Science.gov

Sample records for modeling belief systems

  1. Model Checking Degrees of Belief in a System of Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raimondi, Franco; Primero, Giuseppe; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning about degrees of belief has been investigated in the past by a number of authors and has a number of practical applications in real life. In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particular, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derived automatically from the possible executions of the system, thereby providing a computationally grounded formalism. We leverage the semantics to (a) construct a model checking algorithm, (b) investigate its complexity, (c) provide a Java implementation of the model checking algorithm, and (d) evaluate our approach using the standard benchmark of the dining cryptographers. Finally, we provide a detailed case study: using our framework and our implementation, we assess and verify the situational awareness of the pilot of Air France 447 flying in off-nominal conditions.

  2. Integrating the Illness Beliefs Model in clinical practice: a Family Systems Nursing knowledge utilization model.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Fabie; Dupuis, France; Turcotte, Annie; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-05-01

    To promote the integration of Family Systems Nursing (FSN) in clinical practice, we need to better understand how nurses overcome the challenges of FSN knowledge utilization. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted with 32 practicing female nurses from hospital and community settings who had received FSN intervention training and skill development based on the Illness Beliefs Model and the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models. The participants were interviewed about how they utilized FSN knowledge in their nursing practice. From the data analysis, a FSN Knowledge Utilization Model emerged that involves three major components: (a) nurses' beliefs in FSN and in their FSN skills, (b) nurses' knowledge utilization strategies to address the challenges of FSN practice, and (c) FSN positive outcomes. The FSN Knowledge Utilization Model describes a circular, incremental, and iterative process used by nurses to integrate FSN in daily nursing practice. Findings point to a need for re-evaluation of educational and management strategies in clinical settings for advancing the practice of FSN.

  3. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  4. A New DST-Belief Theoretic Project Selection Model for Multi-Criteria Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, Tuli; Sinharay, Arindam; Sarkar, Bijan; Sanyal, Subir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Decision-making problem is co-related to quality and availability of the information. Innovative algorithms are proposed as a mathematical problem-solving technique to work in uncertainty-based decision science domain. Evidence-based theory of Dempster-Shafer (DST) is an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty in the decision-making procedure. The current research exposition on new decision-making method based on DST of evidence, quantification evidence preference from different multiple criteria defined by belief function has been presented. They have developed a new framework that tackles the challenges and borne out of uncertainty both in criteria and in alternative levels. The proposed hybridized MCDM tool developed upon fuzzy domain uses plausibility and theory of belief function to construct decision on uncertain and imprecise information. The proposed method can be well fitted for real-life application. An illustrative example establishes the effectiveness of the aforesaid method.

  5. Quantum Graphical Models and Belief Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, M.S. Poulin, D.

    2008-08-15

    Belief Propagation algorithms acting on Graphical Models of classical probability distributions, such as Markov Networks, Factor Graphs and Bayesian Networks, are amongst the most powerful known methods for deriving probabilistic inferences amongst large numbers of random variables. This paper presents a generalization of these concepts and methods to the quantum case, based on the idea that quantum theory can be thought of as a noncommutative, operator-valued, generalization of classical probability theory. Some novel characterizations of quantum conditional independence are derived, and definitions of Quantum n-Bifactor Networks, Markov Networks, Factor Graphs and Bayesian Networks are proposed. The structure of Quantum Markov Networks is investigated and some partial characterization results are obtained, along the lines of the Hammersley-Clifford theorem. A Quantum Belief Propagation algorithm is presented and is shown to converge on 1-Bifactor Networks and Markov Networks when the underlying graph is a tree. The use of Quantum Belief Propagation as a heuristic algorithm in cases where it is not known to converge is discussed. Applications to decoding quantum error correcting codes and to the simulation of many-body quantum systems are described.

  6. Logistic Mixed Models to Investigate Implicit and Explicit Belief Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lages, Martin; Scheel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the proposition of a two-systems Theory of Mind in adults’ belief tracking. A sample of N = 45 participants predicted the choice of one of two opponent players after observing several rounds in an animated card game. Three matches of this card game were played and initial gaze direction on target and subsequent choice predictions were recorded for each belief task and participant. We conducted logistic regressions with mixed effects on the binary data and developed Bayesian logistic mixed models to infer implicit and explicit mentalizing in true belief and false belief tasks. Although logistic regressions with mixed effects predicted the data well a Bayesian logistic mixed model with latent task- and subject-specific parameters gave a better account of the data. As expected explicit choice predictions suggested a clear understanding of true and false beliefs (TB/FB). Surprisingly, however, model parameters for initial gaze direction also indicated belief tracking. We discuss why task-specific parameters for initial gaze directions are different from choice predictions yet reflect second-order perspective taking. PMID:27853440

  7. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroğlu, Barış; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content knowledge, risk perceptions, moral beliefs, and religious beliefs) and their teaching efficacy beliefs about this topic constitute a belief system, and these beliefs are interrelated due to core educational beliefs. We used an exploratory mixed design to test this model. We developed and administered specific questionnaires to probe the belief system model. The sample for the quantitative part of this study included 441 preservice science teachers from eight universities. We randomly selected eight participants in this group for follow-up interviews. The results showed that preservice science teachers held moderately high teaching efficacy beliefs. Learning and teaching experiences, communication skills, vicarious experiences, emotional states, and interest in the topic were sources of this efficacy. In addition, content knowledge and risk perceptions were predictors of teaching efficacy. We believe that epistemologies based on traditional teaching and the values attached to science teaching are the core beliefs that affect the relationship between predictor variables and teaching efficacy.

  8. Nestedness of beliefs: Examining a prospective elementary teacher's belief system about science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Lynn A.

    2003-11-01

    This study, conducted from a constructivist perspective, examined the belief system of a prospective elementary teacher (Barbara) about science teaching and learning as she developed professional knowledge within the context of reflective science teacher education. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a profile of Barbara's beliefs that consisted of three foundational and three dualistic beliefs. Her foundational beliefs concerned (a) the value of science and science teaching, (b) the nature of scientific concepts and goals of science instruction, and (c) control in the science classroom. Barbara held dualistic beliefs about (a) how children learn science, (b) the science students' role, and (c) the science teacher's role. Her dualistic beliefs formed two contradictory nests of beliefs. One nest, grounded in lifelong science learner experiences, reflected a didactic teaching orientation and predominantly guided her practice. The second nest, not well grounded in experience, embraced a hands-on approach and predominantly guided her vision of practice. The findings accentuate the complexity and nestedness of teachers' belief systems and underscore the significance of identifying prospective teachers' beliefs, espoused and enacted, for designing teacher preparation programs.

  9. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  10. Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstock, Irwin M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article shows how the Health Belief Model, social learning theory, and locus of control may be related and posits an explanatory model that incorporates self-efficacy into the Health Belief Model. Self-efficacy is proposed as an independent variable with the traditional variables of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers.…

  11. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  12. [Incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system].

    PubMed

    Garzón Pérez, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Every society develops a particular system of beliefs that summarizes its vision of socio-political organization, culture and interpersonal relationships. Each of these three basic dimensions has different forms, depending on the spatial and temporal context of societies. The belief system of the service societies is characterized by a democratic vision of social and political organization, rejection of radical social changes and high levels of interpersonal trust. This paper empirically examines the incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system in a sample of university students. The participants belong to a country that is slowly integrating into the service societies. We used a scale of postmodernity to analyze the incorporation of the postmodern belief system. The results indicate that there is a peculiar combination of the three basic dimensions of the postmodern belief system, where the postmodern conceptions of culture and social relationships have lower acceptance.

  13. Teacher Change Beliefs: Validating a Scale with Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kin, Tai Mei; Abdull Kareem, Omar; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Wai Bing, Khuan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to validate a substantiated Teacher Change Beliefs Model (TCBM) and an instrument to identify critical components of teacher change beliefs (TCB) in Malaysian secondary schools. Five different pilot test approaches were applied to ensure the validity and reliability of the instrument. A total of 936 teachers from…

  14. Loop-corrected belief propagation for lattice spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Jun; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    2015-12-01

    Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing method for solving probabilistic graphical models. It is very successful in treating disordered models (such as spin glasses) on random graphs. On the other hand, finite-dimensional lattice models have an abundant number of short loops, and the BP method is still far from being satisfactory in treating the complicated loop-induced correlations in these systems. Here we propose a loop-corrected BP method to take into account the effect of short loops in lattice spin models. We demonstrate, through an application to the square-lattice Ising model, that loop-corrected BP improves over the naive BP method significantly. We also implement loop-corrected BP at the coarse-grained region graph level to further boost its performance.

  15. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  16. Space Activism as an Epiphanic Belief System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    Years of interaction with young people in the space industry and in space activists groups led to my observation that many such individuals can cite a quite specific life event that triggered a life-long interest in or commitment to creating a space future. I am particularly intrigued by parallels between such experiences and the phenomenon of epiphanic experiences among committed Christians. I see analogies between the puzzlement among space activists and among Christian groups as to the reasons for so many people being "unbelievers." At a small international meeting on lunar exploration in 2003, I heard two separate lunch speakers cite such personal experiences. At the beginning of a break in that meeting, I grabbed the microphone from the chairman and asked each person to write down on a pad by his chair whether or not he (or she) had experienced a specific event that led to their involvement in space. If the answer was positive, I asked for a brief narrative, for their age at the time, and for their current age. I received 53 submissions, 20% of which simply stated that their involvement in space exploration was happenstance. (Apollo astronaut John Young was among these.) The other 80% of the submissions had specific stories. The ages at the time of the epiphany ranged from 4 to 47; and their current ages ranged from 22 to 78. I will present a high-level characterization of these inputs. Interest in space exploration as a form of belief system is consistent with choosing NASA goals for the purpose of inspiration and with phenomena such as the "Overview Effect". More research might explore what form the transcendent experience takes and whether it might be associated with feelings of universal connection such as the noosphere or "The Force". From a pragmatic point of view, outreach strategies for exploration should focus on giving individuals access to personal, potentially transformational experiences as opposed to astronaut talks at civic clubs.

  17. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  18. Nestedness of Beliefs: Examining a Prospective Elementary Teacher's Belief System about Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Lynn A.

    2003-01-01

    This study, conducted from a constructivist perspective, examined the belief system of a prospective elementary teacher (Barbara) about science teaching and learning as she developed professional knowledge within the context of reflective science teacher education. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a…

  19. An integrated model of communication influence on beliefs.

    PubMed

    Eveland, William P; Cooper, Kathryn E

    2013-08-20

    How do people develop and maintain their beliefs about science? Decades of social science research exist to help us answer this question. The Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs presented here combines multiple theories that have considered aspects of this process into a comprehensive model to explain how individuals arrive at their scientific beliefs. In this article, we (i) summarize what is known about how science is presented in various news and entertainment media forms; (ii) describe how individuals differ in their choices to be exposed to various forms and sources of communication; (iii) discuss the implications of how individuals mentally process information on the effects of communication; (iv) consider how communication effects can be altered depending on background characteristics and motivations of individuals; and (v) emphasize that the process of belief formation is not unidirectional but rather, feeds back on itself over time. We conclude by applying the Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs to the complex issue of beliefs about climate change.

  20. An integrated model of communication influence on beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Eveland, William P.; Cooper, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    How do people develop and maintain their beliefs about science? Decades of social science research exist to help us answer this question. The Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs presented here combines multiple theories that have considered aspects of this process into a comprehensive model to explain how individuals arrive at their scientific beliefs. In this article, we (i) summarize what is known about how science is presented in various news and entertainment media forms; (ii) describe how individuals differ in their choices to be exposed to various forms and sources of communication; (iii) discuss the implications of how individuals mentally process information on the effects of communication; (iv) consider how communication effects can be altered depending on background characteristics and motivations of individuals; and (v) emphasize that the process of belief formation is not unidirectional but rather, feeds back on itself over time. We conclude by applying the Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs to the complex issue of beliefs about climate change. PMID:23940328

  1. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gläscher, Jan; Bossaerts, Peter; O’Doherty, John; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST) with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects’ behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects’ responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects. PMID:26495984

  2. A model of multi-agent consensus for vague and uncertain beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Crosscombe, Michael; Lawry, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Consensus formation is investigated for multi-agent systems in which agents’ beliefs are both vague and uncertain. Vagueness is represented by a third truth state meaning borderline. This is combined with a probabilistic model of uncertainty. A belief combination operator is then proposed, which exploits borderline truth values to enable agents with conflicting beliefs to reach a compromise. A number of simulation experiments are carried out, in which agents apply this operator in pairwise interactions, under the bounded confidence restriction that the two agents’ beliefs must be sufficiently consistent with each other before agreement can be reached. As well as studying the consensus operator in isolation, we also investigate scenarios in which agents are influenced either directly or indirectly by the state of the world. For the former, we conduct simulations that combine consensus formation with belief updating based on evidence. For the latter, we investigate the effect of assuming that the closer an agent’s beliefs are to the truth the more visible they are in the consensus building process. In all cases, applying the consensus operators results in the population converging to a single shared belief that is both crisp and certain. Furthermore, simulations that combine consensus formation with evidential updating converge more quickly to a shared opinion, which is closer to the actual state of the world than those in which beliefs are only changed as a result of directly receiving new evidence. Finally, if agent interactions are guided by belief quality measured as similarity to the true state of the world, then applying the consensus operator alone results in the population converging to a high-quality shared belief. PMID:27547020

  3. Belief systems and breast feeding among Filipino urban poor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, E L; Guthrie, G M

    1984-01-01

    Mothers living in squatter areas of a Philippine city were interviewed each month for a year beginning from 3 months prior to 3 months after delivery. Special attention was paid to beliefs and practices that influenced the continuation of lactation. During pregnancy women severely restricted their gain in weight, thereby limiting fat reserves for later milk production. Rituals were observed after delivery to assure adequate milk of good quality. Once established, lactation might be interrupted if the mother felt that her temperature was different from the baby's. These differences in temperature might come from warm or cold food or drinks, being caught in the rain or working in the sun. Breast feeding was often terminated if the baby developed diarrhea or if mother or child became ill. A program designed to support and encourage breast feeding must take indigenous belief systems into account. Mothers want to nurse their babies and they want to have an adequate supply of what they consider good milk. Their belief systems, beginning with weight gain during pregnancy, and including the need for rituals after delivery may curtail and/or delay early lactation. Subsequently, they may terminate breast feeding if the baby or mother have certain folk-defined illnesses. Women hold these beliefs and at the same time accept many of the beliefs and practices of modern medicine. Family and neighborhood pressures may prompt them to curtail or eliminate breast feeding when indigenous beliefs are invoked even though these beliefs are contrary to currently accepted medical opinions. We do not have satisfactory education and persuasion programs to deal with traditional beliefs and practices that we believe to be harmful.

  4. Belief system, meaningfulness, and psychopathology associated with suicidality among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0%) provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of integration as does

  5. A Measure of Systems Engineering Effectiveness in Government Acquisition of Complex Information Systems: A Bayesian Belief Network-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doskey, Steven Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research presents an innovative means of gauging Systems Engineering effectiveness through a Systems Engineering Relative Effectiveness Index (SE REI) model. The SE REI model uses a Bayesian Belief Network to map causal relationships in government acquisitions of Complex Information Systems (CIS), enabling practitioners to identify and…

  6. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake

    PubMed Central

    Echarte, Luis E.; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J. V.; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes – deep-seated beliefs – intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  7. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content…

  8. Modelling between Epistemological Beliefs and Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin-Dindar, Ayla; Kirbulut, Zübeyde Demet; Boz, Yezdan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' epistemological beliefs and their preference to use constructivist-learning environment in their future class. The sample was 125 pre-service chemistry teachers from five universities in Turkey. Two instruments were used in this study. One of the…

  9. Managing Dog Waste: Campaign Insights from the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Yan, Changmin

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to help municipalities develop effective education and outreach campaigns to reduce stormwater pollutants, such as pet waste, this study applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify perceptions of dog waste and corresponding collection behaviors from dog owners living in a small U.S. city. Results of 455 online survey responses…

  10. Determining Model Correctness for Situations of Belief Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Constraints (Soft’11), Perugia, Italy , 2011. [15] A. Jøsang and S. Pope , “Dempster’s Rule as Seen by Little Colored Balls,” Computational Intelligence, vol. 28...preferred statement. Different beliefs can be fused in various ways, each having an impact on how the specific situation in evidence fusion is modeled

  11. A Bayesian elicitation of veterinary beliefs regarding systemic dry cow therapy: Variation and importance for clinical trial design

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, H.M.; Dryden, I.L.; Green, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The two key aims of this research were: (i) to conduct a probabilistic elicitation to quantify the variation in veterinarians’ beliefs regarding the efficacy of systemic antibiotics when used as an adjunct to intra-mammary dry cow therapy and (ii) to investigate (in a Bayesian statistical framework) the strength of future research evidence required (in theory) to change the beliefs of practising veterinary surgeons regarding the efficacy of systemic antibiotics, given their current clinical beliefs. The beliefs of 24 veterinarians in 5 practices in England were quantified as probability density functions. Classic multidimensional scaling revealed major variations in beliefs both within and between veterinary practices which included: confident optimism, confident pessimism and considerable uncertainty. Of the 9 veterinarians interviewed holding further cattle qualifications, 6 shared a confidently pessimistic belief in the efficacy of systemic therapy and whilst 2 were more optimistic, they were also more uncertain. A Bayesian model based on a synthetic dataset from a randomised clinical trial (showing no benefit with systemic therapy) predicted how each of the 24 veterinarians’ prior beliefs would alter as the size of the clinical trial increased, assuming that practitioners would update their beliefs rationally in accordance with Bayes’ theorem. The study demonstrated the usefulness of probabilistic elicitation for evaluating the diversity and strength of practitioners’ beliefs. The major variation in beliefs observed raises interest in the veterinary profession's approach to prescribing essential medicines. Results illustrate the importance of eliciting prior beliefs when designing clinical trials in order to increase the chance that trial data are of sufficient strength to alter the clinical beliefs of practitioners and do not merely serve to satisfy researchers. PMID:22336321

  12. Towards a General-Purpose Belief Maintenance System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

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  13. What Are the Goals of Kindergarten? Teachers' Beliefs and Their Perceptions of the Beliefs of Parents and of Agents of the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sverdlov, Aviva; Aram, Dorit

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined the beliefs of kindergarten teachers (K-teachers) regarding the goals of kindergarten. We asked K-teachers to reflect on their own beliefs, their understanding of parents' beliefs, and their understanding of the beliefs that guide agents of the education system. We further examined differences between…

  14. Parents' Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Sara, Ed.; Super, Charles M., Ed.

    This volume presents observations and thinking of scholars from a variety of disciplines about parental cultural belief systems. The chapters are concerned with the sources and consequences of parental ethnotheories in a number of societies. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction" (Sara Harkness and Charles M. Super); (2)…

  15. Unreliable item or inconsistent person? A study of variation in health beliefs and belief-anchors to biomedical models.

    PubMed

    Ip, Edward H; Saldana, Santiago; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Kirk, Julienne K; Bell, Ronny A; Nguyen, Ha; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-08-01

    The reliability of an item designed to measure health belief is often confounded with response consistency at the person level. The study applied contemporary measurement methods to an inventory of common sense beliefs about diabetes and used a sample of N = 563 adults with diabetes to test the hypothesis that individuals whose beliefs are congruent with a biomedical model are more consistent in their responses. Item-level analysis revealed that the domains of Causes and Medical Management were the least reliable. Person-level analysis showed that respondents who held views congruent with the biomedical model were more consistent than people who did not.

  16. Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.; Butterfill, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans' capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years of age (H. Wellman, D. Cross, & J. Watson, 2001; H. Wimmer & J. Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false-belief tasks at 13 or 15…

  17. A beginner's guide to belief revision and truth maintenance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    This brief note is intended to familiarize the non-TMS audience with some of the basic ideas surrounding classic TMS's (truth maintenance systems), namely the justification-based TMS and the assumption-based TMS. Topics of further interest include the relation between non-monotonic logics and TMS's, efficiency and search issues, complexity concerns, as well as the variety of TMS systems that have surfaced in the past decade or so. These include probabilistic-based TMS systems, fuzzy TMS systems, tri-valued belief systems, and so on.

  18. Students' Mathematics-Related Belief Systems: Design and Analysis of a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Op't Eynde, Peter; De Corte, Erik

    A survey study was conducted to investigate the nature of students' mathematics-related belief systems. A mathematics-related beliefs questionnaire was developed and administered to 365 Flemish junior high school students to gather data to identify and analyze the different components of students' belief systems. The focus was on the structure of…

  19. Investigating Coherence among Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Teaching Belief Systems, Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcivan, Eralp; Cobern, William W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated comprehensive science teaching belief systems and their relation to science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practices. Rokeach's (1968) belief system was used as a framework for representing the hierarchy among in-service teachers' teaching beliefs. This study employed a multiple case study design with…

  20. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  1. The complexity of model checking for belief revision and update

    SciTech Connect

    Liberatore, P.; Schaerf, M.

    1996-12-31

    One of the main challenges in the formal modeling of common-sense reasoning is the ability to cope with the dynamic nature of the world. Among the approaches put forward to address this problem are belief revision and update. Given a knowledge base T, representing our knowledge of the {open_quotes}state of affairs{close_quotes} of the world of interest, it is possible that we are lead to trust another piece of information P, possibly inconsistent with the old one T. The aim of revision and update operators is to characterize the revised knowledge base T{prime} that incorporates the new formula P into the old one T while preserving consistency and, at the same time, avoiding the loss of too much information in this process. In this paper we study the computational complexity of one of the main computational problems of belief revision and update: deciding if an interpretation M is a model of the revised knowledge base.

  2. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  3. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  4. Psychometric Properties on Lecturers' Beliefs on Teaching Function: Rasch Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofreh, Samah Ali Mohsen; Ghafar, Mohammed Najib Abdul; Omar, Abdul Hafiz Hj; Mosaku, Monsurat; Ma'ruf, Amar

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the psychometric analysis of lecturers' beliefs on teaching function (LBTF) survey using Rasch Model analysis. The sample comprised 34 Community Colleges' lecturers. The Rasch Model is applied to produce specific measurements on the lecturers' beliefs on teaching function in order to generalize results and inferential…

  5. Modeling the Relationships among Students' Motivational Beliefs, Metacognitive Strategy Use, and Effort Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a path model was utilised to model the relationships among motivational beliefs, metacognitive strategy use, and effort regulation in science courses. There were 391 high-school students participating in the study. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to measure students' motivational beliefs, metacognitive…

  6. The importance of health belief models in determining self-care behaviour in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J N; Lawson, V L

    2009-01-01

    Patients' self-care behaviours have a major role in diabetes management. Diabetes education provides the required knowledge, but despite this, self-care is often suboptimal. The degree to which patients follow advice as regards the various self-care behaviours is determined by their health beliefs (Illness Representations or Personal Models) of diabetes. Psychometric studies have tried to categorize and measure the beliefs about illness that influence patients to adhere to treatment recommendations in diabetes. Various models have been proposed to explain the relationship between beliefs and behaviour. Leventhal's Self-Regulatory Model, which takes account of the emotional as well as the objective rational response to illness, currently seems to offer the best system for identifying the determinants of patient self-care behaviour. A review of interventions indicates those based on psychological theory offer professionals the best chance of maximizing their patients' contribution to diabetes self-management and achieving improved outcomes, both glycaemic and psychosocial. Studies designed specifically to modify illness representations are now being undertaken. This brief review aims to summarize developments in this area of psychological theory over the last 20 years and the implications for promoting better self-care behaviour in diabetes.

  7. Modeling Teacher Beliefs and Practices in Context: A Multimethods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishino, Takako

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among Japanese high school teachers' beliefs, their practices, and socioeducational factors regarding communicative language teaching (CLT). A multimethods approach was used consisting of a survey, interviews, and class observations. A Teacher Beliefs Questionnaire was sent to 188 randomly selected Japanese…

  8. Adherence to standard precautions from the standpoint of the Health Belief Model: the practice of recapping needles.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ronald Jefferson; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Gonçalves, Patrick Raphael Vicente; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the Health Belief Model to explain the adherence to the recommendation not to recap needles by dentists and dental assistants of the public health system in a municipality in the State of São Paulo. A questionnaire validated and adapted for the oral health area was used, which included variables related to the frequency of recapping and health beliefs using Likert-type scales. The relationship between beliefs and adherence to the recommendation not to recap needles was obtained by regression analysis. Of all the professionals in this study (n=79), the majority (83.5%) reported recapping needles at least once in the last month. Through regression analysis, it was observed that the relationship between the beliefs described by the model and the attitude whether or not to follow the recommendation not to recap needles was explained by a lower perception of psychological barriers and a greater perception of stimuli not to recap needles. The conclusion reached is that the acceptance of recommendations to prevent working accidents with biological material was explained by some dimensions of the Health Belief Model, enabling discussion about reformulation of training offered to professionals of the public health system.

  9. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  10. Modeling the Relations among Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, Learning Approach, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilgunes, Berna; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed a model to explain how epistemological beliefs, achievement motivation, and learning approach related to achievement. The authors assumed that epistemological beliefs influence achievement indirectly through their effect on achievement motivation and learning approach. Participants were 1,041 6th-grade students. Results of the…

  11. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  12. Trans-species learning of cellular signaling systems with bimodal deep belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lujia; Cai, Chunhui; Chen, Vicky; Lu, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Model organisms play critical roles in biomedical research of human diseases and drug development. An imperative task is to translate information/knowledge acquired from model organisms to humans. In this study, we address a trans-species learning problem: predicting human cell responses to diverse stimuli, based on the responses of rat cells treated with the same stimuli. Results: We hypothesized that rat and human cells share a common signal-encoding mechanism but employ different proteins to transmit signals, and we developed a bimodal deep belief network and a semi-restricted bimodal deep belief network to represent the common encoding mechanism and perform trans-species learning. These ‘deep learning’ models include hierarchically organized latent variables capable of capturing the statistical structures in the observed proteomic data in a distributed fashion. The results show that the models significantly outperform two current state-of-the-art classification algorithms. Our study demonstrated the potential of using deep hierarchical models to simulate cellular signaling systems. Availability and implementation: The software is available at the following URL: http://pubreview.dbmi.pitt.edu/TransSpeciesDeepLearning/. The data are available through SBV IMPROVER website, https://www.sbvimprover.com/challenge-2/overview, upon publication of the report by the organizers. Contact: xinghua@pitt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25995230

  13. The Health Belief Model: Can It Help Us to Understand Contraceptive Use among Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Edward S.

    1983-01-01

    Major concepts of the Health Belief Model, perceived susceptibility and perceived severity, can be applied to family planning, including the use or non-use of contraception among sexually active adolescent females. (Author/CJ)

  14. Literacy Lessons and Preservice Teachers: Belief Systems, Reflective Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine preservice teacher's knowledge bases and beliefs about literacy and the impact of their personal reading experiences on literacy instruction. Methodology: This study utilized mixed methodology. This included survey data and open coding. Data were collected using a survey, an annotated DRTA lesson…

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Belief Systems in Liberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…

  16. Race-based medical mistrust, medication beliefs and HIV treatment adherence: test of a mediation model in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tama; Merely, Cynthia; Welles, Brandi

    2016-12-01

    Race-based medical mistrust significantly predicts non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people living with HIV. The current study builds on previous research that shows beliefs about medication necessity (i.e., "My medicines protect me from becoming worse") and concerns (i.e., "Having to take my medicines worries me") mediate the association between race-based medical mistrust and medication adherence. Racial and ethnic minority men and women living with HIV and receiving ART (N = 178) in a southern US city completed computerized measures of demographic and health characteristics, telephone interviews of race-based medical mistrust and medication beliefs, and unannounced phone-based pill counts for ART adherence. Multiple mediation modeling showed that medical mistrust is related to medication necessity and concerns beliefs and ART adherence. Furthermore, medication necessity beliefs predicted ART adherence. The indirect effect of medical mistrust on adherence through medication necessity beliefs was also significant. Results confirm that medication necessity beliefs, although not concerns beliefs, mediate the association between medical mistrust and ART adherence. Medication necessity beliefs offer a viable target for interventions to improve ART adherence in the context of mistrust that patients may have for medical providers and health care systems.

  17. Remarriage Beliefs as Predictors of Marital Quality and Positive Interaction in Stepcouples: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Higginbotham, Brian; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined remarriage beliefs as predictors of marital quality and positive interaction in a sample of 179 stepcouples. Three beliefs were measured using subscales from the Remarriage Belief Inventory (RMBI) including success is slim, children are the priority, and finances should be pooled. Several significant actor and partner effects were found for both wives' and husbands' beliefs. Wives' marital quality was positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Wives' reports of their own and spouses' positive interaction were both positively associated with their beliefs that finances should be pooled. Their reports of spouses' positive interaction were also negatively associated with husbands' beliefs that success is slim. Husbands' marital quality was positively associated with wives' beliefs that children are the priority, positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled, and negatively with success is slim. Positive interaction for husbands was positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Finally, husbands' reports of positive interaction for their spouses were positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled. Implications for future research utilizing dyadic data analysis with stepcouples are addressed.

  18. An evaluation of high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Ilika, F; Jamshidimanesh, M; Hoseini, M; Saffari, M; Peyravi, H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Because of the physiological nature of the female reproductive system, women are susceptible to infectious diseases, especially STD and AIDS. Addiction and high-risk behaviors also grow danger of these diseases. The reason of this paper was to examine high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on the Health Belief Model. Methods. Participants of this study were 106 female drug users aged 18 years and older; by the undermost level of literacy skills and been involved in sexual relationships. They came to Drop-In-Centers (DIC) in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data study was controlled by using a logistic reflux investigation and Pearson correlation analysis. Results. The conclusion showed that women's overall awareness was moderate. There were a considerable relationship among awareness and years old (p=0.006), awareness and education (p> 0.0001), and awareness and conjugal situation (p=0.062). Perceived sensitivity and severity were clearly compared by education level (p=0.007) and (p=0.014), respectively. Mean scores of perceived benefits and perceived severity of high-risk behaviors were estimated to be superior to other components. Conclusion. Awareness and perceived susceptibility must be raised regarding the educational schedule, which is according to the health belief model in the addiction field, to reduce perceived barriers to risky behavior prevention of women who use drugs.

  19. Health belief structural equation model predicting sleep behavior of employed college students.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sleep comprising 7 to 8 hours per day is vital for health and effective functioning for all adults. The purpose of this study was to specify a health belief model to measure and predict the sleep behavior of employed college students. A 52-item instrument was developed with acceptable validity and reliability. A cross-sectional, convenience sample of 188 students was recruited for this study. Structural equation modeling was used to build models. The health belief model explained 34% of the variance in sleep behavior, with perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy identified as significant predictors.

  20. Mathematical Modelling in the International Baccalaureate, Teacher Beliefs and Technology Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the introduction of mathematical modeling into the mathematics assessment program of the International Baccalaureate Diploma. Considers structured and open modeling in the pre-university mathematics program. Discusses influences of the use of hand-held technology on mathematical modeling and teacher and assessor beliefs about modeling…

  1. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors. PMID:24688927

  2. The influence of mapped hazards on risk beliefs: a proximity-based modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J; Burt, James E

    2012-02-01

    Interview findings suggest perceived proximity to mapped hazards influences risk beliefs when people view environmental hazard maps. For dot maps, four attributes of mapped hazards influenced beliefs: hazard value, proximity, prevalence, and dot patterns. In order to quantify the collective influence of these attributes for viewers' perceived or actual map locations, we present a model to estimate proximity-based hazard or risk (PBH) and share study results that indicate how modeled PBH and map attributes influenced risk beliefs. The randomized survey study among 447 university students assessed risk beliefs for 24 dot maps that systematically varied by the four attributes. Maps depicted water test results for a fictitious hazardous substance in private residential wells and included a designated "you live here" location. Of the nine variables that assessed risk beliefs, the numerical susceptibility variable was most consistently and strongly related to map attributes and PBH. Hazard value, location in or out of a clustered dot pattern, and distance had the largest effects on susceptibility. Sometimes, hazard value interacted with other attributes, for example, distance had stronger effects on susceptibility for larger than smaller hazard values. For all combined maps, PBH explained about the same amount of variance in susceptibility as did attributes. Modeled PBH may have utility for studying the influence of proximity to mapped hazards on risk beliefs, protective behavior, and other dependent variables. Further work is needed to examine these influences for more realistic maps and representative study samples.

  3. The effectiveness of education using the health belief model in preventing osteoporosis among female students.

    PubMed

    Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati

    2014-01-09

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P < 0.05). The mean scores of some Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P < 0.05). Also post-intervention, physical activity increased (P = 0.041) but calcium intake did not. The use of an educational intervention on osteoporosis seems to improve knowledge and health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.

