signal is large enough to propagate 100-1000's km range. Analysis of IMS hydrophone data recording during the experiments was used to illustrate the extent of energy loss during signal propagation and to assess the accuracy with which the small acoustic sources could be located using methods typically employed for nuclear monitoring.

  19. Statistical assessment of fish behavior from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Simmons, Carver S.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-04-01

    Statistical methods are presented for using echo-traces from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling to assess fish behavior in response to a stimulus. The data presented are from a study designed to assess the response of free-ranging, lake-resident fish, primarily kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to high intensity strobe lights, and was conducted at Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Northern Washington State. The lights were deployed immediately upstream from the turbine intakes, in a region exposed to daily alternating periods of high and low flows. The study design included five down-looking split-beam transducers positioned in a line at incremental distances upstream from the strobe lights, and treatments applied in randomized pseudo-replicate blocks. Statistical methods included the use of odds-ratios from fitted loglinear models. Fish-track velocity vectors were modeled using circular probability distributions. Both analyses are depicted graphically. Study results suggest large increases of fish activity in the presence of the strobe lights, most notably at night and during periods of low flow. The lights also induced notable bimodality in the angular distributions of the fish track velocity vectors. Statistical summaries are presented along with interpretations on fish behavior.

  20. Ambient seismic, hydroacoustic, and flexural gravity wave noise on a tabular iceberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Wang, Yitan; Okal, Emile A.

    2015-02-01

    Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise between four seismographs on tabular iceberg C16, Ross Sea, Antarctica, reveals both the source and the propagation characteristics of signals associated with icebergs. We find that noise correlation functions computed from station data are asymmetric about zero time lag, and this indicates that noise observed on the iceberg originates primarily from a compact, localized source associated with iceberg collisions between C16 and a neighboring iceberg, B15A. We additionally find two, and possibly more, distinct phases of noise propagation. We believe that flexural gravity wave propagation dominates the low-frequency noise (>10 s period) and that hydroacoustic wave propagation in the water column between the ice and seabed appears to dominate high-frequency noise (>10 Hz). Faster seismic propagation dominates the intermediate band (2-6 Hz); however, we do not have sufficient data to characterize the wave mechanisms more precisely, e.g., by identifying distinct longitudinal and shear body waves and/or surface waves. Secular changes in the amplitude and timing of ambient noise correlations, e.g., a diurnal cycle and an apparent shift in the noise correlation of fast seismic modes between two periods of the deployment, allow us to speculate that ambient noise correlation analysis may be helpful in understanding the sources and environmental controls on iceberg-generated ocean noise as well as geometric properties (such as water column thickness) of subglacial lakes.

  1. Sensitivity of fish density estimates to standard analytical procedures applied to Great Lakes hydroacoustic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Yule, Daniel L.; Warner, David M.; Schaner, Ted; Pientka, Bernie; Deller, John W.; Waterfield, Holly A.; Witzel, Larry D.; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized methods of data collection and analysis ensure quality and facilitate comparisons among systems. We evaluated the importance of three recommendations from the Standard Operating Procedure for hydroacoustics in the Laurentian Great Lakes (GLSOP) on density estimates of target species: noise subtraction; setting volume backscattering strength (Sv) thresholds from user-defined minimum target strength (TS) of interest (TS-based Sv threshold); and calculations of an index for multiple targets (Nv index) to identify and remove biased TS values. Eliminating noise had the predictable effect of decreasing density estimates in most lakes. Using the TS-based Sv threshold decreased fish densities in the middle and lower layers in the deepest lakes with abundant invertebrates (e.g., Mysis diluviana). Correcting for biased in situ TS increased measured density up to 86% in the shallower lakes, which had the highest fish densities. The current recommendations by the GLSOP significantly influence acoustic density estimates, but the degree of importance is lake dependent. Applying GLSOP recommendations, whether in the Laurentian Great Lakes or elsewhere, will improve our ability to compare results among lakes. We recommend further development of standards, including minimum TS and analytical cell size, for reducing the effect of biased in situ TS on density estimates.

  2. Ultra-long-range hydroacoustic observations of submarine volcanic activity at Monowai, Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, D.; Watts, A. B.; Grevemeyer, I.; Rodgers, M.; Paulatto, M.

    2016-02-01

    Monowai is an active submarine volcanic center in the Kermadec Arc, Southwest Pacific Ocean. During May 2011, it erupted over a period of 5 days, with explosive activity directly linked to the generation of seismoacoustic T phases. We show, using cross-correlation and time-difference-of-arrival techniques, that the eruption is detected as far as Ascension Island, equatorial South Atlantic Ocean, where a bottom moored hydrophone array is operated as part of the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Hydroacoustic phases from the volcanic center must therefore have propagated through the Sound Fixing and Ranging channel in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, a source-receiver distance of ~15,800 km. We believe this to be the furthest documented range of a naturally occurring underwater signal above 1 Hz. Our findings, which are consistent with observations at regional broadband stations and long-range, acoustic parabolic equation modeling, have implications for submarine volcano monitoring.

  3. Hydroacoustic measurements of the behavioral response of arctic riverine fishes to seismic airguns.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, John K; Gyselman, Eric C

    2009-09-01

    Seismic surveys for hydrocarbon exploration in the Mackenzie River involve the use of airguns. Airguns produce a repetitive, intense, low-frequency sound that has the potential to cause physiological damage and behavioral changes in fishes. Some of these impacts have been documented in marine environments but few studies have been conducted in freshwater systems where the confining nature of the environment produces a different acoustic regime and could constrain possible fish response. In the current study, hydroacoustic surveys are conducted in the presence of airgun firing in the Mackenzie River to determine if fish behavior can mitigate or enhance the potential impact of this sound. It is shown that fish behavioral characteristics measured in this study are generally not changed by the presence of airgun noise. The most likely mechanism to facilitate a severe physiological effect in fishes from a mobile airgun firing is a herding response in front of the airgun, resulting in prolonged exposure to the noise. Analysis of tracked fish directional movement does not indicate that herding behavior occurs. Consequently, no evidence is found to indicate that fishes in this study would sustain severe physiological damage from this airgun seismic survey.

  4. Earthquake Source Process from a Tide-Gauge and Hydro-Acoustic Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    A nearly 450-km-long rupture along the Nazca - South America plate interface, between Pichilemu (33.8°S) and the Arauco Peninsula (37.8°S) was responsible for the large earthquake (Mw=8.8) that took place in south-central Chile on 27 February 2010 at 03:34 (local time). Because of the location of the activated fault, a significant tsunami was generated which caused 156 deaths and 25 missing. Maximum run-ups of the generated tsunami reached 28 m in the neighborhood of Constitución. The most unusual feature of this tsunami was its long duration, it lasted more than 4 and a half hours at tide gages located close to the source region. A triad of hydrophone sensors, part of the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, recorded the complete source process and later phases until the arrival of the tsunami that destroyed the facility. The hydroacoustic station at Juan Fernandez Island, placed around 500-600 km away from the rupture region together with a tide gauge recorder, captured some characteristics of the source processes as well as later arrivals, which have been interpreted as T phases generated by the rupture itself. The possibility of an induced landslide producing an anomalous signal is being investigated.

  5. A reflected energy prediction model for long-range hydroacoustic reflection in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Upton, Zachary M; Pulli, Jay J; Myhre, Brian; Blau, David

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic energy from underwater earthquakes and explosions can propagate over long distances with very little attenuation in the deep ocean. When this sound encounters a seamount, island, or continental margin, it can scatter and again propagate over long distances. Hydrophones in the deep sound channel can detect these reflections tens of minutes or hours after arrivals from the direct source-to-receiver path. This paper presents the Reflected Energy Prediction (REP) model, a model for predicting these reflected arrivals. For a given source and receiver, the REP model uses a detailed knowledge of the underwater environment and components of the Hydroacoustic Coverage Assessment Model, HydroCAM, to predict the impulse response of the ocean. When this impulse response is convolved with a source function, a waveform envelope prediction is made that can be compared with recorded data. In this paper we present the model and a few applications of the model using data recorded from earthquakes and explosions in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These examples illustrate the use of the model and initial steps toward model calibration.

  6. Hydroacoustic signals from large icebergs drifting in the Southern Pacific, 2001-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talandier, J.; Hyvernaud, O.; Reymond, D.; Piserchia, P.; Okal, E. A.

    2003-12-01

    Following our detection of hydroacoustic activity in the Ross Sea in Late 2000, we report on a series of new signals generated at more Northern latitudes (55 to 63 deg. S), and detected both in Polynesia and by IMS stations in the Indian Ocean, during the period 07 Mar 2002 to 15 Jan 2003. Apart from a strong swarm in Nov.-Dec. 2002, they occur as isolated events, lasting between 200 and 1800 s. They consist of numerous repetitive signals (with broad spectrum) superimposed on a background featuring preferential eigenfrequencies. With a few exceptions, the epicenters correlate spectacularly well with the position of Mega-Iceberg B-19 (and its fragments), as it drifted from West of Balleny Islands in Feb. 2002 to (53deg.S; 167deg.W) in Feb. 2003. In particular, the acoustic swarm of Nov.-Dec. 2002 correlates in space and time with a series of erratic motions of B-19 over an area 300 km by 100 km centered at (57 deg.S; 170 deg.W). Since the spectrograms of these more Northerly sources are significantly different from those recorded from the Ross Sea, their sources must involve different physical processes. The latter, which may include the discharge of large boulders, remain mysterious.

  7. Hydro-acoustic instabilities in compressible turbulent channel flow with porous walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalo, Carlo; Rahbari, Iman

    2015-11-01

    C. Scalo, J. Bodart, and S. K. Lele, Phys. Fluids (2015) manipulated wall-bounded compressible turbulence by applying impedance boundary conditions (IBC) acoustically tuned to the characteristic time scale of the large-scale eddies. Near-wall turbulence was overhauled by hydro-acoustic instabilities - comprised of coherent spanwise Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers driven by Helmholtz-like acoustic resonance - while outer-layer turbulence was left structurally unaltered. We discuss linear modeling results of the observed flow response, supported by new high-fidelity simulations up to transonic bulk Mach numbers. For IBCs with zero reactance, corresponding to a Darcy-like formulation for porous walls, two dominant modes are identified whose Reynolds stress distributions overlap with the impermeable-wall turbulent buffer layer, directly affecting the near-wall turbulence cycle. For the range of wavenumbers investigated, the transition from subcritical to supercritical permeability does not significantly alter the structure of the unstable modes, showing that wall-permeability accentuates pre-existing, otherwise stable, modes. Implications on flow control strategies for compressible boundary layers over porous walls are discussed. School of Mechanical Engineering.

  8. The hydroacoustic method for the quantification of the gas flux from a submersed bubble plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyakshin, S. I.; Sauter, E.

    2010-12-01

    This article presents an inverse hydroacoustic method for the remote quantification of the total gas flux transported from an underwater bubble plume. The method includes the surveying of the bubble plume by a vertically looking echo sounder and the calculation of the flux using the spatial distribution of the ultrasound backscattering at a fixed depth. A simplified parameterization containing only a few parameters is introduced to describe the empirical bubble size distribution. The linear correlation between the backscattering cross section of the bubble stream and the vertical gas flux is found. The calculation procedure takes into account the occurrence of a gas hydrate film at the bubble's surface. The influence of different parameters on the accuracy of the method is investigated. The resolution volume of the echo sounder corresponding to the fixed distance is considered as a two-dimensional spatial window. The method was applied to quantify the total convective methane flux at the Haakon-Mosby mud volcano (HMMV) depth 1280 m. The calculated values of the total flux near the bottom (100-400 t/year) are in good agreement with the independently estimated flux for the single bubble jet observed from the ROV (70 t/year). These calculations also show significant temporal variability of the flux at the HMMV. The total flux was found to vary by about a factor of 2-3 within time scales of days.

  9. Hydroacoustic estimation of fish biomass in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hedgepeth, J; Gallucci, V F; Campos, J; Mug, M

    2000-01-01

    A stratified sampling design was used for a hydroacoustic survey of the inner parts of the Gulf of Nicoya in 1987 and 1988. The bottom topography of the inner Gulf was modeled by introducing the concept of a topographical basin model, as the basis for the projection of the sample survey estimates to the entire inner gulf. The bottom depth contours and volumes for the basin model were constructed from nautical charts. The estimates of sample abundance were made for the fish in the inner Gulf using the acoustic methods, EMS (Expectation Maximization and Smoothing) and echo integration. The estimates of population were made by the multiplication of the topographic model's estimate of water volume and a model of fish density dependent on bottom depth. The results showed a general decrease in fish density biomass with bottom depth, and a simultaneous tendency for maximum concentrations over bottom depths of about four meters. The four meter bottom depth includes a broad expanse of the inner Gulf located south of Isla Chira. Overall estimates of volumetric density (0.269 fish/m3) and of areal densities (1.88 fish/m2) are comparable to other estuarine shallow water environments.

  10. Size-Based Hydroacoustic Measures of Within-Season Fish Abundance in a Boreal Freshwater Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Pollom, Riley A.; Rose, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven sequential size-based hydroacoustic surveys conducted with a 200 kHz split-beam transducer during the summers of 2011 and 2012 were used to quantify seasonal declines in fish abundance in a boreal reservoir in Manitoba, Canada. Fish densities were sufficiently low to enable single target resolution and tracking. Target strengths converted to log2-based size-classes indicated that smaller fish were consistently more abundant than larger fish by a factor of approximately 3 for each halving of length. For all size classes, in both years, abundance (natural log) declined linearly over the summer at rates that varied from -0.067.day-1 for the smallest fish to -0.016.day-1 for the largest (R2 = 0.24–0.97). Inter-annual comparisons of size-based abundance suggested that for larger fish (>16 cm), mean winter decline rates were an order of magnitude lower (-0.001.day-1) and overall survival higher (71%) than in the main summer fishing season (mean loss rate -0.038.day-1; survival 33%). We conclude that size-based acoustic survey methods have the potential to assess within-season fish abundance dynamics, and may prove useful in long-term monitoring of productivity and hence management of boreal aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25875467

  11. Thermal analysis of a six-channel heat-generating blockage in an LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Warinner, D.K.; Chao, D.H.Y.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the temperature fields within and around a six-channel blockage designed as a molten-fuel-release initiator in SLSF-P4, an in-reactor experiment (37-mixed-oxide pin bundle) planned for February, 1981, irradiation. To meet the experiment objectives, a minimum of ten grams of molten UO/sub 2/ must be ejected into the sodium stream from one, two, or three such blockages. The temperature fields of the electrodeposited-nickel blockage filled with a mixture of UO/sub 2/ powder, stainless steel, and gas are found at intervals of full power. The SS content, type of gas, and porosity were parameters varied in this study which used the computer codes THYME-B, SABRE-1, and ANL's version of THTB. State-of-the-art treatments of the conductivity of the mixture and the gas-gap conductance are included. The contrived-blockage design has been found to maintain structural integrity until sufficient molten fuel exists to release, challenge the subassembly, and be detected by delayed-neutron and fission-product monitors. This will serve to resolve lingering questions on rapid pin-to-pin propagation, blockage propagation, and other local-fault issues.

  12. Bacteria detection based on its blockage effect on silicon nanopore array.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanyan; Li, Zhen; Luo, Qiaohui; Liu, Jingqing; Wu, Jianmin

    2016-05-15

    Bacteria detection plays an important role in the guarantee of food and water safety. This work proposed a new sensing strategy for the rapid detection of bacteria based on its blockage effect on nanopore array, which was prepared from electrochemically etched silicon. With the assistance of microfluidic technology, the nanopore array attached with Escherichia coli antibody can selectively and rapidly capture E. coli bacteria, resulting in the decrease of pore accessibility. The signal of pore blockage can be measured by in-direct Fourier Transformed Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (FT-RIS). The pore blockage signal has a linear relationship with the logarithm of bacterial density in aqueous sample within the range from 10(3) to 10(7)cfuml(-1). Due to the specific interaction between the antibody and target bacteria, only the E. coli sample displayed significant pore blockage effect, whereas the non-target bacteria, Nox and P17, almost did not show any pore blockage effect. The strategy established in this work might be pervasively applied in the rapid detection of target bacteria and cell in a label-free manner.

  13. On blockage effects for a marine hydrokinetic turbine in free surface proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Kolekar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Experimental investigation was carried out with a three-bladed, constant chord marine hydrokinetic turbine to understand the influence of free surface proximity on blockage effects and near wake flow field. The turbine was placed at various depths of immersion as rotational speeds and flow speeds were varied; thrust and torque data was acquired through a submerged thrust torque sensor positioned in-line with the turbine axis. Blockage effects were quantified in terms of changes in power coefficient and were found to be dependent on flow velocity, rotational speed and blade-tip clearence (from free-surface). Flow acceleration near turbine rotation plane was attributed to blockage offered by the rotor, wake, and free surface deformation; the resulting performance improvements were calculated based on the measured thrust values. In addition, stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry was carried out in the near-wake region using time-averaged and phase-averaged techniques to understand the mechanism responsible for variation of torque (and power coefficient) with rotational speed and free-surface proximity. Flow vizualisation revealed slower wake propagation for higher rotational velocities and increased assymetry in the wake with increasing free surface proximity. Improved performance at high rotational speed was attributed to enhanced wake blockage; performance enhancements with free-surface proximity was attributed to additional blockage effects caused by free surface deformation.

  14. Experimental study of diversion cross-flow caused by subchannel blockages: Volume 2, Two-phase flow: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tapucu, A.; Teyssedou, A.; Geckinli, M.; Troche, N.

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effects of a blockage in one subchannel of a two-subchannel test section model of a reactor fuel bundle. Smooth- and sharp-edged blockages were used. The test fluid consisted of two-phase air-water mixtures. The data were compared with calculated results obtained from the COBRA III-C code. Good agreement was obtained from smooth blockages of less than 60% and for sharp blockages of less than 30%. 35 refs., 206 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. A new source discriminant based on frequency dispersion for hydroacoustic phases recorded by T-phase stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talandier, Jacques; Okal, Emile A.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty in the marine environment, we present a new discriminant based on the empirical observation that hydroacoustic phases recorded at T-phase stations from explosive sources in the water column feature a systematic inverse dispersion, with lower frequencies traveling slower, which is absent from signals emanating from earthquake sources. This difference is present even in the case of the so-called `hotspot earthquakes' occurring inside volcanic edifices featuring steep slopes leading to efficient seismic-acoustic conversions, which can lead to misidentification of such events as explosions when using more classical duration-amplitude discriminants. We propose an algorithm for the compensation of the effect of dispersion over the hydroacoustic path based on a correction to the spectral phase of the ground velocity recorded by the T-phase station, computed individually from the dispersion observed on each record. We show that the application of a standard amplitude-duration algorithm to the resulting compensated time-series satisfactorily identifies records from hotspot earthquakes as generated by dislocation sources, and present a full algorithm, lending itself to automation, for the discrimination of explosive and earthquake sources of hydroacoustic signals at T-phase stations. The only sources not readily identifiable consist of a handful of complex explosions which occurred in the 1970s, believed to involve the testing of advanced weaponry, and which should be independently identifiable through routine vetting by analysts. While we presently cannot provide a theoretical justification to the observation that only explosive sources generate dispersed T phases, we hint that this probably reflects a simpler, and more coherent distribution of acoustic energy among the various modes constituting the wave train, than in the case of dislocation sources embedded in the solid Earth.

  16. Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York

    DOE PAGES

    Bevelhimer, Mark; Scherelis, Constantin C.; Colby, Jonathan; ...

    2017-06-13

    An important environmental issue facing the marine and hydrokinetic energy industry is whether fish that encounter underwater energy devices are likely to be struck and injured by moving components, primarily rotating turbine blades. The automated analysis of nearly 3 weeks of multibeam hydroacoustics data identified about 35,000 tracks of fish passing a tidal turbine in the East River, New York. These tracks included both individual fish and schools during periods with the turbine absent, the turbine present and operating, and the turbine present but not operating. The density of fish in the sampled area when the turbine was absent wasmore » roughly twice the density observed when the turbine was in place, particularly when the turbine was operating. This suggests that some avoidance occurred before fish were close enough to the turbine to be observed by the hydroacoustics system. Various measures of swimming behavior (direction, velocity, and linearity) were calculated for each track and evaluated for indication of behavioral responses to turbine presence and operation. Fish tracks were grouped based on tidal cycle, current velocity, and swimming direction and were evaluated with respect to turbine presence and operation and with respect to distance from the turbine. Nonparametric tests (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test) and multivariate analysis (canonical discriminant analysis) found significant differences among groups with respect to turbine presence and operation, suggesting that some fish responded to the turbine by adjusting swimming behavior, such as making small adjustments to swimming direction and velocity as they passed near the turbine. We found no evidence that fish were being struck by rotating blades, but there did appear to be large-scale avoidance initiated out of the range of the hydroacoustics detection system. Furthermore, more study is needed to determine whether such avoidance behavior has significant ramifications for normal fish movement

  17. Erlang B/C Link Availability/Blockage for Data and Voice over VDL Mode 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    This study looks into the blockage and availability of Digital VHF Mode 3 link. Using future predicted voice and CPDLC data traffic loads, the Erlang B and Erlang C formulas were utilized to measure the availability/blockage of the two applications over VDL mode 3. The results here, along with previous cell capacity calculations on the number of frequency channels available done as a part of a separate study, can give a measure of the overall system capacity. This study shows sufficient availability (for acceptable blockage levels for worst case traffic loads. It is found that overall the voice communications will reduce the system availability the most, followed by Management accessing portion of the data which turns limits the CPDLC capability.

  18. Estimation of tunnel blockage from wall pressure signatures: A review and data correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, J. E.; Wilsden, D. J.; Lilley, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for estimating low speed wind tunnel blockage, including model volume, bubble separation and viscous wake effects. A tunnel-centerline, source/sink distribution is derived from measured wall pressure signatures using fast algorithms to solve the inverse problem in three dimensions. Blockage may then be computed throughout the test volume. Correlations using scaled models or tests in two tunnels were made in all cases. In many cases model reference area exceeded 10% of the tunnel cross-sectional area. Good correlations were obtained regarding model surface pressures, lift drag and pitching moment. It is shown that blockage-induced velocity variations across the test section are relatively unimportant but axial gradients should be considered when model size is determined.

  19. An investigation into blockage corrections for cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, Robert; Polagye, Brian

    2013-11-01

    The performance of hydrokinetic turbines is augmented in confined channels, such that the coefficient of performance is elevated versus free-stream conditions. This often introduces uncertainty when characterizing prototype-scale turbines in flume or tow tank facilities. Performance of a one-quarter scale helical, cross-flow turbine is characterized over a range of operating conditions (inflow velocity and tip-speed ratio) at blockage ratios (ratio of rotor swept area to channel area) of ~10 and ~25%. Particle image velocimitry is used to characterize rotor induction, as well as the turbulent wake produced by the turbine. Performance at the different blockage ratios is compared to corrections derived from actuator disk theory and to full-scale field performance in the absence of blockage.

  20. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1999-07-26

    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range (> 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies ({>=}10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact the T

  1. Optimization of Concurrent Deployments of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System and Other Hydroacoustic Equipment at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jina; Lamarche, Brian L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Choi, Eric Y.; Faber, Derrek M.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Cushing, Aaron W.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the acoustic optimization study conducted at John Day Dam during January and February 2008. The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods to minimize electrical and acoustic interference from various other acoustic sampling devices. Thereby, this would allow concurrent sampling by active and passive acoustic methods during the formal evaluations of the prototype surface flow outlets at the dam during spring and summer outmigration seasons for juvenile salmonids. The objectives for the optimization study at John Day Dam were to: 1. Design and test prototypes and provide a total needs list of pipes and trolleys to deploy JSATS hydrophones on the forebay face of the powerhouse and spillway. 2. Assess the effect on mean percentage decoded of JSATS transmissions from tags arrayed in the forebay and detected on the hydrophones by comparing: turbine unit OFF vs. ON; spill bay OPEN vs. CLOSED; dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) both OFF vs. ON at a spill bay; and, fixed-aspect hydroacoustic system OFF vs. ON at a turbine unit and a spill bay. 3. Determine the relationship between fixed-aspect hydroacoustic transmit level and mean percentage of JSATS transmissions decoded. The general approach was to use hydrophones to listen for transmissions from JSATS tags deployed in vertical arrays in a series perpendicular to the face of the dam. We used acoustic telemetry equipment manufactured by Technologic and Sonic Concepts. In addition, we assessed old and new JSATS signal detectors and decoders and two different types of hydrophone baffling. The optimization study consisted of a suite of off/on tests. The primary response variable was mean percentage of tag transmissions decoded. We found that there was no appreciable adverse effect on mean percentage

  2. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  4. Measuring real-time streamflow using emerging technologies: Radar, hydroacoustics, and the probability concept

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, J.; Ostrowski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting streamflow during extreme hydrologic events such as floods can be problematic. This is particularly true when flow is unsteady, and river forecasts rely on models that require uniform-flow rating curves to route water from one forecast point to another. As a result, alternative methods for measuring streamflow are needed to properly route flood waves and account for inertial and pressure forces in natural channels dominated by nonuniform-flow conditions such as mild water surface slopes, backwater, tributary inflows, and reservoir operations. The objective of the demonstration was to use emerging technologies to measure instantaneous streamflow in open channels at two existing US Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. Surface-water and instream-point velocities were measured using hand-held radar and hydroacoustics. Streamflow was computed using the probability concept, which requires velocity data from a single vertical containing the maximum instream velocity. The percent difference in streamflow at the Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg, PA ranged from 0% to 8% with an average difference of 4% and standard deviation of 8.81 m3/s. The percent difference in streamflow at Chartiers Creek at Carnegie, PA ranged from 0% to 11% with an average difference of 5% and standard deviation of 0.28 m3/s. New generation equipment is being tested and developed to advance the use of radar-derived surface-water velocity and instantaneous streamflow to facilitate the collection and transmission of real-time streamflow that can be used to parameterize hydraulic routing models.

  5. First hydroacoustic evidence of marine, active fluid vents in the Naples Bay continental shelf (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Genovese, Simona; Sacchi, Marco; Barra, Marco; Rumolo, Paola; Tamburrino, Stella; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Placenti, Francesco; Aronica, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of a multidisciplinary research aimed at the detection and mapping of Active Fluid Vents (AFVs) at the seafloor of the Naples Bay, Italy. This segment of the Campania continental margin is characterised by severe Quaternary extension and intense volcanism at Ischia and Procida islands, the Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complexes. High resolution hydroacoustic profilers were used to identify and localize fluid emission from the seafloor. ROV direct observation showed that each emission centre is generally composed by the coalescence of several emitting points. CTD probes showed that there are no significant gradients in temperature profiles. The results of this study include the detection and mapping of 54 fluid emission points all located in the - 71/- 158 m depth range, and spatially distributed into four main clusters. Three of the described clusters are located along the margin of a complex, toe-shaped seafloor morphology southwest of the Somma-Vesuvius, representing the shallow expression of partly buried, coalesced depositional features (namely, two flank collapses and one pyroclastic flow) associated with the Late Pleistocene activity of the volcano. The fourth AFV cluster was detected at the morphological - high, located about 8 km south of Naples (Banco della Montagna), represented by a field of volcaniclastic diapirs composed of massive pumiceous deposits originated from the Campi Flegrei intruding rising through the latest Quaternary-Holocene marine deposits. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AFV in this area could be genetically linked to the interaction between volcanic related seafloor morphologies and the main, NE striking faults present in the area, i.e. the Magnaghi-Sebeto line and the Vesuvian fault.

  6. The multidisciplinary, Seismic-Hydroacoustic-Infrasound, observatory in offshore site of the northeastern South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. M.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, G.; Lim, I. S.; Shin, I. C.; Kim, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The long-term seismic observation on the sea-floor is a challenging idea that can provide useful information in offshore area and help us to understand the tectonics better. Projects in the United States, Canada, Japan, and Europe were successfully implemented. We report on the installation of a long-term sea-floor multidisciplinary observatory in offshore site of the northeastern South Korea. The site is located 4.5 km from the shore, at a water depth of about 80 m. The novelty of our project is the development of an integrated detection system for earthquake combining seismic, hydroacoutic, and infrasound technologies. The observatory consists of three sea-floor seismometer modules and associated elastic beacon type buoys each of which is equipped with solar power supply, infrasound and meteorological sensors, RF and LTE network for continuous and real-time data transmission, and SOH system. Three elastic beacon type buoys were successfully deployed during July 29 - 31, 2015. The sea-floor seismometer module is equipped with a 3-component CMG-3T-OBS system with 24-bit 8-channel digitizer in titanium sphere. A current meter, a Differential Pressure Gauge, and a HTI hydrophone are mounted on the lifting frame. The whole module is covered and protected with Trawl resistant concrete dome. Three land broadband seismic stations nearby (< 40 km) can provide the comparison of background noise between land and ocean. We analyzed the seismic ambient noise characteristics on the offshore site from the data of temporary OBS operated for 4 months. The power spectral density was calculated and compared with the NLNM and NHNM. Now, we are preparing the installation of three seismometer modules scheduled to do in early September, 2016. The integrated data and the technique analyzing the Seismic-Hydroacoustic-Infrasound data will improve our detection system for earthquake in offshore.

  7. Hydroacoustic Monitoring of Downstream Migrant Salmon and Steelhead at Wells Dam in Spring 1984.

    SciTech Connect

    Raemhild, Gary A.

    1984-10-31

    The downstream migration of salmon and steelhead in spring 1984 at Wells Dam on the mid-Columbia River was monitored using hydroacoustics. The primary objective of this research was to document run timing and describe the distribution of smolts at the dam. The study occurred from April 2 to June 15, 1984. Four transducers were deployed at the bases of pier noses at Turbines 3, 5, 7, and 9 and aimed up 24/sup 0/ into the forebay. They were sampled once every hour, 24 hours per day, for 75 days. An index of fish passage was reported daily to the Water Budget Center in Portland, Oregon. This index was computed as follows. For each 24-h period, separate fish passage rates (number/time) at each of the four sampling locations were estimated by dividing the sum of the ''weighted'' fish detections by total sample time. These four values then were averaged to produced the daily index (number/day/location). The first substantial increase in fish passage occurred on April 25, 1984 due to the chinook released from the Winthrop hatchery on April 23. During May, run timing was fairly uniform except for peaks on May 2, 14, 18, and 22. The unexpected peak in run size that occurred from May 29 to June 2 could have been caused by juvenile mountain whitefish. Although the proportion of each species varied, chinook passage probably peaked in late April, and steelhead in the first two weeks of May; sockeye passage was variable throughout the study. The data indicated that most downstream migrants were distributed high in the water column and toward the western end of the dam. Average hourly passage rates for day and night were similar, but more fish passed the dam during the longer period of daylight than the shorter period of darkness. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Sparse targets in hydroacoustic surveys: Balancing quantity and quality of in situ target strength data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Qian, Song; Warner, David M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Hydroacoustic sampling of low-density fish in shallow water can lead to low sample sizes of naturally variable target strength (TS) estimates, resulting in both sparse and variable data. Increasing maximum beam compensation (BC) beyond conventional values (i.e., 3 dB beam width) can recover more targets during data analysis; however, data quality decreases near the acoustic beam edges. We identified the optimal balance between data quantity and quality with increasing BC using a standard sphere calibration, and we quantified the effect of BC on fish track variability, size structure, and density estimates of Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreus). Standard sphere mean TS estimates were consistent with theoretical values (−39.6 dB) up to 18-dB BC, while estimates decreased at greater BC values. Natural sources (i.e., residual and mean TS) dominated total fish track variation, while contributions from measurement related error (i.e., number of single echo detections (SEDs) and BC) were proportionally low. Increasing BC led to more fish encounters and SEDs per fish, while stability in size structure and density were observed at intermediate values (e.g., 18 dB). Detection of medium to large fish (i.e., age-2+ walleye) benefited most from increasing BC, as proportional changes in size structure and density were greatest in these size categories. Therefore, when TS data are sparse and variable, increasing BC to an optimal value (here 18 dB) will maximize the TS data quantity while limiting lower-quality data near the beam edges.

  9. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Emin, David; Akhtari, Massoud; Ellingson, B. M.; Mathern, G. W.

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  10. Turbulence Intensity at Inlet of 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel Caused by Upwind Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Denise; Yuricich, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In order to estimate the magnitude of turbulence in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel (80 x 120) caused by buildings located upwind from the 80 x 120 inlet, a 150th-scale study was performed that utilized a nominal two-dimensional blockage placed ahead of the inlet. The distance of the blockage ahead of the inlet was varied. This report describes velocity measurements made in the plane of the 80 x 120 model inlet for the case of zero ambient (atmospheric) wind.

  11. Using the geodetic and hydroacoustic measurements to investigate the bathymetric and morphometric parameters of Lake Hancza (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popielarczyk, Dariusz; Templin, Tomasz; Łopata, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Most of the inland lakes do not have up-to-date bathymetry. However, a significant progress in surveying technologies creates a possibility to quickly and accurately describe the underwater environment. Modern geodetic and global positioning techniques integrated with hydroacoustic systems provide a great opportunity to study the bottom shape with high resolution. Our study presents a reliable methodology for investigation of bathymetry and morphometric parameters with the use of GNSS positioning techniques and single beam echosounder. The research was implemented on the deepest, glacial reservoir in the central part of European Depression - Lake Hancza. Direct hydroacoustic and geodetic measurements completed by sediment study were conducted by the authors in 2010-2013. After performing a field survey the Digital Elevation Model was constructed and the new bathymetric map and morphometric card were elaborated. The maximum depth was confirmed to be 105.55 m. The final conclusions show that the available bathymetric data and morphometric parameters of lakes are highly dependent on the research methodology used, the precision and accuracy of measurement techniques, proper water level determination, digital elevation model and bathymetric map elaboration processes.

  12. Overview of hydro-acoustic current-measurement applications by the U.S. geological survey in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Stewart, James A.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a network of 170 streamflow-gaging stations in Indiana to collect data from which continuous records of river discharges are produced. Traditionally, the discharge record from a station is produced by recording river stage and making periodic discharge measurements through a range of stage, then developing a relation between stage and discharge. Techniques that promise to increase data collection accuracy and efficiency include the use of hydro-acoustic instrumentation to measure river velocities. The velocity measurements are used to compute river discharge. In-situ applications of hydro-acoustic instruments by the USGS in Indiana include acoustic velocity meters (AVM's) at six streamflow-gaging stations and newly developed Doppler velocity meters (DVM's) at two stations. AVM's use reciprocal travel times of acoustic signals to measure average water velocities along acoustic paths, whereas DVM's use the Doppler shift of backscattered acoustic signals to compute water velocities. In addition to the in-situ applications, three acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) are used to make river-discharge measurements from moving boats at streamflow-gaging stations in Indiana. The USGS has designed and is testing an innovative unmanned platform from which to make ADCP discharge measurements.

  13. Passive probing of the sound fixing and ranging channel with hydro-acoustic observations from ridge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Evers, Läslo G; Snellen, Mirjam

    2015-04-01

    The International Monitoring System includes a hydro-acoustic part to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Besides explosive signals, monitoring stations also detect acoustic waves from earthquakes that travel through the SOund Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) channel. The travel times of such detections are listed in the Reviewed Event Bulletin, which is statistically evaluated for the stations located in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. The celerities of ridge earthquakes are calculated to build up a homogeneous data-set, based on similar source mechanisms. The celerity is defined as the epicentral distance divided by the travel time. The global characteristics of these celerities can be well understood in terms of temperature variations in the SOFAR channel. A detailed velocity profile has been retrieved for the Atlantic Ocean where large differences (14 m/s) are found between the southern and northern parts of the basin. Propagation modeling with normal modes supports these findings, which shows that the celerity gives an estimate of the sound speed in the SOFAR channel. These results compare remarkably well with those from active experiments, showing the ability of passively probing the SOFAR channel with hydro-acoustic waves from earthquake sources.

  14. Mechanical behavior analysis of a submerged fixed point anchoring system for a hydroacoustic signature measuring sensor for divers and ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamnoiu, G.; Radu, O.; Surdu, G.; Roşca, V.; Damian, R.; Pascu, C.; Curcă, E.; Rădulescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper has as its main objectives the presentation and the analysis of the numerical analysis results for the study of a fixed point anchoring system for a hydroacoustic sensor when measuring the hydroacoustic signature of divers and ships in real sea conditions. The study of the mechanical behavior of this system has as main objectives the optimization of the shape and weight of the anchorage ballast for the metallic structure while considering the necessity to maintain the sensor in a fixed point and the analysis of the sensor movements and the influences on the measurements caused by the sea current streams. The study was focused on the 3D model of metallic structure design; numerical modeling of the water flow around the sensor anchoring structure using volume of fluid analysis and the analysis of the forces and displacements using FEM when needed for the study. In this paper we have used data for the sea motion dynamics and in particular the velocity of the sea current streams as determined by experimental measurements that have been conducted for the western area of the Black Sea.

  15. DEMON-type algorithms for determination of hydro-acoustic signatures of surface ships and of divers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamnoiu, G.; Radu, O.; Rosca, V.; Pascu, C.; Damian, R.; Surdu, G.; Curca, E.; Radulescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    With the project “System for detection, localization, tracking and identification of risk factors for strategic importance in littoral areas”, developed in the National Programme II, the members of the research consortium intend to develop a functional model for a hydroacoustic passive subsystem for determination of acoustic signatures of targets such as fast boats and autonomous divers. This paper presents some of the results obtained in the area of hydroacoustic signal processing by using DEMON-type algorithms (Detection of Envelope Modulation On Noise). For evaluation of the performance of various algorithm variations we have used both audio recordings of the underwater noise generated by ships and divers in real situations and also simulated noises. We have analysed the results of processing these signals using four DEMON algorithm structures as presented in the reference literature and a fifth DEMON algorithm structure proposed by the authors of this paper. The algorithm proposed by the authors generates similar results to those obtained by applying the traditional algorithms but requires less computing resources than those and at the same time it has proven to be more resilient to random noise influence.

  16. Swirl, Expansion Ratio and Blockage Effects on Confined Turbulent Flow. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    A confined jet test facility, a swirles, flow visualization equipment, five-hole pitot probe instrumentation; flow visualization; and effects of swirl on open-ended flows, of gradual expansion on open-ended flows, and blockages of flows are addressed.

  17. Occupational Choice and Perceived Goal-Blockage: Residential and Racial Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosby, Arthur G.; Picou, J. Steven

    The purpose of this paper is to examine some factors which may have an effect on occupational choice and perceived goal-blockage of high school students in 2 selected geographical areas. The factors examined are residence, race, education, and self-concept. Group I consisted of 264 male and female black high school seniors in Louisiana. The rural…

  18. Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes…

  19. Comparison of the effect of insulating blockages on metal and oxide fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tilbrook, R.W.; Dever, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The safety philosophy of the new liquid-metal reactor (LMR) plant designs is oriented toward inherent protection against loss of coolable geometry and other entries to core disruption. One potential entry is via propagation of local faults. The basic event in all local sequences is cladding failure, irrespective of initiator. A model of a complete insulating blockage, i.e., total loss of heat transfer from the cladding surface due to any cause, was developed for a range of insulated arcs. The internal properties represented either metal or oxide fuels, both irradiated to a condition that closed the fuel-clad gap. The advantage of the high conductivity of the metal fuel is clearly evident; the maximum cladding temperatures are considerably lower than for the oxide elements with the same circumferential blockage extent. Also, the minimum cladding temperature at the opposite side of the element is higher for the metal fuel, thus providing more uniform heat rejection from the unblocked portion of the cladding. The cladding temperatures at the edge of the blockages for the oxide elements are directly proportional to the blockage angle, indicating that the cladding is the main path for heat rejection.

  20. Structural Blockage: A Cross-national Study of Economic Dependency, State Efficacy, and Underdevelopment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacroix, Jacques; Ragin, Charles C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a statistical analysis of dependency of developing nations on more highly developed and industrialized nations and relates this dependency to various degrees of economic development. The analysis is based on the structural blockage argument (one of several dependency arguments contained in many versions of dependency theory). Emphasizes…

  1. Physical therapy and anesthetic blockage for treating temporomandibular disorders: A clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Mirella M.; Porto, Gabriela G.; Ferdinanda, Greiciane; Nogueira, Cyntia M.; Raimundo, Ronaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of physical therapy and anesthetic blockage of the auriculotemporal nerve as a treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders. Methods: the sample comprised of twenty patients with a diagnosis of disc displacement with/ without reduction and arthralgia according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD Axis I Group IIa, IIb and IIIa). Ten patients (group 1) underwent a cycle of eight anesthetic blockages of the auriculotemporal nerve with injections (1 per week) of 1 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% without vasoconstrictor for 8 weeks. The other 10 patients (group 2) received anesthetic blockage and physical therapy (massage and muscular stretching exercises). After the end of treatment all patients were evaluated at baseline, 1st week, 4th week and 2 months. The t-Student and F (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis, with a significance rate of 5%. Results: there was a significant difference when both groups were compared according to VAS score (p=0.027). There was no significant difference for the other variables: MMO and jaw protrusion. Conclusion: the anesthetic blockage and physical therapy, when used together, are effective in the reduction of pain in patients with TMD. Key words:Temporomandibular joint disorders, physical therapy, physiotherapy and nerve block, local anesthetic, bupivacaine. PMID:23229236

  2. Model-Based Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Model-Based Improvement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University ,Software Engineering...Institute (SEI),Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  3. Transcriptional blockages in a cell-free system by sequence-selective DNA alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Liu, A P; Denny, W A; Cullinane, C; Talarico, T; Phillips, D R

    2000-04-14

    There is considerable interest in DNA sequence-selective DNA-binding drugs as potential inhibitors of gene expression. Five compounds with distinctly different base pair specificities were compared in their effects on the formation and elongation of the transcription complex from the lac UV5 promoter in a cell-free system. All were tested at drug levels which killed 90% of cells in a clonogenic survival assay. Cisplatin, a selective alkylator at purine residues, inhibited transcription, decreasing the full-length transcript, and causing blockage at a number of GG or AG sequences, making it probable that intrastrand crosslinks are the blocking lesions. A cyclopropylindoline known to be an A-specific alkylator also inhibited transcription, with blocks at adenines. The aniline mustard chlorambucil, that targets primarily G but also A sequences, was also effective in blocking the formation of full-length transcripts. It produced transcription blocks either at, or one base prior to, AA or GG sequences, suggesting that intrastrand crosslinks could again be involved. The non-alkylating DNA minor groove binder Hoechst 33342 (a bisbenzimidazole) blocked formation of the full-length transcript, but without creating specific blockage sites. A bisbenzimidazole-linked aniline mustard analogue was a more effective transcription inhibitor than either chlorambucil or Hoechst 33342, with different blockage sites occurring immediately as compared with 2 h after incubation. The blockages were either immediately prior to AA or GG residues, or four to five base pairs prior to such sites, a pattern not predicted from in vitro DNA-binding studies. Minor groove DNA-binding ligands are of particular interest as inhibitors of gene expression, since they have the potential ability to bind selectively to long sequences of DNA. The results suggest that the bisbenzimidazole-linked mustard does cause alkylation and transcription blockage at novel DNA sites. in addition to sites characteristic of

  4. Bacteriophage Can Prevent Encrustation and Blockage of Urinary Catheters by Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Nzakizwanayo, Jonathan; Hanin, Aurélie; Alves, Diana R.; McCutcheon, Benjamin; Dedi, Cinzia; Salvage, Jonathan; Knox, Karen; Stewart, Bruce; Metcalfe, Anthony; Clark, Jason; Gilmore, Brendan F.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis forms dense crystalline biofilms on catheter surfaces that occlude urine flow, leading to serious clinical complications in long-term catheterized patients, but there are presently no truly effective approaches to control catheter blockage by this organism. This study evaluated the potential for bacteriophage therapy to control P. mirabilis infection and prevent catheter blockage. Representative in vitro models of the catheterized urinary tract, simulating a complete closed drainage system as used in clinical practice, were employed to evaluate the performance of phage therapy in preventing blockage. Models mimicking either an established infection or early colonization of the catheterized urinary tract were treated with a single dose of a 3-phage cocktail, and the impact on time taken for catheters to block, as well as levels of crystalline biofilm formation, was measured. In models of established infection, phage treatment significantly increased time taken for catheters to block (∼3-fold) compared to untreated controls. However, in models simulating early-stage infection, phage treatment eradicated P. mirabilis and prevented blockage entirely. Analysis of catheters from models of established infection 10 h after phage application demonstrated that phage significantly reduced crystalline biofilm formation but did not significantly reduce the level of planktonic cells in the residual bladder urine. Taken together, these results show that bacteriophage constitute a promising strategy for the prevention of catheter blockage but that methods to deliver phage in sufficient numbers and within a key therapeutic window (early infection) will also be important to the successful application of phage to this problem. PMID:26711744

  5. Using the international monitoring system of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors for global airburst detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.

