Science.gov

Sample records for model-determined segmental duration

  1. Developmental Aspects of English Segment Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.

    The experiment reported here attempted to investigate the nature of both intrinsic, unlearned temporal parameters as well as learned, language-specific durational properties in the speech of young children. Developmental aspects of several temporal parameters were investigated in the speech of ten 2 1/2 to 3-year-old and ten 4 to 4 1/2-year-old…

  2. A segmentation approach to long duration surface EMG recordings.

    PubMed

    El Falou, Wassim; Duchêne, Jacques; Hewson, David; Khalil, Mohamad; Grabisch, Michel; Lino, Frédéric

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation method in order to identify postural surface EMG segments in long-duration recordings. Surface EMG signals were collected from the cervical erector spinae (CES), erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of 11 subjects using a bipolar electrode configuration. Subjects remained seated in a car seat over the 150-min data-collection period. The modified dynamic cumulative sum (MDCS) algorithm was used to automatically segment the surface EMG signals. Signals were rejected by comparison with an exponential mathematical model of the spectrum of a surface EMG signal. The average power ratio computed between two successive retained segments was used to classify segments as postural or surface EMG. The presence of a negative slope of a regression line fitted to the median frequency values of postural surface EMG segments was taken as an indication of fatigue. Alpha level was set at 0.05. The overall classification error rate was 8%, and could be performed in 25 min for a 150-min signal using a custom-built software program written in C (Borland Software Corporation, CA, USA). This error rate could be enhanced by concentrating on the rejection method, which caused most of the misclassification (6%). Furthermore, the elimination of non-postural surface EMG segments by the use of a segmentation approach enabled muscular fatigue to be identified in signals that contained no evidence of fatigue when analysed using traditional methods.

  3. Speech segment durations produced by five and six year old speakers with and without cleft palates.

    PubMed

    Forner, L L

    1983-07-01

    Speech segment durations are indicators of the ability to coordinate speech gestures. Development of such temporal aspects of production in the presence of velopharyngeal insufficiency has not been investigated. The present study used spectrograms to measure segment durations in utterances produced by 5 and 6 year old children with and without congenital cleft palates. Subjects had varying degrees of hypernasality and overall intelligibility. Five consonant-vowel-consonant nonsense syllables were formed using /p/, /t/, /k/, /t integral of/, and /s/. The carrier phrases included a single word context, a sentence containing nonnasal sounds, and a sentence with nasals. Experimental group segments were significantly longer than normal in the single word and nasal sentence contexts. Both the syllable and total sentence durations were prolonged. The stop gap of the plosive and affricate consonants was the most deviant individual acoustic segment. Subjects with hypernasality and decreased intelligibility had voice onset times which were significantly longer than those produced by subjects with less disordered speech.

  4. Optimized adaptation algorithm for HEVC/H.265 dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP using variable segment duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive video streaming using HTTP has become popular in recent years for commercial video delivery. The recent MPEG-DASH standard allows interoperability and adaptability between servers and clients from different vendors. The delivery of the MPD (Media Presentation Description) files in DASH and the DASH client behaviours are beyond the scope of the DASH standard. However, the different adaptation algorithms employed by the clients do affect the overall performance of the system and users' QoE (Quality of Experience), hence the need for research in this field. Moreover, standard DASH delivery is based on fixed segments of the video. However, there is no standard segment duration for DASH where various fixed segment durations have been employed by different commercial solutions and researchers with their own individual merits. Most recently, the use of variable segment duration in DASH has emerged but only a few preliminary studies without practical implementation exist. In addition, such a technique requires a DASH client to be aware of segment duration variations, and this requirement and the corresponding implications on the DASH system design have not been investigated. This paper proposes a segment-duration-aware bandwidth estimation and next-segment selection adaptation strategy for DASH. Firstly, an MPD file extension scheme to support variable segment duration is proposed and implemented in a realistic hardware testbed. The scheme is tested on a DASH client, and the tests and analysis have led to an insight on the time to download next segment and the buffer behaviour when fetching and switching between segments of different playback durations. Issues like sustained buffering when switching between segments of different durations and slow response to changing network conditions are highlighted and investigated. An enhanced adaptation algorithm is then proposed to accurately estimate the bandwidth and precisely determine the time to download the next

  5. Effects of syllable-final segment duration on the identification of synthetic speech continua by birds and humans.

    PubMed

    Welch, Thomas E; Sawusch, James R; Dent, Micheal L

    2009-11-01

    In an attempt to test whether experience with or knowledge of language is necessary to show typical speaking rate effects in the perception of speech, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans categorized stimuli from the synthetic continua /ba/-/wa/ and /bas/-/was/, with both short and long syllable-final phonemes. This comparative approach aims to shed some light on whether knowledge of language has a role in rate normalization effects, such as using duration information as an indicator of speaking rate in human speech perception. Syllable-final phoneme durations were varied, and were either temporally adjacent to the initial target (CV series) or were nonadjacent (CVC series). The birds were always influenced by syllable-final duration variation in the present experiments and displayed greater boundary shifts than humans. In humans, there was a significant boundary shift observed in the CV series, but there were no effects of duration variation in the final segment in the CVC series. The results from the birds suggest that specialized speech-based principles may not be necessary for explaining findings of grouping speech or speechlike elements in perception. PMID:19894853

  6. Duration of eptifibatide infusion after percutaneous coronary intervention and outcomes among high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: insights from EARLY ACS

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Connie N; Schulte, Phillip J; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Dalby, Anthony J; Schweiger, Marc J; Lewis, Basil S; Armstrong, Paul W; Califf, Robert M; van de Werf, Frans; Harrington, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Eptifibatide is indicated during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with continuation for 18–24 hours post procedure but is associated with bleeding. We examined the efficacy and safety of shorter post-PCI eptifibatide infusions in high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) patients. Methods: EARLY ACS patients treated with PCI and eptifibatide were grouped by post-procedure infusion duration: <10, 10–13, 13–17, and 17–25 (per protocol) hours. Adjusted estimated event rates for 96-hour death/myocardial infarction (MI)/recurrent ischaemia requiring urgent revascularization (RIUR), 30-day death/MI, post-PCI packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion, and GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries) moderate/severe bleeding were obtained using inverse-propensity weighting to account for informative censoring of infusions. Results: Among 3271 eptifibatide-treated PCI patients, there were 66 96-hour death/MI/RIUR events, 94 30-day death/MI events, 127 PRBC transfusions, and 115 GUSTO moderate/severe bleeds. Compared with per protocol, patients receiving post-PCI infusions <10 hours had similar adjusted estimated rates of 96-hour death/MI/RIUR (absolute difference 0.021 higher; 0.040 vs. 0.019, 95% CI −0.023 to 0.064; p=0.35) and 30-day death/MI (0.020 higher; 0.046 vs. 0.026, 95% CI −0.021 to 0.062; p=0.34). There were also no differences in ischaemic outcomes between infusions of 10–17 hours and per-protocol infusions. Adjusted estimated rates of PRBC transfusion were higher for the <10-hour infusion group compared with per protocol (0.048 higher; 0.079 vs. 0.031, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.091, p=0.03) but were similar for other groups. Adjusted GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding rates were similar to per-protocol rates for all groups. Conclusions: In high-risk NSTE ACS patients, post-PCI eptifibatide infusions <18 hours were not associated with

  7. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although

  8. An optimization principle for determining movement duration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Krakauer, John W; Qian, Ning

    2006-06-01

    Movement duration is an integral component of motor control, but nearly all extant optimization models of motor planning prefix duration instead of explaining it. Here we propose a new optimization principle that predicts movement duration. The model assumes that the brain attempts to minimize movement duration under the constraint of meeting an accuracy criterion. The criterion is task and context dependent but is fixed for a given task and context. The model determines a unique duration as a trade-off between speed (time optimality) and accuracy (acceptable endpoint scatter). We analyzed the model for a linear motor plant, and obtained a closed-form equation for determining movement duration. By solving the equation numerically with specific plant parameters for the eye and arm, we found that the model can reproduce saccade duration as a function of amplitude (the main sequence), and arm-movement duration as a function of the ratio of target distance to size (Fitts's law). In addition, it explains the dependency of peak saccadic speed on amplitude and the dependency of saccadic duration on initial eye position. Furthermore, for arm movements, the model predicts a scaling relationship between peak velocity and distance and a reduction in movement duration with a moderate increase in viscosity. Finally, for a linear plant, our model predicts a neural control signal identical to that of the minimum-variance model set to the same movement duration. This control signal is a smooth function of time (except at the endpoint), in contrast to the discontinuous bang-bang control found in the time-optimal control literature. We suggest that one aspect of movement planning, as revealed by movement duration, may be to assign an endpoint accuracy criterion for a given task and context. PMID:16571740

  9. Path planning by querying persistent stores of trajectory segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.; Mehta, S.; Qin, Xiao

    1993-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm for path planning (long duration) paths of dynamical systems, given a persistent object store containing suitable collections of short duration trajectory segments. We also describe experimental results from a proof-of-concept implementation of the algorithm. The basic idea is to interpret a path planning algorithm as a suitable query on a persistent object store consisting of short duration trajectory segments. The query returns a concatenation of short duration trajectory segments which is close to the desired path. The needed short duration segments are computed by using a divide and conquer algorithm to break up the original path into shorter paths; each shorter path is then matched to a nearby trajectory segment which is part of the persistent object store by using a suitable index function.

  10. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study. PMID:26603959

  11. Temporal integration in duration and number discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meck, W H; Church, R M; Gibbon, J

    1985-10-01

    Temporal integration in duration and number discrimination by rats was investigated with the use of a psychophysical choice procedure. A response on one lever ("short" response) following a 1-s white-noise signal was followed by food reinforcement, and a response on the other lever ("long" response) following a 2-s white-noise signal was also followed by food reinforcement. Either response following a signal of one of five intermediate durations was unreinforced. This led to a psychophysical function in which the probability of a long response was related to signal duration in an ogival manner. On 2 test days, a white-noise signal with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 10 segments of either 0.5-s on and 0.5-s off or 1-s on and 1-s off was presented, and a choice response following these signals was unreinforced. The probability of a long response was the same function of a segmented signal and a continuous signal if each segment was considered equivalent to 200 ms. A quantitative fit of a scalar estimation theory suggested that the latencies to initiate temporal integration and to terminate the process are both about 200 ms, and that the same internal accumulation process can be used for counting and timing.

  12. Segmental neuromyotonia

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Ajay; Junewar, Vivek; Sahu, Ritesh; Shukla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral focal neuromyotonia has been rarely reported in fingers or extraocular muscles. We report a case of segmental neuromyotonia in a 20-year-old boy who presented to us with intermittent tightness in right upper limb. Electromyography revealed myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges in proximal as well as distal muscles of the right upper limb. Patient's symptoms responded well to phenytoin therapy. Such an atypical involvement of two contiguous areas of a single limb in neuromyotonia has not been reported previously. Awareness of such an atypical presentation of the disease can be important in timely diagnosis and treatment of a patient. PMID:26167035

  13. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  14. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (<3 min.) as opposed to 4 long songs (6+ min.) were played in the background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  15. Durational Patterning at Syntactic and Discourse Boundaries in Mandarin Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fon, Janice; Johnson, Keith; Chen, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on durational cues (i.e., syllable duration, pause duration, and syllable onset intervals (SOIs)) at discourse boundaries in two dialects of Mandarin, Taiwan and Mainland varieties. Speech was elicited by having 18 participants describe events in "The Pear Story" film. Recorded data were transcribed, labeled, and segmented into…

  16. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  17. Speed tuning of motion segmentation and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. S.; Mestre, D. R.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    Motion transparency requires that the visual system distinguish different motion vectors and selectively integrate similar motion vectors over space into the perception of multiple surfaces moving through or over each other. Using large-field (7 degrees x 7 degrees) displays containing two populations of random-dots moving in the same (horizontal) direction but at different speeds, we examined speed-based segmentation by measuring the speed difference above which observers can perceive two moving surfaces. We systematically investigated this 'speed-segmentation' threshold as a function of speed and stimulus duration, and found that it increases sharply for speeds above approximately 8 degrees/s. In addition, speed-segmentation thresholds decrease with stimulus duration out to approximately 200 ms. In contrast, under matched conditions, speed-discrimination thresholds stay low at least out to 16 degrees/s and decrease with increasing stimulus duration at a faster rate than for speed segmentation. Thus, motion segmentation and motion discrimination exhibit different speed selectivity and different temporal integration characteristics. Results are discussed in terms of the speed preferences of different neuronal populations within the primate visual cortex.

  18. Long Duration Sorbent Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Knox, James C.; Long, David A.; Miller, Lee; Cmaric, Gregory; Thomas, John

    2016-01-01

    The Long Duration Sorbent Testbed (LDST) is a flight experiment demonstration designed to expose current and future candidate carbon dioxide removal system sorbents to an actual crewed space cabin environment to assess and compare sorption working capacity degradation resulting from long term operation. An analysis of sorbent materials returned to Earth after approximately one year of operation in the International Space Station's (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) indicated as much as a 70% loss of working capacity of the silica gel desiccant material at the extreme system inlet location, with a gradient of capacity loss down the bed. The primary science objective is to assess the degradation of potential sorbents for exploration class missions and ISS upgrades when operated in a true crewed space cabin environment. A secondary objective is to compare degradation of flight test to a ground test unit with contaminant dosing to determine applicability of ground testing.

  19. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  20. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  1. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  2. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11386.001 PMID:26641377

  3. Sipunculans and segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups—Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata—use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages. PMID:19513266

  4. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  5. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-01-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both

  6. What is a segment?

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Patel, Nipam H

    2013-12-17

    Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000 years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that 'segmentation' be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures.

  7. Variation in vowel duration among southern African American English speakers

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. This study examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South in order to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the two groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Method Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. Results AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Female vowels were significantly longer than male vowels for both AAE and WAE. Conclusions African Americans should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers. PMID:25951511

  8. What is a segment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000 years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that ‘segmentation’ be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures. PMID:24345042

  9. An Approach with Hybrid Segmental Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Maurya, Raj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Present case report provides an insight into the hybrid segmental mechanics with treatment of 13-year-old male, considering the side effects of sole continuous arch wire sliding mechanics. Patient was diagnosed as a case of skeletal class I jaw relationship, low mandibular plane angle, class II molar relation on right and class I molar relation on left side, anterior cross bite, crowding of 12mm in upper, 5mm in lower arch. He also had proclined upper and lower anteriors by 2mm, convex profile and incompetent lips. Total treatment duration was 20 months, during which segmental canine retraction was performed with TMA (Titanium, Molybdenum, Aluminum) 'T' loop retraction spring followed by consolidation of spaces with continuous arch mechanics. Most of the treatment objectives were met with good intraoral and facial results within reasonable framework of time. This approach used traditional twin brackets, which offered the versatility to use continuous arch-wire mechanics, segmental mechanics and hybrid sectional mechanics.

  10. Segmented Trough Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szmyd, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Segmented troughlike reflector for solar cells approach concentration effectiveness of true parabolic reflector yet simpler and less expensive. Walls of segmented reflector composed of reflective aluminized membrane. Lengthwise guide wire applies tension to each wall, thereby dividing each into two separate planes. Planes tend to focus Sunlight on solar cells at center of trough between walls. Segmented walls provide higher Sunlight concentration ratios than do simple walls.

  11. Impact assisted segmented cutterhead

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.

    1992-01-01

    An impact assisted segmented cutterhead device is provided for cutting various surfaces from coal to granite. The device comprises a plurality of cutting bit segments deployed in side by side relationship to form a continuous cutting face and a plurality of impactors individually associated with respective cutting bit segments. An impactor rod of each impactor connects that impactor to the corresponding cutting bit segment. A plurality of shock mounts dampening the vibration from the associated impactor. Mounting brackets are used in mounting the cutterhead to a base machine.

  12. Schedule segmentation and delay-reduction theory.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M

    1996-06-01

    In order to explain the data obtained from studies which examined effects of schedule segmentation on choice, the present study proposed five quantitative models stemming from delay-reduction theory. A total of 108 choice proportions reported in the schedule segmentation literature were plotted against choice proportions predicted by the models. Linear regression equations and their correlation coefficients were then obtained by the method of least squares, in order to examine which of the five equations was the best in explaining the obtained data. The best model determined the values of the alternatives by multiplying the values of conditioned stimuli associated with them, each of which was obtained by subtracting a non-reinforcement interval after its offset from an amount of delay reduction informed by its onset.

  13. Behavioral contrast in fixed-interval components: effects of extinction-component duration.

    PubMed Central

    de Rose, J C

    1986-01-01

    Seven albino rats were exposed to a multiple schedule of reinforcement in which the two components (fixed interval and extinction) alternated such that a presentation of the extinction component followed each fixed-interval reinforcement. In baseline sessions, the duration of the extinction component was constant and always one-third of the fixed-interval value. Probe sessions contained a probe segment in which the duration of the extinction component was increased; the response rate in fixed-interval components during the probe segment was compared with the response rate in the segments preceding and following the probe. The effect of increasing the duration of the extinction component was studied under three values of fixed interval: 30 s, 120 s, and 18 s, in three successive conditions. Response rate within fixed intervals was a direct function of duration of the extinction component. Pausing at the beginning of the fixed interval decreased as extinction duration increased. These effects were larger and more consistent for the shorter fixed-interval values (18 s and 30 s). These results indicate a functional relation between relative component duration and responding. For the component providing more frequent reinforcement, this could be stated as an inverse relationship between relative component duration and response rate. This relation is similar to findings regarding the ratio of trial and intertrial duration in Pavlovian conditioning procedures, and suggests that behavioral contrast may be related to Pavlovian contingencies underlying the multiple schedule. PMID:3958663

  14. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  15. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  16. Keypoint Transfer Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Toews, M.; Langs, G.; Wells, W.; Golland, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present an image segmentation method that transfers label maps of entire organs from the training images to the novel image to be segmented. The transfer is based on sparse correspondences between keypoints that represent automatically identified distinctive image locations. Our segmentation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) keypoint matching, (ii) voting-based keypoint labeling, and (iii) keypoint-based probabilistic transfer of organ label maps. We introduce generative models for the inference of keypoint labels and for image segmentation, where keypoint matches are treated as a latent random variable and are marginalized out as part of the algorithm. We report segmentation results for abdominal organs in whole-body CT and in contrast-enhanced CT images. The accuracy of our method compares favorably to common multi-atlas segmentation while offering a speed-up of about three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, keypoint transfer requires no training phase or registration to an atlas. The algorithm’s robustness enables the segmentation of scans with highly variable field-of-view. PMID:26221677

  17. Image segmentation survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The methodologies and capabilities of image segmentation techniques are reviewed. Single linkage schemes, hybrid linkage schemes, centroid linkage schemes, histogram mode seeking, spatial clustering, and split and merge schemes are addressed.

  18. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  19. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

  20. Segmented pyroelector detector

    DOEpatents

    Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

    1981-01-21

    A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

  1. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  2. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  3. Geometry Guided Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Stanley M.; Liang, Tajen

    1989-03-01

    Our overall goal is to develop an image understanding system for automatically interpreting dental radiographs. This paper describes the module that integrates the intrinsic image data to form the region adjacency graph that represents the image. The specific problem is to develop a robust method for segmenting the image into small regions that do not overlap anatomical boundaries. Classical algorithms for finding homogeneous regions (i.e., 2 class segmentation or connected components) will not always yield correct results since blurred edges can cause adjacent anatomical regions to be labeled as one region. This defect is a problem in this and other applications where an object count is necessary. Our solution to the problem is to guide the segmentation by intrinsic properties of the constituent objects. The module takes a set of intrinsic images as arguments. A connected components-like algorithm is performed, but the connectivity relation is not 4- or 8-neighbor connectivity in binary images; the connectivity is defined in terms of the intrinsic image data. We shall describe both the classical method and the modified segmentation procedures, and present experiments using both algorithms. Our experiments show that for the dental radiographs a segmentation using gray level data in conjunction with edges of the surfaces of teeth give a robust and reliable segmentation.

  4. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    PubMed

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  5. Pause length and speech rate as durational cues for prosody markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeung-Yoon

    2003-10-01

    Two durational cues for prosody are examined for utterances in the Radio Speech Corpus. The acoustic cues are length of pause and speech rate associated with each syllabic segment. Pauses are defined as intervals where probability of voicing and energy (rms) fall below respective thresholds. Speech rate is defined as the reciprocal of the duration of the syllabic segment, without normalization with respect to speaker or segment identity. Each syllabic segment was assigned prosodic markers that are a combination of degree of accent and boundary, i.e., {unaccented, accented} × {nonboundary, intermediate boundary, intonational boundary}. Distributions of pause length and speech rate for each type of prosodic marker show that in general, mean pause length increases and speech rate decreases as the strength of the boundary increases from nonboundary to intonational boundary. Accented syllabic segments at intermediate or intonational boundaries showed longer associated pause length and slower speech rate than unaccented segments. Also, for different types of intonational boundary tones, mean pause length decreases in the order of: L-L%, H-H%, H-L%, L-H%. Preliminary classification results using the two durational cues show detection rates for intonational boundaries around 75%, with insertion rates around 25%.

  6. Scorpion image segmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  7. Expected endings and judged duration.

    PubMed

    Jones, M R; Boltz, M G; Klein, J M

    1993-09-01

    In four experiments, the predictions of an expectancy/contrast model (Jones & Boltz, 1989) for judged duration were evaluated. In Experiments 1 and 2, listeners estimated the relative durations of auditory pattern pairs that varied in contextual phrasing and temporal contrast. The results showed that when the second pattern of a pair either seems to (Experiments 1 and 2) or actually does (Experiment 2) end earlier (later) than the first, subjects judge it as being relatively shorter (longer). In Experiment 3, listeners heard single patterns in which notes immediately preceding the final one were omitted. Timing of the final (target) tone was varied such that it was one beat early, on time, or one beat late. Listeners' ratings of target tones revealed systematic effects of phrasing and target timing. In Experiment 4, listeners temporally completed (extrapolated) sequences of Experiment 3 that were modified to exclude the target tone. The results again showed that phrase context systematically influenced expectancies about "when" sequences should end. As a set, these studies demonstrate the effects of event structure and anticipatory attending upon experienced duration and are discussed in terms of the expectancy/contrast model.

  8. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  9. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  10. Phasing a segmented telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykin, Irina; Yacobi, Lee; Adler, Joan; Ribak, Erez N.

    2015-02-01

    A crucial part of segmented or multiple-aperture systems is control of the optical path difference between the segments or subapertures. In order to achieve optimal performance we have to phase subapertures to within a fraction of the wavelength, and this requires high accuracy of positioning for each subaperture. We present simulations and hardware realization of a simulated annealing algorithm in an active optical system with sparse segments. In order to align the optical system we applied the optimization algorithm to the image itself. The main advantage of this method over traditional correction methods is that wave-front-sensing hardware and software are no longer required, making the optical and mechanical system much simpler. The results of simulations and laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of this optimization algorithm to correct both piston and tip-tilt errors.