  4. The Effect of Teacher Beliefs on Student Competence in Mathematical Modeling--An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, Christoph; Maaß, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intervention study whose aim was to promote teacher beliefs about mathematics and learning mathematics and student competences in mathematical modeling. In the intervention, teachers received written curriculum materials about mathematical modeling. The concept underlying the materials was based on constructivist ideas and…

  5. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  6. Belief in school meritocracy as a system-justifying tool for low status students.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Bonnot, Virginie; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia; Darnon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    The belief that, in school, success only depends on will and hard work is widespread in Western societies despite evidence showing that several factors other than merit explain school success, including group belonging (e.g., social class, gender). In the present paper, we argue that because merit is the only track for low status students to reach upward mobility, Belief in School Meritocracy (BSM) is a particularly useful system-justifying tool to help them perceive their place in society as being deserved. Consequently, for low status students (but not high status students), this belief should be related to more general system-justifying beliefs (Study 1). Moreover, low status students should be particularly prone to endorsing this belief when their place within a system on which they strongly depend to acquire status is challenged (Study 2). In Study 1, high status (boys and high SES) were compared to low status (girls and low SES) high school students. Results indicated that BSM was related to system-justifying beliefs only for low SES students and for girls, but not for high SES students or for boys. In Study 2, university students were exposed (or not) to information about an important selection process that occurs at the university, depending on the condition. Their subjective status was assessed. Although such a confrontation reduced BSM for high subjective SES students, it tended to enhance it for low subjective SES students. Results are discussed in terms of system justification motives and the palliative function meritocratic ideology may play for low status students.

  7. Belief in school meritocracy as a system-justifying tool for low status students

    PubMed Central

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Bonnot, Virginie; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia; Darnon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    The belief that, in school, success only depends on will and hard work is widespread in Western societies despite evidence showing that several factors other than merit explain school success, including group belonging (e.g., social class, gender). In the present paper, we argue that because merit is the only track for low status students to reach upward mobility, Belief in School Meritocracy (BSM) is a particularly useful system-justifying tool to help them perceive their place in society as being deserved. Consequently, for low status students (but not high status students), this belief should be related to more general system-justifying beliefs (Study 1). Moreover, low status students should be particularly prone to endorsing this belief when their place within a system on which they strongly depend to acquire status is challenged (Study 2). In Study 1, high status (boys and high SES) were compared to low status (girls and low SES) high school students. Results indicated that BSM was related to system-justifying beliefs only for low SES students and for girls, but not for high SES students or for boys. In Study 2, university students were exposed (or not) to information about an important selection process that occurs at the university, depending on the condition. Their subjective status was assessed. Although such a confrontation reduced BSM for high subjective SES students, it tended to enhance it for low subjective SES students. Results are discussed in terms of system justification motives and the palliative function meritocratic ideology may play for low status students. PMID:26283991

  8. Charting the Eccles' expectancy-value model from mothers' beliefs in childhood to youths' activities in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-07-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This investigation focused on testing this model with mothers in sports, music, math, and reading over a 12-year period. Data were drawn from mother, youth, and teacher questionnaires collected as part of Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723). Mothers' beliefs in sports, music, and math positively predicted their behaviors in these areas 1 year later, which predicted youths' self-concepts of ability and values (i.e., their motivational beliefs) in these domains 1 year later. Adolescents' motivational beliefs predicted time spent in organized sport activities, playing music, and reading after school measured 4 years later as well as the number of math courses taken in high school. Furthermore, except in reading, mothers' behaviors mediated the relations between mothers' and youths' beliefs, and youths' beliefs mediated the relations between mothers' behaviors and youths' behaviors. Although there were mean-level differences in several indicators based on child gender, in most cases the relations among these indicators did not significantly vary by child gender. This study highlights the processes by which mothers' beliefs during their children's childhood can predict children's activities in adolescence.

  9. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  10. Moderating and mediating roles of nurses' beliefs: information systems use among Ohio nurses.

    PubMed

    Abdrbo, Amany A; Hudak, Christine A; Anthony, Mary K; Douglas, Sara L

    2009-02-01

    Health care is rapidly increasing the types of information systems (IS) that are used to manage patient care. The extent to which nurses move to a paperless system will be contingent on their beliefs about IS. The study explores the moderating and mediating effects of nurses' beliefs about IS use on the relationship between IS use and perceived benefits and satisfaction. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design is used, and a random sample of 201 staff nurses working in hospitals was surveyed via a mail questionnaire. Nurses' beliefs have mediating effects on the relationship between nurses' IS use and their perceptions of IS benefits and satisfaction. The results can guide nurse administrators to improve nurses' perceptions about IS by using such methods as providing a training program to increase nurses' computer self-efficacy. Enhancing nurses' use of IS and their perceptions of IS benefits can ultimately improve patient safety and outcomes.

  11. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs. PMID:23766578

  12. Using hypnosis to model Fregoli delusion and the impact of challenges on belief revision.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jocelyn M; Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2016-11-01

    Fregoli delusion involves the belief that strangers are known people in disguise. We aimed to model aspects of this delusion for the first time using hypnosis. We informed hypnotised subjects that someone would enter the room (a confederate) and they would believe this person was someone they knew in disguise. After testing their reaction to the confederate, we challenged their delusion by directly contradicting their belief and then asking them to focus on the confederate's voice and gait. Finally, we indexed whether they could identify photographs of the confederate. We found that just over half of our high hypnotisable subjects identified the confederate as someone they knew in disguise. Although many highs abandoned their belief in response to challenges, some maintained strong, unwavering conviction that the confederate was a known person. We discuss these findings in terms of how evidence might be evaluated during both hypnotic and clinical delusions.

  13. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  14. Intensive Care Nurses’ Belief Systems Regarding the Health Economics: A Focused Ethnography

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses’ beliefs and their effect on nurse’s: practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. Methods: In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Findings: Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse’s practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2. Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3. There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4. Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5. Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6. The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8. Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. Conclusions: ICU nurses’ belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the

  15. Using Bayesian Belief Networks to model volcanic hazards interaction: an application for rain-triggered lahars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierz, Pablo; Odbert, Henry; Phillips, Jeremy; Woodhouse, Mark; Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Marzocchi, Warner

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of volcanic hazards is a challenging task for modern volcanology. Assessing the large uncertainties involved in the hazard analysis requires the combination of volcanological data, physical and statistical models. This is a complex procedure even when taking into account only one type of volcanic hazard. However, volcanic systems are known to be multi-hazard environments where several hazardous phenomena (tephra fallout, Pyroclastic Density Currents -PDCs-, lahars, etc.) may occur whether simultaneous or sequentially. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) are a flexible and powerful way of modelling uncertainty. They are statistical models that can merge information coming from data, physical models, other statistical models or expert knowledge into a unified probabilistic assessment. Therefore, they can be applied to model the interaction between different volcanic hazards in an efficient manner. In this work, we design and preliminarily parametrize a BBN with the aim of forecasting the occurrence and volume of rain-triggered lahars when considering: (1) input of pyroclastic material, in the form of tephra fallout and PDCs, over the catchments around the volcano; (2) remobilization of this material by antecedent lahar events. Input of fresh pyroclastic material can be modelled through a combination of physical models (e.g. advection-diffusion models for tephra fallout such as HAZMAP and shallow-layer continuum models for PDCs such as Titan2D) and uncertainty quantification techniques, while the remobilization efficiency can be constrained from datasets of lahar observations at different volcanoes. The applications of this kind of probabilistic multi-hazard approach can range from real-time forecasting of lahar activity to calibration of physical or statistical models (e.g. emulators) for long-term volcanic hazard assessment.

  16. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  17. Toward a Reconceptualization of Communication Cues to Action in the Health Belief Model: HIV Test Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Marifran

    1999-01-01

    Examines the persuasive communication of HIV test counselors as cues to action in clients' decisions to practice safer sex. Indicates hypothesized relationships inherent in the Health Belief Model were not supported for the pre-HIV test survey, but the post-HIV test survey reported compliance with safer-sex recommendations. Finds use of certain…

  18. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  19. The Health Belief Model and the Contraceptive Behavior of College Women: Implications for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Nanci Robertson; Macrina, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study was formulated to examine the contraceptive behavior of college women and to elucidate distinctions between contraceptive users and nonusers. A survey instrument, conceptually and theoretically based in the Health Belief Model, was designed to elicit self-reports of contraceptive behavior. Findings and implications for health education…

  20. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  1. Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Bystander Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…

  2. The Health Belief Model, Sexual Behaviors, and HIV Risk among Taiwanese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Peter; Simoni, Jane M.; Zemon, Vance

    2005-01-01

    In this first investigation of Taiwanese sexual behaviors in the United States, 144 Taiwanese students completed an online anonymous survey. Demographics, health belief model (HBM) constructs, and acculturation were examined as predictors of sexual behaviors over the last year. Analyses indicated that participants who reported a higher number of…

  3. Osteoporosis Prevention in College Women: Application of the Expanded Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2002-01-01

    Examined personal characteristics and expanded health belief model (EHBM) constructs associated with osteoporosis- protective behaviors among college women. Survey results indicated that the EHBM was useful in evaluating osteoporosis- protective behavior. High numbers of women did not meet current exercise and calcium guidelines. Exercise…

  4. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  5. The Placement of Moral Contents: Priorities and Structures of the Belief System of Teachers and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovaty, Nava

    2003-01-01

    Compared the placement of moral contents in the belief systems of students and teachers in Israel and compared the structures of the belief systems with those outlined by S. Schwartz (1992). Findings for samples of 92 high school teachers, 489 elementary school teachers, 357 high school teachers, and 300 adolescents (Israeli-born and…

  6. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with…

  7. The Relationship between Prospective Teachers' Belief Systems and Writing-to-Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Kingir, Sevgi; Çepni, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' belief systems and writing-to-learn. The participants comprised eight freshmen from the Department of Elementary Science Education at a public university in Turkey. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews.The results indicated that…

  8. Approach to Mathematical Problem Solving and Students' Belief Systems: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callejo, Maria Luz; Vila, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study reported here is to gain a better understanding of the role of belief systems in the approach phase to mathematical problem solving. Two students of high academic performance were selected based on a previous exploratory study of 61 students 12-13 years old. In this study we identified different types of approaches to…

  9. The Environmental Belief Systems of Organic and Conventional Farmers: Evidence from Central-Southern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kings, David; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Little comparative work has been conducted on the environmental belief systems and behaviours of conventional and organic farmers, especially in relation to farming culture, the environment and lowland farmland avifauna. Adopting a modified behavioural approach, this paper analyses the ways in which the environmental attitudes and understandings…

  10. The Effect of High-Stakes Examination Systems on Teacher Beliefs: Egyptian Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebril, Atta; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2014-01-01

    Egypt is currently attempting to introduce a greater formative use of assessment while maintaining a public examination system. This study investigates teacher beliefs about the purposes of assessment in Egypt, using the Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment (TCoA) inventory. The TCoA inventory elicits responses about four main factors: Improvement,…

  11. A Multiple Case Study of Preservice Science Teachers' TPACK: Embedded in a Comprehensive Belief System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günes, Erhan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2016-01-01

    Integrating technology into science education provides opportunities to foster students' meaningful learning. This study focused on technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and its connections to belief system in a science teaching context. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of preservice science teachers' (PST)…

  12. Belief in the "free choice" model of homosexuality: a correlate of homophobia in registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    A great amount of social science research has supported the positive correlation between heterosexuals' belief in the free choice model of homosexuality and homophobia. Heterosexuals who believe gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) persons consciously choose their sexual orientation and practice a lifestyle conducive to that choice are much more likely to possess discriminatory, homophobic, homonegative, and heterosexist beliefs. In addition, these individuals are less likely to support gay rights initiatives such as nondiscrimination policies or same-sex partner benefits in the workplace or hate crime enhancement legislation inclusive of GLBT persons. Although researchers have demonstrated this phenomenon in the general population, none have specifically assessed it in the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine registered nurses' overall levels of homophobia and attitudes toward a workplace policy protective of gays and lesbians. These variables were then correlated with belief in the free choice model of homosexuality. Results indicated that belief in the free choice model of homosexuality was the strongest predictor of homophobia in nurses. Implications for nursing leadership and management, nursing education, and future research are discussed.

  13. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    influence classroom climate instruction. In order to assist this educator group, CLiPSE has aligned a sub-set of the Climate and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) education resources to 11 SEUS state standards in order to better enable educators to implement climate topics in their classrooms. As a potential method to address the unique belief systems in the SEUS, CLiPSE has determined that the best way to engage individuals in the SEUS on the topic of climate change is to invite them into an honest dialogue surrounding climate. To facilitate these conversations effectively, CLiPSE utilizes a dialogical community model that values diversity, encourages respect for one another, recognizes and articulates viewpoints, and prioritizes understanding over resolution. CLiPSE emphasizes people's values and beliefs as they relate to climate change information. Results from pilot studies indicate that this is a promising method to bring together diverse individuals on the climate change topic and initiate the conversation about this very important issue that can often be considered "taboo" in the SEUS.

  14. Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Koenig, Harold G; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews aspects of the literature on neuroscience, psychiatry, and cognitive and evolutionary psychology to illustrate how primitive brain mechanisms that evolved to assess environmental threats underlie psychiatric disorders, and how beliefs can affect psychiatric symptoms through these brain systems. Psychiatric theories are discussed that (a) link psychiatric disorders to threat assessment and (b) explain how the normal functioning of threat assessment systems can become pathological. Three brain structures that are consistently implicated in psychiatric symptomology also are involved in threat assessment and self-defense: the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and parts of the so-called limbic system. We propose that as these structures evolved over time they formed what we refer to as evolutionary threat assessment systems, which detect and assess potential threats of harm. Drawing on various psychological and psychiatric theories we propose how beliefs about the world can moderate psychiatric symptoms through their influence on evolutionary threat assessment systems.

  15. The GBN-dialogue model of outgroup-negative rumor transmission: group membership, belief, and novelty.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bernard P; DiFonzo, Nicholas; Ross, David S

    2013-04-01

    A two-step agent-based mathematical model of negative rumor spread in the context of conflicting groups is presented. The GBN-Dialogue model builds on rumor theory, focuses on person-to-person interaction characteristics,and is dynamical. The model first estimates the probability of rumor transmission between two persons based on their transmission motivation (which is a function of their Group (G) memberships), the strengths of their belief (B) in the rumor, and the Novelty (N) of the rumor for each person. Psychological and sociological research informs this Transmission Probability Function. In the second step, belief levels and rumor novelty of each participant change as a result of rumor transmission and time; literature on attitude change guides these updating functions. Empirical support is presented by comparing rumor transmission literature with results of Monte Carlo simulations on different network topologies. The validity of the model's assumptions is addressed by comparison with simpler and more complex alternatives.

  16. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  17. The Beliefs about Paranoia Scale: Confirmatory factor analysis and tests of a metacognitive model of paranoia in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elizabeth K; Tully, Sarah; Pyle, Melissa; Gumley, Andrew I; Kingdon, David; Schwannauer, Matthias; Turkington, Douglas; Morrison, Anthony P

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to confirm the factor structure of the Beliefs about Paranoia Scale (BaPS), a self-report measure to assess metacognitive beliefs about paranoia, and to test hypotheses of a metacognitive model. We hypothesised that positive and negative beliefs about paranoia would be associated with severity of suspiciousness, and that the co-occurrence of positive and negative beliefs would be associated with increased suspiciousness. A total of 335 patients meeting criteria for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed the BaPS, the Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale (PANSS), and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS). Confirmatory factor analysis verified that the three BaPS subscales (negative beliefs about paranoia, paranoia as a survival strategy, and normalizing beliefs) were an adequate fit of the data. Ordinal regression showed that positive beliefs about paranoia as a survival strategy and negative beliefs were both associated with severity of suspiciousness. This was the first study to show that the co-occurrence of positive and negative beliefs was associated with increased suspiciousness. All hypotheses were confirmed, suggesting that a metacognitive approach has utility for the conceptualization of paranoia. Clinical implications suggest a role for metacognitive therapy, including strategies such as detached mindfulness and worry postponement.

  18. Enhancing Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs about Models and Conceptual Understanding through a Model-Based Inquiry Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulios, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present the structure and implementation of a model-based inquiry teaching-learning sequence (TLS) integrating expressive, experimental and exploratory modelling pedagogies in a cyclic manner, with the aim of enhancing primary education student teachers' epistemological beliefs about the aspects, nature, purpose and change of…

  19. Cognitive Network Modeling as a Basis for Characterizing Human Communication Dynamics and Belief Contagion in Technology Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, Clayton; Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Societal level macro models of social behavior do not sufficiently capture nuances needed to adequately represent the dynamics of person-to-person interactions. Likewise, individual agent level micro models have limited scalability - even minute parameter changes can drastically affect a model's response characteristics. This work presents an approach that uses agent-based modeling to represent detailed intra- and inter-personal interactions, as well as a system dynamics model to integrate societal-level influences via reciprocating functions. A Cognitive Network Model (CNM) is proposed as a method of quantitatively characterizing cognitive mechanisms at the intra-individual level. To capture the rich dynamics of interpersonal communication for the propagation of beliefs and attitudes, a Socio-Cognitive Network Model (SCNM) is presented. The SCNM uses socio-cognitive tie strength to regulate how agents influence--and are influenced by--one another's beliefs during social interactions. We then present experimental results which support the use of this network analytical approach, and we discuss its applicability towards characterizing and understanding human information processing.

  20. Physical Activity in People With Mental Illness in Hong Kong: Application of the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Mo P, K H; Chong, Eddie S; Mak, Winnie W; Wong, Samuel Y; Lau, Joseph T

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is associated with various health benefits for people with mental illness (PMI). Very few studies to date have examined the factors associated with physical activity among PMI in the Chinese context. The present study examined the factors related to physical activity using the health belief model and the association between physical activity and perceived health among 443 PMI in Hong Kong using stratified sampling. Results from the structural equation modeling showed that among all the factors of the health belief model, self-efficacy was significantly related to higher levels of physical activity, and perceived barriers were significantly related to lower levels of physical activity. In addition, physical activity was significantly related to better perceived health and fewer health needs. Interventions to promote physical activity among PMI should aim to increase their self-efficacy in initiating and adhering to physical activity and to remove barriers to physical activity.

  1. Enhancing student teachers' epistemological beliefs about models and conceptual understanding through a model-based inquiry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulios, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    In this study we present the structure and implementation of a model-based inquiry teaching-learning sequence (TLS) integrating expressive, experimental and exploratory modelling pedagogies in a cyclic manner, with the aim of enhancing primary education student teachers' epistemological beliefs about the aspects, nature, purpose and change of models as well as their conceptual understanding of light phenomena related to properties of optical fibres. The subjects were 16 prospective primary teachers involved in modelling activities, employing both hands-on experiments and computer modelling activities, based on the application of the ray model. Student teachers were tested before and after the implementation of the TLS by semi-structured interviews and a written questionnaire. Results show that before the TLS most students adopted epistemologically naïve realistic beliefs about models, whereas after the TLS there was an overall significant transition from naïve to more sophisticated epistemological beliefs, as well as significant improvements in their conceptual knowledge about light phenomena. Nevertheless, the relation between epistemological beliefs and conceptual understanding seems to be aspect-dependent, so our evidence suggests that more educational effort is required in order to establish a coherent relationship between them.

  2. The role of belief systems in shaping nuclear weapons policy preference and thinking in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Krasno, J.E.C.

    1994-12-31

    This study examines motivations behind the decisions of national leaders to pursue or not to pursue the development of nuclear weapons. The research, which builds upon work done in the field of Political Psychology, was conducted in Brazil and focuses on the role that belief systems play in shaping policy preferences and thinking by members of the Brazilian elite on nuclear issues. The data were gathered in Brazil through in-depth interviews and a questionnaire administered to members of the Brazilian elite who be- long to groups which have input in forming policy. Proliferation studies, generally, have concentrated on the acquisition of nuclear technology and have rarely studied motivations which contribute to the demand for these weapons. Research on beliefs and policy formation suggests that beliefs and values should be expected to play a role in shaping nuclear policy. The results show that beliefs about status, power, competition, and moral considerations do correlate very significantly with policy thinking on nuclear issues and therefore sustain the hypothesis of this study. However, the findings on worldview do not significantly correlate with nuclear policy thinking and therefore do not sustain the prevailing hypothesis on that relationship.

  3. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B-B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  4. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  5. Beliefs Held by Associate Degree Nursing Students about Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellinger, Kathleen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a study of the professional socialization of associate degree nursing (ADN) students. Reviews previous research on the process of nursing socialization. Presents study findings based on responses from 1,877 nursing students in 20 ADN programs, focusing on students' characteristics and ideal and actual role models. (DMM)

  6. Transmitting delusional beliefs in a hypnotic model of folie à deux.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Luke P; Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2013-12-01

    Folie à deux is the transference of delusional ideas from one 'primary' individual to one or more 'secondary' individuals (Lasègue & Falret, 1877). However, it is difficult to investigate experimentally because often only one patient is identified as delusional. We investigated whether hypnosis could model the experiences of the secondary in this delusion. Our primary was a confederate, who displayed two delusional beliefs and attempted to transmit them to hypnotised subjects. We manipulated the status of the confederate so that they were portrayed as either "credible" or merely "interesting".Many high hypnotisable individuals adopted the confederate's beliefs and confabulated evidence in support of them.Also, subjects who interacted with a credible confederate extended their delusions beyond those displayed by the confederate. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach and suggest ways to improve the validity of this model.

  7. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Nanna I.; Binning, Philip J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L.; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  8. Belief, emotion, and health: toward an integrative account. Commentary on John Cromby's 'beyond belief'.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Louise

    2012-10-01

    This commentary identifies in Cromby's formulation of belief the potentials for developing three innovative approaches to belief systems: emotion as meaning, cognition as dialogue, and an aesthetic model of meaning making based on Susanne Langer's integrative approach to feeling and form. It is argued that the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce can help to weave these threads into an integrative theory to shed some light on the connection between belief, emotion, and health.

  9. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  10. Science Faculty Belief Systems in a Professional Development Program: Inquiry in College Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Kristen L.; Friedrichsen, Patricia J.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how science faculty members' belief systems about inquiry-based teaching changed through their experience in a professional development program. The program was designed to support early career science faculty in learning about inquiry and incorporating an inquiry-based approach to teaching laboratories. Data sources for this qualitative study included three semi-structured interviews, observations during the program and during faculty members' implementation in their courses, and a researcher's journal. In the first phase of data analysis, we created profiles for each of the four participants. Next, we developed assertions, and tested for confirming and disconfirming evidence across the profiles. The assertions indicated that, through the professional development program, participants' knowledge and beliefs about inquiry-based teaching shifted, placing more value on student-directed learning and classroom inquiry. Participants who were internally motivated to participate and held incoming positive attitudes toward the mini-journal inquiry-based approach were more likely to incorporate the approach in their future practice. Students' responses played a critical role in participants' belief systems and their decision to continue using the inquiry-based format. The findings from this study have implications for professional development design.

  11. Why do beliefs about intelligence influence learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience model.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Jennifer A; Butterfield, Brady; Lamb, Justin; Good, Catherine; Dweck, Carol S

    2006-09-01

    Students' beliefs and goals can powerfully influence their learning success. Those who believe intelligence is a fixed entity (entity theorists) tend to emphasize 'performance goals,' leaving them vulnerable to negative feedback and likely to disengage from challenging learning opportunities. In contrast, students who believe intelligence is malleable (incremental theorists) tend to emphasize 'learning goals' and rebound better from occasional failures. Guided by cognitive neuroscience models of top-down, goal-directed behavior, we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to understand how these beliefs influence attention to information associated with successful error correction. Focusing on waveforms associated with conflict detection and error correction in a test of general knowledge, we found evidence indicating that entity theorists oriented differently toward negative performance feedback, as indicated by an enhanced anterior frontal P3 that was also positively correlated with concerns about proving ability relative to others. Yet, following negative feedback, entity theorists demonstrated less sustained memory-related activity (left temporal negativity) to corrective information, suggesting reduced effortful conceptual encoding of this material-a strategic approach that may have contributed to their reduced error correction on a subsequent surprise retest. These results suggest that beliefs can influence learning success through top-down biasing of attention and conceptual processing toward goal-congruent information.

  12. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  13. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    PubMed

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  14. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Khoramabadi, M.; Dolatian, M.; Hajian, S.; Zamanian, M.; Taheripanah, R.; Sheikhan, Z.; Mahmoodi, Z.; Seyedi-Moghadam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers and children are the most vulnerable members of every society. As a result many deaths occur in these two groups, so caring for these two groups is very important. Today, it is believed that the health of an infant is related to the health of their mother. Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, and optimal weight gain during pregnancy by appropriate and sufficient nutrition, are two effective measures for the prevention of low birth weight.To provide successful health interventions, it is essential to design and implement effective health education programs. Successful education also depends on the proper use of theories and models in health education. The Health Belief Model is a model that illustrates the relationship between beliefs and health, and it is based on the hypothesis that preventive health behavior consists of personal beliefs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of training on the Health Belief Model on dietary behaviors of a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial, involving 130 pregnant women who attended two health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire in three parts and seven sub-scales (including demographic characteristics, knowledge and dietary behaviors) based on the Health Belief Model. Principles of education were based on the Health Belief Model and performed twice during two-hour sessions in the intervention group. Women in the control group received routine care and did not receive training on the above model. In order to evaluate the intervention, the previously mentioned questionnaire was administered one month after completion of the intervention, and filled by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and reported with diagrams and tables. Results: The mean score for each variable before the intervention, except for the

  15. Children's Beliefs about the Human Circulatory System: An Aid for Teachers Regarding the Role Intuitive Beliefs Play in the Development of Formal Concepts in 7-14-Year Olds. Report No. 82:16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catherall, Robin W.

    This exploratory study was aimed at uncovering children's beliefs and ideas about the human circulatory system. Thirty-two subjects, aged 7 to 14 years, were interviewed using a modification of Piaget's clinical method. The data were analyzed by developing a conceptual inventory of beliefs for each of five research questions. It was found that the…

  16. Using the Mixed Rasch Model to analyze data from the beliefs and attitudes about memory survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, Everett V; Ying, Yuping; Brown, Scott W

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Mixed Rasch Model (MRM) to analyze data from the Beliefs and Attitudes About Memory Survey (BAMS; Brown, Garry, Silver, and Loftus, 1997). We used the original 5-point BAMS data to investigate the functioning of the "Neutral" category via threshold analysis under a 2-class MRM solution. The "Neutral" category was identified as not eliciting the model expected responses and observations in the "Neutral" category were subsequently treated as missing data. For the BAMS data without the "Neutral" category, exploratory MRM analyses specifying up to 5 latent classes were conducted to evaluate data-model fit using the consistent Akaike information criterion (CAIC). For each of three BAMS subscales, a two latent class solution was identified as fitting the mixed Rasch rating scale model the best. Results regarding threshold analysis, person parameters, and item fit based on the final models are presented and discussed as well as the implications of this study.

  17. Predicting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women in Guyana: Utility of the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Vitalis, Deborah

    2016-08-29

    Barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among pregnant women are varied and complex. This study explored the constructs of a theoretical model, the Health Belief Model (HBM) to understand and predict ART adherence among pregnant women in Guyana. A cross-sectional study surveyed 108 pregnant women attending 11 primary care clinics. ART adherence ranging from the past weekend to three months was assessed through self-reports, and health beliefs with the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire (ADQ). Constructs with sufficient variation in responses were tested for association with the level of adherence using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and test. Sixty-seven per cent (72) of the women reported being always adherent. Although there was positive endorsement of ART treatment and adherence, the HBM did not help in understanding or predicting ART adherence in this population. Only one item from the perceived susceptibility construct was significantly associated (p = 0.009) with adherence. Interventions are warranted to address ART adherence in this population, as 19% of the women were recently non-adherent. Although the ADQ did not contribute to a deeper understanding or provide insight into pathways that can be targeted for intervention, theoretical models can play a key role in identifying these pathways.

  18. Cultural beliefs and teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Horn, B

    1983-09-01

    The influence of cultural variables on teenage pregnancy is not clearly understood. In-depth interviews with 20 Native American Indian, 17 black and 18 white teenage women indicated intercultural differences in beliefs about: (1) prevention of pregnancy, (2) significance of becoming a mother at an early age and (3) kinds of support systems available to them within their social network. The implications of these differences for nursing care include recognition and acceptance of intercultural differences and support of a decision-making model of pregnancy prevention for teenagers that incorporates diverse belief systems.

  19. Parental illness, attachment dimensions, and health beliefs: testing the cognitive-behavioural and interpersonal models of health anxiety.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Nicole M; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal models of health anxiety propose that parental illness could be a contributory factor to the development of health anxiety but through different mechanisms. The cognitive-behavioral model suggests that exposure to parental illness may lead to health beliefs that could increase health anxiety. In contrast, the interpersonal model proposes that parental illness may contribute to the development of an insecure attachment pattern and consequently health anxiety. To assess the additive value of the models, 116 emerging adults (i.e. aged 18-25) who had a parent diagnosed with a serious medical illness (e.g. cancer, multiple sclerosis) completed measures of health anxiety, adult attachment dimensions, and health beliefs. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, health beliefs, and death of the ill parent were statistically significant predictors of health anxiety. The results provide support for both models of health anxiety. Theoretical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. The SDT Model of Belief Bias: Complexity, Time, and Cognitive Ability Mediate the Effects of Believability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Verde, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    When people evaluate conclusions, they are often influenced by prior beliefs. Prevalent theories claim that "belief bias" affects the quality of syllogistic reasoning. However, recent work by Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010) has suggested that belief bias may be a simple response bias. In Experiment 1, receiver operating characteristic…

  1. A cognitive account of belief: a tentative road map

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Michael H.; Halligan, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, delusions have become the subject of growing and productive research spanning clinical and cognitive neurosciences. Despite this, the nature of belief, which underpins the construct of delusions, has received little formal investigation. No account of delusions, however, would be complete without a cognitive level analysis of belief per se. One reason for this neglect is the assumption that, unlike more established and accessible modular psychological process (e.g., vision, audition, face-recognition, language-processing, and motor-control systems), beliefs comprise more distributed and therefore less accessible central cognitive processes. In this paper, we suggest some defining characteristics and functions of beliefs. Working back from cognitive accounts of delusions, we consider potential candidate cognitive processes that may be involved in normal belief formation. Finally, we advance a multistage account of the belief process that could provide the basis for a more comprehensive model of belief. PMID:25741291

  2. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    PubMed

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  3. Using a Schematic Model to Represent Influences on, and Relationships between, Teachers'Problem-Solving Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Judy; White, Paul; Sullivan, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Schematic models have been used extensively in educational research to represent relationships between variables diagrammatically, including the interrelationships between factors associated with teachers' beliefs and practices. A review of such models informed the development of a new model that was used to plan an investigation into primary…

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of health belief model interventions in improving adherence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina Jane; Smith, Helen; Llewellyn, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Lack of adherence to health-promoting advice challenges the successful prevention and management of many conditions. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was developed in 1966 to predict health-promoting behaviour and has been used in patients with wide variety of disease. The HBM has also been used to inform the development of interventions to improve health behaviours. Several reviews have documented the HBM's performance in predicting behaviour, but no review has addressed its utility in the design of interventions or the efficacy of these interventions. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventional studies which use the HBM as the theoretical basis for intervention design. The HBM has been used continuously in the development of behaviour change interventions for 40 years. Of 18 eligible studies, 14 (78%) reported significant improvements in adherence, with 7 (39%) showing moderate to large effects. However, only six studies used the HBM in its entirety and five different studies measured health beliefs as outcomes. Intervention success appeared to be unrelated to HBM construct addressed challenging the utility of this model as the theoretical basis for adherence-enhancing interventions. Interventions need to be described in full to allow for the identification of effective components and replication of studies.

  5. Dynamic causal modelling of electrographic seizure activity using Bayesian belief updating

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Gerald K.; Sengupta, Biswa; Douglas, Pamela K.; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Seizure activity in EEG recordings can persist for hours with seizure dynamics changing rapidly over time and space. To characterise the spatiotemporal evolution of seizure activity, large data sets often need to be analysed. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) can be used to estimate the synaptic drivers of cortical dynamics during a seizure; however, the requisite (Bayesian) inversion procedure is computationally expensive. In this note, we describe a straightforward procedure, within the DCM framework, that provides efficient inversion of seizure activity measured with non-invasive and invasive physiological recordings; namely, EEG/ECoG. We describe the theoretical background behind a Bayesian belief updating scheme for DCM. The scheme is tested on simulated and empirical seizure activity (recorded both invasively and non-invasively) and compared with standard Bayesian inversion. We show that the Bayesian belief updating scheme provides similar estimates of time-varying synaptic parameters, compared to standard schemes, indicating no significant qualitative change in accuracy. The difference in variance explained was small (less than 5%). The updating method was substantially more efficient, taking approximately 5–10 min compared to approximately 1–2 h. Moreover, the setup of the model under the updating scheme allows for a clear specification of how neuronal variables fluctuate over separable timescales. This method now allows us to investigate the effect of fast (neuronal) activity on slow fluctuations in (synaptic) parameters, paving a way forward to understand how seizure activity is generated. PMID:26220742

  6. Family Influences on Mania-Relevant Cognitions and Beliefs: A Cognitive Model of Mania and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study proposed and tested a cognitive model of mania and reward. Method Undergraduates (N = 284; 68.4% female; mean age = 20.99 years, standard deviation ± 3.37) completed measures of family goal setting and achievement values, personal reward-related beliefs, cognitive symptoms of mania, and risk for mania. Results Correlational analyses and structural equation modeling supported two distinct, but related facets of mania-relevant cognition: stably present reward-related beliefs and state-dependent cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion. Results also indicated that family emphasis on achievement and highly ambitious extrinsic goals were associated with these mania-relevant cognitions. Finally, controlling for other factors, cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion were uniquely associated with lifetime propensity towards mania symptoms. Conclusions Results support the merit of distinguishing between facets of mania-relevant cognition and the importance of the family in shaping both aspects of cognition. PMID:22623269

  7. Probability of inconsistencies in theory revision. A multi-agent model for updating logically interconnected beliefs under bounded confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenmackers, S.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Douven, I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model for studying communities of epistemically interacting agents who update their belief states by averaging (in a specified way) the belief states of other agents in the community. The agents in our model have a rich belief state, involving multiple independent issues which are interrelated in such a way that they form a theory of the world. Our main goal is to calculate the probability for an agent to end up in an inconsistent belief state due to updating (in the given way). To that end, an analytical expression is given and evaluated numerically, both exactly and using statistical sampling. It is shown that, under the assumptions of our model, an agent always has a probability of less than 2% of ending up in an inconsistent belief state. Moreover, this probability can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of independent issues the agents have to judge or by increasing the group size. A real-world situation to which this model applies is a group of experts participating in a Delphi-study.

