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Sample records for modeling belief systems

  1. Modeling belief systems with scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Antal, Miklós; Balogh, László

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of belief systems has always been a focus of cognitive research. In this paper, we delineate a new model describing belief systems as a network of statements considered true. Testing the model with a small number of parameters enabled us to reproduce a variety of well-known mechanisms ranging from opinion changes to development of psychological problems. The self-organizing opinion structure showed a scale-free degree distribution. The novelty of our work lies in applying a convenient set of definitions allowing us to depict opinion network dynamics in a highly favorable way, which resulted in a scale-free belief network. As an additional benefit, we listed several conjectural consequences in a number of areas related to thinking and reasoning. PMID:19394794

  2. Model Checking Degrees of Belief in a System of Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raimondi, Franco; Primero, Giuseppe; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning about degrees of belief has been investigated in the past by a number of authors and has a number of practical applications in real life. In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particular, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derived automatically from the possible executions of the system, thereby providing a computationally grounded formalism. We leverage the semantics to (a) construct a model checking algorithm, (b) investigate its complexity, (c) provide a Java implementation of the model checking algorithm, and (d) evaluate our approach using the standard benchmark of the dining cryptographers. Finally, we provide a detailed case study: using our framework and our implementation, we assess and verify the situational awareness of the pilot of Air France 447 flying in off-nominal conditions.

  3. Integrating the Illness Beliefs Model in clinical practice: a Family Systems Nursing knowledge utilization model.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Fabie; Dupuis, France; Turcotte, Annie; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-05-01

    To promote the integration of Family Systems Nursing (FSN) in clinical practice, we need to better understand how nurses overcome the challenges of FSN knowledge utilization. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted with 32 practicing female nurses from hospital and community settings who had received FSN intervention training and skill development based on the Illness Beliefs Model and the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models. The participants were interviewed about how they utilized FSN knowledge in their nursing practice. From the data analysis, a FSN Knowledge Utilization Model emerged that involves three major components: (a) nurses' beliefs in FSN and in their FSN skills, (b) nurses' knowledge utilization strategies to address the challenges of FSN practice, and (c) FSN positive outcomes. The FSN Knowledge Utilization Model describes a circular, incremental, and iterative process used by nurses to integrate FSN in daily nursing practice. Findings point to a need for re-evaluation of educational and management strategies in clinical settings for advancing the practice of FSN.

  4. Order Effects in Belief Updating: The Belief-Adjustment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Robin M.; Einhorn, Hillel J.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of the updating of beliefs over time is presented that explicitly accounts for order-effect phenomena as arising from the interaction of information-processing strategies and task characteristics. The belief-adjustment model is supported by 5 experiments involving 192 adult subjects. (SLD)

  5. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  6. Belief Function Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Wagner Teixeira da; Milidiu, Ruy Luiz

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Belief Function Model for automatic indexing and ranking of documents which is based on a controlled vocabulary and on term frequencies in each document. Belief Function Theory is explained, and the Belief Function Model is compared to the Standard Vector Space Model. (17 references) (LRW)

  7. Preservice teachers' belief systems toward curricular outcomes for physical education.

    PubMed

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Brusseau, Timothy; Ferry, Matthew; Cothran, Donetta

    2010-06-01

    This study was grounded in the belief systems and physical activity literature and investigated preservice teachers' belief systems toward curricular outcomes for physical education programs. Preservice teachers (N = 486; men = 62%, women = 38%) from 18 U.S. colleges/universities shared their beliefs about curricular outcomes. Preservice teachers completed a previously validated belief systems instrument designed to measure the relative importance of four outcome goals for programs (physical activity/fitness, self-actualization, motor skill development, and social development). Internal consistency reliability for the instrument was .98. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a good fit of the current sample to the hypothesized outcomes model. Multivariate analysis of variance results revealed a significant interaction in outcome preservice teachers' priorities for year in school by region. The teachers' views also differed on the important outcome goals for physical education. Two critical "tensions" are discussed: (a) the need to examine more fully the consistency of preservice teacher/teacher belief systems, and (b) implications for teacher education and professional development programming. It is important to heed prospective teachers' voices and address their belief systems in teacher education programs. PMID:20527304

  8. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroğlu, Barış; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content knowledge, risk perceptions, moral beliefs, and religious beliefs) and their teaching efficacy beliefs about this topic constitute a belief system, and these beliefs are interrelated due to core educational beliefs. We used an exploratory mixed design to test this model. We developed and administered specific questionnaires to probe the belief system model. The sample for the quantitative part of this study included 441 preservice science teachers from eight universities. We randomly selected eight participants in this group for follow-up interviews. The results showed that preservice science teachers held moderately high teaching efficacy beliefs. Learning and teaching experiences, communication skills, vicarious experiences, emotional states, and interest in the topic were sources of this efficacy. In addition, content knowledge and risk perceptions were predictors of teaching efficacy. We believe that epistemologies based on traditional teaching and the values attached to science teaching are the core beliefs that affect the relationship between predictor variables and teaching efficacy.

  9. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  10. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haser, Cigdem; Dogan, Oguzhan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mathematics teacher education programme courses on pre-service teachers' mathematics teaching belief systems before their field experience was initially investigated through a Likert-type scale. The impact of a third year general teaching methodologies course was then investigated through the responses pre-service teachers…

  11. Modeling Physiological Data with Deep Belief Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Shang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Feature extraction is key in understanding and modeling of physiological data. Traditionally hand-crafted features are chosen based on expert knowledge and then used for classification or regression. To determine important features and pick the effective ones to handle a new task may be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the manual process does not scale well with new or large-size tasks. In this work, we present a system based on Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) that can automatically extract features from raw physiological data of 4 channels in an unsupervised fashion and then build 3 classifiers to predict the levels of arousal, valance, and liking based on the learned features. The classification accuracies are 60.9%, 51.2%, and 68.4%, respectively, which are comparable with the results obtained by Gaussian Naïve Bayes classifier on the state-of-the-art expert designed features. These results suggest that DBNs can be applied to raw physiological data to effectively learn relevant features and predict emotions. PMID:25165501

  12. Nestedness of beliefs: Examining a prospective elementary teacher's belief system about science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Lynn A.

    2003-11-01

    This study, conducted from a constructivist perspective, examined the belief system of a prospective elementary teacher (Barbara) about science teaching and learning as she developed professional knowledge within the context of reflective science teacher education. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a profile of Barbara's beliefs that consisted of three foundational and three dualistic beliefs. Her foundational beliefs concerned (a) the value of science and science teaching, (b) the nature of scientific concepts and goals of science instruction, and (c) control in the science classroom. Barbara held dualistic beliefs about (a) how children learn science, (b) the science students' role, and (c) the science teacher's role. Her dualistic beliefs formed two contradictory nests of beliefs. One nest, grounded in lifelong science learner experiences, reflected a didactic teaching orientation and predominantly guided her practice. The second nest, not well grounded in experience, embraced a hands-on approach and predominantly guided her vision of practice. The findings accentuate the complexity and nestedness of teachers' belief systems and underscore the significance of identifying prospective teachers' beliefs, espoused and enacted, for designing teacher preparation programs.

  13. Health belief systems and the psychobiology of war.

    PubMed

    Elgee, N J

    1984-06-01

    Belief systems overlie powerful biological and psychological forces that are root causes of war. Much as in medicine where an appreciation of health belief systems is necessary in the control of illness and disease, so the paths to the control of war may lie in an understanding of belief systems and ways to circumvent them. Such understanding gives strong theoretical support to many time-honored but underutilized international initiative and educational ventures. The effort of the medical community to educate the public about biomedical aspects of nuclear war should gain more balance and sophistication with an appreciation of belief systems in the psychobiology of war.

  14. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  15. [Incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system].

    PubMed

    Garzón Pérez, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Every society develops a particular system of beliefs that summarizes its vision of socio-political organization, culture and interpersonal relationships. Each of these three basic dimensions has different forms, depending on the spatial and temporal context of societies. The belief system of the service societies is characterized by a democratic vision of social and political organization, rejection of radical social changes and high levels of interpersonal trust. This paper empirically examines the incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system in a sample of university students. The participants belong to a country that is slowly integrating into the service societies. We used a scale of postmodernity to analyze the incorporation of the postmodern belief system. The results indicate that there is a peculiar combination of the three basic dimensions of the postmodern belief system, where the postmodern conceptions of culture and social relationships have lower acceptance.

  16. Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

  17. Teacher Change Beliefs: Validating a Scale with Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kin, Tai Mei; Abdull Kareem, Omar; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Wai Bing, Khuan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to validate a substantiated Teacher Change Beliefs Model (TCBM) and an instrument to identify critical components of teacher change beliefs (TCB) in Malaysian secondary schools. Five different pilot test approaches were applied to ensure the validity and reliability of the instrument. A total of 936 teachers from…

  18. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  19. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  20. Space Activism as an Epiphanic Belief System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    Years of interaction with young people in the space industry and in space activists groups led to my observation that many such individuals can cite a quite specific life event that triggered a life-long interest in or commitment to creating a space future. I am particularly intrigued by parallels between such experiences and the phenomenon of epiphanic experiences among committed Christians. I see analogies between the puzzlement among space activists and among Christian groups as to the reasons for so many people being "unbelievers." At a small international meeting on lunar exploration in 2003, I heard two separate lunch speakers cite such personal experiences. At the beginning of a break in that meeting, I grabbed the microphone from the chairman and asked each person to write down on a pad by his chair whether or not he (or she) had experienced a specific event that led to their involvement in space. If the answer was positive, I asked for a brief narrative, for their age at the time, and for their current age. I received 53 submissions, 20% of which simply stated that their involvement in space exploration was happenstance. (Apollo astronaut John Young was among these.) The other 80% of the submissions had specific stories. The ages at the time of the epiphany ranged from 4 to 47; and their current ages ranged from 22 to 78. I will present a high-level characterization of these inputs. Interest in space exploration as a form of belief system is consistent with choosing NASA goals for the purpose of inspiration and with phenomena such as the "Overview Effect". More research might explore what form the transcendent experience takes and whether it might be associated with feelings of universal connection such as the noosphere or "The Force". From a pragmatic point of view, outreach strategies for exploration should focus on giving individuals access to personal, potentially transformational experiences as opposed to astronaut talks at civic clubs.

  1. Nestedness of Beliefs: Examining a Prospective Elementary Teacher's Belief System about Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Lynn A.

    2003-01-01

    This study, conducted from a constructivist perspective, examined the belief system of a prospective elementary teacher (Barbara) about science teaching and learning as she developed professional knowledge within the context of reflective science teacher education. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a…

  2. Cognitive and contextual factors in the emergence of diverse belief systems: creation versus evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, E M

    2001-05-01

    The emergence and distribution of beliefs about the origins of species is investigated in Christian fundamentalist and nonfundamentalist school communities, with participants matched by age, educational level, and locale. Children (n = 185) and mothers (n = 92) were questioned about animate, inanimate, and artifact origins, and children were asked about their interests and natural-history knowledge. Preadolescents, like their mothers, embraced the dominant beliefs of their community, creationist or evolutionist; 8- to 10-year-olds were exclusively creationist, regardless of community of origin; 5- to 7-year-olds in fundamentalist schools endorsed creationism, whereas nonfundamentalists endorsed mixed creationist and spontaneous generationist beliefs. Children's natural-history knowledge and religious interest predicted their evolutionist and creationist beliefs, respectively, independently of parent beliefs. It is argued that this divergent developmental pattern is optimally explained with a model of constructive interactionism: Children generate intuitive beliefs about origins, both natural and intentional, while communities privilege certain beliefs and inhibit others, thus engendering diverse belief systems. PMID:11305883

  3. An integrated model of communication influence on beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Eveland, William P.; Cooper, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    How do people develop and maintain their beliefs about science? Decades of social science research exist to help us answer this question. The Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs presented here combines multiple theories that have considered aspects of this process into a comprehensive model to explain how individuals arrive at their scientific beliefs. In this article, we (i) summarize what is known about how science is presented in various news and entertainment media forms; (ii) describe how individuals differ in their choices to be exposed to various forms and sources of communication; (iii) discuss the implications of how individuals mentally process information on the effects of communication; (iv) consider how communication effects can be altered depending on background characteristics and motivations of individuals; and (v) emphasize that the process of belief formation is not unidirectional but rather, feeds back on itself over time. We conclude by applying the Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs to the complex issue of beliefs about climate change. PMID:23940328

  4. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gläscher, Jan; Bossaerts, Peter; O’Doherty, John; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST) with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects’ behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects’ responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects. PMID:26495984

  5. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gläscher, Jan; Bossaerts, Peter; O'Doherty, John; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2015-10-01

    For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST) with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects' behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects' responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects. PMID:26495984

  6. A model of multi-agent consensus for vague and uncertain beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Crosscombe, Michael; Lawry, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Consensus formation is investigated for multi-agent systems in which agents’ beliefs are both vague and uncertain. Vagueness is represented by a third truth state meaning borderline. This is combined with a probabilistic model of uncertainty. A belief combination operator is then proposed, which exploits borderline truth values to enable agents with conflicting beliefs to reach a compromise. A number of simulation experiments are carried out, in which agents apply this operator in pairwise interactions, under the bounded confidence restriction that the two agents’ beliefs must be sufficiently consistent with each other before agreement can be reached. As well as studying the consensus operator in isolation, we also investigate scenarios in which agents are influenced either directly or indirectly by the state of the world. For the former, we conduct simulations that combine consensus formation with belief updating based on evidence. For the latter, we investigate the effect of assuming that the closer an agent’s beliefs are to the truth the more visible they are in the consensus building process. In all cases, applying the consensus operators results in the population converging to a single shared belief that is both crisp and certain. Furthermore, simulations that combine consensus formation with evidential updating converge more quickly to a shared opinion, which is closer to the actual state of the world than those in which beliefs are only changed as a result of directly receiving new evidence. Finally, if agent interactions are guided by belief quality measured as similarity to the true state of the world, then applying the consensus operator alone results in the population converging to a high-quality shared belief. PMID:27547020

  7. Connecting DSM-5 Personality Traits and Pathological Beliefs: Toward a Unifying Model

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Schade, Nick; Krueger, Robert F.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markon, Kristian E.

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the DSM-IV model of personality disorders has led to the development of alternative conceptualizations, including pathological trait models and models linked to particular theoretical approaches, such as Beck and Freeman’s (1990) cognitive framework. An important issue involves the potential to interweave such models into a single, parsimonious system that combines their distinct advantages. In this study, pathological trait and dysfunctional belief data from 616 individuals in a non-clinical sample were evaluated for commensurability using structural equation modeling. These models can be integrated via five higher-order factors, and that specific dimensions of dysfunctional beliefs can be differentiated based on features of the DSM-5 trait model. Overall, these results suggest that traits provide scaffolding for individual differences in pathological personality, within which dysfunctional beliefs offer specific vectors for clinical intervention in a cognitive framework. Implications of the empirical commensurability of trait and cognitive models are discussed. PMID:24273380

  8. Psychosocial determinants of late prenatal care: the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, D; Rutledge, C M

    1993-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for investigating psychosocial determinants of delayed prenatal care among disadvantaged women. This framework is based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which postulates that beliefs concerning prenatal care are modified by psychological and social attributes and may predispose one to delay prenatal care enrollment. The HBM has a number of advantages for family medicine researchers in comparison to other models; its use in future investigations can provide the understanding necessary for overcoming psychosocial deterrents to entry into prenatal care.

  9. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    PubMed

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  10. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    PubMed

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  11. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake

    PubMed Central

    Echarte, Luis E.; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J. V.; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes – deep-seated beliefs – intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  12. A Measure of Systems Engineering Effectiveness in Government Acquisition of Complex Information Systems: A Bayesian Belief Network-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doskey, Steven Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research presents an innovative means of gauging Systems Engineering effectiveness through a Systems Engineering Relative Effectiveness Index (SE REI) model. The SE REI model uses a Bayesian Belief Network to map causal relationships in government acquisitions of Complex Information Systems (CIS), enabling practitioners to identify and…

  13. Modelling between Epistemological Beliefs and Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin-Dindar, Ayla; Kirbulut, Zübeyde Demet; Boz, Yezdan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' epistemological beliefs and their preference to use constructivist-learning environment in their future class. The sample was 125 pre-service chemistry teachers from five universities in Turkey. Two instruments were used in this study. One of the…

  14. Managing Dog Waste: Campaign Insights from the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Yan, Changmin

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to help municipalities develop effective education and outreach campaigns to reduce stormwater pollutants, such as pet waste, this study applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify perceptions of dog waste and corresponding collection behaviors from dog owners living in a small U.S. city. Results of 455 online survey responses…

  15. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods…

  16. Parents' Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Sara, Ed.; Super, Charles M., Ed.

    This volume presents observations and thinking of scholars from a variety of disciplines about parental cultural belief systems. The chapters are concerned with the sources and consequences of parental ethnotheories in a number of societies. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction" (Sara Harkness and Charles M. Super); (2) "Parents'…

  17. The Self-Analysis of Educational Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Robert E.

    1974-01-01

    Exploring educational belief systems of instructors and students through questions such as "What do you mean when you say...?" might provide a sort of conversational self-analysis that would bring into our conscious minds our long range purposes and goals. (JH)

  18. What Are the Goals of Kindergarten? Teachers' Beliefs and Their Perceptions of the Beliefs of Parents and of Agents of the Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sverdlov, Aviva; Aram, Dorit

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined the beliefs of kindergarten teachers (K-teachers) regarding the goals of kindergarten. We asked K-teachers to reflect on their own beliefs, their understanding of parents' beliefs, and their understanding of the beliefs that guide agents of the education system. We further examined differences between…

  19. Unreliable Item or Inconsistent Person? A study of variation in health beliefs and belief- anchors to biomedical models

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Edward H.; Saldana, Santiago; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Kirk, Julienne K.; Bell, Ronny A.; Nguyen, Ha; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Several models for health beliefs grounded in social theories have been extensively used in health-related research. However, the measurement of beliefs, especially the stability of beliefs, is still an understudied area. For example, reliability of an item designed to measure health belief is often confounded with response consistency at the person level, and the problem is often ignored in social research in medicine. To delineate discordant responses to the same item of belief in diabetes, which could be due to item unreliability or to respondent inconsistency, we applied contemporary measurement methods to an inventory of common sense beliefs about diabetes and tested the hypothesis that individuals whose health beliefs are congruent with a biomedical model are more consistent in their item responses. Approximately equal numbers of Whites, African Americans, and American Indians (total N=563) with diabetes were recruited into the study from rural areas in North Carolina. The Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory, which contained 31 items across six clinical domains, was administered to the participants at baseline and then one month later. Concordance between responses was analyzed using item response theory. Item-level analysis revealed that items in the domains of Causes of Diabetes and Medical Management of Diabetes were less reliable compared to items from other domains. Person-level analysis showed that respondents who held views congruent with the biomedical model were more consistent than people who did not. Item response theory facilitates a process to evaluate item unreliability and differences in distinguishing response consistency. People with diabetes who had beliefs regarding diabetes not congruent with the biomedical model tended to be less stable in their beliefs and should be more amenable to diabetes education and other interventions. PMID:24170016

  20. Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.; Butterfill, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans' capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years of age (H. Wellman, D. Cross, & J. Watson, 2001; H. Wimmer & J. Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false-belief tasks at 13 or 15…

  1. A beginner's guide to belief revision and truth maintenance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    This brief note is intended to familiarize the non-TMS audience with some of the basic ideas surrounding classic TMS's (truth maintenance systems), namely the justification-based TMS and the assumption-based TMS. Topics of further interest include the relation between non-monotonic logics and TMS's, efficiency and search issues, complexity concerns, as well as the variety of TMS systems that have surfaced in the past decade or so. These include probabilistic-based TMS systems, fuzzy TMS systems, tri-valued belief systems, and so on.

  2. Students' Mathematics-Related Belief Systems: Design and Analysis of a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Op't Eynde, Peter; De Corte, Erik

    A survey study was conducted to investigate the nature of students' mathematics-related belief systems. A mathematics-related beliefs questionnaire was developed and administered to 365 Flemish junior high school students to gather data to identify and analyze the different components of students' belief systems. The focus was on the structure of…

  3. An empirical test of the metacognitive model of obsessive-compulsive symptoms: fusion beliefs, beliefs about rituals, and stop signals.

    PubMed

    Myers, Samuel G; Fisher, Peter L; Wells, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    The metacognitive model of obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester, UK: Wiley] emphasizes three types of metacognitive knowledge in the etiology and maintenance of symptoms: thought fusion beliefs, beliefs about the need to perform rituals, and criteria that signal rituals can be stopped. We tested the model using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed that each metacognitive domain when entered in their hypothesized causal sequence explained incremental variance in two different measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, with worry controlled. These incremental relationships remained when non-metacognitive beliefs (e.g., responsibility and perfectionism) which have been linked to obsessive-compulsive symptoms in other theories were controlled. Results provide further support for the metacognitive model.

  4. Beliefs and stochastic modelling of interest rate scenario risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galic, E.; Molgedey, L.

    2001-04-01

    We present a framework that allows for a systematic assessment of risk given a specific model and belief on the market. Within this framework the time evolution of risk is modeled in a twofold way. On the one hand, risk is modeled by the time discrete and nonlinear garch(1,1) process, which allows for a (time-)local understanding of its level, together with a short term forecast. On the other hand, via a diffusion approximation, the time evolution of the probability density of risk is modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. Then, as a final step, using Bayes theorem, beliefs are conditioned on the stationary probability density function as obtained from the Fokker-Planck equation. We believe this to be a highly rigorous framework to integrate subjective judgments of future market behavior and underlying models. In order to demonstrate the approach, we apply it to risk assessment of empirical interest rate scenario methodologies, i.e. the application of Principal Component Analysis to the the dynamics of bonds.

  5. The complexity of model checking for belief revision and update

    SciTech Connect

    Liberatore, P.; Schaerf, M.

    1996-12-31

    One of the main challenges in the formal modeling of common-sense reasoning is the ability to cope with the dynamic nature of the world. Among the approaches put forward to address this problem are belief revision and update. Given a knowledge base T, representing our knowledge of the {open_quotes}state of affairs{close_quotes} of the world of interest, it is possible that we are lead to trust another piece of information P, possibly inconsistent with the old one T. The aim of revision and update operators is to characterize the revised knowledge base T{prime} that incorporates the new formula P into the old one T while preserving consistency and, at the same time, avoiding the loss of too much information in this process. In this paper we study the computational complexity of one of the main computational problems of belief revision and update: deciding if an interpretation M is a model of the revised knowledge base.

  6. Application of an evidential belief function model in landslide susceptibility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althuwaynee, Omar F.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to exploit the potential application of an evidential belief function model to landslide susceptibility mapping at Kuala Lumpur city and surrounding areas using geographic information system (GIS). At first, a landslide inventory map was prepared using aerial photographs, high resolution satellite images and field survey. A total 220 landslides were mapped and an inventory map was prepared. Then the landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset 70% (153 landslides) and remaining 30% (67 landslides) data was used for validation purpose. Fourteen landslide conditioning factors such as slope, aspect, curvature, altitude, surface roughness, lithology, distance from faults, ndvi (normalized difference vegetation index), land cover, distance from drainage, distance from road, spi (stream power index), soil type, precipitation, were used as thematic layers in the analysis. The Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence model was applied to prepare the landslide susceptibility maps. The validation of the resultant susceptibility maps were performed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC). The validation results show that the area under the curve for the evidential belief function (the belief map) model is 0.82 (82%) with prediction accuracy 0.75 (75%). The results of this study indicated that the EBF model can be effectively used in preparation of landslide susceptibility maps.

  7. Charting the Eccles' Expectancy-Value Model from Mothers' Beliefs in Childhood to Youths' Activities in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This…

  8. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  9. Psychometric Properties on Lecturers' Beliefs on Teaching Function: Rasch Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofreh, Samah Ali Mohsen; Ghafar, Mohammed Najib Abdul; Omar, Abdul Hafiz Hj; Mosaku, Monsurat; Ma'ruf, Amar

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the psychometric analysis of lecturers' beliefs on teaching function (LBTF) survey using Rasch Model analysis. The sample comprised 34 Community Colleges' lecturers. The Rasch Model is applied to produce specific measurements on the lecturers' beliefs on teaching function in order to generalize results and inferential…

  10. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  11. Modeling Teacher Beliefs and Practices in Context: A Multimethods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishino, Takako

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among Japanese high school teachers' beliefs, their practices, and socioeducational factors regarding communicative language teaching (CLT). A multimethods approach was used consisting of a survey, interviews, and class observations. A Teacher Beliefs Questionnaire was sent to 188 randomly selected Japanese…

  12. Greek Teachers' Belief Systems about Disability and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on the argument that dominant beliefs and their associated assumptions are a core area of exploration in understanding the process of change and the politics of resistance in education. It commences with an analysis of the role, function and importance of beliefs in the development of special-inclusive education and continues…

  13. Genetic Epistemology and the Structure of Belief Systems: An Introduction to Piaget for Political Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dana

    Suggesting that the concept of structure employed by political scientists in the analysis of belief systems is inadequate and misleading, the paper discusses Jean Piaget's concept of egocentrism as a theoretical alternative to belief systems analysis. The purpose of the paper is to provide political scientists with a short but comprehensive…

  14. The Belief Systems of University Supervisors in an Elementary Student-Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the range of supervisory belief systems that existed among nine university supervisors of elementary education student teachers. In interviews, three distinct belief systems emerged: (1) technical/instrumental; (2) personal growth centered; and (3) critical. (FG)

  15. Exactness of belief propagation for some graphical models with loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertkov, Michael

    2008-10-01

    It is well known that an arbitrary graphical model of statistical inference defined on a tree, i.e. on a graph without loops, is solved exactly and efficiently by an iterative belief propagation (BP) algorithm convergent to the unique minimum of the so-called Bethe free energy functional. For a general graphical model on a loopy graph, the functional may show multiple minima, the iterative BP algorithm may converge to one of the minima or may not converge at all, and the global minimum of the Bethe free energy functional is not guaranteed to correspond to the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) solution in the zero-temperature limit. However, there are exceptions to this general rule, discussed by Kolmogorov and Wainwright (2005) and by Bayati et al (2006, 2008) in two different contexts, where the zero-temperature version of the BP algorithm finds the ML solution for special models on graphs with loops. These two models share a key feature: their ML solutions can be found by an efficient linear programming (LP) algorithm with a totally uni-modular (TUM) matrix of constraints. Generalizing the two models, we consider a class of graphical models reducible in the zero-temperature limit to LP with TUM constraints. Assuming that a gedanken algorithm, g-BP, for finding the global minimum of the Bethe free energy is available, we show that in the limit of zero temperature, g-BP outputs the ML solution. Our consideration is based on equivalence established between gapless linear programming (LP) relaxation of the graphical model in the T → 0 limit and the respective LP version of the Bethe free energy minimization.

  16. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  17. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  18. Instructional Dissent in the College Classroom: Using the Instructional Beliefs Model as a Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBelle, Sara; Martin, Matthew M.; Weber, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of instructor characteristics and student beliefs on students' decisions to enact instructional dissent using the Instructional Beliefs Model (IBM) as a framework. Students (N = 244) completed survey questionnaires assessing their perceptions of instructors' clarity, nonverbal immediacy, and affirming style, as well as their…

  19. Trans-species learning of cellular signaling systems with bimodal deep belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lujia; Cai, Chunhui; Chen, Vicky; Lu, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Model organisms play critical roles in biomedical research of human diseases and drug development. An imperative task is to translate information/knowledge acquired from model organisms to humans. In this study, we address a trans-species learning problem: predicting human cell responses to diverse stimuli, based on the responses of rat cells treated with the same stimuli. Results: We hypothesized that rat and human cells share a common signal-encoding mechanism but employ different proteins to transmit signals, and we developed a bimodal deep belief network and a semi-restricted bimodal deep belief network to represent the common encoding mechanism and perform trans-species learning. These ‘deep learning’ models include hierarchically organized latent variables capable of capturing the statistical structures in the observed proteomic data in a distributed fashion. The results show that the models significantly outperform two current state-of-the-art classification algorithms. Our study demonstrated the potential of using deep hierarchical models to simulate cellular signaling systems. Availability and implementation: The software is available at the following URL: http://pubreview.dbmi.pitt.edu/TransSpeciesDeepLearning/. The data are available through SBV IMPROVER website, https://www.sbvimprover.com/challenge-2/overview, upon publication of the report by the organizers. Contact: xinghua@pitt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25995230

  20. A Conceptual Model of Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Epistemological Beliefs, and Learning Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale; Sungur, Semra

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed a conceptual model of relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (Personal Relevance, Uncertainty, Critical Voice, Shared Control, and Student Negotiation), scientific epistemological belief variables (fixed and tentative), and learning approach. It was proposed that learning environment…

  1. Literacy Lessons and Preservice Teachers: Belief Systems, Reflective Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine preservice teacher's knowledge bases and beliefs about literacy and the impact of their personal reading experiences on literacy instruction. Methodology: This study utilized mixed methodology. This included survey data and open coding. Data were collected using a survey, an annotated DRTA lesson…

  2. Quantum science in secondary chemistry: Influence of teachers' beliefs and knowledge on the use of interactive computer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robblee, Karen M.