  11. Segmented annular combustor

    DOEpatents

    Reider, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    An industrial gas turbine engine includes an inclined annular combustor made up of a plurality of support segments each including inner and outer walls of trapezoidally configured planar configuration extents and including side flanges thereon interconnected by means of air cooled connector bolt assemblies to form a continuous annular combustion chamber therebetween and wherein an air fuel mixing chamber is formed at one end of the support segments including means for directing and mixing fuel within a plenum and a perforated header plate for directing streams of air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber; each of the outer and inner walls of each of the support segments having a ribbed lattice with tracks slidably supporting porous laminated replaceable panels and including pores therein for distributing combustion air into the combustion chamber while cooling the inner surface of each of the panels by transpiration cooling thereof.

  12. Hyperspectral imagery and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, Mark C.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    2002-07-01

    Hyperspectral imagery (HSI), a passive infrared imaging technique which creates images of fine resolution across the spectrum is currently being considered for Army tactical applications. An important tactical application of infra-red (IR) hyperspectral imagery is the detection of low contrast targets, including those targets that may employ camouflage, concealment and deception (CCD) techniques [1,2]. Spectral reflectivity characteristics were used for efficient segmentation between different materials such as painted metal, vegetation and soil for visible to near IR bands in the range of 0.46-1.0 microns as shown previously by Kwon et al [3]. We are currently investigating the HSI where the wavelength spans from 7.5-13.7 microns. The energy in this range of wavelengths is almost entirely emitted rather than reflected, therefore, the gray level of a pixel is a function of the temperature and emissivity of the object. This is beneficial since light level and reflection will not need to be considered in the segmentation. We will present results of a step-wise segmentation analysis on the long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectrum utilizing various classifier architectures applied to both the full-band, broad-band and narrow-band features derived from the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) data base. Stepwise segmentation demonstrates some of the difficulties in the multi-class case. These results give an indication of the added capability the hyperspectral imagery and associated algorithms will bring to bear on the target acquisition problem.

  13. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  14. Segmentation of stereo terrain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Debra A.; Privitera, Claudio M.; Blackmon, Theodore T.; Zbinden, Eric; Stark, Lawrence W.

    2000-06-01

    We have studied four approaches to segmentation of images: three automatic ones using image processing algorithms and a fourth approach, human manual segmentation. We were motivated toward helping with an important NASA Mars rover mission task -- replacing laborious manual path planning with automatic navigation of the rover on the Mars terrain. The goal of the automatic segmentations was to identify an obstacle map on the Mars terrain to enable automatic path planning for the rover. The automatic segmentation was first explored with two different segmentation methods: one based on pixel luminance, and the other based on pixel altitude generated through stereo image processing. The third automatic segmentation was achieved by combining these two types of image segmentation. Human manual segmentation of Martian terrain images was used for evaluating the effectiveness of the combined automatic segmentation as well as for determining how different humans segment the same images. Comparisons between two different segmentations, manual or automatic, were measured using a similarity metric, SAB. Based on this metric, the combined automatic segmentation did fairly well in agreeing with the manual segmentation. This was a demonstration of a positive step towards automatically creating the accurate obstacle maps necessary for automatic path planning and rover navigation.

  15. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  16. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  17. Example Based Lesion Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2016-01-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer’s disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  18. An Approach with Hybrid Segmental Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Maurya, Raj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Present case report provides an insight into the hybrid segmental mechanics with treatment of 13-year-old male, considering the side effects of sole continuous arch wire sliding mechanics. Patient was diagnosed as a case of skeletal class I jaw relationship, low mandibular plane angle, class II molar relation on right and class I molar relation on left side, anterior cross bite, crowding of 12mm in upper, 5mm in lower arch. He also had proclined upper and lower anteriors by 2mm, convex profile and incompetent lips. Total treatment duration was 20 months, during which segmental canine retraction was performed with TMA (Titanium, Molybdenum, Aluminum) 'T' loop retraction spring followed by consolidation of spaces with continuous arch mechanics. Most of the treatment objectives were met with good intraoral and facial results within reasonable framework of time. This approach used traditional twin brackets, which offered the versatility to use continuous arch-wire mechanics, segmental mechanics and hybrid sectional mechanics. PMID:27504427

  19. Ingrowing toenails: studies of segmental chemical ablation.

    PubMed

    Gem, M A; Sykes, P A

    1990-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that segmental ablation is the treatment of choice for patients with ingrowing toenails and that the success rate is 96%. This procedure has been common practice among chiropodists for 20 years, usually using phenol in the United Kingdom, and sodium hydroxide in the United States. However, there has been little critical evaluation of the relative merits of the two chemicals, of the period of chemical application, or of the duration of post-operative pain and healing time. We therefore embarked upon a number of controlled prospective studies to examine these questions. A prospective study of 422 procedures for patients with ingrowing toenails (onychocryptosis) shows that good results are achieved by segmental chemical ablation performed by chiropodists in 91% of cases. The average period of post-operative pain is 3.6 days. Similar results are obtained using either 80% phenol or 10% sodium hydroxide. We believe that segmental chemical ablation by a chiropodist is the treatment of choice for the typical patient with an ingrowing toe nail. PMID:2102144

  20. Functional Segments in Tongue Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Maureen; Epstein, Melissa A.; Iskarous, Khalil

    2004-01-01

    The tongue is a deformable object, and moves by compressing or expanding local functional segments. For any single phoneme, these functional tongue segments may move in similar or opposite directions, and may reach target maximum synchronously or not. This paper will discuss the independence of five proposed segments in the production of speech.…

  1. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  2. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  3. The role of segmentation in prospective and retrospective time estimation processes.

    PubMed

    Zakay, D; Tsal, Y; Moses, M; Shahar, I

    1994-05-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the effects of the segmentation level of an interval on its perceived duration. A prospective paradigm and an absolute time estimation method were used in two experiments, and in two others we used a retrospective paradigm and a comparative estimation method. A positive relationship was obtained between segmentation level of the estimated interval and its perceived duration under retrospective-comparative conditions for both auditory and tactual stimuli, but no relationship was found under prospective-absolute conditions. The paradigm, estimation method, and segmentation level were jointly manipulated in the fifth experiment. The impact of segmentation was significant under retrospective (both absolute and comparative) and close to significant under prospective-comparative conditions. These findings suggest that high-priority events are perceived and coded as contextual changes and that the impact of segmentation on time estimation is mediated by memory processes.

  4. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  5. Icing Encounter Duration Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate how aerodynamic performance degradation progresses with time throughout an exposure to icing conditions. It is one of the first documented studies of the effects of ice contamination on aerodynamic performance at various points in time throughout an icing encounter. Both a 1.5 and 6 ft chord, two-dimensional, NACA-23012 airfoils were subjected to icing conditions in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for varying lengths of time. At the end of each run, lift, drag, and pitching moment measurements were made. Measurements with the 1.5 ft chord model showed that maximum lift and pitching moment degraded more rapidly early in the exposure and degraded more slowly as time progressed. Drag for the 1.5 ft chord model degraded more linearly with time, although drag for very short exposure durations was slightly higher than expected. Only drag measurements were made with the 6 ft chord airfoil. Here, drag for the long exposures was higher than expected. Novel comparison of drag measurements versus an icing scaling parameter, accumulation parameter times collection efficiency was used to compare the data from the two different size model. The comparisons provided a means of assessing the level of fidelity needed for accurate icing simulation.

  6. Visual duration aftereffect is position invariant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baolin; Yuan, Xiangyong; Chen, Youguo; Liu, Peiduo; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to relatively long or short sensory events leads to a negative aftereffect, such that the durations of the subsequent events within a certain range appear to be contracted or expanded. The distortion in perceived duration is presumed to arise from the adaptation of duration detectors. Here, we focus on the positional sensitivity of those visual duration detectors by exploring whether the duration aftereffect may be constrained by the visual location of stimuli. We adopted two different paradigms, one that tests for transfer across visual hemifields, and the other that tests for simultaneous selectivity between visual hemifields. By employing these experimental designs, we show that the duration aftereffect strongly transfers across visual hemifields and is not contingent on them. The lack of position specificity suggests that duration detectors in the visual system may operate at a relatively later stage of sensory processing. PMID:26500591

  7. Segmentation of Unstructured Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Smitha

    1996-01-01

    Datasets generated by computer simulations and experiments in Computational Fluid Dynamics tend to be extremely large and complex. It is difficult to visualize these datasets using standard techniques like Volume Rendering and Ray Casting. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This thesis explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and from Finite Element Analysis.

  8. Duration perception in crossmodally-defined intervals.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Katja M; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-03-01

    How humans perform duration judgments with multisensory stimuli is an ongoing debate. Here, we investigated how sub-second duration judgments are achieved by asking participants to compare the duration of a continuous sound to the duration of an empty interval in which onset and offset were marked by signals of different modalities using all combinations of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. The pattern of perceived durations across five stimulus durations (ranging from 100 ms to 900 ms) follows the Vierordt Law. Furthermore, intervals with a sound as onset (audio-visual, audio-tactile) are perceived longer than intervals with a sound as offset. No modality ordering effect is found for visualtactile intervals. To infer whether a single modality-independent or multiple modality-dependent time-keeping mechanisms exist we tested whether perceived duration follows a summative or a multiplicative distortion pattern by fitting a model to all modality combinations and durations. The results confirm that perceived duration depends on sensory latency (summative distortion). Instead, we did not find evidence for multiplicative distortions. The results of the model and the behavioural data support the concept of a single time-keeping mechanism that allows for judgments of durations marked by multisensory stimuli. PMID:23953664

  9. Duration tuning in the mouse auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Brand, A; Urban, R; Grothe, B

    2000-10-01

    Temporal cues, including sound duration, are important for sound identification. Neurons tuned to the duration of pure tones were first discovered in the auditory system of frogs and bats and were discussed as specific adaptations in these animals. More recently duration sensitivity has also been described in the chinchilla midbrain and the cat auditory cortex, indicating that it might be a more general phenomenon than previously thought. However, it is unclear whether duration tuning in mammals is robust in face of changes of stimulus parameters other than duration. Using extracellular single-cell recordings in the mouse inferior colliculus, we found 55% of cells to be sensitive to stimulus duration showing long-pass, short-pass, or band-pass filter characteristics. For most neurons, a change in some other stimulus parameter, (e.g., intensity, frequency, binaural conditions, or using noise instead of pure tones) altered and sometimes abolished duration-tuning characteristics. Thus in many neurons duration tuning is interdependent with other stimulus parameters and, hence, might be context dependent. A small number of inferior colliculus neurons, in particular band-pass neurons, exhibited stable filter characteristics and could therefore be referred to as "duration selective." These findings support the idea that duration tuning is a general phenomenon in the mammalian auditory system.

  10. Speech Production in Parkinson's Disease: II. Acoustic and Electropalatographic Investigation of Sentence, Word and Segment Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations employing electropalatography (EPG) have identified articulatory timing deficits in individuals with acquired dysarthria. However, this technology is yet to be applied to the articulatory timing disturbance present in Parkinson's disease (PD). As a result, the current investigation aimed to use EPG to comprehensively…

  11. Image segmentation using random features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Geoff; Gao, Junbin; Antolovich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for selecting random features via compressed sensing to improve the performance of Normalized Cuts in image segmentation. Normalized Cuts is a clustering algorithm that has been widely applied to segmenting images, using features such as brightness, intervening contours and Gabor filter responses. Some drawbacks of Normalized Cuts are that computation times and memory usage can be excessive, and the obtained segmentations are often poor. This paper addresses the need to improve the processing time of Normalized Cuts while improving the segmentations. A significant proportion of the time in calculating Normalized Cuts is spent computing an affinity matrix. A new algorithm has been developed that selects random features using compressed sensing techniques to reduce the computation needed for the affinity matrix. The new algorithm, when compared to the standard implementation of Normalized Cuts for segmenting images from the BSDS500, produces better segmentations in significantly less time.

  12. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  13. Bone image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

    1999-05-01

    Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible.

  14. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  15. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  16. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  17. Multiple-Segment Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    Multiple-segment climbing robots developed to perform such tasks as inspection, sandblasting, welding, and painting on towers and other structures. Look and move like caterpillars. Video camera mounted on one of segments rotated to desired viewing angle. Used in remote inspection of structure, to view motion of robot and/or provides video feedback for control of motion, and/or to guide operation of head mounted on foremost segment with motorized actuators.

  18. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  19. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  20. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  1. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of the District of Columbia Department of Corrections § 330.1102 Duration. This program terminates 1 year...

  2. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  3. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  4. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  5. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 550.6 Section 550.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 550.6 Duration. REE...

  6. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration. 550.6 Section 550.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 550.6 Duration. REE...

  7. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  8. Segmentation: Slicing the Urban Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Explains market segmentation and defines undifferentiated, concentrated, and differentiated marketing strategies. Describes in detail the marketing planning process at the Metropolitan Community Colleges. Focuses on the development and implementation of an ongoing recruitment program designed for the market segment composed of business employees.…

  9. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  10. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  11. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  12. Segmental portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, M S; Petersen, T H; Sommer, H

    1986-01-01

    Isolated obstruction of the splenic vein leads to segmental portal hypertension, which is a rare form of extrahepatic portal hypertension, but it is important to diagnose, since it can be cured by splenectomy. In a review of the English literature, 209 patients with isolated splenic vein obstruction were found. Pancreatitis caused 65% of the cases and pancreatic neoplasms 18%, whereas the rest was caused by various other diseases. Seventy-two per cent of the patients bled from gastroesophageal varices, and most often the bleeding came from isolated gastric varices. The spleen was enlarged in 71% of the patients. A correct diagnosis in connection with the first episode of bleeding was made in only 49%; 22% were operated on because of gastrointestinal bleeding, but the cause of bleeding was not found. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with gastroesophageal varices, but without signs of a liver disease, especially if isolated gastric varices are found. The diagnosis is confirmed by portography. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. PMID:3729585

  13. Performance Tests of Skutterudites and Segmented Thermoelectric Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.; Caillat, Thierry

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents results of three performance tests of Skutterudites and Segmented Thermoelectric (STE) unicouples performed at average hot and cold shoe temperatures of ~ 973 K and 300 K, respectively, to verify theoretical predictions. The first two tests (MAR-03 and JUN-03) involved non-segmented Skutterudites unicouples of slightly different dimension but same materials for the n- (CoSb3) and p- (CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12) legs. The test duration is 450 hours for MAR-03 and 1200 hours for JUN-03. The third test (JUL-03) is for a Skutterudites/Segmented (STE) unicouple, in which the p-leg has two segments of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 and the n-leg has two segments of CoSb3 and Bi2Te2.95Se0.05. The segments in the n- and p-legs have different lengths and cross-sectional areas. The JUL-03 test duration is 645 hours. All tested unicouples are fabricated at JPL and assembled and tested in the vacuum facility at the University of New Mexico in argon at ~ 0.051 to 0.068 MPa to suppress the sublimation of antimony from the legs near the hot shoe. Detailed measurements of the open circuit voltage, voltage across the n- and p-legs, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics, and the hot and cold shoe temperatures are performed in all tests. In JUL-03, additional measurements of the interfacial temperatures and the voltage across the segments in the n- and p-legs are obtained as functions of test duration. Estimates of beginning-of-life (BOL) conversion efficiencies of 10.7% for Shutterudites and 13.5% for STE unicouples are within 10% of theoretical predictions assuming zero side heat losses and zero contact resistances. Estimates of these losses in the tests are 2.3 W in MAR-03 to 9.3 W in JUL-03, thus actual efficiencies in the tests are ~ 40-50% lower. Because cross sectional areas of the legs of JUL-03 are much larger than of both MAR-03 and JUN-03, the measured BOL peak electrical power per unicouple is 1.295 We versus 0.671 We for the latter.

  14. Video rate color region segmentation for mobile robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cabrol, Aymeric; Bonnin, Patrick J.; Hugel, Vincent; Blazevic, Pierre; Chetto, Maryline

    2005-08-01

    Color Region may be an interesting image feature to extract for visual tasks in robotics, such as navigation and obstacle avoidance. But, whereas numerous methods are used for vision systems embedded on robots, only a few use this segmentation mainly because of the processing duration. In this paper, we propose a new real-time (ie. video rate) color region segmentation followed by a robust color classification and a merging of regions, dedicated to various applications such as RoboCup four-legged league or an industrial conveyor wheeled robot. Performances of this algorithm and confrontation with other methods, in terms of result quality and temporal performances are provided. For better quality results, the obtained speed up is between 2 and 4. For same quality results, the it is up to 10. We present also the outlines of the Dynamic Vision System of the CLEOPATRE Project - for which this segmentation has been developed - and the Clear Box Methodology which allowed us to create the new color region segmentation from the evaluation and the knowledge of other well known segmentations.

  15. Prognostic significance of QRS duration and morphology.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Zaręba, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    QRS duration and morphology, evaluated via a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), represent an opportunity to derive useful prognostic information regarding the risk of subsequent cardiac events or therapeutic outcomes. Prolonged QRS duration, and the presence of intraventricular conduction abnormalities, usually indicate the presence of changes in the myocardium due to underlying heart disease. Prolonged QRS duration is often associated with depressed ejection fraction or enlarged left ventricular volumes, but several studies have demonstrated that this simple ECG measure provides independent prognostic value, after adjusting for relevant clinical covariates. Post-infarction patients with prolonged QRS duration have a significantly increased risk of mortality, although data associating QRS prolongation specifically with sudden death is less supportive. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, there is no evidence that QRS duration has prognostic significance in predicting mortality or sudden death. Prolonged QRS duration, and especially presence of left bundle branch block, seems to predict a benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Therefore, QRS duration and morphology should not only be considered a predictor of death or sudden death in patients after myocardial infarction, and in those suspected of coronary artery disease, but also as a predictor of benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure, whether of an ischemic or non-ischemic origin. PMID:21305480

  16. A Segmental Framework for Representing Signs Phonetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…

  17. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  18. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions.

  19. Multiatlas Segmentation as Nonparametric Regression

    PubMed Central

    Awate, Suyash P.; Whitaker, Ross T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel theoretical framework to model and analyze the statistical characteristics of a wide range of segmentation methods that incorporate a database of label maps or atlases; such methods are termed as label fusion or multiatlas segmentation. We model these multiatlas segmentation problems as nonparametric regression problems in the high-dimensional space of image patches. We analyze the nonparametric estimator’s convergence behavior that characterizes expected segmentation error as a function of the size of the multiatlas database. We show that this error has an analytic form involving several parameters that are fundamental to the specific segmentation problem (determined by the chosen anatomical structure, imaging modality, registration algorithm, and label-fusion algorithm). We describe how to estimate these parameters and show that several human anatomical structures exhibit the trends modeled analytically. We use these parameter estimates to optimize the regression estimator. We show that the expected error for large database sizes is well predicted by models learned on small databases. Thus, a few expert segmentations can help predict the database sizes required to keep the expected error below a specified tolerance level. Such cost-benefit analysis is crucial for deploying clinical multiatlas segmentation systems. PMID:24802528

  20. Automatic segmentation of anterior segment optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Dominic; Zheng, Yalin; Bao, Fangjun; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can provide quantitative measurements of the eye's entire anterior segment. A new technique founded on a newly proposed level set-based shape prior segmentation model has been developed for automatic segmentation of the cornea's anterior and posterior boundaries. This technique comprises three major steps: removal of regions containing irrelevant structures and artifacts, estimation of the cornea's location using a thresholding technique, and application of the new level set-based shape prior segmentation model to improve segmentation. The performance of our technique is compared to previously developed methods for analysis of the cornea in 33 OCT images of normal eyes, whereby manual annotations are used as a reference standard. The new technique achieves much improved concordance than previous methods, with a mean Dice's similarity coefficient of >0.92. This demonstrates the technique's potential to provide accurate and reliable measurements of the anterior segment geometry, which is important for many applications, including the construction of representative numerical simulations of the eye's mechanical behavior.

  1. Automatic segmentation of anterior segment optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dominic; Zheng, Yalin; Bao, Fangjun; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can provide quantitative measurements of the eye's entire anterior segment. A new technique founded on a newly proposed level set-based shape prior segmentation model has been developed for automatic segmentation of the cornea's anterior and posterior boundaries. This technique comprises three major steps: removal of regions containing irrelevant structures and artifacts, estimation of the cornea's location using a thresholding technique, and application of the new level set-based shape prior segmentation model to improve segmentation. The performance of our technique is compared to previously developed methods for analysis of the cornea in 33 OCT images of normal eyes, whereby manual annotations are used as a reference standard. The new technique achieves much improved concordance than previous methods, with a mean Dice's similarity coefficient of > 0.92. This demonstrates the technique's potential to provide accurate and reliable measurements of the anterior segment geometry, which is important for many applications, including the construction of representative numerical simulations of the eye's mechanical behavior. PMID:23640074

  2. A progressive-duration schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Kara B; Byrne, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We describe a schedule of reinforcement involving systematic, within-session increases in response-duration requirements. Rats received access to appetitive reinforcers for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery. Sessions ended when reinforcement criteria were unmet for a period of ten minutes. Breaking points, defined as the terminal duration requirement in effect prior to the end of the session, stabilized when environmental conditions were held constant. Breaking points were sensitive to manipulations of both food deprivation and reinforcer quality. Analogous to progressive-ratio schedules, progressive-duration schedules may provide an assay for measuring the amount of behavior an organism will emit for a given reinforcer under current motivational conditions.

  3. [Duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Pereira, P Ricardo; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis is a controversial issue. Antibiotic regimens have changed over time along with the criteria used to determine the ideal antibiotic therapy duration. The authors aim to make an historical overview on this matter and simultaneously add the evidence of recent studies, pointing out some issues in results interpretation, namely, their design and the associated demographic and epidemiological questions. Clinical assays on this subject, with statistically significant results, are quite recent. Most of the scientific knowledge has been acquired empirically through the times. The actual investigation paradigm, in what concerns to antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis, lays on the dichotomy: "short versus long duration regimens". Nevertheless, so far, the existing studies have not completely cleared this doubt. Thus, despite some evidence suggests that short duration antibiotic regimens are effective for some patients, in patients with severe disease presentations or with other morbidities its use may be questioned.