  8. Modifying Health Behavior for Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention with the Health Belief Model and Social Support Theory.

    PubMed

    Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health problem in Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), endemic among human populations in northeast and north Thailand where raw fish containing fluke metacercariae are frequently consumed. Recently, Thailand public health authorities have been organized to reduce morbidity and mortality particularly in the northeast through O. viverrini and CCA screening projects. Health modfication is one of activities included in this campaign, but systemic guidelines of modifying and developing health behavior for liver flukes and CCA prevention in communities towards health belief and social support theory are still various and unclear. Here we review the guidelines for modifying and developing health behavior among populations in rural communities to strengthen understanding regarding perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to liver fluke and CCA prevention. This model may be useful for public health of cancers and related organizations to further health behavior change in endemic areas.

  9. Health beliefs and folk models of diabetes in British Bangladeshis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Helman, Cecil; Chowdhury, A Mu’min

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To explore the experience of diabetes in British Bangladeshis, since successful management of diabetes requires attention not just to observable behaviour but to the underlying attitudes and belief systems which drive that behaviour. Design: Qualitative study of subjects’ experience of diabetes using narratives, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and pile sorting exercises. A new qualitative method, the structured vignette, was developed for validating researchers’ understanding of primary level culture. Subjects: 40 British Bangladeshi patients with diabetes, and 10 non-Bangladeshi controls, recruited from primary care. Result: Several constructs were detected in relation to body image, cause and nature of diabetes, food classification, and knowledge of complications. In some areas, the similarities between Bangladeshi and non-Bangladeshi subjects were as striking as their differences. There was little evidence of a fatalistic or deterministic attitude to prognosis, and most informants seemed highly motivated to alter their diet and comply with treatment. Structural and material barriers to behaviour change were at least as important as “cultural” ones. Conclusion: Bangladeshi culture is neither seamless nor static, but some widely held beliefs and behaviours have been identified. Some of these have a potentially beneficial effect on health and should be used as the starting point for culturally sensitive diabetes education. PMID:9550958

  10. Somali Immigrant Women and the American Health Care System: Discordant Beliefs, Divergent Expectations, and Silent Worries

    PubMed Central

    Pavlish, Carol Lynn; Noor, Sahra; Brandt, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The civil war in Somalia resulted in massive resettlement of Somali refugees. The largest diaspora of Somali refugees in the United States currently reside in Minnesota. Partnering with three community organizations in 2007–8, we implemented the Community Connections and Collaboration Project to address health disparities that Somali refugees experienced. Specifically, we examined factors that influenced Somali women’s health experiences. Utilizing a socio-ecological perspective and a social action research design, we conducted six community-based focus groups with 57 Somali women and interviewed 11 key informants including Somali healthcare professionals. Inductively coding, sorting and reducing data into categories, we analyzed each category for specific patterns. The categorical findings on healthcare experiences are reported here. We found that Somali women’s health beliefs related closely to situational factors and contrasted sharply with the biological model that drives Western medicine. These discordant health beliefs resulted in divergent expectations regarding treatment and healthcare interactions. Experiencing unmet expectations, Somali women and their healthcare providers reported multiple frustrations which often diminished perceived quality of health care. Moreover, silent worries about mental health and reproductive decision making surfaced. To provide high quality, transcultural health care, providers must encourage patients to voice their own health explanations, expectations, and worries. PMID:20494500

  11. The "Health Belief Model" Applied to Two Preventive Health Behaviors Among Women from a Rural Pennsylvania County. AE & RS 115.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Mary E.

    In order to test the usefulnes of the Health Belief Model (a model designed to measure health practices, attitudes, and knowledge), a survey of Potter County, Pennsylvania was conducted, and 283 responses from adult females without chronic illnesses were analyzed. The dependent variables employed were regulating diet and getting regular exercise.…

  12. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  13. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  14. Towards an Effective Health Interventions Design: An Extension of the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Orji, Rita; Vassileva, Julita; Mandryk, Regan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The recent years have witnessed a continuous increase in lifestyle related health challenges around the world. As a result, researchers and health practitioners have focused on promoting healthy behavior using various behavior change interventions. The designs of most of these interventions are informed by health behavior models and theories adapted from various disciplines. Several health behavior theories have been used to inform health intervention designs, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Health Belief Model (HBM). However, the Health Belief Model (HBM), developed in the 1950s to investigate why people fail to undertake preventive health measures, remains one of the most widely employed theories of health behavior. However, the effectiveness of this model is limited. The first limitation is the low predictive capacity (R2 < 0.21 on average) of existing HBM’s variables coupled with the small effect size of individual variables. The second is lack of clear rules of combination and relationship between the individual variables. In this paper, we propose a solution that aims at addressing these limitations as follows: (1) we extended the Health Belief Model by introducing four new variables: Self-identity, Perceived Importance, Consideration of Future Consequences, and Concern for Appearance as possible determinants of healthy behavior. (2) We exhaustively explored the relationships/interactions between the HBM variables and their effect size. (3) We tested the validity of both our proposed extended model and the original HBM on healthy eating behavior. Finally, we compared the predictive capacity of the original HBM model and our extended model. Methods: To achieve the objective of this paper, we conducted a quantitative study of 576 participants’ eating behavior. Data for this study were collected over a period of one year (from August 2011 to August 2012). The questionnaire consisted of validated scales

  15. Interhemispheric interaction and beliefs on our origin: degree of handedness predicts beliefs in creationism versus evolution.

    PubMed

    Niebauer, Christopher Lee; Christman, Stephen D; Reid, Scott A; Garvey, Kilian J

    2004-10-01

    It has been suggested that strongly handed individuals have attenuated systems for updating beliefs compared to mixed handers (Niebauer, Aselage, & Schutte, 2002). The current research extended this theory to individual differences in updating beliefs concerning our origins. Although the theory of evolution has gained overwhelming success in the sciences, a significant percentage of the population believes in biblical creationist accounts of human origins that are inconsistent with accepted, contemporary scientific views. If strongly handed individuals possess attenuated systems for updating beliefs, they might be more likely to believe in creationism. In two studies, strongly handed participants were more likely to believe in creationism while mixed-handed participants were more likely to believe in evolution. A model of how interhemispheric interaction functions in maintaining and updating beliefs is discussed. Specifically, mixed-handedness seems to be associated with a lower threshold for updating beliefs.

  16. Changing Minds by Reasoning About Belief Revision: A Challenge for Cognitive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    company’s software should be a mantis shrimp . In addition, she would like her entire team on board with this decision. Due to an overheard conversation...he would rather give Jane the impression that he is at least open to the mantis shrimp as a possibility. To meet his goal, Bob needs to manipulate...MINDS ABOUT BELIEF REVISION Bob A1 Beliefs (ridiculous shrimp -logo) Goals Jane A2 Beliefs (not (ridiculous shrimp -logo

  17. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening.

  18. Development and Validity Testing of Belief Measurement Model in Buddhism for Junior High School Students at Chiang Rai Buddhist Scripture School: An Application for Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaidi, Thirachai; Damrongpanich, Sunthorapot

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a model to measure the belief in Buddhism of junior high school students at Chiang Rai Buddhist Scripture School, and to determine construct validity of the model for measuring the belief in Buddhism by using Multitrait-Multimethod analysis. The samples were 590 junior high school students at Buddhist…

  19. Pathways into psychopathology: Modeling the effects of trait emotional intelligence, mindfulness, and irrational beliefs in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Gómez, María G; Pérez-González, Juan-Carlos

    2017-02-21

    We investigated possible pathways into mental illness via the combined effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), mindfulness, and irrational beliefs. The sample comprised 121 psychiatric outpatients (64.5% males, mean age = 38.8 years) with a variety of formal clinical diagnoses. Psychopathology was operationalized by means of 3 distinct indicators from the Millon Clinical Multi-Axial Inventory (mild pathology, severe pathology, and clinical symptomatology). A structural equation model confirmed significant direct trait EI and mindfulness effects on irrational beliefs and psychopathology. Trait EI also had a significant indirect effect on psychopathology via mindfulness. Together, the 3 constructs accounted for 44% of the variance in psychopathology. A series of hierarchical regressions demonstrated that trait EI is a stronger predictor of psychopathology than mindfulness and irrational beliefs combined. We conclude that the identified pathways can provide the basis for the development of safe and effective responses to the ongoing mental health and overmedication crises.

  20. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  1. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-03-27

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction.

  2. Testing a Motivational Model of Achievement: How Students' Mathematical Beliefs and Interests Are Related to Their Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Long, Margaret H.; Wang, Feihong

    2012-01-01

    Blackwell et al. (Child Development 78(1):246-263, 2007) tested a motivational model of achievement in which an incremental theory of intelligence leads to learning goals and positive effort beliefs, which leads to fewer ability-based, helpless attributions, and more positive strategies, which leads to improved grades. In the present study, we…

  3. The Effect of Content Representation Design Principles on Users' Intuitive Beliefs and Use of E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Selim, Hassan; Zaqout, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to assess the effect of different content representation design principles on learners' intuitive beliefs about using e-learning. We hypothesized that the impact of the representation of course contents is mediated by the design principles of alignment, quantity, clarity, simplicity, and affordance, which influence the…

  4. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  5. Plant a Radish, Get a Radish: Case Study of Kindergarten Teachers' Differing Literacy Belief Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Karen F.; Barksdale-Ladd, Mary Alice

    1997-01-01

    Questions two philosophically differing kindergarten teachers (whole language or skills-based) regarding views, beliefs, and practices in teaching literacy to kindergarten populations. Interviews students at the end of the school year regarding their understanding of reading and writing as a result of their teacher's beliefs. Finds that children's…

  6. Beliefs Systems and Classroom Practices: Identified Typologies of Elementary School Teachers from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Margareta Maria; Nietfeld, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In a mixed-methods study, the authors investigate teacher typologies of elementary teachers (N = 132) in the United States based on their reformed science teaching beliefs. Additionally, the identified teacher typologies were compared with respect to their science content knowledge, self-efficacy and epistemic beliefs. Results revealed three…

  7. Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data sources We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases ‘electronic cigarette’, ‘e-cigarette’ and ‘electronic nicotine delivery’. Study selection Of the 244 abstracts identified, we excluded articles not published in English, articles unrelated to ENDS, dissertation abstracts and articles without original data on prespecified outcomes. Data extraction Two reviewers coded each article for ENDS awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data synthesis 49 studies met inclusion criteria. ENDS awareness increased from 16% to 58% from 2009 to 2011, and use increased from 1% to 6%. The majority of users were current or former smokers. Many users found ENDS satisfying, and some engaged in dual use of ENDS and other tobacco. No longitudinal studies examined whether ENDS serve as ‘gateways’ to future tobacco use. Common reasons for using ENDS were quitting smoking and using a product that is healthier than cigarettes. Self-reported survey data and prospective trials suggest that ENDS might help cigarette smokers quit, but no randomised controlled trials with probability samples compared ENDS with other cessation tools. Some individuals used ENDS to avoid smoking restrictions. Conclusions ENDS use is expanding rapidly despite experts’ concerns about safety, dual use and possible ‘gateway’ effects. More research is needed on effective public health messages, perceived health risks, validity of self-reports of smoking cessation and the use of different kinds of ENDS. PMID:24259045

  8. Socio-Psychological Factors in the Expanded Health Belief Model and Subsequent Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Sohler, Nancy L; Jerant, Anthony; Franks, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective CRC screening interventions tailored to the Expanded Health Belief Model (EHBM) socio-psychological factors have been developed, but the contributions of individual factors to screening outcomes are unclear. Methods In observational analyses of data from a randomized intervention trial, we examined the independent associations of five EHBM factors - CRC screening knowledge, self-efficacy, stage of readiness, barriers, and discussion with a provider – with objectively measured CRC screening after one year. Results When all five factors were added simultaneously to a base model including other patient and visit characteristics, three of the factors were associated with CRC screening: self-efficacy (OR=1.32, p=0.001), readiness (OR=2.72, p<0.001), and discussion of screening with a provider (OR=1.59, p=0.009). Knowledge and barriers were not independently associated with screening. Adding the five socio-psychological factors to the base model improved prediction of CRC screening (area under the curve) by 7.7%. Conclusion Patient CRC screening self-efficacy, readiness, and discussion with a provider each independently predicted subsequent screening. Practice implications Self-efficacy and readiness measures might be helpful in parsimoniously predicting which patients are most likely to engage in CRC screening. The importance of screening discussion with a provider suggests the potential value of augmenting patient-focused EHBM-tailored interventions with provider-focused elements. PMID:25892503

  9. Human Frontal–Subcortical Circuit and Asymmetric Belief Updating

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Caroline J.; Garrett, Neil; Cohen, Michael X.; Sharot, Tali

    2015-01-01

    How humans integrate information to form beliefs about reality is a question that has engaged scientists for centuries, yet the biological system supporting this process is not well understood. One of the most salient attributes of information is valence. Whether a piece of news is good or bad is critical in determining whether it will alter our beliefs. Here, we reveal a frontal–subcortical circuit in the left hemisphere that is simultaneously associated with enhanced integration of favorable information into beliefs and impaired integration of unfavorable information. Specifically, for favorable information, stronger white matter connectivity within this system, particularly between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left subcortical regions (including the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, and pallidum), as well as insular cortex, is associated with greater change in belief. However, for unfavorable information, stronger connectivity within this system, particularly between the left IFG and left pallidum, putamen, and insular cortex, is associated with reduced change in beliefs. These novel results are consistent with models suggesting that partially separable processes govern learning from favorable and unfavorable information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Beliefs of what may happen in the future are important, because they guide decisions and actions. Here, we illuminate how structural brain connectivity is related to the generation of subjective beliefs. We focus on how the valence of information is related to people's tendency to alter their beliefs. By quantifying the extent to which participants update their beliefs in response to desirable and undesirable information and relating those measures to the strength of white matter connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging, we characterize a left frontal–subcortical system that is associated simultaneously with greater belief updating in response to favorable information and reduced belief

  10. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Model for personalized prognostic risk assessment in colon carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Nissan, Aviram; Eberhardt, John; Chua, Terence C; Pelz, Joerg O W; Esquivel, Jesus

    2011-02-01

    Multimodality therapy in selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis is gaining acceptance. Treatment-directing decision support tools are needed to individualize care and select patients best suited for cytoreductive surgery +/- hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS +/- HIPEC). The purpose of this study is to develop a predictive model that could support surgical decisions in patients with colon carcinomatosis. Fifty-three patients were enrolled in a prospective study collecting 31 clinical-pathological, treatment-related, and outcome data. The population was characterized by disease presentation, performance status, extent of peritoneal cancer (Peritoneal Cancer Index, PCI), primary tumor histology, and nodal staging. These preoperative parameters were analyzed using step-wise machine-learned Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) to develop a predictive model for overall survival (OS) in patients considered for CRS +/- HIPEC. Area-under-the-curve from receiver-operating-characteristics curves of OS predictions was calculated to determine the model's positive and negative predictive value. Model structure defined three predictors of OS: severity of symptoms (performance status), PCI, and ability to undergo CRS +/- HIPEC. Patients with PCI < 10, resectable disease, and excellent performance status who underwent CRS +/- HIPEC had 89 per cent probability of survival compared with 4 per cent for those with poor performance status, PCI > 20, who were not considered surgical candidates. Cross validation of the BBN model robustly classified OS (area-under-the-curve = 0.71). The model's positive predictive value and negative predictive value are 63.3 per cent and 68.3 per cent, respectively. This exploratory study supports the utility of Bayesian classification for developing decision support tools, which assess case-specific relative risk for a given patient for oncological outcomes based on clinically relevant classifiers of survival. Further prospective studies

  11. Teacher beliefs and cultural models: A challenge for science teacher preparation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Lynn A.; Atwater, Mary M.

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an argument for developing science teacher education programs that examine teachers' beliefs about multicultural issues and their impact on science teaching and learning. In the paper, we (a) delineate a rationale for the study of teacher beliefs about issues of culture and its impact on science teaching and learning; (b) assert three major categories of teacher beliefs to examine for designing teacher education programs that aim to meet the challenges of increasingly culturally diverse classrooms; and (c) discuss implications for science teacher education programs and research. Research has shown that knowing teachers' beliefs and designing instruction and experiences to explicitly confront those beliefs facilitate refinement of and/or transformation of beliefs and practices (Bryan & Abell, J Res Sci Teaching, 36, 121-140, 1999; Harrington & Hathaway, J Teacher Education, 46, 275-284, 1995; Hollingsworth, Am Educational Res J, 26(2), 160-189, 1989; Olmedo, J Teaching Teacher Education, 13, 245-258, 1997; Tobin & LaMaster, J Res Sci Teaching, 32, 225-242, 1995). Furthermore, prior to student teaching, preservice teachers need to be at least culturally sensitive teachers (Gillette, In Teacher Thinking in Cultural Contexts, F. A. Rios (Ed.); Albany, NY: State University of New York Press; 1996, pp. 104-128). Science educators need to continue to identify those beliefs and practices that undergird desirable and equitable science instruction.

  12. Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: an explanatory model.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, Mallie J

    2010-06-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among adolescents' perception of community alcohol norms, enforcement of underage drinking laws, personal beliefs (perceived parental disapproval of alcohol use, perceived alcohol availability, perceived drinking by peers, perceived harm and personal disapproval of alcohol use), and their past-30-day alcohol use. This study used data from 17,830 middle and high school students who participated in the 2007 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived community disapproval of adolescents' alcohol use was directly and positively related to perceived local police enforcement of underage drinking laws. In addition, adolescents' personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and past-30-day alcohol use. Enforcement of underage drinking laws appeared to partially mediate the relationship between perceived community disapproval and personal beliefs related to alcohol use. Results of this study suggests that environmental prevention efforts to reduce underage drinking should target adults' attitudes and community norms about underage drinking as well as the beliefs of youth themselves.

  13. High School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning, and Self-Efficacy for Learning Biology: A Study of Their Structural Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem; Dagyar, Miray

    2015-01-01

    The current work reveals the data of the study which examines the relationships among epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and self-efficacy for biology learning with the help of the Structural Equation Modeling. Three questionnaires, the Epistemological Beliefs, the Conceptions of Learning Biology and the Self-efficacy for Learning…

  14. Using deep belief network modelling to characterize differences in brain morphometry in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pinaya, Walter H. L.; Gadelha, Ary; Doyle, Orla M.; Noto, Cristiano; Zugman, André; Cordeiro, Quirino; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Sato, João R.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based models contribute to increasing our understanding of schizophrenia pathophysiology and can reveal the underlying characteristics of this and other clinical conditions. However, the considerable variability in reported neuroimaging results mirrors the heterogeneity of the disorder. Machine learning methods capable of representing invariant features could circumvent this problem. In this structural MRI study, we trained a deep learning model known as deep belief network (DBN) to extract features from brain morphometry data and investigated its performance in discriminating between healthy controls (N = 83) and patients with schizophrenia (N = 143). We further analysed performance in classifying patients with a first-episode psychosis (N = 32). The DBN highlighted differences between classes, especially in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices, and in some subcortical regions, including the corpus callosum, putamen, and cerebellum. The DBN was slightly more accurate as a classifier (accuracy = 73.6%) than the support vector machine (accuracy = 68.1%). Finally, the error rate of the DBN in classifying first-episode patients was 56.3%, indicating that the representations learned from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were not suitable to define these patients. Our data suggest that deep learning could improve our understanding of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia by improving neuromorphometric analyses. PMID:27941946

  15. Using deep belief network modelling to characterize differences in brain morphometry in schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaya, Walter H. L.; Gadelha, Ary; Doyle, Orla M.; Noto, Cristiano; Zugman, André; Cordeiro, Quirino; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Sato, João R.

    2016-12-01

    Neuroimaging-based models contribute to increasing our understanding of schizophrenia pathophysiology and can reveal the underlying characteristics of this and other clinical conditions. However, the considerable variability in reported neuroimaging results mirrors the heterogeneity of the disorder. Machine learning methods capable of representing invariant features could circumvent this problem. In this structural MRI study, we trained a deep learning model known as deep belief network (DBN) to extract features from brain morphometry data and investigated its performance in discriminating between healthy controls (N = 83) and patients with schizophrenia (N = 143). We further analysed performance in classifying patients with a first-episode psychosis (N = 32). The DBN highlighted differences between classes, especially in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices, and in some subcortical regions, including the corpus callosum, putamen, and cerebellum. The DBN was slightly more accurate as a classifier (accuracy = 73.6%) than the support vector machine (accuracy = 68.1%). Finally, the error rate of the DBN in classifying first-episode patients was 56.3%, indicating that the representations learned from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were not suitable to define these patients. Our data suggest that deep learning could improve our understanding of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia by improving neuromorphometric analyses.

  16. Brain injury beliefs, self-awareness, and coping: a preliminary cluster analytic study based within the self-regulatory model.

    PubMed

    Medley, Andrew R; Powell, Theresa; Worthington, Andrew; Chohan, Gagandeep; Jones, Chris

    2010-12-01

    The interplay between individuals' subjective beliefs about traumatic brain injury, their coping style and their self-awareness might provide a more helpful guide to rehabilitation goals than looking at these factors in isolation. We therefore conducted a preliminary study to determine whether the Self-Regulatory Model can identify different clusters of individuals according to belief schemata, and to explore whether clusters differed across measures of coping and self-awareness. The Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised was administered to 37 participants with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), along with the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised and the European Brain Injury Questionnaire. Clinicians also rated clients' level of difficulties using the latter scale, and the discrepancy between client and clinician scores was used as a measure of self-awareness. Hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished three groups based on profiles of subjective beliefs about TBI, labelled "low control/ambivalent", "high salience", and "high optimism". The high salience group was characterised by beliefs about serious consequences of the injury and greater self-awareness, and reported a greater range of coping strategies. The other two groups showed lower levels of awareness but differed in coping styles, with the low control/ambivalent group showing a trend towards more avoidance coping against a background of lower perceived control.

  17. Application of the Health Belief Model to Teach Complementary Feeding Messages in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tariku, Befikadu; Whiting, Susan J; Mulualem, Demmelash; Singh, Pragya

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia many women do not practice appropriate complementary feeding (CF). The Health Belief Model (HBM) asserts that change in behavior is determined after consideration of severity, benefit, and barriers to change. This study examined the effectiveness of 3 months of HBM-based education compared to the traditional (didactic) method on CF practices of mothers, with no education as control, using three randomized groups. One hundred sixty-six mother-infant (6-18 months) pairs were recruited. At baseline and after intervention, knowledge, perceptions, and practices about CF and related areas were determined. It was only diet diversity that increased significantly in the HBM group (from 3.05±0.94 food groups to 3.79±0.82, p<.05) while the other two groups had no change. Improvements in food groups were most noticeable as legumes & nuts (from 35.6% use to 83.9% in HBM group). Thus, nutrition education about diet diversity improvement needs to be conducted promotes behavior change.

  18. Expanded health belief model predicts diabetes self-management in college students.

    PubMed

    Wdowik, M J; Kendall, P A; Harris, M A; Auld, G

    2001-01-01

    An instrument was designed to determine relationships between constructs of the Expanded Health Belief Model and to identify characteristics of college students who successfully manage their diabetes. The Diabetes College Scale was developed to measure attitudes and behaviors pertinent to diabetes management and college life. It was tested for content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency. Data were collected from college students using a cross-sectional design. Campus health care providers were invited via electronic mail to administer the survey to students with Type I diabetes. Ninety-eight questionnaires were mailed to interested providers, of which 86 (88%) were returned. Mean scores for attitude constructs, seven behaviors, and two outcomes were measured. Twenty-six experts established content validity. Instrument reliability was evaluated using paired t-tests, Cronbach's alpha, and correlation coefficients. Correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis evaluated relationships among variables measured. Intention and emotional response were strong predictors of exercise, whereas health importance and intention were predictive of testing blood sugar. Situational factors and emotional response were substantial barriers to optimal diabetes self-care. College health care providers should address these areas in providing services to this population. Additional testing of the instrument is also recommended.

  19. Modeling electroencephalography waveforms with semi-supervised deep belief nets: fast classification and anomaly measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulsin, D. F.; Gupta, J. R.; Mani, R.; Blanco, J. A.; Litt, B.

    2011-06-01

    Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep belief nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset, and classification time was found to be 1.7-103.7 times faster than the other high-performing classifiers. We demonstrate how the unsupervised step of DBN learning produces an autoencoder that can naturally be used in anomaly measurement. We compare the use of raw, unprocessed data—a rarity in automated physiological waveform analysis—with hand-chosen features and find that raw data produce comparable classification and better anomaly measurement performance. These results indicate that DBNs and raw data inputs may be more effective for online automated EEG waveform recognition than other common techniques.

  20. Behavioral Modification Regarding Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma with a Health Belief Model Using Integrated Learning.

    PubMed

    Phatisena, Panida; Eaksanti, Tawatchai; Wichantuk, Pitsanee; Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to modify behavior regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention in Chumphuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand through integrated learning. A total of 180 participants were included through purposive selection of high-risk scores on verbal screening. Participants attended the health education program which applied the health belief model included family based, knowledge station based, academic merit based and community based learning. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of 4 parts: 1) personal information, 2) knowledge, 3) perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, 4) practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention. The result revealed that the majority were female (79.9%), age ≥60 years old (33.2%), primary school educational level (76.1%), and agricultural occupation (70.1%). The mean scores of knowledge, perception, and practice to liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, before participated the integrative learning were low, moderate, and low, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, and practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, were higher with statistical significance after participation in the integrated learning. This finding indicates that health education programs may successfully modify health behavior in the rural communities. Therefore they may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas.

  1. Application of the health belief model in promotion of self-care in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Shogafard, Golamreza; Sanati, Hamid Reza; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Mazloomy, Seyed Saeed; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a condition due to a problem with the structure or function of the heart impairs its ability to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs. In developing countries, around 2% of adults suffer from heart failure, but in people over the age of 65, this rate increases to 6-10%. In Iran, around 3.3% of adults suffer from heart failure. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the most widely used models in public health theoretical framework. This was a cohort experimental study, in which education as intervention factor was presented to case group. 180 Heart failure patients were randomly selected from patients who were referred to the Shahid Rajaee center of Heart Research in Tehran and allocated to two groups (90 patients in the case group and 90 in the control group). HBM was used to compare health behaviors. The questionnaire included 69 questions. All data were collected before and 2 months after intervention. About 38% of participants don't know what, the heart failure is and 43% don't know that using the salt is not suitable for them. More than 40% of participants didn't weigh any time their selves. There was significant differences between the mean grades score of variables (perceived susceptibility, perceived threat, knowledge, Perceived benefits, Perceived severity, self-efficacy Perceived barriers, cues to action, self- behavior) in the case and control groups after intervention that was not significant before it. Based on our study and also many other studies, HBM has the potential to be used as a tool to establish educational programs for individuals and communities. Therefore, this model can be used effectively to prevent different diseases and their complications including heart failure.

  2. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health. PMID:28210597

  3. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    PubMed

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  4. Development and Execution of the RUNSAFE Runway Safety Bayesian Belief Network Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    One focus area of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to improve aviation safety. Runway safety is one such thrust of investigation and research. The two primary components of this runway safety research are in runway incursion (RI) and runway excursion (RE) events. These are adverse ground-based aviation incidents that endanger crew, passengers, aircraft and perhaps other nearby people or property. A runway incursion is the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft; one class of RI events simultaneously involves two aircraft, such as one aircraft incorrectly landing on a runway while another aircraft is taking off from the same runway. A runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft defined as a veer-off or overrun off the runway surface. Within the scope of this effort at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), generic RI, RE and combined (RI plus RE, or RUNSAFE) event models have each been developed and implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). Descriptions of runway safety issues from the literature searches have been used to develop the BBN models. Numerous considerations surrounding the process of developing the event models have been documented in this report. The event models were then thoroughly reviewed by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel through multiple knowledge elicitation sessions. Numerous improvements to the model structure (definitions, node names, node states and the connecting link topology) were made by the SME panel. Sample executions of the final RUNSAFE model have been presented herein for baseline and worst-case scenarios. Finally, a parameter sensitivity analysis for a given scenario was performed to show the risk drivers. The NASA and LaRC research in runway safety event modeling through the use of BBN technology is important for several reasons. These include: 1) providing a means to clearly

  5. Willingness to use functional breads. Applying the Health Belief Model across four European countries.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Marco; Saba, Anna; Arvola, Anne; Dean, Moira; Messina, Federico; Winkelmann, Markus; Claupein, Erika; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Shepherd, Richard

    2009-04-01

    The present study focused on the role of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting willingness to use functional breads, across four European countries: UK (N=552), Italy (N=504), Germany (N=525) and Finland (N=513). The behavioural evaluation components of the HBM (the perceived benefits and barriers conceptualized respectively as perceived healthiness and pleasantness) and the health motivation component were good predictors of willingness to use functional breads whereas threat perception components (perceived susceptibility and perceived anticipated severity) failed as predictors. This result was common in all four countries and across products. The role of 'cue to action' was marginal. On the whole the HBM fit was similar across the countries and products in terms of significant predictors (the perceived benefits, barriers and health motivation) with the exception of self-efficacy which was significant only in Finland. Young consumers seemed more interested in the functional bread with a health claim promoting health rather than in reducing risk of disease, whereas the opposite was true for older people. However, functional staple foods, such as bread in this European study, are still perceived as common foods rather than as a means of avoiding diseases. Consumers seek these foods for their healthiness (the perceived benefits) as they expect them to be healthier than regular foods and for the pleasantness (the perceived barriers) as they do not expect any change in the sensory characteristics due to the addition of the functional ingredients. The importance of health motivation in willingness to use products with health claims implies that there is an opening for developing better models for explaining health-promoting food choices that take into account both food and health-related factors without making a reference to disease-related outcome.

  6. Chemistry Teachers' Emerging Expertise in Inquiry Teaching: The Effect of a Professional Development Model on Beliefs and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Lotter, Christine; Singer, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the beliefs and practices of seven high school chemistry teachers as a result of their participation in a year-long inquiry professional development (PD) project. An analysis of oral interviews, written reflections, and in-class observations were used to determine the extent to which the PD affected the teachers' beliefs and practice. The data indicated that the teachers developed more complete conceptions of classroom inquiry, valued a "phenomena first" approach to scientific investigations, and viewed inquiry approaches as helpful for facilitating improved student thinking. Analysis of classroom observations with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol indicated that features of the PD were observed in the teachers' practice during the academic year follow-up. Implications for effective science teacher professional development models are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students

    PubMed Central

    Moodi, Mitra; Mood, Mahdi Baladi; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE) in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. METHODS: In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions) before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. RESULTS: 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier) scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01). Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05). ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed. PMID:22091251

  8. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose.

  9. Collective Dynamics of Belief Evolution under Cognitive Coherence and Social Conformity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Bollen, Johan; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Human history has been marked by social instability and conflict, often driven by the irreconcilability of opposing sets of beliefs, ideologies, and religious dogmas. The dynamics of belief systems has been studied mainly from two distinct perspectives, namely how cognitive biases lead to individual belief rigidity and how social influence leads to social conformity. Here we propose a unifying framework that connects cognitive and social forces together in order to study the dynamics of societal belief evolution. Each individual is endowed with a network of interacting beliefs that evolves through interaction with other individuals in a social network. The adoption of beliefs is affected by both internal coherence and social conformity. Our framework may offer explanations for how social transitions can arise in otherwise homogeneous populations, how small numbers of zealots with highly coherent beliefs can overturn societal consensus, and how belief rigidity protects fringe groups and cults against invasion from mainstream beliefs, allowing them to persist and even thrive in larger societies. Our results suggest that strong consensus may be insufficient to guarantee social stability, that the cognitive coherence of belief-systems is vital in determining their ability to spread, and that coherent belief-systems may pose a serious problem for resolving social polarization, due to their ability to prevent consensus even under high levels of social exposure. We argue that the inclusion of cognitive factors into a social model could provide a more complete picture of collective human dynamics.