    Current science education reform efforts promote inquiry-based learning, a goal that requires appropriate tools and instructional approaches. This study investigated the influence of the beliefs and knowledge of four experienced secondary chemistry teachers in their use of new instructional software that generates models of atoms and molecules based on quantum mechanics. The software, which was developed through a National Science Foundation funded project, Quantum Science Across Disciplines (QSAD), was designed to promote inquiry learning. Qualitative research methods were used for this multiple case study. Data from surveys, interviews, and extended classroom observations revealed a close correlation between a teacher's model of the learner and his or her model of teaching. Combined models of learner and teacher had the greatest influence on their decisions about implementing QSAD software. Teachers who espoused a constructivist model of learning and related models of teaching used the software to promote student investigations and inductive approaches to learning. Other factors that appeared to support the use of inquiry methods included sufficient time for students to investigate phenomena, the extent of the teacher's pedagogical content knowledge, and the amount of training using QSAD software. The Views-On-Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) instrument was used to compare the informants' beliefs about the epistemology of science to their classroom practices. Data related to the role of teachers' beliefs about scientific knowledge were inconclusive, and VOSTS results were inconsistent with the informants' stated beliefs. All four cases revealed that the teachers acted as agents of the school culture. In schools that promoted development of critical thinking, questioning, and self-direction in students, teachers were more likely to use a variety of instructional methods and emphasize construction of knowledge. These findings suggest that educational reform

  3. Reliability Assessment and Robustness Study for Key Navigation Components using Belief Rule Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuan; Wang, Liuying; Chang, Leilei; Ling, Xiaodong; Sun, Nan

    2016-02-01

    The gyro device is the key navigation component for maritime tracking and control, and gyro shift is the key factor which influences the performance of the gyro device, which makes conducting the reliability analysis on the gyro device very important. For the gyro device reliability analysis, the residual life probability prediction plays an essential role although it requires a complex process adapted by existed studies. In this study the Belief Rule Base (BRB) system is applied to model the relationship between the time as the input and the residual life probability as the output. Two scenarios are designed to study the robustness of the proposed BRB prediction model. The comparative results show that the BRB prediction model performs better in Scenario II when new the referenced values are predictable.

  4. Remarriage Beliefs as Predictors of Marital Quality and Positive Interaction in Stepcouples: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Higginbotham, Brian; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined remarriage beliefs as predictors of marital quality and positive interaction in a sample of 179 stepcouples. Three beliefs were measured using subscales from the Remarriage Belief Inventory (RMBI) including success is slim, children are the priority, and finances should be pooled. Several significant actor and partner effects were found for both wives' and husbands' beliefs. Wives' marital quality was positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Wives' reports of their own and spouses' positive interaction were both positively associated with their beliefs that finances should be pooled. Their reports of spouses' positive interaction were also negatively associated with husbands' beliefs that success is slim. Husbands' marital quality was positively associated with wives' beliefs that children are the priority, positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled, and negatively with success is slim. Positive interaction for husbands was positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Finally, husbands' reports of positive interaction for their spouses were positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled. Implications for future research utilizing dyadic data analysis with stepcouples are addressed.

  5. The influence of mapped hazards on risk beliefs: A proximity-based modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores J.; Burt, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Interview findings suggest perceived proximity to mapped hazards influences risk beliefs when people view environmental hazard maps. For dot maps, four attributes of mapped hazards influenced beliefs: hazard value, proximity, prevalence, and dot patterns. In order to quantify the collective influence of these attributes for viewers' perceived or actual map locations, we present a model to estimate proximity-based hazard or risk (PBH) and share study results that indicate how modeled PBH and map attributes influenced risk beliefs. The randomized survey study among 447 university students assessed risk beliefs for 24 dot maps that systematically varied by the four attributes. Maps depicted water test results for a fictitious hazardous substance in private residential wells and included a designated “you live here” location. Of the nine variables that assessed risk beliefs, the numerical susceptibility variable was most consistently and strongly related to map attributes and PBH. Hazard value, location in or out of a clustered dot pattern, and distance had the largest effects on susceptibility. Sometimes, hazard value interacted with other attributes, e.g. distance had stronger effects on susceptibility for larger than smaller hazard values. For all combined maps, PBH explained about the same amount of variance in susceptibility as did attributes. Modeled PBH may have utility for studying the influence of proximity to mapped hazards on risk beliefs, protective behavior, and other dependent variables. Further work is needed to examine these influences for more realistic maps and representative study samples. PMID:22053748

  6. Health belief structural equation model predicting sleep behavior of employed college students.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sleep comprising 7 to 8 hours per day is vital for health and effective functioning for all adults. The purpose of this study was to specify a health belief model to measure and predict the sleep behavior of employed college students. A 52-item instrument was developed with acceptable validity and reliability. A cross-sectional, convenience sample of 188 students was recruited for this study. Structural equation modeling was used to build models. The health belief model explained 34% of the variance in sleep behavior, with perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy identified as significant predictors. PMID:25167067

  7. Health belief structural equation model predicting sleep behavior of employed college students.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sleep comprising 7 to 8 hours per day is vital for health and effective functioning for all adults. The purpose of this study was to specify a health belief model to measure and predict the sleep behavior of employed college students. A 52-item instrument was developed with acceptable validity and reliability. A cross-sectional, convenience sample of 188 students was recruited for this study. Structural equation modeling was used to build models. The health belief model explained 34% of the variance in sleep behavior, with perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy identified as significant predictors.

  8. Factors influencing healthy eating habits among college students: an application of the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sameer; Basil, Michael D; Basil, Debra Z

    2009-01-01

    Poor eating habits are an important public health issue that has large health and economic implications. Many food preferences are established early, but because people make more and more independent eating decisions as they move through adolescence, the transition to independent living during the university days is an important event. To study the phenomenon of food selection, the heath belief model was applied to predict the likelihood of healthy eating among university students. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the validity of the health belief model (HBM) among 194 students, followed by gender-based analyses. The data strongly supported the HBM. Social change campaign implications are discussed.

  9. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  10. The Effect of Teacher Beliefs on Student Competence in Mathematical Modeling--An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, Christoph; Maaß, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intervention study whose aim was to promote teacher beliefs about mathematics and learning mathematics and student competences in mathematical modeling. In the intervention, teachers received written curriculum materials about mathematical modeling. The concept underlying the materials was based on constructivist ideas and…

  11. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  12. Belief in school meritocracy as a system-justifying tool for low status students

    PubMed Central

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Bonnot, Virginie; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia; Darnon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    The belief that, in school, success only depends on will and hard work is widespread in Western societies despite evidence showing that several factors other than merit explain school success, including group belonging (e.g., social class, gender). In the present paper, we argue that because merit is the only track for low status students to reach upward mobility, Belief in School Meritocracy (BSM) is a particularly useful system-justifying tool to help them perceive their place in society as being deserved. Consequently, for low status students (but not high status students), this belief should be related to more general system-justifying beliefs (Study 1). Moreover, low status students should be particularly prone to endorsing this belief when their place within a system on which they strongly depend to acquire status is challenged (Study 2). In Study 1, high status (boys and high SES) were compared to low status (girls and low SES) high school students. Results indicated that BSM was related to system-justifying beliefs only for low SES students and for girls, but not for high SES students or for boys. In Study 2, university students were exposed (or not) to information about an important selection process that occurs at the university, depending on the condition. Their subjective status was assessed. Although such a confrontation reduced BSM for high subjective SES students, it tended to enhance it for low subjective SES students. Results are discussed in terms of system justification motives and the palliative function meritocratic ideology may play for low status students. PMID:26283991

  13. Belief Network based Disambiguation of Object Reference in Spoken Dialogue System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakata, Yoko; Kawahara, Tatsuya; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Minoh, Michihiko

    This paper discusses a problem of human-machine interaction when spoken word to object reference ambiguity occurs. We study joint activity of several agents in which a remote robot finds an object while communicating with the user over a voice-only channel. We focus on the problem in which the robot disambiguates the reference of the uttered word or phrase to the target object. For example, the utterance of the word ``cup'' may refer to a ``teacup'', a ``coffee cup'', or even a ``glass'' for different users in some situations. This reference (hereafter, ``object reference'') is user and situation dependent. We conducted two experiments. The first experiment including 12 subjects confirmed that the user model of object references is significant. In the second experiment conducted on 20 subjects, we show the model reference sensitivity to the situation. In addition to the ambiguity of the object reference, the actual system must cope with two sources of uncertainty: speech and image recognition. We present the belief network based probabilistic reasoning system to determine the object reference. The resulting system demonstrates that the number of interactions needed to find a common reference is reduced as the user model is refined.

  14. Predictors of addiction treatment providers' beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction.

    PubMed

    Russell, Christopher; Davies, John B; Hunter, Simon C

    2011-03-01

    Addiction treatment providers working in the United States (n = 219) and the United Kingdom (n = 372) were surveyed about their beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction, as assessed by the 18-item Addiction Belief Scale of J. Schaler (1992). Factor analysis of item scores revealed a three-factor structure, labeled "addiction is a disease," "addiction is a choice," and "addiction is a way of coping with life," and factor scores were analyzed in separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Controlling for demographic and addiction history variables, treatment providers working in the United States more strongly believe addiction is a disease, whereas U.K.-based providers more strongly believe that addiction is a choice and a way of coping with life. Beliefs that addiction is a disease were stronger among those who provide for-profit treatment, have stronger spiritual beliefs, have had a past addiction problem, are older, are members of a group of addiction professionals, and have been treating addiction longer. Conversely, those who viewed addiction as a choice were more likely to provide public/not-for-profit treatment, be younger, not belong to a group of addiction professionals, and have weaker spiritual beliefs. Additionally, treatment providers who have had a personal addiction problem in the past were significantly more likely to believe addiction is a disease the longer they attend a 12-step-based group and if they are presently abstinent. PMID:21036516

  15. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs. PMID:23766578

  16. Knowledge, beliefs and preventive behaviors regarding Influenza A in students: a test of the health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Najimi, Arash; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The higher prevalence rate of influenza A among adolescence emphasizes the importance of preventative strategies among this age group of population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive behaviors of high school students regarding type A influenza, in Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 313 high school students were enrolled. Preventive behaviors of influenza A was evaluated by components of the Health Belief Model (HBM), using a questionnaire which its reliability was verified through a pilot study (alpha score 0.8). Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: Mean age of the students was 16.31 years. Knowledge, perceived severity and perceived barriers were in the modest level among the students. The highest scores were related to perceived susceptibility (75.4%) and perceived benefit (55.6%). Mass media was the main source of their information regarding influenza A. Conclusion: Considering the findings of this study and the relation between HBM components and the preventive behaviors of students, it seems that using HBM could be useful in improving preventive behaviors of influenza A among the studied population. PMID:24083273

  17. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  18. The health belief model and consumer information searches: toward an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Risker, D C

    1996-01-01

    Some health data organizations (HDOs) are producing consumer-level health services information. National reform proposals would suggest that competition between health plans will be developed through the use of outcome information. Policy makers have paid little attention to how consumers might use that information or how that information might be most effectively packaged for consumer use. This paper argues that marketing literature developed over the last ten to fifteen years could prove to be an informative resource for policy makers and the health services provider community alike. This paper suggests that combining a consumer decision model (CDM) with the health belief model (HBM) will provide an important step toward an increased understanding of consumer information search behavior. This integrated model could form the basis of future research in this important area.

  19. Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Bystander Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…

  20. A Mixed-Method Study: Assessing the BAR Model's Impact on Preservice Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rethlefsen, Ann Lyle; Park, Hyesung

    2011-01-01

    This study took place at a mid-sized, Midwestern university located in a mid-sized town. The researchers developed the BAR model to teach mathematics methods both in the classroom and in the field. The preservice teachers took Enochs, Smith, and Huinker's Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI) on the first and last day of class.…

  1. Toward a Reconceptualization of Communication Cues to Action in the Health Belief Model: HIV Test Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Marifran

    1999-01-01

    Examines the persuasive communication of HIV test counselors as cues to action in clients' decisions to practice safer sex. Indicates hypothesized relationships inherent in the Health Belief Model were not supported for the pre-HIV test survey, but the post-HIV test survey reported compliance with safer-sex recommendations. Finds use of certain…

  2. Osteoporosis Prevention in College Women: Application of the Expanded Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2002-01-01

    Examined personal characteristics and expanded health belief model (EHBM) constructs associated with osteoporosis- protective behaviors among college women. Survey results indicated that the EHBM was useful in evaluating osteoporosis- protective behavior. High numbers of women did not meet current exercise and calcium guidelines. Exercise…

  3. School Counselor Beliefs about ASCA National Model School Counseling Program Components Using the SCPCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Trish; Chen-Hayes, Stuart F.

    2008-01-01

    A study of 3,000 school counselors was undertaken to assess their beliefs about necessary components of a school counseling program. This study was part of the database that the American School Counselor Association used to develop "The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs." The School Counseling Program Component Scale…

  4. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  5. Classroom Modeling of Supplemental Literacy Instruction: Influencing the Beliefs and Practices of Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korth, Byran B.; Sharp, Ann C.; Culatta, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of direct modeling of a supplemental classroom program on the early literacy beliefs and practices of Head Start teachers. Developed by speech language pathologists (SLPs), Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy Instruction (SEEL) was not undertaken with an explicit professional development goal. However, the…

  6. Intensive Care Nurses’ Belief Systems Regarding the Health Economics: A Focused Ethnography

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses’ beliefs and their effect on nurse’s: practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. Methods: In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Findings: Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse’s practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2. Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3. There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4. Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5. Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6. The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8. Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. Conclusions: ICU nurses’ belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the

  7. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  8. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with a…

  9. Effects of belief and logic on syllogistic reasoning: Eye-movement evidence for selective processing models.

    PubMed

    Ball, Linden J; Phillips, Peter; Wade, Caroline N; Quayle, Jeremy D

    2006-01-01

    Studies of syllogistic reasoning have demonstrated a nonlogical tendency for people to endorse more believable conclusions than unbelievable ones. This belief bias effect is more dominant on invalid syllogisms than valid ones, giving rise to a logic by belief interaction. We report an experiment in which participants' eye movements were recorded in order to provide insights into the nature and time course of the reasoning processes associated with manipulations of conclusion validity and believability. Our main dependent measure was people's inspection times for syllogistic premises, and we tested predictions deriving from three contemporary mental-models accounts of the logic by belief interaction. Results supported recent "selective processing" theories of belief bias (e.g., Evans, 2000; Klauer, Musch, & Naumer, 2000), which assume that the believability of a conclusion biases model construction processes, rather than biasing the search for falsifying models (e.g., Oakhill & Johnson-Laird, 1985) or a response stage of reasoning arising from subjective uncertainty (e.g., Quayle & Ball, 2000). We conclude by suggesting that the eye-movement analyses in reasoning research may provide a useful adjunct to other process-tracing techniques such as verbal protocol analysis.

  10. Belief in the "free choice" model of homosexuality: a correlate of homophobia in registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    A great amount of social science research has supported the positive correlation between heterosexuals' belief in the free choice model of homosexuality and homophobia. Heterosexuals who believe gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) persons consciously choose their sexual orientation and practice a lifestyle conducive to that choice are much more likely to possess discriminatory, homophobic, homonegative, and heterosexist beliefs. In addition, these individuals are less likely to support gay rights initiatives such as nondiscrimination policies or same-sex partner benefits in the workplace or hate crime enhancement legislation inclusive of GLBT persons. Although researchers have demonstrated this phenomenon in the general population, none have specifically assessed it in the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine registered nurses' overall levels of homophobia and attitudes toward a workplace policy protective of gays and lesbians. These variables were then correlated with belief in the free choice model of homosexuality. Results indicated that belief in the free choice model of homosexuality was the strongest predictor of homophobia in nurses. Implications for nursing leadership and management, nursing education, and future research are discussed.

  11. The Environmental Belief Systems of Organic and Conventional Farmers: Evidence from Central-Southern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kings, David; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Little comparative work has been conducted on the environmental belief systems and behaviours of conventional and organic farmers, especially in relation to farming culture, the environment and lowland farmland avifauna. Adopting a modified behavioural approach, this paper analyses the ways in which the environmental attitudes and understandings…

  12. Clarifying Students' Perceptions of Different Belief Systems and Values: Prerequisite for Effective Education Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, C.; du Preez, P.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to 1994, the presence of minority belief systems and values in education were largely ignored in South Africa. It could be expected that after ten years of democracy students' understanding of, for instance, the values of inclusivity and diversity in a multicultural society in general and tertiary education in particular should not be in…

  13. Belief Systems of Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Baxter, Donna; Rosenbaum, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bates, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Parents in 16 families of children with autism spectrum disorders or Down syndrome participated in a qualitative study examining family (i.e., all caregivers in the home) belief systems. All families had children who had recently entered elementary school or who were in the early years of high school. As a result of their experiences, families…

  14. The Relationship between Prospective Teachers' Belief Systems and Writing-to-Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Kingir, Sevgi; Çepni, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' belief systems and writing-to-learn. The participants comprised eight freshmen from the Department of Elementary Science Education at a public university in Turkey. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews.The results indicated that…

  15. Approach to Mathematical Problem Solving and Students' Belief Systems: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callejo, Maria Luz; Vila, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study reported here is to gain a better understanding of the role of belief systems in the approach phase to mathematical problem solving. Two students of high academic performance were selected based on a previous exploratory study of 61 students 12-13 years old. In this study we identified different types of approaches to…

  16. Explanatory Coherence and Belief Revision in Naive Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Michael; Thagard, Paul

    Students of reasoning have long tried to understand how people revise systems of beliefs. This paper maintains that people often change their beliefs in ways driven by considerations of explanatory coherence. In this report, a computational model is described of how experimental subjects revise their naive beliefs about physical motion. First,…

  17. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    influence classroom climate instruction. In order to assist this educator group, CLiPSE has aligned a sub-set of the Climate and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) education resources to 11 SEUS state standards in order to better enable educators to implement climate topics in their classrooms. As a potential method to address the unique belief systems in the SEUS, CLiPSE has determined that the best way to engage individuals in the SEUS on the topic of climate change is to invite them into an honest dialogue surrounding climate. To facilitate these conversations effectively, CLiPSE utilizes a dialogical community model that values diversity, encourages respect for one another, recognizes and articulates viewpoints, and prioritizes understanding over resolution. CLiPSE emphasizes people's values and beliefs as they relate to climate change information. Results from pilot studies indicate that this is a promising method to bring together diverse individuals on the climate change topic and initiate the conversation about this very important issue that can often be considered "taboo" in the SEUS.

  18. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  19. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  20. Enhancing Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs about Models and Conceptual Understanding through a Model-Based Inquiry Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulios, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present the structure and implementation of a model-based inquiry teaching-learning sequence (TLS) integrating expressive, experimental and exploratory modelling pedagogies in a cyclic manner, with the aim of enhancing primary education student teachers' epistemological beliefs about the aspects, nature, purpose and change of…

  1. Cognitive Network Modeling as a Basis for Characterizing Human Communication Dynamics and Belief Contagion in Technology Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, Clayton; Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Societal level macro models of social behavior do not sufficiently capture nuances needed to adequately represent the dynamics of person-to-person interactions. Likewise, individual agent level micro models have limited scalability - even minute parameter changes can drastically affect a model's response characteristics. This work presents an approach that uses agent-based modeling to represent detailed intra- and inter-personal interactions, as well as a system dynamics model to integrate societal-level influences via reciprocating functions. A Cognitive Network Model (CNM) is proposed as a method of quantitatively characterizing cognitive mechanisms at the intra-individual level. To capture the rich dynamics of interpersonal communication for the propagation of beliefs and attitudes, a Socio-Cognitive Network Model (SCNM) is presented. The SCNM uses socio-cognitive tie strength to regulate how agents influence--and are influenced by--one another's beliefs during social interactions. We then present experimental results which support the use of this network analytical approach, and we discuss its applicability towards characterizing and understanding human information processing.

  2. The health belief model as a conceptual framework for explaining contraceptive compliance.

    PubMed

    Katatsky, M E

    1977-01-01

    The problem of compliance in family planning is discussed in relation to the lack of theoretical and conceptual clarity in research, which has produced contradictory, and often inconsistent findings. Current research has contributed little to explaining the phenomenon of compliance and to directing further research. The Health Belief Model, which has been demonstrated to have application in the areas of preventive health behavior and compliance with medical regimens, is offered as a potentially useful conceptual framework for family planning research. The generalization of the Health Belief Model to family planning behavior is seen as an out-growth of the theoretical strength of the Model and the similarities between family planning and other health behavior.

  3. Enhancing student teachers' epistemological beliefs about models and conceptual understanding through a model-based inquiry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulios, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    In this study we present the structure and implementation of a model-based inquiry teaching-learning sequence (TLS) integrating expressive, experimental and exploratory modelling pedagogies in a cyclic manner, with the aim of enhancing primary education student teachers' epistemological beliefs about the aspects, nature, purpose and change of models as well as their conceptual understanding of light phenomena related to properties of optical fibres. The subjects were 16 prospective primary teachers involved in modelling activities, employing both hands-on experiments and computer modelling activities, based on the application of the ray model. Student teachers were tested before and after the implementation of the TLS by semi-structured interviews and a written questionnaire. Results show that before the TLS most students adopted epistemologically naïve realistic beliefs about models, whereas after the TLS there was an overall significant transition from naïve to more sophisticated epistemological beliefs, as well as significant improvements in their conceptual knowledge about light phenomena. Nevertheless, the relation between epistemological beliefs and conceptual understanding seems to be aspect-dependent, so our evidence suggests that more educational effort is required in order to establish a coherent relationship between them.

  4. Parentally Bereaved Children's Grief: Self-System Beliefs as Mediators of the Relations between Grief and Stressors and Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether 3 self-system beliefs--fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem--mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths' general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n = 340 youth) and longitudinal (n = 100 youth) models were tested. In…

  5. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B-B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  6. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B–B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  7. Language Beliefs and the Polynomic Model for Corsican

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of the attempts to revitalise Corsican, a regional language of France, and to reverse the language shift to French, language activists and academics have sought to apply the model of a polynomic language to what is considered as one language, but what is, in fact, a number of different Corsicans, each with varying levels of mutual…

  8. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Models in Adherence to Exercise and Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabert, Trent E.

    The general purpose of the symposium was to connect several factors which have been studied in the psychological domain to the exercise and sport behavior domain. The assumption that factors related to adherence are facilitated through the psychological connection have been widely discussed in literature. Models allow for the development of an…

  9. Beliefs Held by Associate Degree Nursing Students about Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellinger, Kathleen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a study of the professional socialization of associate degree nursing (ADN) students. Reviews previous research on the process of nursing socialization. Presents study findings based on responses from 1,877 nursing students in 20 ADN programs, focusing on students' characteristics and ideal and actual role models. (DMM)

  10. [Health belief model and sick role behavior of Korean chronically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Gu, M O; Lee, E O

    1990-08-30

    This article reviewed & analyzed 33 studies of the Health Belief Model applied to korean chronic ill patients which were published from 1975 to 1990. The findings of analysis are as follows. The subjects of researchs are patients with various chronic illness including Pulmonary Tb., DM., Hemodialysis & Kidney Transplantation, Hypertension, etc. The type of research is retrospective survey in all studies. The measurement of health belief in all studies & sick role behavior in most studies have relied on self report. The analysis of the relationship between health belief and sick role behavior was done using correlation coefficient in most studies. To analyze empirical support for the relationship between health belief and sick role behavior, Significance ratio was computed. This ratio is value wherein the number of statistically significant findings with relationship in the expected direction for an HBM dimension are divided by total number of studies which reported significance levels for that dimension. Examination of this ratio across the 33 studies reveals susceptibility (30.3%), severity (34.4%), benefit (65.6%), barrier (50%). The following suggestions are based on the above findings and literature review. 1. It is necessary to develop the reliable, valid and standardized instrument for measurement of health beliefs. 2. In the further measurement of perceived susceptibility of the chronic ill patients. It is considering that the perceived susceptibility and perceived severity are measured together or the measurement of perceived susceptibility is eliminated. 3. Relationship between perceived severity and sick role behavior is suggested to be analized using ANOVA, chi 2 square instead of correlation coefficient. 4. Sick role behaviors should be measured by both self report and objective measurement. 5. Prospective, longitudinal survey should be needed. 6. Other factors influencing sick role behaviors of chronic ill patients should be investigated further.

  11. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Nanna I; Binning, Philip J; McKnight, Ursula S; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  12. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Nanna I; Binning, Philip J; McKnight, Ursula S; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  13. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Nanna I.; Binning, Philip J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L.; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  14. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  15. Belief-propagation algorithm and the Ising model on networks with arbitrary distributions of motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Goltsev, A. V.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2011-10-01

    We generalize the belief-propagation algorithm to sparse random networks with arbitrary distributions of motifs (triangles, loops, etc.). Each vertex in these networks belongs to a given set of motifs (generalization of the configuration model). These networks can be treated as sparse uncorrelated hypergraphs in which hyperedges represent motifs. Here a hypergraph is a generalization of a graph, where a hyperedge can connect any number of vertices. These uncorrelated hypergraphs are treelike (hypertrees), which crucially simplifies the problem and allows us to apply the belief-propagation algorithm to these loopy networks with arbitrary motifs. As natural examples, we consider motifs in the form of finite loops and cliques. We apply the belief-propagation algorithm to the ferromagnetic Ising model with pairwise interactions on the resulting random networks and obtain an exact solution of this model. We find an exact critical temperature of the ferromagnetic phase transition and demonstrate that with increasing the clustering coefficient and the loop size, the critical temperature increases compared to ordinary treelike complex networks. However, weak clustering does not change the critical behavior qualitatively. Our solution also gives the birth point of the giant connected component in these loopy networks.

  16. Belief, emotion, and health: toward an integrative account. Commentary on John Cromby's 'beyond belief'.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Louise

    2012-10-01

    This commentary identifies in Cromby's formulation of belief the potentials for developing three innovative approaches to belief systems: emotion as meaning, cognition as dialogue, and an aesthetic model of meaning making based on Susanne Langer's integrative approach to feeling and form. It is argued that the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce can help to weave these threads into an integrative theory to shed some light on the connection between belief, emotion, and health.

  17. THE CODE OF THE STREET AND INMATE VIOLENCE: INVESTIGATING THE SALIENCE OF IMPORTED BELIEF SYSTEMS*

    PubMed Central

    MEARS, DANIEL P.; STEWART, ERIC A.; SIENNICK, SONJA E.; SIMONS, RONALD L.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have long argued that inmate behaviors stem in part from cultural belief systems that they “import” with them into incarcerative settings. Even so, few empirical assessments have tested this argument directly. Drawing on theoretical accounts of one such set of beliefs—the code of the street—and on importation theory, we hypothesize that individuals who adhere more strongly to the street code will be more likely, once incarcerated, to engage in violent behavior and that this effect will be amplified by such incarceration experiences as disciplinary sanctions and gang involvement, as well as the lack of educational programming, religious programming, and family support. We test these hypotheses using unique data that include measures of the street code belief system and incarceration experiences. The results support the argument that the code of the street belief system affects inmate violence and that the effect is more pronounced among inmates who lack family support, experience disciplinary sanctions, and are gang involved. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24068837

  18. Preventing HIV Infection Among Juvenile Delinquents: Educational Diagnosis Using the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lux, K M; Petosa, R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an enhanced version of the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework to describe health beliefs and safer sex intentions for HIV prevention educational needs of juvenile delinquents between the ages of thirteen to eighteen years incarcerated in state supported training schools in Ohio. An accessible sample (n = 452) of juvenile delinquents from four of nine institutions was the study population. Juvenile delinquents in this study were at high risk for HIV infection. They reported low rates of safer sex intentions. Rates of perceived barriers to condom use and perceived social barriers to safer sex were high and consistent with low rates of safer sex intention. Rates of self-efficacy for condom use were high but inconsistent with intentions. While a majority of subjects reported self-efficacy for discussion of sexual histories, a larger majority reported low efficacy for disclosing previous high-risk behavior. This suggests that discussion of sexual history with a partner may not be effective in reducing risk among this population. The primary source of information about HIV was the mass media. HIV prevention programs for juvenile delinquents should consider the current health beliefs of this high-risk, hard-to-reach population.

  19. Do Student Evaluations of University Reflect Inaccurate Beliefs or Actual Experience? A Relative Rank Model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gordon D A; Wood, Alex M; Ogden, Ruth S; Maltby, John

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that student satisfaction ratings are influenced by context in ways that have important theoretical and practical implications. Using questions from the UK's National Student Survey, the study examined whether and how students' expressed satisfaction with issues such as feedback promptness and instructor enthusiasm depends on the context of comparison (such as possibly inaccurate beliefs about the feedback promptness or enthusiasm experienced at other universities) that is evoked. Experiment 1 found strong effects of experimentally provided comparison context—for example, satisfaction with a given feedback time depended on the time's relative position within a context. Experiment 2 used a novel distribution-elicitation methodology to determine the prior beliefs of individual students about what happens in universities other than their own. It found that these beliefs vary widely and that students' satisfaction was predicted by how they believed their experience ranked within the distribution of others' experiences. A third study found that relative judgement principles also predicted students' intention to complain. An extended model was developed to show that purely rank-based principles of judgement can account for findings previously attributed to range effects. It was concluded that satisfaction ratings and quality of provision are different quantities, particularly when the implicit context of comparison includes beliefs about provision at other universities. Quality and satisfaction should be assessed separately, with objective measures (such as actual times to feedback), rather than subjective ratings (such as satisfaction with feedback promptness), being used to measure quality wherever practicable. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25620847

  20. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  1. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    PubMed

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  2. Self-efficacy and oral hygiene beliefs about toothbrushing in dental patients: a model-guided study.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Buchanan, Heather; Frousiounioti, Sofia; Niakas, Dimitris; Potamianos, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    Building on previous research on psychosocial variables associated with oral hygiene behavior, this study examined the ability of Health Belief Model variables (perceived benefits, barriers, susceptibility, severity) and self-efficacy beliefs about toothbrushing to inform prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing frequency. To accomplish this goal, a sample of 125 dental patients completed self-report questionnaires and provided data on demographic and behavioral factors. A path analysis model with manifest variables was tested. Oral hygiene beliefs emerged as a multidimensional construct. Results suggested that stronger self-efficacy beliefs (β = .81) and greater perceived severity of oral diseases (β = .18) were related to increased toothbrushing frequency, which in turn was associated with better oral health status, as indicated by the total number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth due to dental caries (β = -.39). Possible strategies for improving oral health are discussed.