    2014-07-01

    The impact of meter-sized objects with the Earth occurs every few weeks [1,2]. Most of these collisions result in airbursts, here defined as impacts where the meteoroid's initial kinetic energy is of order a small nuclear weapon (> 0.1 kilotons of TNT equivalent = 4.185×10^{11} J) and where this energy is fully deposited at high altitude in the atmosphere. Historically, the majority of these airbursts go undetected over oceans or remote land areas as dedicated fireball camera networks (eg.[ 3]) cover less than 1 % of the globe. Airbursts often produce meteorite falls and hence airburst data may yield pre-atmospheric orbits and physical properties for the impacting NEO providing context for recovered meteorite samples [4]. With the advent of more capable telescopic survey systems, pre-atmospheric detection of NEO-producing airbursts has become possible as evidenced by the impacts of 2014 AA and 2008 TC_3 [5]. Detection of ''terminal plungers'' is expected to become more common as projects such as ATLAS [6] become operational. This increases the need for instrumental data of the corresponding airburst, particularly its location and energy. Beginning in the late 1990s, a global network of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors has been deployed globally to provide treaty verification for a nuclear test ban. This network is the International Monitoring System (IMS) overseen by Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) [7]. The IMS is a unique global resource for detection of explosions worldwide and in recent years shock waves from many airbursts [8] have been detected by the system. Data from the IMS permits airburst location, origin time and energy to be measured. In rare cases, source heights, trajectories, and details of fragmentation may be obtained. Here the current capabilities of the IMS will be presented in the context of airburst detection and characterization. Empirical characteristics of the long-range sound produced by airbursts

  6. Hydroacoustic Records of the First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R.; Park, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Fox, C.; Byun, S.; Fowler, M.; Haxel, J.; Embley, R.

    2003-12-01

    For the past decade, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory has monitored volcano-seismic activity from western Pacific island-arc volcanoes using an array of U.S. Navy hydrophones (called SOSUS) deployed at fixed locations throughout the North Pacific Ocean. SOSUS hydrophones are mounted within the SOFAR channel and record the hydroacoustic tertiary phase or T-wave of oceanic earthquakes from throughout the Pacific basin. Since acoustic T-waves obey cylindrical energy attenuation as opposed to the spherical attenuation of solid-earth seismic phases, sound channel hydrophones can detect often smaller and therefore more numerous earthquakes than land-based seismic networks. This property allowed for the detection of harmonic tremor from a submarine volcano in the Volcano Islands on hydrophones >14,000 km away in the eastern Pacific. The first historical eruption of Anatahan Volcano appears to have started (from satellite imagery) at 1730Z on 10 May, with an ash plume visible by 2232Z (BGVN, 5 May 2003). Records from a broadband seismometer deployed on nearby ( ˜6.5 km) Sarigan Island indicate earthquake activity increased at about 1300Z on 10 May (D. Weins, pers com). SOSUS hydrophones in the western Pacific ( ˜4000 km distant) also recorded increased earthquake activity at 1300Z on 10 May as well as continuous, low-frequency (<10 Hz) energy (possible volcanic tremor) that began about a day before the seismicity. The earthquakes and tremor were detected on only two SOSUS hydrophones and therefore it was not possible to estimate their source location. The arrival azimuth of the signals were, however, consistent with a source in the Mariana Islands. To complement the SOSUS hydrophone array coverage in the western Pacific Ocean, an array of five autonomous hydrophones were deployed in February 2003 (sponsored by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program) within the SOFAR channel along the active island- and back-arc of the Mariana Islands. All five hydrophones (1-110 Hz

  7. Hydroacoustic monitoring of sorted bedforms west of Sylt (SE North Sea) - Interannual variabilities during five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, Finn; Hass, H. Christian

    2014-05-01

    Sorted bedforms can be found in coastal shelf seas worldwide. These spatially-grain-size-sorted bedforms with lengths of up to several kilometers are consisting of small rippled medium-to-coarse sand and can remain stable for decades. However, the knowledge about their development is still fragmentary. For this study, a shallow investigation area with water depth <15 m located west of the island of Sylt (SE North Sea, Germany) was annually surveyed with high-resolution hydroacoustic means (i.e. sidescan sonar, multibeam echo sounder, and sub-bottom profiler) within a time frame of five years. Aim was to detected short-time variances regarding the stability of the prevailing bedforms in an area which is strongly influenced by distinct tidal and wind-driven currents as well as storm surges. The measurements show sinuous stripes of rippled medium sand which are surrounded by smooth fine-sand areas. These sorted bedforms are basically linked to the morphology characterized by ridges and channels and could be identified as flow-transverse features that are maintained by ebb and flood currents of almost equal strengths. The bidirectional flow field generates sharp boundaries between the coarse- and fine-sand domains in both current directions. Further to the north, where unidirectional flow field conditions prevail, asymmetric bedforms could be detected with only one sharp boundary aligned counter to the current direction. While comparing the data sets of the different years, no significant changes regarding the morphology and distribution of the sorted bedforms were detectable. However, the boundaries to the fine-sand domains reveal small-scale variabilities. New minor bedforms and small rippled excavation marks developed and disappeared during the measure campaign. We suppose that these processes mainly occur during periodically recurring storm surges: Fine-sand layers are winnowed away and the shapes of the bedforms changes. Intensity and direction of these storms are

  8. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  9. Hydroacoustic, infrasonic and seismic monitoring of the submarine eruptive activity and sub-aerial plume generation at South Sarigan, May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David N.; Evers, Läslo G.; Fee, David; Matoza, Robin S.; Snellen, Mirjam; Smets, Pieter; Simons, Dick

    2013-05-01

    Explosive submarine volcanic processes are poorly understood, due to the difficulties associated with both direct observation and continuous monitoring. In this study hydroacoustic, infrasound, and seismic signals recorded during the May 2010 submarine eruption of South Sarigan seamount, Marianas Arc, are used to construct a detailed event chronology. The signals were recorded on stations of the International Monitoring System, which is a component of the verification measures for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Numerical hydroacoustic and infrasound propagation modelling confirms that viable propagation paths from the source to receivers exist, and provide traveltimes allowing signals recorded on the different technologies to be associated. The eruption occurred in three stages, separated by three-hour periods of quiescence. 1) A 46 h period during which broadband impulsive hydroacoustic signals were generated in clusters lasting between 2 and 13 min. 95% of the 7602 identified events could be classified into 4 groups based on their waveform similarity. The time interval between clusters decreased steadily from 80 to 25 min during this period. 2) A five-hour period of 10 Hz hydroacoustic tremor, interspersed with large-amplitude, broadband signals. Associated infrasound signals were also recorded at this time. 3) An hour-long period of transient broadband events culminated in two large-amplitude hydroacoustic events and one broadband infrasound signal. A speculative interpretation, consistent with the data, suggests that during phase (1) transitions between endogenous dome growth and phreatomagmatic explosions occurred with the magma ascent rate accelerating throughout the period; during phase (2) continuous venting of fragmented magma occurred, and was powerful enough to breach the sea surface. During the climactic phase (3) discrete powerful explosions occurred, and sufficient seawater was vaporised to produce the contemporaneous 12 km altitude steam

  10. The effects of ground water, slope stability, and seismic hazards on the stability of the South Fork Castle Creek blockage in the Mount St. Helens area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Sabol, M.A.; Glicken, H.X.; Voight, Barry

    1985-01-01

    A slope stability analysis on the South Fork Castle Creek debris avalanche blockage, near Mount St. Helens, Washington, was conducted to determine the likelihood of mass failure of the blockage and resultant breakout of South Fork Castle Creek Lake. On the basis of material properties, groundwater levels, and seismic history of the blockage, slope stability with and without earthquake-induced forces was determined. Results indicated that the blockage will not fail from gravitational forces at September 1983 groundwater levels. An increase of 25 feet or more in water levels could cause local failures, but massive failure of the blockage is improbable. Blockage slopes are potentially unstable for present and higher water levels if an earthquake with magnitude greater than 6.0 should occur. Retrogressive slope failures are possible, but lowering of the blockage crest below lake level and consequent lake breakout are considered remote. Significant earthquake shaking could cause cracks in the blockage that might facilitate piping. (USGS)

  11. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  12. Methane flux estimation of a large seep area offshore Svalbard based on visual observations and inverse hydroacoustic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, Mario; Mienert, Jurgen; De Batist, Marc; Greinert, Jens

    2014-05-01

    A seep site area at west of Prins Karl Forland (Svalbard) has been monitored since 2009 in order to evaluate its changes in space and time. Hydroacoustic data captured over four years have been used to understand the dynamic of the gas release and quantify the flow rate of gas coming from the seabed. Echograms indicate that gas release occurs between 200 and 400 mbsl and show that some of the acoustic flares reach the surface. Hydroacoustic data was captured with the EK60 echosounder system which uses a split-beam technique to determine the backscattering position inside the beam. The data obtained gives accurate information of the spatial distribution of the backscattering produced by bubble release. Gas release spot positions have been obtained using a geometrical average of spatial distribution of the backscattering, produced by the bubble cloud above the seafloor. An inverse hydroacoustic method developed by Muyakshin et al (Muyakshin et al. 2010) has been used to quantify the flow rate of the gas release. The method uses as input the backscattering volume strength (SV ) of the bubble release above the seafloor, bubble size distribution (BSD) obtained from underwater video footage and bubble rising speed (BRS) values determined by models developed by different researchers (e.g., Leifer and Patro, 2002, Woolf 1993, Mendelson 1967). Gridding and interpolation of the acoustic information obtained from Sv values has been carried out, adapting the method in order to be used over a large area. Flow rate calculations of a selected area (~220 mbsl) have been carried out (using different BRS models and merged data from different years) giving values between 220 and 347 T/yr of methane assuming continuous discharge and a bubble containing 100% of CH4. Temporal variability of methane fluxes was evaluated using the 'common' insonified areas with acoustic information of gas release over the seafloor. Comparison of calculated fluxes from common areas have shown that methane

  13. Application of a pore-blockage--cake-filtration model to protein fouling during microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Laura; Ho, Chia-Chi; Zydney, Andrew L

    2002-08-05

    Although protein fouling is a critical factor governing the performance of microfiltration systems, there have been relatively few studies comparing the fouling behavior of different proteins. Flux-decline data were obtained for the filtration of bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, pepsin, immunoglobulin G, and myoglobin through polycarbonate track-etch membranes. The data were analyzed using a recently developed model that accounts for simultaneous pore blockage and cake formation. The model was in very good agreement with the data for all five proteins, demonstrating the general applicability of this new theoretical framework. The initial fouling due to pore blockage is directly related to the concentration of protein aggregates in solution, which was measured independently by quasi-elastic light scattering. The results provide important insights into the mechanisms of protein fouling during microfiltration. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Retransmission Strategy for Real-Time Streaming over Satellite in Blockage with Long Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    challenging channel. These packets need to be delivered reliably with strict order requirement. While various ARQ techniques are often used for this...blockage; channel with memory; Markov model; delay; throughput; link-Iayer retransmission; ARQ U U U U SAR 8 Zach Sweet 781-981-5997 THIS MATERIAL HAS...such a challenging (hannel. These packets need to be delivered reliably with strict order requirement. While· various ARQ tecbnlqus are oftea used

  15. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to project

  16. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  17. Effect of blockage ratio on drag and pressure distributions for bodies of revolution at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, L. M.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained in two wind tunnels for 13 models over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 1.02. Effects of increasing test-section blockage ratio in the transonic region near a Mach number of 1.0 included change in the shape of the drag curves, premature drag creep, delayed drag divergence, and a positive increment of pressures on the model afterbodies. Effects of wall interference were apparent in the data even for a change in blockage ratio from a very low 0.000343 to an even lower 0.000170. Therefore, models having values of blockage ratio of 0.0003 - an order of magnitude below the previously considered safe value of 0.0050 - had significant errors in the drag-coefficient values obtained at speeds near a Mach number of 1.0. Furthermore, the flow relief afforded by slots or perforations in test-section walls - designed according to previously accepted criteria for interference-free subsonic flow - does not appear to be sufficient to avoid significant interference of the walls with the model flow field for Mach numbers very close to 1.0.

  18. Access Time of Emergency Vehicles Under the Condition of Street Blockages after a Large Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirokawa, N.; Osaragi, T.

    2016-09-01

    The previous studies have been carried out on accessibility in daily life. However it is an important issue to improve the accessibility of emergency vehicles after a large earthquake. In this paper, we analyzed the accessibility of firefighters by using a microscopic simulation model immediately after a large earthquake. More specifically, we constructed the simulation model, which describes the property damage, such as collapsed buildings, street blockages, outbreaks of fires, and fire spreading, and the movement of firefighters from fire stations to the locations of fires in a large-scale earthquake. Using this model, we analyzed the influence of the street-blockage on the access time of firefighters. In case streets are blocked according to property damage simulation, the result showed the average access time is more than 10 minutes in the outskirts of the 23 wards of Tokyo, and there are some firefighters arrive over 20 minutes at most. Additionally, we focused on the alternative routes and proposed that volunteers collect information on street blockages to improve the accessibility of firefighters. Finally we demonstrated that access time of firefighters can be reduced to the same level as the case no streets were blocked if 0.3% of residents collected information in 10 minutes.

  19. Auroral evidence of flux tube blockage near noon at Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radioti, Aikaterini; Grodent, Denis; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Southwood, David; Chané, Emmanuel; Bonfond, Bertrand; Pryor, Wayne

    2016-04-01

    We discuss plasma circulation in Saturn's magnetosphere on the basis of auroral observations. Auroral enhancements in the dawn region are suggested to be related to intense field-aligned currents generated by hot tenuous plasma carried inward in fast moving flux tubes as they return from tail reconnection site to the dayside. Here we demonstrate that the rotation of the auroral emission in the dawn sector is occasionally (in half of the auroral sequences examined) slowed down and blocked near noon for a couple of hours. When the blockage is prominent and persistent, we observe auroral evidence of dayside magnetopause reconnection and openign of flux. A possible interpretation for our observations could be that depleted flux tubes at large radial distances, which rotate around Saturn are blocked in the prenoon sector between the heavy Vasyliunas cycle flux tubes on one side, and the magnetopause on the other side. These depleted flux tubes have to move above or below the current sheet to pass this blockage. The blockage of the field lines close to midday will bend them and trigger reconnection, which opens the flux tubes and allows for solar wind material to enter the magnetosphere. Secondly, we suggest that the circulation pattern of depleted flux tubes close to noon in Saturn's magnetosphere alternates between a 'blocked' and 'unblocked' state, depending on the solar wind dynamic pressure and the internal processes.

  20. Comparison of data correction methods for blockage effects in semispan wing model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Anwar U.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.; Sulaeman, Erwin; J. S Ali, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Wing alone models are usually tested in wind tunnels for aerospace applications like aircraft and hybrid buoyant aircraft. Raw data obtained from such testing is subject to different corrections such as wall interference, blockage, offset in angle of attack, dynamic pressure and free stream velocity etc. Since the flow is constrained by wind tunnel walls, therefore special emphasis is required to deliberate the limitation of correction methods for blockage correction. In the present research work, different aspects of existing correction methods are explored with the help of an example of a straight semi-span wing. Based on the results of analytical relationships of standard methods, it was found that although multiple variables are involved in the standard methods for the estimation of blockage, they are based on linearized flow theory such as source sink method and potential flow assumption etc, which have intrinsic limitations. Based on the computed and estimated experimental results, it is recommended to obtain the corrections by adding the difference in results of solid walls and far-field condition in the wind tunnel data. Computational Fluid Dynamics technique is found to be useful to determine the correction factors for a wing installed at zero spacer height/gap, with and without the tunnel wall.

  1. Effects of four inlet and outlet tip-annulus-area blockage configurations on the performance of an axial-flow fan rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, W. M.; Hager, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    An axial-flow fan rotor was tested with four configurations of tip-annulus-area blockage to speeds as high as 0.8 of design speed. The rotor performance with the four blockage configurations is compared with the unblocked rotor performance and with blockage configurations previously investigated. The blockage configurations enable the rotor to operate in a stable condition, to much lower flows than the unblocked rotor, with no evidence of rotating stall. The blockage configurations were effective in reducing rotor torque and weight flow but were accompanied by reductions in pressure ratio and efficiency.

  2. Model Based Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  3. Influence of shear layers on the structure of shocks formed by rectangular and parabolic blockages placed in a subsonic flow-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheeda, V. K.; Kumar, A.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2014-03-01

    Flow blockages are used to promote the transition of a flame to a detonation. The structure of shock waves formed with different configurations of blockages was experimentally determined for subsonic incoming flow. High speed subsonic flows could develop ahead of a turbulent flame and the interaction of such flows with blockages could lead to the formation of interacting shock waves, slipstreams, and expansion waves. A blow-down test setup was designed to study the interacting shock pattern formed with different configurations of blockages. The flow was found to accelerate to low supersonic velocities during its passage over the blockages. The shock structure downstream of the blockages was found to depend on the shape, size, and number of blockages as well as the spacing between them. While a parabolic-shaped blockage provided shocks of maximum strength, large blockage ratio values did not permit the formation of shocks. The shear layer, formed in the flow downstream of the blockages, reflected the expansion fan as shock waves and was found to be a major feature influencing the formation of the interacting structure of oblique shocks. The structure and strength of the shock waves are analyzed using hodograms. The formation of the interacting family of shock waves using different configurations of blockages and the spacings between them are discussed.

  4. Statistical analysis and definition of blockages-prediction formulae for the wastewater network of Oslo by evolutionary computing.

    PubMed

    Ugarelli, Rita; Kristensen, Stig Morten; Røstum, Jon; Saegrov, Sveinung; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Oslo Vann og Avløpsetaten (Oslo VAV)-the water/wastewater utility in the Norwegian capital city of Oslo-is assessing future strategies for selection of most reliable materials for wastewater networks, taking into account not only material technical performance but also material performance, regarding operational condition of the system.The research project undertaken by SINTEF Group, the largest research organisation in Scandinavia, NTNU (Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet) and Oslo VAV adopts several approaches to understand reasons for failures that may impact flow capacity, by analysing historical data for blockages in Oslo.The aim of the study was to understand whether there is a relationship between the performance of the pipeline and a number of specific attributes such as age, material, diameter, to name a few. This paper presents the characteristics of the data set available and discusses the results obtained by performing two different approaches: a traditional statistical analysis by segregating the pipes into classes, each of which with the same explanatory variables, and a Evolutionary Polynomial Regression model (EPR), developed by Technical University of Bari and University of Exeter, to identify possible influence of pipe's attributes on the total amount of predicted blockages in a period of time.Starting from a detailed analysis of the available data for the blockage events, the most important variables are identified and a classification scheme is adopted.From the statistical analysis, it can be stated that age, size and function do seem to have a marked influence on the proneness of a pipeline to blockages, but, for the reduced sample available, it is difficult to say which variable it is more influencing. If we look at total number of blockages the oldest class seems to be the most prone to blockages, but looking at blockage rates (number of blockages per km per year), then it is the youngest class showing the highest blockage rate

  5. Earwax Blockage

    MedlinePlus

    ... use a wax-removal medication, such as carbamide peroxide (Debrox, Murine Earwax Removal System). Because these drops ... of baby oil, mineral oil, glycerin or hydrogen peroxide in your ear canal. Use warm water. After ...

  6. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro-acoustic

  7. Principles of models based engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.

  8. Modeling of Flow Blockage in a Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Subassembly with a Subchannel Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hae-Yong; Ha, Kwi-Seok; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kwon, Young-Min; Lee, Yong-Bum

    2005-01-15

    The local blockage in a subassembly of a liquid metal-cooled reactor (LMR) is of importance to the plant safety because of the compact design and the high power density of the core. To analyze the thermal-hydraulic parameters in a subassembly of a liquid metal-cooled reactor with a flow blockage, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed the MATRA-LMR-FB code. This code uses the distributed resistance model to describe the sweeping flow formed by the wire wrap around the fuel rods and to model the recirculation flow after a blockage. The hybrid difference scheme is also adopted for the description of the convective terms in the recirculating wake region of low velocity. Some state-of-the-art turbulent mixing models were implemented in the code, and the models suggested by Rehme and by Zhukov are analyzed and found to be appropriate for the description of the flow blockage in an LMR subassembly. The MATRA-LMR-FB code predicts accurately the experimental data of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory 19-pin bundle with a blockage for both the high-flow and low-flow conditions. The influences of the distributed resistance model, the hybrid difference method, and the turbulent mixing models are evaluated step by step with the experimental data. The appropriateness of the models also has been evaluated through a comparison with the results from the COMMIX code calculation. The flow blockage for the KALIMER design has been analyzed with the MATRA-LMR-FB code and is compared with the SABRE code to guarantee the design safety for the flow blockage.

  9. Quantifying changes in fish habitat use in coastal waters of Louisiana, United States of America: A hydroacoustic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, Kevin M.

    The development of reliable tools for identifying essential fish habitat (EFH) has proven problematic. Knowledge of the distribution and biomass of fishes over discrete habitat types is a prerequisite for effective use of EFH in the management of important commercial and recreational fish species. Resolution of the influence of habitat type and environmental factors on the distribution of fishes is confounded by limitations of traditional sampling gears. To date, hydroacoustic technology has been widely accepted as a tool for surveying fishery resources; however few studies have implemented acoustics in ultra shallow (<2 m) coastal waters. Efforts should be made to utilize hydroacoustics for quantifying changes in fish distributions within estuarine environments given the benefits provided through acoustic technology (e.g. ease of deployment, reduced sampling effort, and non-invasive sampling attributes). A technique was developed for acoustically sensing fishes in the shallow, turbid waters of Barataria Bay, Louisiana. A robust and lightweight remotely-controlled transducer platform was designed for deploying acoustic gear. Sources of scattering within the bay were identified through a series of exclosure net experiments designed to quantify potential effects of plankton and suspended solids on acoustic scattering. Analysis filters were developed to reduce the effects of bubble-induced noise, often observed during periods when wind speeds were greater than 4.5 m s-1. Side-aspect acoustic target strength-length and target strength-weight relationships were derived for tethered individuals of bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) and Gulf menhaden ( Brevoortia patronus), with best fit models incorporating data from both species at the lateral perspective. Greater mean fish biomass and fish size were associated with higher salinity and oyster shell habitat in Barataria Bay when compared to nearby soft-bottom habitats. Results of acoustic mobile surveys of the Freeport

  10. Results from a 14-month hydroacoustic monitoring of the three mid-oceanic ridges in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J.-Y.; Dziak, R. P.; Delatre, M.; Chateau, R.; Brachet, C.; Haxel, J. H.; Matsumoto, H.; Goslin, J.; Brandon, V.; Bohnenstielh, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    From October 2006 to January 2008, an hydroacoustic experiment in the Indian Ocean was carried out by the CNRS/University of Brest and NOAA/Oregon State University to monitor the low-level seismic activity associated with the three contrasting spreading ridges and deforming zones in the Indian Ocean. Three autonomous hydrophones were moored in the SOFAR channel by R/V Marion Dufresne for 14 months in the Madagascar Basin, and northeast and southwest of Amsterdam Island, complementing the two permanent hydroacoustic stations of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) located near Diego Garcia Island and off Cape Leeuwin. The three instruments successfully collected 14 month of continuous acoustic records. Combined with the records from the permanent stations, the array detected 1780 acoustic events consisting mostly of earthquake generated T-waves, but also of iceberg tremors from Wilkes Land, Antarctica. Within the triangle defined by the temporary array, the three ridges exhibit contrasting seismicity patterns. Along the Southeast Indian ridge (SEIR), the 272 acoustic events (vs 24 events in the NEIC catalog) occur predominantly along the transform faults ; only one ridge segment (76˚E) displays a continuous activity for 10 months. Along the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), seismicity is distributed along fracture zones and ridge segments (269 events vs 45 NEIC events), with two clusters of events near the triple junction (24-25S) and south of Marie-Celeste FZ (18.5S). Along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the 222 events (vs 31 NEIC events) are distributed along the ridge segments with a larger number of events west of Melville FZ and a cluster at 58E. The immediate vicinity of the Rodrigues triple junction shows periods of quiescence and of intense activity. Some large earthquakes (Mb>5) near the triple junction (SEIR and CIR) seem to be preceded by several acoustic events that may be precursors. Finally, off-ridge seismicity is mostly

  11. Exploring relationships of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and blockage in people with long-term indwelling urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Mary H; McMahon, James M; Crean, Hugh F; Brasch, Judith

    2017-09-01

    To describe and explore relationships among catheter problems in long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, including excess healthcare use for treating catheter problems. Long-term urinary catheter users experience repeated problems with catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage of the device, yet little has been reported of the patterns and relationships among relevant catheter variables. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a sample in a randomised clinical trial, using data from the entire sample of 202 persons over 12 months' participation. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise the sample over time. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were employed for logistic regressions to evaluate predictor variables of the presence/absence and frequencies of catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage. Catheter-related urinary tract infection was marginally associated with catheter blockage. Problems reported at least once per person in the 12 months were as follows: catheter-related urinary tract infection 57%, blockage 34%, accidental dislodgment 28%, sediment 87%, leakage (bypassing) 67%, bladder spasms 59%, kinks/twists 42% and catheter pain 49%. Regression analysis demonstrated that bladder spasms were significantly related to catheter-related urinary tract infection and sediment amount, and catheter leakages were marginally significantly and positively related to catheter-related urinary tract infection. Frequencies of higher levels of sediment and catheter leakage were significantly associated with higher levels of blockage, and being female was associated with fewer blockages. Persons who need help with eating (more disabled) were also more likely to have blockages. Catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage appear to be related and both are associated with additional healthcare expenditures. More research is needed to better understand how to prevent adverse catheter outcomes and patterns of problems in

  12. Blockage Testing in the NASA Glenn 225 Square Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevier, Abigail; Davis, David; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A feasibility study is in progress at NASA Glenn Research Center to implement a magnetic suspension and balance system in the 225 sq cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel for the purpose of testing the dynamic stability of blunt bodies. An important area of investigation in this study was determining the optimum size of the model and the iron spherical core inside of it. In order to minimize the required magnetic field and thus the size of the magnetic suspension system, it was determined that the test model should be as large as possible. Blockage tests were conducted to determine the largest possible model that would allow for tunnel start at Mach 2, 2.5, and 3. Three different forebody model geometries were tested at different Mach numbers, axial locations in the tunnel, and in both a square and axisymmetric test section. Experimental results showed that different model geometries produced more varied results at higher Mach Numbers. It was also shown that testing closer to the nozzle allowed larger models to start compared with testing near the end of the test section. Finally, allowable model blockage was larger in the axisymmetric test section compared with the square test section at the same Mach number. This testing answered key questions posed by the feasibility study and will be used in the future to dictate model size and performance required from the magnetic suspension system.

  13. Blockage of hERG current and the disruption of trafficking as induced by roxithromycin.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng-Na; Yang, Song-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Yan-Yan; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qiu; Fan, Tian-Li; Ye, Zhen-Kun; Huang, Chen-Zheng; Hu, Xiang-Jie; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2013-12-01

    Roxithromycin is an oral macrolide antibiotic agent that has been repeatedly reported to provoke excessive prolongation of the Q-T interval and torsades de pointes in clinical settings. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the arrhythmogenic side effects of roxithromycin, we studied the molecular mechanisms of roxithromycin on human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Roxithromycin was found to inhibit wild-type (WT) hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximum block concentration (IC50) of 55.8 ± 9.1 μmol/L. S6 residue hERG mutants (Y652A and F656C) showed reduced levels of hERG current blockage attributable to roxithromycin. Roxithromycin also inhibited the trafficking of hERG protein to the cell membrane, as confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These findings indicate that roxithromycin may cause acquired long-QT syndrome via direct inhibition of hERG current and by disruption of hERG protein trafficking. Mutations in drug-binding sites (Y652A or F656C) of the hERG channel were found to attenuate hERG current blockage by roxithromycin, but did not significantly alter the disruption of trafficking.

  14. A novel deployment design of vena cava filters might be the solution to their blockage problem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2011-12-01

    The blockage of a vena cava filter (VCF) by the captured blood clots presents a serious problem to the patients. Commercially available cone-shaped VCFs such as the Gunther Tulip filter has an inherent structural flaw that leads the captured blood clots to be trapped in their front spire areas where the flow-induced shear stress is relatively low so that the clots cannot dissolve fast enough and will accumulate, gradually block the central passages of the filters. It is well known that for a Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a circular tube, the flow-induced shear stress is highest at the wall of the tube and lowest along its axis. Herein, we hypothesize that by reversely deploying a cone-shaped filter in the vena cava, the filter's blockage problem might be prevented. First of all, this kind of deployment scenario can force the captured blood clots to stay in the peripheral areas of the vena cava and keep the central passage of the filter unblocked. Secondly, this scenario can expose the captured blood clots to relatively high shear stress that may dissolve the clots faster. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian; Charkraborty, Tapas; Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. - Highlights: • DHP plays a critical role in early stage oogenesis of XX tilapia. • Blockage of DHP actions by RU486 treatment led to masculinization and/or sex reversal in XX tilapia. • Both DHP and estrogen are indispensable for ovarian differentiation.

  16. A novel device for the clearance and prevention of blockages within biomedical catheters.

    PubMed

    Fox, Richard; Norton, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Biomedical catheters are commonly used to move fluids from one part of the body to another, or remove them from the body completely. In some instances, these catheters become occluded due to blood or other debris. Such occlusions may prove fatal or require re-operation with enormous costs and effects on the health-care system and the individual. We developed a model of occlusion in both a ventriculo-peritoneal shut system and en external ventricular drain. Having demonstrated that occlusions can be reliably generated in a manner that resembles the clinical situation we show that vibration can clear the blockages. Vibration in the 50-60 Hz range was able to maintain patency in the catheters or to clear the blockage when the catheter was completely occluded. In high concentrations of blood, 150 s of vibration applied every 30 min was able to maintain the patency of the catheter. Clinically, as the level of blood in the fluid decreases, the time intervals between vibration applications could be increased. We believe that vibration offers a safe, non-invasive method to maintain the patency of biomedical catheters.

  17. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice.

    PubMed

    Jie, Pinghui; Tian, Yujing; Hong, Zhiwen; Li, Lin; Zhou, Libin; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein expression in hippocampi of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein expression increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein expression was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  18. Blockage of natural convection boundary layer flow in a multizone enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D; Anderson, R; Figliola, R S

    1986-02-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study that examines the transition between flow regimes, as a function of aperture size, in a two-zone enclosure with heated and cooled end walls. A constant heat flux boundary condition was maintained on one vertical end wall, and an isothermal cold temperature sink was maintained on the opposite vertical end wall. All of the remaining surfaces were highly insulated. The transition between the boundary layer driven regime and the bulk density driven regime was established as a function of the geometry of the aperture in the partition that separated the hot and cold zones. The results demonstrate that transition from the boundary layer driven regime to the bulk density driven regime is caused by blockage of the boundary layer flow, when the area of the flow aperture is reduced below a critical value. A simple flow model has been developed which predicts that the critical aperture area for the onset of flow blockage is directly proportional to the number of active heat transfer surfaces and inversely proportional to the Rayleigh number which characterizes the level of heating and cooling provided to the active heat transfer surfaces.

  19. Effects of surface deposition, hole blockage, and thermal barrier coating spallation on vane endwall film cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, N.; Thole, K.A.

    2007-07-15

    With the increase in usage of gas turbines for power generation and given that natural gas resources continue to be depleted, it has become increasingly important to search for alternate fuels. One source of alternate fuels is coal derived synthetic fuels. Coal derived fuels, however, contain traces of ash and other contaminants that can deposit on vane and turbine surfaces affecting their heat transfer through reduced film cooling. The endwall of a first stage vane is one such region that can be susceptible to depositions from these contaminants. This study uses a large-scale turbine vane cascade in which the following effects on film cooling adiabatic effectiveness were investigated in the endwall region: the effect of near-hole deposition, the effect of partial film cooling hole blockage, and the effect of spallation of a thermal barrier coating. The results indicated that deposits near the hole exit can sometimes improve the cooling effectiveness at the leading edge, but with increased deposition heights the cooling deteriorates. Partial hole blockage studies revealed that the cooling effectiveness deteriorates with increases in the number of blocked holes. Spallation studies showed that for a spalled endwall surface downstream of the leading edge cooling row, cooling effectiveness worsened with an increase in blowing ratio.

  20. Local blockage of EMMPRIN impedes pressure ulcers healing in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Lan; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Ze-Xin; Yang, Guo-Li; Liu, Ji-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Li, Ming; Chen, Min; Xia, Yong-Mei; Liu, Jun-Jie; Qiu, Shu-Ping; Gong, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix degradation caused by the hyperfunction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the failure of pressure ulcers healing. EMMPRIN, as a widely expressed protein, has emerged as an important regulator of MMP activity. We hypothesize that EMMPRIN affects the process of pressure ulcer healing by modulating MMP activity. In the rat pressure ulcer model, the expression of EMMPRIN in ulcers detected by Western blot was elevated compared with that observed in normal tissue. To investigate the role of EMMPRIN in regulating ulcer healing, specific antibodies against EMMPRIN were used via direct administration on the pressure ulcer. Local blockage of EMMPRIN resulted in a poor ulcer healing process compared with control ulcers, which was the opposite of our expectation. Furthermore, inhibiting EMMPRIN minimally impacted MMP activity. However, the collagen content in the pressure ulcer was reduced in the EMMPRIN treated group. Angiogenesis and the expression of angiogenic factors in pressure ulcers were also reduced by EMMPRIN local blockage. The results in the present study indicate a novel effect of EMMPRIN in the regulation of pressure ulcer healing by controlling the collagen contents and angiogenesis rather than MMPs activity.

  1. Local blockage of EMMPRIN impedes pressure ulcers healing in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xi-Lan; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Ze-Xin; Yang, Guo-Li; Liu, Ji-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Li, Ming; Chen, Min; Xia, Yong-Mei; Liu, Jun-Jie; Qiu, Shu-Ping; Gong, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix degradation caused by the hyperfunction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the failure of pressure ulcers healing. EMMPRIN, as a widely expressed protein, has emerged as an important regulator of MMP activity. We hypothesize that EMMPRIN affects the process of pressure ulcer healing by modulating MMP activity. In the rat pressure ulcer model, the expression of EMMPRIN in ulcers detected by Western blot was elevated compared with that observed in normal tissue. To investigate the role of EMMPRIN in regulating ulcer healing, specific antibodies against EMMPRIN were used via direct administration on the pressure ulcer. Local blockage of EMMPRIN resulted in a poor ulcer healing process compared with control ulcers, which was the opposite of our expectation. Furthermore, inhibiting EMMPRIN minimally impacted MMP activity. However, the collagen content in the pressure ulcer was reduced in the EMMPRIN treated group. Angiogenesis and the expression of angiogenic factors in pressure ulcers were also reduced by EMMPRIN local blockage. The results in the present study indicate a novel effect of EMMPRIN in the regulation of pressure ulcer healing by controlling the collagen contents and angiogenesis rather than MMPs activity. PMID:26261551

  2. Percolation blockage: A process that enables melt pond formation on first year Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polashenski, Chris; Golden, Kenneth M.; Perovich, Donald K.; Skyllingstad, Eric; Arnsten, Alexandra; Stwertka, Carolyn; Wright, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Melt pond formation atop Arctic sea ice is a primary control of shortwave energy balance in the Arctic Ocean. During late spring and summer, the ponds determine sea ice albedo and how much solar radiation is transmitted into the upper ocean through the sea ice. The initial formation of ponds requires that melt water be retained above sea level on the ice surface. Both theory and observations, however, show that first year sea ice is so highly porous prior to the formation of melt ponds that multiday retention of water above hydraulic equilibrium should not be possible. Here we present results of percolation experiments that identify and directly demonstrate a mechanism allowing melt pond formation. The infiltration of fresh water into the pore structure of sea ice is responsible for blocking percolation pathways with ice, sealing the ice against water percolation, and allowing water to pool above sea level. We demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on fresh water availability, known to be predominantly from snowmelt, and ice temperature at melt onset. We argue that the blockage process has the potential to exert significant control over interannual variability in ice albedo. Finally, we suggest that incorporating the mechanism into models would enhance their physical realism. Full treatment would be complex. We provide a simple temperature threshold-based scheme that may be used to incorporate percolation blockage behavior into existing model frameworks.

  3. Relationships between spatial patterns of macrofauna communities, sediments and hydroacoustic backscatter data in a highly heterogeneous and anthropogenic altered environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutperlet, R.; Capperucci, R. M.; Bartholomä, A.; Kröncke, I.

    2017-03-01

    A survey was conducted in the Inner Jade tidal channel, the connection between the Jade Bay and the southern North Sea, to investigate the relationships between macrofauna community structure and environmental variables in a highly heterogeneous human disturbed environment. A manual expertise based classification of sidescan sonar records was successful in confirming the general relationship between backscatter intensity and sediment grain size in weakly disturbed environments. In highly disturbed environments, instead, the classification showed the influence of the topographic roughness over the sediment roughness in backscatter intensity. Low, but significant relationships between hydroacoustic classification and macrofauna community structure, as well as sediment distribution and the macrofaunal communities were identified. The most important impact on spatial community structure was the number of days after dredging/dumping activity for the JadeWeserPort, followed by sediment characteristics. Sand dominated western stations that were dredged for the JWP exhibited a characteristic macrofaunal community. Another distinct community occurred in stations with elevated mud content within the regularly dredged old navigation channel and in the undisturbed south eastern area. The macrofaunal communities in the north eastern undisturbed area coincided with elevated gravel and shell contents. This study stresses the problems of benthic habitat mapping in such a heterogeneous area.

  4. Hydroacoustic Assessment of Downstream Migrating Salmonids at the Dalles Dam in Spring and Summer, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Steig, Tracy W.; Johnson, Ward R.

    1986-02-15

    A hydroacoustic study of downstream migrating salmon and steelhead was conducted at The Dalles Dam. The primary objective was to estimate the effectiveness of the spillway and sluiceway in passing downstream migrants. The secondary goals were to provide information on the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distributions of downstream migrants. June 1, and the summer season was from July 1 to August 15, 1985. Nineteen transducers were deployed to monitor turbine, spillway, and sluiceway locations. The 10 h instantaneous spill effectiveness results showed that spill passed fish more efficiently during the summer study than during the spring study. During the period May 1-31 when the turbines, spillway, and sluiceway were all operating consistently, the sluiceway was found to be the most efficient method of passing fish on a percent flow basis. During the summer study, after the termination of spill, the sluiceway and turbines passed almost equal percentages of fish. The run timing during the spring showed steadily increasing numbers of fish until the peak of the run on May 16. Another, smaller peak occurred on May 20. Thereafter, passage gradually decreased through the end of the spring study. The spring run consisted of yearling chinook, steelhead and sockeye juvenile salmonids. During the summer study, fish passage gradually decreased, except for minor peaks near the beginning of the study. The summer migration consisted primarily of subyearling chinook juvenile salmonids.

  5. Frequency-dependent damping model for the hydroacoustic finite element analysis of fluid-filled pipes with diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Jan; Koreck, Jürgen; Maess, Matthias; Gaul, Lothar; von Estorff, Otto

    2011-04-01

    The integration of a model for longitudinal hydroacoustic fluid damping in thin hydraulic pipes in 3D finite element models is presented in this paper. In order to perform quantitative prediction of the vibroacoustic behavior and resulting noise levels of such fluid-structure coupled system due to hydraulic excitation, an accurate frequency-dependent fluid damping model including friction effects near the pipe wall is required. This step is achieved by matching complex wave numbers from analytical derivation into a parameterized damped wave equation and consecutive translation into finite element modeling. Since the friction effect close to the pipe wall changes locally with the inner pipe radius, the fluid damping model is applied segment-wise in order to model the influence of cross-sectional discontinuity, such as orifices, on the oscillating pressure pulsations. A component synthesis approach, which uses pipe segments as substructures, allows a simple model generation and fast computation times. The numerical harmonic results are compared to experimental frequency response functions, which are performed on a hydraulic test bench driven by a dynamic pressure source in the kHz-range.

  6. Effects of percentage of blockage and flameholder downstream counterbores on lean combustion limits of premixed, prevaporized propane-air mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, M. A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Lean combustion limits were determined for a premixed prevaporized propane air mixture with flat plate flame stabilizers. Experiments were conducted in a constant area flame tube combustor utilizing flameholders of varying percentages of blockage and downstream counterbores. Combustor inlet air velocity at ambient conditions was varied from 4 to 9 meters per second. Flameholders with a center hole and four half holes surrounding it were tested with 63, 73, and 85 percent blockage and counterbore diameters of 112 and 125 percent of the thru hole diameter, in addition to the no counterbore configuration. Improved stability was obtained by using counterbore flameholders and higher percentages of blockage. Increases in mixture velocity caused the equivalence ratio at blowout to increase in all cases.