  4. Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formulas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A new general rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formula is presented, utilizing a method similar to, but more accurate than one previously developed. The previously developed formula was based on the average depth-duration ratio of about 40% and the mean depth-frequency ratio of 1.48. It is shown that this formula is only a particular form of the writer's more general formulation. -from Author

  5. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness < B > = - 0.2 and memory < M > = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  6. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  7. Texture segmentation by genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Song, Andy; Ciesielski, Vic

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a texture segmentation method using genetic programming (GP), which is one of the most powerful evolutionary computation algorithms. By choosing an appropriate representation texture, classifiers can be evolved without computing texture features. Due to the absence of time-consuming feature extraction, the evolved classifiers enable the development of the proposed texture segmentation algorithm. This GP based method can achieve a segmentation speed that is significantly higher than that of conventional methods. This method does not require a human expert to manually construct models for texture feature extraction. In an analysis of the evolved classifiers, it can be seen that these GP classifiers are not arbitrary. Certain textural regularities are captured by these classifiers to discriminate different textures. GP has been shown in this study as a feasible and a powerful approach for texture classification and segmentation, which are generally considered as complex vision tasks.

  8. Durations required to distinguish noise and tone: Effects of noise bandwidth and frequency.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Armin; Moore, Brian C J; Edler, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Perceptual audio coders exploit the masking properties of the human auditory system to reduce the bit rate in audio recording and transmission systems; it is intended that the quantization noise is just masked by the audio signal. The effectiveness of the audio signal as a masker depends on whether it is tone-like or noise-like. The determination of this, both physically and perceptually, depends on the duration of the stimuli. To gather information that might improve the efficiency of perceptual coders, the duration required to distinguish between a narrowband noise and a tone was measured as a function of center frequency and noise bandwidth. In experiment 1, duration thresholds were measured for isolated noise and tone bursts. In experiment 2, duration thresholds were measured for tone and noise segments embedded within longer tone pulses. In both experiments, center frequencies were 345, 754, 1456, and 2658 Hz and bandwidths were 0.25, 0.5, and 1 times the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the auditory filter at each center frequency. The duration thresholds decreased with increasing bandwidth and with increasing center frequency up to 1456 Hz. It is argued that the duration thresholds depended mainly on the detection of amplitude fluctuations in the noise bursts. PMID:27250144

  9. Bayesian segmentation of hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, Adel; Féron, Olivier; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2004-11-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of joint segmentation of hyperspectral images in the Bayesian framework. The proposed approach is based on a Hidden Markov Modeling (HMM) of the images with common segmentation, or equivalently with common hidden classification label variables which is modeled by a Potts Markov Random Field. We introduce an appropriate Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to implement the method and show some simulation results.

  10. Video segmentation techniques for news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Michael; Wolf, Wayne H.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes our experiences in video analysis for a video library on the World Wide Web. News and documentary programs, though seemingly simple, have some characteristics which can cause problems in simple shot segmentation algorithms. We have developed a methodology, based on our experience with the analysis of several hours of news/documentary footage, which improve the results of shot segmentation on this type of material and which in turn allows for higher-quality storyboards for our video library.

  11. The Envisat-1 ground segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Ray; Ashton, Martin

    1995-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) missions will be followed by the Polar Orbit Earth Mission (POEM) program. The first of the POEM missions will be Envisat-1. ESA has completed the design phase of the ground segment. This paper presents the main elements of that design. The main part of this paper is an overview of the Payload Data Segment (PDS) which is the core of the Envisat-1 ground segment, followed by two further sections which describe in more detail the facilities to be offered by the PDS for archiving and for user servcies. A further section describes some future issues for ground segment development. Logica was the prime contractor of a team of 18 companies which undertook the ESA financed architectural design study of the Envisat-1 ground segment. The outputs of the study included detailed specifications of the components that will acquire, process, archive and disseminate the payload data, together with the functional designs of the flight operations and user data segments.

  12. Efficient threshold for volumetric segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdescu, Dumitru D.; Brezovan, Marius; Stanescu, Liana; Stoica Spahiu, Cosmin; Ebanca, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in effective understanding of digital images. However, the research on the existence of general purpose segmentation algorithm that suits for variety of applications is still very much active. Among the many approaches in performing image segmentation, graph based approach is gaining popularity primarily due to its ability in reflecting global image properties. Volumetric image segmentation can simply result an image partition composed by relevant regions, but the most fundamental challenge in segmentation algorithm is to precisely define the volumetric extent of some object, which may be represented by the union of multiple regions. The aim in this paper is to present a new method to detect visual objects from color volumetric images and efficient threshold. We present a unified framework for volumetric image segmentation and contour extraction that uses a virtual tree-hexagonal structure defined on the set of the image voxels. The advantage of using a virtual tree-hexagonal network superposed over the initial image voxels is that it reduces the execution time and the memory space used, without losing the initial resolution of the image.

  13. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  14. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  15. Communicative functions integrate segments in prosodies and prosodies in segments.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Klaus J

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a new look at the traditionally established divide between sounds and prosodies, viewing it as a useful heuristics in language descriptions that focus on the segmental make- up of words. It pleads for a new approach that bridges this reified compartmentalization of speech in a more global communicative perspective. Data are presented from a German perception experiment in the framework of the Semantic Differential that shows interdependence of f0 contours and the spectral characteristics of a following fricative segment, for the expression of semantic functions along the scales questioning - asserting, excited - calm, forceful - not forceful, contrary - agreeable. The results lead to the conclusion that segments shape prosodies and are shaped by them in varying ways in the coding of semantic functions. This implies that the analysis of sentence prosodies needs to integrate the manifestation of segments, just as the analysis of segments needs to consider their prosodic embedding. In communicative interaction, speakers set broad prosodic time windows of varying sizes, and listeners respond to them. So, future phonetic research needs to concentrate on speech analysis in such windows.

  16. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  17. Duration expansion at low luminance levels.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Aurelio; Ayhan, Inci; Johnston, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Duration distortions have been shown to occur at the time of saccades and following high temporal frequency or contrast adaptation. Under all these conditions, changes in the temporal tuning of M neurons also occur, suggesting that there might be a link between the two phenomena. In order to explore this relationship further, we measured the apparent duration of visual stimuli in the dark, where the temporal impulse response has been reported to lengthen. We first measured a progressive shift and reduction of the occurrence of an apparent motion reversal as we decreased the luminance level, indicating a lengthening of the temporal impulse response. We then measured perceived duration at these luminance levels (0.75, 3, and 50 cd/m(2)) after matching for apparent contrast and temporal frequency. While perceived temporal frequency did not substantially differ across luminance levels, duration appeared expanded at the lowest luminance level relative to the highest by approximately 60 ms. Thus, we have shown that reduced luminance is associated with both a lengthening of the temporal impulse response and a duration expansion, linking the two and providing further evidence for a relationship between changes in the neuronal tuning in the early stages of the visual system and time perception.

  18. Integrated segmentation of cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajemba, Peter; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Scott, Richard; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Automatic segmentation of cellular structures is an essential step in image cytology and histology. Despite substantial progress, better automation and improvements in accuracy and adaptability to novel applications are needed. In applications utilizing multi-channel immuno-fluorescence images, challenges include misclassification of epithelial and stromal nuclei, irregular nuclei and cytoplasm boundaries, and over and under-segmentation of clustered nuclei. Variations in image acquisition conditions and artifacts from nuclei and cytoplasm images often confound existing algorithms in practice. In this paper, we present a robust and accurate algorithm for jointly segmenting cell nuclei and cytoplasm using a combination of ideas to reduce the aforementioned problems. First, an adaptive process that includes top-hat filtering, Eigenvalues-of-Hessian blob detection and distance transforms is used to estimate the inverse illumination field and correct for intensity non-uniformity in the nuclei channel. Next, a minimum-error-thresholding based binarization process and seed-detection combining Laplacian-of-Gaussian filtering constrained by a distance-map-based scale selection is used to identify candidate seeds for nuclei segmentation. The initial segmentation using a local maximum clustering algorithm is refined using a minimum-error-thresholding technique. Final refinements include an artifact removal process specifically targeted at lumens and other problematic structures and a systemic decision process to reclassify nuclei objects near the cytoplasm boundary as epithelial or stromal. Segmentation results were evaluated using 48 realistic phantom images with known ground-truth. The overall segmentation accuracy exceeds 94%. The algorithm was further tested on 981 images of actual prostate cancer tissue. The artifact removal process worked in 90% of cases. The algorithm has now been deployed in a high-volume histology analysis application.

  19. Segmentation cues in conversational speech: robust semantics and fragile phonotactics.

    PubMed

    White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L; Wiget, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Multiple cues influence listeners' segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker's articulatory effort - hyperarticulation vs. hypoarticulation (H&H) - may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners' interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs. read), using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylized landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues - semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics - was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech. Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favorable/unfavorable) and cue type (phonotactics/semantics). Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behavior. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically based cues in the segmentation of natural conversational speech.

  20. Speaking Rate from Proximal and Distal Contexts Is Used during Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    A series of eye-tracking and categorization experiments investigated the use of speaking-rate information in the segmentation of Dutch ambiguous-word sequences. Juncture phonemes with ambiguous durations (e.g., [s] in "eens (s)peer," "once (s)pear," [t] in "nooit (t)rap," "never staircase/quick") were perceived as longer and hence more often as…

  1. STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.

  2. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  3. Determinants of eye-fixation duration.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, T A; Ellis, C L

    1980-06-01

    Four variables that might be presumed to contribute to the duration of an eye fixation were investigated in a series of seven experiments. These variables were stimulus processing time, relative emphasis on speed or accuracy, sequential dependencies across successive fixations, and amplitude of the preceding and following saccades. The pattern of results suggested a two-component model to account for the duration of single eye-fixations. One component is the minimum pause time of the eye, estimated to be about 200 msec without any stimulus processing. The second component involves stimulus processing, estimated to require a minimum of 50 to 100 msec, but subject to a number of influences that can substantially increase or decrease this duration. Although the authors did not generate this model to account for eye movements in complex tasks such as reading, they speculate about how complications could be added.

  4. The use of ileocolic segment for esophageal replacement in children

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Harshjeet Singh; Sen, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate and describe the procedure and outcome of ileocolic replacement of esophagus. Materials and Methods: We review 7 children with esophageal injuries, who underwent esophageal replacement using ileocolic segment in Christian Medical College, Vellore, India between 2006 and 2014. Results: The ileocolic segment was used in 7 children with scarred or inadequate esophagus. There were 4 girls and 3 boys, who underwent esophageal replacement using isoperistaltic ileocolic segment in this period. Age at presentation varied from 1 month to 14 years with an average of 4.6 years. The indications for ileocolic replacements were corrosive strictures in 5, failed esophageal atresia repair in one and gastric volvulus related esophageal stricture in another. The average follow-up duration was 37 months. One child with corrosive stricture lost to follow-up and died 2 years later in another center. Other 6 children were free of dysphagia till the last follow-up. Conclusions: Although the ileocolic segment is not commonly used for esophageal substitution, it can be useful in special situations where the substitution needs to reach the high cervical esophagus and also where the stomach is scarred and not suitable for gastric pull-up. PMID:27365904

  5. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  6. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  7. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  8. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  9. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  10. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  11. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  12. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  13. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Arias, D.; Leveton, L.

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature on slow wave sleep (SWS) in long duration space flight, and place this within the context of the broader literature on SWS particularly with respect to analogous environments such as the Antarctic. Explore how SWS could be measured within the International Space Station (ISS) context with the aim to utilize the ISS as an analog for future extra-orbital long duration missions. Discuss the potential use of emergent minimally intrusive wireless technologies like ZEO for integrated prelaunch, flight, and return to Earth analysis and optimization of SWS (and general quality of sleep).

  14. Image Information Mining Utilizing Hierarchical Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Marchisio, Giovanni; Koperski, Krzysztof; Datcu, Mihai

    2002-01-01

    The Hierarchical Segmentation (HSEG) algorithm is an approach for producing high quality, hierarchically related image segmentations. The VisiMine image information mining system utilizes clustering and segmentation algorithms for reducing visual information in multispectral images to a manageable size. The project discussed herein seeks to enhance the VisiMine system through incorporating hierarchical segmentations from HSEG into the VisiMine system.

  15. Identifying Benefit Segments among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joseph D.

    1991-01-01

    Using concept of market segmentation (dividing market into distinct groups requiring different product benefits), surveyed 398 college students to determine benefit segments among students selecting a college to attend and factors describing each benefit segment. Identified one major segment of students (classroomers) plus three minor segments…

  16. 47 CFR 95.853 - Frequency segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency segments. 95.853 Section 95.853... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.853 Frequency segments. There are two frequency segments available for assignment to the 218-219 MHz Service in each service area. Frequency segment A...

  17. 47 CFR 95.853 - Frequency segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency segments. 95.853 Section 95.853... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.853 Frequency segments. There are two frequency segments available for assignment to the 218-219 MHz Service in each service area. Frequency segment A...

  18. 47 CFR 95.853 - Frequency segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency segments. 95.853 Section 95.853... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.853 Frequency segments. There are two frequency segments available for assignment to the 218-219 MHz Service in each service area. Frequency segment A...

  19. 47 CFR 95.853 - Frequency segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency segments. 95.853 Section 95.853... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.853 Frequency segments. There are two frequency segments available for assignment to the 218-219 MHz Service in each service area. Frequency segment A...

  20. 47 CFR 95.853 - Frequency segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency segments. 95.853 Section 95.853... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.853 Frequency segments. There are two frequency segments available for assignment to the 218-219 MHz Service in each service area. Frequency segment A...

  1. Nanofiber-segment ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. E.; Hickman, G. T.; Franson, J. D.; Pittman, T. B.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a fiber ring resonator comprised of a relatively long loop of standard single-mode fiber with a short nanofiber segment. The evanescent mode of the nanofiber segment allows the cavity-enhanced field to interact with atoms in close proximity to the nanofiber surface. We report on an experiment using a warm atomic vapor and low-finesse cavity, and briefly discuss the potential for reaching the strong coupling regime of cavity QED by using trapped atoms and a high-finesse cavity of this kind.

  2. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  3. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Ali; Rao, Santosh; Li, Li; Thompson, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P = 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P = 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P = 0.052), but it remained statistically significant (P = 0.049) among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings. PMID:24319459

  4. Duration and Intensity as Correlates of Fo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Eric

    1978-01-01

    The speech of two male Taiwanese speakers was analyzed to determine whether fundamental frequency (Fo) is correlated with both duration and intensity; five conclusions are drawn. The results are discussed in terms of theories of pitch production and speed of pitch change. (EJS)

  5. Breathhold duration and response to marijuana smoke.

    PubMed

    Zacny, J P; Chait, L D

    1989-06-01

    Marijuana smokers are frequently observed to hold the smoke in their lungs for prolonged periods (10-15 sec) apparently in the belief that prolonged breathholding intensifies the effects of the drug. The actual influence of breathhold duration on response to marijuana smoke has not been studied. The present study examined the effects of systematic manipulation of breathhold duration on the physiological, cognitive and subjective response to marijuana smoke in a group of eight regular marijuana smokers. Subjects were exposed to each of three breathhold duration conditions (0, 10 and 20 sec) on three occasions, scheduled according to a randomized block design. A controlled smoking procedure was used in which the number of puffs, puff volume and postpuff inhalation volume were held constant. Expired air carbon monoxide levels were measured before and after smoking to monitor smoke intake. Typical marijuana effects (increased heart rate, increased ratings of "high" and impaired memory performance) were observed under each of the breathhold conditions, but there was little evidence that response to marijuana was a function of breathhold duration.

  6. Short-Duration Simulations from Measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Enghauser, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A method is presented that ascribes proper statistical variability to simulations that are derived from longer-duration measurements. This method is applicable to simulations of either real-value or integer-value data. An example is presented that demonstrates the applicability of this technique to the synthesis of gamma-ray spectra.

  7. Does oseltamivir shorten flu symptom duration?

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Richard; Mounsey, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of influenza virus infection with oral oseltamivir reduces time to alleviation of symptoms in adults and children by approximately one day compared with placebo. It reduces symptom duration even when initiated more than 2 days after symptom onset. PMID:27660842

  8. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  9. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  10. Durational patterning at syntactic and discourse boundaries in Mandarin spontaneous speech.

    PubMed

    Fon, Janice; Johnson, Keith; Chen, Sally

    2011-03-01

    This study focused on durational cues (i.e., syllable duration, pause duration, and syllable onset intervals (SOIs)) at discourse boundaries in two dialects of Mandarin,Taiwan and Mainland varieties. Speech was elicited by having 18 participants describe events in The Pear Story film. Recorded data were transcribed, labeled, and segmented into clauses. Discourse boundary indices were used to label discourse disjuncture levels. Results showed that the scope of lengthening included both the final and the penultimate syllables. Pause was a robust but optional indicator for discourse boundaries, and Taiwan Mandarin preferred unfilled over filled ones, while the Mainland variety did not show such strong preferences. Discourse hierarchy corresponded consistently with occurrences of pauses and duration of SOIs, within which pause was the main contributor. Higher discourse levels were more likely to be accompanied by pauses, and were indicated by longer pauses and SOIs. Syllable duration only played a secondary role in indicating discourse disjuncture size when pause was absent.When there was an accompanying pause, Mainland Mandarin relied solely on it to indicate discourse hierarchy, while Taiwan Mandarin used both syllable and pause duration, a dialectal difference that seemed to be rhythm-related. By shortening the degree of lengthening in the boundary syllable and lengthening the following pause at the same time,Taiwan Mandarin increased the absolute and relative duration of pause and maximized its role in indicating discourse hierarchy.The results of this study implied that the use of pause in discourse disjuncture demarcation was more of a language-specific choice while its role in discourse hierarchy encoding is more language-universal.

  11. Age Differences in Language Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Payne, Brennan R

    2016-01-01

    Reading bears the evolutionary footprint of spoken communication. Prosodic contour in speech helps listeners parse sentences and establish semantic focus. Readers' regulation of input mirrors the segmentation patterns of prosody, such that reading times are longer for words at the ends of syntactic constituents. As reflected in these "micropauses," older readers are often found to segment text into smaller chunks. The mechanisms underlying these micropauses are unclear, with some arguing that they derive from the mental simulation of prosodic contour and others arguing they reflect higher-level language comprehension mechanisms (e.g., conceptual integration, consolidation with existing knowledge, ambiguity resolution) that are common across modality and support the consolidation of the memory representation. The authors review evidence based on reading time and comprehension performance to suggest that (a) age differences in segmentation derive both from age-related declines in working memory, as well as from crystallized ability and knowledge, which have the potential to grow in adulthood, and that (b) shifts in segmentation patterns may be a pathway through which language comprehension is preserved in late life.

  12. Segmentation in Urban Housing Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnare, Ann B.; Struyk, Raymond J.

    1976-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that urban housing markets are segmented, in the sense that significantly different prices per unit of housing services exist contemporaneously in spatially or structurally defined markets, is tested. A main conclusion is that the market is working fairly efficiently to eliminate price premiums and discounts.…

  13. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  14. Human Perception in Segmentation of Sketches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Company, Pedro; Varley, Peter A. C.; Piquer, Ana; Vergara, Margarita; Sánchez-Rubio, Jaime

    In this paper, we study the segmentation of sketched engineering drawings into a set of straight and curved segments. Our immediate objective is to produce a benchmarking method for segmentation algorithms. The criterion is to minimise the differences between what the algorithm detects and what human beings perceive. We have created a set of sketched drawings and have asked people to segment them. By analysis of the produced segmentations, we have obtained the number and locations of the segmentation points which people perceive. Evidence collected during our experiments supports useful hypotheses, for example that not all kinds of segmentation points are equally difficult to perceive. The resulting methodology can be repeated with other drawings to obtain a set of sketches and segmentation data which could be used as a benchmark for segmentation algorithms, to evaluate their capability to emulate human perception of sketches.

  15. Metric Learning to Enhance Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca; Bue, Brian; Gilmore, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    Unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation can reveal spatial trends that show the physical structure of the scene to an analyst. They highlight borders and reveal areas of homogeneity and change. Segmentations are independently helpful for object recognition, and assist with automated production of symbolic maps. Additionally, a good segmentation can dramatically reduce the number of effective spectra in an image, enabling analyses that would otherwise be computationally prohibitive. Specifically, using an over-segmentation of the image instead of individual pixels can reduce noise and potentially improve the results of statistical post-analysis. In this innovation, a metric learning approach is presented to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. The prototype demonstrations attempt a superpixel segmentation in which the image is conservatively over-segmented; that is, the single surface features may be split into multiple segments, but each individual segment, or superpixel, is ensured to have homogenous mineralogy.

  16. The segmented-beat modulation method for ECG estimation.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, A; Giuliani, C; Fioretti, S; Di Nardo, F; Burattini, L

    2015-08-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) tracings corrupted by noise with frequency components in the ECG frequency band, may result useless unless appropriately processed. The estimation of the clean ECG from such recordings, however, is quite challenging; being linear filtering inappropriate. In the common situations in which the R peaks are detectable, template-based techniques have been proposed to estimate the ECG by a template-beat concatenation. However, such techniques have the major limit of not being able to reproduce physiological heart-rate and morphological variability. Thus, the aim of the present study was to propose the segmented-beat modulation method (SBMM) as the technique that overcomes such limit. The SBMM is an improved template-based technique that provides good-quality estimations of ECG tracings characterized by some heart-rate and morphological variability. It segments the template ECG beat into QRS and TUP segments and then, before concatenation, it applies a modulation/demodulation process to the TUP-segment so that the estimated-beat duration and morphology adjust to those of the corresponding original-beat. To test its performance, the SBMM was applied to 19 ECG tracings from normal subjects. There were no errors in estimating the R peak location, and the errors in the QRS and TUP segments were low (≤65 μV and ≤30 μV, respectively), with the former ones being significantly higher than the latter ones. Eventually, TUP errors tended to increase with increasing heart-rate variability (correlation coefficient: 0.59, P<;10(-2)). In conclusion, the new SBMM proved to be a useful tool for providing good-quality ECG estimations of tracings characterized by heart-rate and morphological variability.

  17. Segment Specification for the Payload Segment of the Reusable Reentry Satellite: Rodent Module Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) System is composed of the payload segment (PS), vehicle segment (VS), and mission support (MS) segments. This specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the RRS Rodent Module (RM).

  18. Electro-Optic Segment-Segment Sensors for Radio and Optical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alex

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses an electro-optic sensor that consists of a collimator, attached to one segment, and a quad diode, attached to an adjacent segment. Relative segment-segment motion causes the beam from the collimator to move across the quad diode, thus generating a measureable electric signal. This sensor type, which is relatively inexpensive, can be configured as an edge sensor, or as a remote segment-segment motion sensor.

  19. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  20. Segmentation of elastic organs using region growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widita, R.; Kurniadi, R.; Darma, Y.; Perkasa, Y. S.; Trianti, N.

    2012-06-01

    We have been successfully developed a new software for image segmentation This software is addressed to do segmentation of elastic organs. The segmentation components used in this software is region growing algorithms which have proven to be an effective approach for image segmentation. The implementations of region growing developed here are connected threshold and neighborhood connected. The results show that the neighborhood algorithm affects the smoothness of the segmented object borders, the size of the segmented region, and reduces computing time. Our method is designed to perform with clinically acceptable speed, using accelerated techniques.