  3. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Khoramabadi, M.; Dolatian, M.; Hajian, S.; Zamanian, M.; Taheripanah, R.; Sheikhan, Z.; Mahmoodi, Z.; Seyedi-Moghadam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers and children are the most vulnerable members of every society. As a result many deaths occur in these two groups, so caring for these two groups is very important. Today, it is believed that the health of an infant is related to the health of their mother. Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, and optimal weight gain during pregnancy by appropriate and sufficient nutrition, are two effective measures for the prevention of low birth weight.To provide successful health interventions, it is essential to design and implement effective health education programs. Successful education also depends on the proper use of theories and models in health education. The Health Belief Model is a model that illustrates the relationship between beliefs and health, and it is based on the hypothesis that preventive health behavior consists of personal beliefs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of training on the Health Belief Model on dietary behaviors of a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial, involving 130 pregnant women who attended two health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire in three parts and seven sub-scales (including demographic characteristics, knowledge and dietary behaviors) based on the Health Belief Model. Principles of education were based on the Health Belief Model and performed twice during two-hour sessions in the intervention group. Women in the control group received routine care and did not receive training on the above model. In order to evaluate the intervention, the previously mentioned questionnaire was administered one month after completion of the intervention, and filled by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and reported with diagrams and tables. Results: The mean score for each variable before the intervention, except for the

  4. Children's Beliefs about the Human Circulatory System: An Aid for Teachers Regarding the Role Intuitive Beliefs Play in the Development of Formal Concepts in 7-14-Year Olds. Report No. 82:16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catherall, Robin W.

    This exploratory study was aimed at uncovering children's beliefs and ideas about the human circulatory system. Thirty-two subjects, aged 7 to 14 years, were interviewed using a modification of Piaget's clinical method. The data were analyzed by developing a conceptual inventory of beliefs for each of five research questions. It was found that the…

  5. The health belief model and use of accident and emergency services by the general public.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M

    1995-10-01

    There has been much debate about the use made by the general public of accident and emergency services. A strong element of professional disapproval has been present, as shown by phrases such as 'inappropriate attender'. This paper examines the reasons why people attend accident and emergency and the factors that delay or accelerate attendance, utilizing a framework espoused in the medical sociology literature, i.e. the Health Belief Model. This predicts that individuals carry out a treatment cost-benefit analysis when making decisions about seeking medical assistance. A sample of 200 adult, ambulatory accident and emergency patients was interviewed whilst waiting to see the casualty officer for this study. The data demonstrated that much of the medical, sociological literature concerning patient consultation with doctors is applicable to the accident and emergency situation, in particular the Health Belief Model. A range of factors was shown to make statistically significant differences to the delay times involved in deciding to attend accident and emergency and the time it took to then subsequently attend and register as a patient. These factors also fit the cost-benefit analysis which the Health Benefit Model predicts takes place. Accident and emergency attendance therefore needs to be seen as a logical decision-making process that requires hospitals to provide appropriate services, rather than merely labelling the patients as inappropriate. PMID:8708188

  6. The SDT Model of Belief Bias: Complexity, Time, and Cognitive Ability Mediate the Effects of Believability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Verde, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    When people evaluate conclusions, they are often influenced by prior beliefs. Prevalent theories claim that "belief bias" affects the quality of syllogistic reasoning. However, recent work by Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010) has suggested that belief bias may be a simple response bias. In Experiment 1, receiver operating characteristic…

  7. Family Influences on Mania-Relevant Cognitions and Beliefs: A Cognitive Model of Mania and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study proposed and tested a cognitive model of mania and reward. Method Undergraduates (N = 284; 68.4% female; mean age = 20.99 years, standard deviation ± 3.37) completed measures of family goal setting and achievement values, personal reward-related beliefs, cognitive symptoms of mania, and risk for mania. Results Correlational analyses and structural equation modeling supported two distinct, but related facets of mania-relevant cognition: stably present reward-related beliefs and state-dependent cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion. Results also indicated that family emphasis on achievement and highly ambitious extrinsic goals were associated with these mania-relevant cognitions. Finally, controlling for other factors, cognitive symptoms in response to success and positive emotion were uniquely associated with lifetime propensity towards mania symptoms. Conclusions Results support the merit of distinguishing between facets of mania-relevant cognition and the importance of the family in shaping both aspects of cognition. PMID:22623269

  8. Using the health belief model to predict initial drug therapy defaulting.

    PubMed

    Fincham, J E; Wertheimer, A I

    1985-01-01

    In a study of HMO patients, a Health Belief Model (HBM) questionnaire was tested to determine whether initially drug defaulting patients could be differentiated from initially compliant patients. The results of discriminant analysis indicated that individuals in the two groups could be correctly classified at a level of 68.7%. The variables on which the initially defaulting sample collectively scored less on, and which produced the most discrimination between the two groups, were: feedback from physicians on how to take a newly prescribed drug: belief in benefits of medical care for symptoms or illnesses; convenience factors including travel, need for day care and time off from work without pay needed for medical services; length of HMO membership; and education. A total of 20% of the variance in the derived discriminant function could be accounted for by the two groups. The results indicate the utility of the HBM as a tool of prediction for this form of noncompliance, and suggest possible other patient behaviors that may be able to be predicted by the model. The results further suggest the need for increased communication between providers and patients in the health care setting.

  9. Dynamic causal modelling of electrographic seizure activity using Bayesian belief updating.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Gerald K; Sengupta, Biswa; Douglas, Pamela K; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-15

    Seizure activity in EEG recordings can persist for hours with seizure dynamics changing rapidly over time and space. To characterise the spatiotemporal evolution of seizure activity, large data sets often need to be analysed. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) can be used to estimate the synaptic drivers of cortical dynamics during a seizure; however, the requisite (Bayesian) inversion procedure is computationally expensive. In this note, we describe a straightforward procedure, within the DCM framework, that provides efficient inversion of seizure activity measured with non-invasive and invasive physiological recordings; namely, EEG/ECoG. We describe the theoretical background behind a Bayesian belief updating scheme for DCM. The scheme is tested on simulated and empirical seizure activity (recorded both invasively and non-invasively) and compared with standard Bayesian inversion. We show that the Bayesian belief updating scheme provides similar estimates of time-varying synaptic parameters, compared to standard schemes, indicating no significant qualitative change in accuracy. The difference in variance explained was small (less than 5%). The updating method was substantially more efficient, taking approximately 5-10min compared to approximately 1-2h. Moreover, the setup of the model under the updating scheme allows for a clear specification of how neuronal variables fluctuate over separable timescales. This method now allows us to investigate the effect of fast (neuronal) activity on slow fluctuations in (synaptic) parameters, paving a way forward to understand how seizure activity is generated.

  10. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence.

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K

    2009-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  11. Predictors of reported condom use in central Harlem youth as conceptualized by the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Laraque, D; McLean, D E; Brown-Peterside, P; Ashton, D; Diamond, B

    1997-11-01

    The relationship of condom use to the sociodemographic, psychosocial, and cognitive factors included in the Health Belief Model was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 557 primarily low-income, African-American youth 12-19 years of age (mean age, 15.9 years) enrolled in a pregnancy prevention program at Harlem Hospital, New York City, during 1991-93. 74% reported ever having sex, 51% in the preceding 3 months. At last intercourse, 47% used no protection, 43% reported condom use, and 10% used another method. Males were more than 4 times as likely to report condom use than females. Males had more assets, more positive attitudes toward delaying parenthood, less teen-parent conflict, less depression, and more social support for birth control than females. Consistent with the Health Belief Model, the strongest predictors of consistent condom use (after adjustment for age) were partner preference for condoms, perceived benefit of avoidance of pregnancy, male gender, and social (mostly parental) support for birth control. These factors should be considered in the planning of interventions to increase condom use among sexually active teenagers. PMID:9358295

  12. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    PubMed

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  13. A cognitive account of belief: a tentative road map

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Michael H.; Halligan, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, delusions have become the subject of growing and productive research spanning clinical and cognitive neurosciences. Despite this, the nature of belief, which underpins the construct of delusions, has received little formal investigation. No account of delusions, however, would be complete without a cognitive level analysis of belief per se. One reason for this neglect is the assumption that, unlike more established and accessible modular psychological process (e.g., vision, audition, face-recognition, language-processing, and motor-control systems), beliefs comprise more distributed and therefore less accessible central cognitive processes. In this paper, we suggest some defining characteristics and functions of beliefs. Working back from cognitive accounts of delusions, we consider potential candidate cognitive processes that may be involved in normal belief formation. Finally, we advance a multistage account of the belief process that could provide the basis for a more comprehensive model of belief. PMID:25741291

  14. Modifying Health Behavior for Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention with the Health Belief Model and Social Support Theory.

    PubMed

    Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health problem in Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), endemic among human populations in northeast and north Thailand where raw fish containing fluke metacercariae are frequently consumed. Recently, Thailand public health authorities have been organized to reduce morbidity and mortality particularly in the northeast through O. viverrini and CCA screening projects. Health modfication is one of activities included in this campaign, but systemic guidelines of modifying and developing health behavior for liver flukes and CCA prevention in communities towards health belief and social support theory are still various and unclear. Here we review the guidelines for modifying and developing health behavior among populations in rural communities to strengthen understanding regarding perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to liver fluke and CCA prevention. This model may be useful for public health of cancers and related organizations to further health behavior change in endemic areas. PMID:27644606

  15. Examination of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury: the contribution of injury beliefs and Leventhal's common sense model.

    PubMed

    Snell, Deborah L; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Surgenor, Lois J; Siegert, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Associations between components of Leventhal's common sense model of health behaviour (injury beliefs, coping, distress) and outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) were examined. Participants (n = 147) were recruited within three months following MTBI and assessed six months later, completing study questionnaires at both visits (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Revised, Brief COPE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Outcome measures included the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and Rivermead Head Injury Follow-Up Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses examined associations between injury beliefs, coping and distress at baseline, and later outcome. Participants endorsing stronger injury identity beliefs (p < .01), expectations of lasting severe consequences (p < .01), and distress (p < .01) at time one, had greater odds of poor outcome at time two. Coping styles were also associated with later outcome although variability in findings limited interpretability. Associations between psychological variables and outcome were examined and 76.5% of cases were correctly classified by the model. Consistent with Leventhal's model, participant beliefs about their injury and recovery had significant associations with outcome over time. Coping also appeared to have important associations with outcome but more research is required to examine these. Current reassurance-based interventions may be improved by targeting variables such as injury beliefs, coping and adjustment soon after injury.

  16. Correlates among cognitive beliefs, EBP implementation, organizational culture, cohesion and job satisfaction in evidence-based practice mentors from a community hospital system.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen; Giggleman, Martha; Cruz, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from research and outcomes management projects strongly supports the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in improving quality of health care and patient outcomes as well as reducing hospital costs. In addition, published anecdotal reports have indicated that clinicians who use an evidence-based approach to care and practice in cultures that support EBP feel more empowered and satisfied in their roles. However, research is lacking that has specifically examined the relationships among beliefs about and implementation of EBP by hospital staff, organizational culture for EBP, group cohesion and job satisfaction. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the relationships among these variables in 58 health professionals, prior to their participation in a 12-month EBP mentorship program as part of implementing the Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration (ARCC) Model in a community hospital system. Findings indicated that participants' EBP beliefs were significantly correlated with perceived organizational culture for EBP, the extent to which they implemented EBP, group cohesion, and job satisfaction. Organizational culture for EBP was significantly and positively related to EBP beliefs and EBP implementation. Findings support the need for hospitals to establish cultures that support EBP and to implement strategies to strengthen individuals' cognitive beliefs about the value of EBP and their ability to implement it for the ultimate purpose of improving quality of care and enhancing job satisfaction.

  17. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  18. Towards an Effective Health Interventions Design: An Extension of the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Orji, Rita; Vassileva, Julita; Mandryk, Regan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The recent years have witnessed a continuous increase in lifestyle related health challenges around the world. As a result, researchers and health practitioners have focused on promoting healthy behavior using various behavior change interventions. The designs of most of these interventions are informed by health behavior models and theories adapted from various disciplines. Several health behavior theories have been used to inform health intervention designs, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Health Belief Model (HBM). However, the Health Belief Model (HBM), developed in the 1950s to investigate why people fail to undertake preventive health measures, remains one of the most widely employed theories of health behavior. However, the effectiveness of this model is limited. The first limitation is the low predictive capacity (R2 < 0.21 on average) of existing HBM’s variables coupled with the small effect size of individual variables. The second is lack of clear rules of combination and relationship between the individual variables. In this paper, we propose a solution that aims at addressing these limitations as follows: (1) we extended the Health Belief Model by introducing four new variables: Self-identity, Perceived Importance, Consideration of Future Consequences, and Concern for Appearance as possible determinants of healthy behavior. (2) We exhaustively explored the relationships/interactions between the HBM variables and their effect size. (3) We tested the validity of both our proposed extended model and the original HBM on healthy eating behavior. Finally, we compared the predictive capacity of the original HBM model and our extended model. Methods: To achieve the objective of this paper, we conducted a quantitative study of 576 participants’ eating behavior. Data for this study were collected over a period of one year (from August 2011 to August 2012). The questionnaire consisted of validated scales

  19. The "Health Belief Model" Applied to Two Preventive Health Behaviors Among Women from a Rural Pennsylvania County. AE & RS 115.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Mary E.

    In order to test the usefulnes of the Health Belief Model (a model designed to measure health practices, attitudes, and knowledge), a survey of Potter County, Pennsylvania was conducted, and 283 responses from adult females without chronic illnesses were analyzed. The dependent variables employed were regulating diet and getting regular exercise.…

  20. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  1. Interhemispheric interaction and beliefs on our origin: degree of handedness predicts beliefs in creationism versus evolution.

    PubMed

    Niebauer, Christopher Lee; Christman, Stephen D; Reid, Scott A; Garvey, Kilian J

    2004-10-01

    It has been suggested that strongly handed individuals have attenuated systems for updating beliefs compared to mixed handers (Niebauer, Aselage, & Schutte, 2002). The current research extended this theory to individual differences in updating beliefs concerning our origins. Although the theory of evolution has gained overwhelming success in the sciences, a significant percentage of the population believes in biblical creationist accounts of human origins that are inconsistent with accepted, contemporary scientific views. If strongly handed individuals possess attenuated systems for updating beliefs, they might be more likely to believe in creationism. In two studies, strongly handed participants were more likely to believe in creationism while mixed-handed participants were more likely to believe in evolution. A model of how interhemispheric interaction functions in maintaining and updating beliefs is discussed. Specifically, mixed-handedness seems to be associated with a lower threshold for updating beliefs. PMID:15513240

  2. Site-specific updating and aggregation of Bayesian belief network models for multiple experts.

    PubMed

    Stiber, Neil A; Small, Mitchell J; Pantazidou, Marina

    2004-12-01

    A method for combining multiple expert opinions that are encoded in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model is presented and applied to a problem involving the cleanup of hazardous chemicals at a site with contaminated groundwater. The method uses Bayes Rule to update each expert model with the observed evidence, then uses it again to compute posterior probability weights for each model. The weights reflect the consistency of each model with the observed evidence, allowing the aggregate model to be tailored to the particular conditions observed in the site-specific application of the risk model. The Bayesian update is easy to implement, since the likelihood for the set of evidence (observations for selected nodes of the BBN model) is readily computed by sequential execution of the BBN model. The method is demonstrated using a simple pedagogical example and subsequently applied to a groundwater contamination problem using an expert-knowledge BBN model. The BBN model in this application predicts the probability that reductive dechlorination of the contaminant trichlorethene (TCE) is occurring at a site--a critical step in the demonstration of the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation for site cleanup--given information on 14 measurable antecedent and descendant conditions. The predictions for the BBN models for 21 experts are weighted and aggregated using examples of hypothetical and actual site data. The method allows more weight for those expert models that are more reflective of the site conditions, and is shown to yield an aggregate prediction that differs from that of simple model averaging in a potentially significant manner.

  3. Illness beliefs in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Setzu, Erika; Lobban, Fiona; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Beliefs about health and illness shape emotional responses to illness, health-related behaviour and relationships with health-care providers in physical illness. Researchers are beginning to study the illness beliefs of people with psychosis, primarily using models developed in relation to physical illness. It is likely that modifications to these models will be necessary if they are to apply to mental disorders, and it is probable that some of the assumptions underlying the models will be inappropriate. In particular, different dimensions of understanding may be present in mental illness in comparison to those identified in physical illness. The present study examines the beliefs of 20 patients in the UK diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 10 currently psychotic inpatients and 10 outpatients in remission, about their experiences, using qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Patients currently experiencing psychosis did not identify their experiences as separable 'illnesses' and did not have 'illness beliefs'. Patients currently in a period of remission appraised their experiences as distinct from their own normal behaviour, but used conceptual frameworks of understanding that deviated significantly from conventional 'health belief' models. Patients' ways of understanding mental illness did not parallel those described in physical illnesses. Methods for assessing beliefs about mental illness should therefore not be transferred directly from studies of beliefs about physical illness, but should be tailored to the nature of patients' beliefs about mental illness. PMID:16777306

  4. A critical feminist perspective of the health belief model: implications for nursing theory, research, practice, and education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L W

    1995-01-01

    The health care system is in a state of crisis, and nursing is in a unique position to influence the decisions that are made regarding health care reform. However, without transforming our ways of knowing and being, the changes that are needed to meet the challenges of the future may not become a reality. Nursing theory, research, and practice reflect the historical, social, and political ideologies of western tradition. Consequently, the knowledge gained from the majority of nursing research has primarily developed from an empiricism or logical positivist philosophy. The underlying assumption of this school of thought is that only empirically quantifiable and measurable matters yield the truth, suggesting that there is only one reality. Because one cannot be socially critical as an empiricist, nurse educators have begun to question the adequacy of the empiricist philosophy and method of research for meeting changing societal demands. Social behavioral theories in general and the Health Belief Model in particular have frequently guided nursing research in an attempt to increase knowledge of health-related behaviors. Too often these theories have done little to increase our knowledge of women and people of color. For the most part, they have contributed to the oppression of individuals and groups. A critical feminist perspective can be useful in the understanding of health practices that are based on contextual knowledge. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness and understanding of the underlying assumptions, constraints, and contradictions that are embedded within social behavioral theories such as the Health Belief Model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Nursing opinion leadership: a preliminary model derived from philosophic theories of rational belief.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christine A; Whall, Ann L

    2013-10-01

    Opinion leaders are informal leaders who have the ability to influence others' decisions about adopting new products, practices or ideas. In the healthcare setting, the importance of translating new research evidence into practice has led to interest in understanding how opinion leaders could be used to speed this process. Despite continued interest, gaps in understanding opinion leadership remain. Agent-based models are computer models that have proven to be useful for representing dynamic and contextual phenomena such as opinion leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the work conducted in preparation for the development of an agent-based model of nursing opinion leadership. The aim of this phase of the model development project was to clarify basic assumptions about opinions, the individual attributes of opinion leaders and characteristics of the context in which they are effective. The process used to clarify these assumptions was the construction of a preliminary nursing opinion leader model, derived from philosophical theories about belief formation.

  6. Development and Validity Testing of Belief Measurement Model in Buddhism for Junior High School Students at Chiang Rai Buddhist Scripture School: An Application for Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaidi, Thirachai; Damrongpanich, Sunthorapot

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a model to measure the belief in Buddhism of junior high school students at Chiang Rai Buddhist Scripture School, and to determine construct validity of the model for measuring the belief in Buddhism by using Multitrait-Multimethod analysis. The samples were 590 junior high school students at Buddhist…

  7. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-03-27

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction.

  8. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  9. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction. PMID:21320903

  10. A Critical Feminist Perspective of the Health Belief Model: Implications for Nursing Theory, Research, Practice, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Linda W.

    1995-01-01

    Most nursing research is based on empiricism or logical positivism; the social behaviorist approach of the Health Belief Model does little to promote awareness or examine power issues. A critical feminist perspective aids understanding of health practices based on contextual knowledge and a holistic approach. (JOW)

  11. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  12. Beliefs Systems and Classroom Practices: Identified Typologies of Elementary School Teachers from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Margareta Maria; Nietfeld, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In a mixed-methods study, the authors investigate teacher typologies of elementary teachers (N = 132) in the United States based on their reformed science teaching beliefs. Additionally, the identified teacher typologies were compared with respect to their science content knowledge, self-efficacy and epistemic beliefs. Results revealed three…

  13. Plant a Radish, Get a Radish: Case Study of Kindergarten Teachers' Differing Literacy Belief Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Karen F.; Barksdale-Ladd, Mary Alice

    1997-01-01

    Questions two philosophically differing kindergarten teachers (whole language or skills-based) regarding views, beliefs, and practices in teaching literacy to kindergarten populations. Interviews students at the end of the school year regarding their understanding of reading and writing as a result of their teacher's beliefs. Finds that children's…

  14. The Impact of a Technology Coordinator's Belief System upon Using Technology to Create a Community's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    As it has been shown that teachers of social studies content are less likely than teachers of other content areas to utilize technology in their classroom, this study focuses on one instructional technology coordinators' beliefs towards technology, instruction, and students and how these beliefs impacted how technology was utilized during a…

  15. Student Conceptions of Assessment by Level of Schooling: Further Evidence for Ecological Rationality in Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gavin; Harris, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Student beliefs about assessment may vary according to the level of schooling. The "Students Conceptions of Assessment" version 6 (SCoA-VI) inventory elicits attitudes towards four beliefs (assessment: improves teaching and learning, measures external factors, has affective impact/benefit, is irrelevant). Using multi-group confirmatory factor…

  16. Understanding Family Involvement in the Preparation of Graduate Students: Measuring Family-Centered Beliefs, Skills, Systems, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallourakis, Angie; Kent, Kristie Pretti-Frontczak; Cook, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    This research project sought to develop a measure to examine the family-centered beliefs, skills, work systems, and work practices of early childhood intervention, (ECI) and early childhood education (ECE) graduate students. The study was guided by four research questions: (1) To what extent do graduate students from preservice preparation…

  17. The Effect of High-Stakes Examination Systems on Teacher Beliefs: Egyptian Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebril, Atta; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2014-01-01

    Egypt is currently attempting to introduce a greater formative use of assessment while maintaining a public examination system. This study investigates teacher beliefs about the purposes of assessment in Egypt, using the Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment (TCoA) inventory. The TCoA inventory elicits responses about four main factors:…

  18. Socio-Psychological Factors in the Expanded Health Belief Model and Subsequent Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Sohler, Nancy L; Jerant, Anthony; Franks, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective CRC screening interventions tailored to the Expanded Health Belief Model (EHBM) socio-psychological factors have been developed, but the contributions of individual factors to screening outcomes are unclear. Methods In observational analyses of data from a randomized intervention trial, we examined the independent associations of five EHBM factors - CRC screening knowledge, self-efficacy, stage of readiness, barriers, and discussion with a provider – with objectively measured CRC screening after one year. Results When all five factors were added simultaneously to a base model including other patient and visit characteristics, three of the factors were associated with CRC screening: self-efficacy (OR=1.32, p=0.001), readiness (OR=2.72, p<0.001), and discussion of screening with a provider (OR=1.59, p=0.009). Knowledge and barriers were not independently associated with screening. Adding the five socio-psychological factors to the base model improved prediction of CRC screening (area under the curve) by 7.7%. Conclusion Patient CRC screening self-efficacy, readiness, and discussion with a provider each independently predicted subsequent screening. Practice implications Self-efficacy and readiness measures might be helpful in parsimoniously predicting which patients are most likely to engage in CRC screening. The importance of screening discussion with a provider suggests the potential value of augmenting patient-focused EHBM-tailored interventions with provider-focused elements. PMID:25892503

  19. Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: an explanatory model.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, Mallie J

    2010-06-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among adolescents' perception of community alcohol norms, enforcement of underage drinking laws, personal beliefs (perceived parental disapproval of alcohol use, perceived alcohol availability, perceived drinking by peers, perceived harm and personal disapproval of alcohol use), and their past-30-day alcohol use. This study used data from 17,830 middle and high school students who participated in the 2007 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived community disapproval of adolescents' alcohol use was directly and positively related to perceived local police enforcement of underage drinking laws. In addition, adolescents' personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and past-30-day alcohol use. Enforcement of underage drinking laws appeared to partially mediate the relationship between perceived community disapproval and personal beliefs related to alcohol use. Results of this study suggests that environmental prevention efforts to reduce underage drinking should target adults' attitudes and community norms about underage drinking as well as the beliefs of youth themselves.

  20. An approximately Bayesian delta-rule model explains the dynamics of belief updating in a changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Wilson, Robert C.; Heasly, Benjamin; Gold, Joshua I.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate beliefs about variables needed for effective decision-making can be difficult in a dynamic environment. One key issue is the amount of influence that unexpected outcomes should have on existing beliefs. In general, outcomes that are unexpected because of a fundamental change in the environment should carry more influence than outcomes that are unexpected because of persistent environmental stochasticity. Here we use a novel task to characterize how well human subjects follow these principles under a range of conditions. We show that the influence of an outcome depends on both the error made in predicting that outcome and the number of similar outcomes experienced previously. We also show that the exact nature of these tendencies varies considerably across subjects. Finally, we show that these patterns of behavior are consistent with a computationally simple reduction of an ideal-observer model. The model adjusts the influence of newly experienced outcomes according to ongoing estimates of uncertainty and the probability of a fundamental change in the process by which outcomes are generated. A prior that quantifies the expected frequency of such environmental changes accounts for individual variability, including a positive relationship between subjective certainty and the degree to which new information influences existing beliefs. The results suggest that the brain adaptively regulates the influence of decision outcomes on existing beliefs using straightforward updating rules that take into account both recent outcomes and prior expectations about higher-order environmental structure. PMID:20844132

  1. Human Frontal–Subcortical Circuit and Asymmetric Belief Updating

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Caroline J.; Garrett, Neil; Cohen, Michael X.; Sharot, Tali

    2015-01-01

    How humans integrate information to form beliefs about reality is a question that has engaged scientists for centuries, yet the biological system supporting this process is not well understood. One of the most salient attributes of information is valence. Whether a piece of news is good or bad is critical in determining whether it will alter our beliefs. Here, we reveal a frontal–subcortical circuit in the left hemisphere that is simultaneously associated with enhanced integration of favorable information into beliefs and impaired integration of unfavorable information. Specifically, for favorable information, stronger white matter connectivity within this system, particularly between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left subcortical regions (including the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, and pallidum), as well as insular cortex, is associated with greater change in belief. However, for unfavorable information, stronger connectivity within this system, particularly between the left IFG and left pallidum, putamen, and insular cortex, is associated with reduced change in beliefs. These novel results are consistent with models suggesting that partially separable processes govern learning from favorable and unfavorable information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Beliefs of what may happen in the future are important, because they guide decisions and actions. Here, we illuminate how structural brain connectivity is related to the generation of subjective beliefs. We focus on how the valence of information is related to people's tendency to alter their beliefs. By quantifying the extent to which participants update their beliefs in response to desirable and undesirable information and relating those measures to the strength of white matter connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging, we characterize a left frontal–subcortical system that is associated simultaneously with greater belief updating in response to favorable information and reduced belief

  2. High School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning, and Self-Efficacy for Learning Biology: A Study of Their Structural Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem; Dagyar, Miray

    2015-01-01

    The current work reveals the data of the study which examines the relationships among epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and self-efficacy for biology learning with the help of the Structural Equation Modeling. Three questionnaires, the Epistemological Beliefs, the Conceptions of Learning Biology and the Self-efficacy for Learning…

  3. Comparison between the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory: predicting incontinence prevention behaviour in post-partum women.

    PubMed

    Dolman, M; Chase, J

    1996-08-01

    A small-scale study was undertaken to test the relative predictive power of the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory for the uptake of a behaviour (pelvic floor exercises) to reduce post-partum urinary incontinence in primigravida females. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data relevant to both models from a sample antenatal and postnatal primigravida women. Questions examined the perceived probability of becoming incontinent, the perceived (dis)utility of incontinence, the perceived probability of pelvic floor exercises preventing future urinary incontinence, the costs and benefits of performing pelvic floor exercises and sources of information and knowledge about incontinence. Multiple regression analysis focused on whether or not respondents intended to perform pelvic floor exercises and the factors influencing their decisions. Aggregated data were analysed to compare the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory directly. PMID:9238593

  4. Behavioral Modification Regarding Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma with a Health Belief Model Using Integrated Learning.