  7. A free-blockage controlled release system based on the hydrophobic/hydrophilic conversion of mesoporous silica nanopores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqian; Chen, Linfeng; Xu, Li-Ping; Du, Hongwu; Wen, Yongqiang; Song, Yanlin; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-02-02

    A pH-responsive free-blockage release system was achieved through controlling the hydrophobic/hydrophilic conversion of mesoporous silica nanopores. This system further presented pulsatile release with changing pH values between 4.0 and 7.0 for several cycles. This free-blockage release system could also release antitumor agents to induce cell death after infecting tumor cells and could have the ability of continuous infection to tumor cells with high drug-delivery efficiency and few side effects. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nonlinear Resonant Oscillations of Gas in Optimized Acoustical Resonators and the Effect of Central Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Finkbeiner, Joshua; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimizing resonator shapes for maximizing the ratio of maximum to minimum gas pressure at an end of the resonator is investigated numerically. It is well known that the resonant frequencies and the nonlinear standing waveform in an acoustical resonator strongly depend on the resonator geometry. A quasi-Newton type scheme was used to find optimized axisymmetric resonator shapes achieving the maximum pressure compression ratio with an acceleration of constant amplitude. The acoustical field was solved using a one-dimensional model, and the resonance frequency shift and hysteresis effects were obtained through an automation scheme based on continuation method. Results are presented for optimizing three types of geometry: a cone, a horn-cone and a half cosine-shape. For each type, different optimized shapes were found when starting with different initial guesses. Further, the one-dimensional model was modified to study the effect of an axisymmetric central blockage on the nonlinear standing wave.

  9. Microstructural analysis of MTR fuel plates damaged by a coolant flow blockage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaers, A.; Joppen, F.; Van den Berghe, S.

    2009-10-01

    In 1975, as a result of a blockage of the coolant inlet flow, two plates of a fuel element of the BR2 reactor of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) were partially melted. The fuel element consisted of Al-clad plates with 90% 235U enriched UAl x fuel dispersed in an Al matrix. The element had accumulated a burn up of 21% 235U before it was removed from the reactor. Recently, the damaged fuel plates were sent to the hot laboratory for detailed PIE. Microstructural changes and associated temperature markers were used to identify several stages in the progression to fuel melting. It was found that the temperature in the center of the fuel plate had increased above 900-950 °C before the reactor was scrammed. In view of the limited availability of such datasets, the results of this microstructural analysis provide valuable input in the analysis of accident scenarios for research reactors.

  10. The effect of blockage on power production for laterally aligned wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the change in the individual power coefficients for a laterally aligned row of wind turbines over a single, free turbine in the context of varying inflow directions via numerical simulations. All turbines were rotating in-line with the main flow direction. The problem definition is similar to that of many wind turbine testing sites and wind farms. Hence any changes in the individual turbine power production could have implications regarding power curve validation procedures.These changes are relatively small and therefore the size of the computational domain was identified to be detrimental in avoiding any domain-inflicted blockage. Increasing the misalignment of the main flow direction with the row of turbines led to significant variations in the power production across turbines. At the largest inflow angle of 45° it varied from -1.1% to 2%. As a whole, the power production increased by about 0.5%, almost independent of the inflow direction.

  11. Investigation of very low blockage ratio boattail models in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation at an angle of attack of 0 deg was conducted in a 16 foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.05 to determine the limits in Mach number at which valid boattail pressure drag data may be obtained with very low blockage ratio bodies. Extreme care was exercised when examining any data taken at subsonic Mach numbers very near 1.0 and lower than the supersonic Mach number at which shock reflections miss the model. Boattail pressure coefficient distributions did not indicate any error, but when integrated boattail pressure drag data was plotted as a function of Mach number, data which were in error were identified.

  12. Blockage of RNA polymerase II at a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and 6-4 photoproduct.

    PubMed

    Mei Kwei, Joan Seah; Kuraoka, Isao; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ubukata, Manabu; Kobatake, Eiry; Iwai, Shigenori; Handa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2004-08-06

    The blockage of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (pol II) at a DNA damage site on the transcribed strand triggers a transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR), which rapidly removes DNA damage on the transcribed strand of the expressed gene and allows the resumption of transcription. To analyze the effect of UV-induced DNA damage on transcription elongation, an in vitro transcription elongation system using pol II and oligo(dC)-tailed templates containing a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) or 6-4 photoproduct (6-4PP) at a specific site was employed. The results showed that pol II incorporated nucleotides opposite the CPD and 6-4PP and then stalled. Pol II formed a stable ternary complex consisting of pol II, the DNA damage template, and the nascent transcript. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that pol II stalled at the damaged region. These findings may provide the basis for analysis of the initiation step of TCR.

  13. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage due to spontaneous knot formation in the peritoneal catheter. Case report.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Hunn, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    The authors report the third case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage due to spontaneous knot formation in the peritoneal catheter that had been placed in a 3.5-year-old boy 8 months earlier. On surgical exploration a double knot was found 10 cm from the distal end of the peritoneal catheter. Although the underlying mechanism remains unknown, the authors used the analogy of related physical studies and true knot formation in the umbilical cord and determined the possible causes as related to the catheter, volume and configuration of the abdomen, and kinetics of the catheter movements. If further study should reveal a significantly higher incidence of this complication, the authors suggest further in vitro studies, designed to investigate the optimal characteristics and safe range of length of peritoneal catheters in different situations.

  14. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition.

  15. Mudflow hazards along the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers from a hypothetical failure of Spirit Lake blockage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, C.H.; Kresch, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The debris avalanche accompanying the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, in southwestern Washington, buried the former outlet of Spirit Lake, located 5 miles north of the volcano, to a depth ranging to 500 feet. Since that time, Spirit Lake has had no natural outlet and its lake level and contents have increased significantly. Erosion at the crest of the debris dam on the surface of the blockage and recent studies of theblockage stratigraphy and soil properties showing that the effective crest elevation is lower than the surface crest have led to concern that the lake may someday breach through or spill over the top of the blockage. A study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the extent of inundation that might result downstream in the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers if a hypothetical breach should occur and generate a mudflow flood of catastrophic proportions. A hypothetical breach of Spirit Lake produced a hypothetical mudflow hydrograph with a peak discharge of 2.65 million cu ft/s and a sediment concentration of 65 percent by volume at Camp Baker on the North Fork Toutle River. Elevations determined by the hydraulic routing of the mudflow were used to prepare inundation maps, indicating depths of inundation to be about 60 feet at Castle Rock and Lexington; 30-40 feet at Toutle, Toutle Lake at Silver Lake, Kelson, and Longview; and 15-20 feet at Toledo. Travel times for the peak elevation were estimated to be about 15 hours to Kid Valley on the North Fork Toutle River, 21 hours to Castle Rock, 22 hours to Toledo, and 23 hours to Kelso and Longview on the Cowlitz River. (USGS)

  16. The pepper's natural ingredient capsaicin induces autophagy blockage in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Torres, Ágata; Bort, Alicia; Morell, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Henche, Nieves; Díaz-Laviada, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red hot chili peepers, has been shown to have anti-cancer activities in several cancer cells, including prostate cancer. Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed on its chemopreventive action, including ceramide accumulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress induction and NFκB inhibition. However, the precise mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts its anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells remain questionable. Herein, we have tested the involvement of autophagy on the capsaicin mechanism of action on prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells. The results showed that capsaicin induced prostate cancer cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, increased the levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II, a marker of autophagy) and the accumulation of the cargo protein p62 suggesting an autophagy blockage. Moreover, confocal microscopy revealed that capsaicin treatment increased lysosomes which co-localized with LC3 positive vesicles in a similar extent to that produced by the lysosomal protease inhibitors E64 and pepstatin pointing to an autophagolysosomes breakdown inhibition. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin triggered ROS generation in cells, while the levels of ROS decreased with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Co-treatment of cells with NAC and capsaicin abrogated the effects of capsaicin on autophagy and cell death. Normal prostate PNT2 and RWPE-1 cells were more resistant to capsaicin-induced cytotoxicity and did not accumulate p62 protein. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS-mediated capsaicin-induced autophagy blockage contributes to antiproliferation in prostate cancer cells, which provides new insights into the anticancer molecular mechanism of capsaicin. PMID:26625315

  17. The last glaciation and deglaciation of the Northeast Greenland continental shelf revealed by hydro-acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Jan Erik; Jokat, Wilfried; Dorschel, Boris

    2017-03-01

    About 16% of the Greenland Ice Sheet drains in the area of the Northeast Greenland shelf between 76°N and 80.5°N via marine terminating glaciers. Most of it is via the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream, the largest ice stream of Greenland. During ice ages, the ice sheet extended onto the continental shelf and modern-day cross-shelf troughs were filled by ice streams. In this study, high-resolution hydro-acoustic data acquired during three decades of research were jointly investigated to reveal the past glacial conditions. Our data shows that Westwind Trough and Norske Trough were filled by fast flowing ice streams that extended to the shelf edge during the last glacial maximum. In between the cross-shelf troughs, ice domes resided on shallow banks that may have contributed about a decimetre to global sea level. Most probably these ice domes initiated fast ice flow through sinks in the inter-trough area. In Westwind Trough, ice sheet retreat to the inner shelf after the last glacial maximum was intermittent. In contrast, in Norske Trough the ice sheet retreat appears relatively rapid with no evidences for phases of grounding line stabilization. Probably during the Younger Dryas, the ice sheet readvanced to a mid-shelf position in both troughs documented by grounding zone wedges. During this time, a thick ice shelf was present in Norske Trough releasing tabular icebergs. Ice sheet retreat from the mid-shelf to the coastline during Holocene deglaciation was rapid.

  18. Mapping and Monitoring of Dynamic Seafloor Features with Hydroacoustic Devices in Sandy Coastal Areas (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, S.; Mielck, F.; Hass, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand marine ecosystems and to provide basic data for a sustainable management in these vulnerable areas, seafloor mapping has become increasingly important. Since the knowledge regarding the seabed environments and their dynamics are still sparse, new mapping techniques have evolved in the last years and hydroacoustic devices became an important tool for quick and reliable mapping. In 2007 we started a monitoring program in the German Bight (North Sea) using sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) in a study site comprising approximately 1,500 km2. In subsequent years, the area was mapped repeatedly with a resolution of ~25 cm. For ground truthing, several hundred sediment samples were taken. The investigations reveal that the area is mainly characterized by fine to coarse sand which is arranged in different seafloor features such as subaquatic dunes or relicts of Pleistocene moraines. While the alignment and position of the moraines was stable throughout the years, the dunes can be highly dynamic. Their migration indicates the amount of sediment transport in these areas. Some seafloor features could be identified as so-called sorted bedforms, which are spatially-grain-size-sorted patterns on the seafloor consisting of small rippled medium sand surrounded by smooth fine sand. These flow-transverse features are morphological linked to ridges and depressions and are further maintained by ebb and flood currents of almost equal strengths. The medium sand is separated from the fine sand by sharp boundaries in all directions which were generated by the bidirectional flow field. The extend and alignment of the sorted bedforms seem to be relatively stable in a time frame of 6 years, however small-scale variabilities up to serveral meters could be detected. We suppose that these processes mainly occur during storm surges while the fine-sand layers are winnowed away and hence the shapes of the bedforms changes.

  19. Re-Analysis of Hydroacoustic Fish-Passage Data from Bonneville Dam after Spill-Discharge Corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Kim, Jina; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2007-06-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Portland District asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to re-analyze four years of fixed-aspect hydroacoustic data after the District made adjustments to spill discharge estimates. In this report, we present new estimates of all major fish-passage metrics for study years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004, as well as estimates for 2005. This study supports the Portland District and its effort to maximize survival of juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes through Bonneville Dam include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines at Powerhouse 2 (B2) and a sluiceway including the B2 Corner Collector. The original reports and all associated results, discussion, and conclusions for non flow-related metrics remain valid and useful, but effectiveness measures for study years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004 as reported in previous reports by Ploskey et al. should be superseded with the new estimates reported here. The fish-passage metrics that changed the most were related to effectiveness. Re-analysis produced spill effectiveness estimates that ranged from 12% to 21% higher than previous estimates in spring and 16.7% to 27.5% higher in summer, but the mean spill effectiveness over all years was only slightly above 1:1 (1.17 for spring and 1.29 for summer). Conversely surface-passage effectiveness decreased in the years this metric was measured (by 10.1% in spring and 10.7% in summer of 2002 and 9.5% in spring and 10.2% in summer of 2004). The smallest changes in the re-analysis were in project fish passage efficiency (0%-1%) and spill efficiency (0.9%-3.0%).

  20. Wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems test of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet unstart model at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines the wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems effectiveness in starting and forcibly unstarting a two-dimensional scramjet inlet in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; however, prior to the design and fabrication of an expensive, instrumented wind-tunnel model, it was deemed necessary first to examine potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and to examine the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure; schlieren video was used to identify inlet start and unstart. A chronology of each actuation sequence is provided in tabular form along with still frames from the schlieren video. A pitot probe monitored the freestream conditions throughout the start/unstart process to determine if there was a blockage effect due to the model start or unstart. Because the purpose of this report is to make the phase I (blockage and actuation systems) data rapidly available to the community, the data is presented largely without analysis of the internal shock interactions or the unstart process. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  1. Infant Approach and Withdrawal in Response to a Goal Blockage: Its Antecedent Causes and Its Effect on Toddler Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Sullivan, Margaret W.; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung

    2015-01-01

    In 2 separate longitudinal studies, infants and their mothers were seen in 3 longitudinal visits. At 2 months, they were observed in free play where mothers' contingency toward their infants was obtained. At 5 months, a goal blockage response was produced when a previously learned contingent response became ineffective in producing an interesting…

  2. Airborne laser scan data: a valuable tool with which to infer weather radar partial beam blockage in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2016-10-01

    High-spatial-resolution weather radar observations are of primary relevance for hydrological applications in urban areas. However, when weather radars are located within metropolitan areas, partial beam blockages and clutter by buildings can seriously affect the observations. Standard simulations with simple beam propagation models and digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually not able to evaluate buildings' contribution to partial beam blockages. In recent years airborne laser scanners (ALSs) have evolved to the state-of-the-art technique for topographic data acquisition. Providing small footprint diameters (10-30 cm), ALS data allow accurate reconstruction of buildings and forest canopy heights. Analyzing the three weather C-band radars located in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland, the present study investigates the benefits of using ALS data for quantitative estimations of partial beam blockages. The results obtained applying beam standard propagation models are compared with stratiform 24 h rainfall accumulation to evaluate the effects of partial beam blockages due to constructions and trees. To provide a physical interpretation of the results, the detailed analysis of beam occultations is achieved by open spatial data sets and open-source geographic information systems.

  3. Infant Approach and Withdrawal in Response to a Goal Blockage: Its Antecedent Causes and Its Effect on Toddler Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Sullivan, Margaret W.; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung

    2015-01-01

    In 2 separate longitudinal studies, infants and their mothers were seen in 3 longitudinal visits. At 2 months, they were observed in free play where mothers' contingency toward their infants was obtained. At 5 months, a goal blockage response was produced when a previously learned contingent response became ineffective in producing an interesting…

  4. Validation of attenuation, beam blockage, and calibration estimation methods using two dual polarization X band weather radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, M.; Ryzhkov, A.; Simmer, C.; Mühlbauer, K.

    2011-12-01

    The amplitude a of radar wave reflected by meteorological targets can be misjudged due to several factors. At X band wavelength, attenuation of the radar beam by hydro meteors reduces the signal strength enough to be a significant source of error for quantitative precipitation estimation. Depending on the surrounding orography, the radar beam may be partially blocked when scanning at low elevation angles, and the knowledge of the exact amount of signal loss through beam blockage becomes necessary. The phase shift between the radar signals at horizontal and vertical polarizations is affected by the hydrometeors that the beam travels through, but remains unaffected by variations in signal strength. This has allowed for several ways of compensating for the attenuation of the signal, and for consistency checks between these variables. In this study, we make use of several weather radars and gauge network measuring in the same area to examine the effectiveness of several methods of attenuation and beam blockage corrections. The methods include consistency checks of radar reflectivity and specific differential phase, calculation of beam blockage using a topography map, estimating attenuation using differential propagation phase, and the ZPHI method proposed by Testud et al. in 2000. Results show the high effectiveness of differential phase in estimating attenuation, and potential of the ZPHI method to compensate attenuation, beam blockage, and calibration errors.

  5. A clinical evaluation of a sensor to detect blockage due to crystalline biofilm formation on indwelling urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Long, Adele; Edwards, Julia; Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Debbie A; Timoney, Anthony G

    2014-08-01

    To test the performance and acceptability of an early warning sensor to predict encrustation and blockage of long-term indwelling urinary catheters. In all, 17 long-term indwelling catheter users, 15 'blockers' and two 'non-blockers' (controls) were recruited; 11 participants were followed prospectively until catheter change, three withdrew early and three did not start. Two sensors were placed in series between the catheter and the urine bag at catheter change. The sensor nearest the bag was changed at the same time as the bag change (weekly); the sensor nearest the catheter remained in situ for the duration of the catheter's life. Bacteriology and pH determinations were performed on urine samples at each bag, sensor and catheter change. The colour of the sensors was recorded daily. On removal, each sensor and the catheter were examined for visible evidence of encrustation and blockage. Participants were asked to keep a daily diary to record colour change and any other relevant observations and to complete a psychosocial impact of assistive devices tool at the end of the study. Participants and carers/healthcare professionals (when involved in urine bag or catheter change) were asked to complete a questionnaire about the sensor. Urease-producing bacteria were isolated from seven of the 14 patients (including early withdrawals; P. mirabilis in four, Morganella or Providencia in three). In six of the seven patients the sensors turned blue-black; two of these were early withdrawals, two went to planned catheter change (one of these was recruited as a 'non-blocker') and three had catheter blockage. The number of days of catheterisation before blockage was 22, 23 and 25 days, and the sensor changed colour within 24-48 h after insertion. The urine mean (range) pH of the sensors that turned blue-black was 7.6 (5.5-9.0) and of the sensors that remained yellow 6.1 (5.1-7.5). The sensor was generally well-received and was positive in the psychosocial assessment. The

  6. PWR FLECHT SEASET 21-rod bundle flow blockage task data and analysis report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse Report No. 11. Appendices K-P

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Lee, N.; McGuire, M.F.; Wenzel, A.H.; Valkovic, M.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents data and limited analysis from the 21-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Separate Effects and Systems Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The tests consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. Steam cooling and hydraulic characteristics tests were also conducted. These tests were utilized to determine effects of various flow blockage configurations (shapes and distributions) on reflooding behavior, to aid in development/assessment of computational models in predicting reflooding behavior of flow blockage configurations, and to screen flow blockage configurations for future 163-rod flow blockage bundle tests.

  7. The effects of tunnel blockage and aspect ratio on the mean flow past a circular cylinder with Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 100,000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, G. S.; Apelt, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    In the present investigation, particular attention was given to aspects of measurement accuracy and the control of secondary parameters in order to avoid masking the small changes associated with blockage. The data, obtained principally from surface pressure measurements on the cylinder but also relating to wake frequencies and tunnel-wall pressures, are presented, generally in graphical form. The data give comprehensive information on the flow parameters for flow past a circular cylinder within the range of Reynolds numbers from 10,000 to 100,000. If the blockage is less than 6%, the shape of the pressure distribution around the circular cylinder varies only slightly with blockage and the Strouhal number is independent of both the blockage ratio and the aspect ratio. For blockage ratios in the range from 6 to 16%, there is considerable distortion of the flow compared with that of the unblocked state.

  8. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken.

  9. Seismicity and active accretion processes at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest and intermediate-spreading Southeast Indian ridges from hydroacoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang-Hin-Sun, Eve; Royer, Jean-Yves; Perrot, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic and tectonic events are the main processes involved in the generation of the oceanic crust and responsible for the seismicity associated with seafloor spreading. To monitor this activity, usually not or poorly detected by land-based seismological stations, we deployed from February 2012 to February 2013 a network of autonomous hydrophones to compare the behaviour of the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) with that of the intermediate-spreading Southeast Indian ridge (SEIR). The rate of seismicity is similar for both ridges, suggesting that there is no systematic relationship between seismicity and spreading rates. The along-axis distribution of the seismic events, however, does differ, reflecting the rate dependence of accretion modes. Earthquakes are sparse and regularly spaced and scattered along the SWIR, reflecting prevailing tectonic processes. By contrast, along the SEIR, events are irregularly distributed and focus at ridge-segment ends and transforms faults, reflecting the ridge segmentation; only two swarms occurred at a segment centre and are probably caused by a magmatic event. This seismicity distribution thus looks controlled by segment-scale crustal heterogeneities along the SEIR and by regional-scale contrasting accretion processes along the SWIR, probably driven by different lithospheric and asthenospheric dynamics on either side of the Melville fracture zone. The comparison of hydroacoustic and teleseismic catalogues shows that, along these spreading ridges, the background seismicity observed in 1 yr by a hydroacoustic network is representative of the seismicity observed over two decades by land-based networks.

  10. Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station-centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No. 3 April 2003 - June 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Pulli, Jay J.; Upton, Zachary M.

    2003-07-14

    OAK A271 Hydroacoustic Studies Using HydroCAM - Station-centric Integration of Models and Observations Quarterly Report No. 3 April 2003 - June 2003. BBN's work from April through June of 2003 was focused on the testing and release of HydroCAM 4.0, development of HydroCAM 4.1 software, continued data collection and analysis, and initial preparations for the 2003 Seismic Research Review. HydroCAM 4.0 was released and sent to DOE and AFTAC on June 9. This is the first release of new software on this contract. The code addresses the problems and issues that BBN and AFTAC had identified in the Fall of 2003. HydroCAM 4.1 is under development. A description of that development is shown in section 3.2. We continued our efforts to collect ground truth hydroacoustic data from sub-sea earthquakes in the Indian Ocean. To date, we have collected over 130 events. These data are recorded on the International Monitoring System stations at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Finally, BBN submitted an abstract for the 2003 Seismic Research Review meeting. However, after discussions with Phil Harben at Lawrence Livermore Labs, we have decided to collaborate on one program-wide paper for the meeting.

  11. Gas Transport Parameters for Landfill Cover Soils: Effects of Soil Compaction and Water Blockages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramarachchi, P. N.; Hamamoto, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Nawagamuwa, U.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recently, landfill sites have been emerging in greenhouse warming scenarios as a significant source of atmospheric CH4. landfill management strategies have mainly addressed the problem of preventing groundwater contamination and reduction of leachate generation. Being one of the largest source of anthropogenic CH4 emission , the final cover system should also be designed for minimizing the biogas migration into the atmosphere or the areas surrounding the landfill. Compared to the intensive research efforts on hydraulic performances of landfill final cover soil , there are few studies about gas transport characteristics of landfill cover soils. Therefore, the effects of soil physical properties such as bulk density (i.e., compaction level), soil particle size and water blockage effects on the gas exchange in t highly compacted final cover soil are largely unknown. The gas exchange through the final cover soils is controlled by advective and diffusive gas transport. Air permeability (ka) governs the advective gas transport while the soil-gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) governs diffusive gas transport . In this study, the effects of compaction level and water blockage effects on ka and Dp for two landfill final cover soils were investigated. The disturbed soil samples were taken from landfill final covers in Japan and Sri Lanka. A compaction tests were performed for the soil samples with two different size fractions (< 35 mm and < 2.0 mm). In the compaction tests at field water content , the soil samples were repacked into soil cores (i.d. 15-cm, length 12-cm) at two different compaction levels (2700 kN/m2 and 600 kN/m2). After the compaction tests, ka and Dp were measured and then samples were saturated and subsequently drained at different soil-water matric potential (pF; pF equals to log(-ɛ) where ɛ is soil-water matric potential in cm H2O) of 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.1, and with air-dried (pF 6.0) and oven-dried (pF 6.9) conditions. Results showed that measured Dp values

  12. Model-based tomographic reconstruction

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, David H; Lehman, Sean K; Goodman, Dennis M

    2012-06-26

    A model-based approach to estimating wall positions for a building is developed and tested using simulated data. It borrows two techniques from geophysical inversion problems, layer stripping and stacking, and combines them with a model-based estimation algorithm that minimizes the mean-square error between the predicted signal and the data. The technique is designed to process multiple looks from an ultra wideband radar array. The processed signal is time-gated and each section processed to detect the presence of a wall and estimate its position, thickness, and material parameters. The floor plan of a building is determined by moving the array around the outside of the building. In this paper we describe how the stacking and layer stripping algorithms are combined and show the results from a simple numerical example of three parallel walls.

  13. Flood hazards along the Toutle and Cowlitz rivers, Washington, from a hypothetical failure of Castle Lake blockage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Orzol, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    A recent evaluation of groundwater and material in the blockage impounding Castle Lake shows that the blockage is potentially unstable against failure from piping due to heave and internal erosion when groundwater levels are seasonally high. There is also a remote possibility that a 6.8 or greater magnitude earthquake could occur in the Castle Lake area when groundwater levels are critically high. If this situation occurs, the debris blockage that confines Castle Lake could breach from successive slope failure with liquefaction of a portion of the blockage. A dam-break computer model was used to simulate discharge through a hypothetical breach in the Castle Lake blockage that could be caused by failure by heave, internal erosion, or liquefaction. Approximately 18,500 acre-ft of stored water would be released from an assumed breach that fully developed to a 1,000-ft width over a 15-minute time period. The resulting flood, incorporating 3.4 x 10 to the 6th power cu yd of the debris blockage, would reach a peak magnitude of 1,500,000 cu ft/s (cubic feet per second). The flood is also assumed to incorporate an additional 137x10 to the 6th power cu yd of saturated debris material from downstream deposits. Flow is considered to be hyperconcentrated with sediment throughout the course of the flood. The hypothetical hyperconcentrated flow is routed downstream, superimposed on normal winter flood flows by use of a one-dimensional unsteady-state numerical streamflow simulation model. From a starting magnitude of 1,500,000 cu ft/s, the peak increases to 2,100,000 cu ft/s at N-1 Dam (12 mi downstream) and attenuates to 1,200,000 cu ft/s at Kid Valley (25 mi downstream) , to 100,000 cu ft/s at Longview and the confluence of the Columbia River (65 mi downstream). From time of breach, the flood peak would take 2.2 hr to reach Toutle, 3.8 hr to reach Castle Rock, and 8.5 hr to reach Longview. Communities of Toutle , Castle Rock, Kelso, and Longview would experience extreme to

  14. Earthquakes and submarine volcanism in the Northeast Pacific: Exploration in the time domain based on 21-years of hydroacoustic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. R.; Dziak, R. P.; Fox, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    well as discharges of large volumes of hot water, i.e., megaplumes. Hydroacoustic monitoring using SOSUS, and now augmented with hydrophones deployed on stationary moorings as well as mobile platforms (e.g. gliders), provides a unique means for gaining knowledge concerning a broad diversity of present-day topics of scientific importance including, sources and fate of carbon in the deep ocean, deep ocean micro- and macro-ecosystems, and changes in ocean ambient noise levels.

  15. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam Turbines, Early Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.

    2012-02-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam turbines during early spring 2011. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) to investigate whether adult steelhead are passing through turbines during early spring before annual sluiceway operations typically begin. The sluiceway surface flow outlet is the optimal non-turbine route for adult steelhead, although operating the sluiceway reduces hydropower production. This is a follow-up study to similar studies of adult steelhead passage at the sluiceway and turbines we conducted in the fall/winter 2008, early spring 2009, fall/winter 2009, and early spring 2010. The goal of the 2011 study was to characterize adult steelhead passage rates at the turbines while the sluiceway was closed so fisheries managers would have additional information to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. Sluiceway operations were not scheduled to begin until April 10, 2011. However, based on a management decision in late February, sluiceway operations commenced on March 1, 2011. Therefore, this study provided estimates of fish passage rates through the turbines, and not the sluiceway, while the sluiceway was open. The study period was March 1 through April 10, 2011 (41 days total). The study objective was to estimate the number and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics with transducers deployed at all 22 main turbine units at The Dalles Dam. Adult steelhead passage through the turbines occurred on 9 days during the study (March 9, 12, 30, and 31 and April 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9). We estimated a total of 215 {+-} 98 (95% confidence interval) adult steelhead targets passed through the

  16. Upstream blockage effect on the thrust force of a marine hydrokinetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliani, Giulio; Beninati, Maria Laura; Krane, Michael; Fontaine, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    The study evaluates the interaction of two model marine devices axially arranged one in front of the other, in a tandem configuration. Particular focus is given to the change that occurs in the thrust of the downstream marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device when the spatial arrangement of the two elements is varied. At critical spacing there is no thrust generation. The study is motivated by the need to predict the thrust behavior of MHK devices and determine the minimum separation distance to avoid the no thrust condition. The downstream element is a two-bladed, horizontal axis turbine, while the upstream blockage is a perforated disk with similar geometric properties intended to approximate the wake of the MHK device. Testing is conducted in the flume facility at Bucknell University. Experiments are performed for a fixed range of spacing between the perforated disk and the turbine. For each separation distance, the span-wise velocity profile upstream and downstream of the turbine is measured, as well as the device's rotational speed. The turbine's thrust coefficient is calculated. Plots of the thrust coefficient as a function of spacing depict the minimum separation distance to avoid the no thrust condition.

  17. Simulation of malaria-infected red blood cells in microfluidic channels: Passage and blockage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tenghu; Feng, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) become less deformable with the progression of infection and tend to occlude microcapillaries. This process has been investigated in vitro using microfluidic channels. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative basis for interpreting the experimental observations of iRBC occlusion of microfluidic channels. Using a particle-based model for the iRBC, we simulate the traverse of iRBCs through a converging microfluidic channel and explore the progressive loss of cell deformability due to three factors: the stiffening of the membrane, the reduction of the cell's surface-volume ratio, and the growing solid parasites inside the cell. When examined individually, each factor tends to hinder the passage of the iRBC and lengthen the transit time. Moreover, at sufficient magnitude, each may lead to obstruction of narrow microfluidic channels. We then integrate the three factors into a series of simulations that mimic the development of malaria infection through the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages. These simulations successfully reproduce the experimental observation that with progression of infection, the iRBC transitions from passage to blockage in larger and larger channels. The numerical results suggest a scheme for quantifying iRBC rigidification through microfluidic measurements of the critical pressure required for passage. PMID:24404048

  18. Wind tunnel blockage tests at Mach 5 of vacuum duct models for two sound radiation shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Harvey, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Two sound shield models with dummy vacuum exhaust ducts were tested in a Mach 5 pilot quiet tunnel. The first model simulates a new sound shield of 3 in. (7.62 cm) inside diameter and the second model is a shield of 4 in. (10.16 cm) inside diameter. The dummy vacuum exhaust ducts were attached to the external housing of the models. The flow in the first model, which had a by pass mass flow ratio of about 0.6, could not be started except at the two highest test Reynolds numbers where only the central core flow region was started. The flow in the second model with a mass ratio of approximately 0.3 was fully started except at the lowest unit Reynolds number where some unsteadiness and partial flow separation at the wall was observed. Since the external housing and dummy vacuum ducts were the same for both models, these results indicate that the ratio of by pass mass flow to total mass flow for a wind tunnel sound shield of this particular design must be less than about 0.3. Hence, a lower limit is imposed on the inlet diameter of the sound shield in relation to the exit diameter of the wind tunnel nozzle. This lower limit on the inlet diameter may possibly be reduced by improvements in streamlining of the external housing and ducts, by reductions in blockage area, or by the use of external ducting shrouds.

  19. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  20. Blockage and flow: intimate experiences of condoms and microbicides in a South African clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Jonathan; Saethre, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Based on qualitative research undertaken during a phase-three microbicide gel trial, this paper explores female participants' experiences and perceptions of gel and condom use and the opinions of their male partners and community members. Participants were aware that condoms were effective in preventing HIV infection and that the efficacy of the microbicide was unproven. Yet, in narratives about gel and condom use, participants ascribed improvements to their reproductive health and intimate relationships with men to gel use. In contrast, condoms were believed to prevent disease, yet also embodied mistrust, were believed to contain dangerous substances and were felt to block the womb. These apparently contradictory views about condoms and gels are explored in the light of conceptions of flow and blockage. Health is achieved by maintaining a steady balance of substances within the body, while preventing fluid flow results in illness. We argue that women enrolled in the trial broadened the meaning of the gel beyond its primary intended effect of preventing HIV. Through their accounts of gel use, women 'reinvented' the gel as a substance that transformed their bodies and sexual relations. This has implications for understanding how local knowledge of health and illness intersects with biomedical knowledge.

  1. Model-based machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  2. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  3. Model-Based Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.

    2006-01-01

    System safety analysis techniques are well established and are used extensively during the design of safety-critical systems. Despite this, most of the techniques are highly subjective and dependent on the skill of the practitioner. Since these analyses are usually based on an informal system model, it is unlikely that they will be complete, consistent, and error free. In fact, the lack of precise models of the system architecture and its failure modes often forces the safety analysts to devote much of their effort to gathering architectural details about the system behavior from several sources and embedding this information in the safety artifacts such as the fault trees. This report describes Model-Based Safety Analysis, an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. By extending the system model with a fault model as well as relevant portions of the physical system to be controlled, automated support can be provided for much of the safety analysis. We believe that by using a common model for both system and safety engineering and automating parts of the safety analysis, we can both reduce the cost and improve the quality of the safety analysis. Here we present our vision of model-based safety analysis and discuss the advantages and challenges in making this approach practical.

  4. PWR FLECHT SEASET 163-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task data report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse report No. 13, August-October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, M J; Hochreiter, L E; McGuire, M F; Valkovic, M M

    1983-10-01

    This report presents data from the 163-Rod Bundle Blow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Systems Effects and Separate Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The task consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. These tests were designed to determine effects of flow blockage and flow bypass on reflooding behavior and to aid in the assessment of computational models in predicting the reflooding behavior of flow blockage in rod bundle arrays.

  5. Contrasting Transcriptional Programs Control Postharvest Development of Apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) Submitted to Cold Storage and Ethylene Blockage.

    PubMed

    Storch, Tatiane Timm; Finatto, Taciane; Bruneau, Maryline; Orsel-Baldwin, Mathilde; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Quecini, Vera; Laurens, François; Girardi, César Luis

    2017-09-06

    Apple is commercially important worldwide. Favorable genomic contexts and postharvest technologies allow year-round availability. Although ripening is considered a unidirectional developmental process toward senescence, storage at low temperatures, alone or in combination with ethylene blockage, is effective in preserving apple properties. Quality traits and genome wide expression were integrated to investigate the mechanisms underlying postharvest changes. Development and conservation techniques were responsible for transcriptional reprogramming and distinct programs associated with quality traits. A large portion of the differentially regulated genes constitutes a program involved in ripening and senescence, whereas a smaller module consists of genes associated with reestablishment and maintenance of juvenile traits after harvest. Ethylene inhibition was associated with a reversal of ripening by transcriptional induction of anabolic pathways. Our results demonstrate that the blockage of ethylene perception and signaling leads to upregulation of genes in anabolic pathways. We also associated complex phenotypes to subsets of differentially regulated genes.

  6. Infant Approach and Withdrawal in Response to a Goal Blockage: Its Antecedent Causes and Its Effect on Toddler Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael; Sullivan, Margaret W.; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung

    2015-01-01

    In two separate longitudinal studies, infants and their mothers were seen in three longitudinal visits. At two months, they were observed in free play where mothers’ contingency toward their infants was obtained. At five months, a goal blockage response was produced when a previously learned contingent response became ineffective in producing an interesting event. Infants’ emotional responses, in particular anger and sad facial expressions, were observed. At two years, toddlers’ persistence at play was assessed by measuring children’s responses to an interruption of their play. In both studies, the amount of toddlers’ persistence was positively related to their anger response to the blocked goal at five months. Maternal contingency was not related either to infants’ response to the blocked goal nor to their persistence at play. These findings provide evidence for the contribution to and the consequences of infants’ response to a goal blockage and the role of anger as an approach emotion. PMID:26389608

  7. Car accidents and number of stopped cars due to road blockage on a one-lane highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, N.; Fuks, H.; Zeng, Q.

    1997-05-01

    Within the framework of a simple model of car traffic on a one-lane highway, we study the probability of the occurrence of car accidents when drivers do not respect the safety distance between cars, and, as a result of the blockage during the time T necessary to clear the road, we determine the number of stopped cars as a function of car density. We give a simple theory in good agreement with our numerical simulations.

  8. Androgen receptor in the Mongolian gerbil ventral prostate: evaluation during different phases of postnatal development and following androgen blockage.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Renato S; Scarano, Wellerson R; Campos, Silvana G P; Santos, Fernanda C A; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-12-01

    The normal growth, differentiation and maintenance of the morphofunctional integrity of the prostate gland are dependent on the interaction of constant levels of androgens with their receptors. The need to study the responses to hormones under several conditions and the effect of their blockage is due to the fact that the human prostate is the site of a great number of age-related diseases, and the ones with a major medical importance are prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which can both be treated with androgen suppression. Seventy-five male gerbils were divided, randomly, into 3 groups of 25 animals each, where each group corresponded to one phase of postnatal development. In each phase, it was possible to morphologically and stereologically analyze the compartments of prostatic ventral lobe, as well as to immunohistochemically analyze the degree of expression of androgen receptors (ARs) after the androgen blockage therapies. In addition, it was possible to establish the hormonal dosage of serum testosterone levels given the comparative approach of the expression of androgen receptors. There is a pattern of AR distribution in the prostatic ventral lobe throughout postnatal development, in which the younger the animal is the higher, the interaction of circulating androgens that stimulate the AR expression in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. The androgen blockage therapies decreased AR expression in the prostatic compartments, but the androgen reposition after these blockages was not sufficient to recover the glandular structure or stimulate the AR expression up to normal physiological conditions. Both the regulation and distribution of androgen receptors along the gerbil prostatic tissues are complex mechanisms that are likely to be genetically regulated by androgens prenatally or by other factors that are still unknown. This rodent species seems to be a valuable model in the attempt to improve the understanding of the

  9. Wind tunnel blockage study of a generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlet at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.; Hodge, Jeffrey S.; Perkins, John N.

    1991-01-01

    A large scale model of a generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlet has been designed based on the results of a computational parametric study for testing in the 31-inch Mach 10 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. In order to increase the instrumentation density in interaction regions for a highly instrumented model, it is desirable to make the model as large as possible. When the cross-sectional area of a model becomes large relative to the inviscid core size of the tunnel, the effects of blockage must be considered. In order to assess these effects, a blockage model (an inexpensive, much less densely instrumented version of the configuration) was fabricated for preliminary testing. Since it was desired to determine both the effect of the model on the performance of the wind tunnel and also to determine if the inlet would start, the model possessed a total of 32 static pressure orifices distributed on the forebody plane and sidewalls; seventeen static pressure orifices on the tunnel wall and 3 pitot probes on the model monitored the tunnel performance. This paper presents the design considerations in the development of the wind tunnel model and the blockage aspects of the effects of contraction ratio, cowl location, Reynolds number, and angle of attack.

  10. Effect of road blockages on local air pollution during the Hong Kong protests and its implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Roadside air quality in urban areas is largely affected by the traffic emissions. Changes in emissions and transport control policy are often assumed to yield benefits in air quality, but have often not always been effective in producing perceptible improvements due to the complexity of meteorological conditions. This study evaluates the air quality before, during and after a temporary roadway blockage event in Hong Kong that took place during Hong Kong protests from late September to mid-December, 2014. The local regulatory air quality monitoring data from both roadside and general ambient stations were used to assess the impact of roadway blockages on the air quality. There was a public perception of improved air quality, but analysis of the data shows the changes can be difficult to discern. This study showed some benefits deriving from road blockages on the local air quality, but the impact was not always apparent because of seasonal variation in meteorological conditions and synoptic transport of pollutants. The finding suggests care is required before making policy changes based on claimed benefits of shifting transport routes. The study highlights the needs to remove seasonal and meteorological change when examining air pollution data to develop strategies to improve air quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term fertility prognosis following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization in women with proximal tubal blockage.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Spyros; Afnan, Masoud; Girling, Alan J; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Ola, Borarinde; Olufowobi, Olufemi; McHugo, Josephine M; Hammadieh, Nahed; Sharif, Khaldoun

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of conception following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization is believed to decline sharply a few months after the procedure. This observation may be due to the relatively small number of patients and short follow-up of previous studies. Furthermore, couples with other causes of infertility apart from proximal tubal blockage have usually been excluded. Survival analysis of conceptions of 218 consecutive infertile women with proximal tubal blockage who underwent selective salpingography and tubal catheterization was performed. There were no exclusion criteria. Follow-up ranged from 16 to 56 months. A total of 47.2% of spontaneous conceptions and 43.2% of all conceptions, apart from those achieved by IVF or ICSI treatments, occurred after the first 12 months following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization. The decline in the possibility of pregnancy during the study period (conception hazard rate) was only minimal. In a population of infertile women with proximal tubal blockage, a significant proportion of conceptions occur after the first 12 months following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization. The presence of any additional causes of infertility in the couple should not be regarded as an absolute contraindication to the procedure.

  12. Results of postirradiation examination of the in-pile blockage experiments MOL-7C/4 and MOL-7C/5

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, P.; Schleisiek, K. )

    1991-10-01

    The Mol-7C in-pile local blockage experiments are performed in the BR-2 reactor at Mol, Belgium as a joint project of Kernforchungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) and Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nuclearire-Mol. The main objective is to investigate the consequences of local cooling disturbances in liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) fuel subassemblies. In the tests Mol-7C/4 and MOL-7C/5, fuel pins from KNK II are used with a burnup of 5 and 1.7%, respectively. An active central porous blockage is used to simulate the cooling disturbance. During irradiation, the blockage causes significant local damage, including melting of cladding and fuel. Extensive postirradiation examinations (PIE) are performed to investigate the extent of damage. In this paper a description and interpretation of results of the destructive PIE performed at the Hot Cells Laboratory at KfK is given, along with some conclusions related to LMR safety.

  13. Blockage of complement regulators in the conjunctiva and within the eye leads to massive inflammation and iritis.

    PubMed

    Bardenstein, D S; Cheyer, C J; Lee, C; Cocuzzi, E; Mizuno, M; Okada, N; Medof, M E

    2001-12-01

    The open environment of the eye is continuously subject to an influx of foreign agents that can activate complement. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP) and CD59 are regulators that protect self-cells from autologous complement activation on their surfaces. They are expressed in the eye at unusually high levels but their physiological importance in this site is unstudied. In the rat, a structural analogue termed 5I2 antigen (5I2 Ag) has actions overlapping DAF and MCP. In this investigation, we injected F(ab')2 fragments of 5I2 mAb into the conjunctiva and aqueous humor, in the latter case with and without concomitant blockage of CD59. Massive neutrophilic infiltration of the stroma and iris resulted upon blocking 5I2 Ag activity. Frank necrosis of the iris occurred upon concomitant intraocular blockage of CD59. C3b was identified immunohistochemically, and minimal effects were seen in complement-depleted animals and in those treated with non-relevant antibody. The finding that blockage of 5I2 Ag function in periocular tissues and within the eye causes intense conjunctival inflammation and iritis demonstrates the importance of intrinsic complement regulators in protecting ocular tissues from spontaneous or bystander attack by autologous complement.