  1. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  2. Evaluation of Long Duration Flight on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of utilizing either an airship or aircraft as a flight platform for long duration flight within the atmosphere of Venus. In order to achieve long-duration flight, the power system for the vehicle had to be capable of operating for extended periods of time. To accomplish these, two types of power systems were considered, a solar energy-based power system utilizing a photovoltaic array as the main power source and a radioisotope heat source power system utilizing a Stirling engine as the heat conversion device. Both types of vehicles and power systems were analyzed to determine their flight altitude range. This analysis was performed for a station-keeping mission where the vehicle had to maintain a flight over a location on the ground. This requires the vehicle to be capable of flying faster than the wind speed at a particular altitude. An analysis was also performed to evaluate the altitude range and maximum duration for a vehicle that was not required to maintain station over a specified location. The results of the analysis show that each type of flight vehicle and power system was capable of flight within certain portions of Venus s atmosphere. The aircraft, both solar and radioisotope power proved to be the most versatile and provided the greatest range of coverage both for station-keeping and non-station-keeping missions.

  3. Red blood cell storage duration and trauma.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Rosemary L

    2015-04-01

    Numerous retrospective clinical studies suggest that transfusion of longer stored red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with an independent risk of poorer outcomes for certain groups of patients, including trauma, intensive care, and cardiac surgery patients. Large multicenter randomized controlled trials are currently underway to address the concern about RBC storage duration. However, none of these randomized controlled trials focus specifically on trauma patients with hemorrhage. Major trauma, particularly due to road accidents, is the leading cause of critical injury in the younger-than-40-year-old age group. Severe bleeding associated with major trauma induces hemodynamic dysregulation that increases the risk of hypoxia, coagulopathy, and potentially multiorgan failure, which can be fatal. In major trauma, a multitude of stress-associated changes occur to the patient's RBCs, including morphological changes that increase cell rigidity and thereby alter blood flow hemodynamics, particularly in the microvascular vessels, and reduce RBC survival. Initial inflammatory responses induce deleterious cellular interactions, including endothelial activation, RBC adhesion, and erythrophagocytosis that are quickly followed by profound immunosuppressive responses. Stored RBCs exhibit similar biophysical characteristics to those of trauma-stressed RBCs. Whether transfusion of RBCs that exhibit storage lesion changes exacerbates the hemodynamic perturbations already active in the trauma patient is not known. This article reviews findings from several recent nonrandomized studies examining RBC storage duration and clinical outcomes in trauma patients. The rationale for further research on RBC storage duration in the trauma setting is provided.

  4. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

  5. Inter-element orientation and distance influence the duration of persistent contour integration.

    PubMed

    Strother, Lars; Alferov, Danila

    2014-01-01

    Contour integration is a fundamental form of perceptual organization. We introduce a new method of studying the mechanisms responsible for contour integration. This method capitalizes on the perceptual persistence of contours under conditions of impending camouflage. Observers viewed arrays of randomly arranged line segments upon which circular contours comprised of similar line segments were superimposed via abrupt onset. Crucially, these contours remained visible for up to a few seconds following onset, but eventually disappeared due to the camouflaging effects of surrounding background line segments. Our main finding was that the duration of contour visibility depended on the distance and degree of co-alignment between adjacent contour segments such that relatively dense smooth contours persisted longest. The stimulus-related effects reported here parallel similar results from contour detection studies, and complement previous reported top-down influences on contour persistence (Strother et al., 2011). We propose that persistent contour visibility reflects the sustained activity of recurrent processing loops within and between visual cortical areas involved in contour integration and other important stages of visual object recognition.

  6. Vibration damping for the Segmented Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Yingling, Adam J.; Griffin, Steven F.; Agrawal, Brij N.; Cobb, Richard G.; Chambers, Trevor S.

    2012-09-01

    The Segmented Mirror Telescope (SMT) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey is a next-generation deployable telescope, featuring a 3-meter 6-segment primary mirror and advanced wavefront sensing and correction capabilities. In its stowed configuration, the SMT primary mirror segments collapse into a small volume; once on location, these segments open to the full 3-meter diameter. The segments must be very accurately aligned after deployment and the segment surfaces are actively controlled using numerous small, embedded actuators. The SMT employs a passive damping system to complement the actuators and mitigate the effects of low-frequency (<40 Hz) vibration modes of the primary mirror segments. Each of the six segments has three or more modes in this bandwidth, and resonant vibration excited by acoustics or small disturbances on the structure can result in phase mismatches between adjacent segments thereby degrading image quality. The damping system consists of two tuned mass dampers (TMDs) for each of the mirror segments. An adjustable TMD with passive magnetic damping was selected to minimize sensitivity to changes in temperature; both frequency and damping characteristics can be tuned for optimal vibration mitigation. Modal testing was performed with a laser vibrometry system to characterize the SMT segments with and without the TMDs. Objectives of this test were to determine operating deflection shapes of the mirror and to quantify segment edge displacements; relative alignment of λ/4 or better was desired. The TMDs attenuated the vibration amplitudes by 80% and reduced adjacent segment phase mismatches to acceptable levels.

  7. Measuring the success of video segmentation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Gregory J.

    2001-12-01

    Appropriate segmentation of video is a key step for applications such as video surveillance, video composing, video compression, storage and retrieval, and automated target recognition. Video segmentation algorithms involve dissecting the video into scenes based on shot boundaries as well as local objects and events based on spatial shape and regional motions. Many algorithmic approaches to video segmentation have been recently reported, but many lack measures to quantify the success of the segmentation especially in comparison to other algorithms. This paper suggests multiple bench-top measures for evaluating video segmentation. The paper suggests that the measures are most useful when 'truth' data about the video is available such as precise frame-by- frame object shape. When precise 'truth' data is unavailable, this paper suggests using hand-segmented 'truth' data to measure the success of the video segmentation. Thereby, the ability of the video segmentation algorithm to achieve the same quality of segmentation as the human is obtained in the form of a variance in multiple measures. The paper introduces a suite of measures, each scaled from zero to one. A score of one on a particular measure is a perfect score for a singular segmentation measure. Measures are introduced to evaluate the ability of a segmentation algorithm to correctly detect shot boundaries, to correctly determine spatial shape and to correctly determine temporal shape. The usefulness of the measures are demonstrated on a simple segmenter designed to detect and segment a ping pong ball from a table tennis image sequence.

  8. Inertial properties of equine limb segments.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Allen, Whitney A; Lane, Jasmine M; Clayton, Hilary M

    2011-05-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of limb movements requires knowledge of the mass distribution between and within limb segments. We measured segment masses, positions of segmental center of mass and moments of inertia of the fore and hind limb segments for 38 horses of different breeds and sizes. After disarticulation by dissections, segments were weighed and the position of the center of mass was determined by suspension. Moment of inertia was measured using a trifilar pendulum. We found that mass distribution does not change with size for animals under 600 kg and report ratios of segmental masses to total body mass. For all segments, the scaling relationship between segmental mass and moment of inertia was predicted equally well or better by a 5/3 power fit than by the more classic mass multiplied by segmental length squared fit. Average values taken from previous studies generally confirmed our data but scaling relationships often needed to be revised. We did not detect an effect of morphotype on segment inertial properties. Differences in segmental inertial properties between published studies may depend more on segmental segmentation techniques than on size or body type of the horse. PMID:21355866

  9. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  10. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  11. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  12. Factors predictive of persistent or recurrent Crohn's disease in excluded rectal segments.

    PubMed

    Guillem, J G; Roberts, P L; Murray, J J; Coller, J A; Veidenheimer, M C; Schoetz, D J

    1992-08-01

    The fate of the excluded rectal segment after surgery for Crohn's colitis remains poorly defined. To determine prognostic factors relating to the fate of the rectal segment, records of 47 patients who underwent creation of an excluded rectal segment were studied. Disease developed in 33 patients (70 percent) in the excluded rectal segment by five years; 24 patients (51 percent) had completion proctectomy by 2.4 years; and 9 patients (19 percent) retained a rectum with disease at a median follow-up period of five years (range, 2-13 years). At a median follow-up time of six years (range, 2-21 years), 14 patients were without clinical disease. The three groups were equivalent with respect to sex, duration of preoperative disease, indication for operation, distribution of disease, and histologic involvement of the proximal rectal margin. The median age of patients in the proctectomy group at diagnosis tended to be younger than that of patients with a retained excluded rectal segment (22, 30, and 31 years for patients having proctectomy, patients with a diseased excluded rectal segment, and patients with a normal excluded rectal segment, respectively). Neither initial involvement of the terminal ileum nor endoscopic inflammatory changes seen in the rectum predicted eventual disease of the excluded rectal segment. However, initial perianal disease complicating Crohn's colitis was predictive of persistent excluded rectal segment disease and often required proctectomy. Therefore, because the presence of perianal disease and Crohn's colitis predicts persistent or recurrent excluded rectal segment disease, primary total proctocolectomy or early completion proctectomy may be indicated in this subgroup of patients.

  13. Factorization-based texture segmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Jiangye; Wang, Deliang; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-06-17

    This study introduces a factorization-based approach that efficiently segments textured images. We use local spectral histograms as features, and construct an M × N feature matrix using M-dimensional feature vectors in an N-pixel image. Based on the observation that each feature can be approximated by a linear combination of several representative features, we factor the feature matrix into two matrices-one consisting of the representative features and the other containing the weights of representative features at each pixel used for linear combination. The factorization method is based on singular value decomposition and nonnegative matrix factorization. The method uses local spectral histogramsmore » to discriminate region appearances in a computationally efficient way and at the same time accurately localizes region boundaries. Finally, the experiments conducted on public segmentation data sets show the promise of this simple yet powerful approach.« less

  14. Printed Arabic optical character segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Ayyesh, Muna; Qaroush, Aziz; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A considerable progress in recognition techniques for many non-Arabic characters has been achieved. In contrary, few efforts have been put on the research of Arabic characters. In any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system the segmentation step is usually the essential stage in which an extensive portion of processing is devoted and a considerable share of recognition errors is attributed. In this research, a novel segmentation approach for machine Arabic printed text with diacritics is proposed. The proposed method reduces computation, errors, gives a clear description for the sub-word and has advantages over using the skeleton approach in which the data and information of the character can be lost. Both of initial evaluation and testing of the proposed method have been developed using MATLAB and shows 98.7% promising results.

  15. Random walks for image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Grady, Leo

    2006-11-01

    A novel method is proposed for performing multilabel, interactive image segmentation. Given a small number of pixels with user-defined (or predefined) labels, one can analytically and quickly determine the probability that a random walker starting at each unlabeled pixel will first reach one of the prelabeled pixels. By assigning each pixel to the label for which the greatest probability is calculated, a high-quality image segmentation may be obtained. Theoretical properties of this algorithm are developed along with the corresponding connections to discrete potential theory and electrical circuits. This algorithm is formulated in discrete space (i.e., on a graph) using combinatorial analogues of standard operators and principles from continuous potential theory, allowing it to be applied in arbitrary dimension on arbitrary graphs.

  16. Factorization-based texture segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jiangye; Wang, Deliang; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-06-17

    This study introduces a factorization-based approach that efficiently segments textured images. We use local spectral histograms as features, and construct an M × N feature matrix using M-dimensional feature vectors in an N-pixel image. Based on the observation that each feature can be approximated by a linear combination of several representative features, we factor the feature matrix into two matrices-one consisting of the representative features and the other containing the weights of representative features at each pixel used for linear combination. The factorization method is based on singular value decomposition and nonnegative matrix factorization. The method uses local spectral histograms to discriminate region appearances in a computationally efficient way and at the same time accurately localizes region boundaries. Finally, the experiments conducted on public segmentation data sets show the promise of this simple yet powerful approach.

  17. Polyp Segmentation in NBI Colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sebastian; Kennel, Manuel; Stehle, Thomas; Wulff, Jonas; Tischendorf, Jens; Trautwein, Christian; Aach, Til

    Endoscopic screening of the colon (colonoscopy) is performed to prevent cancer and to support therapy. During intervention colon polyps are located, inspected and, if need be, removed by the investigator. We propose a segmentation algorithm as a part of an automatic polyp classification system for colonoscopic Narrow-Band images. Our approach includes multi-scale filtering for noise reduction, suppression of small blood vessels, and enhancement of major edges. Results of the subsequent edge detection are compared to a set of elliptic templates and evaluated. We validated our algorithm on our polyp database with images acquired during routine colonoscopic examinations. The presented results show the reliable segmentation performance of our method and its robustness to image variations.

  18. Segment aberration effects on contrast.

    PubMed

    Crossfield, Ian J; Troy, Mitchell

    2007-07-20

    High-contrast imaging, particularly the direct detection of extrasolar planets, is a major science driver for the next generation of telescopes. This science requires the suppression of scattered starlight at extremely high levels and that telescopes be correctly designed today to meet these stringent requirements in the future. The challenge increases in systems with complicated aperture geometries such as obscured, segmented telescopes. Such systems can also require intensive modeling and simulation efforts in order to understand the trade-offs between different optical parameters. The feasibility and development of a contrast prediction tool for use in the design and systems engineering of these telescopes is described. The performance of a particular starlight suppression system on a large segmented telescope is described analytically. These analytical results and the results of a contrast predictor are then compared with the results of a full wave-optics simulation. PMID:17609697

  19. Rigid shape matching by segmentation averaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Oliensis, John

    2010-04-01

    We use segmentations to match images by shape. The new matching technique does not require point-to-point edge correspondence and is robust to small shape variations and spatial shifts. To address the unreliability of segmentations computed bottom-up, we give a closed form approximation to an average over all segmentations. Our method has many extensions, yielding new algorithms for tracking, object detection, segmentation, and edge-preserving smoothing. For segmentation, instead of a maximum a posteriori approach, we compute the "central" segmentation minimizing the average distance to all segmentations of an image. For smoothing, instead of smoothing images based on local structures, we smooth based on the global optimal image structures. Our methods for segmentation, smoothing, and object detection perform competitively, and we also show promising results in shape-based tracking.

  20. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  1. Adaptive image segmentation by quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Yun, David Y.

    1992-12-01

    Segmentation of images into textural homogeneous regions is a fundamental problem in an image understanding system. Most region-oriented segmentation approaches suffer from the problem of different thresholds selecting for different images. In this paper an adaptive image segmentation based on vector quantization is presented. It automatically segments images without preset thresholds. The approach contains a feature extraction module and a two-layer hierarchical clustering module, a vector quantizer (VQ) implemented by a competitive learning neural network in the first layer. A near-optimal competitive learning algorithm (NOLA) is employed to train the vector quantizer. NOLA combines the advantages of both Kohonen self- organizing feature map (KSFM) and K-means clustering algorithm. After the VQ is trained, the weights of the network and the number of input vectors clustered by each neuron form a 3- D topological feature map with separable hills aggregated by similar vectors. This overcomes the inability to visualize the geometric properties of data in a high-dimensional space for most other clustering algorithms. The second clustering algorithm operates in the feature map instead of the input set itself. Since the number of units in the feature map is much less than the number of feature vectors in the feature set, it is easy to check all peaks and find the `correct' number of clusters, also a key problem in current clustering techniques. In the experiments, we compare our algorithm with K-means clustering method on a variety of images. The results show that our algorithm achieves better performance.

  2. Color segmentation using MDL clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard S.; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes a procedure for segmentation of color face images. A cluster analysis algorithm uses a subsample of the input image color pixels to detect clusters in color space. The clustering program consists of two parts. The first part searches for a hierarchical clustering using the NIHC algorithm. The second part searches the resultant cluster tree for a level clustering having minimum description length (MDL). One of the primary advantages of the MDL paradigm is that it enables writing robust vision algorithms that do not depend on user-specified threshold parameters or other " magic numbers. " This technical note describes an application of minimal length encoding in the analysis of digitized human face images at the NTT Human Interface Laboratories. We use MDL clustering to segment color images of human faces. For color segmentation we search for clusters in color space. Using only a subsample of points from the original face image our clustering program detects color clusters corresponding to the hair skin and background regions in the image. Then a maximum likelyhood classifier assigns the remaining pixels to each class. The clustering program tends to group small facial features such as the nostrils mouth and eyes together but they can be separated from the larger classes through connected components analysis.

  3. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    PubMed

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.

  4. Seismic volumetric flattening and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomask, Jesse

    Two novel algorithms provide seismic interpretation solutions that use the full dimensionality of the data. The first is volumetric flattening and the second is image segmentation for tracking salt boundaries. Volumetric flattening is an efficient full-volume automatic dense-picking method applied to seismic data. First local dips (step-outs) are calculated over the entire seismic volume. The dips are then resolved into time shifts (or depth shifts) in a least-squares sense. To handle faults (discontinuous reflections), I apply a weighted inversion scheme. Additional information is incorporated in this flattening algorithm as geological constraints. The method is tested successfully on both synthetic and field data sets of varying degrees of complexity including salt piercements, angular unconformities, and laterally limited faults. The second full-volume interpretation method uses normalized cuts image segmentation to track salt interfaces. I apply a modified version of the normalized cuts image segmentation (NCIS) method to partition seismic images along salt interfaces. The method is capable of tracking interfaces that are not continuous, where conventional horizon tracking algorithms may fail. This method partitions the seismic image into two groups. One group is inside the salt body and the other is outside. Where the two groups meet is the salt boundary. By imposing bounds and by distributing the algorithm on a parallel cluster, I significantly increase efficiency and robustness. This method is demonstrated to be effective on both 2D and 3D seismic data sets.

  5. Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

  6. Primary mirror segment fabrication for CELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary mirror of the proposed California Extremely Large Telescope is a 30-meter diameter mosaic of hexagonal segments. An initial design calls for about a thousand segments with a hexagon side length of 0.5 meters, a primary-mirror focal ratio of 1.5, and a segment surface quality of about 20 nanometers rms. We describe concepts for fabricating these segments.

  7. Classification and Weakly Supervised Pain Localization using Multiple Segment Representation.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Karan; Dhall, Abhinav; Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Automatic pain recognition from videos is a vital clinical application and, owing to its spontaneous nature, poses interesting challenges to automatic facial expression recognition (AFER) research. Previous pain vs no-pain systems have highlighted two major challenges: (1) ground truth is provided for the sequence, but the presence or absence of the target expression for a given frame is unknown, and (2) the time point and the duration of the pain expression event(s) in each video are unknown. To address these issues we propose a novel framework (referred to as MS-MIL) where each sequence is represented as a bag containing multiple segments, and multiple instance learning (MIL) is employed to handle this weakly labeled data in the form of sequence level ground-truth. These segments are generated via multiple clustering of a sequence or running a multi-scale temporal scanning window, and are represented using a state-of-the-art Bag of Words (BoW) representation. This work extends the idea of detecting facial expressions through 'concept frames' to 'concept segments' and argues through extensive experiments that algorithms such as MIL are needed to reap the benefits of such representation. The key advantages of our approach are: (1) joint detection and localization of painful frames using only sequence-level ground-truth, (2) incorporation of temporal dynamics by representing the data not as individual frames but as segments, and (3) extraction of multiple segments, which is well suited to signals with uncertain temporal location and duration in the video. Extensive experiments on UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain dataset highlight the effectiveness of the approach by achieving competitive results on both tasks of pain classification and localization in videos. We also empirically evaluate the contributions of different components of MS-MIL. The paper also includes the visualization of discriminative facial patches, important for pain detection, as discovered by our

  8. A hazard rate analysis of fertility using duration data from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chang, C

    1988-01-01

    Data from the Malaysia Fertility and Family Planning Survey (MFLS) of 1974 were used to investigate the effects of biological and socioeconomic variables on fertility based on the hazard rate model. Another study objective was to investigate the robustness of the findings of Trussell et al. (1985) by comparing the findings of this study with theirs. The hazard rate of conception for the jth fecundable spell of the ith woman, hij, is determined by duration dependence, tij, measured by the waiting time to conception; unmeasured heterogeneity (HETi; the time-invariant variables, Yi (race, cohort, education, age at marriage); and time-varying variables, Xij (age, parity, opportunity cost, income, child mortality, child sex composition). In this study, all the time-varying variables were constant over a spell. An asymptotic X2 test for the equality of constant hazard rates across birth orders, allowing time-invariant variables and heterogeneity, showed the importance of time-varying variables and duration dependence. Under the assumption of fixed effects heterogeneity and the Weibull distribution for the duration of waiting time to conception, the empirical results revealed a negative parity effect, a negative impact from male children, and a positive effect from child mortality on the hazard rate of conception. The estimates of step functions for the hazard rate of conception showed parity-dependent fertility control, evidence of heterogeneity, and the possibility of nonmonotonic duration dependence. In a hazard rate model with piecewise-linear-segment duration dependence, the socioeconomic variables such as cohort, child mortality, income, and race had significant effects, after controlling for the length of the preceding birth. The duration dependence was consistant with the common finding, i.e., first increasing and then decreasing at a slow rate. The effects of education and opportunity cost on fertility were insignificant.

  9. Segmenting the mental health care market.

    PubMed

    Stone, T R; Warren, W E; Stevens, R E

    1990-03-01

    The authors report the results of a segmentation study of the mental health care market. A random sample of 387 residents of a western city were interviewed by telephone. Cluster analysis of the data identified six market segments. Each is described according to the mental health care services to which it is most sensitive. Implications for targeting the segments are discussed.

  10. Quick Dissection of the Segmental Bronchi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional anatomy of the bronchopulmonary segments is essential for respiratory medicine. This report describes a quick guide for dissecting the segmental bronchi in formaldehyde-fixed human material. All segmental bronchi are easy to dissect, and thus, this exercise will help medical students to better understand the…

  11. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  12. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents.