    PubMed

    Phatisena, Panida; Eaksanti, Tawatchai; Wichantuk, Pitsanee; Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to modify behavior regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention in Chumphuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand through integrated learning. A total of 180 participants were included through purposive selection of high-risk scores on verbal screening. Participants attended the health education program which applied the health belief model included family based, knowledge station based, academic merit based and community based learning. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of 4 parts: 1) personal information, 2) knowledge, 3) perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, 4) practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention. The result revealed that the majority were female (79.9%), age ≥60 years old (33.2%), primary school educational level (76.1%), and agricultural occupation (70.1%). The mean scores of knowledge, perception, and practice to liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, before participated the integrative learning were low, moderate, and low, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, and practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, were higher with statistical significance after participation in the integrated learning. This finding indicates that health education programs may successfully modify health behavior in the rural communities. Therefore they may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas. PMID:27356708

  5. Modeling electroencephalography waveforms with semi-supervised deep belief nets: fast classification and anomaly measurement.

    PubMed

    Wulsin, D F; Gupta, J R; Mani, R; Blanco, J A; Litt, B

    2011-06-01

    Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep belief nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset, and classification time was found to be 1.7-103.7 times faster than the other high-performing classifiers. We demonstrate how the unsupervised step of DBN learning produces an autoencoder that can naturally be used in anomaly measurement. We compare the use of raw, unprocessed data--a rarity in automated physiological waveform analysis--with hand-chosen features and find that raw data produce comparable classification and better anomaly measurement performance. These results indicate that DBNs and raw data inputs may be more effective for online automated EEG waveform recognition than other common techniques.

  6. The Health Belief Model Can Guide Modern Contraceptive Behavior Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kelli Stidham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Theory-based research is needed to understand poor contraceptive behavior and related reproductive health sequelae. The purpose of this review was to examine the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a comprehensive, well-tested social-cognitive framework suitable for explaining and predicting contraceptive behavior. Methods Existing literature, including editorials and research reports, describing HBM-guided contraceptive research between January 1966 and February 2011 was retrieved from established electronic databases. After consideration of inclusion/exclusion criteria, ten articles were included in the review. Results Issues in original family planning applications of HBM included inconsistent conceptualizations of contraceptive behavior and limited use of all HBM constructs in research surveys, interventions and analyses. Knowledge of contraceptive behavior has evolved, warranting more comprehensive use of the HBM for pertinent reproductive health contexts, behaviors and methods. Conclusion With more rigorous applications, the HBM can help us understand modern contraceptive behavior determinants and facilitate strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy and promote positive family planning outcomes. PMID:22251916

  7. Application of health belief model for promoting behaviour change among Nigerian single youth.

    PubMed

    Oyekale, A S; Oyekale, T O

    2010-06-01

    The study analyzes the factors influencing conduct of HIV test and risky behavour change using the health belief model. The data were obtained from the Nigeria's 2004 NLSS data and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Probit regression. Results show that 87.79% of the single youths were aware of HIV/AIDS, 3.34% conducted HIV test and 71.73% desisted from risky behaviour by having sex with one partner (24.35%), not starting sex (16.90%) and using condom (14.29%). Also, probability of conducting HIV test and changing risky behaviours significantly increases (p<0.10) with age, access to radio, television and per capita expenditure, while it significantly decreases with no formal education. Residence in urban area significantly increases probability of conducting HIV test, but significantly reduces probability of changing risky behaviours. The study recommends integration of health studies into Nigerian elementary school curriculums, provision of adequate facilities for free HIV test in rural areas, among others. PMID:21243920

  8. Factors Predicting Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors Due to Cardiovascular Disease in Tehran University Students: Application of Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Jafari, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease preventing methods focus mostly on lifestyle factors such as physical activity, healthy diet and not smoking. Previous studies verified using theory and models to change unhealthy behaviors, so that health belief model (HBM) is a useful framework for describing the healthy nutrition behavior. Objectives: This study aimed to predict factors related to unhealthy nutrition and inactive life in students of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, proportional quota sampling from three different educational levels was conducted from October to December 2012. A self-administered validated instrument based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) with 69 items and four sections was used to collect data. In this study through using linear and logistic regression, the effect of body mass index, age, gender, marriage, self-efficacy, cues to action, knowledge, perceived severity, susceptibility, benefits and barriers on nutrition and physical activity behavior were assessed. SPSS version 18 was used to analyze data. Results: Totally, 368 students including 318 female students (86.4%) and 50 male students (13.6%) with a mean age of 24.9 years (SD = 4.55) took part in the study. Among all independent variables, gender (P < 0.001), knowledge (P = 0.023) and perceived barriers (P = 0.004) predicted nutrition behavior. In case of physical activity, knowledge (P = 0.011), perceived severity (P = 0.009), perceived barriers (P = 0.019) and self-efficacy (P = 0.033) had significance association with physical activity behavior. Conclusions: This study indicated that health belief model contrasts could predict the risky behavior of university students due to heart disease. However, more researches are needed to verify the predictors of high risky behaviors in students. PMID:26019896

  9. Development and Execution of the RUNSAFE Runway Safety Bayesian Belief Network Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    One focus area of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to improve aviation safety. Runway safety is one such thrust of investigation and research. The two primary components of this runway safety research are in runway incursion (RI) and runway excursion (RE) events. These are adverse ground-based aviation incidents that endanger crew, passengers, aircraft and perhaps other nearby people or property. A runway incursion is the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft; one class of RI events simultaneously involves two aircraft, such as one aircraft incorrectly landing on a runway while another aircraft is taking off from the same runway. A runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft defined as a veer-off or overrun off the runway surface. Within the scope of this effort at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), generic RI, RE and combined (RI plus RE, or RUNSAFE) event models have each been developed and implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). Descriptions of runway safety issues from the literature searches have been used to develop the BBN models. Numerous considerations surrounding the process of developing the event models have been documented in this report. The event models were then thoroughly reviewed by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel through multiple knowledge elicitation sessions. Numerous improvements to the model structure (definitions, node names, node states and the connecting link topology) were made by the SME panel. Sample executions of the final RUNSAFE model have been presented herein for baseline and worst-case scenarios. Finally, a parameter sensitivity analysis for a given scenario was performed to show the risk drivers. The NASA and LaRC research in runway safety event modeling through the use of BBN technology is important for several reasons. These include: 1) providing a means to clearly

  10. Cultural evolution of a belief controlling human mate choice: dynamic modeling of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Cinthia Marie; Iwasa, Yoh

    2012-09-21

    We develop a simple cultural dynamics model to dicuss the spread of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan. A large drop in the number of newborn babies observed in 1966 was attributed mainly to parents' avoiding having a child born in a hinoeuma year. Presumably, Japanese parents were afraid that a daughter born in 1966 (a hinoeuma year) might later have difficulty finding a mate. We construct mathematical models to examine whether the hinoeuma superstition would likely become extinct or be stably maintained in the population. We classify members of a population according to whether they believed the hinoeuma superstition (believer or nonbeliever), their gender (male or female), and their year of birth (born in a hinoeuma year or not). We compare several cases that differ according to (1) whether the belief in the superstition was transmitted to children by matrilineal, patrilineal, or Mendelian inheritance; (2) which parent controlled the timing of pregnancy and childbirth (maternal or paternal birth control); and (3) the probability of birth control failure. Our results show that the hinoeuma superstition is likely to spread if the mother has a strong influence on birth control and on the belief of their children. In contrast, if birth control is paternal and the belief is passed down from father to child, the hinoeuma superstition is likely to become extinct. In between these extremes, whether the superstition becomes extinct or fixed in the population depends on the initial frequency of believers in the population.

  11. A pragmatic belief system in family meaning-making after death.

    PubMed

    Black, Helen K; Santanello, Holly R; Rubinstein, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored a sample of families' beliefs concerning creation of meaning in the recent death of the elderly husband and father and his existence in an afterlife. Data were collected through qualitative inquiry. Family members from 34 families were asked about their reaction to their loved one's death. Three themes emerged from participants' responses (a) the significance of context in the father and husband's life and death; (b) family members' folk beliefs; and (c) recalling the after-death ritual. The themes interpenetrate at the point where family members, although doubtful, hoped their loved one continues in an afterlife. PMID:24738858

  12. A pragmatic belief system in family meaning-making after death.

    PubMed

    Black, Helen K; Santanello, Holly R; Rubinstein, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored a sample of families' beliefs concerning creation of meaning in the recent death of the elderly husband and father and his existence in an afterlife. Data were collected through qualitative inquiry. Family members from 34 families were asked about their reaction to their loved one's death. Three themes emerged from participants' responses (a) the significance of context in the father and husband's life and death; (b) family members' folk beliefs; and (c) recalling the after-death ritual. The themes interpenetrate at the point where family members, although doubtful, hoped their loved one continues in an afterlife.

  13. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. PMID:25460380

  14. Using Computer Visualization Models in High School Chemistry: The Role of Teacher Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robblee, Karen M.; Garik, Peter; Abegg, Gerald L.; Faux, Russell; Horwitz, Paul

    This paper discusses the role of high school chemistry teachers' beliefs in implementing computer visualization software to teach atomic and molecular structure from a quantum mechanical perspective. The informants in this study were four high school chemistry teachers with comparable academic and professional backgrounds. These teachers received…

  15. A Constructivist Connectionist Model of Transitions on False-Belief Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Vincent G.; Shultz, Thomas R.; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2013-01-01

    How do children come to understand that others have mental representations, e.g., of an object's location? Preschoolers go through two transitions on verbal false-belief tasks, in which they have to predict where an agent will search for an object that was moved in her absence. First, while three-and-a-half-year-olds usually fail at approach…

  16. Beliefs, Practices, and Reflection: Exploring a Science Teacher's Classroom Assessment through the Assessment Triangle Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Assessment Practices Framework and how I used it to study a high school Chemistry teacher as she designed, implemented, and learned from a chemistry lab report. The framework consists of exploring three teacher-centered components of classroom assessment (assessment beliefs, practices, and reflection) and analyzing…

  17. Mastery of Negative Affect: A Hierarchical Model of Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous studies that formulated measures for assessing self-efficacy beliefs regarding the management of anger/irritation and despondency/sadness, we developed 3 new scales to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing fear, shame/embarrassment, and guilt. In Study 1, the internal and construct validity of the 5 aforementioned…

  18. The Health Belief Model and Teenage Contraceptive Behavior: From Theory to Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.

    This report addresses the problem of sexually active teenagers who either do not use contraception or use it inconsistently. Psychological and cognitive barriers to contraception use are briefly reviewed and the development of a cognitively oriented intervention designed to modify beliefs inimical to contraceptive use is discussed. The selection…

  19. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  20. Beliefs in Context: Understanding Language Policy Implementation at a Systems Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory, this study describes how cognitive, normative, and regulative mechanisms shape bilingual teachers' language policy implementation in both English-only and bilingual contexts. Aligned with prior educational language policy research, findings indicate the important role that teachers' beliefs play in the policy…

  1. Multilingual Competence Development in the Greek Educational System: FL Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griva, Eleni; Chostelidou, Dora

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission has aimed to increase diversification in the languages taught at primary and secondary educational level and to strive for multilingualism in all state members for the past two decades. The study was conducted with the aim to provide an account of foreign language (FL) teachers' beliefs regarding multilingualism and FL…

  2. Re-Thinking Educational Leadership: Exploring the Impact of Cultural and Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that people from diverse ideological and ethnic backgrounds conceive, perceive and practise educational leadership differently, drawing upon their beliefs, values and knowledge sources. It draws on data collected by 11 in-depth interviews with female heads of "girls-only" colleges in a region in Pakistan. The paper briefly…

  3. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Health Belief Model on Preventing Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased

  5. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers’ Beliefs Regarding Infants’ and Toddlers’ TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents’ decision-making about the extent of their young children’s viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents’ belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants’ and toddlers’ TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children’s TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children’s estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers’ attitudes and intentions and children’s viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25431537

  6. The effect of an instructional program based on health belief model in decreasing cesarean rate among primiparous pregnant mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Laleh; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Dadipoor, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cesarean section has saved many mothers’ and infants’ lives, the problem is in its increasing prevalence. According to recent statistics, the current rate of cesarean in Iran is in fact 3–4 times as more than the standard rate defined by WHO. Therefore, the present study is aimed to estimate the effect of an instructional program based on health belief model on reducing cesarean rate among primiparous pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental research, 60 primiparous women who had visited Bandar Abbas Healthcare Centers were selected as the subjects. They were in their 26–30th week of pregnancy. They were selected in a multi-stage cluster sampling method (a combination of clustering and simple randomization), and were divided into two groups, subjects and control group. The data were gathered using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The instructional intervention was done after the completion of the pretest questionnaire based on the sub-constructs of the health belief model in six instructional sessions. 1 month after the intervention, posttest questionnaires were completed by the subjects in both groups. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, standard deviation, independent t-test, and paired t-test. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results: Two groups had a significant difference between awareness score, perceived sensitivity, intensity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and the performance (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, nine subjects (30%) had a natural delivery. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current research, an instructional program illuminated (designed) by the health belief model can significantly influence pregnant women's awareness, intention, and choice of delivery type. PMID:27512693

  7. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  8. Using the Health Belief Model to develop educational strategies to improve pertussis vaccination rates among preschool staff.

    PubMed

    Dardis, Melissa R; Koharchik, Linda S; Dukes, Shari

    2015-01-01

    The number of pertussis or "whooping cough" cases has steadily increased in the United States in the last 20 years. Many of the cases are adults who have not kept up with current vaccination recommendations. Adults are unknowingly exposing susceptible infants and unvaccinated children to this potentially deadly disease. Pertussis can spread rapidly, especially in household, daycare, and school settings. This pilot study examines how school nurses can be instrumental in improving staff immunization rates for pertussis by using the Health Belief Model as a framework for educational strategies. PMID:25626237

  9. The influence of uncertain map features on risk beliefs and perceived ambiguity for maps of modeled cancer risk from air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Maps are often used to convey information generated by models, for example, modeled cancer risk from air pollution. The concrete nature of images, such as maps, may convey more certainty than warranted for modeled information. Three map features were selected to communicate the uncertainty of modeled cancer risk: (a) map contours appeared in or out of focus, (b) one or three colors were used, and (c) a verbal-relative or numeric risk expression was used in the legend. Study aims were to assess how these features influenced risk beliefs and the ambiguity of risk beliefs at four assigned map locations that varied by risk level. We applied an integrated conceptual framework to conduct this full factorial experiment with 32 maps that varied by the three dichotomous features and four risk levels; 826 university students participated. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Unfocused contours and the verbal-relative risk expression generated more ambiguity than their counterparts. Focused contours generated stronger risk beliefs for higher risk levels and weaker beliefs for lower risk levels. Number of colors had minimal influence. The magnitude of risk level, conveyed using incrementally darker shading, had a substantial dose-response influence on the strength of risk beliefs. Personal characteristics of prior beliefs and numeracy also had substantial influences. Bottom-up and top-down information processing suggest why iconic visual features of incremental shading and contour focus had the strongest visual influences on risk beliefs and ambiguity. Variations in contour focus and risk expression show promise for fostering appropriate levels of ambiguity. PMID:22985196

  10. "Are They Becoming More Reflective and/or Efficacious?" A Conceptual Model Mapping How Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Might Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual models can fulfil important educative roles, particularly in fields where there are few such models and where constructs are confused, as in research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. In this area, one model developed in the late twentieth century subsequently became dominant, but seems flawed. This article addresses criticisms of…

  11. Impact of Educational Intervention on Patients Behavior with Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study Using the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Jadgal, Khair Mohammad; Nakhaei-Moghadam, Tayebeh; Alizadeh-Seiouki, Hadi; Zareban, Iraj; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is a single-agent infectious disease, which is the major cause of death around the world. Approximately one third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacilli and at risk of developing active TB. The purpose of this study was determined the impact of education based on health belief model in promoting behavior of smear-positive pulmonary TB among patients in Chabahar city, Iran. Material and methods: Of the 80 smear-positive pulmonary TB who referred to health centers in Chabahar voluntarily participated in this interventional study. The data collected using questionnaire based on health belief model. The data were analyzed by using paired t-test, independent t-test, pearson correlation and chi-square test with SPSS 16. Results: The cognitive skills were increased significantly from 6.10 to 6.88 after intervention. All behavioral skills were increased significantly from 2.08 to 2.88 after implementing the intervention. Perceived severity was increased from11.08to12.19 significantly. Percepted benefits were enhanced significantly from 11.48 to 12.23. Mean percepted barrier was decreased significantly from 17.52 to 16.68. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated that implementing educational intervention programs can increase the level of knowledge and behavior of patients regarding smear- positive pulmonary TB initiatives. PMID:26543411

  12. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. PMID:22709771

  13. Systemic glucocorticoid therapy: risk factors for reported adverse events and beliefs about the drug. A cross-sectional online survey of 820 patients.

    PubMed

    Morin, Clément; Fardet, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Despite systemic glucocorticoids are widely used, risk factors for most of their adverse events and patients' beliefs about the drug are poorly known. An online survey was conducted between February and July 2013 through the website www.cortisone-info.fr . Demographic (e.g., age, gender) and therapeutic (e.g., type of prescribed glucocorticoid, duration of prescription) data were collected. Patients were further asked to answer questions about glucocorticoid-induced adverse events and their beliefs about efficacy and safety of the drug. Risk factors for adverse events and efficacy/safety beliefs were assessed using multivariate logistic regression models. Eight hundred twenty questionnaires were analyzed (women 74.3 %; median age 49 [34-62] years, median equivalent prednisone dosage 20 [10-48] mg/day). The most frequently reported adverse events were insomnia (n = 477, 58.2 %), mood disturbances (n = 411, 50.1 %), hyperphagia (n = 402, 49.0 %), and lipodystrophy (n = 387, 47.2 %). The risk of some adverse events (e.g., weight gain, easy bruising) increased with the duration of exposure while other adverse events (e.g., insomnia, mood disorders, epigastric pain) were present since the first days of exposure. The risk of hirsutism, altered wound healing, mood disturbances, weight gain, lipodystrophy, hyperphagia, and epigastric pain decreased with age. Cutaneous disorders, morphological changes, and epigastric pain were more frequently reported by women. Interestingly, patients prescribed prednisolone reported less adverse events than those prescribed prednisone. No adverse event, demographical or prescribing characteristics were associated with beliefs about efficacy while factors associated with safety concerns were age (OR: 1.2 [1.1-1.3] per 10-year increase), osteoporosis (OR: 3.3 [1.4-7.9]), easy bruising (OR: 1.6 [1.1-2.3]), insomnia (OR: 1.7 [1.2-2.4]), and weight gain (OR: 1.6 [1.1-2.2]). These results may help clinicians to adapt information

  14. Beliefs about Human Extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a web-based survey about futures issues. Among many questions, respondents were asked whether they believe humans will become extinct. Forty-five percent of the almost 600 respondents believe that humans will become extinct. Many of those holding this believe felt that humans could become extinct within 500-1000 years. Others estimated extinction 5000 or more years into the future. A logistic regression model was estimated to explore the bases for this belief. It was found that people who describe themselves a secular are more likely to hold this belief than people who describe themselves as being Protestant. Older respondents and those who believe that humans have little control over their future also hold this belief. In addition, people who are more apt to think about the future and are better able to imagine potential futures tend to also believe that humans will become extinct.

  15. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    PubMed

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. PMID:23974049

  16. Unpacking the Complex Relationship Between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-12-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written self-reflections, and videotapes of lessons were used to identify and isolate the belief systems that were critical to the teacher's decision making. The Interconnected Model of Professional Growth was then used to trace the trajectories of change of the individual belief systems. Analysis of the data revealed the relationship between beliefs and practices was complex in which initially espoused beliefs were often inconsistent with enacted practice and some beliefs emerged as more salient than others for influencing practice. Furthermore, this research indicates change in both beliefs and practice was an interactive process mediated by collaborative and self-reflection through participation in the video-supported process.

  17. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1) the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2) involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3) the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74%) were returned and 309 (69%) were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Salient results are: (1) Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01); (2) Physicians involvement in the planning, design and implementation increases their intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01); (3) Physicians belief that the new CDSS will improve his/her job performance increases their intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01). Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional

  18. A logical model of cooperating rule-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney C.; Moore, John M.; Hilberg, Robert H.; Murphy, Elizabeth D.; Bahder, Shari A.

    1989-01-01

    A model is developed to assist in the planning, specification, development, and verification of space information systems involving distributed rule-based systems. The model is based on an analysis of possible uses of rule-based systems in control centers. This analysis is summarized as a data-flow model for a hypothetical intelligent control center. From this data-flow model, the logical model of cooperating rule-based systems is extracted. This model consists of four layers of increasing capability: (1) communicating agents, (2) belief-sharing knowledge sources, (3) goal-sharing interest areas, and (4) task-sharing job roles.

  19. Colorectal cancer prevention and screening: a Health Belief Model-based research study to increase disease awareness.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Amy S; Hornung, Peggy A; Greenwald, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effects of a Health Belief Model-based colorectal cancer (CRC) education session on adult participants. Education sessions were conducted at a site chosen by the participants, such as their homes, in a mid-sized, mid-Western city. Thirty-one Caucasian adults participated. Eleven were men (35%) and 20 were women (65%). Study results reveal that the education sessions were an effective way to promote awareness of CRC prevention and screening. The participants' responses reflected a positive and significant (p < .0001) improvement in all areas except beliefs regarding maintenance of a healthy weight (p = .0574). The greatest effect was on men, current smokers, and those with a high school education or less. Education sessions were equally effective for auditory and visual learners. The 31 participants planned to share the information with at least 32 other individuals. The participants acquired an increased awareness of CRC prevention and screening. Willingness to discuss CRC after the education sessions may be significant, especially because the others may, in turn, share the information. Nurses need to be aware of CRC screening guidelines. The impact of patient teaching on this health promotion effort may reach beyond the patients who were in contact with the nurses. Public awareness might be further increased when patients share this information with others.

  20. [Factors affecting health behavior of the people aged forties--a test of the health belief model].

    PubMed

    Tohnai, S; Hata, E

    1994-04-01

    The health behavior of 1120 persons, aged in their forties, living in a city, a mountain village and a fishing village were analyzed according to the Health Belief Model. Women practiced more health behaviors than men. People living in the city and mountain village practiced more than people in fishing village. Company employees, farmers and housewives practiced more than self-employeds and fishermen. Education level had no significant influence in the practice of health behavior. As predicted, people who believed in the effectiveness of health behavior practiced more health behaviors. On the other hand, people who perceived barriers to health behavior practiced less. Paradoxically, people who perceived vulnerability to hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or cancer, and the seriousness of these diseases, practiced less health behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that health beliefs, social supports and information from mass media could account for 33.0% of the Health Behavior Score variation. Perceived barriers to health behavior was the strongest determinant for practice of health behavior. Perceived barriers may account for gender and occupational differences in health behavior.

  1. LinguisticBelief and PoolEvidence

    SciTech Connect

    DARBY, JOHN

    2008-03-11

    LinguisticBelief allows the creation and analysis of combinations of linguistic variables with epistemic uncertainty for decision making. The model is solved using approximate reasoning to implement the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for combinations of variables expressed as purely linguistic fuzzy sets. PoolEvidence pools evidence for linguistic variables from many experts for input into LinguisticBelief.

  2. Changing Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs about Using Computers for Teaching and Learning Mathematics: The Effect of Three Different Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of three different computer integration models on pre-service mathematics teachers' beliefs about using computers in mathematics education. Participants included 104 pre-service mathematics teachers (36 second-year students in the Computer Oriented Model group, 35 fourth-year students in the Integrated Model…

  3. Emotion and decision-making: affect-driven belief systems in anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Yu, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion processing and decision-making are integral aspects of daily life. However, our understanding of the interaction between these constructs is limited. In this review, we summarize theoretical approaches to the link between emotion and decision-making, and focus on research with anxious or depressed individuals that reveals how emotions can interfere with decision-making. We integrate the emotional framework based on valence and arousal with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. We then discuss how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions provide evidence that alterations of decision-making can be viewed in terms of altered probability and value computation. We argue that the probabilistic representation of belief states in the context of partially observable Markov decision processes provides a useful approach to examine alterations in probability and value representation in individuals with anxiety and depression and outline the broader implications of this approach. PMID:22898207

  4. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-09-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  5. A non-linear dynamical approach to belief revision in cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kronemyer, David; Bystritsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a non-linear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain's attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three) fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action. PMID:24860491

  6. Bayesian belief networks in business continuity.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Frank; Matthijssen, Edwin; Attema, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity professionals aim to mitigate the various challenges to the continuity of their company. The goal is a coherent system of measures that encompass detection, prevention and recovery. Choices made in one part of the system affect other parts as well as the continuity risks of the company. In complex organisations, however, these relations are far from obvious. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks to expose these relations, and presents a modelling framework for this approach. PMID:25193453

  7. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P <0.01, Exp(B)= 1.9) and self-efficacy (P<0.01, Exp(B)= 1.6) were predictive factors related to occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention. PMID:27165201

  8. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R.; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Montague, P. Read

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers’ prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers’ beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of “no nicotine in cigarette” (compared with “nicotine in cigarette”) strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers’ choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems. PMID:25605923

  9. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M; Montague, P Read

    2015-02-24

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in cigarette") strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers' choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems.

  10. Investigating the effect of an education plan based on the health belief model on the physical activity of women who are at risk for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Habibollah; Maleki, Fatemeh; Moeini, Mahin; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is the main risk factor of many diseases and the main reason of death all over the world. Because the signs of hypertension are not clear, people do not feel its dangers and do not believe they are at risk. This problem makes preventing hypertension a great challenge for the health system. One factor that is related to lifestyle and is effective in preventing hypertension is increasing exercise. The aim of this study is investigate the effect of an education plan based on the health belief model on the physical activity of women who are at risk for hypertension. Materials and Methods: This is a field experimental study. Field of study was two health care centers in Isfahan, which were selected through simple random sampling. Ninety-two females who were at risk for hypertension were the subjects of study. Subjects were selected through systematic sampling. Beck questionnaire was used to evaluate the physical activity of both experimental and control group subjects before and 2 months after the intervention. The intervention plan was three education sections that were conducted in 4 weeks. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests and inferential tests of repetitive variance analysis and t-test through SPSS. Results: The results showed that the average of physical activity increased significantly in the intervention group 2 months after education (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The findings of the study confirm the efficiency of education plan based on the health belief model on the physical activity of women who are at risk for hypertension. PMID:25558264

  11. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Maryam; Ghodsbin, Fariba; Jahanbin, Iran; Ariafar, Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Izadi, Tayyebe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based education on knowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93) and control (n=87) groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS), and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05) in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05). The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013090911691N3 PMID:26793731

  12. Attitudes of Hungarian asthmatic and COPD patients affecting disease control: empirical research based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patient non-adherence to treatment is a major problem across most chronic diseases. In COPD and asthma treatments it is a complex issue because people need to make behavioral and lifestyle changes while taking medications. Poor adherence results in increased rates of morbidity and mortality, more frequent hospitalizations, and ultimately higher healthcare expenditures. Materials and methods: The objective of the study was to assess asthmatic and COPD patient's attitudes toward adherence in Hungary. Health Belief Model was used to help explain reasons of non-adherence. The results of the study should provide additional support to understanding health-related behaviors and to developing health related programs enhancing adherence of asthmatic and COPD patients. 145 diagnosed COPD patients and 161 diagnosed asthmatic patients were involved in 6 pulmonary centers. The questions were designed to measure Health Belief Model dimensions A 1–5 point verbal Likert scale was used. As a second stage, the answers were compared with the registered patient's personal health data available in pulmonary center's documentation. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: More than 32% of patients are very interested in new asthma or COPD research results, but their main information source is physician. The trust toward the physician is very high. Patients accept treatments and rarely ask questions. Respondents are cooperative but sometimes fail to follow therapeutic recommendations. There is no willingness to join self-help groups or associations. Discussion: The paternalistic approach was generally accepted, moreover expected by the patients from the physicians. It is important to train patients, increase their self-efficacy, responsibility and involve them into self-management programs. Both physicians and patients should be trained how to communicate—this approach can lead to increased understanding and better adherence. PMID:24312052

  13. An association account of false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A

    2012-05-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding.