  14. Functional inhibition of aquaporin-3 with a gold-based compound induces blockage of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Serna, Ana; Galán-Cobo, Ana; Rodrigues, Claudia; Sánchez-Gomar, Ismael; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; Moura, Teresa F; Casini, Angela; Soveral, Graça; Echevarría, Miriam

    2014-11-01

    AQP3 has been correlated with higher transport of glycerol, increment of ATP content, and larger proliferation capacity. Recently, we described the gold(III) complex Auphen as a very selective and potent inhibitor of AQP3's glycerol permeability (Pgly ). Here we evaluated Auphen effect on the proliferation of various mammalian cell lines differing in AQP3 expression level: no expression (PC12), moderate (NIH/3T3) or high (A431) endogenous expression, cells stably expressing AQP3 (PC12-AQP3), and human HEK293T cells transiently transfected (HEK-AQP3) for AQP3 expression. Proliferation was evaluated in the absence or presence of Auphen (5 μM) by counting number of viable cells and analyzing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Auphen reduced ≈50% the proliferation in A431 and PC12-AQP3, ≈15% in HEK-AQP3 and had no effect in PC12-wt and NIH/3T3. Strong arrest in the S-G2/M phases of the cell cycle, supported by analysis of cyclins (A, B1, D1, E) levels, was observed in AQP3-expressing cells treated with Auphen. Flow-cytometry of propidium iodide incorporation and measurements of mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity confirmed absence of cytotoxic effect of the drug. Functional studies evidenced ≈50% inhibition of A431 Pgly by Auphen, showing that the compound's antiproliferative effect correlates with its ability to inhibit AQP3 Pgly . Role of Cys-40 on AQP3 permeability blockage by Auphen was confirmed by analyzing the mutated protein (AQP3-Ser-40). Accordingly, cells transfected with mutated AQP3 gained resistance to the antiproliferative effect of Auphen. These results highlight an Auphen inhibitory effect on proliferation of cells expressing AQP3 and suggest a targeted therapeutic effect on carcinomas with large AQP3 expression.

  15. Mechanism of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC)-mediated Blockage of Longpatch Base Excision Repair†

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Aruna S.; Balusu, Ramesh; Armas, Melissa L.; Kundu, Chanakya N.; Narayan, Satya

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we found an interaction between adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and DNA polymerase β (pol-β) and showed that APC blocks strand-displacement synthesis of long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER) however, the mechanism is not clear. Using an in vivo LP-BER assay system, we now show that the LP-BER is higher in APC−/− cells than in APC+/+ cells. In addition to pol-β, the pull-down experiments showed that the full-length APC also interacted with flap endonuclease 1 (Fen-1). To further characterize the interaction of APC with pol-β and Fen-1, we performed a domain-mapping of APC and found that both pol-β and Fen-1 interact with a 138-amino acids peptide from the APC at the DRI-domain. Our functional assays showed that APC blocks pol-β-mediated 1-nucleotide (1-nt) as well as strand-displacement synthesis of reduced abasic, nicked-, or 1-nt gapped-DNA substrates. Our further studies demonstrated that APC blocks 5′-flap endonuclease as well as 5′-3′ exonuclease activity of Fen-1 resulting in the blockage of LP-BER. From these results we concluded that APC can have three different effects in the LP-BER pathway. First, APC can block pol-β-mediated 1-nt incorporation and strand-displacement synthesis. Second, APC can block LP-BER by blocking coordinated formation and removal of the strand-displaced flap. Third, APC can block LP-BER by blocking “Hit and Run” synthesis. These studies will have important implications of APC in DNA damage-induced carcinogenesis and chemoprevention. PMID:17176113

  16. Elimination of microwave effects on the vitality of nerves after blockage of active transport

    SciTech Connect

    McRee, D.I.; Wachtel, H.

    1986-12-01

    We have previously reported that exposure to microwave fields (a specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg at 2.45-GHz continuous wave) would consistently lower the survival time of isolated frog sciatic nerves stimulated at high repetition rates (50 pulse pairs per second, ppps). The time course of the loss of excitability of the exposed nerve (as compared to its unexposed contralateral mate) is reminiscent of that seen when the active transport of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) is blocked by certain agents--such as the cardiac glycoside ouabain. To assess the role that these microwaves may have in interfering with or counteracting active transport, we performed a series of experiments in which the active Na-K pump was substantially blocked by ouabain prior to microwave exposure. The paired nerves were soaked for 5 min in a high concentration (10(-3) g/liter) of ouabain to achieve the fastest and most complete blockage of the Na-K pump prior to stimulation at 50 ppps. The ''rundown time course'' was, as expected, accelerated in all ouabain-treated nerves, but the microwave-exposed nerves showed no additional shortening of survival time. The experiments were repeated at a slower stimulation rate (5 ppps) so that the survival time of the nerves more closely approximated that of nerves not treated with ouabain (1 to 2 h versus 30 min or less for ouabain-treated nerves stimulated at 50 ppps). Results of these lower stimulation rates also showed that there was no significant difference in the survival time of ouabain-treated exposed and control nerves. These results lend support to the view that the relative loss of excitability in microwave-exposed nerves is related to an interference with or counteraction of the Na-K pump.

  17. Two-Dimensional Scramjet Inlet Unstart Model: Wind-Tunnel Blockage and Actuation Systems Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This supplement to NASA TM 109152 shows the Schlieren video (10 min. 52 sec., color, Beta and VHS) of the external flow field and a portion of the internal flow field of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet model in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; this (phase I) effort examines potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure. In the video, flow is from right to left, and the inlet is oriented inverted with respect to flight, i.e., with the cowl on top. The plug motion is obvious because the plug is visible in the aft window. The cowl motion, however, is not as obvious because the cowl is hidden from view by the inlet sidewall. The end of the cowl actuator arm, however, becomes visible above the inlet sidewalls between the windows when the cowl is up (see figure 1b of the primary document). The model is injected into the tunnel and observed though several actuation sequences with two plug configurations over a range of unit freestream Reynolds number at a nominal freestream Mach number of 6. The framing rate and shutter speed of the camera were too slow to fully capture the dynamics of the unstart but did prove sufficient to identify inlet start and unstart. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  18. Two-Dimensional Scramjet Inlet Unstart Model: Wind-Tunnel Blockage and Actuation Systems Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This supplement to NASA TM 109152 shows the Schlieren video (10 min. 52 sec., color, Beta and VHS) of the external flow field and a portion of the internal flow field of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet model in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; this (phase I) effort examines potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure. In the video, flow is from right to left, and the inlet is oriented inverted with respect to flight, i.e., with the cowl on top. The plug motion is obvious because the plug is visible in the aft window. The cowl motion, however, is not as obvious because the cowl is hidden from view by the inlet sidewall. The end of the cowl actuator arm, however, becomes visible above the inlet sidewalls between the windows when the cowl is up (see figure 1b of the primary document). The model is injected into the tunnel and observed though several actuation sequences with two plug configurations over a range of unit freestream Reynolds number at a nominal freestream Mach number of 6. The framing rate and shutter speed of the camera were too slow to fully capture the dynamics of the unstart but did prove sufficient to identify inlet start and unstart. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  19. Hydroacoustic mapping to define sedimentation rates and characterize lentic habitats in DeSoto Lake, DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroacoustic tools were used to map depth, elevation, and substrate on DeSoto Lake in March 2006. DeSoto Lake, located on the DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa and Nebraska, is one of the largest oxbow lakes of the Missouri River system. It is used by over 500,000 migratory birds each fall and spring and is also an important aquatic resource for anglers. Management concerns at the lake include the effects of erosion and sedimentation, aquatic vegetation establishment, shorebird habitat availability at different lake levels, and fish habitat structure. DeSoto Lake was cut off from the Missouri River in 1960, and the current mapping updates previous lower-resolution bathymetric maps created from lake surveys in 1967 and 1979. The new maps provide managers tools to assess aquatic habitats and provide a baseline for future monitoring of lake sedimentation and erosion.

  20. Hydroacoustic mapping to define sedimentation rates and characterize lentic habitats in DeSoto Lake, DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroacoustic tools were used to map depth, elevation, and substrate on DeSoto Lake in March 2006. DeSoto Lake, located on the DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa and Nebraska, is one of the largest oxbow lakes of the Missouri River system. It is used by over 500,000 migratory birds each fall and spring and is also an important aquatic resource for anglers. Management concerns at the lake include the effects of erosion and sedimentation, aquatic vegetation establishment, shorebird habitat availability at different lake levels, and fish habitat structure. DeSoto Lake was cut off from the Missouri River in 1960, and the current mapping updates previous lower-resolution bathymetric maps created from lake surveys in 1967 and 1979. The new maps provide managers tools to assess aquatic habitats and provide a baseline for future monitoring of lake sedimentation and erosion.

  1. Submarine explosive activity and ocean noise generation at Monowai Volcano, Kermadec Arc: constraints from hydroacoustic T-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    activity at Monowai volcano. Source-receiver distances were in the order of 70 km to 250 km. However, several events recorded on the local network were also detected at distances of several thousands of kilometres (up to ~ 16.000 km away) from the source, clearly indicating T-waves. We used the local network to automatically detect and locate T-wave bursts. Detecting and triggering was most effective when correcting the time of each OBS for a predicted travel time defined by the source-receiver distance. Using this approach we obtained appropriate data for automatic onset detection using long-term/short-term averages (LTA/STA). Out of the ~3500 events we could clearly associate more than 2000 events with Monowai. Eruptive activity at Monowai, however, was not evenly distributed in time but was highly clustered, indicating 13 to 15 major eruptive sequences. The sequences lasted from several hours to about 2 days. Periods of no detectable activity range from ~1 day to 70 days. The same approach was used to search the global database for the same time interval. Two Global Seismic Network (GSN) seismic stations and two hydroacoustic monitoring stations of the CTBTO provided T-waves from Monowai. We were able to record the same sequences, but the number of detected events was several times lower.

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam 2008-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2008 and early spring 2009, respectively. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). Operating the sluiceway reduces the potential for hydropower production. However, this surface flow outlet may be the optimal non-turbine route for fallbacks in late fall after the sluiceway is typically closed for juvenile fish passage and for overwintering summer steelhead and kelt passage in the early spring before the start of the voluntary spill season. The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines, and their movements in front of the sluiceway at TDA to inform fisheries managers’ and engineers’ decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study periods were from November 1 to December 15, 2008 (45 days) and from March 1 to April 9, 2009 (40 days). The study objectives were to 1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA during the two study periods, respectively, and 2) assess the behavior of these fish in front of sluice entrances. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics and fish behavior data using acoustic imaging. For the overwintering summer steelhead, fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. We estimated that a total of 1790 ± 250 (95% confidence interval) summer steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes and operating sluices during November 1 to December 15, 2008. Ninety five percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Therefore, without the sluiceway as

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam, 2009-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2010-07-31

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2009 through early spring 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines for fisheries managers and engineers to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study was from November 1, 2009 to April 10, 2010. The study was divided into three study periods: Period 1, November 1 - December 15, 2009 for a fall/winter sluiceway and turbine study; Period 2, December 16, 2009 - February 28, 2010 for a turbine only study; Period 3, March 1 - April 10, 2010 for a spring sluiceway and turbine study. Sluiceway operations were scheduled to begin on March 1 for this study; however, because of an oil spill cleanup near the sluice outfall, sluiceway operations were delayed until March 8, 2010, therefore the spring study period did not commence until March 8. The study objectives were to (1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA between November 1 and December 15, 2009 and March 1 and April 10, 2010, and (2) estimate the numbers and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units between December 16, 2009 and February 28, 2010. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics. For Period 1, overwintering summer steelhead fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. A total of 879 {+-} 165 (95% CI) steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse and sluiceway during November 1 to December 15, 2009. Ninety two

  4. Effects of ground water, slope stability, and seismic hazard on the stability of the South Fork Castle Creek blockage in the Mount St. Helens Area, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, W.; Sabol, M.A.; Glicken, H.X.; Voight, B.

    1984-01-01

    South Fork Castle Creek was blocked by the debris avalanche that occurred during the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. A lake formed behind the blockage, eventually reaching a volume of approximately 19,000 acre-feet prior to construction of a spillway - a volume sufficiently large to pose a flood hazard of unknown magnitude to downstream areas if the lake were to break out as a result of blockage failure. Breakout of lakes formed in a similar fashion is fairly common and several such events occurring in recent times have posed hazards around the world. Analyses of blockage stability included determining the effects of gravitational forces and horizontal forces induced by credible earthquakes from the Mount St. Helens seismic zone, which passes within several miles of the blockage. The blockage is stable at September 1983 water levels under static gravitational forces. If an earthquake with magnitude near 6.0 occurred with September 1983 water levels, movement on the order of 5 feet on both upstream and downstream parts of the blockage over much of its length could potentially occur. If the sliding blocks liquified, retrogressive failure could lead to lake breakout, but this is not considered to be probable. 24 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Research Program in Hydroacoustics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Turbines," R.E.A. Arndt, A. Ferreira, P. R. Rodrigue, J. P. Sinclair, and R. P. Voigt , 13th IAHR Symposium, Section on Hydraulic Machinery, Equipment and...example, the vortex circulation rt is not necessarily equal to the mid-span circulation ro. In addition, the tangential velocity profiles are asymmetric ...noise signals to gas bubble oscillation ( pseudo cavitation) or to the growth and collapse of true vapor cavities. A hydrophone array was utilized to

  6. Ferrofluid Hydroacoustic Projector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-30

    the ferrofluid by replacing the latter by a non- magnetic fluid and repeating the measurements. L The experimental results obtained were greatly...non- magnetic fluid instead of ferrofluid would be a good check on the validity of the observed signal. 2. Ferrofluids with higher saturation

  7. Hydroacoustic pulsating jet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrau, A.; Meier, G. E. A.

    1987-04-01

    A high pressure turbulent jet generator connected to a low pressure hydraulic tube is studied to investigate water hammer in tubes with fast flow variations, generating high pressure pulsating water jets. The pulsating jet generator consists of a tube, a hydraulic valve, a spring, and a water container. The jet is the effect of the combination of turbulent pipe flow with a valve for flow nozzle. The jet pressure depends on specific oscillation impedance and flow velocity variations. For inlet pressure of 0.5 to 2 bar the pressure rises to 40 bar. The described pulsating jet generator is more effective than the earlier model. A piezoelectric pressure controller is used to register pressure signals and high speed photos are made of the jet. Test results are consistent with theoretical calculation.

  8. Model-based Utility Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, Bill

    2012-05-01

    Orseau and Ring, as well as Dewey, have recently described problems, including self-delusion, with the behavior of agents using various definitions of utility functions. An agent's utility function is defined in terms of the agent's history of interactions with its environment. This paper argues, via two examples, that the behavior problems can be avoided by formulating the utility function in two steps: 1) inferring a model of the environment from interactions, and 2) computing utility as a function of the environment model. Basing a utility function on a model that the agent must learn implies that the utility function must initially be expressed in terms of specifications to be matched to structures in the learned model. These specifications constitute prior assumptions about the environment so this approach will not work with arbitrary environments. But the approach should work for agents designed by humans to act in the physical world. The paper also addresses the issue of self-modifying agents and shows that if provided with the possibility to modify their utility functions agents will not choose to do so, under some usual assumptions.

  9. THE WERNER AND BLOOM SYNDROME PROTEINS HELP RESOLVE REPLICATION BLOCKAGE BY CONVERTING (REGRESSED) HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS TO FUNCTIONAL REPLICATION FORKS

    PubMed Central

    Machwe, Amrita; Karale, Rajashree; Xu, Xioahua; Liu, Yilun; Orren, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Cells cope with blockage of replication fork progression in a manner so that DNA synthesis can be completed and genomic instability minimized. Models for resolution of blocked replication involve fork regression to form Holliday junction structures. The human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM (deficient in Werner and Bloom syndromes, respectively) are critical for maintaining genomic stability and postulated to function in accurate resolution of replication blockage. Consistent with this notion, WRN and BLM localize to sites of blocked replication after certain DNA damaging treatments and exhibit enhanced activity on replication and recombination intermediates. Here we examined the actions of WRN and BLM on a special Holliday junction substrate reflective of a regressed replication fork. Our results demonstrate that, in reactions requiring ATP hydrolysis, both WRN and BLM convert this Holliday junction substrate primarily to a four-stranded replication fork structure, suggesting they target the Holliday junction to initiate branch migration. In agreement, the Holliday junction binding protein RuvA inhibits the WRN- and BLM-mediated conversion reactions. Importantly, this conversion product is suitable for replication with its leading daughter strand readily extended by DNA polymerases. Furthermore, binding to and conversion of this Holliday junction is optimal in low MgCl2, suggesting that WRN and BLM preferentially act on the square planar (open) conformation of Holliday junctions. Our findings suggest that, subsequent to fork regression events, WRN and/or BLM could re-establish functional replication forks to help overcome fork blockage. Such a function is highly consistent with phenotypes associated with WRN- and BLM-deficient cells. PMID:21736299

  10. Microbial growth and blockage of sub-floor drains in a renal dialysis centre: a problem highlighted.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G; Hudson, S; Stewart, W K

    1992-07-01

    The accumulation of microorganisms embedded in biofilm within the drainage pipework leading from individual dialysis monitors in a renal dialysis centre, represents a significant threat to the safe operation of the whole centre due to blockage of the pipes and overflow of waste water. Attempts to disperse the growth with chemicals and disinfectants have been unsuccessful. Only mechanical rodding has removed the deposit, and regrowth has occurred. Those planning new dialysis centres should ensure that effluent pipework is readily accessible with multiple rodding eyes and is made of material able to withstand rodding and chemicals.

  11. Detailed Performance Assessment of 16% Blockage Interrupted Ribs at Sixty Degree Inclination in a Square Section Turbine Blade Cooling Passage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Northeastern University, Taslim et al. (1996) have produced some useful data. The lack of data for high blockage ratio ribs in the literature is the main...literature, Taslim and Spring (1995) which showed e/d of around 8 gave the best result. Ribs were positioned inline on opposite walls for the parallel rib...cross ribs 16% 60deg single ribbed wall 16.7% 45deg stag ( Taslim , 1988) 16.7% 90deg stag ( Taslim , 1988) 6.25% 45deg full (Han, 1991) Figure 5 Normalised

  12. Blockage corrections for three-dimensional-flow closed-throat wind tunnels, with consideration of the effect of compressibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herriot, John G

    1950-01-01

    Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wing-tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.

  13. Blockage corrections for three-dimensional-flow closed-throat wind tunnels, with consideration of the effect of compressibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herriot, John G

    1947-01-01

    Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wind-tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.

  14. Blockage Corrections for Three-Dimensional-Flow Closed-Throat Wind Tunnels, with Consideration of the Effect of Compressibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herriot, J. G.

    1951-01-01

    Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional, unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wind tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Flow Field in a Transonic, Axial Flow Compressor with Respect to the Development of Blockage and Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation to understand and quantify the development of loss and blockage in the flow field of a transonic, axial flow compressor rotor has been undertaken. Detailed laser anemometer measurements were acquired upstream, within, and downstream of a transonic, axial compressor rotor operating at design and off-design conditions. The rotor was operated at 100%, 85%, 80%, and 60% of design speed which provided inlet relative Mach numbers at the blade tip of 1.48, 1.26, 1.18, and 0.89 respectively. At design speed the blockage is evaluated ahead of the rotor passage shock, downstream of the rotor passage shock, and near the trailing edge of the blade row. The blockage is evaluated in the core flow area as well as in the casing endwall region. Similarly at pm speed conditions for the cases of (1) where the rotor passage shock is much weaker than that at design speed and (2) where there is no rotor passage shock, the blockage and loss are evaluated and compared to the results at design speed. Specifically, the impact of the rotor passage shock on the blockage and loss development, pertaining to both the shock/boundary layer interactions and the shock/tip clearance flow interactions, is discussed. In addition, the blockage evaluated from the experimental data is compared to (1) an existing correlation of blockage development which was based on computational results, and (2) computational results on a limited basis. The results indicate that for this rotor the blockage in the endwall region is 2-3 times that of the core flow region and the blockage in the core flow region more than doubles when the shock strength is sufficient to separate the suction surface boundary layer. The distribution of losses in the care flow region indicate that the total loss is primarily comprised of the shock loss when the shock strength is not sufficient to separate the suction surface boundary layer. However, when the shock strength is sufficient to separate the

  16. Gap junction blockage promotes cadmium-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A derived from Buffalo rat liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Di; Zou, Hui; Han, Tao; Xie, Junze; Dai, Nannan; Zhuo, Liling; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions mediate direct communication between cells; however, toxicological cascade triggered by nonessential metals can abrogate cellular signaling mediated by gap junctions. Although cadmium (Cd) is known to induce apoptosis in organs and tissues, the mechanisms that underlie gap junction activity in Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A rat liver cells has yet to be established. In this study, we showed that Cd treatment decreased the cell index (a measure of cellular electrical impedance) in BRL 3A cells. Mechanistically, we found that Cd exposure decreased expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), increased expression of p-Cx43 and elevated intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, corresponding to a decrease in gap junctional intercellular communication. Gap junction blockage pretreatment with 18β-glycyrrhizic acid (GA) promoted Cd-induced apoptosis, involving changes in expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and the mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential (Δψm). Additionally, GA was found to enhance ERK and p38 activation during Cd-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, but had no significant effect on JNK activation. Our results indicated the apoptosis-related proteins and the ERK and p38 signaling pathways may participate in gap junction blockage promoting Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells. PMID:27051341

  17. 1300-m-high rising bubbles from mud volcanoes at 2080 m in the Black Sea: Hydroacoustic characteristics and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, Jens; Artemov, Yuriy; Egorov, Viktor; De Batist, Marc; McGinnis, Daniel

    2006-04-01

    A mud volcano area in the deep waters (> 2000 m) of the Black Sea was studied by hydroacoustic measurements during several cruises between January 2002 and June 2004. Gas bubbles in the water column give strong backscatter signals and thus can be detected even in great water depths by echosounders as the 38 kHz EK500 scientific split-beam system that was used during the surveys. Because of their shape in echograms and to differentiate against geochemical plumes and real upwelling bubble-water plumes, we call these hydroacoustic manifestations of bubbles in the water column 'flares'. Digital recording and processing of the data allows a 3D visualization and data comparison over the entire observation period, without artefacts caused by changing system settings. During our surveys, we discovered bubble release from three separate mud volcanoes, Dvurechenskiy (DMV), Vodianitskiy (VMV) and the Nameless Seep Site (NSS), in about 2080 m water depth simultaneously. Bubble release was observed between 9 June 2003 and 5 June 2004. The most frequently surveyed, DMV, was found to be inactive during very intensive studies in January 2002. The first activity was observed on 27 June 2002, which finally ceased between 5 and 15 June 2004 after a period of continuously decreasing activity. This observed 2-yr bubble-release period at a mud volcano may give an indication for the duration of active periods. The absence of short-term variations (within days or hours) may indicate that the bubble release from the observed mud volcanoes does not undergo rapid changes. The recorded echograms show that bubbles rise about 1300 m high through the water column, to a final water depth of about 770 m, which is ˜75 m below the phase boundary of pure methane hydrate in the Black Sea. With a release depth from 2068 m and a detected rise height of 1300 m, the flare at VMV is among the deepest and highest reported so far, and gives evidence of highly extended bubble life times (up to 108 min) in

  18. Hydroacoustic detection of dumped ammunition in the Ocean with multibeam snippet backscatter analyses. A case study from the 'Kolberger Heide' ammunition dump site (Baltic Sea, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunde, Tina; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Dumped ammunition in the sea is a matter of great concern in terms of safe navigation and environmental threads. Because corrosion of the dumped ammunition's hull is ongoing, future contamination of the ambient water by their toxic interior is likely to occur. The location of such dump sites is approximately known from historical research and ship log book analyses. Subsequent remote sensing of ammunition dumping sites (e.g. mines) on the seafloor is preferentially performed with hydro-acoustic methods such as high resolution towed side scan or by the sophisticated synthetic aperture sonar approach with autonomous underwater vehicles. However, these are time consuming and expensive procedures, while determining the precise position of individual mines remains a challenging task. To mitigate these shortcomings we suggest using ship-born high-frequency multibeam sonar in shallow water to address the task of mine detection and precise localization on the seabed. Multibeam sonar systems have improved their potential in regard to backscatter analyses significantly over the past years and nowadays present fast and accurate tools for shallow water surveying to (1) detect mines in multibeam snippet backscatter data (2) determine their precise location with high accuracy intertial navigation systems. A case study was performed at the prominent ammunition dumping site 'Kolberger Heide' (Baltic Sea, Germany) in the year 2014 using a modern hydro-acoustic multibeam echosounder system with 200-400 kHz (KONGSBERG EM2040c). With an average water depth of not even 20 m and the proximity to the shore line and dense waterways, this investigated area requires permanent navigational care. Previously, the study area was surveyed by the Navy with the very sophisticated HUGIN AUV equipped with a synthetic aperture sonar with best resolution by current technology. Following an evaluation of the collected data, various ammunition bodies on the sea floor could be clearly detected. Analyses

  19. Steady-state performance of J85-21 compressor at 100 percent of design speed with and without interstage rake blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Internal compressor instrumentation blockage effects on steady state J85-21 compressor performance at 100 percent of design speed are determined. The blockage was generated by instrumented vanes for the first three compressor stages and by removal rakes for stages 4 to 9. Individual flow passage blockages ranged up to 4.5 percent with the instrumented vanes and up to 22 percent with the removable interstage rakes. At a Reynolds number index of 1.0, pressure ratio and airflow remained unchanged with insertion of the interstage rakes, but efficiency dropped 0.3 percentage point. Compressor exit profiles, compressor stage static pressure rise coefficients, turbine exit temperature, and fuel flow are also presented.

  20. Operation Dominic, Shot Sword Fish. Project Officer's report - Project 1. 3b. Effects of an underwater nuclear explosion on hydroacoustic systems

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, T.; La Houssaye, W.P.; Johnson, C.T.

    1985-09-01

    The objectives of Project 1.2 were to determine and evaluate the effects of an underwater nuclear explosion on the operational capabilities of shipboard sonar and other types of hydroacoustic systems. Project 1.3b included all measurements at ranges greater than 10 nautical miles and the results of these measurements constitute the subject of this report. This report concerns the effects of the underwater nuclear explosion, Sword Fish, on: (a) Long-range active detection systems at the first convergence zone (25 to 30 miles); (b) Passive shipboard or submarine sonars at a few hundred miles; and (c) Long-range passive detection and surveillance at Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and Missile Impact Locating System (MILS) stations at several hundred to several thousand miles. A submarine station at the first convergence zone and five shipboard stations at ranges from 200 miles to 5,000 miles recorded signals from hydrophones suspended at various depths to approximately 2,000 feet. Submarines on other assignments recorded signals on standard submarine sonar equipment on a not-to interfere basis. SOSUS and MILS stations operated normally during the period and also made special magnetic-tape and strip-chart recordings of signals from single hydrophones from before burst time to several hours after burst.

  1. Buoyancy and blockage effects on transient laminar opposing mixed convection heat transfer from two horizontal confined isothermal cylinder in tandem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Suástegui, Lorenzo; Salcedo, Erick; Cajas, Juan; Treviño, César

    2015-11-01

    Transient mixed convection in a laminar cross-flow from two isothermal cylinders in tandem arrangement confined inside a vertical channel is studied numerically using the vorticity-stream function formulation of the unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. Numerical experiments are performed for a Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter of Re = 200, Prandtl number of Pr = 7, blockage ratio of D/H = 0.2, a pitch-to-diameter ratio of L/D = 2, and several values of buoyancy strength or Richardson number Ri = Gr/Re2. The results reported herein demonstrate how the wall confinement, interference effects and opposing buoyancy affect the flow structure and heat transfer characteristics of the cylinder array. This research was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Grant number 167474 and by the Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado del IPN, Grant number SIP 20141309.

  2. Strong transcription blockage mediated by R-loop formation within a G-rich homopurine–homopyrimidine sequence localized in the vicinity of the promoter

    PubMed Central

    Soo Shin, Jane Hae

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Guanine-rich (G-rich) homopurine–homopyrimidine nucleotide sequences can block transcription with an efficiency that depends upon their orientation, composition and length, as well as the presence of negative supercoiling or breaks in the non-template DNA strand. We report that a G-rich sequence in the non-template strand reduces the yield of T7 RNA polymerase transcription by more than an order of magnitude when positioned close (9 bp) to the promoter, in comparison to that for a distal (∼250 bp) location of the same sequence. This transcription blockage is much less pronounced for a C-rich sequence, and is not significant for an A-rich sequence. Remarkably, the blockage is not pronounced if transcription is performed in the presence of RNase H, which specifically digests the RNA strands within RNA–DNA hybrids. The blockage also becomes less pronounced upon reduced RNA polymerase concentration. Based upon these observations and those from control experiments, we conclude that the blockage is primarily due to the formation of stable RNA–DNA hybrids (R-loops), which inhibit successive rounds of transcription. Our results could be relevant to transcription dynamics in vivo (e.g. transcription ‘bursting’) and may also have practical implications for the design of expression vectors. PMID:28498974

  3. Human p53 interacts with the elongating RNAPII complex and is required for the release of actinomycin D induced transcription blockage

    PubMed Central

    Borsos, Barbara N.; Huliák, Ildikó; Majoros, Hajnalka; Ujfaludi, Zsuzsanna; Gyenis, Ákos; Pukler, Peter; Boros, Imre M.; Pankotai, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor regulates the transcription initiation of selected genes by binding to specific DNA sequences at their promoters. Here we report a novel role of p53 in transcription elongation in human cells. Our data demonstrate that upon transcription elongation blockage, p53 is associated with genes that have not been reported as its direct targets. p53 could be co-immunoprecipitated with active forms of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1), highlighting its association with the elongating RNA polymerase II. During a normal transcription cycle, p53 and RPB1 are localised at distinct regions of selected non-canonical p53 target genes and this pattern of localisation was changed upon blockage of transcription elongation. Additionally, transcription elongation blockage induced the proteasomal degradation of RPB1. Our results reveal a novel role of p53 in human cells during transcription elongation blockage that may facilitate the removal of RNA polymerase II from DNA. PMID:28102346

  4. Kitaev models based on unitary quantum groupoids

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Liang

    2014-04-15

    We establish a generalization of Kitaev models based on unitary quantum groupoids. In particular, when inputting a Kitaev-Kong quantum groupoid H{sub C}, we show that the ground state manifold of the generalized model is canonically isomorphic to that of the Levin-Wen model based on a unitary fusion category C. Therefore, the generalized Kitaev models provide realizations of the target space of the Turaev-Viro topological quantum field theory based on C.

  5. Kitaev models based on unitary quantum groupoids

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Liang

    2014-04-15

    We establish a generalization of Kitaev models based on unitary quantum groupoids. In particular, when inputting a Kitaev-Kong quantum groupoid H{sub C}, we show that the ground state manifold of the generalized model is canonically isomorphic to that of the Levin-Wen model based on a unitary fusion category C. Therefore, the generalized Kitaev models provide realizations of the target space of the Turaev-Viro topological quantum field theory based on C.

  6. Inkjet printer model-based halftoning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je-Ho; Allebach, Jan P

    2005-05-01

    The quality of halftone prints produced by inkjet (IJ) printers can be limited by random dot-placement errors. While a large literature addresses model-based halftoning for electrophotographic printers, little work has been done on model-based halftoning for IJ printers. In this paper, we propose model-based approaches to both iterative least-squares halftoning and tone-dependent error diffusion (TDED). The particular approach to iterative least-squares halftoning that we use is direct binary search (DBS). For DBS, we use a stochastic model for the equivalent gray-scale image, based on measured dot statistics of printed IJ halftone patterns. For TDED, we train the tone-dependent weights and thresholds to mimic the spectrum of halftone textures generated by model-based DBS. We do this under a metric that enforces both the correct radially averaged spectral profile and angular symmetry at each radial frequency. Experimental results generated with simulated printers and a real printer show that both IJ model-based DBS and IJ model-based TDED very effectively suppress IJ printer-induced artifacts.

  7. Model Based Filtered Backprojection Algorithm: A Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose People have been wandering for a long time whether a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm is able to incorporate measurement noise in image reconstruction. The purpose of this tutorial is to develop such an FBP algorithm that is able to minimize an objective function with an embedded noise model. Methods An objective function is first set up to model measurement noise and to enforce some constraints so that the resultant image has some pre-specified properties. An iterative algorithm is used to minimize the objective function, and then the result of the iterative algorithm is converted into the Fourier domain, which in turn leads to an FBP algorithm. The model based FBP algorithm is almost the same as the conventional FBP algorithm, except for the filtering step. Results The model based FBP algorithm has been applied to low-dose x-ray CT, nuclear medicine, and real-time MRI applications. Compared with the conventional FBP algorithm, the model based FBP algorithm is more effective in reducing noise. Even though an iterative algorithm can achieve the same noise-reducing performance, the model based FBP algorithm is much more computationally efficient. Conclusions The model based FBP algorithm is an efficient and effective image reconstruction tool. In many applications, it can replace the state-of-the-art iterative algorithms, which usually have a heavy computational cost. The model based FBP algorithm is linear and it has advantages over a nonlinear iterative algorithm in parametric image reconstruction and noise analysis. PMID:25574421

  8. PWR FLECHT SEASET 21-rod-bundle flow-blockage task: data and analysis report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse report No. 11, main report and appendices A-J

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Lee, N.; McGuire, M.F.; Wenzel, A.H.; Valkovic, M.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents data and limited analysis from the 21-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Separate Effects and Systems Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The tests consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. Steam cooling and hydraulic characteristics tests were also conducted. These tests were utilized to determine effects of various flow blockage configurations (shapes and distributions) on reflooding behavior, to aid in development/assessment of computational models in predicting reflooding behavior of flow blockage configurations, and to screen flow blockage configurations for future 163-rod flow blockage bundle tests.

  9. Breaking into the Plate: Seismic and Hydroacoustic Analysis of a 7.6 Mw Oceanic Fracture Zone Earthquake Adjacent to the Central Indian Ridge Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Chapp, E.

    2003-12-01

    Where oceanic spreading segments are offset laterally from one another, the differential motion of the plates is accommodated by strike-slip motion along ridge-perpendicular transform faults. Off-axis from the ridge-transform intersection, no differential motion is require, and the fracture zone trace is thought to be inactive except where reactivated by intra-plate stresses. On 15 July 2003, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 Mw occurred near the northern Central Indian Ridge (CIR), the divergent boundary separating the Somalian plate from the Indian and Australian plates. The size of this event places it within the 99th quantile of magnitude for shallow (< 40 km depth) strike-slip events (null axis plunge >45 deg) within the global Harvard CMT catalog. The earthquake's epicenter is near 2.5 deg S, 68.33 deg E, where the CIR is marked by a series of short (<100 km long) right-stepping transforms that offset the northwest trending spreading segments (20 mm/yr). Seismic signals associated with the mainshock and its largest aftershocks were recorded well by land-based seismic networks. Regional seismic phases (Pn, Sn), as well oceanic T-waves, where also recorded at an IMS hydroacoustic station to the north of the Diego Garcia atoll. T-wave signals recorded at Diego Garcia were cross correlated to determine accurate travel time differences. These traveltime differences were used in a plane wave fitting inversion to determine the horizontal slowness components and estimate the back azimuth to the epicenter. Aftershock locations are derived using the azimuthal information and Pn-T traveltime differences. Together, the seismically- and hydroacoustically-derived epicenters show a linear band of aftershocks extending more than 200 km along the off-axis trace of a right stepping transform. We interpret these aftershock events as delineating the length of the mainshock rupture. As the well-constrain hypocenter of the mainshock lies near the western edge of this