  13. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  14. Long duration human exposure to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

  15. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  16. Neural mechanisms of auditory discrimination of long-duration tonal patterns: a neural modeling and fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Antonio; Husain, Fatima T; Kemeny, Stefan; Xu, Jiang; Braun, Allen R; Horwitz, Barry

    2008-12-01

    Language perception comprises mechanisms of perception and discrimination of auditory stimuli. An important component of auditory perception and discrimination concerns auditory objects. Many interesting auditory objects in our environment are of relatively long duration; however, the temporal window of integration of auditory cortex neurons processing these objects is very limited. Thus, it is necessary to make active use of short-term memory in order to construct and temporarily store long-duration objects. We sought to understand the mechanisms by which the brain manipulates long-duration tonal patterns, temporarily stores the segments of those patterns, and integrates them into an auditory object. We extended a previously constructed model of auditory recognition of short-duration tonal patterns by expanding the prefrontal cortically-based short-term memory module of the previous model into a memory buffer with multiple short-term memory submodules and by adding a gating module. The gating module distributes the segments of the input pattern to separate locations of the extended prefrontal cortex in an orderly fashion, allowing a subsequent comparison of the stored segments against the segments of a second pattern. In addition to simulating behavioral data and electrical activity of neurons, our model also produces simulations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal as obtained in fMRI studies. The results of these simulations provided us with predictions that we tested in an fMRI experiment with normal volunteers. This fMRI experiment used the same task and similar stimuli to that of the model. We compared simulated data with experimental values. We found that two brain areas, the right precentral gyrus and the left medial frontal gyrus, correlated well with our simulations of the memory gating module. Other fMRI studies of auditory perception and discrimination have also found correlation of fMRI activation of those areas with similar tasks and thus

  17. Analyses of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics Pre and Post Short and Long-Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alperin, Noam; Barr, Yael; Lee, Sang H.; Mason,Sara; Bagci, Ahmet M.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are based on analyses of data from 17 crewmembers. The initial analysis compares pre to post-flight changes in total cerebral blood flow (CBF) and craniospinal CSF flow volume. Total CBF is obtained by summation of the mean flow rates through the 4 blood vessels supplying the brain (right and left internal carotid and vertebral arteries). Volumetric flow rates were obtained using an automated lumen segmentation technique shown to have 3-4-fold improved reproducibility and accuracy over manual lumen segmentation (6). Two cohorts, 5 short-duration and 8 long-duration crewmembers, who were scanned within 3 to 8 days post landing were included (4 short-duration crewmembers with MRI scans occurring beyond 10 days post flight were excluded). The VIIP Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) classification is being used initially as a measure for VIIP syndrome severity. Median CPG scores of the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 2. Mean preflight total CBF for the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 863+/-144 and 747+/-119 mL/min, respectively. Percentage CBF changes for all short duration crewmembers were 11% or lower, within the range of normal physiological fluctuations in healthy individuals. In contrast, in 4 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers, the change in CBF exceeded the range of normal physiological fluctuation. In 3 of the 4 subjects an increase in CBF was measured. Large pre to post-flight changes in the craniospinal CSF flow volume were found in 6 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers. Box-Whisker plots of the CPG and the percent CBF and CSF flow changes for the two cohorts are shown in Figure 4. Examples of CSF flow waveforms for a short and two long-duration (CPG 0 and 3) are shown in Figure 5. Changes in CBF and CSF flow dynamics larger than normal physiological fluctuations were observed in the long-duration crewmembers. Changes in CSF flow were more pronounced than changes in CBF. Decreased CSF flow dynamics were observed

  18. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  19. Resonant Anderson localization in segmented wires.

    PubMed

    Estarellas, Cristian; Serra, Llorenç

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a model of random segmented wire, with linear segments of two-dimensional wires joined by circular bends. The joining vertices act as scatterers on the propagating electron waves. The model leads to resonant Anderson localization when all segments are of similar length. The resonant behavior is present with one and also with several propagating modes. The probability distributions evolve from diffusive to localized regimes when increasing the number of segments in a similar way for long and short localization lengths. As a function of the energy, a finite segmented wire typically evolves from localized to diffusive to ballistic behavior in each conductance plateau.

  20. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  1. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Andrew H.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  2. Logistic Regression-HSMM-Based Heart Sound Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Springer, David B; Tarassenko, Lionel; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-04-01

    The identification of the exact positions of the first and second heart sounds within a phonocardiogram (PCG), or heart sound segmentation, is an essential step in the automatic analysis of heart sound recordings, allowing for the classification of pathological events. While threshold-based segmentation methods have shown modest success, probabilistic models, such as hidden Markov models, have recently been shown to surpass the capabilities of previous methods. Segmentation performance is further improved when a priori information about the expected duration of the states is incorporated into the model, such as in a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). This paper addresses the problem of the accurate segmentation of the first and second heart sound within noisy real-world PCG recordings using an HSMM, extended with the use of logistic regression for emission probability estimation. In addition, we implement a modified Viterbi algorithm for decoding the most likely sequence of states, and evaluated this method on a large dataset of 10,172 s of PCG recorded from 112 patients (including 12,181 first and 11,627 second heart sounds). The proposed method achieved an average F1 score of 95.63 ± 0.85%, while the current state of the art achieved 86.28 ± 1.55% when evaluated on unseen test recordings. The greater discrimination between states afforded using logistic regression as opposed to the previous Gaussian distribution-based emission probability estimation as well as the use of an extended Viterbi algorithm allows this method to significantly outperform the current state-of-the-art method based on a two-sided paired t-test.

  3. Image Segmentation Using Hierarchical Merge Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates one of the most fundamental computer vision problems: image segmentation. We propose a supervised hierarchical approach to object-independent image segmentation. Starting with over-segmenting superpixels, we use a tree structure to represent the hierarchy of region merging, by which we reduce the problem of segmenting image regions to finding a set of label assignment to tree nodes. We formulate the tree structure as a constrained conditional model to associate region merging with likelihoods predicted using an ensemble boundary classifier. Final segmentations can then be inferred by finding globally optimal solutions to the model efficiently. We also present an iterative training and testing algorithm that generates various tree structures and combines them to emphasize accurate boundaries by segmentation accumulation. Experiment results and comparisons with other very recent methods on six public data sets demonstrate that our approach achieves the state-of-the-art region accuracy and is very competitive in image segmentation without semantic priors.

  4. Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.

  5. Salient Segmentation of Medical Time Series Signals

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Lan, Mars; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Bui, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Searching and mining medical time series databases is extremely challenging due to large, high entropy, and multidimensional datasets. Traditional time series databases are populated using segments extracted by a sliding window. The resulting database index contains an abundance of redundant time series segments with little to no alignment. This paper presents the idea of “salient segmentation”. Salient segmentation is a probabilistic segmentation technique for populating medical time series databases. Segments with the lowest probabilities are considered salient and are inserted into the index. The resulting index has little redundancy and is composed of aligned segments. This approach reduces index sizes by more than 98% over conventional sliding window techniques. Furthermore, salient segmentation can reduce redundancy in motif discovery algorithms by more than 85%, yielding a more succinct representation of a time series signal.

  6. Efficient graph-cut tattoo segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonsoo; Parra, Albert; Li, He; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Law enforcement is interested in exploiting tattoos as an information source to identify, track and prevent gang-related crimes. Many tattoo image retrieval systems have been described. In a retrieval system tattoo segmentation is an important step for retrieval accuracy since segmentation removes background information in a tattoo image. Existing segmentation methods do not extract the tattoo very well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin tones. In this paper we describe a tattoo segmentation approach by determining skin pixels in regions near the tattoo. In these regions graph-cut segmentation using a skin color model and a visual saliency map is used to find skin pixels. After segmentation we determine which set of skin pixels are connected with each other that form a closed contour including a tattoo. The regions surrounded by the closed contours are considered tattoo regions. Our method segments tattoos well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin.

  7. Long Duration Exposure Facility: A general overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Lightner, E. Burton

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is a large, low-cost, reusable, unmanned, free-flying spacecraft which accommodates technology, science, and applications experiments for long-term exposure to the space environment. The LDEF was designed and built by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Specifically, the LDEF was designed to transport experiments into space via the Space Shuttle, to free fly in Earth orbit for an extended period, and be retrieved on a later Space Shuttle flight allowing experiments to be returned to Earth for postflight analysis in the laboratory. The LDEF with a full complement of experiments was placed in Earth orbit in April 1984 by Challenger and retrieved from orbit in January 1990 by Columbia. A general overview of the LDEF, its mission, systems, experiments, and operations is presented. Excerpts from various NASA documents are extensively used.

  8. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  9. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  10. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  11. Long duration backlighter experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A. B.; Glendinning, S. G.; Young, P. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Foord, M.; Schneider, M.; Lu, K.; Dittrich, T.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.

    2008-10-15

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {mu}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {mu}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {mu}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  12. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  13. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  14. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  15. WCE video segmentation using textons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

    2010-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) integrates wireless transmission with image and video technology. It has been used to examine the small intestine non invasively. Medical specialists look for signicative events in the WCE video by direct visual inspection manually labelling, in tiring and up to one hour long sessions, clinical relevant frames. This limits the WCE usage. To automatically discriminate digestive organs such as esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon is of great advantage. In this paper we propose to use textons for the automatic discrimination of abrupt changes within a video. In particular, we consider, as features, for each frame hue, saturation, value, high-frequency energy content and the responses to a bank of Gabor filters. The experiments have been conducted on ten video segments extracted from WCE videos, in which the signicative events have been previously labelled by experts. Results have shown that the proposed method may eliminate up to 70% of the frames from further investigations. The direct analysis of the doctors may hence be concentrated only on eventful frames. A graphical tool showing sudden changes in the textons frequencies for each frame is also proposed as a visual aid to find clinically relevant segments of the video.

  16. Colony image acquisition and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. X.

    2007-12-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.

  17. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  18. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  1. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  2. What can vertebrates tell us about segmentation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a feature of the body plans of a number of diverse animal groupings, including the annelids, arthropods and chordates. However, it has been unclear whether or not these different manifestations of segmentation are independently derived or have a common origin. Central to this issue is whether or not there are common developmental mechanisms that establish segmentation and the evolutionary origins of these processes. A fruitful way to address this issue is to consider how segmentation in vertebrates is directed. During vertebrate development three different segmental systems are established: the somites, the rhombomeres and the pharyngeal arches. In each an iteration of parts along the long axis is established. However, it is clear that the formation of the somites, rhombomeres or pharyngeal arches have little in common, and as such there is no single segmentation process. These different segmental systems also have distinct evolutionary histories, thus highlighting the fact that segmentation can and does evolve independently at multiple points. We conclude that the term segmentation indicates nothing more than a morphological description and that it implies no mechanistic similarity. Thus it is probable that segmentation has arisen repeatedly during animal evolution. PMID:25009737

  3. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  4. RSRM Segment Train Derailment and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor Jr., Robert H.; McConnaugghey, Paul K.; Beaman, David E.; Moore, Dennis R.; Reed, Harry

    2008-01-01

    On May 2, 2007, a freight train carrying segments of the space shuttle's solid rocket boosters derailed in Myrtlewood, Alabama, after a rail trestle collapsed. The train was carrying Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) 98 center and forward segments (STS-120) and RSRM 99 aft segments (STS-122). Initially, it was not known if the segments had been seriously damaged. Four segments dropped approximately 10 feet when the trestle collapsed and one of those four rolled off the track onto its side. The exit cones and the other four segments, not yet on the trestle, remained on solid ground. ATK and NASA immediately dispatched an investigation and recovery team to determine the safety of the situation and eventually the usability of the segments and exit cones for flight. Instrumentation on each segment provided invaluable data to determine the acceleration loads imparted into each loaded segment and exit cone. This paper details the incident, recovery plan and the team work that created a success story that ended with the safe launch of STS120 using the four center segments and the launch of STS122 using the Aft exit cones assemblies.

  5. Preliminary analysis of effect of random segment errors on coronagraph performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-09-01

    "Are we alone in the Universe?" is probably the most compelling science question of our generation. To answer it requires a large aperture telescope with extreme wavefront stability. To image and characterize Earth-like planets requires the ability to block 1010 of the host star's light with a 10-11 stability. For an internal coronagraph, this requires correcting wavefront errors and keeping that correction stable to a few picometers rms for the duration of the science observation. This requirement places severe specifications upon the performance of the observatory, telescope and primary mirror. A key task of the AMTD project (initiated in FY12) is to define telescope level specifications traceable to science requirements and flow those specifications to the primary mirror. From a systems perspective, probably the most important question is: What is the telescope wavefront stability specification? Previously, we suggested this specification should be 10 picometers per 10 minutes; considered issues of how this specification relates to architecture, i.e. monolithic or segmented primary mirror; and asked whether it was better to have few or many segments. This paper reviews the 10 picometers per 10 minutes specification; provides analysis related to the application of this specification to segmented apertures; and suggests that a 3 or 4 ring segmented aperture is more sensitive to segment rigid body motion that an aperture with fewer or more segments.

  6. Mathematical Analysis of Space Radiator Segmenting for Increased Reliability and Reduced Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft for long duration deep space missions will need to be designed to survive micrometeoroid bombardment of their surfaces some of which may actually be punctured. To avoid loss of the entire mission the damage due to such punctures must be limited to small, localized areas. This is especially true for power system radiators, which necessarily feature large surface areas to reject heat at relatively low temperature to the space environment by thermal radiation. It may be intuitively obvious that if a space radiator is composed of a large number of independently operating segments, such as heat pipes, a random micrometeoroid puncture will result only in the loss of the punctured segment, and not the entire radiator. Due to the redundancy achieved by independently operating segments, the wall thickness and consequently the weight of such segments can be drastically reduced. Probability theory is used to estimate the magnitude of such weight reductions as the number of segments is increased. An analysis of relevant parameter values required for minimum mass segmented radiators is also included.

  7. Classification and Weakly Supervised Pain Localization using Multiple Segment Representation

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Karan; Dhall, Abhinav; Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Automatic pain recognition from videos is a vital clinical application and, owing to its spontaneous nature, poses interesting challenges to automatic facial expression recognition (AFER) research. Previous pain vs no-pain systems have highlighted two major challenges: (1) ground truth is provided for the sequence, but the presence or absence of the target expression for a given frame is unknown, and (2) the time point and the duration of the pain expression event(s) in each video are unknown. To address these issues we propose a novel framework (referred to as MS-MIL) where each sequence is represented as a bag containing multiple segments, and multiple instance learning (MIL) is employed to handle this weakly labeled data in the form of sequence level ground-truth. These segments are generated via multiple clustering of a sequence or running a multi-scale temporal scanning window, and are represented using a state-of-the-art Bag of Words (BoW) representation. This work extends the idea of detecting facial expressions through ‘concept frames’ to ‘concept segments’ and argues through extensive experiments that algorithms such as MIL are needed to reap the benefits of such representation. The key advantages of our approach are: (1) joint detection and localization of painful frames using only sequence-level ground-truth, (2) incorporation of temporal dynamics by representing the data not as individual frames but as segments, and (3) extraction of multiple segments, which is well suited to signals with uncertain temporal location and duration in the video. Extensive experiments on UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain dataset highlight the effectiveness of the approach by achieving competitive results on both tasks of pain classification and localization in videos. We also empirically evaluate the contributions of different components of MS-MIL. The paper also includes the visualization of discriminative facial patches, important for pain detection, as discovered by

  8. Sprint performance-duration relationships are set by the fractional duration of external force application.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Peter G; Lin, Jennifer E; Bundle, Matthew W

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that the maximum mechanical power outputs that can be maintained during all-out sprint cycling efforts lasting from a few seconds to several minutes can be accurately estimated from a single exponential time constant (k(cycle)) and two measurements on individual cyclists: the peak 3-s power output (P(mech max)) and the maximum mechanical power output that can be supported aerobically (P(aer)). Tests were conducted on seven subjects, four males and three females, on a stationary cycle ergometer at a pedal frequency of 100 rpm. Peak mechanical power output (P(mech max)) was the highest mean power output attained during a 3-s burst; the maximum power output supported aerobically (P(aer)) was determined from rates of oxygen uptake measured during a progressive, discontinuous cycling test to failure. Individual power output-duration relationships were determined from 13 to 16 all-out constant load sprints lasting from 5 to 350 s. In accordance with the above hypothesis, the power outputs measured during all-out sprinting efforts were estimated to within an average of 34 W or 6.6% from P(mech max), P(aer), and a single exponential constant (k(cycle) = 0.026 s(-1)) across a sixfold range of power outputs and a 70-fold range of sprint trial durations (R2 = 0.96 vs. identity, n = 105; range: 180 to 1,136 W). Duration-dependent decrements in sprint cycling power outputs were two times greater than those previously identified for sprint running speed (k(run) = 0.013 s(-1)). When related to the respective times of pedal and ground force application rather than total sprint time, decrements in sprint cycling and running performance followed the same time course (k = 0.054 s(-1)). We conclude that the duration-dependent decrements in sprinting performance are set by the fractional duration of the relevant muscular contractions. PMID:16254125

  9. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  10. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  11. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  12. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  13. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  14. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  15. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  16. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  17. Cooling system for three hook ring segment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

    2014-08-26

    A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

  18. CDIS: Circle Density Based Iris Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anand; Kumari, Anita; Kundu, Boris; Agarwal, Isha

    Biometrics is an automated approach of measuring and analysing physical and behavioural characteristics for identity verification. The stability of the Iris texture makes it a robust biometric tool for security and authentication purposes. Reliable Segmentation of Iris is a necessary precondition as an error at this stage will propagate into later stages and requires proper segmentation of non-ideal images having noises like eyelashes, etc. Iris Segmentation work has been done earlier but we feel it lacks in detecting iris in low contrast images, removal of specular reflections, eyelids and eyelashes. Hence, it motivates us to enhance the said parameters. Thus, we advocate a new approach CDIS for Iris segmentation along with new algorithms for removal of eyelashes, eyelids and specular reflections and pupil segmentation. The results obtained have been presented using GAR vs. FAR graphs at the end and have been compared with prior works related to segmentation of iris.

  19. Hierarchical image segmentation for learning object priors

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J; Li, Nan

    2010-11-10

    The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.

  20. Milling Stability Analysis Based on Chebyshev Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HUANG, Jianwei; LI, He; HAN, Ping; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-09-01

    Chebyshev segmentation method was used to discretize the time period contained in delay differential equation, then the Newton second-order difference quotient method was used to calculate the cutter motion vector at each time endpoint, and the Floquet theory was used to determine the stability of the milling system after getting the transfer matrix of milling system. Using the above methods, a two degree of freedom milling system stability issues were investigated, and system stability lobe diagrams were got. The results showed that the proposed methods have the following advantages. Firstly, with the same calculation accuracy, the points needed to represent the time period are less by the Chebyshev Segmentation than those of the average segmentation, and the computational efficiency of the Chebyshev Segmentation is higher. Secondly, if the time period is divided into the same parts, the stability lobe diagrams got by Chebyshev segmentation method are more accurate than those of the average segmentation.

  1. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOEpatents

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  2. Toward a generic evaluation of image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Jaime S; Corte-Real, Luís

    2005-11-01

    Image segmentation plays a major role in a broad range of applications. Evaluating the adequacy of a segmentation algorithm for a given application is a requisite both to allow the appropriate selection of segmentation algorithms as well as to tune their parameters for optimal performance. However, objective segmentation quality evaluation is far from being a solved problem. In this paper, a generic framework for segmentation evaluation is introduced after a brief review of previous work. A metric based on the distance between segmentation partitions is proposed to overcome some of the limitations of existing approaches. Symmetric and asymmetric distance metric alternatives are presented to meet the specificities of a wide class of applications. Experimental results confirm the potential of the proposed measures. PMID:16279178

  3. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  4. Primary Mirror Figure Maintenance of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope using the Segment Alignment Maintenance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Hall, Drew; Howard, Ricky; Ly, William; Weir, John; Montgomery, Edward; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMs) was installed on McDonald Observatory's Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in August 2001. The SAMs became fully operational in October 2001. The SAMs uses a system of 480 inductive edge sensors to correct misalignments of the HET's 91 primary mirror segments when the segments are perturbed from their aligned reference positions. A special observer estimated and corrects for the global radius of curvature (GroC) mode, a mode unobservable by the edge sensors. The SAMs edge sensor system and (GroC) estimator are able to maintain HET's primary figure for much longer durations than previously had been observed. Telescope image quality has improved, and the amount of overhead time required from primary mirror alignment has been reduced. This paper gives a functional description of the SAMs control system and presents performance verification data. This paper also describes how the SAMs has improved the operational efficiency of the HET.

  5. Segmenting data sets for RIP.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H

    2012-09-01

    Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated. PMID:22948916

  6. Learning diphone-based segmentation.

    PubMed

    Daland, Robert; Pierrehumbert, Janet B

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the diphone-based word segmentation model of Cairns, Shillcock, Chater, and Levy (1997) and Hockema (2006), previously thought to be unlearnable. A statistically principled learning model is developed using Bayes' theorem and reasonable assumptions about infants' implicit knowledge. The ability to recover phrase-medial word boundaries is tested using phonetic corpora derived from spontaneous interactions with children and adults. The (unsupervised and semi-supervised) learning models are shown to exhibit several crucial properties. First, only a small amount of language exposure is required to achieve the model's ceiling performance, equivalent to between 1 day and 1 month of caregiver input. Second, the models are robust to variation, both in the free parameter and the input representation. Finally, both the learning and baseline models exhibit undersegmentation, argued to have significant ramifications for speech processing as a whole. PMID:21428994

  7. Segmenting data sets for RIP.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H

    2012-09-01

    Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated.

  8. Segmented cold cathode display panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Leslie (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a video display device that utilizes the novel concept of generating an electronically controlled pattern of electron emission at the output of a segmented photocathode. This pattern of electron emission is amplified via a channel plate. The result is that an intense electronic image can be accelerated toward a phosphor thus creating a bright video image. This novel arrangement allows for one to provide a full color flat video display capable of implementation in large formats. In an alternate arrangement, the present invention is provided without the channel plate and a porous conducting surface is provided instead. In this alternate arrangement, the brightness of the image is reduced but the cost of the overall device is significantly lowered because fabrication complexity is significantly decreased.

  9. Contour Completion Without Region Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yansheng; Li, Hongdong; He, Xuming

    2016-08-01

    Contour completion plays an important role in visual perception, where the goal is to group fragmented low-level edge elements into perceptually coherent and salient contours. Most existing methods for contour completion have focused on pixelwise detection accuracy. In contrast, fewer methods have addressed the global contour closure effect, despite psychological evidences for its importance. This paper proposes a purely contour-based higher order CRF model to achieve contour closure, through local connectedness approximation. This leads to a simplified problem structure, where our higher order inference problem can be transformed into an integer linear program and be solved efficiently. Compared with the methods based on the same bottom-up edge detector, our method achieves a superior contour grouping ability (measured by Rand index), a comparable precision-recall performance, and more visually pleasing results. Our results suggest that contour closure can be effectively achieved in contour domain, in contrast to a popular view that segmentation is essential for this purpose.

  10. Terrain segmentation using laser radar range data.

    PubMed

    Letalick, D; Millnert, M; Renhorn, I

    1992-05-20

    A novel approach to segmentation of laser radar range images is presented. The approach is based on modeling horizontal and vertical scans of the terrain as piecewise-constant or piecewise-linear functions. The approach uses adaptive estimation based on Kalman filtering techniques. The performance of the segmentation algorithm is evaluated by application to laser range measurements. We also discuss how the output from the segmentation algorithm can be used for, e.g., object detection.