  14. Modeling the Interrelationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding and Acceptance of Evolution, Their Views on Nature of Science and Self-Efficacy Beliefs regarding Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Gulsum; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Traynor, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a path model of relationships among understanding and acceptance of evolution, views on nature of science, and self-efficacy beliefs regarding teaching evolution. A total of 415 pre-service science teachers completed a series of self-report instruments for the specified purpose. After the estimation of scale scores using…

  15. Examining the Role of Self-Disclosure and Connectedness in the Process of Instructional Dissent: A Test of the Instructional Beliefs Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Zac D.; LaBelle, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between student-to-student communicative behaviors and communication outcomes in the college classroom. The instructional beliefs model was used to examine student self-disclosures, student perceptions of connectedness, and student enactment of instructional dissent. Students (N = 351) completed…

  16. Analysis of the Relation between Academic Procrastination, Academic Rational/Irrational Beliefs, Time Preferences to Study for Exams, and Academic Achievement: A Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinc; Bulus, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between academic rational/irrational beliefs, academic procrastination, and time preferences to study for exams and academic achievement by using the structural equation model. The sample consisted of 281 undergraduate students who filled in questionnaires at the 7-week-long summer course.…

  17. Beliefs and Gender Differences: A New Model for Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2004-01-01

    The major focus of this study is to propose a new research model, namely the Modified CGI gender model, for the study of gender differences in mathematics. This model is developed based on Fennema, Carpenter, and Peterson's (1989) CGI model. To examine the validity of this new model, this study also examines the gender differences in teacher and…

  18. Skin Cancer Protective Behaviors among the Elderly: Explaining Their Response to a Health Education Program Using the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 kibbutzim, 43 adults over 60 completed a questionnaire on sun-exposure protective behaviors before and 2 weeks and 4 months after a skin cancer intervention. Beliefs about skin cancer did not change, but beliefs about the value of health and internal health locus of control changed significantly. (SK)

  19. The Role of Competence and Value Beliefs in Students' Daily Emotional Experiences: A Multilevel Test of a Transactional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the mutual influence of relatively stable personal competence and value beliefs and lesson specific appraisals of competence and value on daily emotional experiences of students in the classroom context. Personal competence and value beliefs were measured by means of questionnaire whereas appraisals and daily emotions were…

  20. [Condom use among heterosexuals: a comparison of the theory of planned behavior, the health belief model and protection motivation theory].

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B; Buunk, B P; Siero, F W

    1993-10-01

    In the Netherlands, the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the health belief model (Janz and Becker, 1984), and the protection-motivation theory (Rogers, 1983) were compared for predicting condom use intentions because of AIDS. The 641 respondents were given two questionnaires: one for themselves and another one for a friend, partner, or acquaintance. 514 (80%) of them returned completed forms. 60% of these (307) persons were encouraged to answer and return another questionnaire, thus the final sample consisted of 821 responses. 711 individuals (481 women aged 15-91 years and 230 men aged 15-85 years) admitted having had heterosexual intercourse. 75% had had more than one sex partner in the previous 5 years. 45% had had sex at least once with someone other than their regular partner. Multivariance analysis of variance of promiscuity and condom use revealed that men exhibited more risky sex practices than women (p .001), had more sex partners in the previous 5 years than women (p .01), had more single sexual encounters with other persons than the regular sex partner than women (p .001), and they used condoms less often than women (p .01). 119 respondents had experienced sexually transmitted diseases and 165 had taken HIV tests. The difference between men and women also showed up in terms of their ideas, perceptions, and feelings about condom use when the three theoretical models were considered (p .001). The variables used in the theory of planned behavior explained the variance in intended condom use for 36% of women and 43% of men. The health belief model explained intended condom use only for 15% of women and 32% of men, while the cost-benefit analysis explained it for 9% of women and 18% of men. The protection-motivation theory explained intended condom use variance for 32% of women and 41% of men, but not all variables were included in the model. Fear from AIDS was correlated with inquisitive behavior and with seriousness (both p .001). PMID:12291420

  1. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  2. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using evidential belief function and weights of evidence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiqing; Li, Wenping; Wu, Yanli; Pei, Yabing; Xing, Maolin; Yang, Dongdong

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility map of a landslide-prone area (Daguan County, China) by evidential belief function (EBF) model and weights of evidence (WoE) model to compare the results obtained. For this purpose, a landslide inventory map was constructed mainly based on earlier reports and aerial photographs, as well as, by carrying out field surveys. A total of 194 landslides were mapped. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a training dataset; 70% (136 landslides) for training the models and the remaining 30% (58 landslides) was used for validation purpose. Then, a total number of 14 conditioning factors, such as slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, altitude, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power index (SPI), and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used in the analysis. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using the EBF and WoE models. Finally, the validation of landslide susceptibility map was accomplished with the area under the curve (AUC) method. The success rate curve showed that the area under the curve for EBF and WoE models were of 80.19% and 80.75% accuracy, respectively. Similarly, the validation result showed that the susceptibility map using EBF model has the prediction accuracy of 80.09%, while for WoE model, it was 79.79%. The results of this study showed that both landslide susceptibility maps obtained were successful and would be useful for regional spatial planning as well as for land cover planning.

  3. Epistemological Beliefs, Mathematical Problem-Solving Beliefs, and Academic Performance of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Duell, Orpha K.; Hutter, Rosetta

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the structure of middle school students' general epistemological beliefs and domain-specific mathematical problem-solving beliefs by asking whether the 2 belief systems are related and whether they predict students' academic performance. Over 1,200 seventh- and eighth-grade students completed an Epistemological Questionnaire,…

  4. Investigating the Relationships among PSTs' Teaching Beliefs: Are Epistemological Beliefs Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahçivan, Eralp

    2016-01-01

    The present case study explored the teaching belief systems of pre-service science teachers (PSTs), including epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs, conceptions of science learning and teaching and pedagogical content knowledge. Based on their epistemological scores, three PSTs who were categorised as exhibiting naïve, moderately…

  5. Mathematical circulatory system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method of modeling a circulatory system including a regulatory mechanism parameter. In one embodiment, a regulatory mechanism parameter in a lumped parameter model is represented as a logistic function. In another embodiment, the circulatory system model includes a compliant vessel, the model having a parameter representing a change in pressure due to contraction of smooth muscles of a wall of the vessel.

  6. Modular Modeling System Model Builder

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, C.S.; Matthews, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    The latest release of the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Model Builder adds still more time-saving features to an already powerful MMS dynamic-simulation tool set. The Model Builder takes advantage of 32-bit architecture within the Microsoft Windows 95/NT{trademark} Operating Systems to better integrate a mature library of power-plant components. In addition, the MMS Library of components can now be modified and extended with a new tool named MMS CompGen{trademark}. The MMS Model Builder allows the user to quickly build a graphical schematic representation for a plant by selecting from a library of predefined power plant components to dynamically simulate their operation. In addition, each component has a calculation subroutine stored in a dynamic-link library (DLL), which facilitates the determination of a steady-state condition and performance of routine calculations for the component. These calculations, termed auto-parameterization, help avoid repetitive and often tedious hand calculations for model initialization. In striving to meet the needs for large models and increase user productivity, the MMS Model Builder has been completely revamped to make power plant model creation and maintainability easier and more efficient.

  7. Undergraduate Engineering Students' Beliefs, Coping Strategies, and Academic Performance: An Evaluation of Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Sass, Daniel A.; Guerra, Norma S.

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified factors associated with academic success by evaluating relations among psychological and academic variables, although few studies have examined theoretical models to understand the complex links. This study used structural equation modeling to investigate whether the relation between test anxiety and final course grades was…

  8. Modeling of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Parental Delay or Refusal of Vaccine Doses, Childhood Vaccination Coverage at 24 Months of Age, and the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Philip J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G.; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. Methods We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24–35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. Results In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24–35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Conclusions Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist

  10. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-13

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  11. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  12. System Advisor Model

    2010-03-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a performance and economic model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry, ranging from project managers and engineers to incentive program designers, technology developers, and researchers.

  13. Using the health belief model to explain parents' participation in adolescents' at-home sexuality education activities.

    PubMed

    Brock, G C; Beazley, R P

    1995-04-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used to study parents' involvement in six at-home sexuality education activities for nine grade students. These activities are part of Skills for Healthy Relationships: A Program About Sexuality, AIDS, and Other STD (SHR). Some 216 parents, 62% of the population, completed and returned a self-administered questionnaire. Perceived barriers correlated most strongly with lack of parents' involvement in SHR. Additionally, perceived barriers and perceived self-efficacy were the most significant factors differentiating parents involved in SHR at-home activities from those who were uninvolved. Compared with highly involved parents, noninvolved parents were: 1) less confident their children wanted to do the activities with them (F[4,204] = 19.58, p < .0005), 2) less sure of their children's desire to talk with them about sex-related issues (F[4,213] = 7.03, p < .0005), and 3) less certain their AIDS-related facts were current (F[4,213] = 2.39, p = .05). Parents highly involved in SHR reported becoming more comfortable talking with their adolescents about STDs (F[4,205] = 4.04, p = .004) and felt their children talked a little more openly with them about AIDS and STDs (F[4,205] = 2.54, p = .04). In contrast, uninvolved parents reported no changes relative to communicating with their children about sexuality. For these reasons, SHR's inclusion of at-home activities shows promise for increasing parent-adolescent communication about sexuality.

  14. Introducing Students to the Role of Folk and Popular Health Belief-Systems in Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Harriet L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Medical College of Pennsylvania has introduced a four-hour interdisciplinary class for sophomore students in the role of folk and popular healing systems in patient care. Student and faculty responded enthusiastically, and the program will be expanded. (MSE)

  15. The Relations between Implicit Intelligence Beliefs, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and School Persistence Intentions: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud-Dubé, Andréanne; Guay, Frédéric; Talbot, Denis; Taylor, Geneviève; Koestner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to test a model in which the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students' school persistence intentions are mediated by intrinsic, identified, introjected, and external regulations. Six hundred and fifty students from a high school were surveyed. Contrary to expectations, results from ESEM analyses indicated…

  16. Inference in alpha rhythm phase and amplitude modeled on Markov random field using belief propagation from electroencephalograms.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Yasushi; Takiyama, Ken; Okada, Masato; Murata, Tsutomu

    2010-07-01

    Alpha rhythm is a major component of spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) data. We develop a novel method that can be used to estimate the instantaneous phases and amplitudes of the alpha rhythm with high accuracy by modeling the alpha rhythm phase and amplitude as Markov random field (MRF) models. By using a belief propagation technique, we construct an exact-inference algorithm that can be used to estimate instantaneous phases and amplitudes and calculate the marginal likelihood. Maximizing the marginal likelihood enables us to estimate the hyperparameters on the basis of type-II maximum likelihood estimation. We prove that the instantaneous phase and amplitude estimation by our method is consistent with that by the Hilbert transform, which has been commonly used to estimate instantaneous phases and amplitudes, of a signal filtered from observed data in the limited case that the observed data consist of only one frequency signal whose amplitude is constant and a Gaussian noise. Comparison of the performances of observation noise reduction by our method and by a Gaussian MRF model of alpha rhythm signal indicates that our method reduces observation noise more efficiently. Moreover, the instantaneous phase and amplitude estimates obtained using our method are more accurate than those obtained by the Hilbert transform. Application of our method to experimental EEG data also demonstrates that the relationship between the alpha rhythm phase and the reaction time emerges more clearly by using our method than the Hilbert transform. This indicates our method's practical usefulness. Therefore, applying our method to experimental EEG data will enable us to estimate the instantaneous phases and amplitudes of the alpha rhythm more precisely.

  17. Inference in alpha rhythm phase and amplitude modeled on Markov random field using belief propagation from electroencephalograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Yasushi; Takiyama, Ken; Okada, Masato; Murata, Tsutomu

    2010-07-01

    Alpha rhythm is a major component of spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) data. We develop a novel method that can be used to estimate the instantaneous phases and amplitudes of the alpha rhythm with high accuracy by modeling the alpha rhythm phase and amplitude as Markov random field (MRF) models. By using a belief propagation technique, we construct an exact-inference algorithm that can be used to estimate instantaneous phases and amplitudes and calculate the marginal likelihood. Maximizing the marginal likelihood enables us to estimate the hyperparameters on the basis of type-II maximum likelihood estimation. We prove that the instantaneous phase and amplitude estimation by our method is consistent with that by the Hilbert transform, which has been commonly used to estimate instantaneous phases and amplitudes, of a signal filtered from observed data in the limited case that the observed data consist of only one frequency signal whose amplitude is constant and a Gaussian noise. Comparison of the performances of observation noise reduction by our method and by a Gaussian MRF model of alpha rhythm signal indicates that our method reduces observation noise more efficiently. Moreover, the instantaneous phase and amplitude estimates obtained using our method are more accurate than those obtained by the Hilbert transform. Application of our method to experimental EEG data also demonstrates that the relationship between the alpha rhythm phase and the reaction time emerges more clearly by using our method than the Hilbert transform. This indicates our method’s practical usefulness. Therefore, applying our method to experimental EEG data will enable us to estimate the instantaneous phases and amplitudes of the alpha rhythm more precisely.

  18. Thai nurses' beliefs about breastfeeding and postpartum practices.

    PubMed

    Kaewsarn, Pattaya; Moyle, Wendy; Creedy, Debra

    2003-07-01

    Cultural beliefs are important determinants of health care behaviours. Nurses have an important influence on infant feeding decisions and maternal postpartum care, but little is known about the extent to which their practice is influenced by traditional beliefs and/or recent innovations driven by evidence-based research. The aim of this study was to investigate Thai nurses' traditional beliefs about breastfeeding and related postpartum care, and their impact on nursing practice. A survey of 372 nurses working in hospitals and health services in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand was undertaken. Questionnaire items were developed from a review of the literature and exploratory interviews with Thai women. Descriptive statistics were used to represent the incidence of particular beliefs and behaviours. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine relationships between demographic characteristics and traditional beliefs and practices. There were discrepancies between nurses' beliefs and contemporary evidence-based practices. Many nurses supported traditional Thai postpartum practices such as food restrictions and encouraging hot baths. Some traditional beliefs supported by nurses may be detrimental to women and babies such as "lying by fire", discarding of colostrum, and giving boiled water to neonates. Only half the nurses reported that they encouraged mothers to breastfeed immediately following birth. The study was undertaken in the North-East of Thailand, where the population is known to have strong belief systems. Reliability and content validity of the tool would be enhanced through replication studies and qualitative investigations of other breastfeeding issues. There is a need for professional development strategies such as peer review and mentoring to address inadequate knowledge and outdated practices of some health professionals, as well as continuity of care models to assess quality care outcomes that are culturally appropriate.

  19. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  20. How the health belief model helps the tobacco industry: individuals, choice, and “information”

    PubMed Central

    Balbach, Edith D; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse trial and deposition testimony of tobacco industry executives to determine how they use the concepts of “information” and “choice” and consider how these concepts are related to theoretical models of health behaviour change. Methods We coded and analysed transcripts of trial and deposition testimony of 14 high‐level executives representing six companies plus the Tobacco Institute. We conducted an interpretive analysis of industry executives' characterisation of the industry's role as information provider and the agency of tobacco consumers in making “choices”. Results Tobacco industry executives deployed the concept of “information” as a mechanism that shifted to consumers full moral responsibility for the harms caused by tobacco products. The industry's role was characterised as that of impartial supplier of value‐free “information”, without regard to its quality, accuracy and truthfulness. Tobacco industry legal defences rely on assumptions congruent with and supported by individual rational choice theories, particularly those that emphasise individual, autonomous decision‐makers. Conclusions Tobacco control advocates and health educators must challenge the industry's preferred framing, pointing out that “information” is not value‐free. Multi‐level, multi‐sectoral interventions are critical to tobacco use prevention. Over‐reliance on individual and interpersonal rational choice models may have the effect of validating the industry's model of smoking and cessation behaviour, absolving it of responsibility and rendering invisible the “choices” the industry has made and continues to make in promoting the most deadly consumer product ever made. PMID:17130622

  1. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (p<0.001). This research demonstrated an appropriate communication process in behavioral modification to prevent cervical cancer. It can be recommended that this program featuring social marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27510000

  2. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (p<0.001). This research demonstrated an appropriate communication process in behavioral modification to prevent cervical cancer. It can be recommended that this program featuring social marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  3. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A.; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages. PMID:26617539

  4. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation.

    PubMed

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  5. Integrated Workforce Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several computer-based systems, currently in various phases of development at KSC, which encompass some component, aspect, or function of workforce modeling. These systems may offer redundant capabilities and/or incompatible interfaces. A systems approach to workforce modeling is necessary in order to identify and better address user requirements. This research has consisted of two primary tasks. Task 1 provided an assessment of existing and proposed KSC workforce modeling systems for their functionality and applicability to the workforce planning function. Task 2 resulted in the development of a proof-of-concept design for a systems approach to workforce modeling. The model incorporates critical aspects of workforce planning, including hires, attrition, and employee development.

  6. Belief Revision and Delusions: How Do Patients with Schizophrenia Take Advice?

    PubMed Central

    Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Chambon, Valérian; Franck, Nicolas; Testud, Bérangère; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    The dominant cognitive model that accounts for the persistence of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia postulates that patients suffer from a general deficit in belief revision. It is generally assumed that this deficit is a consequence of impaired reasoning skills. However, the possibility that such inflexibility affects the entire system of a patient's beliefs has rarely been empirically tested. Using delusion-neutral material in a well-documented advice-taking task, the present study reports that patients with schizophrenia: 1) revise their beliefs, 2) take into account socially provided information to do so, 3) are not overconfident about their judgments, and 4) show less egocentric advice-discounting than controls. This study thus shows that delusional patients' difficulty in revising beliefs is more selective than had been previously assumed. The specificities of the task and the implications for a theory of delusion formation are discussed. PMID:22536329

  7. Utilizing the Health Belief Model to predicting female middle school students' behavioral intention of weight reduction by weight status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Weight reduction behavior is common among adolescent girls. The present study examined the status of weight reduction behavior and factors affecting the behavioral intention of weight reduction using the Health Belief Model (HBM) for female middle school students by weight category. Survey data was collected from three girl's middle schools in Gyeongju, Korea. A total of 299 female middle school students participated in this study. The questionnaire had questions about general characteristics, weight reduction behavior, and variables of HBM (perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, and behavioral intention of weight reduction). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the variables. A higher percentage of students in the overweight group attempted weight reduction than those in the underweight and the normal weight groups (P < 0.001). Among students who had attempted weight reduction, 73% tried diet therapy, while 78% tried exercise. Students in the normal and overweight groups showed significantly higher threat (P < 0.01) and cues to action (P < 0.001) than those in the underweight group. As for perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, there were no significant differences among weight groups. Students in the overweight group showed the strongest intention of weight reduction and there were significant differences among the three weight groups (P < 0.001). Perceive threat (P < 0.01), cues to action (P < 0.001), and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were significantly associated to behavioral intention of weight reduction for all respondents. For the underweight group, perceived threat (P < 0.05) and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were the significant variables. For the overweight group, cue to action was the significant variable (P < 0.05). PMID:21994529

  8. Play-Personas: Behaviours and Belief Systems in User-Centred Game Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canossa, Alessandro; Drachen, Anders

    Game designers attempt to ignite affective, emotional responses from players via engineering game designs to incite definite user experiences. Theories of emotion state that definite emotional responses are individual, and caused by the individual interaction sequence or history. Engendering desired emotions in the audience of traditional audiovisual media is a considerable challenge; however it is potentially even more difficult to achieve the same goal for the audience of interactive entertainment, because a substantial degree of control rests in the hand of the end user rather than the designer. This paper presents a possible solution to the challenge of integrating the user in the design of interactive entertainment such as computer games by employing the "persona" framework introduced by Alan Cooper. This approach is already in use in interaction design. The method can be improved by complementing the traditional narrative description of personas with quantitative, data-oriented models of predicted patterns of user behaviour for a specific computer game Additionally, persona constructs can be applied both as design-oriented metaphors during the development of games, and as analytical lenses to existing games, e.g. for evaluation of patterns of player behaviour.

  9. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  10. Beliefs and knowledge in chemistry teacher development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, William R.

    2004-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to establish a link between preservice, secondary chemistry teachers' knowledge base and beliefs about teaching. The case study followed two preservice chemistry teachers through their methods course, practicum experience, and student teaching internship. Pedagogical content knowledge vignettes, following a microgenetic model, and other data sources were used to monitor participants' conceptual change over time. Participants had well-intentioned beliefs about teaching and chemistry. The interaction of epistemologies and beliefs was determined to be synergistic, such that they remained separate epistemological ideas. The beliefs about content were not changed whereas those for teaching did change; one focused on epistemic understanding and the other on subjective realization.

  11. The Origins of Belief Representation: Monkeys Fail to Automatically Represent Others’ Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Young infants’ successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)’s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species—the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)—is automatically influenced by another agent’s beliefs when tracking an object’s location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple’s movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys’ belief (true or false) and agent’s belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys’ expectations were not influenced by another agent’s beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans. PMID:24374209

  12. The origins of belief representation: monkeys fail to automatically represent others' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-03-01

    Young infants' successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)'s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species--the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)--is automatically influenced by another agent's beliefs when tracking an object's location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple's movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys' belief (true or false) and agent's belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys' expectations were not influenced by another agent's beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans.

  13. Developing a Structural Model on the Relationship among Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…

  14. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  15. Effects of a Fact Sheet on beliefs about the harmfulness of alternative nicotine delivery systems compared with cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the value of providing information in a Fact Sheet to correct misperceptions about the relative harmfulness of nicotine replacement products (NRT) and smokeless tobacco (ST), when compared to cigarette smoking. Methods Four convenience samples from different countries (Australia, UK, Sweden and USA) were surveyed concerning their beliefs about the relative harmfulness of smokeless tobacco and NRT. Study participants were given the Fact Sheet that explained that nicotine, as used by consumers, is not particularly harmful and explained why. They were resurveyed one week later regarding their beliefs about the relative harmfulness of smokeless tobacco and NRT and future intentions to use the products. Results In all four samples knowledge increased by similar amounts and beliefs regarding the lower harmfulness of smokeless tobacco increased. However, misconceptions remained common and responses to belief measures were not always consistent. Likelihood of use of ST increased in all four samples after exposure to the Fact Sheet, but interest in NRT use only increased in the US sample. Conclusions A Fact Sheet such as this one can help address misconceptions about NRT and smokeless tobacco, at least in the short term. However, as is true of most educational interventions, exposure to a single educational session is not sufficient to overcome misperceptions that smokers have about the relative harmfulness of oral versus combustible forms of nicotine delivery. PMID:22687137

  16. The Role of Goals and Belief Systems in the Acquisition of Ill-Defined Professional Skills: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Edmund

    This case study contributes to the debate about professional education and the nature of complex interpersonal skills. Preservice training programs make certain assumptions about how students acquire practical knowledge and consequently about how such knowledge is best taught. Students form their own beliefs, which in turn exercise considerable…

  17. Children's Performance on a False-belief Task Is Impaired by Activation of an Evolutionarily-Canalized Response System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Thomas; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examined how task content that activates predator-avoidance affects preschool children's performance on a false-belief task. Findings indicated that the proportion of correct answers on the playmate-avoidance task was greater than that for the predator-avoidance task, suggesting that activation of the predator-avoidance system…

  18. What Makes People Revise Their Beliefs Following Contradictory Anecdotal Evidence?: The Role of Systemic Variability and Direct Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Schmeltzer, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which belief revision is affected by systematic variability and direct experience of a conditional (if A then B) relation was examined in two studies. The first used a computer generated apparatus. This presented two rows of 5 objects. Pressing one of the top objects resulted in one of the bottom objects being lit up. The 139 adult…

  19. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  20. Peirce on Educational Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Torill

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) may enhance our understanding of educational beliefs and that Peirce's logic may be a tool to distinguish between a dogmatic and a pragmatic justification of such beliefs. The first part of the article elaborates on Peirce's comprehension of beliefs as mediated, socially situated and…

  1. Canister Model, Systems Analysis

    1993-09-29

    This packges provides a computer simulation of a systems model for packaging nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel in canisters. The canister model calculates overall programmatic cost, number of canisters, and fuel and waste inventories for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (other initial conditions can be entered).

  2. Science teachers' beliefs about teaching and reform: Case studies from a restructured high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Elizabeth A.

    A qualitative research study of the beliefs of three science teachers about teaching and educational reform was carried out at a restructured high school belonging to the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), a nationally prominent restructuring movement. One problem of educational reform is to sustain change in the science classroom. A new wave of reform is shifting the focus away from curriculum changes and towards professionalism of teachers empowered to restructure schools. The beliefs of the teachers are key to decisions made in the classroom. The teachers and staff of Metro High School adopted the Ten Common Principles of CES as their guide to restructuring and sustaining change. Changes included increased authority for teachers in shared decision making, increased staff time for professional development, grouping students heterogeneously, grouping students and faculty in teams for extended time periods, and organizing instruction around small group and individual student study (student-centered). The theoretical framework centers on the constructivist theory of learning, particularly Vygotsky's socio-cultural model, and Bakhtin's dialogic function of language. Nespor's belief system model was used to describe the four characteristic features of beliefs: episodic memories, alternativity, existential presumption, and evaluative loading. My research questions were: What memories of teaching have influenced the teachers? What are the teachers' beliefs about the learning environment? What are the teachers' beliefs about their students? What are the teachers' beliefs about student activities? Interviews were the primary data source for the case studies of the three teachers, with additional data from lesson plans, photo-voice, and other artifacts. The teachers shared many common beliefs including that strong peer support is necessary for reform. The teachers' beliefs allied themselves to the majority of the common principles of CES, especially personalization and

  3. Flexible system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maragno, M.; Schmid, C.; Schmieg, M.

    1995-04-01

    Stability analysis calculations are typically based on predefined system models, where, in the majority of cases, the well known IEEE definitions for controllers, prime movers, and other associated devices and functions are in use. for planning purposes, this approach might be acceptable, since predefined sets of parameters will allow a favorable and reasonable behavior of the analyzed system to be achieved, thus representing the possibly implementable system behavior. However, this approach is often also applied for system operation analysis purposes, for which typical IEEE models are applicable only in few cases. In quite a number of cases, even manufacturers who perform highly accurate system modeling studies have been asked to deliver block diagrams and parameters according to a list of available IEEE models. Utilities and consultants with an in-depth knowledge and tradition of conducting system operation performance and optimization studies have frequently requested adequate and accurate procedures and tools to tackle this special field of power system analysis appropriately. This need to solve complex operation analysis and special component planning problems has prompted the development of adequate methods and tools at DIgSILENT Systems in cooperation with FICHTNER C.E. This article focuses on various possibilities to approach this problem and to report on the applied strategies and methods. Comprehensive examples are given to demonstrate the capabilities of the implemented procedures.

  4. Examining the usefulness of a Family Empowerment Program guided by the Illness Beliefs Model for families caring for a child with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Wacharasin, Chintana; Phaktoop, Maneerat; Sananreangsak, Siriyupa

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to design, implement, and evaluate a Family Empowerment Program (FEP), guided by the Illness Beliefs Model. Participants included 25 Thai family members who were the primary caregivers of a child with thalassemia. In Phase I, data were collected from participants using individual in-depth interviews and focus groups before involvement in the FEP. In Phase II, 12 hr of FEP sessions were offered to groups of participants. Content analysis of the audiotaped FEP sessions is reported in this article. Family caregivers reported that the FEP helped them share beliefs and experiences related to caring for their child with thalassemia, make decisions related to families' problems/needs and beliefs, provide each other mutual social support, and develop increased ability to manage care for their chronically ill child through sharing information and learning from other family caregivers about family functioning, family management, and family relationships. Future research is needed to examine the FEP intervention under more controlled conditions with measures that include family functioning and child health outcomes.

  5. Examining the usefulness of a Family Empowerment Program guided by the Illness Beliefs Model for families caring for a child with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Wacharasin, Chintana; Phaktoop, Maneerat; Sananreangsak, Siriyupa

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to design, implement, and evaluate a Family Empowerment Program (FEP), guided by the Illness Beliefs Model. Participants included 25 Thai family members who were the primary caregivers of a child with thalassemia. In Phase I, data were collected from participants using individual in-depth interviews and focus groups before involvement in the FEP. In Phase II, 12 hr of FEP sessions were offered to groups of participants. Content analysis of the audiotaped FEP sessions is reported in this article. Family caregivers reported that the FEP helped them share beliefs and experiences related to caring for their child with thalassemia, make decisions related to families' problems/needs and beliefs, provide each other mutual social support, and develop increased ability to manage care for their chronically ill child through sharing information and learning from other family caregivers about family functioning, family management, and family relationships. Future research is needed to examine the FEP intervention under more controlled conditions with measures that include family functioning and child health outcomes. PMID:25925406

  6. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method ofmore » Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.« less

  7. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  8. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  9. The impact of education intervention on the Health Belief Model constructs regarding anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Sabooteh, Sahar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mirkarimi, Kamal; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to investigations, pregnant women hypothesized that anxiety is a common factor that will improve spontaneously; they are not aware of its side effects on the fetus, baby, and pregnancy outcome, as a whole. Other studies have also not tried to design a theoretical framework based on Health Education Models (HBMs) to overcome this problem. The current study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of education on the anxiety of nulliparous women based on a HBM. Materials and Methods: An experimental study on 88 eligible nulliparous women (n = 44 per group), from Doroud city, was performed in 2012. The data was collected using a researcher made questionnaire. Education was conducted in three sessions tailored with HBM constructs with the help of lectures, group discussions, inquiries, Power Point presentations, and booklets. Evaluation performed using a posttest four and eight weeks after last session. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests, including Chi-square, independent t-test, and repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by the significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean score of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action, self efficacy, and behavior, four weeks after intervention (P < 0.001) and eight weeks after intervention (P < 0.001) were significantly more in the case group Than the control group. ANOVA with repeated measures showed a significant increase in the case group in knowledge (from 32.1 to 89.1), perceived sensitivity (from 34.8 to 91.5), perceived severity (from 31.82 to 88.48), perceived benefits (from 39.28 to 92.41), perceived barriers (from 26.93 to 88.61), cues to action (from24.65 to 92.03), self efficacy (from 29.71 to 88.75), and behavior (from 28.83 to 94.63). Changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The effect of HBM and education on increasing knowledge and changing people's beliefs and behavior, in terms of

  10. Distributed fuzzy system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrycz, W.; Chi Fung Lam, P.; Rocha, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    The paper introduces and studies an idea of distributed modeling treating it as a new paradigm of fuzzy system modeling and analysis. This form of modeling is oriented towards developing individual (local) fuzzy models for specific modeling landmarks (expressed as fuzzy sets) and determining the essential logical relationships between these local models. The models themselves are implemented in the form of logic processors being regarded as specialized fuzzy neural networks. The interaction between the processors is developed either in an inhibitory or excitatory way. In more descriptive way, the distributed model can be sought as a collection of fuzzy finite state machines with their individual local first or higher order memories. It is also clarified how the concept of distributed modeling narrows down a gap between purely numerical (quantitative) models and the qualitative ones originated within the realm of Artificial Intelligence. The overall architecture of distributed modeling is discussed along with the detailed learning schemes. The results of extensive simulation experiments are provided as well. 17 refs.