  10. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED51A0590L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED51A0590L"><span>Establishing a Dynamic Database of Blue and Fin Whale Locations from Recordings at the IMS CTBTO <span class="hlt">hydro-acoustic</span> network. The Baleakanta Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Bras, R. J.; Kuzma, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Falling as they do into the frequency range of continuously recording hydrophones (15-100Hz), blue and fin whale songs are a significant source of noise on the <span class="hlt">hydro-acoustic</span> monitoring array of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). One researcher's noise, however, can be a very interesting signal in another field of study. The aim of the Baleakanta Project (www.baleakanta.org) is to flag and catalogue these songs, using the azimuth and slowness of the signal measured at multiple hydrophones to solve for the approximate location of singing whales. Applying techniques borrowed from human speaker identification, it may even be possible to recognize the songs of particular individuals. The result will be a dynamic database of whale locations and songs with known individuals noted. This database will be of great value to marine biologists studying cetaceans, as there is no existing dataset which spans the globe over many years (more than 15 years of data have been collected by the IMS). Current whale song datasets from other sources are limited to detections made on small, temporary listening devices. The IMS song catalogue will make it possible to study at least some aspects of the global migration patterns of whales, changes in their songs over time, and the habits of individuals. It is believed that about 10 blue whale 'cultures' exist with distinct vocal patterns; the IMS song catalogue will test that number. Results and a subset of the database (delayed in time to mitigate worries over whaling and harassment of the animals) will be released over the web. A traveling museum exhibit is planned which will not only educate the public about whale songs, but will also make the CTBTO and its achievements more widely known. As a testament to the public's enduring fascination with whales, initial funding for this project has been crowd-sourced through an internet campaign.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710167U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710167U"><span>Lander based <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> monitoring of marine single bubble releases in Eckernförde Bay utilizing the multibeam based GasQuant II system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urban, Peter; Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Greinert, Jens</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel is currently developing a Imagenex Delta T based lander system for monitoring and quantifying marine gas release (bubbles). The GasQuant II is built as the successor of the GasQuant I system (Greinert, 2008), that has been successfully used for monitoring tempo-spatial variability of gas release in the past (Schneider von Deimling et al., 2010). The new system is lightweight (40 kg), energy efficient, flexible to use and built for ROV deployment with autonomous operation of up to three days. A prototype has been successfully deployed in Eckernförde Bay during the R/V ALKOR cruise AL447 in October/November 2014 to monitor the tempo-spatial variability of gas bubble seepage and to detect a possible correlation with tidal variations. Two deployments, one in forward- and one in upward looking mode, reveal extensive but scattered single bubble releases rather than distinct and more continuous sources. While these releases are difficult to detect in forward looking mode, they can unambiguously be detected in the upward looking mode even for minor gas releases, bubble rising speeds can be determined. Greinert, J., 2008. Monitoring temporal variability of bubble release at seeps: The <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> swath system GasQuant. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans Vol. 113 Issue C7 CiteID C07048 113, 7048. doi:10.1029/2007JC004704 Schneider von Deimling, J., Greinert, J., Chapman, N.R., Rabbel, W., Linke, P., 2010. Acoustic imaging of natural gas seepage in the North Sea: Sensing bubbles controlled by variable currents. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 8, 155. doi:10.4319/lom.2010.8.155</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121..925H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121..925H"><span>``Cooperativity <span class="hlt">blockage</span>'' in the mixed alkali effect as revealed by molecular-dynamics simulations of alkali metasilicate glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Habasaki, Junko; Ngai, K. L.; Hiwatari, Yasuaki</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The relaxation dynamics of a complex interacting system can be drastically changed when mixing with another component having different dynamics. In this work, we elucidate the effect of the less mobile guest ions on the dynamics of the more mobile host ions in mixed alkali glasses by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. One MD simulation was carried out on lithium metasilicate glass with the guest ions created by freezing some randomly chosen lithium ions at their initial locations at 700 K. A remarkable slowing down of the dynamics of the majority mobile Li ions was observed both in the self-part of the density-density correlation function, Fs(k,t), and in the mean-squared displacements. On the other hand, there is no significant change in the structure. The motion of the Li ions in the unadulterated Li metasilicate glass is dynamically heterogeneous. In the present work, the fast and slow ions were divided into two groups. The number of fast ions, which shows faster dynamics (Lévy flight) facilitated by cooperative jumps, decreases considerably when small amount of Li ions are frozen. Consequently there is a large overall reduction of the mobility of the Li ions. The result is also in accordance with the experimental finding in mixed alkali silicate glasses that the most dramatic reduction of ionic conductivity occurs in the dilute foreign alkali limit. Similar suppression of the cooperative jumps is observed in the MD simulation data of mixed alkali system, LiKSiO3. Naturally, the effect found here is appropriately described as "cooperativity <span class="hlt">blockage</span>." Slowing down of the motion of Li ions also was observed when a small number of oxygen atoms chosen at random were frozen. The effect is smaller than the case of freezing some the Li ions, but it is not negligible. The cooperativity <span class="hlt">blockage</span> is also implemented by confining the Li metasilicate glass inside two parallel walls formed by freezing Li ions in the same metasilicate glass. Molecular-dynamics simulations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000591','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000591"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Prognostics of Hybrid Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060018336','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060018336"><span>Testing Strategies for <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Whalen, Mike; Rajan, Ajitha; Miller, Steven P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This report presents an approach for testing artifacts generated in a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> development process. This approach divides the traditional testing process into two parts: requirements-based testing (validation testing) which determines whether the model implements the high-level requirements and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> testing (conformance testing) which determines whether the code generated from a model is behaviorally equivalent to the model. The goals of the two processes differ significantly and this report explores suitable testing metrics and automation strategies for each. To support requirements-based testing, we define novel objective requirements coverage metrics similar to existing specification and code coverage metrics. For <span class="hlt">model-based</span> testing, we briefly describe automation strategies and examine the fault-finding capability of different structural coverage metrics using tests automatically generated from the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100033"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> internal wave processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.</p> <p>1995-06-09</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach is proposed to solve the oceanic internal wave signal processing problem that is based on state-space representations of the normal-mode vertical velocity and plane wave horizontal velocity propagation models. It is shown that these representations can be utilized to spatially propagate the modal (dept) vertical velocity functions given the basic parameters (wave numbers, Brunt-Vaisala frequency profile etc.) developed from the solution of the associated boundary value problem as well as the horizontal velocity components. Based on this framework, investigations are made of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> solutions to the signal enhancement problem for internal waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1706l0017R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1706l0017R"><span>Multimode <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> defect characterization in composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, R.; Holland, S.; Gregory, E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A newly-initiated research program for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> defect characterization in CFRP composites is summarized. The work utilizes computational models of the interaction of NDE probing energy fields (ultrasound and thermography), to determine 1) the measured signal dependence on material and defect properties (forward problem), and 2) an assessment of performance-critical defect properties from analysis of measured NDE signals (inverse problem). Work is reported on model implementation for inspection of CFRP laminates containing delamination and porosity. Forward predictions of measurement response are presented, as well as examples of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> inversion of measured data for the estimation of defect parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16126323','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16126323"><span>A strategy for the control of catheter <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilm using the antibacterial agent triclosan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, G Ll; Russell, A D; Caliskan, Z; Stickler, D J</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Catheter <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilm is a common complication in patients undergoing long-term indwelling bladder catheterisation. Previously we have shown that inflating the retention balloons of all-silicone catheters with triclosan solutions prevents the encrustation process. The aim of the present work was to examine whether this strategy is effective in latex-based catheters. Laboratory bladder models were fitted with catheters and the retention balloons inflated with water or various concentrations of triclosan. The urine was inoculated with Pr. mirabilis and the times catheters took to block recorded. Control catheters blocked in mean times ranging from 18 to 27 h. The pH of the urine rose from 6.1 to >8.6. In models with latex-based catheters inflated with 1-10 mg/ml triclosan, the urinary pH was controlled, the numbers of organisms in the urine was reduced and the catheters drained freely for the 7 day experimental period. Electron microscopy confirmed that crystalline biofilm was blocking control catheters. Little sign of encrustation was visible on the test catheters. Inflating the retention balloons with triclosan could have practical applications in controlling encrustation on both latex and silicone-based catheters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4951064','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4951064"><span>Theaflavins suppress tumor growth and metastasis via the <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of the STAT3 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shao, Jianping; Meng, Qingyan; Li, Yongyuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Theaflavins, the major black tea polyphenols, have been reported to exhibit promising antitumor activities in several human cancers. However, the role of theaflavins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. In this study, we found that theaflavins could significantly inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induce apoptosis in HCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, we found that theaflavins inhibited the growth and metastasis of HCC in an orthotopic model and a lung metastasis model. Immunohistochemical analyses and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assays showed that theaflavins could suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in vivo. Theaflavins also suppressed constitutive and inducible signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. The downstream proteins regulated by STAT3, including the antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Survivin) and the invasion-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9), were also downregulated after theaflavins treatment. Theaflavins induced apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway. Together, our results suggest that theaflavins suppress the growth and metastasis of human HCC through the <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of the STAT3 pathway, and thus may act as potential therapeutic agents for HCC. PMID:27478384</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27438233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27438233"><span>On the preventive management of sediment-related sewer <span class="hlt">blockages</span>: a combined maintenance and routing optimization approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fontecha, John E; Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Duque, Daniel; Medaglia, Andrés L; Torres, María N; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo</p> <p></p> <p>In this work we tackle the problem of planning and scheduling preventive maintenance (PM) of sediment-related sewer <span class="hlt">blockages</span> in a set of geographically distributed sites that are subject to non-deterministic failures. To solve the problem, we extend a combined maintenance and routing (CMR) optimization approach which is a procedure based on two components: (a) first a maintenance model is used to determine the optimal time to perform PM operations for each site and second (b) a mixed integer program-based split procedure is proposed to route a set of crews (e.g., sewer cleaners, vehicles equipped with winches or rods and dump trucks) in order to perform PM operations at a near-optimal minimum expected cost. We applied the proposed CMR optimization approach to two (out of five) operative zones in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), where more than 100 maintenance operations per zone must be scheduled on a weekly basis. Comparing the CMR against the current maintenance plan, we obtained more than 50% of cost savings in 90% of the sites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2992858','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2992858"><span>Enhancement of parthenolide-induced apoptosis by a PKC-alpha inhibition through heme oxygenase-1 <span class="hlt">blockage</span> in cholangiocarcinoma cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Mi-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, In-Hee; Yu, Goung-Ran</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a chemoresistant intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma with a poor prognosis. The aims of this study were to identify molecular pathways that enhance sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide (PTL)-induced anticancer effects on CC cells. The effects of PTL on apoptosis and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction were examined in CC cell lines. The enhancement of PTL-mediated apoptosis by modulation of HO-1 expression and the mechanisms involved were also examined in an in vitro cell system. Low PTL concentrations (5 to 10 µM) led to Nrf2-dependent HO-1 induction, which attenuated the apoptogenic effect of PTL in Choi-CK and SCK cells. PTL-mediated apoptosis was enhanced by the protein kinase C-alpha inhibitor Ro317549 (Ro) through inhibition of expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, resulting in <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of HO-1 expression. Finally, HO-1 silencing resulted in enhancement of apoptotic cell death in CC cells. The combination of PTL and Ro efficiently improved tumor growth inhibition compared to treatment with either agent alone in an in vivo subcutaneous tumor model. In conclusion, the modulation of HO-1 expression substantially improved the anticancer effect of PTL. The combination of PTL and Ro could prove to be a valuable chemotherapeutic strategy for CC. PMID:20938215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407270','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407270"><span>Recombination occurs within minutes of replication <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by RTS1 producing restarted forks that are prone to collapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Michael O; Jalan, Manisha; Morrow, Carl A; Osman, Fekret; Whitby, Matthew C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The completion of genome duplication during the cell cycle is threatened by the presence of replication fork barriers (RFBs). Following collision with a RFB, replication proteins can dissociate from the stalled fork (fork collapse) rendering it incapable of further DNA synthesis unless recombination intervenes to restart replication. We use time-lapse microscopy and genetic assays to show that recombination is initiated within ∼10 min of replication fork <span class="hlt">blockage</span> at a site-specific barrier in fission yeast, leading to a restarted fork within ∼60 min, which is only prevented/curtailed by the arrival of the opposing replication fork. The restarted fork is susceptible to further collapse causing hyper-recombination downstream of the barrier. Surprisingly, in our system fork restart is unnecessary for maintaining cell viability. Seemingly, the risk of failing to complete replication prior to mitosis is sufficient to warrant the induction of recombination even though it can cause deleterious genetic change. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04539.001 PMID:25806683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17679512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17679512"><span>Prevention of urethral <span class="hlt">blockage</span> following semen collection in two species of lemur, Varecia variegata variegata and Lemur catta.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chatfield, Jenifer; Penfold, Linda</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Lemurs are a diverse group of primates comprised of five families, all of which are found only on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Of the 60 known species, 17 are endangered and 5 of these are considered critically endangered. The effects of inbreeding on population health and viability have been well described; though negative inbreeding effects can be ameliorated through the introduction of new genetic material. Introduction of new individuals into a population can be extremely challenging because of the highly social nature of lemurs. Semen collection in lemur species is notoriously challenging, as the ejaculate forms a coagulum. During normal breeding, the coagulum forms a copulatory plug in the female. However, this coagulum can present a life-threatening situation when retained in the urethra abnormally following electroejaculation. This study investigates the use of ascorbic acid in preventing urethral <span class="hlt">blockage</span> in two lemur species during semen collection, demonstrates successful collection of semen by electroejaculation from two species of lemur during the breeding season, and discusses removal of urethral plugs subsequent to semen collection. Semen was collected successfully from all animals. Urethral plugs formed during each collection and were abnormally retained in 2/11 collections. Both plugs were successfully and immediately removed with the use of retropulsion through a urethral catheter. Although the results of this study are encouraging, more investigation is required to establish whether or not this procedure can be safely performed in the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GEMS+AND+MODEL&id=EJ776683','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GEMS+AND+MODEL&id=EJ776683"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Inquiries in Chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Khan, Samia</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, instructional strategies for sustaining <span class="hlt">model-based</span> inquiry in an undergraduate chemistry class were analyzed through data collected from classroom observations, a student survey, and in-depth problem-solving sessions with the instructor and students. Analysis of teacher-student interactions revealed a cyclical pattern in which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=scientific+AND+models&pg=5&id=EJ1054739','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=scientific+AND+models&pg=5&id=EJ1054739"><span>Sandboxes for <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brady, Corey; Holbert, Nathan; Soylu, Firat; Novak, Michael; Wilensky, Uri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we introduce a class of constructionist learning environments that we call "Emergent Systems Sandboxes" ("ESSs"), which have served as a centerpiece of our recent work in developing curriculum to support scalable <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning in classroom settings. ESSs are a carefully specified form of virtual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ess&id=EJ1054739','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ess&id=EJ1054739"><span>Sandboxes for <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brady, Corey; Holbert, Nathan; Soylu, Firat; Novak, Michael; Wilensky, Uri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we introduce a class of constructionist learning environments that we call "Emergent Systems Sandboxes" ("ESSs"), which have served as a centerpiece of our recent work in developing curriculum to support scalable <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning in classroom settings. ESSs are a carefully specified form of virtual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=gem&pg=2&id=EJ776683','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=gem&pg=2&id=EJ776683"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Inquiries in Chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Khan, Samia</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, instructional strategies for sustaining <span class="hlt">model-based</span> inquiry in an undergraduate chemistry class were analyzed through data collected from classroom observations, a student survey, and in-depth problem-solving sessions with the instructor and students. Analysis of teacher-student interactions revealed a cyclical pattern in which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22590863','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22590863"><span>Opinion dynamics <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on quantum formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Artawan, I. Nengah; Trisnawati, N. L. P.</p> <p>2016-03-11</p> <p>Opinion dynamics <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on quantum formalism is proposed. The core of the quantum formalism is on the half spin dynamics system. In this research the implicit time evolution operators are derived. The analogy between the model with Deffuant dan Sznajd models is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tariq&pg=5&id=EJ606750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tariq&pg=5&id=EJ606750"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> Training of Situated Skills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Khan, Tariq M.; Brown, Keith</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Addresses areas of situated knowledge (metacognitive skills and affective skills) that have been ignored in intelligent computer-aided learning systems. Focuses on <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning, including contextualized and decontextualized knowledge, and examines an instructional method that supports situated knowledge by providing opportunities for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2462L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2462L"><span>Numerical Modelling of circulation and internal tides on the Crozet plateau in support of the IMS/CTBTO <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> installation HA04</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyard, Florent Henri; Zampolli, Mario; Marsaleix, Patrick</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS), with the exception of one in Australia, comprise two triplets of submerged moored hydrophones, one North and one South of the island from which the respective system is deployed. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 100 km kilometres from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system. The re-establishment of hydrophone monitoring station HA04 at Crozet (French Southern and Antarctic Territories) in the South-Western Indian Ocean is currently being investigated. The highly dynamic ocean environment at Crozet is governed by strong winds and generally high sea states at the surface, local circulation emanating from the sub-Antarctic front (SAF) and the Agulhas return current (ARC), moderate surface tides and strong internal tides. Deploying the submarine cables and triplets in such an environment requires careful evaluation of all risks and in particular the minimization of the exposure of the deployed system to excessively strong currents. This issue has been addressed by two studies which are briefly introduced here. In the first study, a linear spectral model was used to study and characterize the barotropic tide-driven currents on the Crozet plateau in three spatial dimensions. The M2 semi-diurnal component was shown to dominate in the area, driving sizeable internal tides. The estimate was quantitatively and spatially refined in the second study, in which a time stepping model was used taking into account the local ocean climatology and stratification, as well as the interplay between the seasonally varying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP43C0858E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP43C0858E"><span>Remote-sensing of Riverine Environments Utilized by Spawning Pallid Sturgeon Using a Suite of <span class="hlt">Hydroacoustic</span> Tools and High-resolution DEMs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirynchus albus) inhabits sandy-bedded rivers in the Mississippi River basin including the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone Rivers and has experienced decline generally associated with the fragmentation and alteration of these river systems. Knowledge gaps in the life history of the pallid sturgeon include lack of an understanding of conditions needed for successful reproduction and recruitment. We employed <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> tools to investigate habitats utilized by spawning pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River in Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska, and the Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota USA from 2008-2013. Reproductive pallid sturgeon were tracked to suspected spawning locations by field crews using either acoustic or radio telemetry, a custom mobile mapping application, and differential global positioning systems (DGPS). Female pallid sturgeon were recaptured soon after spawning events to validate that eggs had been released. Habitats were mapped at presumed spawning and embryo incubation sites using a multibeam echosounder system (MBES), sidescan sonar, acoustic Doppler current profiler, an acoustic camera and either a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) or DGPS. High-resolution DEM's and velocimetric maps were gridded from at a variety of scales from 0.10 to 5 meters for characterization and visualization at spawning and presumed embryo incubation sites. Pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri River are deep (6-8 meters) and have high current velocities (>1.5 meters per second). These sites are also characterized by high turbidity and high rates of bedload sediment transport in the form of migrating sand dunes. Spawning on the channelized Lower Missouri River occurs on or adjacent to coarse angular bank revetment or bedrock. Collecting biophysical information in these environmental conditions is challenging, and there is a need to characterize the substrate and substrate condition at a scale</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742910"><span>Endolymphatic duct <span class="hlt">blockage</span>: quality of life assessment of a novel surgical technique for Ménière disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabra, Nathalie; Asmar, Marc-Henri; Berbiche, Djamal; Saliba, Issam</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients treated by endolymphatic duct <span class="hlt">blockage</span> (EDB) for Ménière's disease with a dedicated questionnaire. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study which included 54 patients diagnosed with severe, refractory Ménière's disease according to the AAO-HNS criteria and treated with EDB between 2010 and 2013. Answers to the first 38 questions have assigned scores from 0 to 4 (0 corresponding to the poorest QOL). A preoperative score called S1 was calculated as follows: S1 = sum of preoperative question scores/maximum possible preoperative score ×100. The same formula was used to calculate the postoperative score S2. The change in QOL score, S3, was then calculated (S3 = S2-S1). All answers were analyzed anonymously. Statistical analysis was done using Student t test and Chi square test. A response rate of 89 % was obtained with the Ménière's disease outcome questionnaire. The preoperative (S1) score was 21.4 (±12.6) and the postoperative score (S2) was 64.6 (±21.6) with a change in QOL (S3) of 43.3 (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, 89.9 % reported no Ménière's attacks (p < 0.001). Seventy-nine percent (15/19) of the questions showed a significant improvement after surgery. These results show that EDB is associated with a significant improvement of the QOL of patients suffering from severe Ménière's disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27525970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27525970"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of SSRP1/Ets-1/Pim-3 signalling enhances chemosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to docetaxel in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ai, Jingang; Li, Wei; Zeng, Ruifang; Xie, Zuozhong; Liu, Honghui; Hou, Minghua; Tan, Guolin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare cancer in most parts of the world, but is prevalent in South China area. Besides, therapeutic outcome is still unsatisfactory for patients with refractory and relapsed NPC, even though receiving a second line of docetaxel-based chemotherapy. These reasons require a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis, malignancy and chemoresistance. In the basis of our previous finding of SSRP1 over-expression in NPC cell lines, this study continuously discovered up-regulated Ets-1, phosphor-Ets-1 and Pim-3 in NPC tissues with immunohistochemistry assay and revealed a close correlation of these up-regulated proteins with NPC proliferation and invasion. Using gene-silencing technology followed by western blot and immunocytochemistry detections, SSRP1 was found to facilitate the translocation of phosphor-Ets-1 from cytoplasm to cell nucleus, but have marginal effect on Ets-1 expression and phosphorylation. Pim-3 was positively regulated by Ets-1. In NPC HNE-1 cells, all SSRP1, Ets-1 and Pim-3 knockdown diminished the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, as well as inhibited the autophagy, invasion and clonogenicity in the presence or absence of docetaxel at IC25. Exposure of HNE-1 cells to docetaxel (IC25) alone had modest effect on cell proliferation and autophagy, and was not as effective as docetaxel treatment after knockdown of SSRP1, Ets-1 or Pim-3 on induction of the apoptosis and on inhibition of the invasion and clonogenicity. Our data indicate that SSRP1/Ets-1/Pim-3 signalling is tightly associated with the proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, invasion and clonogenicity of NPC cells, and <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of this signalling facilitates chemosensitivity of the cells to docetaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25149467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25149467"><span>Provirus activation plus CD59 <span class="hlt">blockage</span> triggers antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of latently HIV-1-infected cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lan, Jie; Yang, Kai; Byrd, Daniel; Hu, Ningjie; Amet, Tohti; Shepherd, Nicole; Desai, Mona; Gao, Jimin; Gupta, Samir; Sun, Yongtao; Yu, Qigui</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Latently HIV-1-infected cells are recognized as the last barrier toward viral eradication and cure. To purge these cells, we combined a provirus stimulant with a blocker of human CD59, a key member of the regulators of complement activation, to trigger Ab-dependent complement-mediated lysis. Provirus stimulants including prostratin and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as romidepsin and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid activated proviruses in the latently HIV-1-infected T cell line ACH-2 as virion production and viral protein expression on the cell surface were induced. Romidepsin was the most attractive provirus stimulant as it effectively activated proviruses at nanomolar concentrations that can be achieved clinically. Antiretroviral drugs including two protease inhibitors (atazanavir and darunavir) and an RT inhibitor (emtricitabine) did not affect the activity of provirus stimulants in the activation of proviruses. However, saquinavir (a protease inhibitor) markedly suppressed virus production, although it did not affect the percentage of cells expressing viral Env on the cell surface. Provirus-activated ACH-2 cells expressed HIV-1 Env that colocalized with CD59 in lipid rafts on the cell surface, facilitating direct interaction between them. <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of CD59 rendered provirus-activated ACH-2 cells and primary human CD4(+) T cells that were latently infected with HIV-1 sensitive to Ab-dependent complement-mediated lysis by anti-HIV-1 polyclonal Abs or plasma from HIV-1-infected patients. Therefore, a combination of provirus stimulants with regulators of complement activation blockers represents a novel approach to eliminate HIV-1. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4995515','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4995515"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of Galectin-receptor Interactions by α-lactose Exacerbates Plasmodium berghei-induced Pulmonary Immunopathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Jinfeng; Huang, Shiguang; Su, Xin-zhuan; Song, Jianping; Lu, Fangli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Malaria-associated acute lung injury (ALI) is a frequent complication of severe malaria that is often caused by “excessive” immune responses. To better understand the mechanism of ALI in malaria infection, here we investigated the roles of galectin (Gal)-1, 3, 8, 9 and the receptors of Gal-9 (Tim-3, CD44, CD137, and PDI) in malaria-induced ALI. We injected alpha (α)-lactose into mice-infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbANKA) to block galectins and found significantly elevated total proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, higher parasitemia and tissue parasite burden, and increased numbers of CD68+ alveolar macrophages as well as apoptotic cells in the lungs after <span class="hlt">blockage</span>. Additionally, mRNA levels of Gal-9, Tim-3, CD44, CD137, and PDI were significantly increased in the lungs at day 5 after infection, and the levels of CD137, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 in the lungs were also increased after α-lactose treatment. Similarly, the levels of Gal-9, Tim-3, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, and IL-10 were all significantly increased in murine peritoneal macrophages co-cultured with PbANKA-infected red blood cells in vitro; but only IFN-α and IFN-β were significantly increased after α-lactose treatment. Our data indicate that Gal-9 interaction with its multiple receptors play an important role in murine malaria-associated ALI. PMID:27554340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20919858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20919858"><span>Hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of transporter endocytosis in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bitsikas, Vassilis; Karachaliou, Mayia; Gournas, Christos; Diallinas, George</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>By using Aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional GFP-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). These patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and the SsoA t-Snare, or the lipophilic markers FM4-64 and filipin. In addition, they do not show characteristics of lipid rafts, MCCs or other membrane microdomains. Deconvoluted microscopic images showed that fluorescent patches correspond to plasma membrane invaginations. Transporters remain fully active during this phenomenon of localized plasmolysis. Plasmolysis was however associated with reduced growth rate and a dramatic <span class="hlt">blockage</span> in transporter and FM4-64 endocytosis. These phenomena are transient and rapidly reversible upon wash-out of hypertonic media. Based on the observation that block in endocytosis by hypertonic treatment altered dramatically the cellular localization of tropomyosin (GFP-TpmA), although it did not affect the cortical appearance of upstream (SlaB-GFP) or downstream (AbpA-mRFP) endocytic components, we conclude that hypertonicity modifies actin dynamics and thus acts indirectly on endocytosis. This was further supported by the effect of latrunculin B, an actin depolymerization agent, on endocytosis. We show that the phenomena observed in A. nidulans also occur in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that they constitute basic homeostatic responses of ascomycetes to hypertonic shock. Finally, our work shows that hypertonic treatments can be used as physiological tools to study the endocytic down-regulation of transporters in A. nidulans, as non-conditional genetic blocks affecting endocytic internalization are lethal or severely debilitating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090032079','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090032079"><span>Efficient <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Diagnosis Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fijany, Amir; Vatan, Farrokh; Barrett, Anthony; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Williams, Colin</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>An efficient diagnosis engine - a combination of mathematical models and algorithms - has been developed for identifying faulty components in a possibly complex engineering system. This <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis engine embodies a twofold approach to reducing, relative to prior <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis engines, the amount of computation needed to perform a thorough, accurate diagnosis. The first part of the approach involves a reconstruction of the general diagnostic engine to reduce the complexity of the mathematical-model calculations and of the software needed to perform them. The second part of the approach involves algorithms for computing a minimal diagnosis (the term "minimal diagnosis" is defined below). A somewhat lengthy background discussion is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of the innovative aspects of the present efficient <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis engine. In <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis, the function of each component and the relationships among all the components of the engineering system to be diagnosed are represented as a logical system denoted the system description (SD). Hence, the expected normal behavior of the engineering system is the set of logical consequences of the SD. Faulty components lead to inconsistencies between the observed behaviors of the system and the SD (see figure). Diagnosis - the task of finding faulty components - is reduced to finding those components, the abnormalities of which could explain all the inconsistencies. The solution of the diagnosis problem should be a minimal diagnosis, which is a minimal set of faulty components. A minimal diagnosis stands in contradistinction to the trivial solution, in which all components are deemed to be faulty, and which, therefore, always explains all inconsistencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007165&hterms=systems+engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsystems%2Bengineering','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007165&hterms=systems+engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsystems%2Bengineering"><span>Systems Engineering Interfaces: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fosse, Elyse; Delp, Christopher</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Currently: Ops Rev developed and maintains a framework that includes interface-specific language, patterns, and Viewpoints. Ops Rev implements the framework to design MOS 2.0 and its 5 Mission Services. Implementation de-couples interfaces and instances of interaction Future: A Mission MOSE implements the approach and uses the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> artifacts for reviews. The framework extends further into the ground data layers and provides a unified methodology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007165&hterms=interfaces&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dinterfaces','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007165&hterms=interfaces&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dinterfaces"><span>Systems Engineering Interfaces: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fosse, Elyse; Delp, Christopher</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Currently: Ops Rev developed and maintains a framework that includes interface-specific language, patterns, and Viewpoints. Ops Rev implements the framework to design MOS 2.0 and its 5 Mission Services. Implementation de-couples interfaces and instances of interaction Future: A Mission MOSE implements the approach and uses the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> artifacts for reviews. The framework extends further into the ground data layers and provides a unified methodology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.736E..26H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.736E..26H"><span>MATTS- A Step Towards <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herpel, H.-J.; Willich, G.; Li, J.; Xie, J.; Johansen, B.; Kvinnesland, K.; Krueger, S.; Barrios, P.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this paper we describe a <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> approach to testing of on-board software and compare it with traditional validation strategy currently applied to satellite software. The major problems that software engineering will face over at least the next two decades are increasing application complexity driven by the need for autonomy and serious application robustness. In other words, how do we actually get to declare success when trying to build applications one or two orders of magnitude more complex than today's applications. To solve the problems addressed above the software engineering process has to be improved at least for two aspects: 1) Software design and 2) Software testing. The software design process has to evolve towards <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approaches with extensive use of code generators. Today, testing is an essential, but time and resource consuming activity in the software development process. Generating a short, but effective test suite usually requires a lot of manual work and expert knowledge. In a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> process, among other subtasks, test construction and test execution can also be partially automated. The basic idea behind the presented study was to start from a formal model (e.g. State Machines), generate abstract test cases which are then converted to concrete executable test cases (input and expected output pairs). The generated concrete test cases were applied to an on-board software. Results were collected and evaluated wrt. applicability, cost-efficiency, effectiveness at fault finding, and scalability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/urine-blockage-newborns','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/urine-blockage-newborns"><span>Urine <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> in Newborns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... the x-ray images. The x-ray machine captures images of the contrast medium while the bladder ... through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000067.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000067.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of upper airway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00185&hterms=attachment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dattachment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00185&hterms=attachment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dattachment"><span>Attachment Line <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Photographs shows the attachment-line experiment model with fairing and fence for supersonic attachment-line experiments. The fairing is intended to eliminate the wing/fuselage juncture shock and align the flow for the streamlined fence. The streamlined fence traps the turbulent fuselage boundary layer to prevent turbulent contamination of the leading edge flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1180147','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1180147"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> and permeation of divalent cations through the cyclic GMP-activated channel from tiger salamander retinal rods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Colamartino, G; Menini, A; Torre, V</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>1. <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> and permeation of divalent cations through channels activated by guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) were studied in membrane patches excised from retinal rods of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum by rapidly changing the ionic medium bathing the intracellular side of the excised membrane. 2. The Na+ current, observed when 110 mM-NaCl was present on both sides of the membrane patch, was reduced by the addition of 1 mM of the chloride salts of Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ or Mn2+ to the bathing medium. The sequence of blocking potency at +60 mV was Mg2+ greater than Mn2+ approximately Ba2+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Sr2+, while at -60 mV it was Ba2+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Sr2+ greater than Mn2+ approximately Mg2+. For all divalent cations the blocking effect depended, in a complex way, on the membrane potential. 3. The blocking effect of Ca2+ and Mg2+ increased when the concentration of cyclic GMP was reduced from 100 to 5 microM. At -60 mV 1 mM-Ca2+ blocked about 34% of the Na+ current in the presence of 100 microM-cyclic GMP, while in the presence of 5 microM-cyclic GMP, 1 mM-Ca2+ blocked about 56% of the Na+ current. 4. When, in the presence of 100 microM-cyclic GMP, 110 mM-NaCl at the intracellular side was replaced by equiosmolar amounts of chloride salts of divalent cations (73.3 mM) a small outward current carried by divalent cations could be observed at large positive membrane potentials. At +60 mV the ratio between the current carried by Na+, Sr2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ was 83.3:1.4:1:0.58:0.33:0.25. 5. In agreement with previous observations the dependence of the Na+ current on the concentration of cyclic GMP shows a clear co-operativity among cyclic GMP molecules.4+ cyclic GMP-gated channel in excised patches is similar to but not identical to the selectivity sequence of divalent cations through the channel in intact rods. PMID:1725182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5127133','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5127133"><span>Impact of Dendrimer Terminal Group Chemistry on <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of the Anthrax Toxin Channel: A Single Molecule Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yamini, Goli; Kalu, Nnanya; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Nearly all the cationic molecules tested so far have been shown to reversibly block K+ current through the cation-selective PA63 channels of anthrax toxin in a wide nM–mM range of effective concentrations. A significant increase in channel-blocking activity of the cationic compounds was achieved when multiple copies of positively charged ligands were covalently linked to multivalent scaffolds, such as cyclodextrins and dendrimers. Even though multivalent binding can be strong when the individual bonds are relatively weak, for drug discovery purposes we often strive to design multivalent compounds with high individual functional group affinity toward the respective binding site on a multivalent target. Keeping this requirement in mind, here we perform a single-channel/single-molecule study to investigate kinetic parameters of anthrax toxin PA63 channel <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by second-generation (G2) poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers functionalized with different surface ligands, including G2-NH2, G2-OH, G2-succinamate, and G2-COONa. We found that the previously reported difference in IC50 values of the G2-OH/PA63 and G2-NH2/PA63 binding was determined by both on- and off-rates of the reversible dendrimer/channel binding reaction. In 1 M KCl, we observed a decrease of about three folds in kon and a decrease of only about ten times in tres with G2-OH compared to G2-NH2. At the same time for both blockers, kon and tres increased dramatically with transmembrane voltage increase. PAMAM dendrimers functionalized with negatively charged succinamate, but not carboxyl surface groups, still had some residual activity in inhibiting the anthrax toxin channels. At 100 mV, the on-rate of the G2-succinamate binding was comparable with that of G2-OH but showed weaker voltage dependence when compared to G2-OH and G2-NH2. The residence time of G2-succinamate in the channel exhibited opposite voltage dependence compared to G2-OH and G2-NH2, increasing with the cis-negative voltage increase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4093O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4093O"><span>Effects of physical <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of axial phloem transport on growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings under drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Winkler, Andrea; Lethaus, Gina; Wieser, Gerhard</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Early culmination of maximum radial growth in late spring was found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (Oberhuber et al. 2014). We hypothesized that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis we manipulated tree carbon status by physical <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of phloem transport and soil water availability of Norway spruce saplings (tree height c. 1.5 m) in a common garden experiment to investigate influence of carbon availability and drought on above- and belowground growth. Girdling occurred at different phenological stages during the growing season, i.e., before growth onset, and during earlywood and latewood formation. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, soluble sugars and starch) were determined before and after the growing season to evaluate change in tree carbon status. Tree ring analysis revealed that compared to non-girdled controls earlywood width above girdling strikingly increased by c. 170 and 440 %, while latewood width decreased by c. 85 and 55 % in watered and drought stressed trees, respectively. Below girdling no xylem formation was detected. Unexpectedly, preliminary analyses of carbon status revealed striking reduction (c. -80 %) of NSC above and below girdling. Most likely due to reductions in xylem hydraulic conductance, girdling before growth onset reduced leader shoot growth compared to non-girdled controls by c. 45 %, irrespective of water availability. Root dry mass of girdled trees was significantly reduced compared to non-girdled controls (c. 30 % in drought stressed and 45 % in watered trees; p < 0.001). Results suggest that in Norway spruce saplings (1) carbon availability affects radial stem growth, (2) higher basipetal carbon transport occurs under drought supporting our hypothesis of early switch of carbon allocation to belowground when drought stress prevails and (3) minor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900447','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900447"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> Tomographic Reconstruction Literature Search</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chambers, D H; Lehman, S K</p> <p>2005-11-30</p> <p>In the process of preparing a proposal for internal research funding, a literature search was conducted on the subject of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> tomographic reconstruction (MBTR). The purpose of the search was to ensure that the proposed research would not replicate any previous work. We found that the overwhelming majority of work on MBTR which used parameterized models of the object was theoretical in nature. Only three researchers had applied the technique to actual data. In this note, we summarize the findings of the literature search.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806i0015R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806i0015R"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> defect characterization in composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, R.; Holland, S.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Work is reported on <span class="hlt">model-based</span> defect characterization in CFRP composites. The work utilizes computational models of the interaction of NDE probing energy fields (ultrasound and thermography), to determine 1) the measured signal dependence on material and defect properties (forward problem), and 2) an assessment of performance-critical defect properties from analysis of measured NDE signals (inverse problem). Work is reported on model implementation for inspection of CFRP laminates containing multi-ply impact-induced delamination, with application in this paper focusing on ultrasound. A companion paper in these proceedings summarizes corresponding activity in thermography. Inversion of ultrasound data is demonstrated showing the quantitative extraction of damage properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9635E..22G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9635E..22G"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> multiple patterning layout decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Daifeng; Tian, Haitong; Du, Yuelin; Wong, Martin D. F.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>As one of the most promising next generation lithography technologies, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) plays an important role in the attempts to keep in pace with 10 nm technology node and beyond. With feature size keeps shrinking, it has become impossible to print dense layouts within one single exposure. As a result, MPL such as double patterning lithography (DPL) and triple patterning lithography (TPL) has been widely adopted. There is a large volume of literature on DPL/TPL layout decomposition, and the current approach is to formulate the problem as a classical graph-coloring problem: Layout features (polygons) are represented by vertices in a graph G and there is an edge between two vertices if and only if the distance between the two corresponding features are less than a minimum distance threshold value dmin. The problem is to color the vertices of G using k colors (k = 2 for DPL, k = 3 for TPL) such that no two vertices connected by an edge are given the same color. This is a rule-based approach, which impose a geometric distance as a minimum constraint to simply decompose polygons within the distance into different masks. It is not desired in practice because this criteria cannot completely capture the behavior of the optics. For example, it lacks of sufficient information such as the optical source characteristics and the effects between the polygons outside the minimum distance. To remedy the deficiency, a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> layout decomposition approach to make the decomposition criteria base on simulation results was first introduced at SPIE 2013.1 However, the algorithm1 is based on simplified assumption on the optical simulation model and therefore its usage on real layouts is limited. Recently AMSL2 also proposed a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach to layout decomposition by iteratively simulating the layout, which requires excessive computational resource and may lead to sub-optimal solutions. The approach2 also potentially generates too many stiches. In this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19938210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19938210"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> neuroimaging for cognitive computing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poznanski, Roman R</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The continuity of the mind is suggested to mean the continuous spatiotemporal dynamics arising from the electrochemical signature of the neocortex: (i) globally through volume transmission in the gray matter as fields of neural activity, and (ii) locally through extrasynaptic signaling between fine distal dendrites of cortical neurons. If the continuity of dynamical systems across spatiotemporal scales defines a stream of consciousness then intentional metarepresentations as templates of dynamic continuity allow qualia to be semantically mapped during neuroimaging of specific cognitive tasks. When interfaced with a computer, such <span class="hlt">model-based</span> neuroimaging requiring new mathematics of the brain will begin to decipher higher cognitive operations not possible with existing brain-machine interfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1406...30A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1406...30A"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> vision using geometric hashing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akerman, Alexander, III; Patton, Ronald</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>The Geometric Hashing technique developed by the NYU Courant Institute has been applied to various automatic target recognition applications. In particular, I-MATH has extended the hashing algorithm to perform automatic target recognition ofsynthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. For this application, the hashing is performed upon the geometric locations of dominant scatterers. In addition to being a robust <span class="hlt">model-based</span> matching algorithm -- invariant under translation, scale, and 3D rotations of the target -- hashing is of particular utility because it can still perform effective matching when the target is partially obscured. Moreover, hashing is very amenable to a SIMD parallel processing architecture, and thus potentially realtime implementable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS51A1846R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS51A1846R"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">hydroacoustical</span> techniques for the monitoring and classification of benthic habitats in Puck Bay: Modeling of acoustic waves scattering by seagrass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7962E..2QQ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7962E..2QQ"><span>Feature-driven <span class="hlt">model-based</span> segmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qazi, Arish A.; Kim, John; Jaffray, David A.; Pekar, Vladimir</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The accurate delineation of anatomical structures is required in many medical image analysis applications. One example is radiation therapy planning (RTP), where traditional manual delineation is tedious, labor intensive, and can require hours of clinician's valuable time. Majority of automated segmentation methods in RTP belong to either <span class="hlt">model-based</span> or atlas-based approaches. One substantial limitation of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> segmentation is that its accuracy may be restricted by the uncertainties in image content, specifically when segmenting low-contrast anatomical structures, e.g. soft tissue organs in computed tomography images. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric feature enhancement filter which replaces raw intensity image data by a high level probabilistic map which guides the deformable model to reliably segment low-contrast regions. The method is evaluated by segmenting the submandibular and parotid glands in the head and neck region and comparing the results to manual segmentations in terms of the volume overlap. Quantitative results show that we are in overall good agreement with expert segmentations, achieving volume overlap of up to 80%. Qualitatively, we demonstrate that we are able to segment low-contrast regions, which otherwise are difficult to delineate with deformable models relying on distinct object boundaries from the original image data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSEdT..24..265B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSEdT..24..265B"><span>Sandboxes for <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brady, Corey; Holbert, Nathan; Soylu, Firat; Novak, Michael; Wilensky, Uri</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this article, we introduce a class of constructionist learning environments that we call Emergent Systems Sandboxes ( ESSs), which have served as a centerpiece of our recent work in developing curriculum to support scalable <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning in classroom settings. ESSs are a carefully specified form of virtual construction environment that support students in creating, exploring, and sharing computational models of dynamic systems that exhibit emergent phenomena. They provide learners with "entity"-level construction primitives that reflect an underlying scientific model. These primitives can be directly "painted" into a sandbox space, where they can then be combined, arranged, and manipulated to construct complex systems and explore the emergent properties of those systems. We argue that ESSs offer a means of addressing some of the key barriers to adopting rich, constructionist <span class="hlt">model-based</span> inquiry approaches in science classrooms at scale. Situating the ESS in a large-scale science modeling curriculum we are implementing across the USA, we describe how the unique "entity-level" primitive design of an ESS facilitates knowledge system refinement at both an individual and social level, we describe how it supports flexible modeling practices by providing both continuous and discrete modes of executability, and we illustrate how it offers students a variety of opportunities for validating their qualitative understandings of emergent systems as they develop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041523','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041523"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Fault Tolerant Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Aditya; Viassolo, Daniel</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Fault Tolerant Control (MBFTC) task was conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goal of MBFTC is to develop and demonstrate real-time strategies to diagnose and accommodate anomalous aircraft engine events such as sensor faults, actuator faults, or turbine gas-path component damage that can lead to in-flight shutdowns, aborted take offs, asymmetric thrust/loss of thrust control, or engine surge/stall events. A suite of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> fault detection algorithms were developed and evaluated. Based on the performance and maturity of the developed algorithms two approaches were selected for further analysis: (i) multiple-hypothesis testing, and (ii) neural networks; both used residuals from an Extended Kalman Filter to detect the occurrence of the selected faults. A simple fusion algorithm was implemented to combine the results from each algorithm to obtain an overall estimate of the identified fault type and magnitude. The identification of the fault type and magnitude enabled the use of an online fault accommodation strategy to correct for the adverse impact of these faults on engine operability thereby enabling continued engine operation in the presence of these faults. The performance of the fault detection and accommodation algorithm was extensively tested in a simulation environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/96010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/96010"><span><span class="hlt">Hydroacoustic</span> observations of the NPE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harris, D.; Hauk, T.; Breitfeller, E.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The NPE was observed by three hydrophone arrays located off of the coast of California: (1) a special sonobuoy pattern deployed for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by COMPATWINGSSPAC, U.S. Navy, (2) the SwellEx vertical line array deployed by the Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, and (3) an array of the U.S. Navy SOSUS system. The P phase from the event was just visible in the sonobuoy data, very clear on the vertical line array (after beamforming), and moderately well recorded on the SOSUS array. Calibration of the SwellEx array hydrophones and electronics allows us to estimate the pressure level of the NPE P phase at 75-80 dB re 1 uPascal**2/Hz between 2 and 9 Hz. We use observations of the HUNTERS TROPHY nuclear test to demonstrate several beamforming methods that use vertical line arrays to suppress the predominantly horizontally propagating ambient acoustic noise. Such arrays could be used to supplement seismic systems for monitoring inaccessible continental regions from adjacent oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA429219','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA429219"><span>Analysis of Russian <span class="hlt">Hydroacoustic</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>significant portion of the energy from underwater explosions couples to this channel as acoustic waves, even kilogram-sized explosions at depth generate ...from the source to the water, manifested as a point- source explosion generating an initially spherically divergent underwater shock wave. The amount of...from such tests would be significantly decoupled from the ocean and could be much more difficult to detect. Thus while small deep explosions generate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020038834','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020038834"><span>Unifying <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> and Reactive Programming within a <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Executive</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Brian C.; Gupta, Vineet; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Real-time, <span class="hlt">model-based</span>, deduction has recently emerged as a vital component in AI's tool box for developing highly autonomous reactive systems. Yet one of the current hurdles towards developing <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reactive systems is the number of methods simultaneously employed, and their corresponding melange of programming and modeling languages. This paper offers an important step towards unification. We introduce RMPL, a rich modeling language that combines probabilistic, constraint-based modeling with reactive programming constructs, while offering a simple semantics in terms of hidden state Markov processes. We introduce probabilistic, hierarchical constraint automata (PHCA), which allow Markov processes to be expressed in a compact representation that preserves the modularity of RMPL programs. Finally, a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> executive, called Reactive Burton is described that exploits this compact encoding to perform efficIent simulation, belief state update and control sequence generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2233693','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2233693"><span>A Point Mutation in the Pore Region Alters Gating, Ca2+<span class="hlt">Blockage</span>, and Permeation of Olfactory Cyclic Nucleotide–Gated Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gavazzo, Paola; Picco, Cristiana; Eismann, Elisabeth; Kaupp, U. Benjamin; Menini, Anna</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Upon stimulation by odorants, Ca2+ and Na+ enter the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons through channels directly gated by cAMP. Cyclic nucleotide–gated channels have been found in a variety of cells and extensively investigated in the past few years. Glutamate residues at position 363 of the α subunit of the bovine retinal rod channel have previously been shown to constitute a cation-binding site important for <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by external divalent cations and to control single-channel properties. It has therefore been assumed, but not proven, that glutamate residues at the corresponding position of the other cyclic nucleotide–gated channels play a similar role. We studied the corresponding glutamate (E340) of the α subunit of the bovine olfactory channel to determine its role in channel gating and in permeation and <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by Ca2+ and Mg2+. E340 was mutated into either an aspartate, glycine, glutamine, or asparagine residue and properties of mutant channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were measured in excised patches. By single-channel recordings, we demonstrated that the open probabilities in the presence of cGMP or cAMP were decreased by the mutations, with a larger decrease observed on gating by cAMP. Moreover, we observed that the mutant E340N presented two conductance levels. We found that both external Ca2+ and Mg2+ powerfully blocked the current in wild-type and E340D mutants, whereas their <span class="hlt">blockage</span> efficacy was drastically reduced when the glutamate charge was neutralized. The inward current carried by external Ca2+ relative to Na+ was larger in the E340G mutant compared with wild-type channels. In conclusion, we have confirmed that the residue at position E340 of the bovine olfactory CNG channel is in the pore region, controls permeation and <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by external Ca2+ and Mg2+, and affects channel gating by cAMP more than by cGMP. PMID:10962010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/234705','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/234705"><span>Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer <span class="hlt">blockage</span> research and regulatory issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monteleone, S.