  10. Collective Dynamics of Belief Evolution under Cognitive Coherence and Social Conformity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Bollen, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Human history has been marked by social instability and conflict, often driven by the irreconcilability of opposing sets of beliefs, ideologies, and religious dogmas. The dynamics of belief systems has been studied mainly from two distinct perspectives, namely how cognitive biases lead to individual belief rigidity and how social influence leads to social conformity. Here we propose a unifying framework that connects cognitive and social forces together in order to study the dynamics of societal belief evolution. Each individual is endowed with a network of interacting beliefs that evolves through interaction with other individuals in a social network. The adoption of beliefs is affected by both internal coherence and social conformity. Our framework may offer explanations for how social transitions can arise in otherwise homogeneous populations, how small numbers of zealots with highly coherent beliefs can overturn societal consensus, and how belief rigidity protects fringe groups and cults against invasion from mainstream beliefs, allowing them to persist and even thrive in larger societies. Our results suggest that strong consensus may be insufficient to guarantee social stability, that the cognitive coherence of belief-systems is vital in determining their ability to spread, and that coherent belief-systems may pose a serious problem for resolving social polarization, due to their ability to prevent consensus even under high levels of social exposure. We argue that the inclusion of cognitive factors into a social model could provide a more complete picture of collective human dynamics. PMID:27812210

  11. Using Computer Visualization Models in High School Chemistry: The Role of Teacher Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robblee, Karen M.; Garik, Peter; Abegg, Gerald L.; Faux, Russell; Horwitz, Paul

    This paper discusses the role of high school chemistry teachers' beliefs in implementing computer visualization software to teach atomic and molecular structure from a quantum mechanical perspective. The informants in this study were four high school chemistry teachers with comparable academic and professional backgrounds. These teachers received…

  12. Mastery of Negative Affect: A Hierarchical Model of Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous studies that formulated measures for assessing self-efficacy beliefs regarding the management of anger/irritation and despondency/sadness, we developed 3 new scales to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing fear, shame/embarrassment, and guilt. In Study 1, the internal and construct validity of the 5 aforementioned…

  13. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  14. A Constructivist Connectionist Model of Transitions on False-Belief Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Vincent G.; Shultz, Thomas R.; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2013-01-01

    How do children come to understand that others have mental representations, e.g., of an object's location? Preschoolers go through two transitions on verbal false-belief tasks, in which they have to predict where an agent will search for an object that was moved in her absence. First, while three-and-a-half-year-olds usually fail at approach…

  15. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Beliefs in Context: Understanding Language Policy Implementation at a Systems Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory, this study describes how cognitive, normative, and regulative mechanisms shape bilingual teachers' language policy implementation in both English-only and bilingual contexts. Aligned with prior educational language policy research, findings indicate the important role that teachers' beliefs play in the policy…

  17. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Health Belief Model on Preventing Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased

  18. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers' Beliefs Regarding Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    PubMed

    Vaala, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents' decision-making about the extent of their young children's viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents' belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants' and toddlers' TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children's TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children's estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers' attitudes and intentions and children's viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers’ Beliefs Regarding Infants’ and Toddlers’ TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents’ decision-making about the extent of their young children’s viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents’ belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants’ and toddlers’ TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children’s TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children’s estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers’ attitudes and intentions and children’s viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25431537

  20. The Health Belief Model as an explanatory framework in communication research: exploring parallel, serial, and moderated mediation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina L; Jensen, Jakob D; Scherr, Courtney L; Brown, Natasha R; Christy, Katheryn; Weaver, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) posits that messages will achieve optimal behavior change if they successfully target perceived barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, and threat. While the model seems to be an ideal explanatory framework for communication research, theoretical limitations have limited its use in the field. Notably, variable ordering is currently undefined in the HBM. Thus, it is unclear whether constructs mediate relationships comparably (parallel mediation), in sequence (serial mediation), or in tandem with a moderator (moderated mediation). To investigate variable ordering, adults (N = 1,377) completed a survey in the aftermath of an 8-month flu vaccine campaign grounded in the HBM. Exposure to the campaign was positively related to vaccination behavior. Statistical evaluation supported a model where the indirect effect of exposure on behavior through perceived barriers and threat was moderated by self-efficacy (moderated mediation). Perceived barriers and benefits also formed a serial mediation chain. The results indicate that variable ordering in the Health Belief Model may be complex, may help to explain conflicting results of the past, and may be a good focus for future research.

  1. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  2. The transtheoretical model, health belief model, and breast cancer screening among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fathollahi-Dehkordi, Fariba; Hematti, Simin; Sirous, Reza; Tavakoli, Neda; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participation of Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer in breast cancer screening programs is low. This study evaluates the compliance of women having a family history of breast cancer with clinical breast exam (CBE) according to the stage of transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we used Persian version of champion's HBM scale to collect factors associated with TTM stages applied to screening from women over 20 years and older. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t-test, and analysis of covariance. Results: Final sample size was 162 women. Thirty-three percent were in action/maintenance stage. Older women, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, personal history of breast disease, insurance coverage, and a history of breast self-examination were associated with action/maintenance stage. Furthermore, women in action/maintenance stages had significantly fewer perceived barriers in terms of CBE in comparison to women in other stages (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in other HBM subscales scores between various stages of CBE screening behavior (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The finding indicates that the rate of women in action/maintenance stage of CBE is low. Moreover, results show a strong association between perceived barriers and having a regular CBE. These clarify the necessity of promoting national target programs for breast cancer screening, which should be considered as the first preference for reducing CBE barriers.

  3. Changing Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs about Using Computers for Teaching and Learning Mathematics: The Effect of Three Different Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of three different computer integration models on pre-service mathematics teachers' beliefs about using computers in mathematics education. Participants included 104 pre-service mathematics teachers (36 second-year students in the Computer Oriented Model group, 35 fourth-year students in the Integrated Model (IM)…

  4. "Are They Becoming More Reflective and/or Efficacious?" A Conceptual Model Mapping How Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Might Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual models can fulfil important educative roles, particularly in fields where there are few such models and where constructs are confused, as in research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. In this area, one model developed in the late twentieth century subsequently became dominant, but seems flawed. This article addresses criticisms of…

  5. Unpacking the Complex Relationship Between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-12-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written self-reflections, and videotapes of lessons were used to identify and isolate the belief systems that were critical to the teacher's decision making. The Interconnected Model of Professional Growth was then used to trace the trajectories of change of the individual belief systems. Analysis of the data revealed the relationship between beliefs and practices was complex in which initially espoused beliefs were often inconsistent with enacted practice and some beliefs emerged as more salient than others for influencing practice. Furthermore, this research indicates change in both beliefs and practice was an interactive process mediated by collaborative and self-reflection through participation in the video-supported process.

  6. A belief-based model for characterizing the spread of awareness and its impacts on individuals' vaccination decisions.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shang; Liu, Jiming

    2014-05-06

    During an epidemic, individuals' decisions on whether or not to take vaccine may affect the dynamics of disease spread and, therefore, the effectiveness of disease control. Empirical studies have shown that such decisions can be subjected to individuals' awareness about disease and vaccine, such as their perceived disease severity and vaccine safety. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of individuals' vaccination behaviour by modelling the spread of awareness in a group of socially connected individuals and examining the associated impacts on their vaccination decision-making. In our model, we examine whether or not individuals will get vaccinated as well as when they would. In doing so, we consider three possible decisions from an individual, i.e., to accept, to reject, and yet to decide, and further associate them with a set of belief values. Next, we extend the Dempster-Shafer theory to characterize individuals' belief value updates and their decision-making, having incorporated the awareness obtained from their connected neighbours. Furthermore, we examine two factors that will affect individuals' vaccination decisions: (i) reporting rates of disease- and vaccine-related events, and (ii) fading coefficient of awareness spread. By doing so, we can assess the impacts of awareness spread by evaluating the vaccination dynamics in terms of the number of vaccinated individuals. The results have demonstrated that the former influences the ratio of vaccinated individuals, whereas the latter affects the time when individuals decide to take vaccine.

  7. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women.

  8. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.

  9. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    PubMed

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support.

  10. Beliefs about Human Extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a web-based survey about futures issues. Among many questions, respondents were asked whether they believe humans will become extinct. Forty-five percent of the almost 600 respondents believe that humans will become extinct. Many of those holding this believe felt that humans could become extinct within 500-1000 years. Others estimated extinction 5000 or more years into the future. A logistic regression model was estimated to explore the bases for this belief. It was found that people who describe themselves a secular are more likely to hold this belief than people who describe themselves as being Protestant. Older respondents and those who believe that humans have little control over their future also hold this belief. In addition, people who are more apt to think about the future and are better able to imagine potential futures tend to also believe that humans will become extinct.

  11. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  12. A profile of the belief system and attitudes to end-of-life decisions of senior clinicians working in a National Health Service Hospital in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Pugh, E J; Song, R; Whittaker, V; Blenkinsopp, J

    2009-03-01

    There is evidence from outside the United Kingdom to show that physicians' religious beliefs influence their decision making at the end of life. This UK study explores the belief system of consultants, nurse key workers and specialist registrars and their attitudes to decisions which commonly must be taken when caring for individuals who are dying. All consultants (N = 119), nurse key workers (N = 36) and specialist registrars (N = 44) working in an acute hospital in the north-east of England were asked to complete a postal questionnaire. In all, 65% of consultants, 67% of nurse key workers and 41% of specialist registrars responded. Results showed that consultants' religion and belief systems differed from those of nurses and the population they served. Consultants and nurses had statistically significant differences in their attitudes to common end of life decisions with consultants more likely to continue hydration and not withdraw treatment. Nurses were more sympathetic to the idea of physician-assisted suicide for unbearable suffering. This study shows the variability in belief system and attitudes to end of life decision making both within and between clinical groups. This may have practical implications for the clinical care given and the place of care. The personal belief system of consultants was not shown to affect their overall attitudes to withdrawing life-sustaining treatment or physician-assisted suicide.

  13. LinguisticBelief and PoolEvidence

    SciTech Connect

    DARBY, JOHN

    2008-03-11

    LinguisticBelief allows the creation and analysis of combinations of linguistic variables with epistemic uncertainty for decision making. The model is solved using approximate reasoning to implement the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for combinations of variables expressed as purely linguistic fuzzy sets. PoolEvidence pools evidence for linguistic variables from many experts for input into LinguisticBelief.

  14. A non-linear dynamical approach to belief revision in cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kronemyer, David; Bystritsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a non-linear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain's attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three) fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. PMID:24860491

  15. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt.

  16. Emotion and decision-making: affect-driven belief systems in anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Yu, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion processing and decision-making are integral aspects of daily life. However, our understanding of the interaction between these constructs is limited. In this review, we summarize theoretical approaches to the link between emotion and decision-making, and focus on research with anxious or depressed individuals that reveals how emotions can interfere with decision-making. We integrate the emotional framework based on valence and arousal with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. We then discuss how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions provide evidence that alterations of decision-making can be viewed in terms of altered probability and value computation. We argue that the probabilistic representation of belief states in the context of partially observable Markov decision processes provides a useful approach to examine alterations in probability and value representation in individuals with anxiety and depression and outline the broader implications of this approach. PMID:22898207

  17. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-09-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  18. Changes in Psychological Distress among East German Adolescents Facing German Unification: The Role of Commitment to the Old System and of Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Juang, Linda P.

    2004-01-01

    Abrupt social change, such as the breakdown of a political system of the former communist states, presents a major adaptive challenge to the individual. The authors analyzed whether commitment to the old political system and high self-efficacy beliefs measured before German unification would predict change in psychological distress in East German…

  19. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M; Montague, P Read

    2015-02-24

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in cigarette") strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers' choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems.

  20. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P <0.01, Exp(B)= 1.9) and self-efficacy (P<0.01, Exp(B)= 1.6) were predictive factors related to occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention.

  1. Continuous system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  2. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Maryam; Ghodsbin, Fariba; Jahanbin, Iran; Ariafar, Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Izadi, Tayyebe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based education on knowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93) and control (n=87) groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS), and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05) in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05). The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013090911691N3 PMID:26793731

  3. Attitudes of Hungarian asthmatic and COPD patients affecting disease control: empirical research based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patient non-adherence to treatment is a major problem across most chronic diseases. In COPD and asthma treatments it is a complex issue because people need to make behavioral and lifestyle changes while taking medications. Poor adherence results in increased rates of morbidity and mortality, more frequent hospitalizations, and ultimately higher healthcare expenditures. Materials and methods: The objective of the study was to assess asthmatic and COPD patient's attitudes toward adherence in Hungary. Health Belief Model was used to help explain reasons of non-adherence. The results of the study should provide additional support to understanding health-related behaviors and to developing health related programs enhancing adherence of asthmatic and COPD patients. 145 diagnosed COPD patients and 161 diagnosed asthmatic patients were involved in 6 pulmonary centers. The questions were designed to measure Health Belief Model dimensions A 1–5 point verbal Likert scale was used. As a second stage, the answers were compared with the registered patient's personal health data available in pulmonary center's documentation. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: More than 32% of patients are very interested in new asthma or COPD research results, but their main information source is physician. The trust toward the physician is very high. Patients accept treatments and rarely ask questions. Respondents are cooperative but sometimes fail to follow therapeutic recommendations. There is no willingness to join self-help groups or associations. Discussion: The paternalistic approach was generally accepted, moreover expected by the patients from the physicians. It is important to train patients, increase their self-efficacy, responsibility and involve them into self-management programs. Both physicians and patients should be trained how to communicate—this approach can lead to increased understanding and better adherence. PMID:24312052

  4. The use of facemasks to prevent respiratory infection: a literature review in the context of the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Shin Wei; Moey, Kirm Seng Peter; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute respiratory infections are prevalent and pose a constant threat to society. While the use of facemasks has proven to be an effective barrier to curb the aerosol spread of such diseases, its use in the local community is uncommon, resulting in doubts being cast on its effectiveness in preventing airborne infections during epidemics. We thus aimed to conduct a literature review to determine the factors that influence the use of facemasks as a primary preventive health measure in the community. METHODS A search for publications relating to facemask usage was performed on Medline, PubMed, Google, World Health Organization and Singapore government agencies’ websites, using search terms such as ‘facemask’, ‘mask’, ‘influenza’, ‘respiratory infection’, ‘personal protective equipment’, ‘disease prevention’, ‘compliance’ and ‘adherence’. Findings were framed under five components of the Health Belief Model perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cues to action. RESULTS We found that individuals are more likely to wear facemasks due to the perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of being afflicted with life-threatening diseases. Although perceived susceptibility appeared to be the most significant factor determining compliance, perceived benefits of mask-wearing was found to have significant effects on mask-wearing compliance as well. Perceived barriers include experience or perception of personal discomfort and sense of embarrassment. Media blitz and public health promotion activities supported by government agencies provide cues to increase the public’s usage of facemasks. CONCLUSION Complex interventions that use multipronged approaches targeting the five components of the Health Belief Model, especially perceived susceptibility, are needed to increase the use of facemasks in the community. Further studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of

  5. Analysis of the Relation between Academic Procrastination, Academic Rational/Irrational Beliefs, Time Preferences to Study for Exams, and Academic Achievement: A Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinc; Bulus, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between academic rational/irrational beliefs, academic procrastination, and time preferences to study for exams and academic achievement by using the structural equation model. The sample consisted of 281 undergraduate students who filled in questionnaires at the 7-week-long summer course.…

  6. Modeling the Interrelationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding and Acceptance of Evolution, Their Views on Nature of Science and Self-Efficacy Beliefs regarding Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Gulsum; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Traynor, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a path model of relationships among understanding and acceptance of evolution, views on nature of science, and self-efficacy beliefs regarding teaching evolution. A total of 415 pre-service science teachers completed a series of self-report instruments for the specified purpose. After the estimation of scale scores using…

  7. Skin Cancer Protective Behaviors among the Elderly: Explaining Their Response to a Health Education Program Using the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 kibbutzim, 43 adults over 60 completed a questionnaire on sun-exposure protective behaviors before and 2 weeks and 4 months after a skin cancer intervention. Beliefs about skin cancer did not change, but beliefs about the value of health and internal health locus of control changed significantly. (SK)

  8. The Role of Competence and Value Beliefs in Students' Daily Emotional Experiences: A Multilevel Test of a Transactional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the mutual influence of relatively stable personal competence and value beliefs and lesson specific appraisals of competence and value on daily emotional experiences of students in the classroom context. Personal competence and value beliefs were measured by means of questionnaire whereas appraisals and daily emotions were…

  9. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V

    2012-01-01

    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations.

  10. Stressors, Quality of the Child-Caregiver Relationship, and Children's Mental Health Problems After Parental Death: The Mediating Role of Self-System Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2006-01-01

    Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The…

  11. Investigating the Relationships among PSTs' Teaching Beliefs: Are Epistemological Beliefs Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahçivan, Eralp

    2016-01-01

    The present case study explored the teaching belief systems of pre-service science teachers (PSTs), including epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs, conceptions of science learning and teaching and pedagogical content knowledge. Based on their epistemological scores, three PSTs who were categorised as exhibiting naïve, moderately…

  12. Determinants of breast self-examination performance among Iranian women: an application of the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Azita; Jomand, Tayyebh; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women. Screening behavior rates are low in the world. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate breast self-examination (BSE) rate and the relationships of Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs for predicting BSE. Path analysis was used to examine both one-way direct and indirect effects of HBM factors on BSE in this population (N = 382). Data were collected by a part of Champion's HBM Scale (CHBMS) and a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that 7.6% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. The final model provided a good fit to the data, with 13 variables explaining 62% of the variance in BSE. Perceived self-efficacy was intermediate construct between modifying factors and HBM constructs. Also, perceived self-efficacy and perceived benefits were the most highly related to BSE. The results suggest that HBM is a useful framework for identifying factors influencing the use of BSE in Iranian women.

  13. Mathematical circulatory system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method of modeling a circulatory system including a regulatory mechanism parameter. In one embodiment, a regulatory mechanism parameter in a lumped parameter model is represented as a logistic function. In another embodiment, the circulatory system model includes a compliant vessel, the model having a parameter representing a change in pressure due to contraction of smooth muscles of a wall of the vessel.

  14. Prediction of breast self-examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Iranian women, many of whom live in small cities, have limited access to mammography and clinical breast examinations. Thus, breast self examination (BSE) becomes an important and necessary approach to detecting this disease in its early stages in order to limit its resultant morbidity and mortality. This study examined constructs arising from the Health Belief Model as predictors of breast self examination behavior in a sample of women living in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Methods This study was conducted in eight health centers located in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The sample consisted of 240 eligible women who were selected from referrals to the centers. The inclusion criteria were as follows: aged 30 years and over; and able to read and write Farsi. Women with breast cancer, who were pregnant, or breast feeding, were excluded from the study. Data were collected by using a self administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. This instrument measures the concepts of disease susceptibility (3 items), seriousness (6 items), benefits (4 items), barriers (8 items) and self-efficacy (10 items). Results The subjects' mean age was 37.2 (SD = 6.1) years. Just under a third of the subjects (31.7%) had performed BSE in the past and 7.1% of them performed it at least monthly. Perceived benefits and perceived self-efficacy of the women who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not practice BSE (p < 0.03). Furthermore, perceived barriers were lower among those who had performed BSE (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that women who perceived fewer barriers (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.63-0.77, p < 0.001) and had higher self-efficacy (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13, p = 0.003) were more likely to perform BSE (R2 = 0.52). Conclusion Findings from this study indicated that perceived barriers and perceived self-efficacy could be predictors of BSE behavior among the sample of women

  15. Do Sophisticated Epistemic Beliefs Predict Meaningful Learning? Findings from a Structural Equation Model of Undergraduate Biology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among college students' epistemic beliefs in biology (EBB), conceptions of learning biology (COLB), and strategies of learning biology (SLB). EBB includes four dimensions, namely "multiple-source," "uncertainty," "development," and "justification." COLB is further…

  16. Undergraduate Engineering Students' Beliefs, Coping Strategies, and Academic Performance: An Evaluation of Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Sass, Daniel A.; Guerra, Norma S.

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified factors associated with academic success by evaluating relations among psychological and academic variables, although few studies have examined theoretical models to understand the complex links. This study used structural equation modeling to investigate whether the relation between test anxiety and final course grades was…

  17. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-13

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  18. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  19. Using the Health Belief Model to Explain Mothers' and Fathers' Intention to Participate in Universal Parenting Programs.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania

    2017-01-01

    Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents' intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers' and fathers' participation rates in parenting programs.

  20. Gender differences in predictors of colorectal cancer screening uptake: a national cross sectional study based on the health belief model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is rapidly rising in Asia, but screening uptake remains poor. Although studies have reported gender differences in screening rates, there have been few studies assessing gender specific perceptions and barriers towards CRC screening, based on behavioral frameworks. We applied the Health Belief Model to identify gender-specific predictors of CRC screening in an Asian population. Methods A nationwide representative household survey was conducted on 2000 subjects aged 50 years and above in Singapore from 2007 to 2008. Screening behaviour, knowledge and beliefs on CRC screening were assessed by face-to-face structured interviews. The response rate was 88.2%. Results 26.7 percent had undergone current CRC screening with no gender difference in rates. Almost all agreed that CRC would lead to suffering (89.8%), death (84.6%) and would pose significant treatment cost and expense (83.1%). The majority (88.5%) agreed that screening aids early detection and cure but only 35.4% felt susceptible to CRC. Nearly three-quarters (74.3%) of the respondents recalled reading or hearing information on CRC in the print or broadcast media. However, only 22.6% were advised by their physicians to undergo screening. Significantly more women than men had feared a positive diagnosis, held embarrassment, pain and risk concerns about colonoscopy and had friends and family members who encouraged screening. On multivariate analysis, screening uptake showed a positive association with worry about contracting CRC and a physician’s recommendation and a negative association with perceived pain about colonoscopy for both genders. For women only, screening was positively associated with having attended a public talk on CRC and having a family member with CRC, and was negatively associated with Malay race and perceived danger of colonoscopy. Conclusions CRC screening remains poor despite high levels of awareness of its benefits in this Asian population. Race, worry

  1. Five-Year-Olds’ Systematic Errors in Second-Order False Belief Tasks Are Due to First-Order Theory of Mind Strategy Selection: A Computational Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Burcu; Taatgen, Niels A.; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    The focus of studies on second-order false belief reasoning generally was on investigating the roles of executive functions and language with correlational studies. Different from those studies, we focus on the question how 5-year-olds select and revise reasoning strategies in second-order false belief tasks by constructing two computational cognitive models of this process: an instance-based learning model and a reinforcement learning model. Unlike the reinforcement learning model, the instance-based learning model predicted that children who fail second-order false belief tasks would give answers based on first-order theory of mind (ToM) reasoning as opposed to zero-order reasoning. This prediction was confirmed with an empirical study that we conducted with 72 5- to 6-year-old children. The results showed that 17% of the answers were correct and 83% of the answers were wrong. In line with our prediction, 65% of the wrong answers were based on a first-order ToM strategy, while only 29% of them were based on a zero-order strategy (the remaining 6% of subjects did not provide any answer). Based on our instance-based learning model, we propose that when children get feedback “Wrong,” they explicitly revise their strategy to a higher level instead of implicitly selecting one of the available ToM strategies. Moreover, we predict that children’s failures are due to lack of experience and that with exposure to second-order false belief reasoning, children can revise their wrong first-order reasoning strategy to a correct second-order reasoning strategy. PMID:28293206

  2. Formative research on HAPA model determinants for fruit and vegetable intake: target beliefs for audiences at different stages of change.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Cristina A; Alvarez, Maria-João; Lima, Maria Luísa

    2013-12-01

    Theoretically driven health communications are needed to promote fruit and vegetable intake among people at different stages of change. The Health Action Process Approach, a clearly specified model and good predictor of fruit and vegetable intake, was used as a framework to guide a formative research for the development of health messages targeting individuals at either a non-intentional or intentional stage of change. A mixed-method approach was used, combining eight focus groups (n = 45) and a questionnaire (n = 390). Target beliefs for people at both stages were identified under five theoretical constructs (risk perception, outcome expectancies, action planning, coping planning and self-efficacy). Highlighting health problems due to low fruit and vegetable consumption, health benefits, weight reduction and pleasure and enhancing self-efficacy to increase fruit and vegetable intake are the main guidelines for designing messages to non-intenders. For intenders, messages should reassure them of their ability to maintain adequate fruit and vegetable consumption, outline specific plans for increased consumption, identify barriers such as preparation, forgetting or being tired and unwilling to eat fruits and vegetables and suggest strategies to overcome them, such as presenting some practical examples on how to include fruits and vegetables when eating out.

  3. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    PubMed

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students.

  4. Factors related to adopting healthy behaviors by patients with tuberculosis in Isfahan: Application of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Maryam; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Alahverdipoor, Hamid; Hasanzade, Akbar; Farid, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex. It is one of the most common infectious diseases largely resulting from the patient's lifestyle. The purpose of the present study is to investigate factors related with adopting health behaviors by patients with tuberculosis based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 196 patients with tuberculosis. Data was collected using a 47-item, self-designed, questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 73.9. The Pearson test was used to study the correlation between independent variables and adopting a healthy behavior. Results: The mean score for adopting healthy behaviors by patients was 87.52 ± 13.8. The Pearson correlation test indicated a statistically significant relation between adopting healthy behaviors and scores of knowledge (P < 0.001, r = 0.536), perceived susceptibility (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), perceived benefits (P < 0.001, r = 0.347), and perceived barriers (P = 0.046, r = 0.143). Conclusion: Direct relationship was found between adoptinga healthy behavior and scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and perceived benefit. Although the results of this study can be the basis of educational interventions, any generalizations should be performed cautiously. PMID:25250352

  5. Introducing Students to the Role of Folk and Popular Health Belief-Systems in Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Harriet L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Medical College of Pennsylvania has introduced a four-hour interdisciplinary class for sophomore students in the role of folk and popular healing systems in patient care. Student and faculty responded enthusiastically, and the program will be expanded. (MSE)

  6. Belief in life-after-death, beliefs about the world, and psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Galek, Kathleen; Silton, Nava R

    2012-09-01

    Data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey were analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM) to test five hypotheses: (1) that religious commitment is positively related to belief in life-after-death; that belief in life-after-death is (2) positively related to belief in an equitable world, and (3) negatively related to belief in a cynical world; (4) that belief in a cynical world has a pernicious association with psychiatric symptoms; and (5) that belief in an equitable world has a salubrious association with psychiatric symptoms. As hypothesized, religious commitment was positively related to belief in life-after-death (β = .74). In turn, belief in life-after-death was negatively associated with belief in a cynical world (β = -.16) and positively associated with belief in an equitable world (β = .36), as hypothesized. SEM further confirmed that belief in a cynical world had a significant pernicious association with all five classes of psychiatric symptoms (β's = .11 to .30). Belief in an equitable world had a weaker and less consistent salubrious association with psychiatric symptoms. The results are discussed in the context of ETAS theory.

  7. Understanding, eliciting and negotiating clients' multicultural health beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L E

    1993-04-01

    People of many cultures explain and treat illness in ways that are different from and that may conflict with the biomedical beliefs and practices on which the American health care system is based. Eliciting clients' health beliefs and negotiating treatment plans with them can help avoid problems caused by discrepancies in belief systems. This article presents three major categories of belief systems commonly found in the United States as well as other countries. Questions designed to discover clients' health beliefs are included, along with guidelines for arriving at plans of care that accommodate those beliefs. Case studies are provided that illustrate this process of negotiation.

  8. The Relations between Implicit Intelligence Beliefs, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and School Persistence Intentions: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud-Dubé, Andréanne; Guay, Frédéric; Talbot, Denis; Taylor, Geneviève; Koestner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to test a model in which the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students' school persistence intentions are mediated by intrinsic, identified, introjected, and external regulations. Six hundred and fifty students from a high school were surveyed. Contrary to expectations, results from ESEM analyses indicated…

  9. The effect of an educational program based on health belief model and social cognitive theory in prevention of osteoporosis in women.

    PubMed

    Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2015-09-08

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. In this experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) from women aged 30 to 50 years old, who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected. After intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the health belief model constructs, self-regulation, social support, and nutrition and walking performance compared to the control group. After 6 months of intervention, the value of lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density T-score in the experimental group increased, while in the control group it reduced. This study showed the effectiveness of health belief model and structures of self-regulation and social support in prevention of osteoporosis in women.

  10. The Interplay between a Course Management System and Preservice Teachers' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Thea K.

    2004-01-01

    The multiyear study discussed in this paper focuses on the use of a course management system (CMS) to deliver video clips and interactive mathematics investigations and to support shared reflections in a field-based elementary mathematics methods course. The findings reveal that virtual observations of mathematics teaching episodes in diverse…

  11. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (p<0.001). This research demonstrated an appropriate communication process in behavioral modification to prevent cervical cancer. It can be recommended that this program featuring social marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  12. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  13. How the health belief model helps the tobacco industry: individuals, choice, and “information”

    PubMed Central

    Balbach, Edith D; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse trial and deposition testimony of tobacco industry executives to determine how they use the concepts of “information” and “choice” and consider how these concepts are related to theoretical models of health behaviour change. Methods We coded and analysed transcripts of trial and deposition testimony of 14 high‐level executives representing six companies plus the Tobacco Institute. We conducted an interpretive analysis of industry executives' characterisation of the industry's role as information provider and the agency of tobacco consumers in making “choices”. Results Tobacco industry executives deployed the concept of “information” as a mechanism that shifted to consumers full moral responsibility for the harms caused by tobacco products. The industry's role was characterised as that of impartial supplier of value‐free “information”, without regard to its quality, accuracy and truthfulness. Tobacco industry legal defences rely on assumptions congruent with and supported by individual rational choice theories, particularly those that emphasise individual, autonomous decision‐makers. Conclusions Tobacco control advocates and health educators must challenge the industry's preferred framing, pointing out that “information” is not value‐free. Multi‐level, multi‐sectoral interventions are critical to tobacco use prevention. Over‐reliance on individual and interpersonal rational choice models may have the effect of validating the industry's model of smoking and cessation behaviour, absolving it of responsibility and rendering invisible the “choices” the industry has made and continues to make in promoting the most deadly consumer product ever made. PMID:17130622

  14. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A.; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages. PMID:26617539

  15. Integrated Workforce Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several computer-based systems, currently in various phases of development at KSC, which encompass some component, aspect, or function of workforce modeling. These systems may offer redundant capabilities and/or incompatible interfaces. A systems approach to workforce modeling is necessary in order to identify and better address user requirements. This research has consisted of two primary tasks. Task 1 provided an assessment of existing and proposed KSC workforce modeling systems for their functionality and applicability to the workforce planning function. Task 2 resulted in the development of a proof-of-concept design for a systems approach to workforce modeling. The model incorporates critical aspects of workforce planning, including hires, attrition, and employee development.

  16. Coastal Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-04

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Modeling System The work unit develops the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) and conducts basic research to...further understanding of sediment transport under mixed forcing from waves and currents. The CMS is a suite of coupled two- dimensional numerical...models for simulating waves, hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport, and morphology change. The CMS was identified by the USACE Hydraulics and

  17. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  18. The origins of belief representation: monkeys fail to automatically represent others' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-03-01

    Young infants' successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)'s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species--the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)--is automatically influenced by another agent's beliefs when tracking an object's location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple's movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys' belief (true or false) and agent's belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys' expectations were not influenced by another agent's beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans.

  19. Investigation of the effect of education based on the health belief model on the adoption of hypertension-controlling behaviors in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Fekrizadeh, Zohreh; Roozbahani, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hypertension is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and stroke, and has a direct relationship with aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of education based on the health belief model (HBM) on the adoption of hypertension-controlling behaviors in the elderly. Methods The present quasiexperimental study was conducted on 100 hypertensive elderly persons from Qom, Iran. The questionnaire was completed by the participants before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. Results The results of repeated measure analysis of variance showed a significant difference in the scores of the constructs in the intervention and nonintervention groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion Education based on the HBM increases the performance and enhances the health beliefs regarding hypertension in the elderly population with hypertension. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the HBM to enhance self-care behaviors in the elderly. PMID:28184154

  20. Play-Personas: Behaviours and Belief Systems in User-Centred Game Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canossa, Alessandro; Drachen, Anders

    Game designers attempt to ignite affective, emotional responses from players via engineering game designs to incite definite user experiences. Theories of emotion state that definite emotional responses are individual, and caused by the individual interaction sequence or history. Engendering desired emotions in the audience of traditional audiovisual media is a considerable challenge; however it is potentially even more difficult to achieve the same goal for the audience of interactive entertainment, because a substantial degree of control rests in the hand of the end user rather than the designer. This paper presents a possible solution to the challenge of integrating the user in the design of interactive entertainment such as computer games by employing the "persona" framework introduced by Alan Cooper. This approach is already in use in interaction design. The method can be improved by complementing the traditional narrative description of personas with quantitative, data-oriented models of predicted patterns of user behaviour for a specific computer game Additionally, persona constructs can be applied both as design-oriented metaphors during the development of games, and as analytical lenses to existing games, e.g. for evaluation of patterns of player behaviour.