  11. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  12. Five-Segment Interconnection For Electromigration Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaman, David J.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed integrated-circuit conductive pattern intended for use in electromigration lifetime testing of interconnection lines of integrated circuits. Designed for collection of statistics on electromigration from smallest possible area. Includes 5 interconnection segments with Kelvin voltage taps, with total of 12 contact pads, and provides for simultaneous measurements on all of segments. Attempts to minimize thermal gradients within each segment and conforms to guidelines on electromigration test structures promulgated by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  13. Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui

    2016-08-22

    To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method. PMID:27557192

  14. DT-MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2007-03-01

    An important problem in medical image analysis is the segmentation of anatomical regions of interest. Once regions of interest are segmented, one can extract shape, appearance, and structural features that can be analyzed for disease diagnosis or treatment evaluation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a relatively new medical imaging modality that captures unique water diffusion properties and fiber orientation information of the imaged tissues. In this paper, we extend the interactive multidimensional graph cuts segmentation technique to operate on DT-MRI data by utilizing latest advances in tensor calculus and diffusion tensor dissimilarity metrics. The user interactively selects certain tensors as object ("obj") or background ("bkg") to provide hard constraints for the segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate information about both regional tissue diffusion as well as boundaries between tissues of different diffusion properties. Graph cuts are used to find globally optimal segmentation of the underlying 3D DT-MR image among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. We develop a graph structure from the underlying DT-MR image with the tensor voxels corresponding to the graph vertices and with graph edge weights computed using either Log-Euclidean or the J-divergence tensor dissimilarity metric. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both obj and bkg segments may consist of several isolated parts. We test our method on synthetic DT data and apply it to real 2D and 3D MRI, providing segmentations of the corpus callosum in the brain and the ventricles of the heart.

  15. Parallel Fuzzy Segmentation of Multiple Objects.

    PubMed

    Garduño, Edgar; Herman, Gabor T

    2008-01-01

    The usefulness of fuzzy segmentation algorithms based on fuzzy connectedness principles has been established in numerous publications. New technologies are capable of producing larger-and-larger datasets and this causes the sequential implementations of fuzzy segmentation algorithms to be time-consuming. We have adapted a sequential fuzzy segmentation algorithm to multi-processor machines. We demonstrate the efficacy of such a distributed fuzzy segmentation algorithm by testing it with large datasets (of the order of 50 million points/voxels/items): a speed-up factor of approximately five over the sequential implementation seems to be the norm. PMID:19444333

  16. Image segmentation using fuzzy LVQ clustering networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Eric Chen-Kuo; Bezdek, James C.; Pal, Nikhil R.

    1992-01-01

    In this note we formulate image segmentation as a clustering problem. Feature vectors extracted from a raw image are clustered into subregions, thereby segmenting the image. A fuzzy generalization of a Kohonen learning vector quantization (LVQ) which integrates the Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) model with the learning rate and updating strategies of the LVQ is used for this task. This network, which segments images in an unsupervised manner, is thus related to the FCM optimization problem. Numerical examples on photographic and magnetic resonance images are given to illustrate this approach to image segmentation.

  17. User-driven segmentation approach: interactive snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, Tobias; Heiland, Marc; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-05-01

    For diagnostics and therapy planning, the segmentation of medical images is an important pre-processing step. Currently, manual segmentation tools are most common in clinical routine. Because the work is very time-consuming, there is a large interest in tools assisting the physician. Most of the known segmentation techniques suffer from an inadequate user interface, which prevents their use in a clinical environment. The segmentation of medical images is very difficult. A promising method to overcome difficulties such as imaging artifacts are active contour models. In order to enhance the clinical usability, we propose a user-driven segmentation approach. Following this way, we developed a new segmentation method, which we call interactive snakes. Thereto, we elaborated an interaction style which is more intuitive to the clinical user and derived a new active contour model. The segmentation method provides a very tight coupling with the user. The physician is interactively attaching boundary markers to the image, whereby he is able to bring in his knowledge. At the same time, the segmentation is updated in real-time. Interactive snakes are a comprehensible segmentation method for the clinical use. It is reasonable to employ them both as a core tool and as an editing tool for incorrect results.

  18. Simultaneous segmentation and statistical label fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi-atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  19. Segmented amplifier configurations for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Wilhelm F.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier system for high power lasers, the system comprising a compact array of segments which (1) preserves high, large signal gain with improved pumping efficiency and (2) allows the total amplifier length to be shortened by as much as one order of magnitude. The system uses a three dimensional array of segments, with the plane of each segment being oriented at substantially the amplifier medium Brewster angle relative to the incident laser beam and with one or more linear arrays of flashlamps positioned between adjacent rows of amplifier segments, with the plane of the linear array of flashlamps being substantially parallel to the beam propagation direction.

  20. Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui

    2016-08-22

    To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method.

  1. Parallel Fuzzy Segmentation of Multiple Objects*

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, Edgar; Herman, Gabor T.

    2009-01-01

    The usefulness of fuzzy segmentation algorithms based on fuzzy connectedness principles has been established in numerous publications. New technologies are capable of producing larger-and-larger datasets and this causes the sequential implementations of fuzzy segmentation algorithms to be time-consuming. We have adapted a sequential fuzzy segmentation algorithm to multi-processor machines. We demonstrate the efficacy of such a distributed fuzzy segmentation algorithm by testing it with large datasets (of the order of 50 million points/voxels/items): a speed-up factor of approximately five over the sequential implementation seems to be the norm. PMID:19444333

  2. NASA's extended duration orbiter medical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee; Sawin, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The physiological issues involved in safely extending Shuttle flights from 10 to 16 days have been viewed by some as academic. After all, they reasoned, humans already have lived and worked in space for periods exceeding even 28 days in the United States Skylab Program and onboard the Russian space stations. The difference in the Shuttle program is in the physical position of the astronauts as they reenter the Earth's atmosphere. Crewmembers in the earlier Apollo, Skylab, and Russian programs were returned to Earth in the supine position. Space Shuttle crewmembers, in contrast, are seated upright during reentry and landing; reexperiencing the Earth's g forces in this position has far more pronounced effects on the crewmember's physiological functions. The goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Medical Project (EDOMP) has been to ensure that crewmembers maintain physiological reserves sufficient to perform entry, landing, and egress safely. Early in the Shuttle Program, it became clear that physiological deconditioning during space flight could produce significant symptoms upon return to Earth. The signs and symptoms observed during the entry, landing, and egress after Shuttle missions have included very high heart rates and low blood pressures upon standing. Dizziness, 'graying out,' and fainting have occurred on ambulation or shortly thereafter. Other symptoms at landing have included headache, light-headedness, nausea and vomitting, leg cramping, inability to stand for several minutes after wheel-stop, and unsteadiness of gait.

  3. Adaptation to ozone: duration of effect

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Gliner, J.A.; Folinsbee, L.J.

    1981-05-01

    Repeated ozone exposure induces an adaptative response whereby subsequent ozone exposure induces little or no pulmonary function change. The time course of the adaptation and the persistence of this adaptation was determined in 24 subjects. Subjects were studied for 125 min while they exercised intermittently. They were exposed to filtered air for 1 day and then in the next week for 5 consecutive days to 0.5 ppm ozone. After the fifth day, subjects were randomly assigned to return for one more ozone exposure at 1, 2, or 3 wk. The greatest decrement in FEV1 occurred on the second day of exposure. The number of consecutive ozone exposures required to produce adaptation varied from 2 to 5 days. Persistence of adaptation in ozone-sensitive subjects (initial decrease in FEV1 greater than 10%) showed marked individual variability, but the duration of adaptation was shortest for the more sensitive subjects. Adaptation, on the average, lasted for less than 2 wk, being as short as 7 days and as long as 20 days. We concluded that more sensitive subjects required more daily sequential exposures in order to adapt.

  4. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  5. Effects of learning duration on implicit transfer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    Implicit learning and transfer in sequence acquisition play important roles in daily life. Several previous studies have found that even when participants are not aware that a transfer sequence has been transformed from the learning sequence, they are able to perform the transfer sequence faster and more accurately; this suggests implicit transfer of visuomotor sequences. Here, we investigated whether implicit transfer could be modulated by the number of trials completed in a learning session. Participants learned a sequence through trial and error, known as the m × n task (Hikosaka et al. in J Neurophysiol 74:1652-1661, 1995). In the learning session, participants were required to successfully perform the same sequence 4, 12, 16, or 20 times. In the transfer session, participants then learned one of two other sequences: one where the button configuration Vertically Mirrored the learning sequence, or a randomly generated sequence. Our results show that even when participants did not notice the alternation rule (i.e., vertical mirroring), their total working time was less and their total number of errors was lower in the transfer session compared with those who performed a Random sequence, irrespective of the number of trials completed in the learning session. This result suggests that implicit transfer likely occurs even over a shorter learning duration.

  6. Kicking atoms with finite duration pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Julia; Chai, Shijie; Daszuta, Boris; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    The atom optics delta-kicked particle is a paradigmatic system for experimental studies of quantum chaos and classical-quantum correspondence. It consists of a cloud of laser cooled atoms exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave of far off-resonant laser light. A purely quantum phenomena in such systems are quantum resonances which transfers the atoms into a coherent superposition of largely separated momentum states. Using such large momentum transfer ``beamsplitters'' in atom interferometers may have applications in high precision metrology. The growth in momentum separation cannot be maintained indefinitely due to finite laser power. The largest momentum transfer is achieved by violating the usual delta-kick assumption. Therefore we explore the behavior of the atom optics kicked particle with finite pulse duration. We have developed a semi-classical model which shows good agreement with the full quantum description as well as our experiments. Furthermore we have found a simple scaling law that helps to identify optimal parameters for an atom interferometer. We verify this by measurements of the ``Talbot time'' (a measurement of h/m) which together with other well-known constants constitute a measurement of the fine structure constant.

  7. Immune changes during short-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R

    1993-09-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight. PMID:8371049

  8. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  9. Word-internal versus word-peripheral consonantal duration patterns in three languages.

    PubMed

    Redford, Melissa A

    2007-03-01

    Segmental duration patterns have long been used to support the proposal that syllables are basic speech planning units, but production experiments almost always confound syllable and word boundaries. The current study tried to remedy this problem by comparing word-internal and word-peripheral consonantal duration patterns. Stress and sequencing were used to vary the nominal location of word-internal boundaries in American English productions of disyllabic nonsense words with medial consonant sequences. The word-internal patterns were compared to those that occurred at the edges of words, where boundary location was held constant and only stress and sequence order were varied. The English patterns were then compared to patterns from Russian and Finnish. All three languages showed similar effects of stress and sequencing on consonantal duration, but an independent effect of syllable position was observed only in English and only at a word boundary. English also showed stronger effects of stress and sequencing across a word boundary than within a word. Finnish showed the opposite pattern, whereas Russian showed little difference between word-internal and word-peripheral patterns. Overall, the results suggest that the suprasegmental units of motor planning are language-specific and that the word may be more a relevant planning unit in English.

  10. Organizational Determinants of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Duration in Women

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Lemak, Christy Harris

    2009-01-01

    Longer treatment duration has consistently been related to improved substance use outcomes. This study examined how tailored women's programming and organizational characteristics were related to duration in outpatient substance abuse treatment in women. Data were from two waves of a national outpatient substance abuse treatment unit survey (n=571 in 1999/2000, n=566 in 2005). Analyses were conducted separately for methadone and non-methadone programs. Negative binomial regressions tested associations between organizational determinants, tailored programming, and women's treatment duration. Of the tailored programming services, childcare was significantly related to longer duration in the non-methadone programs, but few other organizational factors were. Tailored programming was not associated to treatment duration in methadone programs, but ownership, affiliation, and accreditation were related to longer duration. Study findings suggest evidence for how external relationships related to resources, treatment constraints, and legitimacy may influence women's treatment duration. Methadone programs may be more vulnerable to external influences. PMID:19038526

  11. Automated area segmentation for ocean bottom surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, John C.; Smith, Cheryl M.

    2015-05-01

    In practice, environmental information about an ocean bottom area to be searched using SONAR is often known a priori to some coarse level of resolution. The SONAR search sensor then typically has a different performance characterization function for each environmental classification. Large ocean bottom surveys using search SONAR can pose some difficulties when the environmental conditions vary significantly over the search area because search planning tools cannot adequately segment the area into sub-regions of homogeneous search sensor performance. Such segmentation is critically important to unmanned search vehicles; homogenous bottom segmentation will result in more accurate predictions of search performance and area coverage rate. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) has developed an automated area segmentation algorithm that subdivides the mission area under the constraint that the variation of the search sensor's performance within each sub-mission area cannot exceed a specified threshold, thereby creating sub-regions of homogeneous sensor performance. The algorithm also calculates a new, composite sensor performance function for each sub-mission area. The technique accounts for practical constraints such as enforcing a minimum sub-mission area size and requiring sub-mission areas to be rectangular. Segmentation occurs both across the rows and down the columns of the mission area. Ideally, mission planning should consider both segmentation directions and choose the one with the more favorable result. The Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm was tested using two a priori bottom segmentations: rectangular and triangular; and two search sensor configurations: a set of three bi-modal curves and a set of three uni-modal curves. For each of these four scenarios, the Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm automatically partitioned the mission area across rows and down columns to create regions with homogeneous sensor performance. The

  12. Homeogenetic inductive mechanism of segmentation in polychaete tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Nao; Akimoto-Kato, Ai; Sakuma, Masashi; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2013-09-15

    Segmentation is a body-patterning strategy in which new segments are specified from a segment-addition zone containing uncommitted cells. However, the cell-recruitment process is poorly understood. Here we investigated in detail the segmentation in a polychaete annelid, Perinereis nuntia (Lophotrochozoa), in which new segments emerge at the boundary between the posterior end of the segmented region and the terminal pygidium. Cells at this border synchronously remodel their chromatin, enter the cell cycle, and undergo oriented cell division, before being added to new segments. wingless is expressed at the posterior edge of the pre-existing segment, abutted by hedgehog in the first row of the new segment. Overstimulation of Wingless signaling caused excess cells to enter the cell cycle, prolonging segmentation and widening the new segment. Thus, segment addition may occur by a homeogenetic mechanism, in which Wingless expressed in the differentiated segment coordinates the stepwise recruitment of undifferentiated cells from the segment/pygidium boundary. PMID:23608458

  13. A Multiatlas Segmentation Using Graph Cuts with Applications to Liver Segmentation in CT Scans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An atlas-based segmentation approach is presented that combines low-level operations, an affine probabilistic atlas, and a multiatlas-based segmentation. The proposed combination provides highly accurate segmentation due to registrations and atlas selections based on the regions of interest (ROIs) and coarse segmentations. Our approach shares the following common elements between the probabilistic atlas and multiatlas segmentation: (a) the spatial normalisation and (b) the segmentation method, which is based on minimising a discrete energy function using graph cuts. The method is evaluated for the segmentation of the liver in computed tomography (CT) images. Low-level operations define a ROI around the liver from an abdominal CT. We generate a probabilistic atlas using an affine registration based on geometry moments from manually labelled data. Next, a coarse segmentation of the liver is obtained from the probabilistic atlas with low computational effort. Then, a multiatlas segmentation approach improves the accuracy of the segmentation. Both the atlas selections and the nonrigid registrations of the multiatlas approach use a binary mask defined by coarse segmentation. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach performs better than atlas selections and nonrigid registrations in the entire ROI. The segmentation results are comparable to those obtained by human experts and to other recently published results. PMID:25276219

  14. Blastoderm segmentation in Oncopeltus fasciatus and the evolution of insect segmentation mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Stahi, Reut

    2016-01-01

    Segments are formed simultaneously in the blastoderm of the fly Drosophila melanogaster through a hierarchical cascade of interacting transcription factors. Conversely, in many insects and in all non-insect arthropods most segments are formed sequentially from the posterior. We have looked at segmentation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Posterior segments are formed sequentially, through what is probably the ancestral arthropod mechanism. Formation of anterior segments bears many similarities to the Drosophila segmentation mode. These segments appear nearly simultaneously in the blastoderm, via a segmentation cascade that involves orthologues of Drosophila gap genes working through a functionally similar mechanism. We suggest that simultaneous blastoderm segmentation evolved at or close to the origin of holometabolous insects, and formed the basis for the evolution of the segmentation mode seen in Drosophila. We discuss the changes in segmentation mechanisms throughout insect evolution, and suggest that the appearance of simultaneous segmentation as a novel feature of holometabolous insects may have contributed to the phenomenal success of this group. PMID:27708151

  15. GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

    2015-03-01

    Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

  16. The influence of stimulus duration on odor perception.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Johannes; Wohlgemuth, Christiane; Hummel, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Although different parameters are known to alter the shape of olfactory event related potentials (ERP), ERP parameters are generally thought to be independent from stimulus duration. Evidence from recent studies investigating trigeminal ERP indicates that this may not be true. Aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of stimulus duration and ERP. A total of 20 young healthy subjects participated. Subjects were investigated on 5 occasions on 5 different days. ERP were recorded to olfactory stimuli of two different concentrations and 3 different durations (100 ms, 200 ms, 300 ms). In two sessions olfactory ERP to PEA were recorded, in another two sessions H2S was applied. During the same sessions, intensity ratings were recorded. In the fifth session, subjects were asked to rate the duration of H2S stimuli and PEA stimuli. Whereas at weak stimulus concentrations no effect of stimulus duration could be observed, there was a clear effect of "duration" in ERP amplitudes following stimuli with higher concentrations: the longer the stimulus duration the larger the ERP amplitudes. No effect was found on ERP latencies. With regard to intensity ratings, strong stimuli and longer lasting stimuli lead to higher ratings. Similarly, ratings of stimulus duration were dependent from stimulus concentration and stimulus duration. Results of the present study showed that similar to trigeminal ERP, information about stimulus duration is encoded in olfactory ERP, mainly in amplitudes.

  17. Design of ground segments for small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Guy

    1994-01-01

    New concepts must be implemented when designing a Ground Segment (GS) for small satellites to conform to their specific mission characteristics: low cost, one main instrument, spacecraft autonomy, optimized mission return, etc. This paper presents the key cost drivers of such ground segments, the main design features, and the comparison of various design options that can meet the user requirements.

  18. FISICO: Fast Image SegmentatIon COrrection

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Waldo; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Ignasiak, Dominika; Diserens, Gaëlle; Häni, Levin; Wiest, Roland; Vermathen, Peter; Boesch, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose In clinical diagnosis, medical image segmentation plays a key role in the analysis of pathological regions. Despite advances in automatic and semi-automatic segmentation techniques, time-effective correction tools are commonly needed to improve segmentation results. Therefore, these tools must provide faster corrections with a lower number of interactions, and a user-independent solution to reduce the time frame between image acquisition and diagnosis. Methods We present a new interactive method for correcting image segmentations. Our method provides 3D shape corrections through 2D interactions. This approach enables an intuitive and natural corrections of 3D segmentation results. The developed method has been implemented into a software tool and has been evaluated for the task of lumbar muscle and knee joint segmentations from MR images. Results Experimental results show that full segmentation corrections could be performed within an average correction time of 5.5±3.3 minutes and an average of 56.5±33.1 user interactions, while maintaining the quality of the final segmentation result within an average Dice coefficient of 0.92±0.02 for both anatomies. In addition, for users with different levels of expertise, our method yields a correction time and number of interaction decrease from 38±19.2 minutes to 6.4±4.3 minutes, and 339±157.1 to 67.7±39.6 interactions, respectively. PMID:27224061

  19. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An...

  20. Unsupervised Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using Combined Filters

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Wendeson S.; Teixeira, Joyce Vitor; Ren, Tsang Ing; Cavalcanti, George D. C.; Sijbers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Image segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a process that can help to predict and diagnose cardiovascular related diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, which are known to affect the retinal blood vessels’ appearance. This work proposes an unsupervised method for the segmentation of retinal vessels images using a combined matched filter, Frangi’s filter and Gabor Wavelet filter to enhance the images. The combination of these three filters in order to improve the segmentation is the main motivation of this work. We investigate two approaches to perform the filter combination: weighted mean and median ranking. Segmentation methods are tested after the vessel enhancement. Enhanced images with median ranking are segmented using a simple threshold criterion. Two segmentation procedures are applied when considering enhanced retinal images using the weighted mean approach. The first method is based on deformable models and the second uses fuzzy C-means for the image segmentation. The procedure is evaluated using two public image databases, Drive and Stare. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well for vessel segmentation in comparison with state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26919587

  1. Program Structure Combines Segmentation and Dynamic Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Programing techniques incorporate advantages of overlaying into segmented loads while retaining all dynamic load advantages of segmentation, employing those capabilities that best suit mode of operation, whether batch or interactive. User is allowed to load a program automatically in a variable manner, based solely on a single data input to the program, to maintain minimal field lengths for interactive use.

  2. Effects of Syntactic Expectations on Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.; White, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Although the effect of acoustic cues on speech segmentation has been extensively investigated, the role of higher order information (e.g., syntax) has received less attention. Here, the authors examined whether syntactic expectations based on subject-verb agreement have an effect on segmentation and whether they do so despite conflicting acoustic…

  3. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An...

  6. Unsupervised Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using Combined Filters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Wendeson S; Teixeira, Joyce Vitor; Ren, Tsang Ing; Cavalcanti, George D C; Sijbers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Image segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a process that can help to predict and diagnose cardiovascular related diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, which are known to affect the retinal blood vessels' appearance. This work proposes an unsupervised method for the segmentation of retinal vessels images using a combined matched filter, Frangi's filter and Gabor Wavelet filter to enhance the images. The combination of these three filters in order to improve the segmentation is the main motivation of this work. We investigate two approaches to perform the filter combination: weighted mean and median ranking. Segmentation methods are tested after the vessel enhancement. Enhanced images with median ranking are segmented using a simple threshold criterion. Two segmentation procedures are applied when considering enhanced retinal images using the weighted mean approach. The first method is based on deformable models and the second uses fuzzy C-means for the image segmentation. The procedure is evaluated using two public image databases, Drive and Stare. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well for vessel segmentation in comparison with state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Isoperimetric graph partitioning for image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Grady, Leo; Schwartz, Eric L

    2006-03-01

    Spectral graph partitioning provides a powerful approach to image segmentation. We introduce an alternate idea that finds partitions with a small isoperimetric constant, requiring solution to a linear system rather than an eigenvector problem. This approach produces the high quality segmentations of spectral methods, but with improved speed and stability.

  8. Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants…

  9. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  10. Sensory segmentation with coupled neural oscillators.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, C; Buhmann, J

    1992-01-01

    We present a model of sensory segmentation that is based on the generation and processing of temporal tags in the form of oscillations, as suggested by the Dynamic Link Architecture. The model forms the basis for a natural solution to the sensory segmentation problem. It can deal with multiple segments, can integrate different cues and has the potential for processing hierarchical structures. Temporally tagged segments can easily be utilized in neural systems and form a natural basis for object recognition and learning. The model consists of a "cortical" circuit, an array of units that act as local feature detectors. Units are formulated as neural oscillators. Knowledge relevant to segmentation is encoded by connections. In accord with simple Gestalt laws, our concrete model has intracolumnar connections, between all units with overlapping receptive fields, and intercolumnar connections, between units responding to the same quality in different positions. An inhibitory connection system prevents total correlation and controls the grain of the segmentation. In simulations with synthetic input data we show the performance of the circuit, which produces signal correlation within segments and anticorrelation between segments.