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural & Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> Research & Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930057397&hterms=Predictive+control+based+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPredictive%2Bcontrol%2Bbased%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930057397&hterms=Predictive+control+based+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPredictive%2Bcontrol%2Bbased%2Bmodel"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> reasoning in SSF ECLSS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, J. K.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The interacting processes and reconfigurable subsystems of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) present a tremendous technical challenge to Freedom's crew and ground support. ECLSS operation and problem analysis is time-consuming for crew members and difficult for current computerized control, monitoring, and diagnostic software. These challenges can be at least partially mitigated by the use of advanced techniques such as <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning (MBR). This paper will provide an overview of MBR as it is being applied to Space Station Freedom ECLSS. It will report on work being done to produce intelligent systems to help design, control, monitor, and diagnose Freedom's ECLSS. Specifically, work on predictive monitoring, diagnosability, and diagnosis, with emphasis on the automated diagnosis of the regenerative water recovery and air revitalization processes will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930057397&hterms=reasoning&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dreasoning','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930057397&hterms=reasoning&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dreasoning"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> reasoning in SSF ECLSS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, J. K.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The interacting processes and reconfigurable subsystems of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) present a tremendous technical challenge to Freedom's crew and ground support. ECLSS operation and problem analysis is time-consuming for crew members and difficult for current computerized control, monitoring, and diagnostic software. These challenges can be at least partially mitigated by the use of advanced techniques such as <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning (MBR). This paper will provide an overview of MBR as it is being applied to Space Station Freedom ECLSS. It will report on work being done to produce intelligent systems to help design, control, monitor, and diagnose Freedom's ECLSS. Specifically, work on predictive monitoring, diagnosability, and diagnosis, with emphasis on the automated diagnosis of the regenerative water recovery and air revitalization processes will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930002767','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930002767"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> vision for space applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chaconas, Karen; Nashman, Marilyn; Lumia, Ronald</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a method for tracking moving image features by combining spatial and temporal edge information with <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> feature information. The algorithm updates the two-dimensional position of object features by correlating predicted model features with current image data. The results of the correlation process are used to compute an updated model. The algorithm makes use of a high temporal sampling rate with respect to spatial changes of the image features and operates in a real-time multiprocessing environment. Preliminary results demonstrate successful tracking for image feature velocities between 1.1 and 4.5 pixels every image frame. This work has applications for docking, assembly, retrieval of floating objects and a host of other space-related tasks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5107251','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5107251"><span>A Cognitive <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Neuromodulated Plasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruan, Xiaogang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Associative learning, including classical conditioning and operant conditioning, is regarded as the most fundamental type of learning for animals and human beings. Many models have been proposed surrounding classical conditioning or operant conditioning. However, a unified and integrated model to explain the two types of conditioning is much less studied. Here, a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on neuromodulated synaptic plasticity is presented. The model is bioinspired including multistored memory module and simulated VTA dopaminergic neurons to produce reward signal. The synaptic weights are modified according to the reward signal, which simulates the change of associative strengths in associative learning. The experiment results in real robots prove the suitability and validity of the proposed model. PMID:27872638</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028270','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028270"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> reconfiguration: Diagnosis and recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crow, Judy; Rushby, John</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We extend Reiter's general theory of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis to a theory of fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration (FDIR). The generality of Reiter's theory readily supports an extension in which the problem of reconfiguration is viewed as a close analog of the problem of diagnosis. Using a reconfiguration predicate 'rcfg' analogous to the abnormality predicate 'ab,' we derive a strategy for reconfiguration by transforming the corresponding strategy for diagnosis. There are two obvious benefits of this approach: algorithms for diagnosis can be exploited as algorithms for reconfiguration and we have a theoretical framework for an integrated approach to FDIR. As a first step toward realizing these benefits we show that a class of diagnosis engines can be used for reconfiguration and we discuss algorithms for integrated FDIR. We argue that integrating recovery and diagnosis is an essential next step if this technology is to be useful for practical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014762','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014762"><span>Fast Algorithms for <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Diagnosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fijany, Amir; Barrett, Anthony; Vatan, Farrokh; Mackey, Ryan</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Two improved new methods for automated diagnosis of complex engineering systems involve the use of novel algorithms that are more efficient than prior algorithms used for the same purpose. Both the recently developed algorithms and the prior algorithms in question are instances of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis, which is based on exploring the logical inconsistency between an observation and a description of a system to be diagnosed. As engineering systems grow more complex and increasingly autonomous in their functions, the need for automated diagnosis increases concomitantly. In <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis, the function of each component and the interconnections among all the components of the system to be diagnosed (for example, see figure) are represented as a logical system, called the system description (SD). Hence, the expected behavior of the system is the set of logical consequences of the SD. Faulty components lead to inconsistency between the observed behaviors of the system and the SD. The task of finding the faulty components (diagnosis) reduces to finding the components, the abnormalities of which could explain all the inconsistencies. Of course, the meaningful solution should be a minimal set of faulty components (called a minimal diagnosis), because the trivial solution, in which all components are assumed to be faulty, always explains all inconsistencies. Although the prior algorithms in question implement powerful methods of diagnosis, they are not practical because they essentially require exhaustive searches among all possible combinations of faulty components and therefore entail the amounts of computation that grow exponentially with the number of components of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10142429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10142429"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> ocean acoustic passive localization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.</p> <p>1994-01-24</p> <p>The detection, localization and classification of acoustic sources (targets) in a hostile ocean environment is a difficult problem -- especially in light of the improved design of modern submarines and the continual improvement in quieting technology. Further the advent of more and more diesel-powered vessels makes the detection problem even more formidable than ever before. It has recently been recognized that the incorporation of a mathematical model that accurately represents the phenomenology under investigation can vastly improve the performance of any processor, assuming, of course, that the model is accurate. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate more knowledge about the ocean environment into detection and localization algorithms in order to enhance the overall signal-to-noise ratios and improve performance. An alternative methodology to matched-field/matched-mode processing is the so-called <span class="hlt">model-based</span> processor which is based on a state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model. If state-space solutions can be accomplished, then many of the current ocean acoustic processing problems can be analyzed and solved using this framework to analyze performance results based on firm statistical and system theoretic grounds. The <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach, is (simply) ``incorporating mathematical models of both physical phenomenology and the measurement processes including noise into the processor to extract the desired information.`` In this application, we seek techniques to incorporate the: (1) ocean acoustic propagation model; (2) sensor array measurement model; and (3) noise models (ambient, shipping, surface and measurement) into a processor to solve the associated localization/detection problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27655422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27655422"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> cardiovascular disease diagnosis: a preliminary in-silico study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebrahimi Nejad, Shiva; Carey, Jason P; McMurtry, M Sean; Hahn, Jin-Oh</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we developed and examined the feasibility of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> system identification approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis. The basic premise of the approach is that it may be possible to diagnose cardiovascular disease from disease-induced alterations in the arterial mechanical properties manifested in the proximal and distal arterial blood pressure waveforms. It first individualizes the lumped-parameter model of wave propagation and reflection in the artery using the measurement of proximal and distal arterial blood pressure waveforms. Then, it employs a diagnosis logic, in the form of disease-specific patterns in model parameters, referred as [Formula: see text] and pulse transit time. The longitudinal change in these parameters is used to diagnose the presence of peripheral artery disease and arterial stiffening. We illustrated the feasibility of the proposed approach by testing it in a full-scale in-silico arterial tree simulation. The results showed that the approach exhibited superior sensitivity to ankle-brachial index and convenience to carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity: The model parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] responded with up to 100 and 40 % changes to peripheral artery disease with up to 50 % arterial <span class="hlt">blockage</span> whereas the change in ankle-brachial index was [Formula: see text]; the same parameters responded with up to 300 and 40 % changes to up to 100 % arterial stiffening while pulse transit time changed by up to 24 %. Together with the development of more convenient techniques for the measurement of arterial blood pressure waveforms, the proposed approach may evolve into a viable alternative to the state-of-the-art techniques for cardiovascular disease diagnosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3021057','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3021057"><span>Structural studies of ion permeation and Ca2+ <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of a bacterial channel mimicking the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel pore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Derebe, Mehabaw G.; Zeng, Weizhong; Li, Yang; Alam, Amer; Jiang, Youxing</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play an essential role in the visual and olfactory sensory systems and are ubiquitous in eukaryotes. Details of their underlying ion selectivity properties are still not fully understood and are a matter of debate in the absence of high-resolution structures. To reveal the structural mechanism of ion selectivity in CNG channels, particularly their Ca2+ <span class="hlt">blockage</span> property, we engineered a set of mimics of CNG channel pores for both structural and functional analysis. The mimics faithfully represent the CNG channels they are modeled after, permeate Na+ and K+ equally well, and exhibit the same Ca2+ <span class="hlt">blockage</span> and permeation properties. Their high-resolution structures reveal a hitherto unseen selectivity filter architecture comprising three contiguous ion binding sites in which Na+ and K+ bind with different ion-ligand geometries. Our structural analysis reveals that the conserved acidic residue in the filter is essential for Ca2+ binding but not through direct ion chelation as in the currently accepted view. Furthermore, structural insight from our CNG mimics allows us to pinpoint equivalent interactions in CNG channels through structure-based mutagenesis that have previously not been predicted using NaK or K+ channel models. PMID:21187429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666176"><span>Cell size and the <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of electron transfer in photosynthesis: proposed endpoints for algal assays and its application to soil alga Chlorococcum infusionum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nam, Sun-Hwa; An, Youn-Joo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This study evaluated multiple endpoints of algal assays to identify sensitive and easy to use endpoints that could be applied to evaluate algal toxicity in metal-polluted soil extracts. Soil algae play an important role in trophic levels; thus, Chlorococcum infusionum was selected as the test species. Soil extracts were used because they might help identify potential soil retention and ecological hazards caused by pollutants that are present in the soil aqueous phase. The multi-endpoints measured were growth yield, photosynthetic activities, and cell viabilities. Nine parameters were measured to evaluate photosynthetic activity; namely, specific energy fluxes per quinone A-reducing photosystem II reaction center (absorption flux, trapped energy flux, electron transport flux, and dissipated energy flux per reaction center), quantum yields (maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry, quantum yield of electron transport, quantum yield of energy dissipation, and average quantum yield of primary photochemistry), and the <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of electron transfer from the reaction center to the quinone pool. Cell viability was evaluated by measuring cell size, cell granularity, and the autofluorescence of chlorophyll using flow cytometry. The results showed that heavy metals reduced growth yield, cell viability, and the photosynthetic activity of C. infusionum in soil extracts. Out of the 13 tested endpoints, the <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of electron transfer from the reaction center to the quinone pool and cell size represented the most sensitive endpoints. We propose that both endpoints should be measured, along with conventional growth yield, to determine the effect of soil pollutants and to lower pollutant concentrations in soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26189563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26189563"><span>Selective β2-AR <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> Suppresses Colorectal Cancer Growth Through Regulation of EGFR-Akt/ERK1/2 Signaling, G1-Phase Arrest, and Apoptosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chin, Chih-Chien; Li, Jhy-Ming; Lee, Kam-Fai; Huang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Kuan-Chieh; Lai, Hsiao-Ching; Cheng, Chih-Chung; Kuo, Yi-Hung; Shi, Chung-Sheng</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The stress-upregulated catecholamines-activated β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors (β1/2-ARs) have been shown to accelerate the progression of cancers such as colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the underlying mechanism of the inhibition of β1/2-ARs signaling for the treatment of CRC and elucidated the significance of β2-AR expression in CRC in vitro and in clinical samples. The impacts of β1/2-AR antagonists in CRC in vitro and CRC-xenograft in vivo were examined. We found that repression of β2-AR but not β1-AR signaling selectively suppressed cell viability, induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest, caused both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways-mediated apoptosis of specific CRC cells and inhibited CRC-xenograft growth in vivo. Moreover, the expression of β2-AR was not consistent with the progression of CRC in vitro or in clinical samples. Our data evidence that the expression profiles, signaling, and <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of β2-AR have a unique pattern in CRC comparing to other cancers. β2-AR antagonism selectively suppresses the growth of CRC accompanying active β2-AR signaling, which potentially carries wild-type KRAS, in vitro and in vivo via the inhibition of β2-AR transactivated EFGR-Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, β2-AR <span class="hlt">blockage</span> might be a potential therapeutic strategy for combating the progressions of β2-AR-dependent CRC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9633E..1RL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9633E..1RL"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> phase-shifting interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Tu; Yang, Yongying; Chong, Shiyao; Miao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Shen, Yibing; Bai, Jian</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> phase-shifting interferometer (MPI) is developed, in which a novel calculation technique is proposed instead of the traditional complicated system structure, to achieve versatile, high precision and quantitative surface tests. In the MPI, the partial null lens (PNL) is employed to implement the non-null test. With some alternative PNLs, similar as the transmission spheres in ZYGO interferometers, the MPI provides a flexible test for general spherical and aspherical surfaces. Based on modern computer modeling technique, a reverse iterative optimizing construction (ROR) method is employed for the retrace error correction of non-null test, as well as figure error reconstruction. A self-compiled ray-tracing program is set up for the accurate system modeling and reverse ray tracing. The surface figure error then can be easily extracted from the wavefront data in forms of Zernike polynomials by the ROR method. Experiments of the spherical and aspherical tests are presented to validate the flexibility and accuracy. The test results are compared with those of Zygo interferometer (null tests), which demonstrates the high accuracy of the MPI. With such accuracy and flexibility, the MPI would possess large potential in modern optical shop testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16238061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16238061"><span>3-D <span class="hlt">model-based</span> vehicle tracking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lou, Jianguang; Tan, Tieniu; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Hao; Maybank, Steven J</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>This paper aims at tracking vehicles from monocular intensity image sequences and presents an efficient and robust approach to three-dimensional (3-D) <span class="hlt">model-based</span> vehicle tracking. Under the weak perspective assumption and the ground-plane constraint, the movements of model projection in the two-dimensional image plane can be decomposed into two motions: translation and rotation. They are the results of the corresponding movements of 3-D translation on the ground plane (GP) and rotation around the normal of the GP, which can be determined separately. A new metric based on point-to-line segment distance is proposed to evaluate the similarity between an image region and an instantiation of a 3-D vehicle model under a given pose. Based on this, we provide an efficient pose refinement method to refine the vehicle's pose parameters. An improved EKF is also proposed to track and to predict vehicle motion with a precise kinematics model. Experimental results with both indoor and outdoor data show that the algorithm obtains desirable performance even under severe occlusion and clutter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3643895','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3643895"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Estimation of Knee Stiffness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pfeifer, Serge; Vallery, Heike; Hardegger, Michael; Riener, Robert; Perreault, Eric J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>During natural locomotion, the stiffness of the human knee is modulated continuously and subconsciously according to the demands of activity and terrain. Given modern actuator technology, powered transfemoral prostheses could theoretically provide a similar degree of sophistication and function. However, experimentally quantifying knee stiffness modulation during natural gait is challenging. Alternatively, joint stiffness could be estimated in a less disruptive manner using electromyography (EMG) combined with kinetic and kinematic measurements to estimate muscle force, together with models that relate muscle force to stiffness. Here we present the first step in that process, where we develop such an approach and evaluate it in isometric conditions, where experimental measurements are more feasible. Our EMG-guided modeling approach allows us to consider conditions with antagonistic muscle activation, a phenomenon commonly observed in physiological gait. Our validation shows that <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimates of knee joint stiffness coincide well with experimental data obtained using conventional perturbation techniques. We conclude that knee stiffness can be accurately estimated in isometric conditions without applying perturbations, which presents an important step towards our ultimate goal of quantifying knee stiffness during gait. PMID:22801482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007375','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007375"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Method for Sensor Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vatan, Farrokh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4029...88M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4029...88M"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> target and background characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9150E..0LK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9150E..0LK"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> systems engineering for astronomical projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karban, R.; Andolfato, L.; Bristow, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Esselborn, M.; Schilling, M.; Schmid, C.; Sommer, H.; Zamparelli, M.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging field of systems engineering for which the System Modeling Language (SysML) is a key enabler for descriptive, prescriptive and predictive models. This paper surveys some of the capabilities, expectations and peculiarities of tools-assisted MBSE experienced in real-life astronomical projects. The examples range in depth and scope across a wide spectrum of applications (for example documentation, requirements, analysis, trade studies) and purposes (addressing a particular development need, or accompanying a project throughout many - if not all - its lifecycle phases, fostering reuse and minimizing ambiguity). From the beginnings of the Active Phasing Experiment, through VLT instrumentation, VLTI infrastructure, Telescope Control System for the E-ELT, until Wavefront Control for the E-ELT, we show how stepwise refinements of tools, processes and methods have provided tangible benefits to customary system engineering activities like requirement flow-down, design trade studies, interfaces definition, and validation, by means of a variety of approaches (like Model Checking, Simulation, Model Transformation) and methodologies (like OOSEM, State Analysis)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020066395','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020066395"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Autonomy for Robust Mars Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter <span class="hlt">model-based</span> autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28219833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28219833"><span>Statistical appearance <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on probabilistic correspondences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krüger, Julia; Ehrhardt, Jan; Handels, Heinz</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> image analysis is indispensable in medical image processing. One key aspect of building statistical shape and appearance models is the determination of one-to-one correspondences in the training data set. At the same time, the identification of these correspondences is the most challenging part of such methods. In our earlier work, we developed an alternative method using correspondence probabilities instead of exact one-to-one correspondences for a statistical shape model (Hufnagel et al., 2008). In this work, a new approach for statistical appearance models without one-to-one correspondences is proposed. A sparse image representation is used to build a model that combines point position and appearance information at the same time. Probabilistic correspondences between the derived multi-dimensional feature vectors are used to omit the need for extensive preprocessing of finding landmarks and correspondences as well as to reduce the dependence of the generated model on the landmark positions. Model generation and model fitting can now be expressed by optimizing a single global criterion derived from a maximum a-posteriori (MAP) approach with respect to model parameters that directly affect both shape and appearance of the considered objects inside the images. The proposed approach describes statistical appearance modeling in a concise and flexible mathematical framework. Besides eliminating the demand for costly correspondence determination, the method allows for additional constraints as topological regularity in the modeling process. In the evaluation the model was applied for segmentation and landmark identification in hand X-ray images. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model to detect hand contours as well as the positions of the joints between finger bones for unseen test images. Further, we evaluated the model on brain data of stroke patients to show the ability of the proposed model to handle partially corrupted data and to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163765"><span>Characterisation of the LMS200 laser beam under the influence of <span class="hlt">blockage</span> surfaces. Influence on 3D scanning of tree orchards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanz-Cortiella, Ricardo; Llorens-Calveras, Jordi; Rosell-Polo, Joan R; Gregorio-Lopez, Eduard; Palacin-Roca, Jordi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The geometric characterisation of tree orchards is a high-precision activity comprising the accurate measurement and knowledge of the geometry and structure of the trees. Different types of sensors can be used to perform this characterisation. In this work a terrestrial LIDAR sensor (SICK LMS200) whose emission source was a 905-nm pulsed laser diode was used. Given the known dimensions of the laser beam cross-section (with diameters ranging from 12 mm at the point of emission to 47.2 mm at a distance of 8 m), and the known dimensions of the elements that make up the crops under study (flowers, leaves, fruits, branches, trunks), it was anticipated that, for much of the time, the laser beam would only partially hit a foreground target/object, with the consequent problem of mixed pixels or edge effects. Understanding what happens in such situations was the principal objective of this work. With this in mind, a series of tests were set up to determine the geometry of the emitted beam and to determine the response of the sensor to different beam <span class="hlt">blockage</span> scenarios. The main conclusions that were drawn from the results obtained were: (i) in a partial beam <span class="hlt">blockage</span> scenario, the distance value given by the sensor depends more on the blocked radiant power than on the blocked surface area; (ii) there is an area that influences the measurements obtained that is dependent on the percentage of <span class="hlt">blockage</span> and which ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 m with respect to the foreground target/object. If the laser beam impacts on a second target/object located within this range, this will affect the measurement given by the sensor. To interpret the information obtained from the point clouds provided by the LIDAR sensors, such as the volume occupied and the enclosing area, it is necessary to know the resolution and the process for obtaining this mesh of points and also to be aware of the problem associated with mixed pixels.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S43A4515S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S43A4515S"><span>High-Order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) Method for Wave Propagation Simulation in Complex Geophysical Media - Elastic, Acoustic and <span class="hlt">Hydro-Acoustic</span> - an Unifying Framework to Couple Continuous Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sébastien, T.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.; Mariotti, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, <span class="hlt">hydro-acoustic</span>, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and <span class="hlt">hydro-acoustic</span> media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/220557','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/220557"><span>Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-<span class="hlt">blockage</span>-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow <span class="hlt">blockage</span> events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at ORNL. Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between dmaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur beause of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A parametric study was done for several uncertain variables. The study included investigating effects of plate contact area, convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity on fuel swelling, and initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects of damage propagation. Results provide useful insights into how variouss uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25175074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25175074"><span>PNA binding to the non-template DNA strand interferes with transcription, suggesting a <span class="hlt">blockage</span> mechanism mediated by R-loop formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Hanawalt, Philip C</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are artificial DNA mimics with superior nucleic acid binding capabilities. T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) transcription upon encountering PNA bound to the non-template DNA strand was studied in vitro. A characteristic pattern of <span class="hlt">blockage</span> signals was observed, extending downstream from the PNA binding site, similar to that produced by G-rich homopurine-homopyrimidine (hPu-hPy) sequences and likely caused by R-loop formation. Since blocked transcription complexes in association with stable R-loops may interfere with replication and in some cases trigger apoptosis, targeted R-loop formation might be employed to inactivate selected cells, such as those in tumors, based upon their unique complement of expressed genes. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039910"><span>R and D program for French sodium fast reactor: On the description and detection of sodium boiling phenomena during sub-assembly <span class="hlt">blockages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Seiler, J. M.; Tourin, A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>In support of the French ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor program, which aims to demonstrate the industrial applicability of sodium fast reactors with an increased level of safety demonstration and availability compared to the past French sodium fast reactors, emphasis is placed on reactor instrumentation. It is in this framework that CEA studies continuous core monitoring to detect as early as possible the onset of sodium boiling. Such a detection system is of particular interest due to the rapid progress and the consequences of a Total Instantaneous <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> (TIB) at a subassembly inlet, where sodium boiling intervenes in an early phase. In this paper, the authors describe all the particularities which intervene during the different boiling stages and explore possibilities for their detection. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790628"><span>Short tandem target mimic: a long journey to the engineered molecular landmine for selective destruction/<span class="hlt">blockage</span> of microRNAs in plants and animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tang, Guiliang; Tang, Xiaoqing</p> <p>2013-06-20</p> <p>MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a population of highly conserved specific small ribo-regulators that negatively regulate gene expressions in both plants and animals. They play a key role in post-transcriptional gene regulation by destabilizing the target gene transcripts or blocking protein translation from them. Interestingly, these negative regulators are largely compromised by an upstream layer of negative regulators "target mimics" found in plants or "endogenous competing RNAs" revealed recently in animals. These endogenous regulatory mechanisms of "double negatives making a positive" have now been developed into a key strategy in the study of small RNA functions. This review presents some reflections on the long journey to the short tandem target mimic (STTM) for selective destruction/<span class="hlt">blockage</span> of specific miRNAs in plants and animals, and the potential applications of STTM are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28569789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28569789"><span>Knockdown of miR-128a induces Lin28a expression and reverts myeloid differentiation <span class="hlt">blockage</span> in acute myeloid leukemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Luca, Luciana; Trino, Stefania; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Tagliaferri, Daniela; Falco, Geppino; Grieco, Vitina; Bianchino, Gabriella; Nozza, Filomena; Campia, Valentina; D'Alessio, Francesca; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Villani, Oreste; Cilloni, Daniela; Musto, Pellegrino; Del Vecchio, Luigi</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Lin28A is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that concurs to control the balance between stemness and differentiation in several tissue lineages. Here, we report the role of miR-128a/Lin28A axis in blocking cell differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormally controlled proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells accompanied by partial or total inability to undergo terminal differentiation. First, we found Lin28A underexpressed in blast cells from AML patients and AML cell lines as compared with CD34+ normal precursors. In vitro transfection of Lin28A in NPM1-mutated OCI-AML3 cell line significantly triggered cell-cycle arrest and myeloid differentiation, with increased expression of macrophage associate genes (EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1). Furthermore, miR-128a, a negative regulator of Lin28A, was found overexpressed in AML cells compared with normal precursors, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and in 'AML with maturation' (according to 2016 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia). Its forced overexpression by lentiviral infection in OCI-AML3 downregulated Lin28A with ensuing repression of macrophage-oriented differentiation. Finally, knockdown of miR-128a in OCI-AML3 and in APL/AML leukemic cells (by transfection and lentiviral infection, respectively) induced myeloid cell differentiation and increased expression of Lin28A, EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1, reverting myeloid differentiation <span class="hlt">blockage</span>. In conclusion, our findings revealed a new mechanism for AML differentiation <span class="hlt">blockage</span>, suggesting new strategies for AML therapy based upon miR-128a inhibition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5520910','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5520910"><span>Knockdown of miR-128a induces Lin28a expression and reverts myeloid differentiation <span class="hlt">blockage</span> in acute myeloid leukemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Luca, Luciana; Trino, Stefania; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Tagliaferri, Daniela; Falco, Geppino; Grieco, Vitina; Bianchino, Gabriella; Nozza, Filomena; Campia, Valentina; D'Alessio, Francesca; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Villani, Oreste; Cilloni, Daniela; Musto, Pellegrino; Del Vecchio, Luigi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Lin28A is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that concurs to control the balance between stemness and differentiation in several tissue lineages. Here, we report the role of miR-128a/Lin28A axis in blocking cell differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormally controlled proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells accompanied by partial or total inability to undergo terminal differentiation. First, we found Lin28A underexpressed in blast cells from AML patients and AML cell lines as compared with CD34+ normal precursors. In vitro transfection of Lin28A in NPM1-mutated OCI-AML3 cell line significantly triggered cell-cycle arrest and myeloid differentiation, with increased expression of macrophage associate genes (EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1). Furthermore, miR-128a, a negative regulator of Lin28A, was found overexpressed in AML cells compared with normal precursors, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and in ‘AML with maturation’ (according to 2016 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia). Its forced overexpression by lentiviral infection in OCI-AML3 downregulated Lin28A with ensuing repression of macrophage-oriented differentiation. Finally, knockdown of miR-128a in OCI-AML3 and in APL/AML leukemic cells (by transfection and lentiviral infection, respectively) induced myeloid cell differentiation and increased expression of Lin28A, EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1, reverting myeloid differentiation <span class="hlt">blockage</span>. In conclusion, our findings revealed a new mechanism for AML differentiation <span class="hlt">blockage</span>, suggesting new strategies for AML therapy based upon miR-128a inhibition. PMID:28569789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA241162','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA241162"><span>Limitations of Non <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Recognition Schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>general classes: <span class="hlt">model-based</span> vs. non <span class="hlt">model-based</span> schemes. In this paper we establish some limitation on the class of non <span class="hlt">model-based</span> recognition schemes. A ...perfect, but is allowed to make mistakes and misidentify each object from a substantial fraction of viewing directions. It follows that every...symmetric objects) a nontrivial recognition scheme exists. We define the notion of a discrimination power of a consistent recognition function for a class</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27825732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27825732"><span>Cognitive components underpinning the development of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Potter, Tracey C S; Bryce, Nessa V; Hartley, Catherine A</p> <p>2016-10-29</p> <p>Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "<span class="hlt">model-based</span>" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9-25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment ("statistical learning"), maintain information in an active state ("working memory") and integrate distant concepts to solve problems ("fluid reasoning") predicted age-related improvements in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007463','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007463"><span>Mars 2020 <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering Pilot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dukes, Alexandra Marie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The pilot study is led by the Integration Engineering group in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). The Integration Engineering (IE) group is responsible for managing the interfaces between the spacecraft and launch vehicle. This pilot investigates the utility of <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Systems Engineering (MBSE) with respect to managing and verifying interface requirements. The main objectives of the pilot are to model several key aspects of the Mars 2020 integrated operations and interface requirements based on the design and verification artifacts from Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and to demonstrate how MBSE could be used by LSP to gain further insight on the interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle as well as to enhance how LSP manages the launch service. The method used to accomplish this pilot started through familiarization of SysML, MagicDraw, and the Mars 2020 and MSL systems through books, tutorials, and NASA documentation. MSL was chosen as the focus of the model since its processes and verifications translate easily to the Mars 2020 mission. The study was further focused by modeling specialized systems and processes within MSL in order to demonstrate the utility of MBSE for the rest of the mission. The systems chosen were the In-Flight Disconnect (IFD) system and the Mass Properties process. The IFD was chosen as a system of focus since it is an interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle which can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a system perspective. The Mass Properties process was chosen as a process of focus since the verifications for mass properties occur throughout the lifecycle and can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a multi-discipline perspective. Several iterations of both perspectives have been modeled and evaluated. While the pilot study will continue for another 2 weeks, pros and cons of using MBSE for LSP IE have been identified. A pro of using MBSE includes an integrated view of the disciplines, requirements, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ExFl...55.1651F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ExFl...55.1651F"><span>A novel approach for the isolation of the sound and pseudo-sound contributions from near-field pressure fluctuation measurements: analysis of the <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> and hydrodynamic perturbation in a propeller-rudder system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Felli, Mario; Grizzi, Silvano; Falchi, Massimo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The main scope of the present work is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">hydroacoustic</span> and hydrodynamic perturbations in a rudder operating in the wake of a free running marine propeller. The study consisted of detailed near-field pressure fluctuation measurements which were acquired on the face and back surfaces of the rudder, at different deflection angles. To this aim, a novel wavelet-filtering procedure was applied to separate and analyze distinctly the acoustic and hydrodynamic components of the recorded near-field pressure signals. The filtering procedure undertakes the separation of intermittent pressure peaks induced by the passage of eddy structures, interpreted as pseudo-sound, from homogenous background fluctuations, interpreted as sound. The use of wavelet in the filtering procedure allows to overcome the limitations of the earlier attempts based on frequency (wave number) band-pass filtering, retrieving the overall frequency content of both the acoustic and the hydrodynamic components and returning them as independent signals in the time domain. Acoustic and hydrodynamic pressure distributions were decomposed harmonically and compared to the corresponding topologies of the vorticity field, derived from earlier LDV measurements performed by Felli and Falchi (Exp Fluids 51(5):1385-1402, 2011). The study highlighted that the acoustic perturbation is mainly correlated with the unsteady load variations of the rudder and to the shear layer fluctuations of the propeller streamtube. Conversely, the dynamics of the propeller tip and hub vortices underlies the hydrodynamic perturbation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4457653','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4457653"><span>Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 <span class="hlt">blockage</span> enhances autophagy in the neurons of triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse and reduces human P301L-tau content at the pre-symptomatic stage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shibuya, Yohei; Niu, Zhaoyang; Bryleva, Elena Y.; Harris, Brent T.; Murphy, Stephanie R.; Kheirollah, Alireza; Bowen, Zachary D.; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Chang, Ta-Yuan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) display amyloidopathy and tauopathy. In mouse models of AD, pharmacological inhibition using small molecule enzyme inhibitors, or genetic inactivation of Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) diminished amyloidopathy and restored cognitive deficits. In microglia, ACAT1 <span class="hlt">blockage</span> increases autophagosome formation and stimulates amyloid β peptide1–42 degradation. Here we hypothesize that in neurons ACAT1 <span class="hlt">blockage</span> augments autophagy and increases autophagy-mediated degradation of P301L-tau protein. We tested this possibility in murine neuroblastoma cells ectopically expressing human tau, and in primary neurons isolated from triple transgenic AD (3XTg-AD) mice that express mutant forms of APP, PS1, and human tau. The results show that ACAT1 <span class="hlt">blockage</span> increases autophagosome formation and decreases P301L-tau protein content without affecting endogenous mouse tau protein content. In vivo, lacking Acat1 decreases P301L-tau protein content in the brains of young 3XTg-AD mice but not in those of old mice, where extensive hyperphosphorylations and aggregation of P301L-tau take place. These results suggest that, in addition to ameliorating amyloidopathy in both young and old AD mice, ACAT1 <span class="hlt">blockage</span> may benefit AD by reducing tauopathy at early stage. PMID:25930235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+equilibrium&pg=2&id=EJ833095','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+equilibrium&pg=2&id=EJ833095"><span>Learning of Chemical Equilibrium through <span class="hlt">Modelling-Based</span> Teaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maia, Poliana Flavia; Justi, Rosaria</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents and discusses students' learning process of chemical equilibrium from a <span class="hlt">modelling-based</span> approach developed from the use of the "Model of Modelling" diagram. The investigation was conducted in a regular classroom (students 14-15 years old) and aimed at discussing how <span class="hlt">modelling-based</span> teaching can contribute to students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ebsco&pg=4&id=EJ1028805','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ebsco&pg=4&id=EJ1028805"><span><span class="hlt">Models-Based</span> Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Casey, Ashley</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or <span class="hlt">models-based</span> approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around <span class="hlt">models-based</span> practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1035230','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1035230"><span>Assessment of Energy Efficient and <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-06-15</p> <p>ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy -Efficient and <span class="hlt">Model</span>- <span class="hlt">Based</span> Control by Craig Lennon...originator. ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy -Efficient and <span class="hlt">Model</span>- <span class="hlt">Based</span> Control by Craig...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADD018209','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADD018209"><span>A <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Process for Translating Test Programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-09-13</p> <p>first language , converting the extracted test strategy into an asymmetric dependency model, converting the dependency model into a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> test strategy, extracting code segments from the existing test program, translating the extracted code segments into the second language, and merging the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> test strategy and the translated code segments into a new test program in the second</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=toulmin&pg=3&id=EJ913938','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=toulmin&pg=3&id=EJ913938"><span>Argumentation in Science Education: A <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bottcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this article is threefold: First, the theoretical background for a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> framework of argumentation to describe and evaluate argumentative processes in science education is presented. Based on the general <span class="hlt">model-based</span> perspective in cognitive science and the philosophy of science, it is proposed to understand arguments as reasons…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+equilibrium&pg=2&id=EJ833095','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemical+AND+equilibrium&pg=2&id=EJ833095"><span>Learning of Chemical Equilibrium through <span class="hlt">Modelling-Based</span> Teaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maia, Poliana Flavia; Justi, Rosaria</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents and discusses students' learning process of chemical equilibrium from a <span class="hlt">modelling-based</span> approach developed from the use of the "Model of Modelling" diagram. The investigation was conducted in a regular classroom (students 14-15 years old) and aimed at discussing how <span class="hlt">modelling-based</span> teaching can contribute to students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ebsco&pg=3&id=EJ1028805','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ebsco&pg=3&id=EJ1028805"><span><span class="hlt">Models-Based</span> Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Casey, Ashley</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or <span class="hlt">models-based</span> approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around <span class="hlt">models-based</span> practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10205E..06J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10205E..06J"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design introduction: modeling game controllers to microprocessor architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jungwirth, Patrick; Badawy, Abdel-Hameed</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We present an introduction to <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design. <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design is a visual representation, generally a block diagram, to model and incrementally develop a complex system. <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design is a commonly used design methodology for digital signal processing, control systems, and embedded systems. <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design's philosophy is: to solve a problem - a step at a time. The approach can be compared to a series of steps to converge to a solution. A block diagram simulation tool allows a design to be simulated with real world measurement data. For example, if an analog control system is being upgraded to a digital control system, the analog sensor input signals can be recorded. The digital control algorithm can be simulated with the real world sensor data. The output from the simulated digital control system can then be compared to the old analog based control system. <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design can compared to Agile software develop. The Agile software development goal is to develop working software in incremental steps. Progress is measured in completed and tested code units. Progress is measured in <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design by completed and tested blocks. We present a concept for a video game controller and then use <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design to iterate the design towards a working system. We will also describe a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> design effort to develop an OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture based on the RISC-V.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1127622.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1127622.pdf"><span>The Effect of <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Science Education on Critical Thinking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bati, Kaan; Kaptan, Fitnat</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study to what degree the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> science education can influence the development of the critical thinking skills of the students was investigated. The research was based on pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design with control group. The <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Science Education Program which was prepared with the purpose of exploring…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4588166','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4588166"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lübbert, Annika; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> and model-free reinforcement learning (RL) have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led <span class="hlt">model-based</span> RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load—a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26379239</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26379239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26379239"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Economides, Marcos; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Lübbert, Annika; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> and model-free reinforcement learning (RL) have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led <span class="hlt">model-based</span> RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load--a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16834972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16834972"><span>[Effects of <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis by metyrapone and Jiawei Xiaoyao Pills on immune system in mice exposed to chronic emotional stress].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yun; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Xiao, Jian; Geng, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Yan-Xia; Li, Shi-Jie</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>To explore the effects of Jiawei Xiaoyao Pills (JWXYP) on immune system of mice exposed to chronic emotional stress, and to compare its effects with <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) by metyrapone. Eighty male mice were randomly divided into eight groups: normal saline-treated group, normal saline-treated stress group, JWXYP-treated group, JWXYP-treated stress group, metyrapone-treated group, metyrapone-treated stress group, metyrapone and JWXYP-treated group and metyrapone and JWXYP-treated stress group. A box of electrical shock was used to induce chronic emotional stress in mice. The metyrapone was applied to blocking the HPAA. The JWXYP, a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine, which can alleviate the damages caused by chronic emotional stress, was also used to compare its effects with that of metyrapone. The body weight, thymus index, rate of apoptosis in thymus, serum concentration of glucocorticoid, activity of natural killer cells, lymphocyte transmission rate of mice were all measured and examined after interventions. The pathological changes of thymus tissue were observed. The thymus index, activity of natural killer cells and lymphocyte transmission rate were lower while the rate of apoptosis in thymus as well as the severity degree of pathological damages in thymus tissue were increased in the different drug-treated stress groups as compared with those in the corresponding drug-treated groups without stress. The activity of natural killer cells and the lymphocyte transmission rate induced by lipopolysaccharide were increased while the serum concentration of glucocorticoid and the severity degree of pathological damages in thymus tissue were decreased in both the metyrapone-treated stress group and JWXYP-treated stress group as compared with those in the normal saline-treated stress group. The combined intervention of metyrapone and JWXYP did not show better effects on immune system in mice exposed to chronic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023573&hterms=diagnosability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddiagnosability','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023573&hterms=diagnosability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddiagnosability"><span>Overcoming limitations of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostic reasoning systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holtzblatt, Lester J.; Marcotte, Richard A.; Piazza, Richard L.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The development of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostic system to overcome the limitations of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning systems is discussed. It is noted that <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning techniques can be used to analyze the failure behavior and diagnosability of system and circuit designs as part of the system process itself. One goal of current research is the development of a diagnostic algorithm which can reason efficiently about large numbers of diagnostic suspects and can handle both combinational and sequential circuits. A second goal is to address the model-creation problem by developing an approach for using design models to construct the GMODS model in an automated fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023573&hterms=research+limitations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dresearch%2Blimitations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023573&hterms=research+limitations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dresearch%2Blimitations"><span>Overcoming limitations of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostic reasoning systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holtzblatt, Lester J.; Marcotte, Richard A.; Piazza, Richard L.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The development of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostic system to overcome the limitations of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning systems is discussed. It is noted that <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning techniques can be used to analyze the failure behavior and diagnosability of system and circuit designs as part of the system process itself. One goal of current research is the development of a diagnostic algorithm which can reason efficiently about large numbers of diagnostic suspects and can handle both combinational and sequential circuits. A second goal is to address the model-creation problem by developing an approach for using design models to construct the GMODS model in an automated fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4898T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4898T"><span>High-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method for wave propagation simulation in complex geophysical media (elastic, acoustic and <span class="hlt">hydro-acoustic</span>); an unifying framework to couple continuous Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Terrana, Sebastien; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Guillot, Laurent; Mariotti, Christian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, <span class="hlt">hydro-acoustic</span>, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and <span class="hlt">hydro-acoustic</span> media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613505','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613505"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Iterative Reconstruction for Bright Field Electron Tomography (Postprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Reconstruction Technique ( SIRT ) are applied to the data. <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> iterative reconstruction (MBIR) provides a powerful framework for tomographic...the reconstruction when the typical algorithms such as Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique ( SIRT ) are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/168359','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/168359"><span>Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-<span class="hlt">blockage</span>-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow <span class="hlt">blockage</span> events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effects of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28717187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28717187"><span>The inducible <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of RNAi reveals a role for polyunsaturated fatty acids in the regulation of dsRNA-endocytic capacity in Bactrocera dorsalis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaoxue; Li, Qiujia; Jia, Hongmei; Zhang, Hongyu</p> <p>2017-07-17</p> <p>Exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can trigger gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Our previous research established that Bactrocera dorsalis can block RNAi after an initial priming of exposure to dsRNA. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways play important roles in the <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of RNAi induced by dsRNA priming. The ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) was significantly increased in the hemolymph of B. dorsalis following dsRNA priming, and further, the endocytosis of dsRNA into the midgut cells of B. dorsalis was inhibited in these samples. The expression levels of most genes involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways were altered following priming with dsRNA. Furthermore, altering the composition of fatty acids via the injection of AA can facilitate the uptake of ingested dsRNA into the midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster and successfully induce an RNAi effect, which cannot be achieved via feeding in fruit flies. Our results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in the regulation of the dsRNA-endocytic ability in B. dorsalis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20620179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20620179"><span>PI3K/Akt signaling mediated apoptosis <span class="hlt">blockage</span> and viral gene expression in oral epithelial cells during herpes simplex virus infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Mei-Ju; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chiang, Hsiao-Han; Lai, Yu-Lin; Hung, Shan-Ling</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) function in the anti-apoptotic pathway, and are commonly exploited by various viruses to accomplish the viral life cycle. This study examined the role of the PI3K pathway in human oral epithelial cells following herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The results showed that HSV-1 induced the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Phosphorylation of Akt, but not GSK-3, induced by HSV-1 was PI3K-dependent. The expression of HSV-1 immediate-early genes may be involved in the initial phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3. Inhibition of HSV-1-induced PI3K activity increased DNA fragmentation and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 7 compared with infected alone. Inhibition of PI3K attenuated the expression of HSV-1-infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), but not thymidine kinase (TK) and viral replication. Collectively, these data suggested that, in oral epithelial cells, the HSV-1-induced PI3K/Akt activation was involved in the regulation of apoptosis <span class="hlt">blockage</span> and viral gene expression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900010239','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900010239"><span>The utilization of an infrared imaging system as a cooling slot <span class="hlt">blockage</span> detector in the inspection of a transpiration cooled nozzle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Borg, Stephen E.