  1. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  2. Science teachers' beliefs about teaching and reform: Case studies from a restructured high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Elizabeth A.

    A qualitative research study of the beliefs of three science teachers about teaching and educational reform was carried out at a restructured high school belonging to the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), a nationally prominent restructuring movement. One problem of educational reform is to sustain change in the science classroom. A new wave of reform is shifting the focus away from curriculum changes and towards professionalism of teachers empowered to restructure schools. The beliefs of the teachers are key to decisions made in the classroom. The teachers and staff of Metro High School adopted the Ten Common Principles of CES as their guide to restructuring and sustaining change. Changes included increased authority for teachers in shared decision making, increased staff time for professional development, grouping students heterogeneously, grouping students and faculty in teams for extended time periods, and organizing instruction around small group and individual student study (student-centered). The theoretical framework centers on the constructivist theory of learning, particularly Vygotsky's socio-cultural model, and Bakhtin's dialogic function of language. Nespor's belief system model was used to describe the four characteristic features of beliefs: episodic memories, alternativity, existential presumption, and evaluative loading. My research questions were: What memories of teaching have influenced the teachers? What are the teachers' beliefs about the learning environment? What are the teachers' beliefs about their students? What are the teachers' beliefs about student activities? Interviews were the primary data source for the case studies of the three teachers, with additional data from lesson plans, photo-voice, and other artifacts. The teachers shared many common beliefs including that strong peer support is necessary for reform. The teachers' beliefs allied themselves to the majority of the common principles of CES, especially personalization and

  3. Developing a Structural Model on the Relationship among Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…

  4. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  5. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  6. The Stylistics of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julia P.

    The stylistics of belief is the study of the ways in which language is used by speakers to express their beliefs, to convince other people they are right, or to avoid committing themselves to particular beliefs. Such study can contribute to an understanding of the ways in which people misuse and manipulate language for their own ends. The…

  7. Peirce on Educational Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Torill

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) may enhance our understanding of educational beliefs and that Peirce's logic may be a tool to distinguish between a dogmatic and a pragmatic justification of such beliefs. The first part of the article elaborates on Peirce's comprehension of beliefs as mediated, socially situated and…

  8. Children's Performance on a False-belief Task Is Impaired by Activation of an Evolutionarily-Canalized Response System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Thomas; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examined how task content that activates predator-avoidance affects preschool children's performance on a false-belief task. Findings indicated that the proportion of correct answers on the playmate-avoidance task was greater than that for the predator-avoidance task, suggesting that activation of the predator-avoidance system…

  9. Examining the usefulness of a Family Empowerment Program guided by the Illness Beliefs Model for families caring for a child with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Wacharasin, Chintana; Phaktoop, Maneerat; Sananreangsak, Siriyupa

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to design, implement, and evaluate a Family Empowerment Program (FEP), guided by the Illness Beliefs Model. Participants included 25 Thai family members who were the primary caregivers of a child with thalassemia. In Phase I, data were collected from participants using individual in-depth interviews and focus groups before involvement in the FEP. In Phase II, 12 hr of FEP sessions were offered to groups of participants. Content analysis of the audiotaped FEP sessions is reported in this article. Family caregivers reported that the FEP helped them share beliefs and experiences related to caring for their child with thalassemia, make decisions related to families' problems/needs and beliefs, provide each other mutual social support, and develop increased ability to manage care for their chronically ill child through sharing information and learning from other family caregivers about family functioning, family management, and family relationships. Future research is needed to examine the FEP intervention under more controlled conditions with measures that include family functioning and child health outcomes.

  10. Multiscale Cloud System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

    2009-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

  11. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  12. The impact of education intervention on the Health Belief Model constructs regarding anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Sabooteh, Sahar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mirkarimi, Kamal; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to investigations, pregnant women hypothesized that anxiety is a common factor that will improve spontaneously; they are not aware of its side effects on the fetus, baby, and pregnancy outcome, as a whole. Other studies have also not tried to design a theoretical framework based on Health Education Models (HBMs) to overcome this problem. The current study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of education on the anxiety of nulliparous women based on a HBM. Materials and Methods: An experimental study on 88 eligible nulliparous women (n = 44 per group), from Doroud city, was performed in 2012. The data was collected using a researcher made questionnaire. Education was conducted in three sessions tailored with HBM constructs with the help of lectures, group discussions, inquiries, Power Point presentations, and booklets. Evaluation performed using a posttest four and eight weeks after last session. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests, including Chi-square, independent t-test, and repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by the significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean score of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action, self efficacy, and behavior, four weeks after intervention (P < 0.001) and eight weeks after intervention (P < 0.001) were significantly more in the case group Than the control group. ANOVA with repeated measures showed a significant increase in the case group in knowledge (from 32.1 to 89.1), perceived sensitivity (from 34.8 to 91.5), perceived severity (from 31.82 to 88.48), perceived benefits (from 39.28 to 92.41), perceived barriers (from 26.93 to 88.61), cues to action (from24.65 to 92.03), self efficacy (from 29.71 to 88.75), and behavior (from 28.83 to 94.63). Changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The effect of HBM and education on increasing knowledge and changing people's beliefs and behavior, in terms of

  13. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  14. Three-factor structure for Epistemic Belief Inventory: A cross-validation study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Research on epistemic beliefs has been hampered by lack of validated models and measurement instruments. The most widely used instrument is the Epistemological Questionnaire, which has been criticized for validity, and it has been proposed a new instrument based in the Epistemological Questionnaire: the Epistemic Belief Inventory. The Spanish-language version of Epistemic Belief Inventory was applied to 1,785 Chilean high school students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in independent subsamples were performed. A three factor structure emerged and was confirmed. Reliability was comparable to other studies, and the factor structure was invariant among randomized subsamples. The structure that was found does not replicate the one proposed originally, but results are interpreted in light of embedded systemic model of epistemological beliefs. PMID:28278258

  15. Effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Farma, Khadijah Kalan Farman; Jalili, Zahra; Zareban, Iraj; Pour, Mahnaz Shahraki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in females. Methods of screening are the best among early detection methods. The goal of this study is effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model Materials and Methods: This study was a semi-experimental, a kind of case-control research. This study was carried on 240 female teachers in guidance schools, Zahedan city, in 2011-2012 academic years with multi-stage sampling. Data collection tool was a questionnaire that was used after confirmation of validity and reliability. Data were collected with questionnaire after analysis, educational intervention with lecture, view video, group discussion, question and answer performed. Two month after intervention, secondary evaluation was performed. Collected data with SPSS software and appropriate statistical tests like: Paired t-test, independent t-test, regression analysis, Chi-square were analyzed. Results: Persons mean age in this study was 39.40(±7.4) years. In awareness item and health belief model constructs (awareness, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficiency, behavior) and also practice, paired t-test showed significant difference among before and after education (P > 0.0001). In two groups based on Chi-square in level of education and married status, there were no significant differences. Also, regression analysis outcomes showed that perceived barriers had the most effect on behavior, and this construct could be predictor of preventive behaviors from breast cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study could conclude that educational programs designed based on the health belief model have significant impact on improving preventive treatment of breast cancer. Given the fact that Iran has a very high incidence of breast cancer, since Iranian women's awareness level and performance specially

  16. Distributed fuzzy system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrycz, W.; Chi Fung Lam, P.; Rocha, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    The paper introduces and studies an idea of distributed modeling treating it as a new paradigm of fuzzy system modeling and analysis. This form of modeling is oriented towards developing individual (local) fuzzy models for specific modeling landmarks (expressed as fuzzy sets) and determining the essential logical relationships between these local models. The models themselves are implemented in the form of logic processors being regarded as specialized fuzzy neural networks. The interaction between the processors is developed either in an inhibitory or excitatory way. In more descriptive way, the distributed model can be sought as a collection of fuzzy finite state machines with their individual local first or higher order memories. It is also clarified how the concept of distributed modeling narrows down a gap between purely numerical (quantitative) models and the qualitative ones originated within the realm of Artificial Intelligence. The overall architecture of distributed modeling is discussed along with the detailed learning schemes. The results of extensive simulation experiments are provided as well. 17 refs.

  17. Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Dynamic and Complex Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Hongying

    2013-01-01

    Research on teachers' beliefs has provided useful insights into understanding processes of teaching. However, no research has explored teachers' beliefs as a system nor have researchers investigated the substance of interactions between teachers' beliefs, practices and context. Therefore, the author adopts complexity theory to explore the features…

  18. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  19. Climate system modeling program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Climate System Modeling Project is a component activity of NSF's Climate Modeling, Analysis and Prediction Program, supported by the Atmospheric Sciences Program, Geosciences Directorate. Its objective is to accelerate progress toward reliable prediction of global and regional climate changes in the decades ahead. CSMP operates through workshops, support for post-docs and graduate students and other collaborative activities designed to promote interdisciplinary and strategic work in support of the overall objective (above) and specifically in three areas, (1) Causes of interdecadal variability in the climate system, (2) Interactions of regional climate forcing with global processes, and (3) Scientific needs of climate assessment.

  20. Modeling the earth system

    SciTech Connect

    Ojima, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  1. Through rose-colored glasses: system-justifying beliefs dampen the effects of relative deprivation on well-being and political mobilization.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G

    2013-08-01

    Individual-based and group-based forms of relative deprivation (IRD and GRD, respectively) are linked with individual- and group-based responses to inequality, respectively. System justification theory, however, argues that we are motivated to believe that people's outcomes are equitably determined. As such, endorsement of system-justifying beliefs should dampen people's reactions to outcomes perceived to be unequal and ultimately undermine support for political mobilization. We examined these hypotheses in a national probability sample of New Zealanders (N = 6,886). As expected, IRD predicted individual-based responses to inequality (i.e., satisfaction with one's standard of living and psychological distress) better than GRD. Conversely, GRD predicted group-based responses to inequality (i.e., perceived discrimination against one's group and support for political mobilization) better than IRD. Each of these relationships was, however, notably weaker among participants who were high, relative to low, on system justification. These results demonstrate that system-justifying beliefs have a palliative effect on people's experiences with inequality.

  2. Determinants of adherence to self-care behavior among women with type 2 diabetes: an explanation based on health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Araban, Marzieh; Zareban, Iraj; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is an essential element in treating a person with diabetes; and managing diabetes is of prime importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of adherence to self-care behavior among women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 female patients aged 30 to 60. Data collection tool was an anonymous valid and reliable questionnaire designed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which acquired information about the followings: Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and diabetes self-care behavior. Data were analyzed by t-test, chisquare and regression analysis. Results: The multiple regression models revealed 59.9% of the variance of self-care behavior with self-efficacy, perceived barrier, benefit and susceptibility. Additionally, the highest weight for β (β=0.87) was found for self-efficacy. Self-care behavior was positively correlated with all HBM variables except for perceived barriers showing a negative correlation. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model may be used as a framework to design intervention programs in an attempt to improve adherence to self-care behaviors of women with diabetes. In addition, the results indicated that self-efficacy might play a more crucial role in developing self-care behaviors than t other HBM components. Therefore, if the focus is placed on self-efficacy when developing educational programs, it may increase the likelihood of adherence to self-care behavior. PMID:27493912

  3. Modeling the structure of the attitudes and belief scale 2 using CFA and bifactor approaches: Toward the development of an abbreviated version.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Attitudes and Belief Scale-2 (ABS-2: DiGiuseppe, Leaf, Exner, & Robin, 1988. The development of a measure of rational/irrational thinking. Paper presented at the World Congress of Behavior Therapy, Edinburg, Scotland.) is a 72-item self-report measure of evaluative rational and irrational beliefs widely used in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy research contexts. However, little psychometric evidence exists regarding the measure's underlying factor structure. Furthermore, given the length of the ABS-2 there is a need for an abbreviated version that can be administered when there are time demands on the researcher, such as in clinical settings. This study sought to examine a series of theoretical models hypothesized to represent the latent structure of the ABS-2 within an alternative models framework using traditional confirmatory factor analysis as well as utilizing a bifactor modeling approach. Furthermore, this study also sought to develop a psychometrically sound abbreviated version of the ABS-2. Three hundred and thirteen (N = 313) active emergency service personnel completed the ABS-2. Results indicated that for each model, the application of bifactor modeling procedures improved model fit statistics, and a novel eight-factor intercorrelated solution was identified as the best fitting model of the ABS-2. However, the observed fit indices failed to satisfy commonly accepted standards. A 24-item abbreviated version was thus constructed and an intercorrelated eight-factor solution yielded satisfactory model fit statistics. Current results support the use of a bifactor modeling approach to determining the factor structure of the ABS-2. Furthermore, results provide empirical support for the psychometric properties of the newly developed abbreviated version.

  4. Measuring Belief in Conspiracy Theories: The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C.; Pickering, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation – individuals’ general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world. PMID:23734136

  5. Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: the generic conspiracist beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C; Pickering, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation - individuals' general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world.

  6. Preservice science teacher beliefs about teaching and the science methods courses: Exploring perceptions of microteaching outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaury, Ralph L.

    This study investigates beliefs about teaching held by preservice science teachers and their influences on self-perceived microteaching outcomes within interactive secondary science teaching methods courses. Hermeneutic methodology was used in cooperation with seven preservice science teachers (N=7) to infer participant beliefs about teaching and to draw connections between these beliefs and student perceptions about their performance of assigned microteachings. The foci of this study were 1) discerning participant beliefs about the teaching of science, 2) discerning beliefs about microteaching within the Purdue science teaching methods courses, and 3) connecting participant perceptions of their microteaching assignment performances with these beliefs. Each student was interviewed before the first microteaching assignment and again after each microteaching episode in order to develop co-constructions of participant beliefs about teaching. Participants were interviewed about each of their microteachings in conjunction with reviews of videotapes of their performances. Refinements to emergent models of participant beliefs were made in each subsequent interview by the use of directed interview questions and the tracking and discussion of participant actions during microteachings. Rich emic detail was provided by the active, daily, and assessed participation of the researcher in the fall course alongside study participants. The interpretations offered suggest that participants' beliefs, rather than instructor- or peer-based assessments, serve as the primary determinant by which preservice teachers perceived personal success in microteaching situations. Apparent beliefs were observed as enacted, private social norms within participants' simulated teaching roles. Explicit, instructor-planned interpersonal challenges to specific preservice teacher beliefs within these courses were generally treated as anomalous by participants, and therefore often rejected as valid sources

  7. The Impact of High Stakes Accountability Systems and the New Performance Demands on Special Education Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Robin Lee

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) articulates the goal that all children can learn and are expected to achieve grade level academic proficiency by 2014. Based on theories underlying models of extrinsic motivation, the fundamental assumption and theory of action is that a system of rewards and sanctions will motivate teachers to focus on…

  8. Do health beliefs, health care system distrust, and racial pride influence HPV vaccine acceptability among African American college females?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Annang, Lucy; Friedman, Daniela B; Tanner, Andrea; Sharpe, Patricia A

    2012-03-01

    The promise of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines rests with the ability to promote widespread uptake especially among populations at high risk of cervical cancer and other associated disease outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs and culturally specific influences of HPV vaccine acceptability among African American college females. Approximately 76 percent of participants reported HPV vaccine acceptability. Predictors of acceptability included: higher perceived benefit and lower racial pride. Findings can be used to inform development of campus-based HPV educational approaches to promote widespread HPV vaccine acceptability and safer sex practices among African American college females.

  9. Modelling robot construction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Chris

    1990-01-01

    TROTER's are small, inexpensive robots that can work together to accomplish sophisticated construction tasks. To understand the issues involved in designing and operating a team of TROTER's, the robots and their components are being modeled. A TROTER system that features standardized component behavior is introduced. An object-oriented model implemented in the Smalltalk programming language is described and the advantages of the object-oriented approach for simulating robot and component interactions are discussed. The presentation includes preliminary results and a discussion of outstanding issues.

  10. NEP systems model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A new nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems analysis code is discussed. The new code is modular and consists of a driver code and various subsystem models. The code models five different subsystems: (1) reactor/shield; (2) power conversion; (3) heat rejection; (4) power management and distribution (PMAD); and (5) thrusters. The code optimizes for the following design criteria: minimum mass; minimum radiator area; and low mass/low area. The code also optimizes the following parameters: separation distance; temperature ratio; pressure ratio; and transmission frequency. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  11. Belief network algorithms: A study of performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jitnah, N.

    1996-12-31

    This abstract gives an overview of the work. We present a survey of Belief Network algorithms and propose a domain characterization system to be used as a basis for algorithm comparison and for predicting algorithm performance.

  12. The BEL information extraction workflow (BELIEF): evaluation in the BioCreative V BEL and IAT track

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Sumit; Hodapp, Sven; Senger, Philipp; Ansari, Sam; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches have become extremely important in systems biology to achieve a better understanding of biological mechanisms. For network representation, the Biological Expression Language (BEL) is well designed to collate findings from the scientific literature into biological network models. To facilitate encoding and biocuration of such findings in BEL, a BEL Information Extraction Workflow (BELIEF) was developed. BELIEF provides a web-based curation interface, the BELIEF Dashboard, that incorporates text mining techniques to support the biocurator in the generation of BEL networks. The underlying UIMA-based text mining pipeline (BELIEF Pipeline) uses several named entity recognition processes and relationship extraction methods to detect concepts and BEL relationships in literature. The BELIEF Dashboard allows easy curation of the automatically generated BEL statements and their context annotations. Resulting BEL statements and their context annotations can be syntactically and semantically verified to ensure consistency in the BEL network. In summary, the workflow supports experts in different stages of systems biology network building. Based on the BioCreative V BEL track evaluation, we show that the BELIEF Pipeline automatically extracts relationships with an F-score of 36.4% and fully correct statements can be obtained with an F-score of 30.8%. Participation in the BioCreative V Interactive task (IAT) track with BELIEF revealed a systems usability scale (SUS) of 67. Considering the complexity of the task for new users—learning BEL, working with a completely new interface, and performing complex curation—a score so close to the overall SUS average highlights the usability of BELIEF. Database URL: BELIEF is available at http://www.scaiview.com/belief/ PMID:27694210

  13. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-10-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition and how they come to influence science teachers' classroom practice. As such, researchers and science teacher educators have relied on an (at times, implicit) assumption that there is a direct causal relationship between teachers' beliefs and classroom practice. In this paper, we propose an operational, as opposed to epistemological, definition of belief. That is, we are explicit about the role a belief plays in science teachers' cognition and how that leads to classroom practice. We define a belief as a mental representation that influences the practice of a teacher if and only if the belief is active in cognition. We then turn our attention to two limitations in the literature on that have arisen via previous definitions and assumptions regarding science teacher beliefs, showing how defining beliefs operationally helps think about these issues in new ways. The two limitations surround: (1) the difficulty in precisely delineating belief from knowledge; and (2) the interconnectedness of beliefs such that they draw meaning from one another. We then show how our definition of beliefs is congruent with other models of teacher cognition reported in the literature. Finally, we provide implications arising from this definition of belief for both science teacher educators and those who conduct research on the beliefs of both preservice and in-service science teachers.

  14. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  15. Old Beliefs = Taimaknaqtat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Minnie Aliitchak; And Others

    Written in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet presents several examples of Eskimo "old beliefs" to be taught to younger people providing them with a greater understanding of the elders and what governs their actions and behavior. Topics of "old beliefs" pertain to babies, women, young girls and boys, bears,…

  16. Recollection, belief and metacognition: a reality check.

    PubMed

    Blank, Hartmut

    2016-10-15

    Non-believed autobiographical memories [e.g. Mazzoni, G., Scoboria, A., & Harvey, L. (2010). Nonbelieved memories. Psychological Science, 21, 1334-1340] are striking examples of divergences between recollective experiences and beliefs in their correspondence to real events. After reviewing a broader range of similar phenomena, I argue that recollection-belief divergences can arise from normal, "healthy" metacognitive monitoring and control processes that balance memory recollections and reality constraints. Such validating "reality checks" draw on general world knowledge and external/social information. Importantly, changes in (perceived) reality constraints can lead to changes in memory beliefs. More generally, both recollection and (external) reality are keys to the past. In many cases, more or less automatic (System 1-type) reliance on recollection is sufficient (or memory would be useless as a system), but sometimes more elaborate (System 2-type) reality checks are needed. I conclude with some ideas about memory-driven and reality-driven recollection-belief divergences.

  17. Are All Beliefs Equal? Implicit Belief Attributions Recruiting Core Brain Regions of Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Gergely, György; Csibra, Gergely; Brass, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Humans possess efficient mechanisms to behave adaptively in social contexts. They ascribe goals and beliefs to others and use these for behavioural predictions. Researchers argued for two separate mental attribution systems: an implicit and automatic one involved in online interactions, and an explicit one mainly used in offline deliberations. However, the underlying mechanisms of these systems and the types of beliefs represented in the implicit system are still unclear. Using neuroimaging methods, we show that the right temporo-parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, brain regions consistently found to be involved in explicit mental state reasoning, are also recruited by spontaneous belief tracking. While the medial prefrontal cortex was more active when both the participant and another agent believed an object to be at a specific location, the right temporo-parietal junction was selectively activated during tracking the false beliefs of another agent about the presence, but not the absence of objects. While humans can explicitly attribute to a conspecific any possible belief they themselves can entertain, implicit belief tracking seems to be restricted to beliefs with specific contents, a content selectivity that may reflect a crucial functional characteristic and signature property of implicit belief attribution. PMID:25259625

  18. Executive functions in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Wain, Omar; Spinella, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Moral, religious, and paranormal beliefs share some degree of overlap and play important roles in guiding peoples' behavior. Although partly cultural phenomena, they also have neurobiological components based on functional neuroimaging studies and research in clinical populations. Because all three show relationships to prefrontal system functioning, the current study examined whether they related to executive functions as measured by the Executive Function Inventory in a community sample. As in previous research, religious beliefs related positively to both moral attitudes and paranormal beliefs. Moral attitudes, however, did not relate to paranormal beliefs. Paranormal beliefs related inversely to impulse control and organization, whereas small positive correlations occurred between traditional religious beliefs, impulse control, and empathy. Moral attitudes, on the other hand, showed consistent positive correlations with all executive functions measured, independent of demographic influences. These findings concordantly support that prefrontal systems play a role in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

  19. The Health Belief Model: A Qualitative Study to Understand High-risk Sexual Behavior in Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley

    2016-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use.

  20. Heat waves and climate change: applying the health belief model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviours in adelaide, australia.

    PubMed

    Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-05-29

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants' perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19-6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.58), a high "cues to action" (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63-8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25-5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07-6.56) were more likely to have good adaptive behaviours

  1. Factors associated with the fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening based on health belief model structures in moderate risk individuals, Isfahan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Reisi, Mahnoosh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzade, Akbar; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most important and most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Every year, nearly 1 million new cases of colorectal cancer are recognized around the world and nearly half of them lose their lives due to the disease. The statistics reveal shocking incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer, therefore secondary prevention of this cancer is important and research has shown that by early diagnosis 90% of patients can be treated. Among the colorectal cancer screening tests, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) takes the priority because of its convenience and also low cost. But due to various reasons, the participation of people in this screening test is low. The goal of this study is to assess the factors that affect participation of population at average risk in colorectal cancer screening programs, based on health belief model structures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 196 individuals, more than 50 years old, was conducted in Isfahan. Ninety-eight people of the target group were selected from laboratories while they came there for doing FOBT test; the method of sampling in this group was random sampling. The method of data collection in the other 98 individuals was by home interview and they were selected by cluster sampling. The questionnaire used was based on health belief model to assess the factors associated with performing FOBT. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The mean score of knowledge in the first group was 48/5 ± 11/7 and in the second group was 36/5 ± 19/3. Individuals in the first group were more likely to be married, had more years of schooling, and better financial status. There were significant relationships between knowledge (P<0.001), perceived susceptibility (P<0.001), perceived severity (P<0.001), perceived barriers (P<0.001), and self-efficacy (P<0.001) in the two groups. There was no

  2. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E.; Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  3. [An offspring of love. Freud on belief].

    PubMed

    Will, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This paper elucidates Freud's ideas of belief and believing. By investigating the semantic field, it discusses the place of his theory of religion in the context of his thought. It argues for a consistent model which does not stem from antireligious prejudice but meshes with his whole thinking. For Freud religious belief was a special case of the general attitude of believing. He situated it within a three-stage development of the individual as well as of humanity, starting with a state of magical-animistic thinking in autoerotism and narcissism and leading, via object-dependency and a belief in omnipotent parental figures, to emancipation through rationality and critical judgement. The origin of belief in wishing accounts for the believer's lack of judgement and submission to religious authorities. In the end some of the advantages and disadvantages of Freud's model are highlighted.

  4. Rethinking the learning of belief network probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.

    1996-03-01

    Belief networks are a powerful tool for knowledge discovery that provide concise, understandable probabilistic models of data. There are methods grounded in probability theory to incrementally update the relationships described by the belief network when new information is seen, to perform complex inferences over any set of variables in the data, to incorporate domain expertise and prior knowledge into the model, and to automatically learn the model from data. This paper concentrates on part of the belief network induction problem, that of learning the quantitative structure (the conditional probabilities), given the qualitative structure. In particular, the current practice of rote learning the probabilities in belief networks can be significantly improved upon. We advance the idea of applying any learning algorithm to the task of conditional probability learning in belief networks, discuss potential benefits, and show results of applying neural networks and other algorithms to a medium sized car insurance belief network. The results demonstrate from 10 to 100% improvements in model error rates over the current approaches.

  5. Young Children's Understanding of Fact Beliefs versus Value Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.

    Three studies compared 3-year-olds' ability to attribute fact beliefs and value beliefs to another person when these beliefs differed from the children's. Value beliefs concerned the tastes and smells of substances, and whether stimuli were pretty or not. Numbers of subjects involved in the three studies were 32, 16, and 20. The consistent finding…

  6. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  7. Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God.

    PubMed

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2-4).

  8. Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God

    PubMed Central

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2–4). PMID:22666332

  9. Neural correlates of belief- and desire-reasoning.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Wellman, Henry M

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Event-related brain potentials were recorded as participants (N = 24; mean age = 22 years) reasoned about diverse-desires, diverse-beliefs, and parallel physical situations. A mid-frontal late slow wave (LSW) was associated with desire and belief judgments. A right-posterior LSW was only associated with belief judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap and critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs, and they suggest children recruit additional neural processes for belief judgments beyond a common, more general, mentalizing neural system.

  10. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    PubMed

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  11. A comparative study on phenomenon and deep belief network models for hot deformation behavior of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Liang, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ming-Song; Chen, Xiao-Min

    2017-01-01

    The high temperature deformation behavior of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy is studied by isothermal compression tests at the temperature range of 573-723 K and strain rate range of 0.001-0.1 s-1. Considering the coupled influences of deformation temperature, strain, and strain rate on hot deformation behavior, a deep belief network (DBN) model, as well as a phenomenological constitutive model, is developed for the studied alloy. In order to validate the developed models, the average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient are evaluated between the measured and predicted true stresses. The results show that the developed DBN model has the better predictability for the high temperature deformation behavior of the studied Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Moreover, the average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient of DBN model are 0.57% and 0.9997, respectively. In addition, the developed DBN model can be effectively applied in the intelligent manufacturing, such as intelligent isothermal die forging technology.

  12. An endorsement-based approach to student modeling for planner-controlled intelligent tutoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, William R.

    1990-01-01

    An approach is described to student modeling for intelligent tutoring systems based on an explicit representation of the tutor's beliefs about the student and the arguments for and against those beliefs (called endorsements). A lexicographic comparison of arguments, sorted according to evidence reliability, provides a principled means of determining those beliefs that are considered true, false, or uncertain. Each of these beliefs is ultimately justified by underlying assessment data. The endorsement-based approach to student modeling is particularly appropriate for tutors controlled by instructional planners. These tutors place greater demands on a student model than opportunistic tutors. Numerical calculi approaches are less well-suited because it is difficult to correctly assign numbers for evidence reliability and rule plausibility. It may also be difficult to interpret final results and provide suitable combining functions. When numeric measures of uncertainty are used, arbitrary numeric thresholds are often required for planning decisions. Such an approach is inappropriate when robust context-sensitive planning decisions must be made. A TMS-based implementation of the endorsement-based approach to student modeling is presented, this approach is compared to alternatives, and a project history is provided describing the evolution of this approach.

  13. Epistemological Beliefs of Prospective Preschool Teachers and Their Relation to Knowledge, Perception, and Planning Abilities in the Field of Mathematics: A Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Eilerts, Katja; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Teacher competence is a multi-dimensional construct that includes beliefs as well as knowledge. The present study investigated the structure of prospective preschool teachers' mathematics-related beliefs and their relation to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, prospective preschool teachers' perception and planning…

  14. The Role of Internet-Specific Epistemic Beliefs and Self-Regulation in High School Students' Online Academic Help Seeking: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Three instruments (i.e., Internet-specific epistemic beliefs, self-regulation, and online academic help seeking questionnaires) were administered to 319 high school students with the aim of understanding the role of Internet specific epistemic beliefs and self-regulation in their online academic help seeking. Through a structure equation modeling…

  15. Mental health, belief deficit compensation, and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, J F

    1987-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship between religious and nonreligious paranormal beliefs and mental health, as well as the possibility that nonreligious subjects compensate for a lack of identification with traditional religion by increased nonreligious paranormal beliefs. Subjects were 80 undergraduates categorized as religious or nonreligious on the basis of scores on the Traditional Religion subscale of the Paranormal Belief Scale. Religious subjects had significantly higher total paranormal belief scores than nonreligious subjects. Those adopting religious paranormal beliefs were actually somewhat more likely to adopt other nonreligious paranormal beliefs. The failure of nonreligious subjects to compensate fully for this traditional religious belief deficit was reflected in their mental health ratings on the Langer's Mental Health Scale (Langer, 1962). Paranormal beliefs were found to be negatively correlated with reported symptoms of psychopathology, supporting the formulation that paranormal beliefs may serve to ensure psychic integrity by acting as "self-serving cognitive biases."

  16. A Comparative Study of Elementary Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom and Behavior Management in the USA and Korean School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Myung-sook; Shin, Sunwoo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate elementary teachers' beliefs and inter-cultural perspectives in classroom management (instructional environment and behavior management) for students in public schools of the U.S. and Korea. The results supported that the two groups of teachers showed similar beliefs in instructional…

  17. A Cross-Cultural Study of Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom Behavior Management in Urban American and Korean School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-Sook

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' beliefs on classroom behavior management strategies for students in urban public high schools between teachers in the United States and the Republic of Korea. This study incorporates data collected from teacher self-reported survey questionnaire, which is the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom…

  18. Modeling mutual feedback between users and recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Yeung, Chi Ho; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Recommender systems daily influence our decisions on the Internet. While considerable attention has been given to issues such as recommendation accuracy and user privacy, the long-term mutual feedback between a recommender system and the decisions of its users has been neglected so far. We propose here a model of network evolution which allows us to study the complex dynamics induced by this feedback, including the hysteresis effect which is typical for systems with non-linear dynamics. Despite the popular belief that recommendation helps users to discover new things, we find that the long-term use of recommendation can contribute to the rise of extremely popular items and thus ultimately narrow the user choice. These results are supported by measurements of the time evolution of item popularity inequality in real systems. We show that this adverse effect of recommendation can be tamed by sacrificing part of short-term recommendation accuracy.

  19. The separate roles of the reflective mind and involuntary inhibitory control in gatekeeping paranormal beliefs and the underlying intuitive confusions.

    PubMed

    Svedholm, Annika M; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-08-01

    Intuitive thinking is known to predict paranormal beliefs, but the processes underlying this relationship, and the role of other thinking dispositions, have remained unclear. Study 1 showed that while an intuitive style increased and a reflective disposition counteracted paranormal beliefs, the ontological confusions suggested to underlie paranormal beliefs were predicted by individual differences in involuntary inhibitory processes. When the reasoning system was subjected to cognitive load, the ontological confusions increased, lost their relationship with paranormal beliefs, and their relationship with weaker inhibition was strongly accentuated. These findings support the argument that the confusions are mainly intuitive and that they therefore are most discernible under conditions in which inhibition is impaired, that is, when thinking is dominated by intuitive processing. Study 2 replicated the findings on intuitive and reflective thinking and paranormal beliefs. In Study 2, ontological confusions were also related to the same thinking styles as paranormal beliefs. The results support a model in which both intuitive and non-reflective thinking styles and involuntary inhibitory processes give way to embracing culturally acquired paranormal beliefs.

  20. Childhood trauma and the development of paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Berkowski, Monisha; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    Belief in the paranormal is fairly prevalent in the general population. Previous research has shown a link between several personological characteristics and paranormal beliefs. The current study attempted to further investigate this link by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. In addition, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. The results imply that researchers need to take into account how a person responds to trauma via the development of coping strategies to accurately understand any observed relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs.