  11. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  12. Effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Farma, Khadijah Kalan Farman; Jalili, Zahra; Zareban, Iraj; Pour, Mahnaz Shahraki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in females. Methods of screening are the best among early detection methods. The goal of this study is effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model Materials and Methods: This study was a semi-experimental, a kind of case-control research. This study was carried on 240 female teachers in guidance schools, Zahedan city, in 2011-2012 academic years with multi-stage sampling. Data collection tool was a questionnaire that was used after confirmation of validity and reliability. Data were collected with questionnaire after analysis, educational intervention with lecture, view video, group discussion, question and answer performed. Two month after intervention, secondary evaluation was performed. Collected data with SPSS software and appropriate statistical tests like: Paired t-test, independent t-test, regression analysis, Chi-square were analyzed. Results: Persons mean age in this study was 39.40(±7.4) years. In awareness item and health belief model constructs (awareness, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficiency, behavior) and also practice, paired t-test showed significant difference among before and after education (P > 0.0001). In two groups based on Chi-square in level of education and married status, there were no significant differences. Also, regression analysis outcomes showed that perceived barriers had the most effect on behavior, and this construct could be predictor of preventive behaviors from breast cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study could conclude that educational programs designed based on the health belief model have significant impact on improving preventive treatment of breast cancer. Given the fact that Iran has a very high incidence of breast cancer, since Iranian women's awareness level and performance specially

  13. Climate system modeling program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Climate System Modeling Project is a component activity of NSF's Climate Modeling, Analysis and Prediction Program, supported by the Atmospheric Sciences Program, Geosciences Directorate. Its objective is to accelerate progress toward reliable prediction of global and regional climate changes in the decades ahead. CSMP operates through workshops, support for post-docs and graduate students and other collaborative activities designed to promote interdisciplinary and strategic work in support of the overall objective (above) and specifically in three areas, (1) Causes of interdecadal variability in the climate system, (2) Interactions of regional climate forcing with global processes, and (3) Scientific needs of climate assessment.

  14. Modeling the earth system

    SciTech Connect

    Ojima, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  15. Electronic Education System Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloete, Elsabe

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic learning efforts and problems in implementing computers in schools. Defines and describes an electronic educational system model that was developed to assist the designers of different electronic learning settings to plan and successfully implement a specific learning situation, with the focus on the individual requirements of…

  16. Determinants of adherence to self-care behavior among women with type 2 diabetes: an explanation based on health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Araban, Marzieh; Zareban, Iraj; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is an essential element in treating a person with diabetes; and managing diabetes is of prime importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of adherence to self-care behavior among women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 female patients aged 30 to 60. Data collection tool was an anonymous valid and reliable questionnaire designed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which acquired information about the followings: Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and diabetes self-care behavior. Data were analyzed by t-test, chisquare and regression analysis. Results: The multiple regression models revealed 59.9% of the variance of self-care behavior with self-efficacy, perceived barrier, benefit and susceptibility. Additionally, the highest weight for β (β=0.87) was found for self-efficacy. Self-care behavior was positively correlated with all HBM variables except for perceived barriers showing a negative correlation. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model may be used as a framework to design intervention programs in an attempt to improve adherence to self-care behaviors of women with diabetes. In addition, the results indicated that self-efficacy might play a more crucial role in developing self-care behaviors than t other HBM components. Therefore, if the focus is placed on self-efficacy when developing educational programs, it may increase the likelihood of adherence to self-care behavior. PMID:27493912

  17. Modelling resonant planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V.

    2012-09-01

    Many discovered multi-planet systems are in meanmotion resonances. The aim of this work is to study dynamical processes leading to the formation of resonant configurations on the basis of a unified model described earlier [1]. The model includes gravitational interactions of planets and migration of planets due to the presence of a gas disc. For the observed systems 24 Sex, HD 37124, HD 73526, HD 82943, HD 128311, HD 160691, Kepler 9, NN Ser with planets moving in the 2:1 resonance, it is shown that the capture in this resonance occurs at very wide ranges of parameters of both type I and type II migration. Conditions of migration leading to the formation of the resonant systems HD 45364 и HD 200964 (3:2 and 4:3, respectively) are obtained. Formation scenarios are studied for the systems HD 102272, HD 108874, HD 181433, HD 202206 with planets in high order resonances. We discuss also how gravitational interactions of planets and planetesimal discs lead to the breakup of resonant configurations and the formation of systems similar to the 47 UMa system.

  18. Top-Down Feedback in an HMAX-Like Cortical Model of Object Perception Based on Hierarchical Bayesian Networks and Belief Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Wennekers, Thomas; Denham, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical generative models, such as Bayesian networks, and belief propagation have been shown to provide a theoretical framework that can account for perceptual processes, including feedforward recognition and feedback modulation. The framework explains both psychophysical and physiological experimental data and maps well onto the hierarchical distributed cortical anatomy. However, the complexity required to model cortical processes makes inference, even using approximate methods, very computationally expensive. Thus, existing object perception models based on this approach are typically limited to tree-structured networks with no loops, use small toy examples or fail to account for certain perceptual aspects such as invariance to transformations or feedback reconstruction. In this study we develop a Bayesian network with an architecture similar to that of HMAX, a biologically-inspired hierarchical model of object recognition, and use loopy belief propagation to approximate the model operations (selectivity and invariance). Crucially, the resulting Bayesian network extends the functionality of HMAX by including top-down recursive feedback. Thus, the proposed model not only achieves successful feedforward recognition invariant to noise, occlusions, and changes in position and size, but is also able to reproduce modulatory effects such as illusory contour completion and attention. Our novel and rigorous methodology covers key aspects such as learning using a layerwise greedy algorithm, combining feedback information from multiple parents and reducing the number of operations required. Overall, this work extends an established model of object recognition to include high-level feedback modulation, based on state-of-the-art probabilistic approaches. The methodology employed, consistent with evidence from the visual cortex, can be potentially generalized to build models of hierarchical perceptual organization that include top-down and bottom-up interactions, for

  19. The Interactions between Problem Solving and Conceptual Change: System Dynamic Modelling as a Platform for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the interactions between problem solving and conceptual change in an elementary science class where students build system dynamic models as a form of problem representations. Through mostly qualitative findings, we illustrate the interplay of three emerging intervening conditions (epistemological belief, structural knowledge…

  20. NEP systems model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    A new nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems analysis code is discussed. The new code is modular and consists of a driver code and various subsystem models. The code models five different subsystems: (1) reactor/shield; (2) power conversion; (3) heat rejection; (4) power management and distribution (PMAD); and (5) thrusters. The code optimizes for the following design criteria: minimum mass; minimum radiator area; and low mass/low area. The code also optimizes the following parameters: separation distance; temperature ratio; pressure ratio; and transmission frequency. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  1. Modelling robot construction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Chris

    1990-01-01

    TROTER's are small, inexpensive robots that can work together to accomplish sophisticated construction tasks. To understand the issues involved in designing and operating a team of TROTER's, the robots and their components are being modeled. A TROTER system that features standardized component behavior is introduced. An object-oriented model implemented in the Smalltalk programming language is described and the advantages of the object-oriented approach for simulating robot and component interactions are discussed. The presentation includes preliminary results and a discussion of outstanding issues.

  2. Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: the generic conspiracist beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C; Pickering, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation - individuals' general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world. PMID:23734136

  3. Measuring Belief in Conspiracy Theories: The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C.; Pickering, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation – individuals’ general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world. PMID:23734136

  4. Preservice science teacher beliefs about teaching and the science methods courses: Exploring perceptions of microteaching outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaury, Ralph L.

    This study investigates beliefs about teaching held by preservice science teachers and their influences on self-perceived microteaching outcomes within interactive secondary science teaching methods courses. Hermeneutic methodology was used in cooperation with seven preservice science teachers (N=7) to infer participant beliefs about teaching and to draw connections between these beliefs and student perceptions about their performance of assigned microteachings. The foci of this study were 1) discerning participant beliefs about the teaching of science, 2) discerning beliefs about microteaching within the Purdue science teaching methods courses, and 3) connecting participant perceptions of their microteaching assignment performances with these beliefs. Each student was interviewed before the first microteaching assignment and again after each microteaching episode in order to develop co-constructions of participant beliefs about teaching. Participants were interviewed about each of their microteachings in conjunction with reviews of videotapes of their performances. Refinements to emergent models of participant beliefs were made in each subsequent interview by the use of directed interview questions and the tracking and discussion of participant actions during microteachings. Rich emic detail was provided by the active, daily, and assessed participation of the researcher in the fall course alongside study participants. The interpretations offered suggest that participants' beliefs, rather than instructor- or peer-based assessments, serve as the primary determinant by which preservice teachers perceived personal success in microteaching situations. Apparent beliefs were observed as enacted, private social norms within participants' simulated teaching roles. Explicit, instructor-planned interpersonal challenges to specific preservice teacher beliefs within these courses were generally treated as anomalous by participants, and therefore often rejected as valid sources

  5. Belief network algorithms: A study of performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jitnah, N.

    1996-12-31

    This abstract gives an overview of the work. We present a survey of Belief Network algorithms and propose a domain characterization system to be used as a basis for algorithm comparison and for predicting algorithm performance.

  6. Revising beliefs based in evidence versus affect: Effects on knowledge acquisition and conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Thomas D.

    Theoretical treatments on the issue of conceptual change have paid little attention to the distinction between acquiring knowledge that conflicts with prior beliefs and revising prior beliefs in light of that new knowledge. Models of conceptual change that fail to make the knowledge-belief distinction can produce faulty predictions and interpretations, and prevent us from discovering the factors that independently impact knowledge acquisition and belief revision. Beliefs vary widely in whether they are based in coherence with known evidence and conceptual representations versus their promotion of affective values and goals. Study 1 provided empirical demonstrations of the prevalence of affect-based beliefs, the high degree of both between- and within-person variability in belief basis, and the validity of self-reports in assessing that variation. Study 2 supported present arguments about why the popular educational constructs of personal epistemology are not useful for understanding the evidence-affect basis of beliefs. This variability in belief basis represents variability in the coherence and specificity of the conceptual structure underlying different beliefs. Thus, the effects of prior beliefs on knowledge acquisition and subsequent belief revision may depend upon the underlying evidence-affect basis of prior beliefs. Study 1 provided data suggesting that belief revision is a separate process and not a mere by-product of acquiring belief-conflicting knowledge, and that revision is less likely when prior beliefs are initially held for affective reasons. Study 3 supported current predictions that comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information is better when prior beliefs are evidence- rather than affect-based. In addition, the comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information was equivalent. The widespread, but previously untested, assumption that prior beliefs impede the learning of belief-conflicting information may

  7. Old Beliefs = Taimaknaqtat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Minnie Aliitchak; And Others

    Written in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet presents several examples of Eskimo "old beliefs" to be taught to younger people providing them with a greater understanding of the elders and what governs their actions and behavior. Topics of "old beliefs" pertain to babies, women, young girls and boys, bears, beavers, animal spirit,…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Instructional Beliefs and Examination of Consistency between Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Akkoc, Hatice

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine preservice physics teachers' instructional beliefs and to investigate the relationship between their beliefs and practices. The theoretical framework was based on the combination Haney & McArthur's ("Science Education," 86(6):783-802, 2002) research and Ford's (1992) motivation systems theory. A…

  9. The BEL information extraction workflow (BELIEF): evaluation in the BioCreative V BEL and IAT track

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Sumit; Hodapp, Sven; Senger, Philipp; Ansari, Sam; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches have become extremely important in systems biology to achieve a better understanding of biological mechanisms. For network representation, the Biological Expression Language (BEL) is well designed to collate findings from the scientific literature into biological network models. To facilitate encoding and biocuration of such findings in BEL, a BEL Information Extraction Workflow (BELIEF) was developed. BELIEF provides a web-based curation interface, the BELIEF Dashboard, that incorporates text mining techniques to support the biocurator in the generation of BEL networks. The underlying UIMA-based text mining pipeline (BELIEF Pipeline) uses several named entity recognition processes and relationship extraction methods to detect concepts and BEL relationships in literature. The BELIEF Dashboard allows easy curation of the automatically generated BEL statements and their context annotations. Resulting BEL statements and their context annotations can be syntactically and semantically verified to ensure consistency in the BEL network. In summary, the workflow supports experts in different stages of systems biology network building. Based on the BioCreative V BEL track evaluation, we show that the BELIEF Pipeline automatically extracts relationships with an F-score of 36.4% and fully correct statements can be obtained with an F-score of 30.8%. Participation in the BioCreative V Interactive task (IAT) track with BELIEF revealed a systems usability scale (SUS) of 67. Considering the complexity of the task for new users—learning BEL, working with a completely new interface, and performing complex curation—a score so close to the overall SUS average highlights the usability of BELIEF. Database URL: BELIEF is available at http://www.scaiview.com/belief/ PMID:27694210

  10. The BEL information extraction workflow (BELIEF): evaluation in the BioCreative V BEL and IAT track

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Sumit; Hodapp, Sven; Senger, Philipp; Ansari, Sam; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches have become extremely important in systems biology to achieve a better understanding of biological mechanisms. For network representation, the Biological Expression Language (BEL) is well designed to collate findings from the scientific literature into biological network models. To facilitate encoding and biocuration of such findings in BEL, a BEL Information Extraction Workflow (BELIEF) was developed. BELIEF provides a web-based curation interface, the BELIEF Dashboard, that incorporates text mining techniques to support the biocurator in the generation of BEL networks. The underlying UIMA-based text mining pipeline (BELIEF Pipeline) uses several named entity recognition processes and relationship extraction methods to detect concepts and BEL relationships in literature. The BELIEF Dashboard allows easy curation of the automatically generated BEL statements and their context annotations. Resulting BEL statements and their context annotations can be syntactically and semantically verified to ensure consistency in the BEL network. In summary, the workflow supports experts in different stages of systems biology network building. Based on the BioCreative V BEL track evaluation, we show that the BELIEF Pipeline automatically extracts relationships with an F-score of 36.4% and fully correct statements can be obtained with an F-score of 30.8%. Participation in the BioCreative V Interactive task (IAT) track with BELIEF revealed a systems usability scale (SUS) of 67. Considering the complexity of the task for new users—learning BEL, working with a completely new interface, and performing complex curation—a score so close to the overall SUS average highlights the usability of BELIEF. Database URL: BELIEF is available at http://www.scaiview.com/belief/

  11. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-07-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition and how they come to influence science teachers' classroom practice. As such, researchers and science teacher educators have relied on an (at times, implicit) assumption that there is a direct causal relationship between teachers' beliefs and classroom practice. In this paper, we propose an operational, as opposed to epistemological, definition of belief. That is, we are explicit about the role a belief plays in science teachers' cognition and how that leads to classroom practice. We define a belief as a mental representation that influences the practice of a teacher if and only if the belief is active in cognition. We then turn our attention to two limitations in the literature on that have arisen via previous definitions and assumptions regarding science teacher beliefs, showing how defining beliefs operationally helps think about these issues in new ways. The two limitations surround: (1) the difficulty in precisely delineating belief from knowledge; and (2) the interconnectedness of beliefs such that they draw meaning from one another. We then show how our definition of beliefs is congruent with other models of teacher cognition reported in the literature. Finally, we provide implications arising from this definition of belief for both science teacher educators and those who conduct research on the beliefs of both preservice and in-service science teachers.

  12. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-10-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition and how they come to influence science teachers' classroom practice. As such, researchers and science teacher educators have relied on an (at times, implicit) assumption that there is a direct causal relationship between teachers' beliefs and classroom practice. In this paper, we propose an operational, as opposed to epistemological, definition of belief. That is, we are explicit about the role a belief plays in science teachers' cognition and how that leads to classroom practice. We define a belief as a mental representation that influences the practice of a teacher if and only if the belief is active in cognition. We then turn our attention to two limitations in the literature on that have arisen via previous definitions and assumptions regarding science teacher beliefs, showing how defining beliefs operationally helps think about these issues in new ways. The two limitations surround: (1) the difficulty in precisely delineating belief from knowledge; and (2) the interconnectedness of beliefs such that they draw meaning from one another. We then show how our definition of beliefs is congruent with other models of teacher cognition reported in the literature. Finally, we provide implications arising from this definition of belief for both science teacher educators and those who conduct research on the beliefs of both preservice and in-service science teachers.

  13. Exploring the Health Belief Model and first-year students' responses to HIV/AIDS and VCT at a South African university.

    PubMed

    Buldeo, Priya; Gilbert, Leah

    2015-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychosocial framework that attempts to explain health behaviour. It is determined by an individual's personal beliefs or perceptions about a disease and the options available to decrease its occurrence. In the context of sexual risk behaviours, literature reveals that knowledge about HIV/AIDS and Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) are key strategies in the management and prevention of HIV. This study was conducted in 2011, the same year the First Things First campaign was implemented in universities across South Africa to maximise opportunities for HIV testing among youth. It aimed to identify first-year students' responses to HIV/AIDS and VCT at the University of the Witwatersrand (WITS). The mixed research methods consisted of self-administered structured questionnaires with a sample population of 195 first-year students and 2 in-depth interviews with experts in the field of HIV/AIDS. Descriptive statistical analyses (frequencies and cross-tabulations) and thematic content analysis was carried out. The findings indicate that students are willing to know their status. The positive influence of peers is a motivation for those accessing VCT. However, some students do not access VCT due to personal fears while other students do not access VCT because of their low individual risk perception for HIV due to sexual abstinence. It concludes that university students' self-efficacy and cues to action might bring about a positive change in the future of the epidemic within a university context.

  14. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E.; Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  15. The Health Belief Model: A Qualitative Study to Understand High-risk Sexual Behavior in Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley

    2016-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use.

  16. The Health Belief Model: A Qualitative Study to Understand High-risk Sexual Behavior in Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley

    2016-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use. PMID:26604043

  17. Heat Waves and Climate Change: Applying the Health Belief Model to Identify Predictors of Risk Perception and Adaptive Behaviours in Adelaide, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good

  18. Toward the modelling of safety violations in healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Ken

    2013-09-01

    When frontline staff do not adhere to policies, protocols, or checklists, managers often regard these violations as indicating poor practice or even negligence. More often than not, however, these policy and protocol violations reflect the efforts of well intentioned professionals to carry out their work efficiently in the face of systems poorly designed to meet the diverse demands of patient care. Thus, non-compliance with institutional policies and protocols often signals a systems problem, rather than a people problem, and can be influenced among other things by training, competing goals, context, process, location, case complexity, individual beliefs, the direct or indirect influence of others, job pressure, flexibility, rule definition, and clinician-centred design. Three candidates are considered for developing a model of safety behaviour and decision making. The dynamic safety model helps to understand the relationship between systems designs and human performance. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that intention is a function of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control. The naturalistic decision making paradigm posits that decisions are based on a wider view of multiple patients, expertise, systems complexity, behavioural intention, individual beliefs and current understanding of the system. Understanding and predicting behavioural safety decisions could help us to encourage compliance to current processes and to design better interventions.

  19. Toward the modelling of safety violations in healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Ken

    2013-09-01

    When frontline staff do not adhere to policies, protocols, or checklists, managers often regard these violations as indicating poor practice or even negligence. More often than not, however, these policy and protocol violations reflect the efforts of well intentioned professionals to carry out their work efficiently in the face of systems poorly designed to meet the diverse demands of patient care. Thus, non-compliance with institutional policies and protocols often signals a systems problem, rather than a people problem, and can be influenced among other things by training, competing goals, context, process, location, case complexity, individual beliefs, the direct or indirect influence of others, job pressure, flexibility, rule definition, and clinician-centred design. Three candidates are considered for developing a model of safety behaviour and decision making. The dynamic safety model helps to understand the relationship between systems designs and human performance. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that intention is a function of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control. The naturalistic decision making paradigm posits that decisions are based on a wider view of multiple patients, expertise, systems complexity, behavioural intention, individual beliefs and current understanding of the system. Understanding and predicting behavioural safety decisions could help us to encourage compliance to current processes and to design better interventions. PMID:23580631

  20. Perceived vs. measured effects of advanced cockpit systems on pilot workload and error: are pilots' beliefs misaligned with reality?

    PubMed

    Casner, Stephen M

    2009-05-01

    Four types of advanced cockpit systems were tested in an in-flight experiment for their effect on pilot workload and error. Twelve experienced pilots flew conventional cockpit and advanced cockpit versions of the same make and model airplane. In both airplanes, the experimenter dictated selected combinations of cockpit systems for each pilot to use while soliciting subjective workload measures and recording any errors that pilots made. The results indicate that the use of a GPS navigation computer helped reduce workload and errors during some phases of flight but raised them in others. Autopilots helped reduce some aspects of workload in the advanced cockpit airplane but did not appear to reduce workload in the conventional cockpit. Electronic flight and navigation instruments appeared to have no effect on workload or error. Despite this modest showing for advanced cockpit systems, pilots stated an overwhelming preference for using them during all phases of flight.

  1. Rethinking the learning of belief network probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.

    1996-03-01

    Belief networks are a powerful tool for knowledge discovery that provide concise, understandable probabilistic models of data. There are methods grounded in probability theory to incrementally update the relationships described by the belief network when new information is seen, to perform complex inferences over any set of variables in the data, to incorporate domain expertise and prior knowledge into the model, and to automatically learn the model from data. This paper concentrates on part of the belief network induction problem, that of learning the quantitative structure (the conditional probabilities), given the qualitative structure. In particular, the current practice of rote learning the probabilities in belief networks can be significantly improved upon. We advance the idea of applying any learning algorithm to the task of conditional probability learning in belief networks, discuss potential benefits, and show results of applying neural networks and other algorithms to a medium sized car insurance belief network. The results demonstrate from 10 to 100% improvements in model error rates over the current approaches.

  2. Delusions and the role of beliefs in perceptual inference.

    PubMed

    Schmack, Katharina; Gòmez-Carrillo de Castro, Ana; Rothkirch, Marcus; Sekutowicz, Maria; Rössler, Hannes; Haynes, John-Dylan; Heinz, Andreas; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2013-08-21

    Delusions are unfounded yet tenacious beliefs and a symptom of psychotic disorder. Varying degrees of delusional ideation are also found in the healthy population. Here, we empirically validated a neurocognitive model that explains both the formation and the persistence of delusional beliefs in terms of altered perceptual inference. In a combined behavioral and functional neuroimaging study in healthy participants, we used ambiguous visual stimulation to probe the relationship between delusion-proneness and the effect of learned predictions on perception. Delusional ideation was associated with less perceptual stability, but a stronger belief-induced bias on perception, paralleled by enhanced functional connectivity between frontal areas that encoded beliefs and sensory areas that encoded perception. These findings suggest that weakened lower-level predictions that result in perceptual instability are implicated in the emergence of delusional beliefs. In contrast, stronger higher-level predictions that sculpt perception into conformity with beliefs might contribute to the tenacious persistence of delusional beliefs.

  3. Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God

    PubMed Central

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2–4). PMID:22666332

  4. Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God.

    PubMed

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2-4).

  5. Teaching Beliefs and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to bring into clearer perspective how art teaching beliefs relate to attitudes and methodology concerning evaluation. Also shows how some common evaluation pitfalls can be avoided without compromising art learning and quality. (Author/RK)

  6. An endorsement-based approach to student modeling for planner-controlled intelligent tutoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, William R.

    1990-01-01

    An approach is described to student modeling for intelligent tutoring systems based on an explicit representation of the tutor's beliefs about the student and the arguments for and against those beliefs (called endorsements). A lexicographic comparison of arguments, sorted according to evidence reliability, provides a principled means of determining those beliefs that are considered true, false, or uncertain. Each of these beliefs is ultimately justified by underlying assessment data. The endorsement-based approach to student modeling is particularly appropriate for tutors controlled by instructional planners. These tutors place greater demands on a student model than opportunistic tutors. Numerical calculi approaches are less well-suited because it is difficult to correctly assign numbers for evidence reliability and rule plausibility. It may also be difficult to interpret final results and provide suitable combining functions. When numeric measures of uncertainty are used, arbitrary numeric thresholds are often required for planning decisions. Such an approach is inappropriate when robust context-sensitive planning decisions must be made. A TMS-based implementation of the endorsement-based approach to student modeling is presented, this approach is compared to alternatives, and a project history is provided describing the evolution of this approach.

  7. The Role of Internet-Specific Epistemic Beliefs and Self-Regulation in High School Students' Online Academic Help Seeking: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Three instruments (i.e., Internet-specific epistemic beliefs, self-regulation, and online academic help seeking questionnaires) were administered to 319 high school students with the aim of understanding the role of Internet specific epistemic beliefs and self-regulation in their online academic help seeking. Through a structure equation modeling…

  8. Epistemological Beliefs of Prospective Preschool Teachers and Their Relation to Knowledge, Perception, and Planning Abilities in the Field of Mathematics: A Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Eilerts, Katja; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Teacher competence is a multi-dimensional construct that includes beliefs as well as knowledge. The present study investigated the structure of prospective preschool teachers' mathematics-related beliefs and their relation to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, prospective preschool teachers' perception and planning…

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom Behavior Management in Urban American and Korean School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-Sook

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' beliefs on classroom behavior management strategies for students in urban public high schools between teachers in the United States and the Republic of Korea. This study incorporates data collected from teacher self-reported survey questionnaire, which is the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom…

  10. A Comparative Study of Elementary Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom and Behavior Management in the USA and Korean School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Myung-sook; Shin, Sunwoo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate elementary teachers' beliefs and inter-cultural perspectives in classroom management (instructional environment and behavior management) for students in public schools of the U.S. and Korea. The results supported that the two groups of teachers showed similar beliefs in instructional…

  11. Modeling mutual feedback between users and recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Yeung, Chi Ho; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Recommender systems daily influence our decisions on the Internet. While considerable attention has been given to issues such as recommendation accuracy and user privacy, the long-term mutual feedback between a recommender system and the decisions of its users has been neglected so far. We propose here a model of network evolution which allows us to study the complex dynamics induced by this feedback, including the hysteresis effect which is typical for systems with non-linear dynamics. Despite the popular belief that recommendation helps users to discover new things, we find that the long-term use of recommendation can contribute to the rise of extremely popular items and thus ultimately narrow the user choice. These results are supported by measurements of the time evolution of item popularity inequality in real systems. We show that this adverse effect of recommendation can be tamed by sacrificing part of short-term recommendation accuracy.

  12. Childhood trauma and the development of paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Berkowski, Monisha; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    Belief in the paranormal is fairly prevalent in the general population. Previous research has shown a link between several personological characteristics and paranormal beliefs. The current study attempted to further investigate this link by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. In addition, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. The results imply that researchers need to take into account how a person responds to trauma via the development of coping strategies to accurately understand any observed relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs.

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Work Values and Job Entitlement Beliefs in the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Angela; Krahn, Harvey J.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Employing a life span developmental systems perspective, this study used a 5-wave (1985-1992) Canadian longitudinal data set (N = 404) to examine trajectories of intrinsic and extrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs from age 18 to 25. Piecewise growth models (Slope 1: age 18-20; Slope 2: age 20-25) showed intriguing patterns of change.…

  14. Animal models of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morin, Florence; Kavian, Niloufar; Batteux, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by the fibrosis of the skin and certain visceral organs, vasculopathy, and immunological abnormalities. Several genetic and inducible animal models of SSc have been developed and are available for research studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize the various animal models of systemic sclerosis and describe the various contributions of these models in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of the condition and searching for new therapeutic strategies for this incurable disease.

  15. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  16. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  17. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  18. Modeling All Dialogue System Participants to Generate Empathetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Haimowitz, Ira J.

    1990-01-01

    We describe a dialogue system between an expert system and its users which combines two recent hypotheses. First, that the dialogue system should explicitly model both the person directly interacting with the dialogue system (the agent) and the person reasoned about by the expert system (the patient) in order to communicate meaningfully with both people. Second, that a dialogue system can model the domain-related beliefs, preferences and concerns of both its users and generate responses empathetic to both. This dialogue system is called SERUM, standing for “System for Empathetic Responses with User Models.” Serum generates natural language responses about attribute values of domain objects, via three transformations. First the system converts properties of the agent and patient, and domain knowledge, into a pragmatic objective like empathy. Second SERUM converts the pragmatic objectives into surface structure cues like object emphasis and level of technicality. Finally SERUM converts the surface structure cues to realize text that is natural, appropriately technical, and downplaying or off-setting information that is unpleasant or undesirable to the agent or patient. Serum is demonstrated in the sensitive medical domain of lung disease for AIDS patients, where empathetic responses may be needed.