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Alderfer, David W.; Whipple, Janet C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive examination of the 8 foot temperature tunnel's transpiration cooled nozzle was completed using an infrared imaging radiometer to locate regions of cooling flow irregularities caused by obstruction of three or more adjacent cooling slots. Restrictions in the cooling flow were found and cataloged. <span class="hlt">Blockages</span> found were due primarily to the presence of residual phosphoric acid being discharged from some of the cooling slots. This acid was used during construction of the nozzle components and was to have been purged prior to its delivery to the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). In addition, a radial displacement of one selection of discs located in the spool piece was inspected and cataloged for future reference. There did not seem to be a serious restriction of flow in this defect, but evidence from the infrared images indicated reduced slot activity within the gouge. The radiometer survey uncovered regions where closer inspection is recommended but did not cover the entire surface area of the three nozzle subsections due to equipment limitations. A list of areas with suspected problems is included in Appendix A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15592093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15592093"><span>Does the valve regulated release of urine from the bladder decrease encrustation and <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of indwelling catheters by crystalline proteus mirabilis biofilms?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabbuba, N A; Stickler, D J; Long, M J; Dong, Z; Short, T D; Feneley, R J C</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We tested whether valve regulated, intermittent flow of urine from catheterized bladders decreases catheter encrustation. Laboratory models of the catheterized bladder were infected with Proteus mirabilis. Urine was allowed to drain continuously through the catheters or regulated by valves to drain intermittently at predetermined intervals. The time that catheters required to become blocked was recorded and encrustation was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. When a manual valve was used to drain urine from the bladder at 2-hour intervals 4 times during the day, catheters required significantly longer to become blocked than those on continuous drainage (mean 62.6 vs 35.9 hours, p = 0.039). A similar 1.7-fold increase occurred when urine was drained at 4-hour intervals 3 times daily. Experiments with an automatic valve in which urine was released at 2 or 4-hour intervals through the day and night also showed a significant increase in mean time to <span class="hlt">blockage</span> compared with continuous drainage (p = 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that crystalline biofilm was less extensive on valve regulated catheters. Valve regulated, intermittent flow of urine through catheters increases the time that catheters require to become blocked with crystalline biofilm. The most beneficial effect was recorded when urine was released from the bladder at 4-hour intervals throughout the day and night by an automatic valve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25736300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25736300"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of ROS and NF-κB-mediated inflammation by a new chalcone L6H9 protects cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia-induced injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhong, Peng; Wu, Lianpin; Qian, Yuanyuan; Fang, Qilu; Liang, Dandan; Wang, Jingying; Zeng, Chunlai; Wang, Yi; Liang, Guang</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Increased oxidative stress and cardiac inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We previously found that a novel chalcone derivative, L6H9, was able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. This study was designed to investigate its protective effects on DCM and the underlying mechanisms. H9C2 cells were cultured with DMEM containing 33 mmol/L of glucose in the presence or absence of L6H9. Pretreatment with L6H9 significantly reduced high glucose-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, ROS level increase, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells, which may be mediated by NF-κB inhibition and Nrf2 activation. In mice with STZ-induced diabetes, oral administration of L6H9 at 20 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks significantly decreased the cardiac cytokine and ROS level, accompanied by decreasing cardiac apoptosis and hypertrophy, and, finally, improved histological abnormalities and fibrosis, without affecting the hyperglycemia. L6H9 also attenuated the diabetes-induced NF-κB activation and Nrf2 decrease in diabetic hearts. These results strongly suggest that L6H9 may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DCM via <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of inflammation and oxidative stress. This study also provides a deeper understanding of the regulatory role of Nrf2 and NF-κB in DCM, indicating that they may be important therapeutic targets for diabetic complications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11496111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11496111"><span>Co-expression of wild-type and mutant olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channels: restoration of the native sensitivity to Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) <span class="hlt">blockage</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picco, C; Gavazzo, P; Menini, A</p> <p>2001-08-08</p> <p>In the pore of homomeric cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) bind to a set of glutamate residues, which in the bovine olfactory CNG channel are located at position 340. However, native CNG channels from olfactory sensory neurons are composed by the assembly of three different types of subunits, each having a different residue -- glutamate, aspartate or glycine -- at the position corresponding to the binding site for external Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). We co-expressed the wild-type principal alpha subunit with its mutants E340G and E340D in different combinations in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and measured Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) <span class="hlt">blockage</span> in excised outside-out membrane patches. The comparison between our results and data from native olfactory CNG channels indicates that the presence of all three residues -- glutamate, aspartate and glycine -- in the different subunits, is necessary to restore the sensitivity to external Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) measured in native channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086117','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086117"><span>Lithium ion-imprinted polymers with hydrophilic PHEMA polymer brushes: The role of grafting density in anti-interference and anti-<span class="hlt">blockage</span> in wastewater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Xubiao; Zhong, Weiping; Luo, Jinming; Yang, Lixia; Long, Jian; Guo, Bin; Luo, Shenglian</p> <p>2017-04-15</p> <p>Hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes were modified onto the surface of ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) via addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Four different grafting densities (1.43, 1.31, 1.17 and 1.06chains/nm(2)) of IIPs were obtained, revealed by analysis using gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). All the grafted IIPs had good anti-interference properties compared to the ungrafted IIPs, although the adsorption capacity of the ungrafted IIPs was higher than that of grafted IIPs in pure water. Among them, the grafted IIP3, with a grafting density of β=1.17chains/nm(2), exhibited superior anti-interference ability in silica and polymer flocculant simulated wastewater; moreover, it remained steady after 10 adsorption-desorption cycles. SEM-EDX and XPS data revealed anti-interference and anti-<span class="hlt">blockage</span> mechanisms in which hydrophilic PHEMA brushes could effectively adhere to fine particles and flocculants through Van der Waals force interactions, which make the imprinted cavities well protected in a complex wastewater environment. Moreover, these grafted IIPs exhibit similar adsorption rate constants that are approximately 2 times greater than those of ungrafted IIPs, indicating that the PHEMA brushes increased the accessibility to Li(I) due to hydrophilic modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1976B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1976B"><span>Mind the Gap: Reconstructing the timing and consequences of the <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of the Humber Gap by the last British-Irish Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bateman, Mark; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Ely, Jeremy; Medialdea, Alicia; Clark, Chris</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Eastern England terrestrial glacial sequences are critical to the spatial and temporal reconstruction of the last British-Irish Ice sheet (BIIS). Understanding the Humber Gap area is key as its <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by ice created the extensive proglacial lakes. Here we use the glacial geomorphology and luminescence based chronologies from the Humber Gap region to establish the extent and thickness of the North Sea Lobe (NSL) of the BIIS. From this we establish the initial maximal ice advance occurred regionally at 21.2 ka. The NSL retreated off-shore 18 ka (Stage 2). Punctuated in stages in the south of the region whilst in the north retreat was initially rapid before a series of near synchronous ice-advances occurred at 16.8 ka (Stage 3). Full withdrawal of BIIS ice occurred prior to 15 ka (Stage 4). Geomorphic mapping and stratigraphy confirms the existence of a proto Lake Humber in Stage 1 which persisted to Stage 3 expanding eastward as the NSL ice retreated. It appears wherever during the advance and retreat of the NSL ice encountered low topography and reverse gradients proglacial lakes commonly formed. These lakes through ice draw down and associated streaming/surging may in part explain the dynamism of the parts of the NSL. The above record of ice-dammed lakes provides an analogue for now off-shore parts of the BIIS where it advanced as number of asynchronous lowland lobes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/111449','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/111449"><span>Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-<span class="hlt">blockage</span>-initiated accidents in the advanced neutron source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow <span class="hlt">blockage</span> events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effect of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1026996','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1026996"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Engineering for Supply Chain Risk Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Engineering for Supply Chain Risk Management Dan Shoemaker, Ph.D. University of Detroit Mercy Carol Woody, Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon...University Software Engineering Institute Abstract—Expanded use of commercial components has increased the complexity of system assurance...verification. <span class="hlt">Model</span>- <span class="hlt">based</span> engineering (MBE) offers a means to design, develop, analyze, and maintain a complex system architecture. Architecture Analysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030559','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030559"><span>Qualitative <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis using possibility theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Joslyn, Cliff</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The potential for the use of possibility in the qualitative <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis of spacecraft systems is described. The first sections of the paper briefly introduce the <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Diagnostic (MBD) approach to spacecraft fault diagnosis; Qualitative Modeling (QM) methodologies; and the concepts of possibilistic modeling in the context of Generalized Information Theory (GIT). Then the necessary conditions for the applicability of possibilistic methods to qualitative MBD, and a number of potential directions for such an application, are described.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27175984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27175984"><span>Reduced <span class="hlt">model-based</span> decision-making in schizophrenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Culbreth, Adam J; Westbrook, Andrew; Daw, Nathaniel D; Botvinick, Matthew; Barch, Deanna M</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Individuals with schizophrenia have a diminished ability to use reward history to adaptively guide behavior. However, tasks traditionally used to assess such deficits often rely on multiple cognitive and neural processes, leaving etiology unresolved. In the current study, we adopted recent computational formalisms of reinforcement learning to distinguish between <span class="hlt">model-based</span> and model-free decision-making in hopes of specifying mechanisms associated with reinforcement-learning dysfunction in schizophrenia. Under this framework, decision-making is model-free to the extent that it relies solely on prior reward history, and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> if it relies on prospective information such as motivational state, future consequences, and the likelihood of obtaining various outcomes. <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> and model-free decision-making was assessed in 33 schizophrenia patients and 30 controls using a 2-stage 2-alternative forced choice task previously demonstrated to discern individual differences in reliance on the 2 forms of reinforcement-learning. We show that, compared with controls, schizophrenia patients demonstrate decreased reliance on <span class="hlt">model-based</span> decision-making. Further, parameter estimates of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> behavior correlate positively with IQ and working memory measures, suggesting that <span class="hlt">model-based</span> deficits seen in schizophrenia may be partially explained by higher-order cognitive deficits. These findings demonstrate specific reinforcement-learning and decision-making deficits and thereby provide valuable insights for understanding disordered behavior in schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013261','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013261"><span>Experimental evaluation of <span class="hlt">blockage</span> ratio and plenum evacuation system flow effects on pressure distribution for bodies of revolution in 0.1 scale model test section of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed altitude wind tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burley, Richard R.; Harrington, Douglas E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An experimental investigation was conducted in the slotted test section of the 0.1-scale model of the proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel to evaluate wall interference effects at tunnel Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.95 on bodies of revolution with <span class="hlt">blockage</span> rates of 0.43, 3, 6, and 12 percent. The amount of flow that had to be removed from the plenum chamber (which surrounded the slotted test section) by the plenum evacuation system (PES) to eliminate wall interference effects was determined. The effectiveness of tunnel reentry flaps in removing flow from the plenum chamber was examined. The 0.43-percent <span class="hlt">blockage</span> model was the only one free of wall interference effects with no PES flow. Surface pressures on the forward part of the other models were greater than interference-free results and were not influenced by PES flow. Interference-free results were achieved on the aft part of the 3- and 6-percent <span class="hlt">blockage</span> models with the proper amount of PES flow. The required PES flow was substantially reduced by opening the reentry flaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Sc%26Ed..20..103B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Sc%26Ed..20..103B"><span>Argumentation in Science Education: A <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Böttcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The goal of this article is threefold: First, the theoretical background for a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> framework of argumentation to describe and evaluate argumentative processes in science education is presented. Based on the general <span class="hlt">model-based</span> perspective in cognitive science and the philosophy of science, it is proposed to understand arguments as reasons for the appropriateness of a theoretical model which explains a certain phenomenon. Argumentation is considered to be the process of the critical evaluation of such a model if necessary in relation to alternative models. Secondly, some methodological details are exemplified for the use of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> analysis in the concrete classroom context. Third, the application of the approach in comparison with other analytical models will be presented to demonstrate the explicatory power and depth of the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> perspective. Primarily, the framework of Toulmin to structurally analyse arguments is contrasted with the approach presented here. It will be demonstrated how common methodological and theoretical problems in the context of Toulmin's framework can be overcome through a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> perspective. Additionally, a second more complex argumentative sequence will also be analysed according to the invented analytical scheme to give a broader impression of its potential in practical use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2244..206Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2244..206Q"><span>Applying <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostics to space power distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quinn, Todd M.; Schlegelmilch, Richard F.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>When engineers diagnose system failures, they often use models to confirm system operation. This concept has produced a class of advanced expert systems which perform <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis. A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostic expert system for a Space Station Freedom electrical power distribution testbed is currently being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The objective of this expert system is to autonomously detect and isolate electrical fault conditions. Marple, a software package developed at TRW, provides a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> environment utilizing constraint suspension. Originally, constraint suspension techniques were developed for digital systems. However, Marple provides the mechanisms for applying this approach to analog systems, such as the testbed, as well. The expert system was developed using Marple and Lucid Common Lisp running on Sun Sparc-2 workstation. The Marple modeling environment has proved to be a useful tool for investigating the various aspects of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostics. This paper describes work completed to date and lessons learned while employing <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostics using constraint suspension within an analog system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5537496','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5537496"><span>Embracing <span class="hlt">model-based</span> designs for dose-finding trials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Love, Sharon B; Brown, Sarah; Weir, Christopher J; Harbron, Chris; Yap, Christina; Gaschler-Markefski, Birgit; Matcham, James; Caffrey, Louise; McKevitt, Christopher; Clive, Sally; Craddock, Charlie; Spicer, James; Cornelius, Victoria</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background: Dose-finding trials are essential to drug development as they establish recommended doses for later-phase testing. We aim to motivate wider use of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> designs for dose finding, such as the continual reassessment method (CRM). Methods: We carried out a literature review of dose-finding designs and conducted a survey to identify perceived barriers to their implementation. Results: We describe the benefits of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> designs (flexibility, superior operating characteristics, extended scope), their current uptake, and existing resources. The most prominent barriers to implementation of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> design were lack of suitable training, chief investigators’ preference for algorithm-based designs (e.g., 3+3), and limited resources for study design before funding. We use a real-world example to illustrate how these barriers can be overcome. Conclusions: There is overwhelming evidence for the benefits of CRM. Many leading pharmaceutical companies routinely implement <span class="hlt">model-based</span> designs. Our analysis identified barriers for academic statisticians and clinical academics in mirroring the progress industry has made in trial design. Unified support from funders, regulators, and journal editors could result in more accurate doses for later-phase testing, and increase the efficiency and success of clinical drug development. We give recommendations for increasing the uptake of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> designs for dose-finding trials in academia. PMID:28664918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5085681','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5085681"><span>Stereoselective <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of Quinidine and Quinine in the hERG Channel and the Effect of Their Rescue Potency on Drug-Induced hERG Trafficking Defect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yan, Meng; Fan, Pan; Shi, Yanhui; Feng, Lifang; Wang, Junnan; Zhan, Ge; Li, Baoxin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Diastereoisomers of quinidine and quinine are used to treat arrhythmia and malaria, respectively. It has been reported that both drugs block the hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channel which is essential for myocardium repolarization. Abnormality of repolarization increases risk of arrhythmia. The aim of our research is to study and compare the impacts of quinidine and quinine on hERG. Results show that both drugs block the hERG channel, with quinine 14-fold less potent than quinidine. In addition, they presented distinct impacts on channel dynamics. The results imply their stereospecific block effect on the hERG channel. However, F656C-hERG reversed this stereoselectivity. The mutation decreases affinity of the two drugs with hERG, and quinine was more potent than quinidine in F656C-hERG <span class="hlt">blockage</span>. These data suggest that F656 residue contributes to the stereoselective pocket for quinidine and quinine. Further study demonstrates that both drugs do not change hERG protein levels. In rescue experiments, we found that they exert no reverse effect on pentamidine- or desipramine-induced hERG trafficking defect, although quinidine has been reported to rescue trafficking-deficient pore mutation hERG G601S based on the interaction with F656. Our research demonstrated stereoselective effects of quinidine and quinine on the hERG channel, and this is the first study to explore their reversal potency on drug-induced hERG deficiency. PMID:27690007</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039656','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039656"><span>PCR-Independent Detection of Bacterial Species-Specific 16S rRNA at 10 fM by a Pore-<span class="hlt">Blockage</span> Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Esfandiari, Leyla; Wang, Siqing; Wang, Siqi; Banda, Anisha; Lorenzini, Michael; Kocharyan, Gayane; Monbouquette, Harold G.; Schmidt, Jacob J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A PCR-free, optics-free device is used for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) 16S rRNA at 10 fM, which corresponds to ~100–1000 colony forming units/mL (CFU/mL) depending on cellular rRNA levels. The development of a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective nucleic acid detection platform is sought for the detection of pathogenic microbes in food, water and body fluids. Since 16S rRNA sequences are species specific and are present at high copy number in viable cells, these nucleic acids offer an attractive target for microbial pathogen detection schemes. Here, target 16S rRNA of E. coli at 10 fM concentration was detected against a total RNA background using a conceptually simple approach based on electromechanical signal transduction, whereby a step change reduction in ionic current through a pore indicates <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by an electrophoretically mobilized bead-peptide nucleic acid probe conjugate hybridized to target nucleic acid. We investigated the concentration detection limit for bacterial species-specific 16S rRNA at 1 pM to 1 fM and found a limit of detection of 10 fM for our device, which is consistent with our previous finding with single-stranded DNA of similar length. In addition, no false positive responses were obtained with control RNA and no false negatives with target 16S rRNA present down to the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM. Thus, this detection scheme shows promise for integration into portable, low-cost systems for rapid detection of pathogenic microbes in food, water and body fluids. PMID:27455337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27690007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27690007"><span>Stereoselective <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of Quinidine and Quinine in the hERG Channel and the Effect of Their Rescue Potency on Drug-Induced hERG Trafficking Defect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Meng; Fan, Pan; Shi, Yanhui; Feng, Lifang; Wang, Junnan; Zhan, Ge; Li, Baoxin</p> <p>2016-09-28</p> <p>Diastereoisomers of quinidine and quinine are used to treat arrhythmia and malaria, respectively. It has been reported that both drugs block the hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channel which is essential for myocardium repolarization. Abnormality of repolarization increases risk of arrhythmia. The aim of our research is to study and compare the impacts of quinidine and quinine on hERG. Results show that both drugs block the hERG channel, with quinine 14-fold less potent than quinidine. In addition, they presented distinct impacts on channel dynamics. The results imply their stereospecific block effect on the hERG channel. However, F656C-hERG reversed this stereoselectivity. The mutation decreases affinity of the two drugs with hERG, and quinine was more potent than quinidine in F656C-hERG <span class="hlt">blockage</span>. These data suggest that F656 residue contributes to the stereoselective pocket for quinidine and quinine. Further study demonstrates that both drugs do not change hERG protein levels. In rescue experiments, we found that they exert no reverse effect on pentamidine- or desipramine-induced hERG trafficking defect, although quinidine has been reported to rescue trafficking-deficient pore mutation hERG G601S based on the interaction with F656. Our research demonstrated stereoselective effects of quinidine and quinine on the hERG channel, and this is the first study to explore their reversal potency on drug-induced hERG deficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4301699','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4301699"><span>Spinal <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of P/Q- or N-type voltage-gated calcium channels modulates functional and symptomatic changes related to haemorrhagic cystitis in mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Silva, R B M; Sperotto, N D M; Andrade, E L; Pereira, T C B; Leite, C E; de Souza, A H; Bogo, M R; Morrone, F B; Gomez, M V; Campos, M M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and Purpose Spinal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are pivotal regulators of painful and inflammatory alterations, representing attractive therapeutic targets. We examined the effects of epidural administration of the P/Q- and N-type VGCC blockers Tx3-3 and Phα1β, respectively, isolated from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, on symptomatic, inflammatory and functional changes allied to mouse cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC). The effects of P. nigriventer-derived toxins were compared with those displayed by MVIIC and MVIIA, extracted from the cone snail Conus magus. Experimental Approach HC was induced by a single i.p. injection of CPA (300 mg·kg–1). Dose- and time-related effects of spinally administered P/Q and N-type VGCC blockers were assessed on nociceptive behaviour and macroscopic inflammation elicited by CPA. The effects of toxins were also evaluated on cell migration, cytokine production, oxidative stress, functional cystometry alterations and TRPV1, TRPA1 and NK1 receptor mRNA expression. Key Results The spinal <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of P/Q-type VGCC by Tx3-3 and MVIIC or N-type VGCC by Phα1β attenuated nociceptive and inflammatory events associated with HC, including bladder oxidative stress and cytokine production. CPA produced a slight increase in bladder TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression, which was reversed by all the toxins tested. Noteworthy, Phα1β strongly prevented bladder neutrophil migration, besides HC-related functional alterations, and its effects were potentiated by co-injecting the selective NK1 receptor antagonist CP-96345. Conclusions and Implications Our results shed new light on the role of spinal P/Q and N-type VGCC in bladder dysfunctions, pointing out Phα1β as a promising alternative for treating complications associated with CPA-induced HC. PMID:25298144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24719554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24719554"><span>Systemic <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME increases left ventricular systolic pressure, which is not augmented further by Intralipid®.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shin, Il-Woo; Hah, Young-Sool; Kim, Cheol; Park, Jungchul; Shin, Heewon; Park, Kyeong-Eon; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Heon-Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Shim, Haeng Seon; Lim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Ju-Tae</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Intravenous lipid emulsions (LEs) are effective in the treatment of toxicity associated with various drugs such as local anesthetics and other lipid soluble agents. The goals of this study were to examine the effect of LE on left ventricular hemodynamic variables and systemic blood pressure in an in vivo rat model, and to determine the associated cellular mechanism with a particular focus on nitric oxide. Two LEs (Intralipid(®) 20% and Lipofundin(®) MCT/LCT 20%) or normal saline were administered intravenously in an in vivo rat model following induction of anesthesia by intramuscular injection of tiletamine/zolazepam and xylazine. Left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), blood pressure, heart rate, maximum rate of intraventricular pressure increase, and maximum rate of intraventricular pressure decrease were measured before and after intravenous administration of various doses of LEs or normal saline to an in vivo rat with or without pretreatment with the non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). Administration of Intralipid(®) (3 and 10 ml/kg) increased LVSP and decreased heart rate. Pretreatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg) increased LSVP and decreased heart rate, whereas subsequent treatment with Intralipid(®) did not significantly alter LVSP. Intralipid(®) (10 ml/kg) increased mean blood pressure and decreased heart rate. The increase in LVSP induced by Lipofundin(®) MCT/LCT was greater than that induced by Intralipid(®). Intralipid(®) (1%) did not significantly alter nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation in endothelium-denuded rat aorta. Taken together, systemic <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of nitric oxide synthase by L-NAME increases LVSP, which is not augmented further by intralipid(®).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27455337"><span>PCR-Independent Detection of Bacterial Species-Specific 16S rRNA at 10 fM by a Pore-<span class="hlt">Blockage</span> Sensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Esfandiari, Leyla; Wang, Siqing; Wang, Siqi; Banda, Anisha; Lorenzini, Michael; Kocharyan, Gayane; Monbouquette, Harold G; Schmidt, Jacob J</p> <p>2016-07-22</p> <p>A PCR-free, optics-free device is used for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) 16S rRNA at 10 fM, which corresponds to ~100-1000 colony forming units/mL (CFU/mL) depending on cellular rRNA levels. The development of a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective nucleic acid detection platform is sought for the detection of pathogenic microbes in food, water and body fluids. Since 16S rRNA sequences are species specific and are present at high copy number in viable cells, these nucleic acids offer an attractive target for microbial pathogen detection schemes. Here, target 16S rRNA of E. coli at 10 fM concentration was detected against a total RNA background using a conceptually simple approach based on electromechanical signal transduction, whereby a step change reduction in ionic current through a pore indicates <span class="hlt">blockage</span> by an electrophoretically mobilized bead-peptide nucleic acid probe conjugate hybridized to target nucleic acid. We investigated the concentration detection limit for bacterial species-specific 16S rRNA at 1 pM to 1 fM and found a limit of detection of 10 fM for our device, which is consistent with our previous finding with single-stranded DNA of similar length. In addition, no false positive responses were obtained with control RNA and no false negatives with target 16S rRNA present down to the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM. Thus, this detection scheme shows promise for integration into portable, low-cost systems for rapid detection of pathogenic microbes in food, water and body fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9881622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9881622"><span>Choroid plexus cyst of the left lateral ventricle with intermittent <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of the foramen of Monro, and initial invagination into the III ventricle in a child.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parízek, J; Jakubec, J; Hobza, V; Nemecková, J; Cernoch, Z; Sercl, M; Zizka, J; Spacek, J; Nemecek, S; Suba, P</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>A cyst of the choroid plexus of the left lateral ventricle with intermittent <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of the foramen of Monro and initially with invagination of the III ventricle in a child is described. In a 6-week-old boy a ventriculoatrial shunt was implanted for correction of an active asymmetrical hydrocephalus of unknown origin. When he was 3 months of age a water-soluble contrast CT ventriculography revealed a noncolloid cyst localised predominantly in the upper portion of the III ventricle. At that time the ventricular catheter obstructed with choroid plexus was removed; new bilateral catheters in a parieto-occipital region were implanted. In the course of the next 4 years, first the atrial catheter had to be extracted and then the peritoneal catheter was changed, in both cases because of obstruction. Periods of normal life alternated with periods of transient and intermittent symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, papilloedema, and myoclonic jerks. Repeated computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed stabilised hydrocephalus with an enlarged left lateral ventricle. When the boy was 16 years old MRI revealed a choroid plexus cyst in the left lateral ventricle 2 cm in diameter, with a ballvalve type of obstruction of the foramen of Monro. CT stereoendoscopic resection of the wall of a large cyst filled with cerebrospinal fluid was performed, and two additional adnexal small cysts were coagulated using the bipolar coagulator, Diomed 25 laser and scissors; the symptoms then regressed, except for superior bilateral altitudinal anopsia. Light and electron microscopy of the cyst wall is reported. The cyst was composed of collagenic connective tissue lined with a basal lamina lacking in epithelial cells. The preoperative and postoperative MRI are presented. Choroid plexus cysts localised in the anterior part of lateral ventricles are very rare, and all reported cases have been in male patients. According to the literature our case is only the third</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25917347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25917347"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of Src by Specific siRNA as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy to Prevent Destructive Repair in Steroid-Associated Osteonecrosis in Rabbits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Li-zhen; Cao, Hui-juan; Chen, Shi-hui; Tang, Tao; Fu, Wei-min; Huang, Le; Chow, Dick Ho Kiu; Wang, Yi-xiang; Griffith, James Francis; He, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, De-wei; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Xin-luan; Qin, Ling</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Vascular hyperpermeability and highly upregulated bone resorption in the destructive repair progress of steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) are associated with a high expression of VEGF and high Src activity (Src is encoded by the cellular sarcoma [c-src] gene). This study was designed to prove our hypothesis that blocking the VEGF-Src signaling pathway by specific Src siRNA is able to prevent destructive repair in a SAON rabbit model. Destructive repair in SAON was induced in rabbits. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks after SAON induction, VEGF, anti-VEGF, Src siRNA, Src siRNA+VEGF, control siRNA, and saline were introduced via intramedullary injection into proximal femora for each group, respectively. Vascularization and permeability were quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. At week 6 after SAON induction, proximal femurs were dissected for micro-computed tomography (μCT)-based trabecular architecture with finite element analysis (FEA), μCT-based angiography, and histological analysis. Histological evaluation revealed that VEGF enhanced destructive repair, whereas anti-VEGF prevented destructive repair and Src siRNA and Src siRNA+VEGF prevented destructive repair and enhanced reparative osteogenesis. Findings of angiography and histomorphometry were consistent with those determined by DCE MRI. Src siRNA inhibited VEGF-mediated vascular hyperpermeability but preserved VEGF-induced neovascularization. Bone resorption was enhanced in the VEGF group and inhibited in the anti-VEGF, Src siRNA, Src siRNA+VEGF groups as determined by both 3D μCT and 2D histomorphometry. FEA showed higher estimated failure load in the Src siRNA and Src siRNA+VEGF groups when compared to the vehicle control group. <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of VEGF-Src signaling pathway by specific Src siRNA was able to prevent steroid-associated destructive repair while improving reconstructive repair in SAON, which might become a novel therapeutic strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/318713','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/318713"><span>Sorption of TCE by humic-preloaded activated carbon: Incorporating size-exclusion and pore <span class="hlt">blockage</span> phenomenon in a competitive adsorption model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kilduff, J.E.; Wigton, A.</p> <p>1999-01-15</p> <p>Naturally occurring, macromolecular dissolved organic matter (NOM) is known to foul activated carbon adsorbents, reducing the ability of fixed-bed adsorbers to efficiently remove targeted synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs). An accurate description of the effects of NOM competition on SOC adsorption equilibria is required to develop dynamic models, which have application to process design and analysis. A model was developed, using an approach based on the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST), to predict trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption by activated carbon preloaded with humic acid. The IAST model was formulated for a bisolute system in which TCE and humic acid single-solute uptakes were described by the Langmuir-Freundlich and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. The humic mixture was modeled as a single component based on previous studies that identified the low-molecular-weight hydrophobic fraction as the most reactive with regard to preloading effects. Isotherms for this fraction, isolated from whole humic acid using ultrafiltration, were measured, and molar concentrations were computed based on an average molecular weight determined using size-exclusion chromatography. The IAST model was modified to reflect the hypothesis that TCE molecules can access adsorption sites which humic molecules cannot and that no competition can occur on these sites. The model was calibrated with data for TCE uptake by carbon preloaded with the low-molecular-weight humic acid fraction and was verified by predicting TCE uptake by carbon preloaded with whole humic acid. Further improvement to the model was possible by accounting for pore <span class="hlt">blockage</span> as a mechanism which can reduce the effective surface area available in TCE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8225E..0MZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8225E..0MZ"><span>mb-FLIM: <span class="hlt">model-based</span> fluorescence lifetime imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Qiaole; Young, Ian Ted; Schouten, Raymond; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Jalink, Kees; de Jong, Sander</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We have developed a <span class="hlt">model-based</span>, parallel procedure to estimate fluorescence lifetimes. Multiple frequencies are present in the excitation signal. Modeling the entire fluorescence and measurement process produces an analytical ratio of polynomials in the lifetime variable τ. A non-linear model-fitting procedure is then used to estimate τ. We have analyzed this <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach by simulating a 10 μM fluorescein solution (τ = 4 ns) and all relevant noise sources. We have used real LED data to drive the simulation. Using 240 μs of data, we estimate τ = 3.99 ns. Preliminary experiments on real fluorescent images taken from fluorescein solutions (measured τ = 4.1 ns), green plastic test slides (measured τ = 3.0 ns), and GFP in U2OS (osteosarcoma) cells (measured τ = 2.1 ns) demonstrate that this <span class="hlt">model-based</span> measurement technique works.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267822"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari</p> <p>2014-11-05</p> <p>Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or '<span class="hlt">model-based</span>' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005293','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005293"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Mission Assurance: Emerging Opportunities for Robotic Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Evans, John W.; DiVenti, Tony</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering (MBSE) in a <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Engineering framework has created new opportunities to improve effectiveness and efficiencies across the assurance functions. The MBSE environment supports not only system architecture development, but provides for support of Systems Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis concurrently in the same framework. Linking to detailed design will further improve assurance capabilities to support failures avoidance and mitigation in flight systems. This also is leading new assurance functions including model assurance and management of uncertainty in the modeling environment. Further, the assurance cases, a structured hierarchal argument or model, are emerging as a basis for supporting a comprehensive viewpoint in which to support <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Mission Assurance (MBMA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090036803','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090036803"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We describe a framework for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous <span class="hlt">model-based</span> development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070014669','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070014669"><span>A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Mars Climate Database for the Mission Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A viewgraph presentation on a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> climate database is shown. The topics include: 1) Why a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> climate database?; 2) Mars Climate Database v3.1 Who uses it ? (approx. 60 users!); 3) The new Mars Climate database MCD v4.0; 4) MCD v4.0: what's new ? 5) Simulation of Water ice clouds; 6) Simulation of Water ice cycle; 7) A new tool for surface pressure prediction; 8) Acces to the database MCD 4.0; 9) How to access the database; and 10) New web access</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940034827&hterms=Fault+detection+diagnosis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFault%2Bdetection%2Bdiagnosis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940034827&hterms=Fault+detection+diagnosis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFault%2Bdetection%2Bdiagnosis"><span>Extending <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis for analog thermodynamical devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rouquette, Nicolas; Chien, Steve; Robertson, Charles</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The increasing complexity of process control applications have posed difficult problems in fault detection, isolation, and recovery. Deep knowledge-based approaches, such as <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis, have offered some promise in addressing these problems. However, the difficulties of adapting these techniques to situations involving numerical reasoning and noise have limited the applicability of these techniques. This paper describes an extension of classical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnosis techniques to deal with sparse data, noise, and complex noninvertible numerical models. These diagnosis techniques are being applied to the External Active Thermal Control System for Space Station Freedom.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176668"><span>Cascaded process <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control: packed absorption column application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Govindarajan, Anand; Jayaraman, Suresh Kumar; Sethuraman, Vijayalakshmi; Raul, Pramod R; Rhinehart, R Russell</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Nonlinear, adaptive, process-<span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control is demonstrated in a cascaded single-input-single-output mode for pressure drop control in a pilot-scale packed absorption column. The process is shown to be nonlinear. Control is demonstrated in both servo and regulatory modes, for no wind-up in a constrained situation, and for bumpless transfer. Model adaptation is demonstrated and shown to provide process insight. The application procedure is revealed as a design guide to aid others in implementing process-<span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017642','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017642"><span>Applying knowledge compilation techniques to <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, Richard M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Researchers in the area of knowledge compilation are developing general purpose techniques for improving the efficiency of knowledge-based systems. In this article, an attempt is made to define knowledge compilation, to characterize several classes of knowledge compilation techniques, and to illustrate how some of these techniques can be applied to improve the performance of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=construction+AND+material+AND+Quality+AND+Control&id=EJ1017989','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=construction+AND+material+AND+Quality+AND+Control&id=EJ1017989"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Teaching on Argumentation Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Belek, Deniz Eren</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine effects of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> teaching on students' argumentation skills. Experimental design guided to the research. The participants of the study were pre-service physics teachers. The argumentative intervention lasted seven weeks. Data for this research were collected via video recordings and written arguments.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19443928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19443928"><span>A new distance measure for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> sequence clustering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-García, Darío; Parrado Hernández, Emilio; Díaz-de María, Fernando</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>We review the existing alternatives for defining <span class="hlt">model-based</span> distances for clustering sequences and propose a new one based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. This distance is shown to be especially useful in combination with spectral clustering. For improved performance in real-world scenarios, a model selection scheme is also proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+matter&pg=7&id=EJ1101787','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+matter&pg=7&id=EJ1101787"><span>Evaluation Novelty in <span class="hlt">Modeling-Based</span> and Interactive Engagement Instruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Örnek, Funda</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A calculus-based introductory physics course, which is based on the Matter and Interactions curriculum of Chabay and Sherwood (2002), has been taught at Purdue University. Characteristic of this course is its emphasis on modeling. Therefore, I would like to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">modeling-based</span> instruction and interactive engagement on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+matter&pg=3&id=EJ872358','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=physics+AND+matter&pg=3&id=EJ872358"><span>Problem Solving: Physics <span class="hlt">Modeling-Based</span> Interactive Engagement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ornek, Funda</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate how <span class="hlt">modeling-based</span> instruction combined with an interactive-engagement teaching approach promotes students' problem solving abilities. I focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the matter and interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002) at a large state…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16770528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16770528"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> drug development: the road to quantitative pharmacology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Liping; Sinha, Vikram; Forgue, S Thomas; Callies, Sophie; Ni, Lan; Peck, Richard; Allerheiligen, Sandra R B</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>High development costs and low success rates in bringing new medicines to the market demand more efficient and effective approaches. Identified by the FDA as a valuable prognostic tool for fulfilling such a demand, <span class="hlt">model-based</span> drug development is a mathematical and statistical approach that constructs, validates, and utilizes disease models, drug exposure-response models, and pharmacometric models to facilitate drug development. Quantitative pharmacology is a discipline that learns and confirms the key characteristics of new molecular entities in a quantitative manner, with goal of providing explicit, reproducible, and predictive evidence for optimizing drug development plans and enabling critical decision making. <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> drug development serves as an integral part of quantitative pharmacology. This work reviews the general concept, basic elements, and evolving role of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> drug development in quantitative pharmacology. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> drug development approach can facilitate knowledge management and decision making during drug development. The case studies also highlight the organizational learning that comes through implementation of quantitative pharmacology as a discipline. Finally, the prospects of quantitative pharmacology as an emerging discipline are discussed. Advances in this discipline will require continued collaboration between academia, industry and regulatory agencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1191879','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1191879"><span>Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Noonan, Nicholas James</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> System Engineering (MBSE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250926"><span>Expediting <span class="hlt">model-based</span> optoacoustic reconstructions with tomographic symmetries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lutzweiler, Christian; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>Purpose: Image quantification in optoacoustic tomography implies the use of accurate forward models of excitation, propagation, and detection of optoacoustic signals while inversions with high spatial resolution usually involve very large matrices, leading to unreasonably long computation times. The development of fast and memory efficient <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approaches represents then an important challenge to advance on the quantitative and dynamic imaging capabilities of tomographic optoacoustic imaging. Methods: Herein, a method for simplification and acceleration of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> inversions, relying on inherent symmetries present in common tomographic acquisition geometries, has been introduced. The method is showcased for the case of cylindrical symmetries by using polar image discretization of the time-domain optoacoustic forward model combined with efficient storage and inversion strategies. Results: The suggested methodology is shown to render fast and accurate <span class="hlt">model-based</span> inversions in both numerical simulations andpost mortem small animal experiments. In case of a full-view detection scheme, the memory requirements are reduced by one order of magnitude while high-resolution reconstructions are achieved at video rate. Conclusions: By considering the rotational symmetry present in many tomographic optoacoustic imaging systems, the proposed methodology allows exploiting the advantages of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> algorithms with feasible computational requirements and fast reconstruction times, so that its convenience and general applicability in optoacoustic imaging systems with tomographic symmetries is anticipated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=PHYSICAL+AND+MATTER&pg=7&id=EJ1021307','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=PHYSICAL+AND+MATTER&pg=7&id=EJ1021307"><span>Educational Value and <span class="hlt">Models-Based</span> Practice in Physical Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kirk, David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">models-based</span> approach has been advocated as a means of overcoming the serious limitations of the traditional approach to physical education. One of the difficulties with this approach is that physical educators have sought to use it to achieve diverse and sometimes competing educational benefits, and these wide-ranging aspirations are rarely if…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Physical+AND+Model&pg=4&id=EJ1120714','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Physical+AND+Model&pg=4&id=EJ1120714"><span><span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Practices in Physical Education: A Sociocritical Reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Landi, Dillon; Fitzpatrick, Katie; McGlashan, Hayley</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we reflect on <span class="hlt">models-based</span> practices in physical education using a sociocritical lens. Drawing links between neoliberal moves in education, and critical approaches to the body and physicality, we take a view that models are useful tools that are worth integrating into physical education, but we are apprehensive to suggest they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071524&hterms=model+missing+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmodel%2Bmissing%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071524&hterms=model+missing+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmodel%2Bmissing%2Bdata"><span>Wind field <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation of Seasat scatterometer winds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Long, David G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach to estimating near-surface wind fields over the ocean from Seasat scatterometer (SASS) measurements is presented. The approach is a direct assimilation technique in which wind field model parameters are estimated directly from the scatterometer measurements of the radar backscatter of the ocean's surface using maximum likelihood principles. The wind field estimate is then computed from the estimated model parameters. The wind field model used in this approach is based on geostrophic approximation and on simplistic assumptions about the wind field vorticity and divergence but includes ageostrophic winds. Nine days of SASS data were processed to obtain unique wind estimates. Comparisons in performance to the traditional two-step (point-wise wind retrieval followed by ambiguity removal) wind estimate method and the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> method are provided using both simulated radar backscatter measurements and actual SASS measurements. In the latter case the results are compared to wind fields determined using subjective ambiguity removal. While the traditional approach results in missing measurements and reduced effective swath width due to fore/aft beam cell coregistration problems, the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach uses all available measurements to increase the effective swath width and to reduce data gaps. The results reveal that the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> wind estimates have accuracy comparable to traditionally estimated winds with less 'noise' in the directional estimates, particularly at low wind speeds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28573384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28573384"><span>A simple computational algorithm of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> choice preference.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toyama, Asako; Katahira, Kentaro; Ohira, Hideki</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A broadly used computational framework posits that two learning systems operate in parallel during the learning of choice preferences-namely, the model-free and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reinforcement-learning systems. In this study, we examined another possibility, through which model-free learning is the basic system and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> information is its modulator. Accordingly, we proposed several modified versions of a temporal-difference learning model to explain the choice-learning process. Using the two-stage decision task developed by Daw, Gershman, Seymour, Dayan, and Dolan (2011), we compared their original computational model, which assumes a parallel learning process, and our proposed models, which assume a sequential learning process. Choice data from 23 participants showed a better fit with the proposed models. More specifically, the proposed eligibility adjustment model, which assumes that the environmental model can weight the degree of the eligibility trace, can explain choices better under both model-free and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> controls and has a simpler computational algorithm than the original model. In addition, the forgetting learning model and its variation, which assume changes in the values of unchosen actions, substantially improved the fits to the data. Overall, we show that a hybrid computational model best fits the data. The parameters used in this model succeed in capturing individual tendencies with respect to both model use in learning and exploration behavior. This computational model provides novel insights into learning with interacting model-free and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5001643','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5001643"><span>When Does <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Control Pay Off?