  1. Developmental trajectories, transitions, and nonlinear dynamical systems: a model of crime deceleration and desistance.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2002-02-01

    Research on crime-related developmental trajectories is reviewed with outcomes revealing the existence of several trajectories rather than a single general pattern. Each trajectory is marked by transitions that define the pattern's path and direction over time. These anticipated transitions differ from the unanticipated transitions known to precipitate crime deceleration and desistance. Borrowing principles from nonlinear dynamical systems theory--sensitive dependence on initial conditions, chaotic attractors, and self-organization in particular--this article offers a model of crime deceleration and desistance in which belief systems congruent with crime are altered in phases--initiation, transition, maintenance--to create belief systems incongruent with crime. The practical implications of this model are discussed and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  2. Examining conspiracist beliefs about the disappearance of Amelia Earhart.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that conspiracist ideation forms part of a monological belief system in which one conspiracist idea acts as evidence for new conspiracist ideas. Here, we examined this possibility in relation to an event lacking reliable or conclusive evidence, namely the disappearance of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan. A total of 914 members of the British general public completed scales measuring their beliefs about the disappearance of Earhart and Noonan, belief in conspiracy theories, the Big Five personality factors, support for democratic principles, political cynicism, self-esteem, and self-assessed intelligence. Results showed that belief in conspiracy theories was associated with the endorsement of less plausible explanations for the disappearance of Earhart and Noonan. In addition, belief in less plausible explanations was also significantly associated with lower self-assessed intelligence, greater political cynicism, lower self-esteem, and higher Agreeableness scores. These results are discussed in relation to monological belief systems.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Work Values and Job Entitlement Beliefs in the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Angela; Krahn, Harvey J.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Employing a life span developmental systems perspective, this study used a 5-wave (1985-1992) Canadian longitudinal data set (N = 404) to examine trajectories of intrinsic and extrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs from age 18 to 25. Piecewise growth models (Slope 1: age 18-20; Slope 2: age 20-25) showed intriguing patterns of change.…

  4. Energy System Modeling with REopt

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Anderson, Kate; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; Elgqvist, Emma; DiOrio, Nick; Walker, Andy

    2016-07-15

    This poster details how REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - can help to model energy systems. Some benefits of modeling with REopt include optimizing behind the meter storage for cost and resiliency, optimizing lab testing, optimizing dispatch of utility scale storage, and quantifying renewable energy impact on outage survivability.

  5. ASTP ranging system mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, M. R.; Robinson, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented of the VHF ranging system to analyze the performance of the Apollo-Soyuz test project (ASTP). The system was adapted for use in the ASTP. The ranging system mathematical model is presented in block diagram form, and a brief description of the overall model is also included. A procedure for implementing the math model is presented along with a discussion of the validation of the math model and the overall summary and conclusions of the study effort. Detailed appendices of the five study tasks are presented: early late gate model development, unlock probability development, system error model development, probability of acquisition and model development, and math model validation testing.

  6. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  7. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  8. Application of Bayesian belief net in modelling the origin and effects of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in a boreal aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahikainen, Mika; Hoikkala, Laura; Soinne, Helena

    2013-04-01

    models of different environmental compartments (soil chemistry, agricultural management practices, aquatic processes, costs and benefits for society) with explicit treatment of uncertainty. In order to achieve policy relevance, these models have to be integrated into resource management. We use a Bayesian belief net to describe the probabilistic dependencies among the driving forces, processes, and impacts relevant to dissolved organic matter in boreal waterways.

  9. Developmental trajectories of work values and job entitlement beliefs in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chow, Angela; Krahn, Harvey J; Galambos, Nancy L

    2014-04-01

    Employing a life span developmental systems perspective, this study used a 5-wave (1985-1992) Canadian longitudinal data set (N = 404) to examine trajectories of intrinsic and extrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs from age 18 to 25. Piecewise growth models (Slope 1: age 18-20; Slope 2: age 20-25) showed intriguing patterns of change. Unconditional and conditional models suggested downward trends in all 3 measures from age 18 to 20. After age 20, the 2 work values reversed direction. Competing scarcity and value reinforcement hypotheses guided the analysis of change in work values and job entitlement beliefs conditional on unemployment experiences and postsecondary education pathways. Supporting a scarcity hypothesis, more unemployment from age 18 to 20 was associated with a faster increase in intrinsic and extrinsic work values, and a slower decrease in job entitlement beliefs from age 20 to 25. In line with a value reinforcement hypothesis, more unemployment from age 20 to 25 was associated with a slower concurrent increase in intrinsic work values. A postsecondary selection effect was observed; individuals who eventually obtained a university degree had higher intrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs at age 18. Also congruent with a scarcity hypothesis, young adults with only a high school education experienced a significantly faster increase in extrinsic work values from age 20 to 25. This study highlights the transition to adulthood as a key developmental period for change in work values and beliefs.

  10. Health Beliefs of Marshallese Regarding Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Hallgren, Emily; Henry, L Jean; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; Kohlor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The Marshallese population suffers from disproportionate rates of type 2 diabetes. This study identifies the underlying beliefs and perceptions that affect diabetes self-management behavior among the US Marshallese population living in Arkansas. Methods The study uses qualitative focus groups with a semi-structured interview guide developed using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and the Health Belief Model. Data was collected from a total of N = 41 participants and bilingual community co-investigators provided translation as needed. Results The results show high-perceived threat, with most participants describing diabetes as inevitable and a death sentence. Participants are generally unaware of the benefits of diabetes self-management behaviors, and the Marshallese population faces significant policy, environmental, and systems barriers to diabetes self-management. The primary cue to action is a diagnosis of diabetes, and there are varying levels of self-efficacy. Conclusions The research grounded in the Health Belief Model provides important contributions that can help advance diabetes self-management efforts within Pacific Islander communities. PMID:26931757

  11. THREAT ANTICIPATION AND DECEPTIVE REASONING USING BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    2009-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for tools to anticipate threats posed by terrorists. Assessing these threats requires combining information from disparate data sources such as analytic models, simulations, historical data, sensor networks, and user judgments. These disparate data can be combined in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner using a Bayesian belief network (BBN). In this paper, we develop a BBN threat anticipatory model based on a deceptive reasoning algorithm using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  12. Integrated Modeling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Summer 1979). WMSI Working Paper No. 291A. 173 Dyer , J. and R. Sarin. "Measurable Multiattribute Value Functions," Operations Research. 27:4 (July...J. McCall. "Expected Utility Maximizing Job Search," Chapter 7 of Studies in the Economics of Search, 1979, North-Holland. WMSI Working Paper No. 274...model integration, solver integration, and integration of various utilities . Model integration is further divided into four subtypes based on a four-level

  13. Managing security risks for inter-organisational information systems: a multiagent collaborative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Wu, Harris; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Desheng; Chen, Fuzan; Tian, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Information sharing across organisations is critical to effectively managing the security risks of inter-organisational information systems. Nevertheless, few previous studies on information systems security have focused on inter-organisational information sharing, and none have studied the sharing of inferred beliefs versus factual observations. In this article, a multiagent collaborative model (MACM) is proposed as a practical solution to assess the risk level of each allied organisation's information system and support proactive security treatment by sharing beliefs on event probabilities as well as factual observations. In MACM, for each allied organisation's information system, we design four types of agents: inspection agent, analysis agent, control agent, and communication agent. By sharing soft findings (beliefs) in addition to hard findings (factual observations) among the organisations, each organisation's analysis agent is capable of dynamically predicting its security risk level using a Bayesian network. A real-world implementation illustrates how our model can be used to manage security risks in distributed information systems and that sharing soft findings leads to lower expected loss from security risks.

  14. A Reflection on Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon in which, for many people, subjective personal belief is viewed as a more accurate representation of reality than objective scientific knowledge developed over the course of human history and transmitted through secular education. The first half of the article is based on personal observations of the author…

  15. Meteor Beliefs Project: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2003-05-01

    A new project to investigate beliefs in meteors and meteoric phenomena in past and present times using chiefly folklore, mythology, prose and poetic literature, is described. Some initial examples are given, along with a bibliography of relevant items already in print in IMO publications.

  16. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  17. Implicit Understanding of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Wendy A.; Perner, Josef

    1994-01-01

    Implicit understanding of false belief was investigated by monitoring where preschoolers looked in anticipation of a protagonist reappearing, when the protagonist mistakenly thinks that his desired object is in a different place from where it really is. Two-year olds erroneously looked at the object's real location whereas most older children…

  18. SP-100 control system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. A.; Halfen, F. J.; Alley, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

  19. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists.

  20. Professor Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth

    Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.

  1. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Technology as a Global Learning Tool: Information Systems Success and Control Belief Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Vannoy, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol- (VoIP) enabled online learning service providers struggling with high attrition rates and low customer loyalty issues despite VoIP's high degree of system fit for online global learning applications. Effective solutions to this prevalent problem rely on the understanding of system quality, information quality, and…

  2. Teacher Beliefs and Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Steven

    The beliefs of teachers with respect to open education are discussed. The point is made that a teacher who expresses a desire to move toward an open classroom environment must first come to trust beliefs and values that may be alien to her own beliefs and must learn to value the following ideas: (1) The life of a child in school is not a…

  3. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  4. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  5. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed Central

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  6. Analysis of regional scale risk to whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using Bayesian belief network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolb Ayre, Kimberley; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout.

  7. An investigation into the effect of health belief model-based education on healthcare behaviors of nursing staff in controlling nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeigheimat, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghadamgahi, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-care acquired infections are significant given the risks and costs they impose. All previous studies indicate a poor level of knowledge and performance among the nurses in hospital infections; as such, educating nurses can play an important role in infection control. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the health belief model (HBM) in making nurses adopting health-care behaviors needed to control nosocomial infections (Nis). Materials and Methods: The participants of the study were 135 nurses from two hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire consisted of seven parts. The intervention group received four 45 min educational programs, both in individual and collective forms. After a 2-month interval, a post-test was conducted to see whether any difference has been resulted. Results: There was a significant relationship between knowledge (P = 0.001), perceived threat (P = 0.004), perceived benefits (P = 0.001), and practices (P = 0.001) in comparing to control and experimental groups after intervention. For the experimental and control groups, the most frequent cues to action at the preintervention stage were, respectively, related to the period of studying at university and in-service classes. Conclusion: According to this study, HBM-based education can increase knowledge, perceived threat, and perceived benefits of nurses. Additionally, it can reduce perceived barriers and improve the control of NIs among nurses. PMID:27500176

  8. Health belief model perceptions, knowledge of heart disease, and its risk factors in educated African-American women: an exploration of the relationships of socioeconomic status and age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah E; Weaver, Michael T; Grimley, Diane; Appel, Susan J; Ard, Jamy

    2006-12-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death for African-American women in the United States. Although African-American women experience higher rates of heart disease with earlier onset and more severe consequences than White women do, they are not aware of their risk for the disease. The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been commonly used to guide preventive interventions in cardiovascular health. However, the HBM has not been evaluated for African-American women regarding its effectiveness. This study explored the perceptions of susceptibility and seriousness of heart disease, and the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES), age, and knowledge of heart disease and its risk factors among 194 educated African-American women from the southern United States. Participants did not perceive themselves to be at high risk for developing heart disease while perceiving heart disease as serious. African-American women who were older perceived heart disease to be more serious than their younger counterparts did. Older women and those with higher SES knew more about heart disease and risk factors. Neither SES nor age moderated the relationship between knowledge and perceived susceptibility or seriousness.

  9. The Effect of an Educational Intervention Program on the Adoption of Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors in Nurses: An Application of the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion The results of the current study revealed that the educational intervention based on the HBM was effective in improving the nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions.

  10. The effectiveness of nutrition education: Applying the Health Belief Model in child-feeding practices to use pulses for complementary feeding in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulualem, Demmelash; Henry, Carol J; Berhanu, Getenesh; Whiting, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Complementary foods (CFs) in Ethiopia are cereal based and adding locally grown pulses (legumes) to CF would provide needed nutrients. To assess the effects of nutrition education (NEd) using Health Belief Model (HBM) in promoting pulses for CF, a 6-month quasi-experimental study was conducted in 160 mother-child pairs. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questions were given to mothers at baseline, midline, and endline, along with anthropometric measurements of children. NEd involving discussions and recipe demonstrations was given twice monthly for 6 months to the intervention group (n = 80) while control mothers received usual education. At baseline, mothers' KAP scores were low at both sites; at 3 and 6 months of NEd, mean KAP scores of mothers increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control site. Significant improvements in children's mean weight, weight for height, and weight for age occurred in the intervention site only. Nutritional status of children improved after providing mothers with pulse-based NEd.

  11. “Theory Based Health Education: Application of Health Belief Model for Iranian Obese and Overweight Students about Physical Activity” in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Baratali; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Khalkhali, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a physical education program (PEP) on promoting health belief model (HBM) scores, increasing physical activity (PA), and reducing obesity among Iranian high school students. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was accomplished at four high schools that were randomly divided into two groups of experiment (forty) and control (forty) male students in junior high schools in Urmia, Iran. Students in the experimental group received a PEP during 6 months. The essential parameters were used for evaluating the effects of educational program on HBM, PA, and body mass index (BMI) of students. Results: After the intervention of 3 and 6 months, the experimental group showed a significant difference on the results of HBM constructs. According to the result of repeated-measures ANOVA, there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups about the components of PA constructs. Analysis of covariance showed that although BMI reduced in 6 months after intervention, there was no significant difference in BMI. Conclusions: Results of the study revealed that implementation of PEP was effective on increasing the score of the components of HBM and PA of students. PMID:27761217

  12. Development of a theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), culturally relevant intervention on cervical cancer prevention among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.

  13. Analysis of regional scale risk of whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using a Bayesian belief network model.

    PubMed

    Ayre, Kimberley Kolb; Caldwell, Colleen A; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G

    2014-09-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout.

  14. Application of the Health Belief Model to U.S. Magazine Text and Image Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The health belief model (HBM) has been widely used to inform health education, social marketing, and health communication campaigns. Although the HBM can explain and predict an individual's willingness to engage in positive health behaviors, its application to, and penetration of the underlying constructs into, mass media content has not been well characterized. We examined 574 articles and 905 images about skin cancer and tanning risks, behaviors, and screening from 20 U.S. women's and men's magazines (2000-2012) for the presence of HBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. Susceptibility (48.1%) and severity (60.3%) information was common in text. Perceived benefits (36.4%) and barriers (41.5%) to prevention of skin cancer were fairly equally mentioned in articles. Self-efficacy (48.4%) focused on sunscreen use. There was little emphasis on HBM constructs related to early detection. Few explicit cues to action about skin cancer appeared in text (12.0%) or images (0.1%). HBM constructs were present to a significantly greater extent in text versus images (e.g., severity, 60.3% vs. 11.3%, respectively, χ(2) = 399.51, p < .0001; benefits prevention, 36.4% vs. 8.0%, respectively, χ(2) = 184.80, p < .0001), suggesting that readers are not visually messaged in ways that would effectively promote skin cancer prevention and early detection behaviors.

  15. Development of a Theory-Based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), Culturally Relevant Intervention on Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Latina Immigrants Using Intervention Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the socio-cultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants. PMID:21422254

  16. How Experience Shapes Health Beliefs: The Case of Influenza Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised…

  17. Science Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions To Implement Thematic Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; Lumpe, Andrew T.; Haney, Jodi J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three questions: (1) What are science teachers' belief-based affects concerning the implementation of thematic instruction in the classroom; (2) Do teachers' belief-based affects influence their intent to implement thematic instruction; and (3) Are there any relationships between demographic variables and model variables? (SAH)

  18. Teacher Beliefs, Knowledge, and Practice of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruce, Robin; Bol, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined teacher beliefs, knowledge, and classroom practice of self-regulated learning for ten elementary and middle school teachers. Using Zimmerman's SRL model to frame our method and results, we administered questionnaires, observed classrooms and conducted interviews with these teachers. Teachers had positive beliefs about the role…

  19. Effects of Educational Beliefs on Attitudes towards Using Computer Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2012-01-01

    This study, aiming to determine the relationship between pre-service teachers' beliefs about education and their attitudes towards utilizing computers and internet, is a descriptive study in scanning model. The sampling of the study consisted of 270 pre-service teachers. The potential relationship between the beliefs of pre-service teachers about…

  20. Expert system for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Venoge, T.P. de; Stauffer, T.B.; Medina, M.; Jacobs, T.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous waste site remedial investigations and feasibility studies generally involve some degree of groundwater modeling. A plethora of models exist and most models are difficult to use. An expert system has been developed to lead the user to the appropriate model(s) based on responses to questions about site conditions and data availability. The system is menu driven, user friendly, and provides assistance in estimating input parameters where field measurements are lacking. The system contains twelve models, both analytical and numerical models, that are in the public domain. Some of the models included in the system are MOC, MODFLOW, BIOPLUME, RESSQ, TDAST and PLUME2D. Preprocessors and post processors have been written to permit easy data input and to provide understandable and interpretable data output. There are two versions of the expert system that are available. One version is a UNIX based system that works through the windows environment and provides excellent graphics capabilities. The other version is DOS based and will run on a 386 processor or higher system with 10 megabytes of available hard disk space.

  1. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  2. Flight Model Discharge System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    will immediately remove the charge from the front surface of the dielectric and return it to ground. The 2-hour time constant network will then reset the...ATDP programs. NEWT5 permits the digitized input of board and component position data, while ATDP automates certain phases of input and output table...format. 8.5 RESULTS The system-level results are presented as curves of AR (normalized radiator area) versus THOT and as curves of Q (heater

  3. ASN reputation system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Steve; Erbacher, Robert F.

    2015-05-01

    Network security monitoring is currently challenged by its reliance on human analysts and the inability for tools to generate indications and warnings for previously unknown attacks. We propose a reputation system based on IP address set membership within the Autonomous System Number (ASN) system. Essentially, a metric generated based on the historic behavior, or misbehavior, of nodes within a given ASN can be used to predict future behavior and provide a mechanism to locate network activity requiring inspection. This will provide reinforcement of notifications and warnings and lead to inspection for ASNs known to be problematic even if initial inspection leads to interpretation of the event as innocuous. We developed proof of concept capabilities to generate the IP address to ASN set membership and analyze the impact of the results. These results clearly show that while some ASNs are one-offs with individual or small numbers of misbehaving IP addresses, there are definitive ASNs with a history of long term and wide spread misbehaving IP addresses. These ASNs with long histories are what we are especially interested in and will provide an additional correlation metric for the human analyst and lead to new tools to aid remediation of these IP address blocks.

  4. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children developmentally acquire an understanding of desires before beliefs, even when compared via tasks with matched formats and demands. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag or the neurocognitive underpinnings of desire reasoning. Previous functional neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Here we provide evidence for frontal and right-posterior neural activities associated with desire- and belief-judgments. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded as adult participants performed tasks requiring reasoning about diverse-desires and diverse-beliefs (and as a control, about parallel physical situations). A late slow wave (LSW), with a mid-frontal scalp distribution, was associated with desire- and belief-judgments. A LSW, with a right-posterior scalp distribution, was only associated with belief-judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap as well as critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs and provide an explanation for the developmental lag: children need to recruit additional neural processes for reasoning about beliefs beyond a common neural system for reasoning about mental states more generally (desires and beliefs). PMID:19630900

  5. Oral health beliefs in diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, T T; Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Using data from population-based samples of adults participating in the ICS-II USA study, and using principal components analysis, we constructed oral health belief measures corresponding to the Health Belief Model (HBM) dimensions. Tests of validity and reliability were performed. Scales measuring perceived benefit of preventive practices and seriousness of oral disease had the highest validity and reliability. We used multiple regression analysis to examine sociodemographic predictors of perceived benefits of preventive practices. Race-ethnicity and age cohort were significant predictors among Baltimore and San Antonio adults. White adults and middle-aged persons in both research locations were more likely to believe in the benefit of preventive practices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, and better self-rated health were significant indicators of more positive oral health beliefs in every research location. Results also characterize persons who place lower value on preventive practices (i.e., males, less-educated persons, and those reporting poorer self-rated health). The design of effective dental public health messages and outreach efforts requires an analysis of the individual's health orientation and the factors influencing oral health beliefs. Oral health education interventions designed to improve health beliefs should contain an evaluation component for assessing the impact of education on health practices and oral health status.

  6. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  7. A building block for hardware belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  8. Educational Quality Is Measured by Individual Student Achievement Over Time. Mt. San Antonio College AB 1725 Model Accountability System Pilot Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    In December 1990, a project was begun at Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) in Walnut, California, to develop a model accountability system based on the belief that educational quality is measured by individual achievement over time. This proposal for the Accountability Model (AM) presents information on project methodology and organization in four…

  9. Relocatable Coastal Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    These relationships are stored on a variable-resolution grid (illustrated in figure 1b below) with sampling of 1 degree in deep water (and in data...version is referred to as MODAS2.1, which is now operational at NAVO. The NOMADS interface is being replaced by a system-independent, web -based version...inside the user’s web browser plus Perl CGI scripts which ran on a webserver. This permitted the user to run MODAS (and POM and other modules as they are

  10. Generic Distributed Systems Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    networking of microcomputers or work- stations with a distributed system and a clear distinction between the two needs to be made. What is expected in a...INFORM.AT1ON PERTAI NING TO LOCATIONS AND POLICY CAN BE COMBINED WITH THE INITIAL DIAGRAM TO PRODUCE A PARTITIONED DFD. THE BOLD LINES REPRESENT SERVICES WHICH...PRA85] D.K. Pradhan, "Fault-tolerant. mIltiprocessor link and bus network Architectures," IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. 34, No. I, Jan. 1985, pp. 33

  11. Flight Model Discharge System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    of adverse space-environmental conditions. Operational .Jrtcr-,tcsof tLe entire, s*ystem are llreseilted, including the electrostatic analyzers, * so... health diagnostics (i.e., temperature, voltages, and currents). The technical discussion which follows presents the results of the second year’s effort on...TIME, s ECLIPSE CHARGING - -2 LU; -J-3 0 Lu -4 O KAPTON TO SPACECRAFTz Lu cr -5 LL SLt -SPACECRAFT a - TO SPACE -7 -8 F 0 200 400 600 800 TIME,s (𔃻

  12. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices.

  13. When Are Beliefs Just "the Tip of the Iceberg"?: Exploring Early Childhood Professionals' Beliefs and Practices about Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivalland, Corine M. Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Few research projects have captured the voices of childcare professionals about their personal beliefs in relation to teaching and learning. Using a qualitative case study approach with an emphasis on social constructivism, this descriptive study aimed to understand beliefs and practices as part of an underlying system, rather than as separate…

  14. Violate My Beliefs? – Then You’re to Blame! Belief Content as an Explanation for Causal Attribution Biases

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Hertzog, Christopher; Horhota, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    We examined the extent to which the content of beliefs about appropriate behavior in social situations influences blame attributions for negative outcomes in relationship situations. Young, middle-aged and older adults indicated their level of agreement to a set of traditional and non-traditional beliefs. Five months later, we assessed the degree to which these same individuals blamed traditional and nontraditional characters who violated their beliefs in twelve social conflict situations. Older adults held more traditional beliefs regarding appropriate relationship behaviors (e.g., the acceptability of pre-marital sex). Individual differences in the content of one’s beliefs were needed to understand age-related patterns in blame attributions; for example, adherence to traditional beliefs about appropriate relationship behaviors led to higher responsibility and blame attributions towards characters behaving in ways that were inconsistent with these beliefs. Structural regression models showed that beliefs fully mediated the effects of working memory and need for closure on causal attributions, and partially mediated the effects of age and religiosity on attributions. Personal identification with the characters had additional, independent effects on attributions. Findings are discussed from the theoretical perspective of a belief-based explanation of social judgment biases. PMID:21728442

  15. Can We Forget What We Know in a False-Belief Task? An Investigation of the True-Belief Default.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula

    2017-01-01

    It has been generally assumed in the Theory of Mind literature of the past 30 years that young children fail standard false-belief tasks because they attribute their own knowledge to the protagonist (what Leslie and colleagues called a "true-belief default"). Contrary to the traditional view, we have recently proposed that the children's bias is task induced. This alternative view was supported by studies showing that 3 year olds are able to pass a false-belief task that allows them to focus on the protagonist, without drawing their attention to the target object in the test phase. For a more accurate comparison of these two accounts, the present study tested the true-belief default with adults. Four experiments measuring eye movements and response inhibition revealed that (a) adults do not have an automatic tendency to respond to the false-belief question according to their own knowledge and (b) the true-belief response need not be inhibited in order to correctly predict the protagonist's actions. The positive results observed in the control conditions confirm the accuracy of the various measures used. I conclude that the results of this study undermine the true-belief default view and those models that posit mechanisms of response inhibition in false-belief reasoning. Alternatively, the present study with adults and recent studies with children suggest that participants' focus of attention in false-belief tasks may be key to their performance.

  16. Violate my beliefs? Then you're to blame! Belief content as an explanation for causal attribution biases.

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Hertzog, Christopher; Horhota, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    We examined the extent to which the content of beliefs about appropriate behavior in social situations influences blame attributions for negative outcomes in relationship situations. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated their level of agreement to a set of traditional and nontraditional beliefs. Five months later, we assessed the degree to which these same individuals blamed traditional and nontraditional characters who violated their beliefs in 12 social conflict situations. Older adults held more traditional beliefs regarding appropriate relationship behaviors (e.g., the acceptability of premarital sex). Individual differences in the content of one's beliefs were needed to understand age-related patterns in blame attributions; for example, adherence to traditional beliefs about appropriate relationship behaviors led to higher responsibility and blame attributions toward characters behaving in ways that were inconsistent with these beliefs. Structural regression models showed that beliefs fully mediated the effects of working memory and need for closure on causal attributions and partially mediated the effects of age and religiosity on attributions. Personal identification with the characters had additional, independent effects on attributions. Findings are discussed from the theoretical perspective of a belief-based explanation of social judgment biases.

  17. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  18. The financial impact of a state adopting a personal/philosophical belief exemption policy: modeling the cost of pertussis disease in infants, children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wells, Katelyn B; Omer, Saad B

    2012-09-07

    State school immunization exemption policies help reduce the risk of individual and community disease. Assessing the costs of vaccine preventable disease associated with a state adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy is useful for making future policy decisions. Two formulas were developed to estimate the infant, child and adolescent hospitalization and non-medical costs of pertussis disease that are associated with adding a philosophical/personal belief school exemption policy. The parameter estimates were obtained from peer reviewed literature and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The state of Iowa was used as an example in order to demonstrate how the formulas can be applied. The annual projected impact of pertussis disease in Iowa is $273,365 without a philosophical/personal belief exemption policy and an average of $410,047 (range of $281,566-$582,267) with adding a personal belief exemption policy. We project that adding a philosophical/personal belief exemption will cost 50% more dollars annually.

  19. Data management system performance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, Larry M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical techniques that have been used to gain a better understanding of the Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is a complex, distributed, real-time computer system that has been redesigned numerous times. The implications of these redesigns have not been fully analyzed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages for static analytical techniques such as Rate Monotonic Analysis (RMA) and also provides a rationale for dynamic modeling. Factors such as system architecture, processor utilization, bus architecture, queuing, etc. are well suited for analysis with a dynamic model. The significance of performance measures for a real-time system are discussed.

  20. Believe it or not: A case study of the role beliefs play in three middle school teachers' use of computers in teaching science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Carmia Suzannah

    In the past twenty years, teacher beliefs have been found to have a strong influence on the way teachers teach in many disciplines, but only recently is research being done in relation to teaching with computers. As computers become more ubiquitous in schools, it is more important than ever to determine how computers are being used in classrooms, how they could better support student learning, and the reasons why they may not be used in ways advocated by research. In this study, I used a conceptual model of the beliefs that have been shown to influence teaching behavior, an in-depth interview technique (Munby Repertory Grid Technique---RGT) to uncover beliefs, and an exemplary case study methodology to highlight the relationship between the beliefs and teaching with computer behaviors of three middle school teachers. The cases were exemplary in that many of the barriers research has shown to hinder teachers' ability to integrate computers in their teaching were minimized. The teachers all taught at the same technology magnet school and had strong administrative and technological support, professional development in the use of computers, and permanent access to student laptop computers equipped with wireless Internet. To get a complete picture of the teachers' belief systems, I used the Munby RGT with each teacher to explore their teaching with computer beliefs, their science teaching beliefs, and their general teaching beliefs. I then collected data on their teaching with computer behavior through classroom observations, lesson plan report forms, teaching behavior logs, and written reflections, among others. I found that the teachers' beliefs did influence their teaching with computer behavior. For example, although all teachers expressed beliefs that could support student-centered and inquiry-based teaching with computers, some of their beliefs, such as teacher-centered behavioral management beliefs, were more dominant and may have kept the teachers from reaching

  1. Life at the end of life: beliefs about individual life after death and "good death" models - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Toscani, Franco; Borreani, Claudia; Boeri, Paolo; Miccinesi, Guido

    2003-01-01

    Background Different ideas of "good death" may influence the effectiveness of end-of-life care in patients with different ethos. This study aimed to identify the influence of believing in individual life after death on "good death" models. Methods Semi structured-interview to 8 persons, 4 believers and 4 non-believers in individual life after death from the general Italian population. Analysis of the transcribed text according to the method suggested by Mc Cracken. Results The analysis has shown a diverse and coherent conceptualization of death according to whether the subjects believe or not in individual life after death. Believers, for whom death marks the passage to a new dimension, prefer to be unaware of dying, while non-believers, for whom death is the end of the individual, prefer to be conscious until the very end of life. However some important aspects in common have been identified, i.e. having close people nearby, receiving assistance from experts, or the preference for a soft atmosphere around the dying person. Conclusion There are aspects in common and aspects in contrast between believers and non-believers in individual life after death: while sharing many aspects of what a "good death" ought to be, they have opposite stands on being aware of dying. A plurality of models should be foreseen, accepting, in this case, their practical and theoretical implications. PMID:14613557

  2. The Epistemological Beliefs of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer I.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that undergraduate students come into social work programs with an epistemological belief system that values personal experience over critical thinking processes. Epistemological development and self-efficacy are important factors to facilitating identity as a learner and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative,…

  3. Introduction to "Beliefs about SLA Revisited"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelos, Ana Maria Ferreira; Kalaja, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this second special issue of System on "Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition (SLA)" held by learners and/or teachers of foreign languages in a variety of contexts all over the world, and it compares and contrasts the empirical studies included in the issue. In sharp contrast to the first special…

  4. Dimensions of children's health beliefs.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S L; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1980-01-01

    Health beliefs interviews were conducted with 250 children aged 6-17 years. A factor analysis of the items resulted in six correlated factors which were interpreted as 1) specific health concerns, 2) general health concerns, 3) perceived parental concern, 4) perceived general susceptibility, 5) perceived susceptibility to specific conditions, and 6) perceived seriousness of and susceptibility to disease. Factor scores were computed and two-way analyses of variance (by age and sex of child) were conducted on six sets of factor scores. No significant sex differences or sex by age interaction effects were noted. Younger children scored significantly higher on "specific health concerns" and "perceived general susceptibility," while older children scored significantly higher on "perceived parental concern." Tests of differences among variances showed a tendency for the variability to be greater among younger children. The results are interpreted as providing partial support for a model of children's health beliefs and as a basis for further operationalization of concepts which are central to an understanding of motivated health behavior. Implications for practice are discussed.