  19. Structural dynamics system model reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Rose, T. L.; Wada, B. K.

    1987-01-01

    Loads analysis for structural dynamic systems is usually performed by finite element models. Because of the complexity of the structural system, the model contains large number of degree-of-freedom. The large model is necessary since details of the stress, loads and responses due to mission environments are computed. However, a simplified model is needed for other tasks such as pre-test analysis for modal testing, and control-structural interaction studies. A systematic method of model reduction for modal test analysis is presented. Perhaps it will be of some help in developing a simplified model for the control studies.

  20. Modeling formalisms in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Systems Biology has taken advantage of computational tools and high-throughput experimental data to model several biological processes. These include signaling, gene regulatory, and metabolic networks. However, most of these models are specific to each kind of network. Their interconnection demands a whole-cell modeling framework for a complete understanding of cellular systems. We describe the features required by an integrated framework for modeling, analyzing and simulating biological processes, and review several modeling formalisms that have been used in Systems Biology including Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, Petri nets, process algebras, constraint-based models, differential equations, rule-based models, interacting state machines, cellular automata, and agent-based models. We compare the features provided by different formalisms, and discuss recent approaches in the integration of these formalisms, as well as possible directions for the future. PMID:22141422

  1. Modeling formalisms in Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniel; Costa, Rafael S; Rocha, Miguel; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Tidor, Bruce; Rocha, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Systems Biology has taken advantage of computational tools and high-throughput experimental data to model several biological processes. These include signaling, gene regulatory, and metabolic networks. However, most of these models are specific to each kind of network. Their interconnection demands a whole-cell modeling framework for a complete understanding of cellular systems. We describe the features required by an integrated framework for modeling, analyzing and simulating biological processes, and review several modeling formalisms that have been used in Systems Biology including Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, Petri nets, process algebras, constraint-based models, differential equations, rule-based models, interacting state machines, cellular automata, and agent-based models. We compare the features provided by different formalisms, and discuss recent approaches in the integration of these formalisms, as well as possible directions for the future. PMID:22141422

  2. Understanding young children's health beliefs and diabetes regimen adherence.

    PubMed

    Charron-Prochownik, D; Becker, M H; Brown, M B; Liang, W M; Bennett, S

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies of chronic illness management in children have focused mainly on parents' health beliefs. However, children's health beliefs also can be an important factor in predicting adherence. Indeed, children 6 to 10 years old spend most waking hours away from home, are under less parental supervision, and are becoming more responsible for their own care. The purpose of this study was to develop a pictorial, multi-item instrument to measure dimensions of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and self-efficacy (SE), designed specifically for children with diabetes, thus making it possible to examine both the parent's and child's health beliefs; to explore the relationship between their beliefs; and to examine the extent to which these beliefs are predictors of adherence and metabolic control. PMID:7511090

  3. Modelling a Simple Mechanical System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morland, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Provides an example of the modeling power of Mathematics, demonstrated in a piece of A-Level student coursework which was undertaken as part of the MEI Structured Mathematics scheme. A system of two masses and two springs oscillating in one dimension is found to be accurately modeled by a system of linear differential equations. (Author/ASK)

  4. A Model for Systemic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaninger, Markus; Ambroz, Kristjan; Olaya, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Where should one begin with a design for the self-control of social systems? That is the question addressed by this paper. The traditional concepts of control rest on the feedback loop; control is essential to the attainment of goals. However, the simple feedback loop is insufficient for the modeling of a control system for an organization or other social system. For those systems, which search for multiple goals, it is necessary to design multilevel control systems incorporating the notion of pre-control. This eminently anticipatory function has hardly been considered by past research. Pre-control as understood here is a higher-order control that takes place between different logical levels of a control system. The Model of Systemic Control (MSC), a framework for multilevel control with pre-control relationships, is expounded and illustrated by means of a System Dynamics model.

  5. Assessing Students Beliefs about Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents 11 open-ended questions that can be presented to students and teachers at all educational levels in various formats to assess mathematical beliefs. Questions investigate beliefs toward mathematics, the problem-solving process, mathematicians, and mathematical applications. (MDH)

  6. Developmental trajectories of work values and job entitlement beliefs in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chow, Angela; Krahn, Harvey J; Galambos, Nancy L

    2014-04-01

    Employing a life span developmental systems perspective, this study used a 5-wave (1985-1992) Canadian longitudinal data set (N = 404) to examine trajectories of intrinsic and extrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs from age 18 to 25. Piecewise growth models (Slope 1: age 18-20; Slope 2: age 20-25) showed intriguing patterns of change. Unconditional and conditional models suggested downward trends in all 3 measures from age 18 to 20. After age 20, the 2 work values reversed direction. Competing scarcity and value reinforcement hypotheses guided the analysis of change in work values and job entitlement beliefs conditional on unemployment experiences and postsecondary education pathways. Supporting a scarcity hypothesis, more unemployment from age 18 to 20 was associated with a faster increase in intrinsic and extrinsic work values, and a slower decrease in job entitlement beliefs from age 20 to 25. In line with a value reinforcement hypothesis, more unemployment from age 20 to 25 was associated with a slower concurrent increase in intrinsic work values. A postsecondary selection effect was observed; individuals who eventually obtained a university degree had higher intrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs at age 18. Also congruent with a scarcity hypothesis, young adults with only a high school education experienced a significantly faster increase in extrinsic work values from age 20 to 25. This study highlights the transition to adulthood as a key developmental period for change in work values and beliefs.

  7. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  8. A Reflection on Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon in which, for many people, subjective personal belief is viewed as a more accurate representation of reality than objective scientific knowledge developed over the course of human history and transmitted through secular education. The first half of the article is based on personal observations of the author…

  9. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  10. Meteor Beliefs Project: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2003-05-01

    A new project to investigate beliefs in meteors and meteoric phenomena in past and present times using chiefly folklore, mythology, prose and poetic literature, is described. Some initial examples are given, along with a bibliography of relevant items already in print in IMO publications.

  11. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Technology as a Global Learning Tool: Information Systems Success and Control Belief Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Vannoy, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol- (VoIP) enabled online learning service providers struggling with high attrition rates and low customer loyalty issues despite VoIP's high degree of system fit for online global learning applications. Effective solutions to this prevalent problem rely on the understanding of system quality, information quality, and…

  12. Managing security risks for inter-organisational information systems: a multiagent collaborative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Wu, Harris; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Desheng; Chen, Fuzan; Tian, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Information sharing across organisations is critical to effectively managing the security risks of inter-organisational information systems. Nevertheless, few previous studies on information systems security have focused on inter-organisational information sharing, and none have studied the sharing of inferred beliefs versus factual observations. In this article, a multiagent collaborative model (MACM) is proposed as a practical solution to assess the risk level of each allied organisation's information system and support proactive security treatment by sharing beliefs on event probabilities as well as factual observations. In MACM, for each allied organisation's information system, we design four types of agents: inspection agent, analysis agent, control agent, and communication agent. By sharing soft findings (beliefs) in addition to hard findings (factual observations) among the organisations, each organisation's analysis agent is capable of dynamically predicting its security risk level using a Bayesian network. A real-world implementation illustrates how our model can be used to manage security risks in distributed information systems and that sharing soft findings leads to lower expected loss from security risks.

  13. Joggers versus Nonexercisers: An Analysis of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Health Belief Model was utilized to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of individuals regarding regular jogging. Results suggest that behavior of sedentary individuals may be changed by using strategies which address perceived obstacles to jogging. (Author/DF)

  14. Model systems in neurotoxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Shahar, A. ); Goldberg, A.M. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 33 papers. Some of the titles are: Establishment of cell lines from primary cultures by transfection with SV40 large T antigen gene; Molecular cloning of human cholinesterase genes: Potential applications in neurotoxicology; Neurotoxicity testing of chlorinated hydrocarbons by measuring specific neuronal and glial cell functions; Genetic and pharmacological models of muscle inactivity; and Overexpression of the human CuZnSOD gene in transfected cells: Implication to Down Syndrome.

  15. An investigation into the effect of health belief model-based education on healthcare behaviors of nursing staff in controlling nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeigheimat, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghadamgahi, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-care acquired infections are significant given the risks and costs they impose. All previous studies indicate a poor level of knowledge and performance among the nurses in hospital infections; as such, educating nurses can play an important role in infection control. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the health belief model (HBM) in making nurses adopting health-care behaviors needed to control nosocomial infections (Nis). Materials and Methods: The participants of the study were 135 nurses from two hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire consisted of seven parts. The intervention group received four 45 min educational programs, both in individual and collective forms. After a 2-month interval, a post-test was conducted to see whether any difference has been resulted. Results: There was a significant relationship between knowledge (P = 0.001), perceived threat (P = 0.004), perceived benefits (P = 0.001), and practices (P = 0.001) in comparing to control and experimental groups after intervention. For the experimental and control groups, the most frequent cues to action at the preintervention stage were, respectively, related to the period of studying at university and in-service classes. Conclusion: According to this study, HBM-based education can increase knowledge, perceived threat, and perceived benefits of nurses. Additionally, it can reduce perceived barriers and improve the control of NIs among nurses. PMID:27500176

  16. Participation of senior citizens in the swine flu inoculation program: an analysis of Health Belief Model variables in preventive health behavior.

    PubMed

    Aho, W R

    1979-03-01

    Evidence is presented of statistically significant and strong relationships between Swine Flu Inoculation status and nine variables in the reformulated Health Belief Model with 122 randomly selected subjects, primarily Black and Portuguese-American, who are active members of two Providence, Rhode Island senior centers. No statistically significant relationship was discovered between inoculation status and previously having had the flu. The variables which were found related are: Efficacy, Safety, Knowledge of Side Effects, Prior Flu Shot Status, Proportion of Friends and Relatives Who Got the Shot, Sex, Race, Future Plans for Flu Shots, and Future Plans for Other Inoculations. The data were obtained through personal interviews in the Spring of 1977. It is suggested that the results provide some basis for optimism for successful intervention designed to change the future preventive health behaviors of nonparticipants in the Swine Flu Inoculation Program. Many nonparticipants had fears and doubts about the effectiveness and safety of the shot and are amendable to suggestions from physicians about future inoculation participation. Full information should be provided to high-risk groups such as senior citizens about the relative risks of suffering serious side effects, the effectiveness and safety of the procedure for persons their age with the typical health problems of senior citizens, and the relative risks and dangers to them of contracting the illness against which the shot is designed to protect them.

  17. The effectiveness of nutrition education: Applying the Health Belief Model in child-feeding practices to use pulses for complementary feeding in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulualem, Demmelash; Henry, Carol J; Berhanu, Getenesh; Whiting, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Complementary foods (CFs) in Ethiopia are cereal based and adding locally grown pulses (legumes) to CF would provide needed nutrients. To assess the effects of nutrition education (NEd) using Health Belief Model (HBM) in promoting pulses for CF, a 6-month quasi-experimental study was conducted in 160 mother-child pairs. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questions were given to mothers at baseline, midline, and endline, along with anthropometric measurements of children. NEd involving discussions and recipe demonstrations was given twice monthly for 6 months to the intervention group (n = 80) while control mothers received usual education. At baseline, mothers' KAP scores were low at both sites; at 3 and 6 months of NEd, mean KAP scores of mothers increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control site. Significant improvements in children's mean weight, weight for height, and weight for age occurred in the intervention site only. Nutritional status of children improved after providing mothers with pulse-based NEd.

  18. Analysis of regional scale risk to whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using Bayesian belief network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolb Ayre, Kimberley; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout.

  19. Application of the Health Belief Model to U.S. Magazine Text and Image Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The health belief model (HBM) has been widely used to inform health education, social marketing, and health communication campaigns. Although the HBM can explain and predict an individual's willingness to engage in positive health behaviors, its application to, and penetration of the underlying constructs into, mass media content has not been well characterized. We examined 574 articles and 905 images about skin cancer and tanning risks, behaviors, and screening from 20 U.S. women's and men's magazines (2000-2012) for the presence of HBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. Susceptibility (48.1%) and severity (60.3%) information was common in text. Perceived benefits (36.4%) and barriers (41.5%) to prevention of skin cancer were fairly equally mentioned in articles. Self-efficacy (48.4%) focused on sunscreen use. There was little emphasis on HBM constructs related to early detection. Few explicit cues to action about skin cancer appeared in text (12.0%) or images (0.1%). HBM constructs were present to a significantly greater extent in text versus images (e.g., severity, 60.3% vs. 11.3%, respectively, χ(2) = 399.51, p < .0001; benefits prevention, 36.4% vs. 8.0%, respectively, χ(2) = 184.80, p < .0001), suggesting that readers are not visually messaged in ways that would effectively promote skin cancer prevention and early detection behaviors. PMID:26940663

  20. “Theory Based Health Education: Application of Health Belief Model for Iranian Obese and Overweight Students about Physical Activity” in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Baratali; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Khalkhali, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a physical education program (PEP) on promoting health belief model (HBM) scores, increasing physical activity (PA), and reducing obesity among Iranian high school students. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was accomplished at four high schools that were randomly divided into two groups of experiment (forty) and control (forty) male students in junior high schools in Urmia, Iran. Students in the experimental group received a PEP during 6 months. The essential parameters were used for evaluating the effects of educational program on HBM, PA, and body mass index (BMI) of students. Results: After the intervention of 3 and 6 months, the experimental group showed a significant difference on the results of HBM constructs. According to the result of repeated-measures ANOVA, there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups about the components of PA constructs. Analysis of covariance showed that although BMI reduced in 6 months after intervention, there was no significant difference in BMI. Conclusions: Results of the study revealed that implementation of PEP was effective on increasing the score of the components of HBM and PA of students. PMID:27761217

  1. Application of the Health Belief Model to U.S. Magazine Text and Image Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The health belief model (HBM) has been widely used to inform health education, social marketing, and health communication campaigns. Although the HBM can explain and predict an individual's willingness to engage in positive health behaviors, its application to, and penetration of the underlying constructs into, mass media content has not been well characterized. We examined 574 articles and 905 images about skin cancer and tanning risks, behaviors, and screening from 20 U.S. women's and men's magazines (2000-2012) for the presence of HBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. Susceptibility (48.1%) and severity (60.3%) information was common in text. Perceived benefits (36.4%) and barriers (41.5%) to prevention of skin cancer were fairly equally mentioned in articles. Self-efficacy (48.4%) focused on sunscreen use. There was little emphasis on HBM constructs related to early detection. Few explicit cues to action about skin cancer appeared in text (12.0%) or images (0.1%). HBM constructs were present to a significantly greater extent in text versus images (e.g., severity, 60.3% vs. 11.3%, respectively, χ(2) = 399.51, p < .0001; benefits prevention, 36.4% vs. 8.0%, respectively, χ(2) = 184.80, p < .0001), suggesting that readers are not visually messaged in ways that would effectively promote skin cancer prevention and early detection behaviors.

  2. Launch systems operations cost modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Mark K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the launch systems operations modeling portion of a larger model development effort, NASA's Space Operations Cost Model (SOCM), led by NASA HQ. The SOCM study team, which includes cost and technical experts from each NASA Field Center and various contractors, has been tasked to model operations costs for all future NASA mission concepts including planetary and Earth orbiting science missions, space facilities, and launch systems. The launch systems operations modeling effort has near term significance for assessing affordability of our next generation launch vehicles and directing technology investments, although it provides only a part of the necessary inputs to assess life cycle costs for all elements that determine affordability for a launch system. Presented here is a methodology to estimate requirements associated with a launch facility infrastructure, or Spaceport, from start-up/initialization into steady-state operation. Included are descriptions of the reference data used, the unique estimating methodology that combines cost lookup tables, parametric relationships, and constructively-developed correlations of cost driver input values to collected reference data, and the output categories that can be used by economic and market models. Also, future plans to improve integration of launch vehicle development cost models, reliability and maintainability models, economic and market models, and this operations model to facilitate overall launch system life cycle performance simulations will be presented.

  3. Teacher Beliefs and Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Steven

    The beliefs of teachers with respect to open education are discussed. The point is made that a teacher who expresses a desire to move toward an open classroom environment must first come to trust beliefs and values that may be alien to her own beliefs and must learn to value the following ideas: (1) The life of a child in school is not a…

  4. Professor Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth

    Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.

  5. ASN reputation system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Steve; Erbacher, Robert F.

    2015-05-01

    Network security monitoring is currently challenged by its reliance on human analysts and the inability for tools to generate indications and warnings for previously unknown attacks. We propose a reputation system based on IP address set membership within the Autonomous System Number (ASN) system. Essentially, a metric generated based on the historic behavior, or misbehavior, of nodes within a given ASN can be used to predict future behavior and provide a mechanism to locate network activity requiring inspection. This will provide reinforcement of notifications and warnings and lead to inspection for ASNs known to be problematic even if initial inspection leads to interpretation of the event as innocuous. We developed proof of concept capabilities to generate the IP address to ASN set membership and analyze the impact of the results. These results clearly show that while some ASNs are one-offs with individual or small numbers of misbehaving IP addresses, there are definitive ASNs with a history of long term and wide spread misbehaving IP addresses. These ASNs with long histories are what we are especially interested in and will provide an additional correlation metric for the human analyst and lead to new tools to aid remediation of these IP address blocks.

  6. Continuum beliefs about psychotic symptoms are a valid, unidimensional construct: Construction and validation of a revised continuum beliefs questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Schlier, Björn; Scheunemann, Jakob; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-07-30

    Growing evidence supports a continuum model of psychosis, with mild psychotic symptoms being frequently experienced by the general population. Moreover, believing in the continuum model correlates with less stigmatization of schizophrenia. This study explores whether continuum beliefs are a valid construct and develops a continuum beliefs scale. First, expert-generated items were reduced to a candidate scale (study 1, n=95). One-dimensionality was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2, n=363). Convergent validity was tested with a previous continuum beliefs scale, essentialist beliefs, and stigmatization (study 2), while self-reported psychotic experiences (i.e. frequency and conviction) served to test discriminant validity (study 3, n=229). A nine item questionnaire that assesses continuum beliefs about schizophrenia symptoms showed acceptable to good psychometric values, high correlations with a previous continuum beliefs scale and small correlations with essentialist beliefs, stereotypes, and desired social distance. No correlations with psychotic experiences were found. Thus, continuum beliefs can be considered a valid construct. The construed CBQ-R asks about symptoms rather than the abstract category "schizophrenia", which may increase understandability of the scale. Validation confirms previous studies and highlights the difference between continuum beliefs and personal psychotic experiences. PMID:27175910

  7. The contribution of self-efficacy beliefs to dispositional shyness: on social-cognitive systems and the development of personality dispositions.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Steca, Patrizia; Cervone, Daniel; Artistico, Danielle

    2003-12-01

    This longitudinal research explored the impact of self-efficacy beliefs on self-reported tendencies to experience shyness in interpersonal encounters among a population of adolescents studied over a two-year period. Self-efficacy measures, taken at the initial measurement period, included indices of perceived self-efficacy for forming and maintaining social relationships, dealing effectively with parents, managing negative emotions, and expressing positive emotions towards others. Levels of self-reported shyness as well as emotional stability were assessed also at time 1, with shyness measured again at the follow-up assessment two years later. Structural equation modeling indicated that two of the four self-efficacy measures uniquely contributed to levels of shyness reported at time 1, and that perceptions of social self-efficacy uniquely contributed to shyness at time 2 even when considering the effects of time 1 shyness levels. Emotional stability did not uniquely contributed to time 2 shyness after considering the relation between shyness at the first and second measurement points. The broad implications of social-cognitive analyses for the study of personality development are discussed.

  8. Teacher Beliefs, Knowledge, and Practice of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruce, Robin; Bol, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined teacher beliefs, knowledge, and classroom practice of self-regulated learning for ten elementary and middle school teachers. Using Zimmerman's SRL model to frame our method and results, we administered questionnaires, observed classrooms and conducted interviews with these teachers. Teachers had positive beliefs about the role…

  9. Effects of Educational Beliefs on Attitudes towards Using Computer Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2012-01-01

    This study, aiming to determine the relationship between pre-service teachers' beliefs about education and their attitudes towards utilizing computers and internet, is a descriptive study in scanning model. The sampling of the study consisted of 270 pre-service teachers. The potential relationship between the beliefs of pre-service teachers about…

  10. How Experience Shapes Health Beliefs: The Case of Influenza Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised…

  11. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed Central

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  12. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  13. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  14. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  15. System Cost Model

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  16. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices.

  17. 32 CFR 1636.6 - Analysis of belief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analysis of belief. 1636.6 Section 1636.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION OF CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS § 1636.6 Analysis of belief. (a) A registrant claiming conscientious objection is...

  18. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  19. Data management system performance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, Larry M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical techniques that have been used to gain a better understanding of the Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is a complex, distributed, real-time computer system that has been redesigned numerous times. The implications of these redesigns have not been fully analyzed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages for static analytical techniques such as Rate Monotonic Analysis (RMA) and also provides a rationale for dynamic modeling. Factors such as system architecture, processor utilization, bus architecture, queuing, etc. are well suited for analysis with a dynamic model. The significance of performance measures for a real-time system are discussed.

  20. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Irrational beliefs, biases and gambling: exploring the role of animal models in elucidating vulnerabilities for the development of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Cocker, P J; Winstanley, C A

    2015-02-15

    Gambling is a heterogeneous and complex disorder. Multiple factors may lead to problem gambling, yet one of the most important appears to be the increased presence of cognitive biases or distortions. These biases are thought to precipitate gambling as they can lead to dysfunctional decision making under risk or ambiguity. Modelling these cognitive perturbations in animals can improve our understanding of their neurobiological bases, and potentially stimulate novel treatment options. The first aim of this review is to give a broad overview of some of the cognitive biases that are most commonly associated with gambling. Secondly, we will discuss several animal models that we have developed in which rodent decision-making appears hallmarked by the same cognitive inconsistencies as human choice. In particular, we will discuss two tasks that capture elements of risk and loss averse decision making, and another in which rats appear susceptible to the 'near-miss' effect. To date, findings from both human and non-human studies suggest that these different biases are neuropharmacologically and neurostructurally dissociable, and that dopamine plays a key role in their expression. Lastly, we will briefly discuss areas in both human and animal research where limitations within the field may be hampering a more complete understanding of pathological gambling as a disorder.

  2. Life at the end of life: beliefs about individual life after death and "good death" models - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Toscani, Franco; Borreani, Claudia; Boeri, Paolo; Miccinesi, Guido

    2003-01-01

    Background Different ideas of "good death" may influence the effectiveness of end-of-life care in patients with different ethos. This study aimed to identify the influence of believing in individual life after death on "good death" models. Methods Semi structured-interview to 8 persons, 4 believers and 4 non-believers in individual life after death from the general Italian population. Analysis of the transcribed text according to the method suggested by Mc Cracken. Results The analysis has shown a diverse and coherent conceptualization of death according to whether the subjects believe or not in individual life after death. Believers, for whom death marks the passage to a new dimension, prefer to be unaware of dying, while non-believers, for whom death is the end of the individual, prefer to be conscious until the very end of life. However some important aspects in common have been identified, i.e. having close people nearby, receiving assistance from experts, or the preference for a soft atmosphere around the dying person. Conclusion There are aspects in common and aspects in contrast between believers and non-believers in individual life after death: while sharing many aspects of what a "good death" ought to be, they have opposite stands on being aware of dying. A plurality of models should be foreseen, accepting, in this case, their practical and theoretical implications. PMID:14613557

  3. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions. PMID:19708408

  4. A building block for hardware belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  5. A building block for hardware belief networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-07-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models.

  6. A building block for hardware belief networks.

    PubMed

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  7. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  8. Educational Quality Is Measured by Individual Student Achievement Over Time. Mt. San Antonio College AB 1725 Model Accountability System Pilot Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    In December 1990, a project was begun at Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) in Walnut, California, to develop a model accountability system based on the belief that educational quality is measured by individual achievement over time. This proposal for the Accountability Model (AM) presents information on project methodology and organization in four…

  9. Violate my beliefs? Then you're to blame! Belief content as an explanation for causal attribution biases.

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Hertzog, Christopher; Horhota, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    We examined the extent to which the content of beliefs about appropriate behavior in social situations influences blame attributions for negative outcomes in relationship situations. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated their level of agreement to a set of traditional and nontraditional beliefs. Five months later, we assessed the degree to which these same individuals blamed traditional and nontraditional characters who violated their beliefs in 12 social conflict situations. Older adults held more traditional beliefs regarding appropriate relationship behaviors (e.g., the acceptability of premarital sex). Individual differences in the content of one's beliefs were needed to understand age-related patterns in blame attributions; for example, adherence to traditional beliefs about appropriate relationship behaviors led to higher responsibility and blame attributions toward characters behaving in ways that were inconsistent with these beliefs. Structural regression models showed that beliefs fully mediated the effects of working memory and need for closure on causal attributions and partially mediated the effects of age and religiosity on attributions. Personal identification with the characters had additional, independent effects on attributions. Findings are discussed from the theoretical perspective of a belief-based explanation of social judgment biases. PMID:21728442

  10. Modeling approaches for active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Sven; Atzrodt, Heiko; Mayer, Dirk; Thomaier, Martin

    2006-03-01

    To solve a wide range of vibration problems with the active structures technology, different simulation approaches for several models are needed. The selection of an appropriate modeling strategy is depending, amongst others, on the frequency range, the modal density and the control target. An active system consists of several components: the mechanical structure, at least one sensor and actuator, signal conditioning electronics and the controller. For each individual part of the active system the simulation approaches can be different. To integrate the several modeling approaches into an active system simulation and to ensure a highly efficient and accurate calculation, all sub models must harmonize. For this purpose, structural models considered in this article are modal state-space formulations for the lower frequency range and transfer function based models for the higher frequency range. The modal state-space formulations are derived from finite element models and/or experimental modal analyses. Consequently, the structure models which are based on transfer functions are directly derived from measurements. The transfer functions are identified with the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method. To convert them from the z-domain to the s-domain a least squares solution is implemented. An analytical approach is used to derive models of active interfaces. These models are transferred into impedance formulations. To couple mechanical and electrical sub-systems with the active materials, the concept of impedance modeling was successfully tested. The impedance models are enhanced by adapting them to adequate measurements. The controller design strongly depends on the frequency range and the number of modes to be controlled. To control systems with a small number of modes, techniques such as active damping or independent modal space control may be used, whereas in the case of systems with a large number of modes or with modes that are not well separated, other control

  11. When Are Beliefs Just "the Tip of the Iceberg"?: Exploring Early Childhood Professionals' Beliefs and Practices about Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivalland, Corine M. Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Few research projects have captured the voices of childcare professionals about their personal beliefs in relation to teaching and learning. Using a qualitative case study approach with an emphasis on social constructivism, this descriptive study aimed to understand beliefs and practices as part of an underlying system, rather than as separate…

  12. Day Care Teacher Beliefs and Teaching Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Sureshrani; Peters, Donald L.

    A self-administered rating scale and an observational schedule were developed to assess the beliefs and behaviors of early childhood teachers in relation to constructs derived from Piagetian cognitive developmental theory and operant learning theory. Application was made to existent Piegetian and operant model early education programs. The results…

  13. Southeast Asian Health Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Sandra L.

    This paper explores the health behaviors and health beliefs of Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, (and the Chinese components of these populations), and the Mien and Hmong of Laos. Included is a description of the major medical systems in each country, local practitioners, and some of the uniquely recognized diseases and cures of each area.…

  14. The Epistemological Beliefs of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer I.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that undergraduate students come into social work programs with an epistemological belief system that values personal experience over critical thinking processes. Epistemological development and self-efficacy are important factors to facilitating identity as a learner and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative,…

  15. Joint modeling and simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Richard T.; McQuay, William K.

    1993-08-01

    The defense budget is shrinking. Weapon systems are getting more complex. Test requirements are increasing. The training and war gaming scenarios are getting more demanding as fielded systems and training simulators are integrated to support combined arms training. To cope with these requirements and still stay within the budget, the Department of Defense is relying on modeling and simulation. The state of the modeling and simulation (M&S) art has advanced to the point where a user can now create incredibly realistic, extremely detailed models which can augment test and evaluation, support the acquisition process, enhance training and war gaming, facilitate intelligence gathering, and support detailed engineering.

  16. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  17. Use of Health Belief Model Variables To Examine Self-Reported Food Handling Behaviors in a Sample of U.S. Adults Attending a Tailgate Event.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Hughes, Susan M; Liu, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Unsafe food handling behaviors are common among consumers, and, given the venue, individuals attending a tailgating event may be at risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to measure the association between Health Belief Model variables and self-reported usual food handling behaviors in a convenience sample of men and women at a tailgate event. Participants (n = 128) completed validated subscales for self-reported food handling behaviors (i.e., cross-contamination, sanitation), perceived threat of foodborne illness (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility), and safe food handling cues to action (i.e., media cues, educational cues). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was associated with safer behaviors related to sanitation (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and cross-contamination (r = 0.33; P = 0.001). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was also associated with exposure to safe food handling media cues (r = 0.20; P = 0.027) but not with safe food handling educational cues. A large proportion of participants reported that they never or seldom (i) read newspaper or magazine articles about foodborne illness (65.6%); (ii) read brochures about safe ways to handle food (61.7%); (iii) see store displays that explain ways to handle food (51.6%); or (iv) read the "safe handling instructions" on packages of raw meat and poultry (46.9%). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to both dimensions of safe food handling as well as with safe food handling media cues. Except for the weak correlation between media cues and perceived severity, the relationships between safe food handling cues and perceived threat, as well as between safe food handling cues and behaviors, were nonsignificant. This finding may be due, in part, to the participants' overall low exposure to safe food handling cues. The overall results of this study reinforce the postulate that perceived severity of foodborne illness may influence food handling behaviors.