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Many accounts of decision making and reinforcement learning posit the existence of two distinct systems that control choice: a fast, automatic system and a slow, deliberative system. Recent research formalizes this distinction by mapping these systems to “model-free” and “model-based” strategies in reinforcement learning. Model-free strategies are computationally cheap, but sometimes inaccurate, because action values can be accessed by inspecting a look-up table constructed through trial-and-error. In contrast, <span class="hlt">model-based</span> strategies compute action values through planning in a causal model of the environment, which is more accurate but also more cognitively demanding. It is assumed that this trade-off between accuracy and computational demand plays an important role in the arbitration between the two strategies, but we show that the hallmark task for dissociating model-free and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> strategies, as well as several related variants, do not embody such a trade-off. We describe five factors that reduce the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> strategy on these tasks by reducing its accuracy in estimating reward outcomes and decreasing the importance of its choices. Based on these observations, we describe a version of the task that formally and empirically obtains an accuracy-demand trade-off between model-free and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> strategies. Moreover, we show that human participants spontaneously increase their reliance on <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control on this task, compared to the original paradigm. Our novel task and our computational analyses may prove important in subsequent empirical investigations of how humans balance accuracy and demand. PMID:27564094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9431E..2QR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9431E..2QR"><span>Non-linear control logics for vibrations suppression: a comparison between <span class="hlt">model-based</span> and non-<span class="hlt">model-based</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ripamonti, Francesco; Orsini, Lorenzo; Resta, Ferruccio</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Non-linear behavior is present in many mechanical system operating conditions. In these cases, a common engineering practice is to linearize the equation of motion around a particular operating point, and to design a linear controller. The main disadvantage is that the stability properties and validity of the controller are local. In order to improve the controller performance, non-linear control techniques represent a very attractive solution for many smart structures. The aim of this paper is to compare non-linear <span class="hlt">model-based</span> and non-<span class="hlt">model-based</span> control techniques. In particular the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> sliding-mode-control (SMC) technique is considered because of its easy implementation and the strong robustness of the controller even under heavy model uncertainties. Among the non-<span class="hlt">model-based</span> control techniques, the fuzzy control (FC), allowing designing the controller according to if-then rules, has been considered. It defines the controller without a system reference model, offering many advantages such as an intrinsic robustness. These techniques have been tested on the pendulum nonlinear system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4542366','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4542366"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of CD59 Function Restores Activities of Neutralizing and Nonneutralizing Antibodies in Triggering Antibody-Dependent Complement-Mediated Lysis of HIV-1 Virions and Provirus-Activated Latently Infected Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Kai; Lan, Jie; Shepherd, Nicole; Hu, Ningjie; Xing, Yanyan; Byrd, Daniel; Amet, Tohti; Jewell, Corlin; Gupta, Samir; Kounga, Carole</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Both HIV-1 virions and infected cells use their surface regulators of complement activation (RCA) to resist antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML). <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of the biological function of RCA members, particularly CD59 (a key RCA member that controls formation of the membrane attack complex at the terminal stage of the complement activation cascades via all three activation pathways), has rendered both HIV-1 virions and infected cells sensitive to ADCML mediated by anti-Env antibodies (Abs) or sera/plasma from patients at different stages of viral infection. In the current study, we used the well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing Abs (nAbs), including 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, and non-nAbs, including 2.2C, A32, N5-i5, and N12-i15, to investigate whether the enhancement of ADCML by <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of CD59 function is mediated by nAbs, non-nAbs, or both. We found that all nAbs and two non-nAbs (N5-i5 and A32) strongly reacted to three HIV-1 laboratory strains (R5, X4, and R5/X4), six primary isolates, and provirus-activated ACH-2 cells examined. In contrast, two non-nAbs, 2.2C and N12-i15, reacted weakly and did not react to these targets, respectively. After <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of CD59 function, the reactive Abs, regardless of their neutralizing activities, significantly enhanced specific ADCML of HIV-1 virions (both laboratory strains and primary isolates) and provirus-activated latently infected cells. The ADMCL efficacy positively correlated with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-reactive intensity of those Abs with their targets. Thus, <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of RCA function represents a novel approach to restore activities of both nAbs and non-nAbs in triggering ADCML of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells. IMPORTANCE There is a renewed interest in the potential role of non-nAbs in the control of HIV-1 infection. Our data, for the first time, demonstrated that <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of the biological function of RCA members rendered both HIV-1 virions and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26136568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26136568"><span><span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of CD59 Function Restores Activities of Neutralizing and Nonneutralizing Antibodies in Triggering Antibody-Dependent Complement-Mediated Lysis of HIV-1 Virions and Provirus-Activated Latently Infected Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Kai; Lan, Jie; Shepherd, Nicole; Hu, Ningjie; Xing, Yanyan; Byrd, Daniel; Amet, Tohti; Jewell, Corlin; Gupta, Samir; Kounga, Carole; Gao, Jimin; Yu, Qigui</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Both HIV-1 virions and infected cells use their surface regulators of complement activation (RCA) to resist antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML). <span class="hlt">Blockage</span> of the biological function of RCA members, particularly CD59 (a key RCA member that controls formation of the membrane attack complex at the terminal stage of the complement activation cascades via all three activation pathways), has rendered both HIV-1 virions and infected cells sensitive to ADCML mediated by anti-Env antibodies (Abs) or sera/plasma from patients at different stages of viral infection. In the current study, we used the well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing Abs (nAbs), including 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, and non-nAbs, including 2.2C, A32, N5-i5, and N12-i15, to investigate whether the enhancement of ADCML by <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of CD59 function is mediated by nAbs, non-nAbs, or both. We found that all nAbs and two non-nAbs (N5-i5 and A32) strongly reacted to three HIV-1 laboratory strains (R5, X4, and R5/X4), six primary isolates, and provirus-activated ACH-2 cells examined. In contrast, two non-nAbs, 2.2C and N12-i15, reacted weakly and did not react to these targets, respectively. After <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of CD59 function, the reactive Abs, regardless of their neutralizing activities, significantly enhanced specific ADCML of HIV-1 virions (both laboratory strains and primary isolates) and provirus-activated latently infected cells. The ADMCL efficacy positively correlated with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-reactive intensity of those Abs with their targets. Thus, <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of RCA function represents a novel approach to restore activities of both nAbs and non-nAbs in triggering ADCML of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells. There is a renewed interest in the potential role of non-nAbs in the control of HIV-1 infection. Our data, for the first time, demonstrated that <span class="hlt">blockage</span> of the biological function of RCA members rendered both HIV-1 virions and infected cells</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070020015&hterms=jenkins&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Djenkins','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070020015&hterms=jenkins&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Djenkins"><span>Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> Systems Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with <span class="hlt">model-based</span> systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "<span class="hlt">Model-based</span> engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969530','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969530"><span>Sequential Bayesian Detection: A <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V</p> <p>2007-08-13</p> <p>Sequential detection theory has been known for a long time evolving in the late 1940's by Wald and followed by Middleton's classic exposition in the 1960's coupled with the concurrent enabling technology of digital computer systems and the development of sequential processors. Its development, when coupled to modern sequential <span class="hlt">model-based</span> processors, offers a reasonable way to attack physics-based problems. In this chapter, the fundamentals of the sequential detection are reviewed from the Neyman-Pearson theoretical perspective and formulated for both linear and nonlinear (approximate) Gauss-Markov, state-space representations. We review the development of modern sequential detectors and incorporate the sequential <span class="hlt">model-based</span> processors as an integral part of their solution. Motivated by a wealth of physics-based detection problems, we show how both linear and nonlinear processors can seamlessly be embedded into the sequential detection framework to provide a powerful approach to solving non-stationary detection problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964112','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964112"><span>Sequential Bayesian Detection: A <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Candy, J V</p> <p>2008-12-08</p> <p>Sequential detection theory has been known for a long time evolving in the late 1940's by Wald and followed by Middleton's classic exposition in the 1960's coupled with the concurrent enabling technology of digital computer systems and the development of sequential processors. Its development, when coupled to modern sequential <span class="hlt">model-based</span> processors, offers a reasonable way to attack physics-based problems. In this chapter, the fundamentals of the sequential detection are reviewed from the Neyman-Pearson theoretical perspective and formulated for both linear and nonlinear (approximate) Gauss-Markov, state-space representations. We review the development of modern sequential detectors and incorporate the sequential <span class="hlt">model-based</span> processors as an integral part of their solution. Motivated by a wealth of physics-based detection problems, we show how both linear and nonlinear processors can seamlessly be embedded into the sequential detection framework to provide a powerful approach to solving non-stationary detection problems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175277"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> inversion for a shallow ocean application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach to invert or estimate the sound speed profile (SSP) from noisy pressure-field measurements is discussed. The resulting <span class="hlt">model-based</span> processor (MBP) is based on the state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model. Using data obtained from the well-known Hudson Canyon experiment, a noisy shallow water ocean environment, the processor is designed and the results compared to those predicted using various propagation models and data. It is shown that the MBP not only predicts the sound speed quite well, but also is able to simultaneously provide enhanced estimates of both modal and pressure-field measurements which are useful for localization and rapid ocean environmental characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21097222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21097222"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control of a rehabilitation robot for lower extremities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Xiao-Liang; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Li, Peng-Feng; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Feng; Tan, Min; Wang, Hongbo; Hu, Guoqing</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper mainly focuses on the trajectory tracking control of a lower extremity rehabilitation robot during passive training process of patients. Firstly, a mathematical model of the rehabilitation robot is introduced by using Lagrangian analysis. Then, a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> computed-torque control scheme is designed to control the constrained four-link robot (with patient's foot fixed on robot's end-effector) to track a predefined trajectory. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> computed-torque algorithm. In the simulation, a multi-body dynamics and motion software named ADAMS is used. The combined simulation of ADAMS and MATLAB is able to produce more realistic results of this complex integrated system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JARS....8.3603W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JARS....8.3603W"><span>Hierarchical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> interferometric synthetic aperture radar image registration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yang; Huang, Haifeng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>With the rapid development of spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar technology, classical image registration methods are incompetent for high-efficiency and high-accuracy masses of real data processing. Based on this fact, we propose a new method. This method consists of two steps: coarse registration that is realized by cross-correlation algorithm and fine registration that is realized by hierarchical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> algorithm. Hierarchical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> algorithm is a high-efficiency optimization algorithm. The key features of this algorithm are a global model that constrains the overall structure of the motion estimated, a local model that is used in the estimation process, and a coarse-to-fine refinement strategy. Experimental results from different kinds of simulated and real data have confirmed that the proposed method is very fast and has high accuracy. Comparing with a conventional cross-correlation method, the proposed method provides markedly improved performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26806993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26806993"><span>Outlier Identification in <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Cluster Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Katie; Love, Tanzy; Thurston, Sally W</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">model-based</span> clustering based on normal-mixture models, a few outlying observations can influence the cluster structure and number. This paper develops a method to identify these, however it does not attempt to identify clusters amidst a large field of noisy observations. We identify outliers as those observations in a cluster with minimal membership proportion or for which the cluster-specific variance with and without the observation is very different. Results from a simulation study demonstrate the ability of our method to detect true outliers without falsely identifying many non-outliers and improved performance over other approaches, under most scenarios. We use the contributed R package MCLUST for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> clustering, but propose a modified prior for the cluster-specific variance which avoids degeneracies in estimation procedures. We also compare results from our outlier method to published results on National Hockey League data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720172','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720172"><span>Outlier Identification in <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Cluster Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evans, Katie; Love, Tanzy; Thurston, Sally W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">model-based</span> clustering based on normal-mixture models, a few outlying observations can influence the cluster structure and number. This paper develops a method to identify these, however it does not attempt to identify clusters amidst a large field of noisy observations. We identify outliers as those observations in a cluster with minimal membership proportion or for which the cluster-specific variance with and without the observation is very different. Results from a simulation study demonstrate the ability of our method to detect true outliers without falsely identifying many non-outliers and improved performance over other approaches, under most scenarios. We use the contributed R package MCLUST for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> clustering, but propose a modified prior for the cluster-specific variance which avoids degeneracies in estimation procedures. We also compare results from our outlier method to published results on National Hockey League data. PMID:26806993</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018002','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018002"><span>Automated extraction of knowledge for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> diagnostics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Myler, Harley R.; Towhidnejad, Massood; Mckenzie, Frederic D.; Kladke, Robin R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The concept of accessing computer aided design (CAD) design databases and extracting a process model automatically is investigated as a possible source for the generation of knowledge bases for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning systems. The resulting system, referred to as automated knowledge generation (AKG), uses an object-oriented programming structure and constraint techniques as well as internal database of component descriptions to generate a frame-based structure that describes the model. The procedure has been designed to be general enough to be easily coupled to CAD systems that feature a database capable of providing label and connectivity data from the drawn system. The AKG system is capable of defining knowledge bases in formats required by various <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2811532','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2811532"><span>REAL-TIME <span class="hlt">MODEL-BASED</span> ELECTRICAL POWERED WHEELCHAIR CONTROL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel-slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3-D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span>, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds. PMID:19733494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040068278','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040068278"><span>Identifying <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reconfiguration Goals through Functional Deficiencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benazera, Emmanuel; Trave-Massuyes, Louise</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> diagnosis is now advanced to the point autonomous systems face some uncertain and faulty situations with success. The next step toward more autonomy is to have the system recovering itself after faults occur, a process known as <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reconfiguration. After faults occur, given a prediction of the nominal behavior of the system and the result of the diagnosis operation, this paper details how to automatically determine the functional deficiencies of the system. These deficiencies are characterized in the case of uncertain state estimates. A methodology is then presented to determine the reconfiguration goals based on the deficiencies. Finally, a recovery process interleaves planning and model predictive control to restore the functionalities in prioritized order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27639719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27639719"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> reinforcement learning with dimension reduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tangkaratt, Voot; Morimoto, Jun; Sugiyama, Masashi</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The goal of reinforcement learning is to learn an optimal policy which controls an agent to acquire the maximum cumulative reward. The <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reinforcement learning approach learns a transition model of the environment from data, and then derives the optimal policy using the transition model. However, learning an accurate transition model in high-dimensional environments requires a large amount of data which is difficult to obtain. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper, we propose to combine <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reinforcement learning with the recently developed least-squares conditional entropy (LSCE) method, which simultaneously performs transition model estimation and dimension reduction. We also further extend the proposed method to imitation learning scenarios. The experimental results show that policy search combined with LSCE performs well for high-dimensional control tasks including real humanoid robot control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880014805&hterms=Motivating+knowledge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMotivating%2Bknowledge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880014805&hterms=Motivating+knowledge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMotivating%2Bknowledge"><span>MTK: An AI tool for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erickson, William K.; Rudokas, Mary R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A 1988 goal for the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project Office of the NASA Ames Research Office is to apply <span class="hlt">model-based</span> representation and reasoning techniques in a knowledge-based system that will provide monitoring, fault diagnosis, control, and trend analysis of the Space Station Thermal Control System (TCS). A number of issues raised during the development of the first prototype system inspired the design and construction of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning tool called MTK, which was used in the building of the second prototype. These issues are outlined here with examples from the thermal system to highlight the motivating factors behind them, followed by an overview of the capabilities of MTK, which was developed to address these issues in a generic fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880006990&hterms=Motivating+knowledge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMotivating%2Bknowledge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880006990&hterms=Motivating+knowledge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMotivating%2Bknowledge"><span>MTK: An AI tool for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erickson, William K.; Schwartz, Mary R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A 1988 goal for the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project Office of the NASA Ames Research Center is to apply <span class="hlt">model-based</span> representation and reasoning techniques in a knowledge-based system that will provide monitoring, fault diagnosis, control and trend analysis of the space station Thermal Management System (TMS). A number of issues raised during the development of the first prototype system inspired the design and construction of a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning tool called MTK, which was used in the building of the second prototype. These issues are outlined, along with examples from the thermal system to highlight the motivating factors behind them. An overview of the capabilities of MTK is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008730&hterms=systems+engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsystems%2Bengineering','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008730&hterms=systems+engineering&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsystems%2Bengineering"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Document and Report Generation for Systems Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delp, Christopher; Lam, Doris; Fosse, Elyse; Lee, Cin-Young</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering (MBSE) practices gain adoption, various approaches have been developed in order to simplify and automate the process of generating documents from models. Essentially, all of these techniques can be unified around the concept of producing different views of the model according to the needs of the intended audience. In this paper, we will describe a technique developed at JPL of applying SysML Viewpoints and Views to generate documents and reports. An architecture of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> view and document generation will be presented, and the necessary extensions to SysML with associated rationale will be explained. A survey of examples will highlight a variety of views that can be generated, and will provide some insight into how collaboration and integration is enabled. We will also describe the basic architecture for the enterprise applications that support this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521723"><span>Fuzzy <span class="hlt">model-based</span> observers for fault detection in CSTR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ballesteros-Moncada, Hazael; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Anzurez-Marín, Juan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Under the vast variety of fuzzy <span class="hlt">model-based</span> observers reported in the literature, what would be the properone to be used for fault detection in a class of chemical reactor? In this study four fuzzy <span class="hlt">model-based</span> observers for sensor fault detection of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor were designed and compared. The designs include (i) a Luenberger fuzzy observer, (ii) a Luenberger fuzzy observer with sliding modes, (iii) a Walcott-Zak fuzzy observer, and (iv) an Utkin fuzzy observer. A negative, an oscillating fault signal, and a bounded random noise signal with a maximum value of ±0.4 were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the fuzzy observers. The Utkin fuzzy observer showed the best performance under the tested conditions. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005832&hterms=frank+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfrank%2Bsmith','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005832&hterms=frank+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfrank%2Bsmith"><span>The Challenge of Configuring <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Space Mission Planners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frank, Jeremy D.; Clement, Bradley J.; Chachere, John M.; Smith, Tristan B.; Swanson, Keith J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Mission planning is central to space mission operations, and has benefited from advances in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> planning software. Constraints arise from many sources, including simulators and engineering specification documents, and ensuring that constraints are correctly represented in the planner is a challenge. As mission constraints evolve, planning domain modelers need help with modeling constraints efficiently using the available source data, catching errors quickly, and correcting the model. This paper describes the current state of the practice in designing <span class="hlt">model-based</span> mission planning tools, the challenges facing model developers, and a proposed Interactive Model Development Environment (IMDE) to configure mission planning systems. We describe current and future technology developments that can be integrated into an IMDE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008730&hterms=Adoption&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAdoption','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008730&hterms=Adoption&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAdoption"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Document and Report Generation for Systems Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delp, Christopher; Lam, Doris; Fosse, Elyse; Lee, Cin-Young</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering (MBSE) practices gain adoption, various approaches have been developed in order to simplify and automate the process of generating documents from models. Essentially, all of these techniques can be unified around the concept of producing different views of the model according to the needs of the intended audience. In this paper, we will describe a technique developed at JPL of applying SysML Viewpoints and Views to generate documents and reports. An architecture of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> view and document generation will be presented, and the necessary extensions to SysML with associated rationale will be explained. A survey of examples will highlight a variety of views that can be generated, and will provide some insight into how collaboration and integration is enabled. We will also describe the basic architecture for the enterprise applications that support this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005832&hterms=space+mission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bmission','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005832&hterms=space+mission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bmission"><span>The Challenge of Configuring <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Space Mission Planners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frank, Jeremy D.; Clement, Bradley J.; Chachere, John M.; Smith, Tristan B.; Swanson, Keith J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Mission planning is central to space mission operations, and has benefited from advances in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> planning software. Constraints arise from many sources, including simulators and engineering specification documents, and ensuring that constraints are correctly represented in the planner is a challenge. As mission constraints evolve, planning domain modelers need help with modeling constraints efficiently using the available source data, catching errors quickly, and correcting the model. This paper describes the current state of the practice in designing <span class="hlt">model-based</span> mission planning tools, the challenges facing model developers, and a proposed Interactive Model Development Environment (IMDE) to configure mission planning systems. We describe current and future technology developments that can be integrated into an IMDE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733494"><span>Real-time <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> electrical powered wheelchair control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span>, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099967"><span>3-D <span class="hlt">model-based</span> tracking for UAV indoor localization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel <span class="hlt">model-based</span> tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013aero.confE.115D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013aero.confE.115D"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> document and report generation for systems engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delp, C.; Lam, D.; Fosse, E.; Lee, Cin-Young</p> <p></p> <p>As <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering (MBSE) practices gain adoption, various approaches have been developed in order to simplify and automate the process of generating documents from models. Essentially, all of these techniques can be unified around the concept of producing different views of the model according to the needs of the intended audience. In this paper, we will describe a technique developed at JPL of applying SysML Viewpoints and Views to generate documents and reports. An architecture of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> view and document generation will be presented, and the necessary extensions to SysML with associated rationale will be explained. A survey of examples will highlight a variety of views that can be generated, and will provide some insight into how collaboration and integration is enabled. We will also describe the basic architecture for the enterprise applications that support this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPS...135..135G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPS...135..135G"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> control of fuel cells:. (1) Regulatory control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golbert, Joshua; Lewin, Daniel R.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> controller for the regulation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model accounts for spatial dependencies of voltage, current, material flows, and temperatures in the fuel channel. Analysis of the process model shows that the effective gain of the process undergoes a sign change in the normal operating range of the fuel cell, indicating that it cannot be stabilized using a linear controller with integral action. Consequently, a nonlinear model-predictive-controller based on a simplified model has been developed, enabling the use of optimal control to satisfy power demands robustly. The models and controller have been realized in the MATLAB and SIMULINK environment. Initial results indicate improved performance and robustness when using <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control in comparison with that obtained using an adaptive controller.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4186233','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4186233"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical <span class="hlt">model-based</span> mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070020015&hterms=feather&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfeather','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070020015&hterms=feather&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfeather"><span>Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> Systems Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with <span class="hlt">model-based</span> systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "<span class="hlt">Model-based</span> engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392459','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392459"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control of dynamic atomic force microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H{sub ∞} control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP010194','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP010194"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Sensor Selection for Helicopter Gearbox Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes is therefore necessary to prevent major breakdowns due to progression of undetected...in the gearbox . Once the presence of a fault is prompted by the fault detection network, fault diagnosis is performed by the Structure-Based...Components Figure 3: Overview of fault detection and diagnosis in the proposed <span class="hlt">model-based</span> di- agnostic system for helicopter gearboxes . the OH-58A gearbox</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5303434','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5303434"><span>GENI: A graphical environment for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kleban, S.; Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.</p> <p>1989-10-01</p> <p>A new method to operate machine and beam simulation programs for accelerator control has been developed. Existing methods, although cumbersome, have been used in control systems for commissioning and operation of many machines. We developed GENI, a generalized graphical interface to these programs for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control. This object-oriented''-like environment is described and some typical applications are presented. 4 refs., 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990NIMPA.293..475K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990NIMPA.293..475K"><span>GENI: A graphical environment for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kleban, Stephen; Lee, Martin; Zambre, Yadunath</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>A new method of operating machine-modeling and beam-simulation programs for accelerator control has been developed. Existing methods, although cumbersome, have been used in control systems for commissioning and operation of many machines. We developed GENI, a generalized graphical interface to these programs for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control. This "object-oriented"-like environment is described and some typical applications are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA230535','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA230535"><span><span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Reasoning in the Detection of Satellite Anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>Conference on Artificial Intellegence . 1363-1368. Detroit, Michigan, August 89. Chu, Wei-Hai. "Generic Expert System Shell for Diagnostic Reasoning... Intellegence . 1324-1330. Detroit, Michigan, August 89. de Kleer, Johan and Brian C. Williams. "Diagnosing Multiple Faults," Artificial Intellegence , 32(1): 97...Benjamin Kuipers. "<span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Monitoring of Dynamic Systems," Proceedings of the Eleventh Intematianal Joint Conference on Artificial Intellegence . 1238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013600','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013600"><span>Applying <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering to NASA's Space Communications Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86d3703L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86d3703L"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control of dynamic atomic force microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H∞ control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28594653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28594653"><span>A Nursing Practice <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Christ: The Agape Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eckerd, Nancy</p> <p>2017-06-07</p> <p>Nine out of 10 American adults believe Jesus was a real person, and almost two-thirds have made a commitment to Jesus Christ. Research further supports that spiritual beliefs and religious practices influence overall health and well-being. Christian nurses need a practice model that helps them serve as kingdom nurses. This article introduces the Agape <span class="hlt">Model</span>, <span class="hlt">based</span> on the agape love and characteristics of Christ, upon which Christian nurses may align their practice to provide Christ-centered care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933864"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control of dynamic atomic force microscope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143484','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143484"><span>A tool for <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> diagnostics of the AGS Booster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luccio, A.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> algorithmic tool was developed to search for lattice errors by a systematic analysis of orbit data in the AGS Booster synchrotron. The algorithm employs transfer matrices calculated with MAD between points in the ring. Iterative model fitting of the data allows one to find and eventually correct magnet displacements and angles or field errors. The tool, implemented on a HP-Apollo workstation system, has proved very general and of immediate physical interpretation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22993254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22993254"><span>The limited usefulness of <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on recollection and familiarity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wais, Peter E</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A recent report concluded that magnetoencephalographic signals of neural activity associated with memory based on the recollection process are independent from signals associated with memory based on the familiarity process. These data can be interpreted equally well, however, as indications of memory aggregated from both processes and showing that signals associated with high-confidence recognition are dissociable from signals associated with low-confidence recognition. The usefulness of interpreting neural data according to psychological <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on recollection and familiarity is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2752134','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2752134"><span>Fast <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alexander, David H.; Novembre, John; Lange, Kenneth</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Population stratification has long been recognized as a confounding factor in genetic association studies. Estimated ancestries, derived from multi-locus genotype data, can be used to perform a statistical correction for population stratification. One popular technique for estimation of ancestry is the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach embodied by the widely applied program structure. Another approach, implemented in the program EIGENSTRAT, relies on Principal Component Analysis rather than <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation and does not directly deliver admixture fractions. EIGENSTRAT has gained in popularity in part owing to its remarkable speed in comparison to structure. We present a new algorithm and a program, ADMIXTURE, for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals. ADMIXTURE adopts the likelihood model embedded in structure. However, ADMIXTURE runs considerably faster, solving problems in minutes that take structure hours. In many of our experiments, we have found that ADMIXTURE is almost as fast as EIGENSTRAT. The runtime improvements of ADMIXTURE rely on a fast block relaxation scheme using sequential quadratic programming for block updates, coupled with a novel quasi-Newton acceleration of convergence. Our algorithm also runs faster and with greater accuracy than the implementation of an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm incorporated in the program FRAPPE. Our simulations show that ADMIXTURE's maximum likelihood estimates of the underlying admixture coefficients and ancestral allele frequencies are as accurate as structure's Bayesian estimates. On real-world data sets, ADMIXTURE's estimates are directly comparable to those from structure and EIGENSTRAT. Taken together, our results show that ADMIXTURE's computational speed opens up the possibility of using a much larger set of markers in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> ancestry estimation and that its estimates are suitable for use in correcting for population stratification in association studies. PMID:19648217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19648217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19648217"><span>Fast <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alexander, David H; Novembre, John; Lange, Kenneth</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Population stratification has long been recognized as a confounding factor in genetic association studies. Estimated ancestries, derived from multi-locus genotype data, can be used to perform a statistical correction for population stratification. One popular technique for estimation of ancestry is the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach embodied by the widely applied program structure. Another approach, implemented in the program EIGENSTRAT, relies on Principal Component Analysis rather than <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation and does not directly deliver admixture fractions. EIGENSTRAT has gained in popularity in part owing to its remarkable speed in comparison to structure. We present a new algorithm and a program, ADMIXTURE, for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals. ADMIXTURE adopts the likelihood model embedded in structure. However, ADMIXTURE runs considerably faster, solving problems in minutes that take structure hours. In many of our experiments, we have found that ADMIXTURE is almost as fast as EIGENSTRAT. The runtime improvements of ADMIXTURE rely on a fast block relaxation scheme using sequential quadratic programming for block updates, coupled with a novel quasi-Newton acceleration of convergence. Our algorithm also runs faster and with greater accuracy than the implementation of an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm incorporated in the program FRAPPE. Our simulations show that ADMIXTURE's maximum likelihood estimates of the underlying admixture coefficients and ancestral allele frequencies are as accurate as structure's Bayesian estimates. On real-world data sets, ADMIXTURE's estimates are directly comparable to those from structure and EIGENSTRAT. Taken together, our results show that ADMIXTURE's computational speed opens up the possibility of using a much larger set of markers in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> ancestry estimation and that its estimates are suitable for use in correcting for population stratification in association studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26995351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26995351"><span>A cloud <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach for water quality assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Dong; Liu, Dengfeng; Ding, Hao; Singh, Vijay P; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Water quality assessment entails essentially a multi-criteria decision-making process accounting for qualitative and quantitative uncertainties and their transformation. Considering uncertainties of randomness and fuzziness in water quality evaluation, a cloud <span class="hlt">model-based</span> assessment approach is proposed. The cognitive cloud model, derived from information science, can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data, based on probability and statistics and fuzzy set theory. When applying the cloud model to practical assessment, three technical issues are considered before the development of a complete cloud <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach: (1) bilateral boundary formula with nonlinear boundary regression for parameter estimation, (2) hybrid entropy-analytic hierarchy process technique for calculation of weights, and (3) mean of repeated simulations for determining the degree of final certainty. The cloud <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach is tested by evaluating the eutrophication status of 12 typical lakes and reservoirs in China and comparing with other four methods, which are Scoring Index method, Variable Fuzzy Sets method, Hybrid Fuzzy and Optimal model, and Neural Networks method. The proposed approach yields information concerning membership for each water quality status which leads to the final status. The approach is found to be representative of other alternative methods and accurate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28130935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28130935"><span>Gaussian <span class="hlt">model-based</span> partitioning using iterated local search.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brusco, Michael J; Shireman, Emilie; Steinley, Douglas; Brudvig, Susan; Cradit, J Dennis</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The emergence of Gaussian <span class="hlt">model-based</span> partitioning as a viable alternative to K-means clustering fosters a need for discrete optimization methods that can be efficiently implemented using <span class="hlt">model-based</span> criteria. A variety of alternative partitioning criteria have been proposed for more general data conditions that permit elliptical clusters, different spatial orientations for the clusters, and unequal cluster sizes. Unfortunately, many of these partitioning criteria are computationally demanding, which makes the multiple-restart (multistart) approach commonly used for K-means partitioning less effective as a heuristic solution strategy. As an alternative, we propose an approach based on iterated local search (ILS), which has proved effective in previous combinatorial data analysis contexts. We compared multistart, ILS and hybrid multistart-ILS procedures for minimizing a very general <span class="hlt">model-based</span> criterion that assumes no restrictions on cluster size or within-group covariance structure. This comparison, which used 23 data sets from the classification literature, revealed that the ILS and hybrid heuristics generally provided better criterion function values than the multistart approach when all three methods were constrained to the same 10-min time limit. In many instances, these differences in criterion function values reflected profound differences in the partitions obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002692','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002692"><span>A <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daigle, Matthew J.; Goebel, Kai</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. <span class="hlt">Model-based</span> prognostics exploits domain knowledge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenomena in a physics-based model that is derived from first principles. Uncertainty cannot be avoided in prediction, therefore, algorithms are employed that help in managing these uncertainties. The particle filtering algorithm has become a popular choice for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> prognostics due to its wide applicability, ease of implementation, and support for uncertainty management. We develop a general <span class="hlt">model-based</span> prognostics methodology within a robust probabilistic framework using particle filters. As a case study, we consider a pneumatic valve from the Space Shuttle cryogenic refueling system. We develop a detailed physics-based model of the pneumatic valve, and perform comprehensive simulation experiments to illustrate our prognostics approach and evaluate its effectiveness and robustness. The approach is demonstrated using historical pneumatic valve data from the refueling system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012032"><span>Multiple Damage Progression Paths in <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Prognostics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daigle, Matthew; Goebel, Kai Frank</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> prognostics approaches employ domain knowledge about a system, its components, and how they fail through the use of physics-based models. Component wear is driven by several different degradation phenomena, each resulting in their own damage progression path, overlapping to contribute to the overall degradation of the component. We develop a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> prognostics methodology using particle filters, in which the problem of characterizing multiple damage progression paths is cast as a joint state-parameter estimation problem. The estimate is represented as a probability distribution, allowing the prediction of end of life and remaining useful life within a probabilistic framework that supports uncertainty management. We also develop a novel variance control mechanism that maintains an uncertainty bound around the hidden parameters to limit the amount of estimation uncertainty and, consequently, reduce prediction uncertainty. We construct a detailed physics-based model of a centrifugal pump, to which we apply our <span class="hlt">model-based</span> prognostics algorithms. We illustrate the operation of the prognostic solution with a number of simulation-based experiments and demonstrate the performance of the chosen approach when multiple damage mechanisms are active</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9052E..1WJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9052E..1WJ"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> pattern dummy generation for logic devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jang, Jongwon; Kim, Cheolkyun; Ko, Sungwoo; Byun, Seokyoung; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The insertion of SRAF(Sub-Resolution Assist Feature) is one of the most frequently used method to enlarge the process window area. In most cases, the size of SRAF is proportional to the focus margin of drawn patterns. However, there is a trade-off between the SRAF size and SRAF printing, because SRAF is not supposed to be patterned on a wafer. For this reason, a lot of OPC engineers have been tried to put bigger and more SRAFs within the limits of the possible. The fact that many papers about predicting SRAF printability have been published recent years reflects this circumstance. Pattern dummy is inserted to enhance the lithographic process margin and CD uniformity unlike CMP dummy for uniform metal line height. It is ordinary to put pattern dummy at the designated location under consideration of the pitch of real patterns at design step. However, it is not always desirable to generate pattern dummies based on rules at the lithographic point of view. In this paper, we introduce the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> pattern dummy insertion method, which is putting pattern dummies at the location that <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> SRAF is located. We applied the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> pattern dummy to the layers in logic devices, and studied which layer is more efficient for the insertion of dummies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626439','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626439"><span>The <span class="hlt">Hydroacoustics</span> of Beveled Steps and Gaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>is determined by the pressure fluctuations on the face of the step. The pressure fluctuations on the top surface of the step were considered to be...cylinder exhibits a separation zone on the leading half of the cylinder, which is similar to the separation zone on a forward facing step. With this...the sound spectra for flow over a forward- facing step, with one modified parameter, gives the spectral shape and scaling of the sound from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970014675','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970014675"><span><span class="hlt">Hydroacoustic</span> forcing function modeling using DNS database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zawadzki, I.; Gershfield, J. L.; Na, Y.; Wang, M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A wall pressure frequency spectrum model (Blake 1971 ) has been evaluated using databases from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of a turbulent boundary layer (Na & Moin 1996). Good agreement is found for moderate to strong adverse pressure gradient flows in the absence of separation. In the separated flow region, the model underpredicts the directly calculated spectra by an order of magnitude. The discrepancy is attributed to the violation of the model assumptions in that part of the flow domain. DNS computed coherence length scales and the normalized wall pressure cross-spectra are compared with experimental data. The DNS results are consistent with experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150672','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150672"><span>Aero-<span class="hlt">Hydroacoustics</span> for Ships. Volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>12 pEPORT "~ATE June 1984Naval Sea Systems Command (SFA 55N) 73.7UME6c PGE Washington, DC 20362 657 𔃾MONITORING AGENCY NAME 8 ADDRESS(I different...807 7.6 REFERENCES ............. ............................... ... 813 CHAPTER 8 - BOUNDARY-LAYER-INDUCED VIBRATION AND NOISE 8.1 INTRODUCTION...number, used in stability analyses and as dummy variable Volumetric concentration (Chapters 3 and 4); fluid loading factor Qoc /p ho (Chapters 1, 6, 7, 8</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150673','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA150673"><span>Aero-<span class="hlt">Hydroacoustics</span> for Ships. Volume 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>OVER CURVED SURFACES ................ . 785 . 7.5.1 Transition to Turbulence . . . . .............. 785 ś.5.2 Adverse and Favorable Static Pressure...quantifiable class of 624 , • .- • % %𔃿. boundary layers that includes those subjected to a particular type of streanwise static pressure gradient... static pressure in the direction normal to the surface(U2’<U U2 112) 1 , 3 2) 3 (u 1 u24UJ 1U2) - 2 -i - This relationship shows that if the boundary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......184P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......184P"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> control of polymer composite manufacturing processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Potaraju, Sairam</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this research is to develop tools that help process engineers design, analyze and control polymeric composite manufacturing processes to achieve higher productivity and cost reduction. Current techniques for process design and control of composite manufacturing suffer from the paucity of good process models that can accurately represent these non-linear systems. Existing models developed by researchers in the past are designed to be process and operation specific, hence generating new simulation models is time consuming and requires significant effort. To address this issue, an Object Oriented Design (OOD) approach is used to develop a component-based model building framework. Process models for two commonly used industrial processes (Injected Pultrusion and Autoclave Curing) are developed using this framework to demonstrate the flexibility. Steady state and dynamic validation of this simulator is performed using a bench scale injected pultrusion process. This simulator could not be implemented online for control due to computational constraints. Models that are fast enough for online implementation, with nearly the same degree of accuracy are developed using a two-tier scheme. First, lower dimensional models that captures essential resin flow, heat transfer and cure kinetics important from a process monitoring and control standpoint are formulated. The second step is to reduce these low dimensional models to Reduced Order Models (ROM) suited for online <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> estimation, control and optimization. Model reduction is carried out using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique in conjunction with a Galerkin formulation procedure. Subsequently, a nonlinear <span class="hlt">model-based</span> estimation and inferential control scheme based on the ROM is implemented. In particular, this research work contributes in the following general areas: (1) Design and implementation of versatile frameworks for modeling and simulation of manufacturing processes using object</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3112410','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3112410"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> feature construction for multivariate decoding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brodersen, Kay H.; Haiss, Florent; Ong, Cheng Soon; Jung, Fabienne; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Weber, Bruno; Stephan, Klaas E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conventional decoding methods in neuroscience aim to predict discrete brain states from multivariate correlates of neural activity. This approach faces two important challenges. First, a small number of examples are typically represented by a much larger number of features, making it hard to select the few informative features that allow for accurate predictions. Second, accuracy estimates and information maps often remain descriptive and can be hard to interpret. In this paper, we propose a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> decoding approach that addresses both challenges from a new angle. Our method involves (i) inverting a dynamic causal model of neurophysiological data in a trial-by-trial fashion; (ii) training and testing a discriminative classifier on a strongly reduced feature space derived from trial-wise estimates of the model parameters; and (iii) reconstructing the separating hyperplane. Since the approach is <span class="hlt">model-based</span>, it provides a principled dimensionality reduction of the feature space; in addition, if the model is neurobiologically plausible, decoding results may offer a mechanistically meaningful interpretation. The proposed method can be used in conjunction with a variety of modelling approaches and brain data, and supports decoding of either trial or subject labels. Moreover, it can supplement evidence-based approaches for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> decoding and enable structural model selection in cases where Bayesian model selection cannot be applied. Here, we illustrate its application using dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of electrophysiological recordings in rodents. We demonstrate that the approach achieves significant above-chance performance and, at the same time, allows for a neurobiological interpretation of the results. PMID:20406688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21142522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21142522"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> engineering for medical-device software.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ray, Arnab; Jetley, Raoul; Jones, Paul L; Zhang, Yi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper demonstrates the benefits of adopting <span class="hlt">model-based</span> design techniques for engineering medical device software. By using a patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) infusion pump as a candidate medical device, the authors show how using models to capture design information allows for i) fast and efficient construction of executable device prototypes ii) creation of a standard, reusable baseline software architecture for a particular device family, iii) formal verification of the design against safety requirements, and iv) creation of a safety framework that reduces verification costs for future versions of the device software. 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7833E..0QS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7833E..0QS"><span>Purely optical navigation with <span class="hlt">model-based</span> state prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sendobry, Alexander; Graber, Thorsten; Klingauf, Uwe</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>State-of-the-art Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have a lack of precision especially in GPS denied environments like urban canyons or in pure indoor missions. The proposed Optical Navigation System (ONS) provides bias free ego-motion estimates using triple redundant sensor information. In combination with a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> state prediction our system is able to estimate velocity, position and attitude of an arbitrary aircraft. Simulating a high performance flow-field estimator the algorithm can compete with conventional low-cost INS. By using measured velocities instead of accelerations the system states drift behavior is not as distinctive as for an INS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITF..92.1585S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITF..92.1585S"><span>A Cyber-Attack Detection <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> on Multivariate Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakai, Yuto; Rinsaka, Koichiro; Dohi, Tadashi</p> <p></p> <p>In the present paper, we propose a novel cyber-attack detection <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on two multivariate-analysis methods to the audit data observed on a host machine. The statistical techniques used here are the well-known Hayashi's quantification method IV and cluster analysis method. We quantify the observed qualitative audit event sequence via the quantification method IV, and collect similar audit event sequence in the same groups based on the cluster analysis. It is shown in simulation experiments that our model can improve the cyber-attack detection accuracy in some realistic cases where both normal and attack activities are intermingled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22608989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22608989"><span>Stabilization of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> networked control systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miranda, Francisco; Abreu, Carlos; Mendes, Paulo M.</p> <p>2016-06-08</p> <p>A class of networked control systems called <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Networked Control Systems (MB-NCSs) is considered. Stabilization of MB-NCSs is studied using feedback controls and simulation of stabilization for different feedbacks is made with the purpose to reduce the network trafic. The feedback control input is applied in a compensated model of the plant that approximates the plant dynamics and stabilizes the plant even under slow network conditions. Conditions for global exponential stabilizability and for the choosing of a feedback control input for a given constant time between the information moments of the network are derived. An optimal control problem to obtain an optimal feedback control is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150007199','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150007199"><span>Method for Real-Time <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Based</span> Structural Anomaly Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Timothy A. (Inventor); Urnes, James M., Sr. (Inventor); Reichenbach, Eric Y. (Inventor)</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A system and methods for real-time <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> vehicle structural anomaly detection are disclosed. A real-time measurement corresponding to a location on a vehicle structure during an operation of the vehicle is received, and the real-time measurement is compared to expected operation data for the location to provide a modeling error signal. A statistical significance of the modeling error signal to provide an error significance is calculated, and a persistence of the error significance is determined. A structural anomaly is indicated, if the persistence exceeds a persistence threshold value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880006981','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880006981"><span>Temporal and contextual knowledge in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> expert systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Toth-Fejel, Tihamer; Heher, Dennis</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A basic paradigm that allows representation of physical systems with a focus on context and time is presented. Paragon provides the capability to quickly capture an expert's knowledge in a cognitively resonant manner. From that description, Paragon creates a simulation model in LISP, which when executed, verifies that the domain expert did not make any mistakes. The Achille's heel of rule-based systems has been the lack of a systematic methodology for testing, and Paragon's developers are certain that the <span class="hlt">model-based</span> approach overcomes that problem. The reason this testing is now possible is that software, which is very difficult to test, has in essence been transformed into hardware.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044285&hterms=teamwork&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dteamwork','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044285&hterms=teamwork&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dteamwork"><span>A <span class="hlt">model-based</span> executive for commanding robot teams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Anthony</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The paper presents a way to robustly command a system of systems as a single entity. Instead of modeling each component system in isolation and then manually crafting interaction protocols, this approach starts with a model of the collective population as a single system. By compiling the model into separate elements for each component system and utilizing a teamwork model for coordination, it circumvents the complexities of manually crafting robust interaction protocols. The resulting systems are both globally responsive by virtue of a team oriented interaction model and locally responsive by virtue of a distributed approach to <span class="hlt">model-based</span> fault detection, isolation, and recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520667','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520667"><span>Stochastic <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Control of Multi-Robot Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-06-30</p> <p>dual [6]. For example, we use the optimal control theory to derive linear quadratic regulator ( LQR ), and in the same theoretical framework we can derive...a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1...Final Technical Report 23-09-2008 - 22-06-2009 Stochastic <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Control of Multi-Robot Systems W911NF-08-1-0503 Dejan Milutinovic and Devendra P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325729','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/325729"><span>Hot blast stove process model and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> controller</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muske, K.R.; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>This paper describes the process model and <span class="hlt">model-based</span> control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014119','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014119"><span>Evaluating model accuracy for <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chien, Steve; Roden, Joseph</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Described here is an approach to automatically assessing the accuracy of various components of a model. In this approach, actual data from the operation of a target system is used to drive statistical measures to evaluate the prediction accuracy of various portions of the model. We describe how these statistical measures of model accuracy can be used in <span class="hlt">model-based</span> reasoning for monitoring and design. We then describe the application of these techniques to the monitoring and design of the water recovery system of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Station Freedom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9910E..2SO','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9910E..2SO"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> fault detection and diagnosis in ALMA subsystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortiz, José; Carrasco, Rodrigo A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory, with its 66 individual telescopes and other central equipment, generates a massive set of monitoring data every day, collecting information on the performance of a variety of critical and complex electrical, electronic and mechanical components. This data is crucial for most troubleshooting efforts performed by engineering teams. More than 5 years of accumulated data and expertise allow for a more systematic approach to fault detection and diagnosis. This paper presents <span class="hlt">model-based</span> fault detection and diagnosis techniques to support corrective and predictive maintenance in a 24/7 minimum-downtime observatory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptLT..84...32L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptLT..84...32L"><span>Fiber optic displacement measurement <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on finite reflective surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yuhe; Guan, Kaisen; Hu, Zhaohui</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present a fiber optic displacement measurement <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">based</span> on finite reflective plate. The theoretical model was derived, and simulation analysis of light intensity distribution, reflective plate width, and the distance between fiber probe and reflective plate were conducted in details. The three dimensional received light intensity distribution and the characteristic curve of light intensity were studied as functions of displacement of finite reflective plate. Experiments were carried out to verify the established model. The physical fundamentals and the effect of operating parameters on measuring system performance were revealed in the end.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19223878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19223878"><span><span class="hlt">Model-based</span> benefit-risk assessment: can Archimedes help?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishna, R</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>In December 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a new draft Guidance for Industry on Diabetes Mellitus--evaluating cardiovascular risk in new antidiabetic therapies to treat Type 2 diabetes. This guidance comes at a time when recent discussions have focused on delineation of cardiovascular risk reduction for new antidiabetic drugs. Computational tools that can enable early prediction of cardiovascular risk are reviewed with specific reference to Archimedes (Kaiser Permanente), with an aim of proposing a <span class="hlt">model-based</span> solution and enabling decisions to be made as early as possible in the drug development value chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738.0011M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738.0011M"><span>Stabilization of <span class="hlt">model-based</span> networked control systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miranda, Francisco; Abreu, Carlos; Mendes, Paulo M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A class of networked control systems called <span class="hlt">Model-Based</span> Networked Control Systems (MB-NCSs) is considered. Stabilization of MB-NCSs is studied using feedback controls and simulation of stabilization for different feedbacks is made with the purpose to reduce the network trafic. The feedback control input is applied in a compensated model of the plant that approximates the plant dynamics and stabilizes the plant even under slow network conditions. Conditions for global exponential stabilizability and for the choosing of a feedback control input for a given constant time between the information moments of the network are derived. An optimal control problem to obtain an optimal feedback control is also presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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