  5. Assessing the Belief Bias Effect with ROCs: Reply to Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Kellen, David

    2011-01-01

    Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010) argued (a) that the so-called receiver operating characteristic is nonlinear for data on belief bias in syllogistic reasoning; (b) that their data are inconsistent with Klauer, Musch, and Naumer's (2000) model of belief bias; (c) that their data are inconsistent with any of the existing accounts of belief bias and…

  6. Towards the Measurement of EFL Listening Beliefs with Item Response Theory Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, John-Michael L.; Tseng, Wen-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present research aims to identify the underlying English listening belief structure of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners, thereby informing methodologies for subsequent analysis of beliefs with respect to listening achievement. Development of a measurement model of English listening learning beliefs entailed the creation of an…

  7. Cultural Beliefs about Disability in Practice: Experiences at a Special School in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-MacDonald, Angi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines cultural beliefs and values about disability in one Tanzanian community and the influence of those beliefs on a school for children with disabilities. The larger ethnographic study examined the role of beliefs in the community and the development of the school curriculum. This study used the models of disability as a…

  8. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  9. Coastal Modeling System Advanced Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-18

    is the CMS? Integrated wave, current, and morphology change model in the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS). Why CMS? Operational at 10...Coupled with spectral wave model (CMS-Wave)  Wave-current interactions  Inline sediment transport and morphology change  Non-equilibrium...Easy to setup  Telescoping grid: Efficient and flexible  Solver options  Implicit: Tidal flow, long-term morphology change. ~10 min

  10. Modeling of Embedded Human Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    reduces to solving an initial value HJ PDE. Let the system dynamics be given by ẋ = f(x, u), where f is bounded and Lipschitz continuous in x. Choose the...Sprinkle, “Synthesizing executable simulations from structural models of component- based systems,” Electronic Communications of the European Association

  11. Students' Individual and Collective Efficacy: Joining Together Two Sets of Beliefs for Understanding Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Neves, Silvia; Faria, Luisa; Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that students' achievement is influenced not only by a set of individual appraisals such as beliefs about their personal efficacy but also by a set of more systemic factors related to beliefs about their class efficacy as a group. Literature and research review supports that students' beliefs about their efficacy, both as…

  12. Photovoltaic Systems Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mir Shahed

    2010-11-01

    This thesis deals with the implementation of generalized photovoltaic model and integration of the same with 7-bus electrical utility system to evaluate the impact that the photovoltaic generator have on the utility system. Among all the impacts that the photovoltaic generator have on the utility system, voltage rise of the power distribution line at the position where the Photovoltaic generator is connected due to reverse power flow from the photovoltaic model has been one of the major problem. Therefore, this thesis proposes the steady-state simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of battery-integrated PV system on avoiding the over voltage problem. Further, fault analysis is done to study the effect of the PV model on the utility network during faults and it is deduced that the impact of the PV model on the utility system voltage during faults is nominal. The photovoltaic model/generator and the 7-bus utility system is developed using Matlab/Simulink software package. The developed photovoltaic model can be represented as PV cell, module or an array. The model is developed with icons that are easy to understand. The developed model takes into consideration cell's working temperature, amount of sunlight (irradiance) available, voltage of the circuit when the circuit is open and current of the circuit when it is shorted. The developed Photovoltaic model is then integrated with a Li-ion battery, over here battery serves two purposes first it will store the excess power from the Photovoltaic generator if any, during the day time and in night the battery acts as an generator and deliver the power to the utility or connected load with the help of an invertors.

  13. Application of the health belief model and social cognitive theory for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in a sample of Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the health belief model (HBM) and social cognitive theory (SCT) for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients who were women and registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran were selected. A questionnaire consisting of HBM constructs and the constructs of self-regulation and social support from SCT was used to measure nutrition performance. Bone mineral density was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur. The intervention for the experimental group included 10 educational sessions of 55-60 min of speech, group discussion, questions and answers, as well as posters and educational pamphlets, film screenings, and PowerPoint displays. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 via Chi-square test, independent t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. Results: After intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the HBM constructs, self-regulation, social support, and nutrition performance, compared to the control group. Six months after the intervention, the value of lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score increased to 0.127 in the experimental group, while it reduced to −0.043 in the control group. The value of the hip BMD T-score increased to 0.125 in the intervention group, but it decreased to −0.028 in the control group. Conclusions: This study showed the effectiveness of HBM and constructs of self-regulation and social support on adoption of nutrition behaviors and increase in the bone density to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:27095985

  14. Use of Health Belief Model Variables To Examine Self-Reported Food Handling Behaviors in a Sample of U.S. Adults Attending a Tailgate Event.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Hughes, Susan M; Liu, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Unsafe food handling behaviors are common among consumers, and, given the venue, individuals attending a tailgating event may be at risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to measure the association between Health Belief Model variables and self-reported usual food handling behaviors in a convenience sample of men and women at a tailgate event. Participants (n = 128) completed validated subscales for self-reported food handling behaviors (i.e., cross-contamination, sanitation), perceived threat of foodborne illness (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility), and safe food handling cues to action (i.e., media cues, educational cues). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was associated with safer behaviors related to sanitation (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and cross-contamination (r = 0.33; P = 0.001). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was also associated with exposure to safe food handling media cues (r = 0.20; P = 0.027) but not with safe food handling educational cues. A large proportion of participants reported that they never or seldom (i) read newspaper or magazine articles about foodborne illness (65.6%); (ii) read brochures about safe ways to handle food (61.7%); (iii) see store displays that explain ways to handle food (51.6%); or (iv) read the "safe handling instructions" on packages of raw meat and poultry (46.9%). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to both dimensions of safe food handling as well as with safe food handling media cues. Except for the weak correlation between media cues and perceived severity, the relationships between safe food handling cues and perceived threat, as well as between safe food handling cues and behaviors, were nonsignificant. This finding may be due, in part, to the participants' overall low exposure to safe food handling cues. The overall results of this study reinforce the postulate that perceived severity of foodborne illness may influence food handling behaviors.

  15. Kinetic Modeling of Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of how the constituent components of a natural system interact defines the spatio-temporal response of the system to stimuli. Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic kinetic simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing kinetic simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available kinetic simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided. PMID:19381542

  16. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  17. Beliefs about God, psychiatric symptoms, and evolutionary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G; Koenig, Harold G

    2010-06-01

    The present study analyzed the association between specific beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms among a representative sample of 1,306 U.S. adults. Three pairs of beliefs about God served as the independent variables: Close and Loving, Approving and Forgiving, and Creating and Judging. The dependent variables were measures of General Anxiety, Depression, Obsessive-Compulsion, Paranoid Ideation, Social Anxiety, and Somatization. As hypothesized, the strength of participants' belief in a Close and Loving God had a significant salutary association with overall psychiatric symptomology, and the strength of this association was significantly stronger than that of the other beliefs, which had little association with the psychiatric symptomology. The authors discuss the findings in the context of evolutionary psychiatry, and the relevance of Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory in research on religious beliefs.

  18. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  19. Assessing climate change beliefs: Response effects of question wording and response alternatives.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Murni; Leviston, Zoe; Leonard, Rosemary; Walker, Iain

    2014-11-01

    To date, there is no 'gold standard' on how to best measure public climate change beliefs. We report a study (N = 897) testing four measures of climate change causation beliefs, drawn from four sources: the CSIRO, Griffith University, the Gallup poll, and the Newspoll. We found that question wording influences the outcome of beliefs reported. Questions that did not allow respondents to choose the option of believing in an equal mix of natural and anthropogenic climate change obtained different results to those that included the option. Age and belief groups were found to be important predictors of how consistent people were in reporting their beliefs. Response consistency gave some support to past findings suggesting climate change beliefs reflect something deeper in the individual belief system. Each belief question was assessed against five criterion variables commonly used in climate change literature. Implications for future studies are discussed.

  20. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  1. Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-07

    -04) created at INL to work inside SharePoint. The GUI tool links slider bars and drop downs to specific inputs and output of the ModelCenter model that is executable from SharePoint. The modeler also creates in SAS, dashboards, graphs and tables that are exposed by links and SAS and ModelCenter Web Parts into the SharePoint system. The user can then log into SharePoint, move slider bars and select drop down lists to configure the model parameters, click to run the model, and then view the output results that are based on their particular input choices. The main point is that GEMS eliminates the need for a programmer to connect and create the web artifacts necessary to implement and deliver an executable model or decision aid to customers.

  2. Psychological and Educational Intervention to Improve Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Ethiopia Based on Health Belief Model: A Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Kebede, Abebaw; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kassa, Desta; Klinkenberg, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment non-adherence results in treatment failure, prolonged transmission of disease and emergence of drug resistance. Although the problem widely investigated, there remains an information gap on the effectiveness of different methods to improve treatment adherence and the predictors of non-adherence in resource limited countries based on theoretical models. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of psychological counseling and educational intervention on tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence based on Health Belief Model (HBM). Methodology A cluster randomized control trial was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Patients were enrolled into study consecutively from 30 randomly selected Health Centers (HCs) (14 HCs intervention and 16 HCs control groups). A total of 698 TB patients, who were on treatment for one month to two months were enrolled. A structured questionnaire was administered to both groups of patients at baseline and endpoint of study. Control participants received routine directly-observed anti-TB therapy and the intervention group additionally received combined psychological counseling and adherence education. Treatment non-adherence level was the main outcome of the study, and multilevel logistic regression was employed to assess the impact of intervention on treatment adherence. Results At enrollment, the level of non-adherence among intervention (19.4%) and control (19.6%) groups was almost the same. However, after intervention, non-adherence level decreased among intervention group from 19.4 (at baseline) to 9.5% (at endpoint), while it increased among control group from 19.4% (baseline) to 25.4% (endpoint). Psychological counseling and educational interventions resulted in significant difference with regard to non-adherence level between intervention and control groups (Adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.18–0.53), p < 0.001)). Conclusion Psychological counseling and educational interventions

  3. Modelling robotic systems with DADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, L. W.; Sharf, I.

    1993-01-01

    With the appearance of general off-the-shelf software packages for the simulation of mechanical systems, modelling and simulation of mechanisms has become an easier task. The authors have recently used one such package, DADS, to model the dynamics of rigid and flexible-link robotic manipulators. In this paper, we present this overview of our learning experiences with DADS, in the hope that it will shorten the learning process for others interested in this software.

  4. Tunable models in measuring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, V. P. L.; Parparov, Y. G.; Sulman, L. A.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Polyak, A. V.

    The inclusion of tunable models in technological measuring systems, including those used in the iron and steel industry is considered. A method is proposed for the stable estimation of process parameters that consists of the anti-interference tuning of partial models of signal sources by means of robust isolation and smoothing of the informative regions of data with explicit allowance for the criteria of variability of residues and the estimates themselves.

  5. Breast Health Belief System Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    prospect list, selecting study participants, confidentially, data collection , recording keeping, making referrals, following research protocols, and...examination, preparation of the participant prospect list, selecting study participants, confidentially, data collection , recording keeping, making referrals

  6. Belief Systems and Language Understanding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Sedlak (1074), Searle (1060), Gtrawson (196U), and Wittgenstein (1958). [4] (1973), Charniak (1072), ilcCarthy and Hayes (1969), HcDermott (107...in Speech Acts", Philosophical Review 73, ^39-460. Wittgenstein , Ludwig 1958 Philosophical Investigations ( New York: The Macmillan Co.) (Tr

  7. Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    algorithms for big data applications . (2) We studied stochastic dynamics of polymer systems in the mean field limit. (3) We studied noisy Hegselmann-Krause...DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION...Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the

  8. Video distribution system cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.

    1980-01-01

    A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.

  9. Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.

  10. The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities

  11. Belief Propagation Algorithm for Portfolio Optimization Problems.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Takashi; Yasuda, Muneki

    2015-01-01

    The typical behavior of optimal solutions to portfolio optimization problems with absolute deviation and expected shortfall models using replica analysis was pioneeringly estimated by S. Ciliberti et al. [Eur. Phys. B. 57, 175 (2007)]; however, they have not yet developed an approximate derivation method for finding the optimal portfolio with respect to a given return set. In this study, an approximation algorithm based on belief propagation for the portfolio optimization problem is presented using the Bethe free energy formalism, and the consistency of the numerical experimental results of the proposed algorithm with those of replica analysis is confirmed. Furthermore, the conjecture of H. Konno and H. Yamazaki, that the optimal solutions with the absolute deviation model and with the mean-variance model have the same typical behavior, is verified using replica analysis and the belief propagation algorithm.

  12. Thermodynamic models in cosmochemical systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, P. R.; Brown, C. W.; Lippincott, E. R.; Dayhoff , M. O.

    1972-01-01

    Generalized computer methods are developed for inferring details of the formation of cosmochemical systems. Compositions of ideal gas mixtures existing in equilibrium with multicomponent solid and liquid phases are calculated. A comparison of computed results with experimental data is made for the ternary system MgO-FeO-SiO2. While the ideal-solution approximation is shown to be inaccurate in dealing with the silicate melts, the stable phases and compositions can be accurately calculated in a system where there are only solids and gas. A model system containing the elements H, O, Si, Mg, S, C, Cl, and F is investigated over a range of compositions involving the gas and ten solid phases, to show the power of the technique in dealing with complex gas-solid equilibria. Systems close to cosmic composition are next considered, both with and without iron.

  13. Aggregation of Trust for Iterated Belief Revision in Probabilistic Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Pere

    In this paper it is shown how communication about trust in a multi-agent system may be used to endow agents with belief change capabilities, in a probabilistic logical framework. Belief change operators are obtained in an intuitive, principled way using aggregation operators for trust-values. Under additional conditions, such change operators may be proved to be maxichoice. The present approach constitutes a sound method for autonomous uncertainty management in multi-agent systems.

  14. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  15. Duality methods in networks, computer science models, and disordered condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Joseph Dan

    In this thesis, I explore lattice independent duality and systems to which it can be applied. I first demonstrate classical duality on models in an external field, including the Ising, Potts, and x -- y models, showing in particular how this modifies duality to be lattice independent and applicable to networks. I then present a novel application of duality on the boolean satsifiability problem, one of the most important problems in computational complexity, through mapping to a low temperature Ising model. This establishes the equivalence between boolean satisfiability and a problem of enumerating the positive solutions to a Diophantine system of equations. I continue by combining duality with a prominent tool for models on networks, belief propagation, deriving a new message passing procedure, dual belief propagation. In the final part of my thesis, I shift to propose and examine a semiclassical model, the two-component Coulomb glass model, which can explain the giant magnetoresistance peak present in disordered films near a superconductor-insulator transition as the effect of competition between single particle and localized pair transport. I numerically analyze the density of states and transport properties of this model.

  16. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  17. Epistemological Beliefs of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bethany A.; Magun-Jackson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined undergraduate and graduate engineering students' epistemological beliefs as a function of their educational level. Schommer's (1998) Epistemological Questionnaire was used to assess the beliefs in quick learning, certain knowledge, fixed ability, and simple knowledge of 396 students attending two universities in Western…

  18. Politics of climate change belief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  19. Teacher Beliefs-Practice Congruency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Russell L.; Dobson, Judith E.

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are reasons why teacher beliefs-practice congruency is desirable. An argument is presented for teacher beliefs-practice congruency; reasons are established why congruency is neglected; and "dialogue" is presented as a process for arriving at congruency. (Authors/JM)

  20. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  1. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  2. Graphs as Statements of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2002-01-01

    Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)

  3. Cotangent Models for Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda, Eva

    2017-03-01

    We associate cotangent models to a neighbourhood of a Liouville torus in symplectic and Poisson manifolds focusing on b-Poisson/ b-symplectic manifolds. The semilocal equivalence with such models uses the corresponding action-angle theorems in these settings: the theorem of Liouville-Mineur-Arnold for symplectic manifolds and an action-angle theorem for regular Liouville tori in Poisson manifolds (Laurent- Gengoux et al., IntMath Res Notices IMRN 8: 1839-1869, 2011). Our models comprise regular Liouville tori of Poisson manifolds but also consider the Liouville tori on the singular locus of a b-Poisson manifold. For this latter class of Poisson structures we define a twisted cotangent model. The equivalence with this twisted cotangent model is given by an action-angle theorem recently proved by the authors and Scott (Math. Pures Appl. (9) 105(1):66-85, 2016). This viewpoint of cotangent models provides a new machinery to construct examples of integrable systems, which are especially valuable in the b-symplectic case where not many sources of examples are known. At the end of the paper we introduce non-degenerate singularities as lifted cotangent models on b-symplectic manifolds and discuss some generalizations of these models to general Poisson manifolds.

  4. Modelling codependence in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J J; Palfreyman, N M; Dubitzky, W

    2007-01-01

    A central aim of systems biology is to elucidate the complex dynamic structure of biological systems within which functioning and control occur. The success of this endeavour requires a dialogue between the two quite distinct disciplines of life science and systems theory, and so drives the need for graphical notations which facilitate this dialogue. Several methods have been developed for modelling and simulating biochemical networks, some of which provide notations for graphicall4y constructing a model. Such notations must support the full panoply of mechanisms of systems biology, including metabolic, regulatory, signalling and transport processes. Notations in systems biology tend to fall into two groups. The first group derives its orientation from conventional biochemical pathway diagrams, and so tends to ignore the role of information processing. The second group focuses on the processing of information, incorporating information-processing ideas from other systems-oriented disciplines, such as engineering and business. This, however, can lead to the two crucial and related difficulties of impedance mismatch and conceptual baggage. Impedance mismatch concerns the rift between non-biological notations and biological reality, which forces the researcher to employ awkward workarounds when modelling uniquely biological mechanisms. Conceptual baggage can arise when, for instance, an engineering notation is adapted to cater for these distinctively biological needs, since these adaptations will, typically, never completely free the notation of the conceptual structure of its original engineering motivation. A novel formalism, codependence modelling, which seeks to combine the needs of the biologist with the mathematical rigour required to support computer simulation of dynamics is proposed here. The notion of codependence encompasses the transformation of both chemical substance and information, thus integrating both metabolic and gene regulatory processes within a

  5. Changes in teacher efficacy and beliefs during a one-year teacher preparation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockman, Alison Schirmer

    This study attempted to further understanding of factors affecting the teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary science preservice teachers, and to develop a model relating teacher efficacy to beliefs about teaching and students. A mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology was utilized in order to track participants' beliefs both broadly and in depth throughout a one-year teacher preparation program. Results from this analysis revealed that preservice teachers at the end of the program had significantly higher personal science teaching efficacy beliefs than at the beginning of the program. No significant difference in science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs was found, although individual preservice teachers did develop alternate beliefs. Teacher efficacy beliefs were directly affected by three of Bandura's four sources of self-efficacy beliefs---Mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and verbal persuasion---with the influence of each source of self-efficacy information appearing to change during the course of the teacher preparation program. No evidence was found that affective states by themselves had resulted in belief changes, although many of the other experiences were more powerful because they were accompanied by an emotional incident. Connections between teacher efficacy beliefs, beliefs about students, and beliefs about teaching were uncovered, as was the importance of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge on a teacher's sense of efficacy.

  6. INTEGRATED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride

  7. System modelling for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Aguiló, Marc; Grynagier, Adrien; Rais, Boutheina

    LISA Pathfinder is the technology demonstrator for LISA, a space-borne gravitational waves observatory. The goal of the mission is to characterise the dynamics of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) to prove that on-board experimental conditions are compatible with the de-tection of gravitational waves. The LTP is a drag-free dynamics experiment which includes a control loop with sensors (interferometric and capacitive), actuators (capacitive actuators and thrusters), controlled disturbances (magnetic coils, heaters) and which is subject to various endogenous or exogenous noise sources such as infrared pressure or solar wind. The LTP experiment features new hardware which was never flown in space. The mission has a tight operation timeline as it is constrained to about 100 days. It is therefore vital to have efficient and precise means of investigation and diagnostics to be used during the on-orbit operations. These will be conducted using the LTP Data Analysis toolbox (LTPDA) which allows for simulation, parameter identification and various analyses (covariance analysis, state estimation) given an experimental model. The LTPDA toolbox therefore contains a series of models which are state-space representations of each component in the LTP. The State-Space Models (SSM) are objects of a state-space class within the LTPDA toolbox especially designed to address all the requirements of this tool. The user has access to a set of linear models which represent every satellite subsystem; the models are available in different forms representing 1D, 2D and 3D systems, each with settable symbolic and numeric parameters. To limit the possible errors, the models can be automatically linked to produce composite systems and closed-loops of the LTP. Finally, for the sake of completeness, accuracy and maintainability of the tool, the models contain all the physical information they mimic (i.e. variable units, description of parameters, description of inputs/outputs, etc). Models

  8. Sex-Specific Impact of Spiritual Beliefs and Sleep Quality on Degree of Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Shewmake, Meghan E; Burns, Maranda; Harcrow, Andy

    2016-12-27

    The purpose of this study was to test a set of hypotheses suggesting sleep quality and spiritual beliefs differed according to degree of psychological distress and biological sex. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index measured sleep quality, the Beliefs and Values Scale measured spiritual beliefs, and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale measured distress. A factorial MANOVA tested the model. Higher sleep quality and greater spiritual beliefs were associated with lower levels of distress. Women exhibited lower sleep quality than men, whereas spiritual beliefs were equivalent between sexes. To decrease psychological distress, interventions should improve sleep quality and increase spiritual engagement.

  9. Graph modeling systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Neergaard, Mike

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  10. The emergent neural modeling system.

    PubMed

    Aisa, Brad; Mingus, Brian; O'Reilly, Randy

    2008-10-01

    Emergent (http://grey.colorado.edu/emergent) is a powerful tool for the simulation of biologically plausible, complex neural systems that was released in August 2007. Inheriting decades of research and experience in network algorithms and modeling principles from its predecessors, PDP++ and PDP, Emergent has been redesigned as an efficient workspace for academic research and an engaging, easy-to-navigate environment for students. The system provides a modern and intuitive interface for programming and visualization centered around hierarchical, tree-based navigation and drag-and-drop reorganization. Emergent contains familiar, high-level simulation constructs such as Layers and Projections, a wide variety of algorithms, general-purpose data handling and analysis facilities and an integrated virtual environment for developing closed-loop cognitive agents. For students, the traditional role of a textbook has been enhanced by wikis embedded in every project that serve to explain, document, and help newcomers engage the interface and step through models using familiar hyperlinks. For advanced users, the software is easily extensible in all respects via runtime plugins, has a powerful shell with an integrated debugger, and a scripting language that is fully symmetric with the interface. Emergent strikes a balance between detailed, computationally expensive spiking neuron models and abstract, Bayesian or symbolic systems. This middle level of detail allows for the rapid development and successful execution of complex cognitive models while maintaining biological plausibility.

  11. Probabilistic models for feedback systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Matthew D.; Boggs, Paul T.

    2011-02-01

    In previous work, we developed a Bayesian-based methodology to analyze the reliability of hierarchical systems. The output of the procedure is a statistical distribution of the reliability, thus allowing many questions to be answered. The principal advantage of the approach is that along with an estimate of the reliability, we also can provide statements of confidence in the results. The model is quite general in that it allows general representations of all of the distributions involved, it incorporates prior knowledge into the models, it allows errors in the 'engineered' nodes of a system to be determined by the data, and leads to the ability to determine optimal testing strategies. In this report, we provide the preliminary steps necessary to extend this approach to systems with feedback. Feedback is an essential component of 'complexity' and provides interesting challenges in modeling the time-dependent action of a feedback loop. We provide a mechanism for doing this and analyze a simple case. We then consider some extensions to more interesting examples with local control affecting the entire system. Finally, a discussion of the status of the research is also included.

  12. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  13. How culture shapes community: bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations.

    PubMed

    Stroope, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that you belong in a group is an important and powerful need. The ability to foster a sense of belonging can also determine whether groups survive. Organizational features of groups cultivate feelings of belonging, yet prior research fails to investigate the idea that belief systems also play a major role. Using multilevel data, this study finds that church members' traditional beliefs, group-level belief unity, and their interaction associate positively with members' sense of belonging. In fact, belief unity can be thought of as a “sacred canopy” under which the relationship between traditional beliefs and feelings of belonging thrives.

  14. Models for multimegawatt space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-06-01

    This report describes models for multimegawatt, space power systems which Sandia's Advanced Power Systems Division has constructed to help evaluate space power systems for SDI's Space Power Office. Five system models and models for associated components are presented for both open (power system waste products are exhausted into space) and closed (no waste products) systems: open, burst mode, hydrogen cooled nuclear reactor -- turboalternator system; open, hydrogen-oxygen combustion turboalternator system; closed, nuclear reactor powered Brayton cycle system; closed, liquid metal Rankine cycle system; and closed, in-core, reactor therminonic system. The models estimate performance and mass for the components in each of these systems. 17 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  16. Airfoil flutter model suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel suspension system for testing flutter models under various loads and at various angles of attack is described. The invention comprises a mounting bracket assembly affixing the suspension system to the wind tunnel, a drag-link assembly and a compound spring arrangement comprises a plunge spring working in opposition to a compressive spring so as to provide a high stiffness to trim out steady state loads and simultaneously a low stiffness to dynamic loads. By this arrangement an airfoil may be tested for oscillatory response in both plunge and pitch modes while being held under high lifting loads in a wind tunnel.

  17. Models of human operators: Their need and usefulness for improvement of advanced control systems and control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such model have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Many potential model users remain skeptical about their practically, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part from disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of common-sense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. 26 refs.

  18. Quantitative Predictive Models for Systemic Toxicity (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models to identify systemic and specific target organ toxicity were developed to help transition the field of toxicology towards computational models. By leveraging multiple data sources to incorporate read-across and machine learning approaches, a quantitative model of systemic ...

  19. Modeling software systems by domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippolito, Richard; Lee, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The Software Architectures Engineering (SAE) Project at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed engineering modeling techniques that both reduce the complexity of software for domain-specific computer systems and result in systems that are easier to build and maintain. These techniques allow maximum freedom for system developers to apply their domain expertise to software. We have applied these techniques to several types of applications, including training simulators operating in real time, engineering simulators operating in non-real time, and real-time embedded computer systems. Our modeling techniques result in software that mirrors both the complexity of the application and the domain knowledge requirements. We submit that the proper measure of software complexity reflects neither the number of software component units nor the code count, but the locus of and amount of domain knowledge. As a result of using these techniques, domain knowledge is isolated by fields of engineering expertise and removed from the concern of the software engineer. In this paper, we will describe kinds of domain expertise, describe engineering by domains, and provide relevant examples of software developed for simulator applications using the techniques.

  20. Automated parking garage system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A one-twenty-fifth scale model of the key components of an automated parking garage system is described. The design of the model required transferring a vehicle from an entry level, vertically (+Z, -Z), to a storage location at any one of four storage positions (+X, -X, +Y, +Y, -Y) on the storage levels. There are three primary subsystems: (1) a screw jack to provide the vertical motion of the elevator, (2) a cam-driven track-switching device to provide X to Y motion, and (3) a transfer cart to provide horizontal travel and a small amount to vertical motion for transfer to the storage location. Motive power is provided by dc permanent magnet gear motors, one each for the elevator and track switching device and two for the transfer cart drive system (one driving the cart horizontally and the other providing the vertical transfer). The control system, through the use of a microprocessor, provides complete automation through a feedback system which utilizes sensing devices.

  1. Internal and External Beliefs as the Determinants of Use Continuance for an Internet Search Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soongeun; Kang, Young Sik; Lee, Heeseok; Lee, Jongwon

    The antecedents of IS use continuance is gaining research focus recently. The traditional beliefs based on TRA have been adopted as the main drivers of IS use continuance. They are based on the assumptions that continuance is a simple repetition of initial adoption because those belief constructs are the same with those for TAM. However, continued usage is a matter of continuous decision making in the competitive alternative systems. Furthermore, control factors such as habit, self efficacy, and self identity have been suggested to extend TRA. This study introduced self-identity, self-efficacy and perceived switching cost as a new driver for IS use continuance. 395 samples were collected from the users of a Korean internet search engine portal site. Data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows that while the effect of habit overwhelms the effect of intention on continuance, it is also mediated by self identity and self efficacy. These can be considered as the internal beliefs formed by the internalization of habit. On the contrary, external beliefs such as switching cost and perceived usefulness showed no significant effect on continuance.

  2. Models of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fellner, Lisa; Wenning, Gregor K.; Stefanova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a predominantly sporadic, adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. MSA is characterized by autonomic failure, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs in any combination. MSA belongs to a group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies, which also include Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Their common pathological feature is the occurrence of abnormal α-synuclein positive inclusions in neurons or glial cells. In MSA, the main cell type presenting aggregates composed of α-synuclein are oligodendroglial cells. This pathological hallmark, also called glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), is associated with progressive and profound neuronal loss in various regions of the brain. The development of animal models of MSA is justified by the limited understanding of the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and GCIs formation, which is paralleled by a lack of therapeutic strategies. Two main types of rodent models have been generated to replicate different features of MSA neuropathology. On one hand, neurotoxin-based models have been produced to reproduce neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum. On the other hand, transgenic mouse models with overexpression of α-synuclein in oligodendroglia have been used to reproduce GCIs-related pathology. This chapter gives an overview of the atypical Parkinson’s syndrome MSA and summarizes the currently available MSA animal models and their relevance for pre-clinical testing of disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24338664

  3. Beliefs of Professional and Family Caregivers about the Sexuality of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Examining Beliefs Using a Q-Methodology Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randel D.; Pirtle, Trace

    2008-01-01

    This investigation described the perceptions of involved adults concerning the sexuality of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Participants completed a Q-sort with a concourse of 36 items. Analysis produced four different belief systems: advocates, supporters, regulators, and humanists. These belief systems describe the respondents' views…

  4. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  5. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    PubMed

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  6. Psuedoscientific Beliefs among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of research that explores how scientific literacy sustains belief in pseudoscientific claims. The population of college biology students who were non-biology majors completed questionnaires which were assessed and used to plan instruction. (DDR)

  7. Mass Transportation Operators' Beliefs about Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Pamela A.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated 171 mass transit operators' beliefs about blindness and the factors that may influence their beliefs. There were statistically significant differences among transit operators' beliefs on the basis of the operators' ethnicity. White participants had significantly fewer irrational beliefs about blindness than Hispanic and…

  8. Teachers' and Students' Beliefs about Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette M.

    1979-01-01

    First-, third-, and fifth-grade children and their teachers were interviewed in the fall and spring to assess the developing relationship between teachers' and students' beliefs about punishment. Teachers with more punitive beliefs had students whose beliefs were more punitive when compared with students whose teachers had less punitive beliefs.…

  9. Beliefs of Preservice Teachers toward Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1998-01-01

    Categorizes beliefs toward art education that prospective teachers bring to certification programs and how these beliefs change. Using "Eisner Art Education Belief Index" survey data, discovers four main themes that emphasize the importance of interaction between beliefs of preservice teachers and subject matter in creating values prospective…

  10. Modeling excitable systems: Reentrant tachycardia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jarrett L.; Hellen, Edward H.; Leise, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    Excitable membranes are an important type of nonlinear dynamical system, and their study can be used to provide a connection between physical and biological circuits. We discuss two models of excitable membranes important in cardiac and neural tissues. One model is based on the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations, and the other is based on a three-transistor excitable circuit. We construct a circuit that simulates reentrant tachycardia and its treatment by surgical ablation. This project is appropriate for advanced undergraduates as a laboratory capstone project or as a senior thesis or honors project and can also be a collaborative project, with one student responsible for the computational predictions and another for the circuit construction and measurements.

  11. Using co-occurrence to evaluate belief coherence in a large non clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow "cohere" with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian's coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance.

  12. Using Co-Occurrence to Evaluate Belief Coherence in a Large Non Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow “cohere” with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian’s coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance. PMID:23155383

  13. Modeling Systems of Dependent Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    Ross Sheldon Ross , Babak Haji 611102 c. THIS PAGE The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...08/18/2011 Received Paper 3.00 6.00 7.00 5.00 4.00 1.00 2.00 Sheldon Ross . Simulation Analysis of System Life when Component Lives are Determined by...Stochastic Model , Annals of Operations Research (02 2012) Sheldon Ross . A Markov Chai Choice Problem , Probability in the Engineering and

  14. The psychology of paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Marks, D F

    1988-04-15

    Investigation of paranormal claims has failed to find any repeatable phenomena, yet beliefs in such phenomena are extremely prevalent. Some of the psychological mechanisms which support these beliefs are described. Mental imagery, subjective validation, coincidence, hidden causes, and fraud all contribute to the folklore in this field. Magical thinking is as evident today as it ever has been. Recent research suggests that increased skepticism concerning paranormal claims can result from special educational procedures which emphasize critical thinking rather than learning scientific facts.

  15. Risk perception and new age beliefs.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart; af Wåhlberg, Anders

    2002-08-01

    This is a study of risk perception in relation to New Age (NA) beliefs, including traditional folk superstition and belief in paranormal phenomena, as well as use of alternative healing practices. Data were also obtained on trust dimensions and on personality and psychopathology variables, as well as religious involvement. It was found that four factors accounted for the investigated NA beliefs, which were termed higher consciousness beliefs, denial of analytic knowledge, traditional superstition, and belief in the physical reality of the soul. NA beliefs were strongly and positively related to religious involvement, and negatively to educational level. These beliefs were also positively related to maladjustment and to concerns over tampering with nature. In regression analyses, it was found that NA beliefs explained about 15% of the variance of perceived risk, and that the most powerful explanatory factors were higher consciousness beliefs and beliefs in paranormal phenomena. Traditional superstition and use of healing practices did not contribute to explaining perceived risk.

  16. Electromagnetic antenna modeling (EAM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Malcolm; Powers, Robert; Tsitsopoulos, Paul

    1994-12-01

    The determination of foreign communications capabilities and intent is an important assessment function performed by the USAF National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC). In this context, Rome Laboratory became the NAIC engineering agent for the development of an NAIC requirement for the rapid analysis and evaluation of antenna structures based on often vague to sometimes detailed dimensional information. To this end, the Rome Laboratory sponsored development of the Electromagnetic Antenna Modeling (EAM) System, a state-of-the-art Pascal program with an MS Windows graphical user interface (GUI) pre- and post-processor. Users of NAIC capabilities initiate antenna analysis efforts that range from simple parametric studies to more complex, detailed antenna design and communication-system evaluations. Accordingly, EAM provides a modeling capability 'matched' to the sophistication of the individual analyst, with features appropriate for users ranging from nontechnical analysts to experienced antenna engineers. This capability is particularly valuable in the military-intelligence environment, in which high-speed assessments are required. In particular, EAM meets the specific antenna-analysis requirements of NAIC with a versatile graphical user interface.