  11. Automatic evaluation of uterine cervix segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotenberg, Shelly; Gordon, Shiri; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Jeronimo, Jose; Greenspan, Hayit

    2007-03-01

    In this work we focus on the generation of reliable ground truth data for a large medical repository of digital cervicographic images (cervigrams) collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This work is part of an ongoing effort conducted by NCI together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop a web-based database of the digitized cervix images in order to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. As part of this effort, NCI has gathered twenty experts to manually segment a set of 933 cervigrams into regions of medical and anatomical interest. This process yields a set of images with multi-expert segmentations. The objectives of the current work are: 1) generate multi-expert ground truth and assess the diffculty of segmenting an image, 2) analyze observer variability in the multi-expert data, and 3) utilize the multi-expert ground truth to evaluate automatic segmentation algorithms. The work is based on STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation), which is a well known method to generate ground truth segmentation maps from multiple experts' observations. We have analyzed both intra- and inter-expert variability within the segmentation data. We propose novel measures of "segmentation complexity" by which we can automatically identify cervigrams that were found difficult to segment by the experts, based on their inter-observer variability. Finally, the results are used to assess our own automated algorithm for cervix boundary detection.

  12. Duration of patients’ visits to the hospital emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Length of stay is an important indicator of quality of care in Emergency Departments (ED). This study explores the duration of patients’ visits to the ED for which they are treated and released (T&R). Methods Retrospective data analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to investigate the duration of T&R ED visits. Duration for each visit was computed by taking the difference between admission and discharge times. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) for 2008 were used in the analysis. Results The mean duration of T&R ED visit was 195.7 minutes. The average duration of ED visits increased from 8 a.m. until noon, then decreased until midnight at which we observed an approximately 70-minute spike in average duration. We found a substantial difference in mean duration of ED visits (over 90 minutes) between Mondays and other weekdays during the transition time from the evening of the day before to the early morning hours. Black / African American patients had a 21.4-minute longer mean duration of visits compared to white patients. The mean duration of visits at teaching hospitals was substantially longer than at non-teaching hospitals (243.8 versus 175.6 minutes). Hospitals with large bed size were associated with longer duration of visits (222.2 minutes) when compared to hospitals with small bed size (172.4 minutes) or those with medium bed size (166.5 minutes). The risk-adjusted results show that mean duration of visits on Mondays are longer by about 4 and 9 percents when compared to mean duration of visits on non-Monday workdays and weekends, respectively. Conclusions The duration of T&R ED visits varied significantly by admission hour, day of the week, patient volume, patient characteristics, hospital characteristics and area characteristics. PMID:23126473

  13. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  14. Integrated active contours for texture segmentation.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Chen; Sochen, Nir A; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y

    2006-06-01

    We address the issue of textured image segmentation in the context of the Gabor feature space of images. Gabor filters tuned to a set of orientations, scales and frequencies are applied to the images to create the Gabor feature space. A two-dimensional Riemannian manifold of local features is extracted via the Beltrami framework. The metric of this surface provides a good indicator of texture changes and is used, therefore, in a Beltrami-based diffusion mechanism and in a geodesic active contours algorithm for texture segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the edgeless active contours algorithm applied for texture segmentation. Moreover, an integrated approach, extending the geodesic and edgeless active contours approaches to texture segmentation, is presented. We show that combining boundary and region information yields more robust and accurate texture segmentation results. PMID:16764287

  15. Deriving structure from evolution: metazoan segmentation.

    PubMed

    François, Paul; Hakim, Vincent; Siggia, Eric D

    2007-01-01

    Segmentation is a common feature of disparate clades of metazoans, and its evolution is a central problem of evolutionary developmental biology. We evolved in silico regulatory networks by a mutation/selection process that just rewards the number of segment boundaries. For segmentation controlled by a static gradient, as in long-germ band insects, a cascade of adjacent repressors reminiscent of gap genes evolves. For sequential segmentation controlled by a moving gradient, similar to vertebrate somitogenesis, we invariably observe a very constrained evolutionary path or funnel. The evolved state is a cell autonomous 'clock and wavefront' model, with the new attribute of a separate bistable system driven by an autonomous clock. Early stages in the evolution of both modes of segmentation are functionally similar, and simulations suggest a possible path for their interconversion. Our computation illustrates how complex traits can evolve by the incremental addition of new functions on top of pre-existing traits.

  16. Wavefront Compensation Segmented Mirror Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, David C.; Lou, John Z.; Kissil, Andrew; Bradford, Charles M.; Woody, David; Padin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The primary mirror of very large submillimeter-wave telescopes will necessarily be segmented into many separate mirror panels. These panels must be continuously co-phased to keep the telescope wavefront error less than a small fraction of a wavelength, to ten microns RMS (root mean square) or less. This performance must be maintained continuously across the full aperture of the telescope, in all pointing conditions, and in a variable thermal environment. A wavefront compensation segmented mirror sensing and control system, consisting of optical edge sensors, Wavefront Compensation Estimator/Controller Soft ware, and segment position actuators is proposed. Optical edge sensors are placed two per each segment-to-segment edge to continuously measure changes in segment state. Segment position actuators (three per segment) are used to move the panels. A computer control system uses the edge sensor measurements to estimate the state of all of the segments and to predict the wavefront error; segment actuator commands are computed that minimize the wavefront error. Translational or rotational motions of one segment relative to the other cause lateral displacement of the light beam, which is measured by the imaging sensor. For high accuracy, the collimator uses a shaped mask, such as one or more slits, so that the light beam forms a pattern on the sensor that permits sensing accuracy of better than 0.1 micron in two axes: in the z or local surface normal direction, and in the y direction parallel to the mirror surface and perpendicular to the beam direction. Using a co-aligned pair of sensors, with the location of the detector and collimated light source interchanged, four degrees of freedom can be sensed: transverse x and y displacements, as well as two bending angles (pitch and yaw). In this approach, each optical edge sensor head has a collimator and an imager, placing one sensor head on each side of a segment gap, with two parallel light beams crossing the gap. Two sets

  17. Segmenting images analytically in shape space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dambreville, Samuel; Niethammer, Marc; Malcolm, James; Levitt, James; Shenton, Martha E.; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel analytic technique to perform shape-driven segmentation. In our approach, shapes are represented using binary maps, and linear PCA is utilized to provide shape priors for segmentation. Intensity based probability distributions are then employed to convert a given test volume into a binary map representation, and a novel energy functional is proposed whose minimum can be analytically computed to obtain the desired segmentation in the shape space. We compare the proposed method with the log-likelihood based energy to elucidate some key differences. Our algorithm is applied to the segmentation of brain caudate nucleus and hippocampus from MRI data, which is of interest in the study of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Our validation (we compute the Hausdorff distance and the DICE coefficient between the automatic segmentation and ground-truth) shows that the proposed algorithm is very fast, requires no initialization and outperforms the log-likelihood based energy.

  18. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  19. Feature encoding for color image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Li, Youfu

    2001-09-01

    An approach for color image segmentation is proposed based on the contributions of color features to segmentation rather than the choice of a particular color space. It is different from the pervious methods where SOFM is used for construct the feature encoding so that the feature-encoding can self-organize the effective features for different color images. Fuzzy clustering is applied for the final segmentation when the well-suited color features and the initial parameter are available. The proposed method has been applied in segmenting different types of color images and the experimental results show that it outperforms the classical clustering method. Our study shows that the feature encoding approach offers great promise in automating and optimizing color image segmentation.

  20. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  1. Automatic segmentation of Potyviridae family polyproteins.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jheyson Faride; Velasco, Jairo Andrés; Alvarez, Gloria Inés; Linares, Diego Luis; Bravo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We describe an automatic segmentation method for polyproteins of the viruses belonging to the Potyviridae family. It uses machine learning techniques in order to predict the cleavage site which define the segments in which said polyproteins are cut in their process of functional maturation. The segmentation application is publicly available for use on a website and it can be accessed through the web service interface too. The prediction models have an average sensitivity of 0.79 and a Matthews correlation coefficient average of 0.23. This method is capable of predicting correctly (coinciding with previously published segmentation) the segmentation of sequences which come from Potyvirus and Rymovirus, genera. However accurate prediction capabilities are affected when faced with either atypical sequences or viruses belonging to less common genera in the Potyviridae family. Future work will focus on establishing greater flexibility in this sense. PMID:26642361

  2. Automatic setae segmentation from Chaetoceros microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiyong; Zhao, Hongmiao; Sun, Xue; Gao, Huihui; Ji, Guangrong

    2014-09-01

    A novel image processing model Grayscale Surface Direction Angle Model (GSDAM) is presented and the algorithm based on GSDAM is developed to segment setae from Chaetoceros microscopic images. The proposed model combines the setae characteristics of the microscopic images with the spatial analysis of image grayscale surface to detect and segment the direction thin and long setae from the low contrast background as well as noise which may make the commonly used segmentation methods invalid. The experimental results show that our algorithm based on GSDAM outperforms the boundary-based and region-based segmentation methods Canny edge detector, iterative threshold selection, Otsu's thresholding, minimum error thresholding, K-means clustering, and marker-controlled watershed on the setae segmentation more accurately and completely. PMID:24913015

  3. Hierarchical Image Segmentation Using Correlation Clustering.

    PubMed

    Alush, Amir; Goldberger, Jacob

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we apply efficient implementations of integer linear programming to the problem of image segmentation. The image is first grouped into superpixels and then local information is extracted for each pair of spatially adjacent superpixels. Given local scores on a map of several hundred superpixels, we use correlation clustering to find the global segmentation that is most consistent with the local evidence. We show that, although correlation clustering is known to be NP-hard, finding the exact global solution is still feasible by breaking the segmentation problem down into subproblems. Each such sub-problem can be viewed as an automatically detected image part. We can further accelerate the process by using the cutting-plane method, which provides a hierarchical structure of the segmentations. The efficiency and improved performance of the proposed method is compared to several state-of-the-art methods and demonstrated on several standard segmentation data sets.

  4. An algorithm for segmenting polarimetric SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaga, Jorge V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed an algorithm for segmenting fully polarimetric single look TerraSAR-X, multilook SIR-C and 7 band Landsat 5 imagery using neural nets. The algorithm uses a feedforward neural net with one hidden layer to segment different surface classes. The weights are refined through an iterative filtering process characteristic of a relaxation process. Features selected from studies of fully polarimetric complex single look TerraSAR-X data and multilook SIR-C data are used as input to the net. The seven bands from Landsat 5 data are used as input for the Landsat neural net. The Cloude-Pottier incoherent decomposition is used to investigate the physical basis of the polarimetric SAR data segmentation. The segmentation of a SIR-C ocean surface scene into four classes is presented. This segmentation algorithm could be a very useful tool for investigating complex polarimetric SAR phenomena.

  5. Evaluating segmentation error without ground truth.

    PubMed

    Kohlberger, Timo; Singh, Vivek; Alvino, Chris; Bahlmann, Claus; Grady, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The automatic delineation of the boundaries of organs and other anatomical structures is a key component of many medical image processing systems. In this paper we present a generic learning approach based on a novel space of segmentation features, which can be trained to predict the overlap error and Dice coefficient of an arbitrary organ segmentation without knowing the ground truth delineation. We show the regressor to be much stronger a predictor of these error metrics than the responses of probabilistic boosting classifiers trained on the segmentation boundary. The presented approach not only allows us to build reliable confidence measures and fidelity checks, but also to rank several segmentation hypotheses against each other during online usage of the segmentation algorithm in clinical practice. PMID:23285592

  6. Automatic segmentation of Potyviridae family polyproteins.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jheyson Faride; Velasco, Jairo Andrés; Alvarez, Gloria Inés; Linares, Diego Luis; Bravo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We describe an automatic segmentation method for polyproteins of the viruses belonging to the Potyviridae family. It uses machine learning techniques in order to predict the cleavage site which define the segments in which said polyproteins are cut in their process of functional maturation. The segmentation application is publicly available for use on a website and it can be accessed through the web service interface too. The prediction models have an average sensitivity of 0.79 and a Matthews correlation coefficient average of 0.23. This method is capable of predicting correctly (coinciding with previously published segmentation) the segmentation of sequences which come from Potyvirus and Rymovirus, genera. However accurate prediction capabilities are affected when faced with either atypical sequences or viruses belonging to less common genera in the Potyviridae family. Future work will focus on establishing greater flexibility in this sense.

  7. Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2016-01-01

    Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis (SCAD) has become increasingly appreciated as a form of inflammatory disease of the colon. Several features suggest that SCAD is a distinct disorder. SCAD tends to develop almost exclusively in older adults, predominately, but not exclusively, males. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the sigmoid colon, and usually remains localized to this region of the colon alone. SCAD most often presents with rectal bleeding and subsequent endoscopic visualization reveals a well localized process with non-specific histopathologic inflammatory changes. Granulomas are not seen, and if present, may be helpful in definition of other disorders such as Crohn’s disease of the colon, an entity often confused with SCAD. Bacteriologic and parasitic studies for an infectious agent are negative. Normal rectal mucosa (i.e., “rectal sparing”) is present and can be confirmed with normal rectal biopsies. SCAD often resolves spontaneously without treatment, or completely after a limited course of therapy with only a 5-aminosalicylate. Recurrent episodes may occur, but most often, patients with this disorder have an entirely self-limited clinical course. Occasionally, treatment with other agents, including corticosteroids, or surgical resection has been required.

  8. Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2016-09-28

    Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis (SCAD) has become increasingly appreciated as a form of inflammatory disease of the colon. Several features suggest that SCAD is a distinct disorder. SCAD tends to develop almost exclusively in older adults, predominately, but not exclusively, males. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the sigmoid colon, and usually remains localized to this region of the colon alone. SCAD most often presents with rectal bleeding and subsequent endoscopic visualization reveals a well localized process with non-specific histopathologic inflammatory changes. Granulomas are not seen, and if present, may be helpful in definition of other disorders such as Crohn's disease of the colon, an entity often confused with SCAD. Bacteriologic and parasitic studies for an infectious agent are negative. Normal rectal mucosa (i.e., "rectal sparing") is present and can be confirmed with normal rectal biopsies. SCAD often resolves spontaneously without treatment, or completely after a limited course of therapy with only a 5-aminosalicylate. Recurrent episodes may occur, but most often, patients with this disorder have an entirely self-limited clinical course. Occasionally, treatment with other agents, including corticosteroids, or surgical resection has been required. PMID:27688648

  9. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  10. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  11. Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2016-01-01

    Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis (SCAD) has become increasingly appreciated as a form of inflammatory disease of the colon. Several features suggest that SCAD is a distinct disorder. SCAD tends to develop almost exclusively in older adults, predominately, but not exclusively, males. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the sigmoid colon, and usually remains localized to this region of the colon alone. SCAD most often presents with rectal bleeding and subsequent endoscopic visualization reveals a well localized process with non-specific histopathologic inflammatory changes. Granulomas are not seen, and if present, may be helpful in definition of other disorders such as Crohn’s disease of the colon, an entity often confused with SCAD. Bacteriologic and parasitic studies for an infectious agent are negative. Normal rectal mucosa (i.e., “rectal sparing”) is present and can be confirmed with normal rectal biopsies. SCAD often resolves spontaneously without treatment, or completely after a limited course of therapy with only a 5-aminosalicylate. Recurrent episodes may occur, but most often, patients with this disorder have an entirely self-limited clinical course. Occasionally, treatment with other agents, including corticosteroids, or surgical resection has been required. PMID:27688648

  12. Optical Ground Segment Performance Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenthal, J.; Xie, H.; Clare, L.

    2016-05-01

    The performance of candidate optical communication systems for deep space that would use a single optical ground station in conjunction with various space terminals is reported here. We considered three potential diameters of ground receive terminals (4, 8, and 12 m) and three potential ground transmit powers (1, 5, and 10 kW). Combinations of ground receive terminals, ground transmit terminals, and spacecraft terminals were assessed for data rate and volume (both uplink and downlink), and for uplink irradiance needed to enable downlink pointing, in the context of a set of 12 design reference missions. Raw physical link performance was assessed assuming clear weather conditions with conservative desert daytime turbulence, using communication link parameters that were optimized according to previously reported methods using the Strategic Optical Link Tool (SOLT). Also, realistic bad weather conditions were considered, assuming a random process that could at any time make transitions between two states: a cloud-free state and a cloudy state that completely interrupts data transmission. We compared the link performance achievable under our assumptions to the anticipated requirements associated with the design reference missions to determine the degree of satisfaction possible with various optical segments. Nine potential operating concepts for an optical communication system were described, and two were evaluated in detail for the Mars 2022 mission opportunity: raw data delivery and automatic repeat request for complete data delivery.

  13. Image segmentation and lightness perception.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L; Winawer, Jonathan

    2005-03-01

    The perception of surface albedo (lightness) is one of the most basic aspects of visual awareness. It is well known that the apparent lightness of a target depends on the context in which it is embedded, but there is extensive debate about the computations and representations underlying perceived lightness. One view asserts that the visual system explicitly separates surface reflectance from the prevailing illumination and atmospheric conditions in which it is embedded, generating layered image representations. Some recent theory has challenged this view and asserted that the human visual system derives surface lightness without explicitly segmenting images into multiple layers. Here we present new lightness illusions--the largest reported to date--that unequivocally demonstrate the effect that layered image representations can have in lightness perception. We show that the computations that underlie the decomposition of luminance into multiple layers under conditions of transparency can induce dramatic lightness illusions, causing identical texture patches to appear either black or white. These results indicate that mechanisms involved in decomposing images into layered representations can play a decisive role in the perception of surface lightness. PMID:15744303

  14. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  15. Membrane Shell Reflector Segment Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    The mesh reflector is the only type of large, in-space deployable antenna that has successfully flown in space. However, state-of-the-art large deployable mesh antenna systems are RF-frequency-limited by both global shape accuracy and local surface quality. The limitations of mesh reflectors stem from two factors. First, at higher frequencies, the porosity and surface roughness of the mesh results in loss and scattering of the signal. Second, the mesh material does not have any bending stiffness and thus cannot be formed into true parabolic (or other desired) shapes. To advance the deployable reflector technology at high RF frequencies from the current state-of-the-art, significant improvements need to be made in three major aspects: a high-stability and highprecision deployable truss; a continuously curved RF reflecting surface (the function of the surface as well as its first derivative are both continuous); and the RF reflecting surface should be made of a continuous material. To meet these three requirements, the Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) antenna was developed.

  16. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  17. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required

  18. Biological component of life support systems for a crew in long-duration space expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Podolsky, Igor G.

    Creation of effective life support systems (LSSs) is one of the main tasks of medico-biological support of long-duration space flight. Principles of development of such an LSS will be defined on the basis of number of parameters, including mass-overall and energetic limitations of interplanetary spacecraft, duration of expedition and crew size. It is obvious that including biological subsystems in LSS of long-duration interplanetary space flights will help to form a full-fledged environment for humans in the spacecraft. It would be an appropriate solution for long-term biological needs of humans and important for elimination of possible negative consequences of their long stay under artificial (abiogenous) environment. Experiments with higher plants, conducted on board "MIR" orbital complex and Russian segment of ISS, showed that plant organisms are capable of long-duration normal growth, full development and reproduction without deviations under real space flight environment. These results allow us to assume that greenhouses are potential candidates to be a biological subsystem to be included in the LSS for interplanetary space flight. Inclusion of greenhouse equipment in the spacecrafts will require a number of corrective actions in functional schemes of the existing LSS, i.e. it will lead to redistribution of material streams inside an LSS and increase in functional load of authorized systems. Furthermore, involvement of greenhouse in an LSS of an interplanetary spacecraft requires a number of technical tasks to be cleared. In the present review, we discuss the constructive, technological and mass-transfer characteristics of greenhouse as a component part of the LSS for crews of long-term interplanetary missions, in particular, Mars expedition.

  19. Diverse cortical codes for scene segmentation in primate auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Malcolm N.

    2015-01-01

    The temporal coherence of amplitude fluctuations is a critical cue for segmentation of complex auditory scenes. The auditory system must accurately demarcate the onsets and offsets of acoustic signals. We explored how and how well the timing of onsets and offsets of gated tones are encoded by auditory cortical neurons in awake rhesus macaques. Temporal features of this representation were isolated by presenting otherwise identical pure tones of differing durations. Cortical response patterns were diverse, including selective encoding of onset and offset transients, tonic firing, and sustained suppression. Spike train classification methods revealed that many neurons robustly encoded tone duration despite substantial diversity in the encoding process. Excellent discrimination performance was achieved by neurons whose responses were primarily phasic at tone offset and by those that responded robustly while the tone persisted. Although diverse cortical response patterns converged on effective duration discrimination, this diversity significantly constrained the utility of decoding models referenced to a spiking pattern averaged across all responses or averaged within the same response category. Using maximum likelihood-based decoding models, we demonstrated that the spike train recorded in a single trial could support direct estimation of stimulus onset and offset. Comparisons between different decoding models established the substantial contribution of bursts of activity at sound onset and offset to demarcating the temporal boundaries of gated tones. Our results indicate that relatively few neurons suffice to provide temporally precise estimates of such auditory “edges,” particularly for models that assume and exploit the heterogeneity of neural responses in awake cortex. PMID:25695655

  20. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  1. Factors that Influence Weekday Sleep Duration in European Children

    PubMed Central

    Hense, Sabrina; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Henauw, Stefaan; Marild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare nocturnal sleep duration in children from 8 European countries and identify its determinants. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary schools and preschools participating in the IDEFICS study. Participants: 8,542 children aged 2 to 9 years from 8 European countries with complete information on nocturnal sleep duration. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements: Nocturnal sleep duration was assessed by means of a computer based parental 24-h recall. Data on personal, social, environmental, and behavioral factors were collected by means of standardized parental questionnaire. Physical activity was surveyed with accelerometers. Results: Nocturnal sleep duration in the participating countries ranged from 9.5 h (SD 0.8) in Estonia to 11.2 h (SD 0.7) in Belgium and differed significantly between countries (P < 0.001) in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses, with children from northern countries sleeping the longest. Sleep duration decreased by about 6 min with each year of age over all countries. No effect of season, daylight duration, overweight, parental education level, or lifestyle factors could be seen. Conclusion: Sleep duration differs significantly between countries. Our findings allow for the conclusion that regional affiliation, including culture and environmental characteristics, seems to overlay individual determinants of sleep duration. Citation: Hense S; Barba G; Pohlabeln H; De Henauw S; Marild S; Molnar D; Moreno LA; Hadjigeorgiou C; Veidebaum T; Ahrens W. Factors that influence weekday sleep duration in European children. SLEEP 2011;34(5):633-639. PMID:21532957

  2. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses.

  3. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses. PMID:23333698

  4. 14 CFR § 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... event for declassification based on the duration of the national security sensitivity of the information... original classification authority otherwise determines that the sensitivity of the information...

  5. Generalized nonconvex optimization for medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Joshi, Sujit

    2000-06-01

    Design of a generalized technique for medical image segmentation is a challenging task. Currently a number of approaches are being investigated for 2-D and 3-D medical image segmentation for diagnostic and research applications. The methodology used in this work is aimed at obtaining a generalized solution of non-convex optimization problems by including a structural constraint of mass or density and the concept of additivity properties of entropy to a recently developed statistical approach to clustering and classification. The original computationally intensive procedure is made more efficient both in processing time and accuracy by employing a new similarity parameter for generating the initial clusters that are updated by minimizing an energy function relating the image entropy and expected distortion. The application of the computationally intensive yet generalized solution to nonconvex optimization to a limited set of medical images has resulted in excellent segmentation when compared to other clustering based segmentation approaches. The addition of the parametric approach to determine the initial number of clusters allows significant reduction in processing time and better design of automated segmentation procedure. This research work generalizes a deterministic annealing i.e. a specific statistical approach to solve nonconvex optimization problems by developing a more efficient technique applicable to nonconvex optimization problems (getting trapped in local minima). However, the DA approach is extremely computationally intensive for applications such as image segmentation. The new integrated approach developed in this work allows this optimization technique to be used for medical image segmentation.

  6. On the evaluation of segmentation editing tools

    PubMed Central

    Heckel, Frank; Moltz, Jan H.; Meine, Hans; Geisler, Benjamin; Kießling, Andreas; D’Anastasi, Melvin; dos Santos, Daniel Pinto; Theruvath, Ashok Joseph; Hahn, Horst K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Efficient segmentation editing tools are important components in the segmentation process, as no automatic methods exist that always generate sufficient results. Evaluating segmentation editing algorithms is challenging, because their quality depends on the user’s subjective impression. So far, no established methods for an objective, comprehensive evaluation of such tools exist and, particularly, intermediate segmentation results are not taken into account. We discuss the evaluation of editing algorithms in the context of tumor segmentation in computed tomography. We propose a rating scheme to qualitatively measure the accuracy and efficiency of editing tools in user studies. In order to objectively summarize the overall quality, we propose two scores based on the subjective rating and the quantified segmentation quality over time. Finally, a simulation-based evaluation approach is discussed, which allows a more reproducible evaluation without the need for human input. This automated evaluation complements user studies, allowing a more convincing evaluation, particularly during development, where frequent user studies are not possible. The proposed methods have been used to evaluate two dedicated editing algorithms on 131 representative tumor segmentations. We show how the comparison of editing algorithms benefits from the proposed methods. Our results also show the correlation of the suggested quality score with the qualitative ratings. PMID:26158063

  7. Regression Segmentation for M³ Spinal Images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijie; Zhen, Xiantong; Tay, KengYeow; Osman, Said; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Clinical routine often requires to analyze spinal images of multiple anatomic structures in multiple anatomic planes from multiple imaging modalities (M(3)). Unfortunately, existing methods for segmenting spinal images are still limited to one specific structure, in one specific plane or from one specific modality (S(3)). In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Regression Segmentation, that is for the first time able to segment M(3) spinal images in one single unified framework. This approach formulates the segmentation task innovatively as a boundary regression problem: modeling a highly nonlinear mapping function from substantially diverse M(3) images directly to desired object boundaries. Leveraging the advancement of sparse kernel machines, regression segmentation is fulfilled by a multi-dimensional support vector regressor (MSVR) which operates in an implicit, high dimensional feature space where M(3) diversity and specificity can be systematically categorized, extracted, and handled. The proposed regression segmentation approach was thoroughly tested on images from 113 clinical subjects including both disc and vertebral structures, in both sagittal and axial planes, and from both MRI and CT modalities. The overall result reaches a high dice similarity index (DSI) 0.912 and a low boundary distance (BD) 0.928 mm. With our unified and expendable framework, an efficient clinical tool for M(3) spinal image segmentation can be easily achieved, and will substantially benefit the diagnosis and treatment of spinal diseases.

  8. Deformable segmentation via sparse shape representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-01-01

    Appearance and shape are two key elements exploited in medical image segmentation. However, in some medical image analysis tasks, appearance cues are weak/misleading due to disease/artifacts and often lead to erroneous segmentation. In this paper, a novel deformable model is proposed for robust segmentation in the presence of weak/misleading appearance cues. Owing to the less trustable appearance information, this method focuses on the effective shape modeling with two contributions. First, a shape composition method is designed to incorporate shape prior on-the-fly. Based on two sparsity observations, this method is robust to false appearance information and adaptive to statistically insignificant shape modes. Second, shape priors are modeled and used in a hierarchical fashion. More specifically, by using affinity propagation method, our deformable surface is divided into multiple partitions, on which local shape models are built independently. This scheme facilitates a more compact shape prior modeling and hence a more robust and efficient segmentation. Our deformable model is applied on two very diverse segmentation problems, liver segmentation in PET-CT images and rodent brain segmentation in MR images. Compared to state-of-art methods, our method achieves better performance in both studies. PMID:21995060

  9. Segmental mediolytic arteritis involving hepatic arteries.

    PubMed

    Armas, O A; Donovan, D C

    1992-05-01

    Segmental mediolytic arteritis is a rare, noninflammatory arteriopathy that involves the splanchnic arteries of adults with shock and the coronary arteries of neonates with hypoxemia. We report the first case (to our knowledge) of segmental mediolytic arteritis involving the hepatic arteries. The lesion begins with cytoplasmic vacuolar degeneration of the arterial smooth-muscle cells, which then progresses to coalescence of vacuoles, leading to disruption of the media, intramural hemorrhage, and periadventitial fibrin deposition. Segmental mediolysis results in arterial wall defects, which can lead to dissecting aneurysms or hemorrhage due to arterial rupture. The intima and internal elastica are spared from the lytic process, and there is minimal periadventitial inflammation. Segmental mediolytic arteritis is not a true arteritis; therefore, segmental mediolytic arteriopathy may be a preferable term. Morphological similarities exist between segmental mediolytic arteritis and arterial fibromuscular dysplasia. In our case, hepatic ischemia correlated with mediolysis involving the hepatic arterial branches. Segmental mediolytic arteritis is thought to be due to an inappropriate vasospastic response, developing in the setting of hypoperfusion and hypoxemia.

  10. Convergent Coarseness Regulation for Segmented Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W

    2004-05-27

    In segmentation of remotely sensed images, the number of pixel classes and their spectral representations are often unknown a priori. Even with prior knowledge, pixels with spectral components from multiple classes lead to classification errors and undesired small region artifacts. Coarseness regulation for segmented images is proposed as an efficient novel technique for handling these problems. Beginning with an over-segmented image, perceptually similar connected regions are iteratively merged using a method reminiscent of region growing, except the primitives are regions, not pixels. Interactive coarseness regulation is achieved by specifying the area {alpha} of the largest region eligible for merging. A region with area less than {alpha} is merged with the most spectrally similar connected region, unless the regions are perceived as spectrally dissimilar. In convergent coarseness regulation, which requires no user interaction, {alpha} is specified as the total number of pixels in the image, and the coarseness regulation output converges to a steady-state segmentation that remains unchanged as {alpha} is further increased. By applying convergent coarseness regulation to AVIRIS, IKONOS and DigitalGlobe images, and quantitatively comparing computer-generated segmentations to segmentations generated manually by a human analyst, it was found that the quality of the input segmentations was consistently and dramatically improved.

  11. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. )

    1990-08-15

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

  12. Hnf1beta and nephron segmentation.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Davidson, Alan J

    2014-04-01

    The nephron is the functional unit that executes the homeostatic roles of the kidney in vertebrates. Critical to this function is the physical arrangement of the glomerular blood filter attached to a tubular epithelium that is subdivided into specialized proximal and distal segments. During embryogenesis, nephron progenitors undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and adopt different segment-specific cell fates along the proximo-distal axis of the nephron. The molecular basis of how these segments arise remains largely unknown. Recent studies using the zebrafish have identified the Hnf1beta transcription factor (Hnf1b) as a major regulator of tubular segmentation. In Hnf1b-deficient zebrafish embryos, nephron progenitors fail to adopt the proximo-distal segmentation pattern of the nephron, yet still undergo MET. This observation suggests that the functional segmentation of renal tubular epithelial cells is independent of pathways that induce their epithelialization. Here we review this new role of Hnf1b for nephron segmentation during zebrafish and mouse kidney development.

  13. Asymmetry in perceived duration between up-ramp and down-ramp sounds as a function of duration.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Sabine; Vannier, Michaël; Chatron, Jacques; Susini, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The perceived duration of 1-kHz pure tones with increasing or decreasing intensity profiles was measured. The ratio between the down- and up-ramp durations at equal subjective durations was examined as a function of the sound duration (50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 ms). At 50 and 100 ms, the ratio was constant and equaled about 1.7, then it logarithmically decreased from 100 to 1000 ms to reach a constant value of 1 at 1 and 2 s. The different mechanisms proposed in the literature to explain the perceived duration asymmetry between up-ramp and down-ramp were discussed in the light of the dependence of this ratio on duration. PMID:25096142

  14. Segmentation of the human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Taso, Manuel; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Callot, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Segmenting the spinal cord contour is a necessary step for quantifying spinal cord atrophy in various diseases. Delineating gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) is also useful for quantifying GM atrophy or for extracting multiparametric MRI metrics into specific WM tracts. Spinal cord segmentation in clinical research is not as developed as brain segmentation, however with the substantial improvement of MR sequences adapted to spinal cord MR investigations, the field of spinal cord MR segmentation has advanced greatly within the last decade. Segmentation techniques with variable accuracy and degree of complexity have been developed and reported in the literature. In this paper, we review some of the existing methods for cord and WM/GM segmentation, including intensity-based, surface-based, and image-based methods. We also provide recommendations for validating spinal cord segmentation techniques, as it is important to understand the intrinsic characteristics of the methods and to evaluate their performance and limitations. Lastly, we illustrate some applications in the healthy and pathological spinal cord. One conclusion of this review is that robust and automatic segmentation is clinically relevant, as it would allow for longitudinal and group studies free from user bias as well as reproducible multicentric studies in large populations, thereby helping to further our understanding of the spinal cord pathophysiology and to develop new criteria for early detection of subclinical evolution for prognosis prediction and for patient management. Another conclusion is that at the present time, no single method adequately segments the cord and its substructure in all the cases encountered (abnormal intensities, loss of contrast, deformation of the cord, etc.). A combination of different approaches is thus advised for future developments, along with the introduction of probabilistic shape models. Maturation of standardized frameworks, multiplatform availability, inclusion

  15. Segmental Renal Infarction due to Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Alevizopoulos, Aristeidis; Hamilton, Lauren; Stratu, Natalia; Rix, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Segmental renal infarction is a rare situation which has been reported so far in the form of case reports. It's caused usually by cardiac conditions, such as atrial fibrillation, and systemic diseases (e.g. systemic lupus erythematous). We are presenting a case of a 31 year old healthy male, who sustained a left segmental renal infarction, following a motorbike accident. We report his presentation, management and outcome. We also review the literature in search of the optimal diagnostic and treatment pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of segmental renal infarction due to blunt trauma. PMID:27175338

  16. Bayesian Fusion of Color and Texture Segmentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In many applications one would like to use information from both color and texture features in order to segment an image. We propose a novel technique to combine "soft" segmentations computed for two or more features independently. Our algorithm merges models according to a mean entropy criterion, and allows to choose the appropriate number of classes for the final grouping. This technique also allows to improve the quality of supervised classification based on one feature (e.g. color) by merging information from unsupervised segmentation based on another feature (e.g., texture.)

  17. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-01

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S. cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E. coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  18. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-18

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S.cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E.coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  19. Segmented magnetic nanofibers for single cell manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Shi, Jian; Jiang, Lianmei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Li; Yamamoto, Shinpei; Takano, Mikio; Chang, Mengjie; Zhang, Haoli; Chen, Yong

    2012-07-01

    We report a simple but straightforward approach to fabricate magnetic nanofiber segments for cell manipulation. Electrospinning was used to produce nanofibers from a magnetic nanoparticles containing polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) precursor solution. After sonication, the fabricated nanofibers were uniformly segmented. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, the orientation of the fiber segments could easily be controlled by an external magnetic field. NIH 3T3 cells were then cultured in a medium containing magnetic fibers, resulting in stable cell-nanofiber hybrids which can be conveniently manipulated with a magnet.

  20. Neural network based temporal video segmentation.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Suganthan, P N

    2002-01-01

    The organization of video information in video databases requires automatic temporal segmentation with minimal user interaction. As neural networks are capable of learning the characteristics of various video segments and clustering them accordingly, in this paper, a neural network based technique is developed to segment the video sequence into shots automatically and with a minimum number of user-defined parameters. We propose to employ growing neural gas (GNG) networks and integrate multiple frame difference features to efficiently detect shot boundaries in the video. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the good performance of the proposed scheme on real video sequences. PMID:12370954

  1. Fine alignment of a large segmented mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Thomas William (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for aligning a segmented mirror includes a source of radiation directed along a first axis to the segmented mirror and a beamsplitter removably inserted along the first axis for redirecting radiation from the first axis to a second axis, substantially perpendicular to the first axis. An imaging array is positioned along the second axis for imaging the redirected radiation, and a knife-edge configured for cutting the redirected radiation is serially positioned to occlude and not occlude the redirected radiation, effectively providing a variable radiation pattern detected by the imaging array for aligning the segmented mirror.

  2. Trypan blue dye for anterior segment surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Jhanji, V; Chan, E; Das, S; Zhang, H; Vajpayee, R B

    2011-01-01

    Use of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery has gained increased importance in the past few years. Trypan blue (TB) has been a popular choice among anterior segment surgeons mainly due to its safety, ease of availability, and remarkable ability to enable an easy surgery in difficult situations mostly related to visibility of the targeted tissue. It is being used in cataract surgery since nearly a decade and its utilization has been extended to other anterior segment surgeries like trabeculectomy and corneal transplantation. This review will discuss the techniques and outcome of TB dye-assisted anterior segment surgeries. PMID:21681214

  3. Segmented-field radiography in scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.W.; Barnes, G.T.; Nasca, R.J.; Annegan, D.C.

    1985-02-01

    A method of scoliosis imaging using segmented fields is presented. The method is advantageous for patients requiring serial radiographic monitoring, as it results in markedly reduced radiation doses to critical organs, particularly the breast. Absorbed dose to the breast was measured to be 8.8 mrad (88 ..mu..Gy) for a full-field examination and 0.051 mrad (5.1 ..mu..Gy) for the segmented-field study. The segmented-field technique also results in improved image quality. Experience with 53 studies in 23 patients is reported.

  4. Segmental Renal Infarction due to Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Alevizopoulos, Aristeidis; Hamilton, Lauren; Stratu, Natalia; Rix, Gerald

    2016-05-01

    Segmental renal infarction is a rare situation which has been reported so far in the form of case reports. It's caused usually by cardiac conditions, such as atrial fibrillation, and systemic diseases (e.g. systemic lupus erythematous). We are presenting a case of a 31 year old healthy male, who sustained a left segmental renal infarction, following a motorbike accident. We report his presentation, management and outcome. We also review the literature in search of the optimal diagnostic and treatment pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of segmental renal infarction due to blunt trauma.

  5. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (≥ 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  6. The Impact of Attention on Judgments of Frequency and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested. PMID:26000712

  7. Segmentation and the pairing hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bragason, Orn

    2004-09-30

    The effect of stimulus contiguity and response contingency on responding in chain schedules was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, four pigeons were trained on two simple three-link chain schedules that alternated within sessions. Initial links were correlated with a variable-interval 30s schedule, and middle and terminal links were correlated with interdependent variable-interval 30s variable-interval 30s schedules. The combined duration of the interdependent schedules summed to 60s. The two chains differed with respect to signaling of the schedule components: a two-stimulus chain had one stimulus paired with the initial link and one stimulus paired with both the middle and the terminal link, while a three-stimulus chain had a different stimulus paired with the each of the three links. The results showed that the two-stimulus chain maintained lower initial-link responding than the three-stimulus chain. In Experiment 2, four pigeons were exposed to three separate conditions, the two- and three-stimulus chains of Experiment 1 and a three-stimulus chain that had a 3s delay to terminal-link entry from the middle-link response that produced it. The two-stimulus chain maintained lower initial-link responding than the three-stimulus chain, as in Experiment 1, and a similar initial-link responding was maintained by the two-stimulus chain and the three-stimulus chain with the delay contingency. The results demonstrate that a stimulus noncontiguous with food can maintain responding that is sometimes greater than a stimulus contiguous with food, depending on the response contingency for terminal-link entry. The results are contrary to the pairing hypothesis of conditioned reinforcement.

  8. Analysis of adjacent segment degeneration with laminectomy above a fused lumbar segment.

    PubMed

    Gard, Andrew P; Klopper, Hendrik B; Doran, Stephen E; Hellbusch, Leslie C

    2013-11-01

    Although recent data suggests that lumbar fusion with decompression contributes to some marginal acceleration of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD), few studies have evaluated whether it is safe to perform a laminectomy above a fused segment. This study investigates the hypothesis that laminectomy above a fused lumbar segment does not increase the incidence of ASD, and assesses the benefits and risks of performing a laminectomy above a lumbar fusion. A retrospective review of 171 patients who underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine was performed to analyze the association between ASD and laminectomy above the fused lumbar segment. Patients were divided into two groups - one group with instrumented fusion alone and the other group with instrumented fusion plus laminectomy above the fused segment. Of the 171 patients, 34 underwent additional decompressive laminectomy above the fused segment. There was a significant increase in ASD incidence as well as progression of ASD grade in both groups. There was no significant increase in ASD in patients with decompressive laminectomy above the fused lumbar segment compared to patients with laminectomy limited to the fused segment. This retrospective review of 171 patients who underwent decompression and instrumented fusion with follow-up radiographs demonstrates that laminectomy decompression above a fused segment does not significantly increase radiographic ASD. There is, however, a significant increase in ASD over time, which was observed throughout the entire cohort likely representing a natural progression of lumbar spondylosis above the fusion segment.

  9. Building roof segmentation from aerial images using a lineand region-based watershed segmentation technique.

    PubMed

    El Merabet, Youssef; Meurie, Cyril; Ruichek, Yassine; Sbihi, Abderrahmane; Touahni, Raja

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, we present a novel strategy for roof segmentation from aerial images (orthophotoplans) based on the cooperation of edge- and region-based segmentation methods. The proposed strategy is composed of three major steps. The first one, called the pre-processing step, consists of simplifying the acquired image with an appropriate couple of invariant and gradient, optimized for the application, in order to limit illumination changes (shadows, brightness, etc.) affecting the images. The second step is composed of two main parallel treatments: on the one hand, the simplified image is segmented by watershed regions. Even if the first segmentation of this step provides good results in general, the image is often over-segmented. To alleviate this problem, an efficient region merging strategy adapted to the orthophotoplan particularities, with a 2D modeling of roof ridges technique, is applied. On the other hand, the simplified image is segmented by watershed lines. The third step consists of integrating both watershed segmentation strategies into a single cooperative segmentation scheme in order to achieve satisfactory segmentation results. Tests have been performed on orthophotoplans containing 100 roofs with varying complexity, and the results are evaluated with the VINETcriterion using ground-truth image segmentation. A comparison with five popular segmentation techniques of the literature demonstrates the effectiveness and the reliability of the proposed approach. Indeed, we obtain a good segmentation rate of 96% with the proposed method compared to 87.5% with statistical region merging (SRM), 84% with mean shift, 82% with color structure code (CSC), 80% with efficient graph-based segmentation algorithm (EGBIS) and 71% with JSEG.

  10. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  11. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  12. 49 CFR 525.9 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 525.9 Section 525.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.9 Duration...

  13. 49 CFR 525.9 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 525.9 Section 525.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.9 Duration...

  14. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  15. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  16. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  17. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  18. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  19. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  20. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  1. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  2. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  3. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  4. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  5. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  6. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  7. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  8. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  9. 10 CFR 72.42 - Duration of license; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of license; renewal. 72.42 Section 72.42 Energy... Conditions of License § 72.42 Duration of license; renewal. (a) Each license issued under this part must be... the requirements of this rule. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following:...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  20. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  1. 24 CFR 203.267 - Duration of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of periodic MIP. 203.267 Section 203.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Payment § 203.267 Duration of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay the MIP to the Commissioner until...

  2. 24 CFR 203.267 - Duration of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of periodic MIP. 203.267 Section 203.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Payment § 203.267 Duration of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay the MIP to the Commissioner until...

  3. 24 CFR 203.267 - Duration of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of periodic MIP. 203.267 Section 203.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Payment § 203.267 Duration of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay the MIP to the Commissioner until...

  4. 24 CFR 203.267 - Duration of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of periodic MIP. 203.267 Section 203.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Payment § 203.267 Duration of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay the MIP to the Commissioner until...

  5. 24 CFR 203.267 - Duration of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of periodic MIP. 203.267 Section 203.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Payment § 203.267 Duration of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay the MIP to the Commissioner until...

  6. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  7. 38 CFR 21.73 - Duration of employment assistance programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assistance programs. 21.73 Section 21.73 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.73 Duration of employment...

  8. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  9. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  10. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  11. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  12. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  13. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  14. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  15. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  16. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  17. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  18. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  19. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  20. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  1. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  2. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  3. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  4. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  5. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  6. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  7. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  8. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  9. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  10. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  11. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  12. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  13. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  14. 7 CFR 916.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 916.67 Section 916.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  15. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  16. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  17. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  18. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  19. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  20. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  1. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  2. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  3. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  4. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  5. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  6. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  7. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  8. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  9. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  10. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  11. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  12. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  13. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  14. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  15. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  16. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  17. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  18. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  19. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  20. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  1. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  2. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  3. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  4. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  5. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  6. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  7. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  8. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  9. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  10. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  11. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  12. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  13. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  14. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  15. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  16. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  17. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  18. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  19. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  20. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  1. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  2. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  3. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  4. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  5. 7 CFR 916.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 916.67 Section 916.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  6. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  7. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  8. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  9. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  10. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  11. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  12. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  13. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  14. 7 CFR 924.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 924.67 Section 924.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 924.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  15. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  16. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  17. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  18. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  19. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  20. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  1. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  2. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  3. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  4. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  5. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  6. 7 CFR 924.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 924.67 Section 924.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 924.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  7. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  8. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  9. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  10. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  11. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  12. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  13. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  14. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  15. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  16. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  17. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  18. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  19. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  20. 25 CFR 212.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of leases. 212.27 Section 212.27 Indians BUREAU... MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.27 Duration of leases. The provisions of § 211.27 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under this part....