  17. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  18. Metric Ranking of Invariant Networks with Belief Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Changxia; Ge, Yong; Song, Qinbao; Ge, Yuan; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2014-01-01

    The management of large-scale distributed information systems relies on the effective use and modeling of monitoring data collected at various points in the distributed information systems. A promising approach is to discover invariant relationships among the monitoring data and generate invariant networks, where a node is a monitoring data source (metric) and a link indicates an invariant relationship between two monitoring data. Such an invariant network representation can help system experts to localize and diagnose the system faults by examining those broken invariant relationships and their related metrics, because system faults usually propagate among the monitoring data and eventually lead to some broken invariant relationships. However, at one time, there are usually a lot of broken links (invariant relationships) within an invariant network. Without proper guidance, it is difficult for system experts to manually inspect this large number of broken links. Thus, a critical challenge is how to effectively and efficiently rank metrics (nodes) of invariant networks according to the anomaly levels of metrics. The ranked list of metrics will provide system experts with useful guidance for them to localize and diagnose the system faults. To this end, we propose to model the nodes and the broken links as a Markov Random Field (MRF), and develop an iteration algorithm to infer the anomaly of each node based on belief propagation (BP). Finally, we validate the proposed algorithm on both realworld and synthetic data sets to illustrate its effectiveness.

  19. The Relationship between Metacognition and Obsessive Beliefs, and Procrastination in Students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Hasan; Hajloo, Nader; Babayi, Karim; Shahri, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between metacognition and obsessive beliefs, and procrastination. Methods: 285 students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran, were selected by random sampling, and completed the metacognition (MCQ-30) questionnaire, obsessive beliefs questionnaire (OBQ-44), and General Procrastination Scale. The research method was descriptive. Data was implemented by structural equation modeling, using Amos software (version 19) and Anderson and Greenberg’s (1988) two-step approach was followed. First, the model measurement, and then the structural model were examined. Results: Results showed that obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs, directly and indirectly, predict the behavior of procrastination. Cognitive confidence, need for control of thoughts, and positive beliefs about worry from metacognitive beliefs were positively and significantly correlated with procrastination. In addition, cognitive self-consciousness was inversely correlated with procrastination. Perfectionism/certainty from obsessive beliefs was inversely correlated with procrastination. Moreover, the relationship between obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs were positive and significant. Conclusion: Our findings show a significant relationship between obsessive and metacognitive beliefs and procrastination. To reduce behaviors of procrastination, control of obsessive beliefs and metacognition seems to be necessary. Moreover, controlling and shaping metacognitive beliefs can be effective in reducing compulsive behavior. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24995029

  20. Yoruba customs and beliefs pertaining to twins.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Fernand; Olaleye-Oruene, Taiwo; Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Bryan, Elizabeth

    2002-04-01

    The Yoruba are an important ethnic group mainly occupying Southwestern Nigeria. Mainly for genetic reasons, this very large tribe happens to present the highest dizygotic twinning rate in the world (4.4 % of all maternities). The high perinatal mortality rate associated with such pregnancies has contributed to the integration of a special twin belief system within the African traditional religion of this tribe. The latter is based on the concept of a supreme deity called Olodumare or Olorun, assisted by a series of secondary gods (Orisha) while Yoruba religion also involves immortality and reincarnation of the soul based on the animistic cult of ancestors. Twins are therefore given special names and believed to detain special preternatural powers. In keeping with their refined artistic tradition, the Yoruba have produced numerous wooden statuettes called Ibejis that represent the souls of deceased newborn twins and are involved in elaborate rituals. Among Yoruba traditional beliefs and lore some twin-related themes are represented which are also found in other parts of the world. Basic features of the original Yoruba beliefs have found their way into the religious traditions of descendants of African slaves imported in the West Indies and in South America.

  1. Modeling the Earth System, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojima, Dennis (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered fall under the following headings: critical gaps in the Earth system conceptual framework; development needs for simplified models; and validating Earth system models and their subcomponents.

  2. Identity, morals, and taboos: beliefs as assets.

    PubMed

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theory of moral behavior, individual and collective, based on a general model of identity in which people care about “who they are” and infer their own values from past choices. The model sheds light on many empirical puzzles inconsistent with earlier approaches. Identity investments respond nonmonotonically to acts or threats, and taboos on mere thoughts arise to protect beliefs about the “priceless” value of certain social assets. High endowments trigger escalating commitment and a treadmill effect, while competing identities can cause dysfunctional capital destruction. Social interactions induce both social and antisocial norms of contribution, sustained by respectively shunning free riders or do-gooders.

  3. Brain Networks Shaping Religious Belief

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank; Thornburg, Matthew P.; Grafman, Jordan Henry

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that religious belief depends upon three cognitive dimensions, which can be mapped to specific brain regions. In the present study, we considered these co-activated regions as nodes of three networks each one corresponding to a particular dimension, corresponding to each dimension and examined the causal flow within and between these networks to address two important hypotheses that remained untested in our previous work. First, we hypothesized that regions involved in theory of mind (ToM) are located upstream the causal flow and drive non-ToM regions, in line with theories attributing religion to the evolution of ToM. Second, we hypothesized that differences in directional connectivity are associated with differences in religiosity. To test these hypotheses, we performed a multivariate Granger causality-based directional connectivity analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate the causal flow within religious belief-related networks. Our results supported both hypotheses. Religious subjects preferentially activated a pathway from inferolateral to dorsomedial frontal cortex to monitor the intent and involvement of supernatural agents (SAs; intent-related ToM). Perception of SAs engaged pathways involved in fear regulation and affective ToM. Religious beliefs are founded both on propositional statements for doctrine, but also on episodic memory and imagery. Beliefs based on doctrine engaged a pathway from Broca's to Wernicke's language areas. Beliefs related to everyday life experiences engaged pathways involved in imagery. Beliefs implying less involved SAs and evoking imagery activated a pathway from right lateral temporal to occipital regions. This pathway was more active in non-religious compared to religious subjects, suggesting greater difficulty and procedural demands for imagining and processing the intent of SAs. Insights gained by Granger connectivity analysis inform us about

  4. Coastal Modeling System (CMS) Users Manuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    AD-A268 830 , INSTRUCTION REPORT CERC-91-1 COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM ( CMS ) USER’S MANUAL by Mary A. Cialone, David J. Mark, Lucia W. Chou, David A...THE COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM USER’S MANUAL Supplement 1 Issued August 1992 Enclosed are additions and corrections to the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ...COVERED1 August 1992 Supplement I to September 1991 Manual 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) User’s Manual WU

  5. Using the Model Coupling Toolkit to couple earth system models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Perlin, N.; Skyllingstad, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continued advances in computational resources are providing the opportunity to operate more sophisticated numerical models. Additionally, there is an increasing demand for multidisciplinary studies that include interactions between different physical processes. Therefore there is a strong desire to develop coupled modeling systems that utilize existing models and allow efficient data exchange and model control. The basic system would entail model "1" running on "M" processors and model "2" running on "N" processors, with efficient exchange of model fields at predetermined synchronization intervals. Here we demonstrate two coupled systems: the coupling of the ocean circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to the surface wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of ROMS to the atmospheric model Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS). Both coupled systems use the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT) as a mechanism for operation control and inter-model distributed memory transfer of model variables. In this paper we describe requirements and other options for model coupling, explain the MCT library, ROMS, SWAN and COAMPS models, methods for grid decomposition and sparse matrix interpolation, and provide an example from each coupled system. Methods presented in this paper are clearly applicable for coupling of other types of models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling HE systems using DSD

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, T.D.; Bdzil, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    As a high explosive (HE) ages, those properties of the HE dependent on its global energy-release rate (e.g. shock initiation and detonation propagation speed) are the most likely to be affected. Similarly, any HE replacement will bring with it changes in these same reaction rate dependent characteristics of the HE, in that the new material will not be identical to that being replaced. In this paper the authors describe how detonation shock dynamics (DSD) theory can be used to model how changes in the energy-release rate (as they are embodied in the HE`s detonation speed vs curvature relation) influence the speed of detonation propagation and in turn the performance of a system.

  7. Water system modeling for dispatcher training simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, S.; Sigari, P.G. ); Allen, J.E.; Assadian, M. )

    1993-08-01

    This paper addresses the existing need for training dispatchers in the operation of power systems where it involves managing large water systems. The problem formulation and implementation of water system modeling for the Dispatcher Training Simulators (DTS) are presented in this paper. The method systematically builds the water network descriptions. The model periodically calculates the water system flows, storage values, and currently available hydro generation capacities. The model is controllable by the instructor and provides the simulated telemetry of water system data to the control center functions in the DTS. The water system modeling enhances the power system modeling subsystem of the DTS. The method is validated on a large water system and power system data. The results and the benefits of water system modeling are discussed.

  8. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  9. Effects of Increased Psychiatric Treatment Contact and Acculturation on the Causal Beliefs of Chinese Immigrant Relatives of Individuals with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Graciete; Tu, Ming; Wu, Olivia; Anglin, Deidre; Saw, Anne; Chen, Fang-pei

    2016-01-01

    Encounters with Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation may influence causal beliefs of psychiatric illness endorsed by Chinese immigrant relatives, thus affecting help-seeking. We examined causal beliefs held by forty-six Chinese immigrant relatives and found that greater acculturation was associated with an increased number of causal beliefs. Further, as Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation increased, causal models expanded to incorporate biological/physical causes. However, frequency of Chinese immigrant relatives' endorsing spiritual beliefs did not appear to change with acculturation. Clinicians might thus account for spiritual beliefs in treatment even after acculturation increases and biological causal models proliferate. PMID:27127454

  10. New model systems for experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sinéad

    2013-07-01

    Microbial experimental evolution uses a few well-characterized model systems to answer fundamental questions about how evolution works. This special section highlights novel model systems for experimental evolution, with a focus on marine model systems that can be used to understand evolutionary responses to global change in the oceans.

  11. Neural correlates of maintaining one’s political beliefs in the face of counterevidence

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jonas T.; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Harris, Sam

    2016-01-01

    People often discount evidence that contradicts their firmly held beliefs. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms that govern this behavior. We used neuroimaging to investigate the neural systems involved in maintaining belief in the face of counterevidence, presenting 40 liberals with arguments that contradicted their strongly held political and non-political views. Challenges to political beliefs produced increased activity in the default mode network—a set of interconnected structures associated with self-representation and disengagement from the external world. Trials with greater belief resistance showed increased response in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and decreased activity in the orbitofrontal cortex. We also found that participants who changed their minds more showed less BOLD signal in the insula and the amygdala when evaluating counterevidence. These results highlight the role of emotion in belief-change resistance and offer insight into the neural systems involved in belief maintenance, motivated reasoning, and related phenomena. PMID:28008965

  12. False-belief understanding in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Baird, Jodie A; Black, Sandra E

    2009-05-01

    The ability to understand other people's behavior in terms of mental states, such as beliefs, desires, and intentions, is central to social interaction. It has been argued that the interpersonal problems of patients with behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD-b) are due to a dysfunction of that system. We used first- and second-order false-belief tasks to assess theory-of-mind reasoning in a group of patients with FTD-b and a cognitively matched group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both patient groups were equally impaired relative to a healthy elderly group in the cognitively demanding second-order false-belief tasks, revealing that cognitive demands are an important factor in false-belief task performance. Both patient groups reached ceiling performance in the first-order false-belief tasks with minimal cognitive demands, despite the striking difference in their social graces. These results suggest that a conceptual deficit in theory of mind-as measured by the false-belief task-is not at the core of the differences between FTD-b and AD.

  13. Latino Caregivers' Beliefs about Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Friedman, Deborah; Colon, Angel; Soto, Jesus; Rivera, Doriliz Vila; Fritz, Gregory K.; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study examined belief systems of Latino caregivers who have children with asthma from Puerto Rican and Dominican backgrounds who resided on the Island of PR and the Mainland. The goal of this study was to document similarities and differences in beliefs about the causes, symptoms and treatments of asthma across two sites and two Latino ethnic sub-groups of children who remain the most at risk for asthma morbidity. Methods: Participants included 100 primary caregivers of a child with asthma. Fifty caregivers from Island PR and fifty caregivers from mainland RI were interviewed (at each site, 25 caregivers were from Puerto Rican backgrounds and 25 caregivers were from Dominican backgrounds). The interview included an assessment of demographic information and beliefs about the causes and symptoms of asthma, and asthma practices. Results: Results indicated more similarities in beliefs about the causes and symptoms of asthma across site and ethnic group. The majority of differences were among beliefs about asthma practices by site and ethnic group. For example, a higher proportion of caregivers from Island PR, particularly those of Dominican descent, endorsed that a range of home and botanical remedies are effective for treating asthma. Conclusions: Results from this study point to several interesting directions for future research including larger samples of Latino caregivers with children who have asthma. A discussion of the importance of understanding cultural beliefs about asthma and asthma practices is also reviewed. PMID:18415827

  14. Is It the Teaching or the Discipline? Influences of Disciplinary Epistemology and Pedagogy on Students Adapting Study Behaviour and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie; Ho, Amaly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pace and degree of adaptation of study behaviour and personal epistemological beliefs between school and university through interviews with 110 final-year university students. The study took place in Hong Kong, where the highly competitive school system encourages remembering modelling answers for the public examinations;…

  15. The CICT Earth Science Systems Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Coughlan, Joe; Biegel, Bryan; Stevens, Ken; Hansson, Othar; Hayes, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Computing Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Systems Analysis. Our modeling approach: a 3-part schematic investment model of technology change, impact assessment and prioritization. A whirlwind tour of our model. Lessons learned.

  16. CONTROL SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION THROUGH MODEL MODULATION METHODS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    identification has been achieved by using model modulation techniques to drive dynamic models into correspondence with operating control systems. The system ... identification then proceeded from examination of the model and the adaptive loop. The model modulation techniques applied to adaptive control

  17. Visual computing model for immune system and medical system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Cao, Xinxue; Xiong, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Natural immune system is an intelligent self-organizing and adaptive system, which has a variety of immune cells with different types of immune mechanisms. The mutual cooperation between the immune cells shows the intelligence of this immune system, and modeling this immune system has an important significance in medical science and engineering. In order to build a comprehensible model of this immune system for better understanding with the visualization method than the traditional mathematic model, a visual computing model of this immune system was proposed and also used to design a medical system with the immune system, in this paper. Some visual simulations of the immune system were made to test the visual effect. The experimental results of the simulations show that the visual modeling approach can provide a more effective way for analyzing this immune system than only the traditional mathematic equations.

  18. Next generation system modeling of NTR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buksa, John J.; Rider, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) modeling challenges; current approaches; shortcomings of current analysis method; future needs; and present steps to these goals.

  19. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  20. The ecology of religious beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  1. The ecology of religious beliefs.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D

    2014-11-25

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species.

  2. Model mount system for testing flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A wind tunnel model mount system is disclosed for effectively and accurately determining the effects of attack and airstream velocity on a model airfoil or aircraft. The model mount system includes a rigid model attached to a splitter plate which is supported away from the wind tunnel wall several of flexible rods. Conventional instrumentation is employed to effect model rotation through a turntable and to record model flutter data as a function of the angle of attack versus dynamic pressure.

  3. Neural correlates of obsessive-compulsive related dysfunctional beliefs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Pino; Orbegozo, Arantxa; Pujol, Jesús; López-Solà, Clara; Fullana, Miquel Àngel; Segalàs, Cinto; Real, Eva; Subirà, Marta; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M; Harrison, Ben J; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2013-12-02

    There have been few attempts to integrate neurobiological and cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), although this might constitute a key approach to clarify the complex etiology of the disorder. Our study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying dysfunctional beliefs hypothesized by cognitive models to be involved in the development and maintenance of OCD. We obtained a high-resolution magnetic resonance image from fifty OCD patients and 30 healthy controls, and correlated them, voxel-wise, with the severity of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs assessed by the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44. In healthy controls, significant negative correlations were observed between anterior temporal lobe (ATL) volume and scores on perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty and overimportance/need to control thoughts. No significant correlations between OBQ-44 domains and regional gray matter volumes were observed in OCD patients. A post-hoc region-of-interest analysis detected that the ATLs was bilaterally smaller in OCD patients. On splitting subjects into high- and low-belief subgroups, we observed that such brain structural differences between OCD patients and healthy controls were explained by significantly larger ATL volumes among healthy subjects from the low-belief subgroup. Our results suggest a significant correlation between OC-related dysfunctional beliefs and morphometric variability in the anterior temporal lobe, a brain structure related to socio-emotional processing. Future studies should address the interaction of these correlations with environmental factors to fully characterize the bases of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs and to advance in the integration of biological and cognitive models of OCD.

  4. NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles

    1996-01-01

    SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

  5. Generic CSP Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2011-08-01

    The suite of concentrating solar power (CSP) modeling tools in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) includes technology performance models for parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish-Stirling systems. Each model provides the user with unique capabilities that are catered to typical design considerations seen in each technology. Since the scope of the various models is generally limited to common plant configurations, new CSP technologies, component geometries, and subsystem combinations can be difficult to model directly in the existing SAM technology models. To overcome the limitations imposed by representative CSP technology models, NREL has developed a 'Generic Solar System' (GSS) performance model for use in SAM. This paper discusses the formulation and performance considerations included in this model and verifies the model by comparing its results with more detailed models.

  6. Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-31

    System ( CMS ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...www.erdc.usace.army.mil/Missions/WaterResources/CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) The...System ( CMS ), which provides coupled wave and current forcing for PTM simulations. CMS -PTM is implemented in the Surface-water Modeling System, a

  7. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  8. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  9. How do beliefs and other factors such as prior experience influence the decision-making of new teachers during their first year teaching experience?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Barbara J.

    2003-06-01

    The qualitative research project explored the perceptions of three new secondary education physics teachers. The content question stated: How do beliefs and other factors such as prior experience influence the decision-making of new teachers during their first year teaching experience? Specific questions includes: (1) What do first year teachers identify as their beliefs about teaching and learning? (2) How do first year teachers arrive at decisions about their instruction, materials, lessons, assessment, and student achievement? (3) How does decision-making occur in the learning environment from their perspective? (4) How do first year teachers solve problems? (5) To what extent do first year teachers actively think about what they do? The participants and their university professor were interviewed. Data was collected, transcribed, and coded using grounded theory techniques to conclude: (1) Belief systems take time to develop using filters. (2) Beliefs and perceptions help to fill gaps between knowledge. Gestalts change beliefs. (3) Modeling is a powerful technique influencing decision-making and beliefs over time. (4) Nurturing and preparation build confidence fostered at the university and public school. (5) New teachers' personalities, dispositions, and self-understandings effect filtering of perceptions, influencing behaviors in the learning environment. (6) Knowledge gained through experience, instruction, and reflection by the teacher enhances student learning. (7) Problem solving is learned and personality-based, helping to determine success. (8) Too many constraints to a novice cause limitations in his/her ability to be an effective teacher. (9) Early acceptance into a new environment helps to increase a sense of belonging leading to performance. (10) Positive attitudes towards students affect relationships with students in the classroom. (11) Backgrounds, personalities, and environments affect beliefs and decision-making. (12) New teachers focus more on

  10. Linear systems, and ARMA- and Fliess models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomadze, Vakhtang; Khurram Zafar, M.

    2010-10-01

    Linear (dynamical) systems are central objects of study (in linear system theory), and ARMA- and Fliess models are two very important classes of models that are used to represent them. This article is concerned with the question of what is a relation between them (in case of higher dimensions). It is shown that the category of linear systems, the 'weak' category of ARMA-models and the category of Fliess models are equivalent to each other.

  11. Comparison of Photovoltaic Models in the System Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N. J.; Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is free software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for predicting the performance of renewable energy systems and analyzing the financial feasibility of residential, commercial, and utility-scale grid-connected projects. SAM offers several options for predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The model requires that the analyst choose from three PV system models, and depending on that choice, possibly choose from three module and two inverter component models. To obtain meaningful results from SAM, the analyst must be aware of the differences between the model options and their applicability to different modeling scenarios. This paper presents an overview the different PV model options and presents a comparison of results for a 200-kW system using different model options.

  12. Use of the Health Belief Model for the Assessment of Public Knowledge and Household Preventive Practices in Karachi, Pakistan, a Dengue-Endemic City

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Taranum Ruba; Ghazal, Saima; Bibi, Safia; Ahmed, Waquaruddin; Sajjad, Shaimuna Fareeha

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevention is most effective in reducing dengue infection risk, especially in endemic countries like Pakistan. Evaluation of public awareness and health beliefs regarding dengue fever (DF) is important for devising disease control strategies. This study assessed dengue knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive practices against DF in different socioeconomic groups of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology In this community-based cross-sectional study, 6 randomly selected towns were visited, 2 persons (man and woman) per household were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and household practices were observed. Information regarding DF was shared through a printed pamphlet. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of variables associated with dengue knowledge and practices was conducted. Principal Findings We interviewed 608 Karachi residents (mean age: 33.2 ± 13.35 years); 7.7%, 71.9%, and 20.4% had a high, middle, and low socioeconomic status, respectively. The mean knowledge score was 6.4 ± 2.10 out of 14. The mean preventive practices score was 9 ± 1.8 out of 17. Predictors of dengue knowledge were perceived threat (odds ratio [OR] = 1.802; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–2.71; p = 0.005), self-efficacy (OR = 2.910; 95% CI = 1.77–4.76; p = 0.000), and television as an information source (OR = 3.202; 95% CI = 1.97–5.17; p = 0.000). Predictors of dengue preventive practices were perceived threat (OR = 1.502; 95% CI = 1.02–2.19; p = 0.036), self-efficacy (OR = 1.982; 95% CI = 1.34–2.91; p = 0.000), and dengue knowledge (OR = 1.581; 95% CI = 1.05–2.37; p = 0.028). Conclusions Public knowledge about DF is low in Karachi. Knowledge, threat perception, and self-efficacy are significant predictors of adequate dengue preventive practices. Prevention and control strategies should focus on raising awareness about dengue contraction risk and severity through television. Health messages should be designed to increase individual self

  13. Does Closeness to Someone Who Is Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Influence Etiology Beliefs About Homosexuality?

    PubMed

    Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S; Woodford, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Research suggests that contact with sexual minorities and etiology beliefs regarding the origins of homosexuality are associated with antigay bias; however, factors related to etiology beliefs have received little empirical attention. Our primary research question is: Does closeness to someone who is gay, lesbian, or bisexual influence etiology beliefs? Students (n = 851) from four U.S. universities completed an anonymous survey, and regression results indicated that contact and closeness were not significantly associated with etiology beliefs. Because both contact and relationship closeness were associated with antigay attitudes, and closeness demonstrated the largest effect, we tested three alternative structural equation models to determine if contact and closeness mediated etiology beliefs. Results suggested that contact and the degree of closeness are indirectly associated with students' etiology beliefs through antigay bias.

  14. The role of core beliefs in the specific cognitions of bulimic patients.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Vanesa C; Derksen, Jan J L; van Der Staak, Cees P F

    2004-04-01

    Cognitive models of bulimia nervosa have stressed the importance of self-beliefs in the maintenance of the disorder. However, new findings show a deeper and more general level of beliefs also to play a role in eating disorders. These beliefs are long-standing, absolute, and unconditional. In the present study, the relations between such core beliefs and specific cognitions regarding eating, shape, and weight were examined. The sample consisted of 75 bulimic outpatients who started treatment. The patients completed the Schema Questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, the SCL-90-R, and the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Questionnaire at intake. Strong relations between some core beliefs and the specific cognitions regarding shape, weight, and eating were found. The modification of core beliefs appears to be a very important issue to incorporate into treatment.

  15. Phantasies, neurotic-beliefs, and beliefs-proper.

    PubMed

    Brakel, L A

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a philosophical analysis of three cognitive states familiar and important to psychoanalysts--phantasy, neurotic-belief, and belief-proper. It explores the differences among these three propositional attitudes and finds that the development of secondary process capacities of reality testing and truth directness out of earlier primary process operations (themselves prior to considerations of truth or falsity) plays a crucial role. Difficulties in the proper typing of cognitive states are discussed, as are the consequences of such confounds. This use of a philosophical method serves to sharpen the familiar psychoanalytic clinical concepts of phantasy and neurotic-belief. In addition, these same clinical concepts, once properly specified, have much to offer the philosophy of mind, where current understanding of representational cognitive states is restricted to those that are largely conscious and rational. When psychoanalytic concepts such as phantasy and neurotic-belief can be better integrated within the discipline of philosophy of mind, both philosophers and psychoanalysts will have a more complete and adequate theory of mind.

  16. Turkish Mathematics Teachers' Experiences with Geogebra Activities: Changes in Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kul, Umit

    2012-01-01

    The curriculum for Turkish primary mathematics education was revised in 2005. The idea behind these reforms was to move from a subject-centred model to a student-centred model. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in teachers' mathematical beliefs following a professional development (PD) course based on the use of Geogebra. This…

  17. Neural Correlates of Belief and Emotion Attribution in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P.; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired mental state attribution is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined the extent to which the core neural system of mental state attribution is involved in mental state attribution, focusing on belief attribution and emotion attribution. Fifteen schizophrenia outpatients and 14 healthy controls performed two mental state attribution tasks in the scanner. In a Belief Attribution Task, after reading a short vignette, participants were asked infer either the belief of a character (a false belief condition) or a physical state of an affair (a false photograph condition). In an Emotion Attribution Task, participants were asked either to judge whether character(s) in pictures felt unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral emotion (other condition) or to look at pictures that did not have any human characters (view condition). fMRI data were analyzing focusing on a priori regions of interest (ROIs) of the core neural systems of mental state attribution: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and precuneus. An exploratory whole brain analysis was also performed. Both patients and controls showed greater activation in all four ROIs during the Belief Attribution Task than the Emotion Attribution Task. Patients also showed less activation in the precuneus and left TPJ compared to controls during the Belief Attribution Task. No significant group difference was found during the Emotion Attribution Task in any of ROIs. An exploratory whole brain analysis showed a similar pattern of neural activations. These findings suggest that while schizophrenia patients rely on the same neural network as controls do when attributing beliefs of others, patients did not show reduced activation in the key regions such as the TPJ. Further, this study did not find evidence for aberrant neural activation during emotion attribution or recruitment of compensatory brain regions in schizophrenia

  18. Astronomical Beliefs in Medieval Georgia: Innovative Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Jefferson; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F.

    2014-01-01

    Written sources from medieval Georgia show, among other things, how astronomical ideas were adapted on the periphery of the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. In this paper, we investigate a number of Georgian beliefs about the heavens from a calendrical work and a celestial prognostication text, but also from less expected sources including the medieval life of a saint and an epic poem. For the most part, these sources were derived from Byzantine or Persian models. We show the extent to which the sources nevertheless conform to a specifically Georgian view of the cosmos. We argue that, in so doing, medieval Georgian authors employed several innovative approaches hitherto unnoticed by modern scholars.

  19. Nonbacktracking operator for the Ising model and its applications in systems with multiple states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan

    2015-04-01

    The nonbacktracking operator for a graph is the adjacency matrix defined on directed edges of the graph. The operator was recently shown to perform optimally in spectral clustering in sparse synthetic graphs and have a deep connection to belief propagation algorithm. In this paper we consider nonbacktracking operator for Ising model on a general graph with a general coupling distribution and study the spectrum of this operator analytically. We show that spectral algorithms based on this operator is equivalent to belief propagation algorithm linearized at the paramagnetic fixed point and recovers replica-symmetry results on phase boundaries obtained by replica methods. This operator can be applied directly to systems with multiple states like Hopfield model. We show that spectrum of the operator can be used to determine number of patterns that stored successfully in the network, and the associated eigenvectors can be used to retrieve all the patterns simultaneously. We also give an example on how to control the Hopfield model, i.e., making network more sparse while keeping patterns stable, using the nonbacktracking operator and matrix perturbation theory.

  20. A model for plant lighting system selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciolkosz, D. E.; Albright, L. D.; Sager, J. C.; Langhans, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    A decision model is presented that compares lighting systems for a plant growth scenario and chooses the most appropriate system from a given set of possible choices. The model utilizes a Multiple Attribute Utility Theory approach, and incorporates expert input and performance simulations to calculate a utility value for each lighting system being considered. The system with the highest utility is deemed the most appropriate system. The model was applied to a greenhouse scenario, and analyses were conducted to test the model's output for validity. Parameter variation indicates that the model performed as expected. Analysis of model output indicates that differences in utility among the candidate lighting systems were sufficiently large to give confidence that the model's order of selection was valid.

  1. Beliefs and expectancies in legal decision making: an introduction to the Special Issue

    PubMed Central

    McAuliff, Bradley D.; Bornstein, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    This introduction describes what the co-editors believe readers can expect in this Special Issue. After beliefs and expectancies are defined, examples of how these constructs influence human thought, feeling, and behavior in legal settings are considered. Brief synopses are provided for the Special Issue papers on beliefs and expectancies regarding alibis, children’s testimony behavior, eyewitness testimony, confessions, sexual assault victims, judges’ decisions in child protection cases, and attorneys’ beliefs about jurors’ perceptions of juvenile offender culpability. Areas for future research are identified, and readers are encouraged to discover new ways that beliefs and expectancies operate in the legal system. PMID:24348006

  2. Multiple system modelling of waste management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2011-12-01

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  3. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  4. Building a generalized distributed system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    A number of topics related to building a generalized distributed system model are discussed. The effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks, the measurement of effects of distributed database models on transaction availability measures, and a performance analysis of static locking in replicated distributed database systems are covered.

  5. Adaptive System Modeling for Spacecraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This invention introduces a methodology and associated software tools for automatically learning spacecraft system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques were used to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). Evaluation on historical ISS telemetry data shows that adaptive system modeling reduces simulation error anywhere from 50 to 90 percent over existing approaches. The purpose of the methodology is to outline how someone can create accurate system models from sensor (telemetry) data. The purpose of the software is to support the methodology. The software provides analysis tools to design the adaptive models. The software also provides the algorithms to initially build system models and continuously update them from the latest streaming sensor data. The main strengths are as follows: Creates accurate spacecraft system models without in-depth system knowledge or any assumptions about system behavior. Automatically updates/calibrates system models using the latest streaming sensor data. Creates device specific models that capture the exact behavior of devices of the same type. Adapts to evolving systems. Can reduce computational complexity (faster simulations).

  6. Modeling Kanban Processes in Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Modeling Kanban Processes in Systems Engineering Richard Turner School of Systems and Enterprises Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ...dingold@usc.edu, jolane@usc.edu Abstract—Systems engineering processes using pull scheduling methods ( kanban ) are being evaluated with hybrid...development projects incrementally evolve capabilities of existing systems and/or systems of systems. A kanban -based scheduling system was defined and

  7. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    PubMed Central

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs. PMID:27790164

  8. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  9. Designing control system information models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panin, K. I.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    Problems encountered in modeling information models are discussed, Data cover condition, functioning of the object of control, and the environment involved in the control. Other parameters needed for the model include: (1) information for forming an image of the real situation, (2) data for analyzing and evaluating an evolving situation, (3) planning actions, and (4) data for observing and evaluating the results of model realization.

  10. NASA Lewis Wind Tunnel Model Systems Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.; Haller, Henry C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes criteria for the design, analysis, quality assurance, and documentation of models or test articles that are to be tested in the aeropropulsion facilities at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The report presents three methods for computing model allowable stresses on the basis of the yield stress or ultimate stress, and it gives quality assurance criteria for models tested in Lewis' aeropropulsion facilities. Both customer-furnished model systems and in-house model systems are discussed. The functions of the facility manager, project engineer, operations engineer, research engineer, and facility electrical engineer are defined. The format for pretest meetings, prerun safety meetings, and the model criteria review are outlined Then, the format for the model systems report (a requirement for each model that is to be tested at NASA Lewis) is described, the engineers that are responsible for developing the model systems report are listed, and the time table for its delivery to the facility manager is given.

  11. Electronic Education System Model-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güllü, Fatih; Kuusik, Rein; Laanpere, Mart

    2015-01-01

    In this study we presented new EES Model-2 extended from EES model for more productive implementation in e-learning process design and modelling in higher education. The most updates were related to uppermost instructional layer. We updated learning processes object of the layer for adaptation of educational process for young and old people,…

  12. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  13. Network and adaptive system of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E. Dr.; Anderson, Dennis James; Eddy, John P.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled ''Network and Adaptive System of Systems Modeling and Analysis'' that was conducted during FY 2005 and FY 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine and implement ways to incorporate network communications modeling into existing System of Systems (SoS) modeling capabilities. Current SoS modeling, particularly for the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, is conducted under the assumption that communication between the various systems is always possible and occurs instantaneously. A more realistic representation of these communications allows for better, more accurate simulation results. The current approach to meeting this objective has been to use existing capabilities to model network hardware reliability and adding capabilities to use that information to model the impact on the sustainment supply chain and operational availability.

  14. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Main Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Main Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  15. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  16. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Refinery Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Refinery Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Electricity Model

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Electricity Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Coal Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Coal Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  19. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Industrial Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Industrial Model (WIM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  20. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Residential Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Residential Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.