  18. The use of the health belief model to assess predictors of intent to receive the novel (2009) H1N1 influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Antoinette B.; Gatewood, Sharon B.S.; Moczygemba, Leticia R.; Goode, Jean-Venable “Kelly” R.; Beckner, John O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1) Assess participants’ perceptions of severity, risk, and susceptibility to the novel H1N1 influenza virus and/or vaccine, vaccine benefits and barriers, and cues to action and 2) Identify predictors of participants’ intention to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study Setting Local grocery store chain and university in the central Virginia area Participants Convenience sample of adult college students and grocery store patrons Intervention Participants filled out an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based upon the Health Belief Model. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ predictors of intention to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine Results A total of 664 participants completed a questionnaire. The majority of participants were aged 25–64 years old (66.9%). The majority were female (69.1%), Caucasian (73.7%), and felt at risk for getting sick from the virus (70.3%). Most disagreed that they would die from the virus (68.0%). Participants received novel H1N1 vaccine recommendations from their physicians (28.2%), pharmacists (20.7%), and nurses (16.1%). The majority intended to receive the H1N1 vaccine (58.1%). Participants were significantly more likely to intend to receive the H1N1 vaccine if they had lower scores on the perceived vaccine barriers domain (OR= 0.57, CI: 0.35–0.93). Physicians’ recommendations (OR=0.26, CI: 0.11–0.62) and 2008 seasonal flu vaccination (OR=0.45, CI: 0.24–0.83) were significant predictors of intention to receive the H1N1 vaccine. Conclusions Most participants felt at risk for getting the novel H1N1 virus and intended to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine. Educating patients about vaccine benefits and increasing healthcare professionals’ vaccine recommendations may increase vaccination rates in future pandemics. PMID:22844651

  19. Determinants of Behavior of Students as Pedestrian and Car Occupants in Relation to Traffic Laws in 2013, Gorgan, Iran; An Application of Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Heshmati, Hashem; Behnampour, Nasser; Binaei, Golnaz; Khajavai, Samane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the behavioral pattern of Golestan University of Medical Science (GUMS) students as pedestrian and car occupants in relation to traffic law based on Health Belief Model. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during 2012 in GUMS. A total of 370 students of GUMS were selected using multi-stage sampling method  including stratified and  random  sampling. Data were collected by using a reliable and valid questionnaire. All the participants filled the questionnaire and the data was extracted according to previously described method. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 18 Software. Descriptive statistic and Spearman correlation was used for analyzing the data. Results: Mean age of the participants was 20.92±1.98 (range 17-32) years. Mean score of perceived susceptibility was 81.87±17.18, being in desirable level. Mean score of perceived severity was 73.39±18.4, being also in desirable level. Mean score of perceived benefits was 77.22 ±16.13, which was also assumed to be in desirable level. Mean score of perceived barriers was 53.46±16.27, assumed as moderate level. In the same way the mean score of practice was 66.17±17.51, so practice in students was in moderate level. Television was the most important cues to action. Conclusion: Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits regarding safety behaviors was in good level but perceived barriers and behavior was in moderate level and according to the importance of Television, we recommended appropriate intervention such as health education and advocacy, especially through national Television. PMID:27162879

  20. Application of the health belief model and social cognitive theory for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in a sample of Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the health belief model (HBM) and social cognitive theory (SCT) for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients who were women and registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran were selected. A questionnaire consisting of HBM constructs and the constructs of self-regulation and social support from SCT was used to measure nutrition performance. Bone mineral density was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur. The intervention for the experimental group included 10 educational sessions of 55-60 min of speech, group discussion, questions and answers, as well as posters and educational pamphlets, film screenings, and PowerPoint displays. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 via Chi-square test, independent t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. Results: After intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the HBM constructs, self-regulation, social support, and nutrition performance, compared to the control group. Six months after the intervention, the value of lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score increased to 0.127 in the experimental group, while it reduced to −0.043 in the control group. The value of the hip BMD T-score increased to 0.125 in the intervention group, but it decreased to −0.028 in the control group. Conclusions: This study showed the effectiveness of HBM and constructs of self-regulation and social support on adoption of nutrition behaviors and increase in the bone density to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:27095985

  1. Use of Health Belief Model Variables To Examine Self-Reported Food Handling Behaviors in a Sample of U.S. Adults Attending a Tailgate Event.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Hughes, Susan M; Liu, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Unsafe food handling behaviors are common among consumers, and, given the venue, individuals attending a tailgating event may be at risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to measure the association between Health Belief Model variables and self-reported usual food handling behaviors in a convenience sample of men and women at a tailgate event. Participants (n = 128) completed validated subscales for self-reported food handling behaviors (i.e., cross-contamination, sanitation), perceived threat of foodborne illness (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility), and safe food handling cues to action (i.e., media cues, educational cues). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was associated with safer behaviors related to sanitation (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and cross-contamination (r = 0.33; P = 0.001). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was also associated with exposure to safe food handling media cues (r = 0.20; P = 0.027) but not with safe food handling educational cues. A large proportion of participants reported that they never or seldom (i) read newspaper or magazine articles about foodborne illness (65.6%); (ii) read brochures about safe ways to handle food (61.7%); (iii) see store displays that explain ways to handle food (51.6%); or (iv) read the "safe handling instructions" on packages of raw meat and poultry (46.9%). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to both dimensions of safe food handling as well as with safe food handling media cues. Except for the weak correlation between media cues and perceived severity, the relationships between safe food handling cues and perceived threat, as well as between safe food handling cues and behaviors, were nonsignificant. This finding may be due, in part, to the participants' overall low exposure to safe food handling cues. The overall results of this study reinforce the postulate that perceived severity of foodborne illness may influence food handling behaviors

  2. Agent Communication for Dynamic Belief Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Mikito; Tojo, Satoshi

    Thus far, various formalizations of rational / logical agent model have been proposed. In this paper, we include the notion of communication channel and belief modality into update logic, and introduce Belief Update Logic (BUL). First, we discuss that how we can reformalize the inform action of FIPA-ACL into communication channel, which represents a connection between agents. Thus, our agents can send a message only when they believe, and also there actually is, a channel between him / her and a receiver. Then, we present a static belief logic (BL) and show its soundness and completeness. Next, we develop the logic to BUL, which can update Kripke model by the inform action; in which we show that in the updated model the belief operator also satisfies K45. Thereafter, we show that every sentence in BUL can be translated into BL; thus, we can contend that BUL is also sound and complete. Furthermore, we discuss the features of CUL, including the case of inconsistent information, as well as channel transmission. Finally, we summarize our contribution and discuss some future issues.

  3. Modeling the stylized facts in finance through simple nonlinear adaptive systems

    PubMed Central

    Hommes, Cars H.

    2002-01-01

    Recent work on adaptive systems for modeling financial markets is discussed. Financial markets are viewed as evolutionary systems between different, competing trading strategies. Agents are boundedly rational in the sense that they tend to follow strategies that have performed well, according to realized profits or accumulated wealth, in the recent past. Simple technical trading rules may survive evolutionary competition in a heterogeneous world where prices and beliefs co-evolve over time. Evolutionary models can explain important stylized facts, such as fat tails, clustered volatility, and long memory, of real financial series. PMID:12011401

  4. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  5. Assessing the Belief Bias Effect with ROCs: Reply to Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Kellen, David

    2011-01-01

    Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010) argued (a) that the so-called receiver operating characteristic is nonlinear for data on belief bias in syllogistic reasoning; (b) that their data are inconsistent with Klauer, Musch, and Naumer's (2000) model of belief bias; (c) that their data are inconsistent with any of the existing accounts of belief bias and…

  6. Towards the Measurement of EFL Listening Beliefs with Item Response Theory Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, John-Michael L.; Tseng, Wen-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present research aims to identify the underlying English listening belief structure of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners, thereby informing methodologies for subsequent analysis of beliefs with respect to listening achievement. Development of a measurement model of English listening learning beliefs entailed the creation of an…

  7. Kinetic Modeling of Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of how the constituent components of a natural system interact defines the spatio-temporal response of the system to stimuli. Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic kinetic simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing kinetic simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available kinetic simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided. PMID:19381542

  8. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  9. Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Dynamic and Complex Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Hongying

    2013-01-01

    Research on teachers' beliefs has provided useful insights into understanding processes of teaching. However, no research has explored teachers' beliefs as a system nor have researchers investigated the substance of interactions between teachers' beliefs, practices and context. Therefore, the author adopts complexity theory to…

  10. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  11. Development of Interests and Competency Beliefs: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study of Fifth- to Eighth-Grade Students Using the ICA-R and Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2002-01-01

    The relative influence of interest and self-efficacy beliefs on each other over 1 year was examined in 2 longitudinal samples of students, 1 of elementary school students (Grade 5, N = 126) and 1 of middle school students (Grade 7, N = 221). Interest and competence ratings on the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and…

  12. Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-07

    -04) created at INL to work inside SharePoint. The GUI tool links slider bars and drop downs to specific inputs and output of the ModelCenter model that is executable from SharePoint. The modeler also creates in SAS, dashboards, graphs and tables that are exposed by links and SAS and ModelCenter Web Parts into the SharePoint system. The user can then log into SharePoint, move slider bars and select drop down lists to configure the model parameters, click to run the model, and then view the output results that are based on their particular input choices. The main point is that GEMS eliminates the need for a programmer to connect and create the web artifacts necessary to implement and deliver an executable model or decision aid to customers.

  13. Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems

    2012-02-07

    Part (CW-12-04) created at INL to work inside SharePoint. The GUI tool links slider bars and drop downs to specific inputs and output of the ModelCenter model that is executable from SharePoint. The modeler also creates in SAS, dashboards, graphs and tables that are exposed by links and SAS and ModelCenter Web Parts into the SharePoint system. The user can then log into SharePoint, move slider bars and select drop down lists to configure the model parameters, click to run the model, and then view the output results that are based on their particular input choices. The main point is that GEMS eliminates the need for a programmer to connect and create the web artifacts necessary to implement and deliver an executable model or decision aid to customers.« less

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Modeling Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenberg, M.

    2004-10-01

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as `complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a compehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this `wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany--Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success!

  15. Modelling robotic systems with DADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, L. W.; Sharf, I.

    1993-01-01

    With the appearance of general off-the-shelf software packages for the simulation of mechanical systems, modelling and simulation of mechanisms has become an easier task. The authors have recently used one such package, DADS, to model the dynamics of rigid and flexible-link robotic manipulators. In this paper, we present this overview of our learning experiences with DADS, in the hope that it will shorten the learning process for others interested in this software.

  16. Popular knowledge and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Although few things are as common as yawning, it has traditionally held little interest for researchers and enquiring minds of all disciplines. Yawning is a recognized behavior in almost all vertebrates, present throughout life, which often procures a sense of well-being for the yawner. Modern science is still searching for a complete explanation of the mechanisms and purpose of yawning, with debate about its usefulness as a stimulatory mechanism still ongoing. In this paper, we offer an overview of the popular beliefs and myths seen within Arabic, Western and Indian cultures.

  17. Changes in Belief Orientations of Preservice Teachers and Their Relation to Inquiry Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilitsis, Vicky; Duncan, Ravit Golan

    2012-12-01

    Research in science education suggests that teachers' beliefs are linked to the use of inquiry-based instruction; teachers holding a constructivist belief are more likely to engage in student-centered activities in the classroom. However, there is currently little research on the ways in which teachers' beliefs change over time, and in particular, the relationship between instructional activities in teacher education programs and their impact on teachers' beliefs. We examined shifts in secondary preservice teachers' belief orientations as they progressed through a science methods course. We found that overall many of the preservice teachers progressed in their orientation beliefs from a teacher-centered orientation to more student-centered orientation. We characterized four trajectories of change or clusters that describe how preservice teachers' beliefs changed over the course of the semester (15 weeks). We also describe the different ways in which preservice teachers reacted to specific instructional activities, and how those activities influenced their belief orientation. In particular, we found that preservice teachers in a cluster that exhibited a particular trajectory (progression or regression toward/away from student-centered belief orientation) reacted differently to some activities compared to preservice teachers in some other clusters. We discuss these shifts as reflecting changes in priorities of beliefs within belief systems. We argue that teacher educators need to think carefully about the interplay of these beliefs when designing activities so that they can respond (i.e., to a reversal in beliefs) during the course rather than waiting until the end.

  18. Obsessive beliefs and neurocognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Cheryl; Cassin, Stephanie E; Rector, Neil A

    2011-05-15

    A substantial proportion of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not endorse the dysfunctional beliefs proposed by cognitive models of OCD to be important in the onset and maintenance of symptoms. Previous research has attempted to characterize Low and High obsessive beliefs groups in terms of cognitive and symptom correlates to distil potential etiological differences in these subgroups of OCD patients. The current study sought to further examine potential neurocognitive differences between obsessive beliefs subgroups. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was compared between a Low Beliefs OCD subgroup, a High Beliefs OCD subgroup, and two anxious control groups: Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PDA) and Social Phobia (SP). The High Beliefs OCD subgroup performed significantly poorer on WCST subscales compared to the other diagnostic groups. These findings were not accounted for by severity of OCD or depressive symptoms. The Low Beliefs OCD subgroup performed similar to the anxiety disorder control groups. The results suggest a potential interplay between heightened obsessive beliefs and neurocognitive inflexibility.

  19. Cholinergic Stimulation Enhances Bayesian Belief Updating in the Deployment of Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Markus; Mathys, Christoph; Adams, Rick A.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanisms whereby the cholinergic neurotransmitter system contributes to attentional processing remain poorly understood. Here, we applied computational modeling to psychophysical data (obtained from a spatial attention task) under a psychopharmacological challenge with the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (Reminyl). This allowed us to characterize the cholinergic modulation of selective attention formally, in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject, crossover design, 16 healthy human subjects performed a modified version of Posner's location-cueing task in which the proportion of validly and invalidly cued targets (percentage of cue validity, % CV) changed over time. Saccadic response speeds were used to estimate the parameters of a hierarchical Bayesian model to test whether cholinergic stimulation affected the trial-wise updating of probabilistic beliefs that underlie the allocation of attention or whether galantamine changed the mapping from those beliefs to subsequent eye movements. Behaviorally, galantamine led to a greater influence of probabilistic context (% CV) on response speed than placebo. Crucially, computational modeling suggested this effect was due to an increase in the rate of belief updating about cue validity (as opposed to the increased sensitivity of behavioral responses to those beliefs). We discuss these findings with respect to cholinergic effects on hierarchical cortical processing and in relation to the encoding of expected uncertainty or precision. PMID:25411501

  20. Cholinergic stimulation enhances Bayesian belief updating in the deployment of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Simone; Bauer, Markus; Mathys, Christoph; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J; Stephan, Klaas E; Friston, Karl J

    2014-11-19

    The exact mechanisms whereby the cholinergic neurotransmitter system contributes to attentional processing remain poorly understood. Here, we applied computational modeling to psychophysical data (obtained from a spatial attention task) under a psychopharmacological challenge with the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (Reminyl). This allowed us to characterize the cholinergic modulation of selective attention formally, in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject, crossover design, 16 healthy human subjects performed a modified version of Posner's location-cueing task in which the proportion of validly and invalidly cued targets (percentage of cue validity, % CV) changed over time. Saccadic response speeds were used to estimate the parameters of a hierarchical Bayesian model to test whether cholinergic stimulation affected the trial-wise updating of probabilistic beliefs that underlie the allocation of attention or whether galantamine changed the mapping from those beliefs to subsequent eye movements. Behaviorally, galantamine led to a greater influence of probabilistic context (% CV) on response speed than placebo. Crucially, computational modeling suggested this effect was due to an increase in the rate of belief updating about cue validity (as opposed to the increased sensitivity of behavioral responses to those beliefs). We discuss these findings with respect to cholinergic effects on hierarchical cortical processing and in relation to the encoding of expected uncertainty or precision. PMID:25411501

  1. Psychological and Educational Intervention to Improve Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Ethiopia Based on Health Belief Model: A Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Kebede, Abebaw; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kassa, Desta; Klinkenberg, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment non-adherence results in treatment failure, prolonged transmission of disease and emergence of drug resistance. Although the problem widely investigated, there remains an information gap on the effectiveness of different methods to improve treatment adherence and the predictors of non-adherence in resource limited countries based on theoretical models. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of psychological counseling and educational intervention on tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence based on Health Belief Model (HBM). Methodology A cluster randomized control trial was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Patients were enrolled into study consecutively from 30 randomly selected Health Centers (HCs) (14 HCs intervention and 16 HCs control groups). A total of 698 TB patients, who were on treatment for one month to two months were enrolled. A structured questionnaire was administered to both groups of patients at baseline and endpoint of study. Control participants received routine directly-observed anti-TB therapy and the intervention group additionally received combined psychological counseling and adherence education. Treatment non-adherence level was the main outcome of the study, and multilevel logistic regression was employed to assess the impact of intervention on treatment adherence. Results At enrollment, the level of non-adherence among intervention (19.4%) and control (19.6%) groups was almost the same. However, after intervention, non-adherence level decreased among intervention group from 19.4 (at baseline) to 9.5% (at endpoint), while it increased among control group from 19.4% (baseline) to 25.4% (endpoint). Psychological counseling and educational interventions resulted in significant difference with regard to non-adherence level between intervention and control groups (Adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.18–0.53), p < 0.001)). Conclusion Psychological counseling and educational interventions

  2. Video distribution system cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershkoff, I.; Haspert, J. K.; Morgenstern, B.

    1980-01-01

    A cost model that can be used to systematically identify the costs of procuring and operating satellite linked communications systems is described. The user defines a network configuration by specifying the location of each participating site, the interconnection requirements, and the transmission paths available for the uplink (studio to satellite), downlink (satellite to audience), and voice talkback (between audience and studio) segments of the network. The model uses this information to calculate the least expensive signal distribution path for each participating site. Cost estimates are broken downy by capital, installation, lease, operations and maintenance. The design of the model permits flexibility in specifying network and cost structure.

  3. Assessing climate change beliefs: Response effects of question wording and response alternatives.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Murni; Leviston, Zoe; Leonard, Rosemary; Walker, Iain

    2014-11-01

    To date, there is no 'gold standard' on how to best measure public climate change beliefs. We report a study (N = 897) testing four measures of climate change causation beliefs, drawn from four sources: the CSIRO, Griffith University, the Gallup poll, and the Newspoll. We found that question wording influences the outcome of beliefs reported. Questions that did not allow respondents to choose the option of believing in an equal mix of natural and anthropogenic climate change obtained different results to those that included the option. Age and belief groups were found to be important predictors of how consistent people were in reporting their beliefs. Response consistency gave some support to past findings suggesting climate change beliefs reflect something deeper in the individual belief system. Each belief question was assessed against five criterion variables commonly used in climate change literature. Implications for future studies are discussed.

  4. Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.

  5. Issues in Modeling System Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Annis, Chuck; Booker, Jane; Robinson, David; Sues, Rob

    2002-10-01

    This paper discusses various issues in modeling system reliability. The topics include: 1) Statistical formalisms versus pragmatic numerics; 2) Language; 3) Statistical methods versus reliability-based design methods; 4) Professional bias; and 5) Real issues that need to be identified and resolved prior to certifying designs. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  6. Marine systems analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedra, K.

    1995-03-01

    Oceanography and marine ecology have a considerable history in the use of computers for modeling both physical and ecological processes. With increasing stress on the marine environment due to human activities such as fisheries and numerous forms of pollution, the analysis of marine problems must increasingly and jointly consider physical, ecological and socio-economic aspects in a broader systems framework that transcends more traditional disciplinary boundaries. This often introduces difficult-to-quantify, “soft” elements, such as values and perceptions, into formal analysis. Thus, the problem domain combines a solid foundation in the physical sciences, with strong elements of ecological, socio-economic and political considerations. At the same time, the domain is also characterized by both a very large volume of some data, and an extremely datapoor situation for other variables, as well as a very high degree of uncertainty, partly due to the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the marine environment. Consequently, marine systems analysis and management require tools that can integrate these diverse aspects into efficient information systems that can support research as well as planning and also policy- and decisionmaking processes. Supporting scientific research, as well as decision-making processes and the diverse groups and actors involved, requires better access and direct understanding of the information basis as well as easy-to-use, but powerful tools for analysis. Advanced information technology provides the tools to design and implement smart software where, in a broad sense, the emphasis is on the man-machine interface. Symbolic and analogous, graphical interaction, visual representation of problems, integrated data sources, and built-in domain knowledge can effectively support users of complex and complicated software systems. Integration, interaction, visualization and intelligence are key concepts that are discussed in detail, using an

  7. External Criticism by Parents and Obsessive Beliefs in Adolescents: Mediating Role of Beliefs Associated With Inflated Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Halvaiepour, Zohreh; Nosratabadi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is considered as a rare disorder in children. According to cognitive theories, criticism triggers responsibility behavior and thus causes obsessive behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of beliefs associated with responsibility in the relationship between external criticism of parents and obsessive beliefs in adolescents. Materials and Methods: In this study, 547 high school students aged from 15 to18 years were selected using multi-stage cluster random sampling from four regions of the education office in Shiraz. Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-child version (OBQ-CV), Pathway to Inflated Responsibility beliefs Scale (PIRBS), and perceived criticism questionnaire were used to collect data. Pearson’s correlation was used to investigate the relationship between the study variables. For analysis of mediation model, multiple mediators analysis using Macro Software was used. Results: External criticism only indirectly and through beliefs associated with inflated responsibility accounts for 6% of the variance of responsibility, 14% of the variance of threat estimation and 10% of the variance of perfectionism of obsessive beliefs (P<0.05). However, external criticism, both directly and indirectly and through beliefs associated with inflated responsibility accounts for 7% of the variance of the importance of obsessive beliefs. Conclusion: This study showed that the beliefs associated with inflated responsibility can mediate the relationship between external criticism and obsessive beliefs. According to the cognitive model of Salkovskis, criticism by parents, as a violation to and an influence on children, by affecting the subscales of inflated responsibility, can increase the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In order to identify potential affecting mechanisms of criticism on obsessive-compulsive disorder, further experimental research is required. PMID

  8. Cotangent Models for Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda, Eva

    2016-07-01

    We associate cotangent models to a neighbourhood of a Liouville torus in symplectic and Poisson manifolds focusing on b-Poisson/b-symplectic manifolds. The semilocal equivalence with such models uses the corresponding action-angle theorems in these settings: the theorem of Liouville-Mineur-Arnold for symplectic manifolds and an action-angle theorem for regular Liouville tori in Poisson manifolds (Laurent- Gengoux et al., IntMath Res Notices IMRN 8: 1839-1869, 2011). Our models comprise regular Liouville tori of Poisson manifolds but also consider the Liouville tori on the singular locus of a b-Poisson manifold. For this latter class of Poisson structures we define a twisted cotangent model. The equivalence with this twisted cotangent model is given by an action-angle theorem recently proved by the authors and Scott (Math. Pures Appl. (9) 105(1):66-85, 2016). This viewpoint of cotangent models provides a new machinery to construct examples of integrable systems, which are especially valuable in the b-symplectic case where not many sources of examples are known. At the end of the paper we introduce non-degenerate singularities as lifted cotangent models on b-symplectic manifolds and discuss some generalizations of these models to general Poisson manifolds.

  9. Belief Propagation Algorithm for Portfolio Optimization Problems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The typical behavior of optimal solutions to portfolio optimization problems with absolute deviation and expected shortfall models using replica analysis was pioneeringly estimated by S. Ciliberti et al. [Eur. Phys. B. 57, 175 (2007)]; however, they have not yet developed an approximate derivation method for finding the optimal portfolio with respect to a given return set. In this study, an approximation algorithm based on belief propagation for the portfolio optimization problem is presented using the Bethe free energy formalism, and the consistency of the numerical experimental results of the proposed algorithm with those of replica analysis is confirmed. Furthermore, the conjecture of H. Konno and H. Yamazaki, that the optimal solutions with the absolute deviation model and with the mean-variance model have the same typical behavior, is verified using replica analysis and the belief propagation algorithm. PMID:26305462

  10. System modelling for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Aguiló, Marc; Grynagier, Adrien; Rais, Boutheina

    LISA Pathfinder is the technology demonstrator for LISA, a space-borne gravitational waves observatory. The goal of the mission is to characterise the dynamics of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) to prove that on-board experimental conditions are compatible with the de-tection of gravitational waves. The LTP is a drag-free dynamics experiment which includes a control loop with sensors (interferometric and capacitive), actuators (capacitive actuators and thrusters), controlled disturbances (magnetic coils, heaters) and which is subject to various endogenous or exogenous noise sources such as infrared pressure or solar wind. The LTP experiment features new hardware which was never flown in space. The mission has a tight operation timeline as it is constrained to about 100 days. It is therefore vital to have efficient and precise means of investigation and diagnostics to be used during the on-orbit operations. These will be conducted using the LTP Data Analysis toolbox (LTPDA) which allows for simulation, parameter identification and various analyses (covariance analysis, state estimation) given an experimental model. The LTPDA toolbox therefore contains a series of models which are state-space representations of each component in the LTP. The State-Space Models (SSM) are objects of a state-space class within the LTPDA toolbox especially designed to address all the requirements of this tool. The user has access to a set of linear models which represent every satellite subsystem; the models are available in different forms representing 1D, 2D and 3D systems, each with settable symbolic and numeric parameters. To limit the possible errors, the models can be automatically linked to produce composite systems and closed-loops of the LTP. Finally, for the sake of completeness, accuracy and maintainability of the tool, the models contain all the physical information they mimic (i.e. variable units, description of parameters, description of inputs/outputs, etc). Models

  11. Graph modeling systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Neergaard, Mike

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  12. Probabilistic belief networks for genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Harris, N L

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes a program, GenInfer, which uses belief networks to calculate risks of inheriting genetic disorders. GenInfer is based on Pearl's (J. Pearl, Artif. Intell. 29 (1986) 241-288) algorithm for fusion and propagation in probabilistic belief networks. It is written in Common Lisp. GenInfer can calculate genotypes for any family affected with any single-gene inherited disorder. Besides considering both negative and positive information in the pedigree. GenInfer takes into account additional information about the specific disorder as well as supplementary information for family members. The output consists of genotype probabilities for all family members and estimated genetic risks for prospective children of the consultands. Belief networks provide a way to calculate probabilities for systems of conditionally dependent variables. The impacts of various pieces of information are propagated and fused in such a way that, when equilibrium is reached, each proposition can be assigned a degree of belief consistent with the axioms of probability theory. In Pearl's algorithm, information is communicated through the network by messages sent between nodes. Pearl's basic algorithm cannot directly handle multiple-connected networks, which arise in the genetic counseling domain whenever a family pedigree includes consanguinity or more than one child per couple. GenInfer makes use of two cycle breaking methods, clustering and conditioning, to handle these situations. PMID:2401132

  13. The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities

  14. The emergent neural modeling system.

    PubMed

    Aisa, Brad; Mingus, Brian; O'Reilly, Randy

    2008-10-01

    Emergent (http://grey.colorado.edu/emergent) is a powerful tool for the simulation of biologically plausible, complex neural systems that was released in August 2007. Inheriting decades of research and experience in network algorithms and modeling principles from its predecessors, PDP++ and PDP, Emergent has been redesigned as an efficient workspace for academic research and an engaging, easy-to-navigate environment for students. The system provides a modern and intuitive interface for programming and visualization centered around hierarchical, tree-based navigation and drag-and-drop reorganization. Emergent contains familiar, high-level simulation constructs such as Layers and Projections, a wide variety of algorithms, general-purpose data handling and analysis facilities and an integrated virtual environment for developing closed-loop cognitive agents. For students, the traditional role of a textbook has been enhanced by wikis embedded in every project that serve to explain, document, and help newcomers engage the interface and step through models using familiar hyperlinks. For advanced users, the software is easily extensible in all respects via runtime plugins, has a powerful shell with an integrated debugger, and a scripting language that is fully symmetric with the interface. Emergent strikes a balance between detailed, computationally expensive spiking neuron models and abstract, Bayesian or symbolic systems. This middle level of detail allows for the rapid development and successful execution of complex cognitive models while maintaining biological plausibility.

  15. Religious Beliefs in Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fysh, Robert; Lucas, Keith B.

    1998-01-01

    Beliefs about science and religion held by students (n=44), teachers (n=10), and clergy (n=4) in a Lutheran secondary school in Australia were assessed via survey and interview. Participants' views of the relationship between science and religious beliefs were complex. Concludes that traditional science programs do not adequately address the range…

  16. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  17. Bulimic Beliefs: Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Barbara G.; Anderson, Wayne P.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa share characteristic pattern of thinking which must be understood if effective treatment is to take place. Presents these beliefs, gathered by clinical experience and literature review, in format describing each belief, discussing common causes for its development, and suggesting therapeutic…

  18. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  19. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  20. Graphs as Statements of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2002-01-01

    Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)

  1. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  2. Duality methods in networks, computer science models, and disordered condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Joseph Dan

    In this thesis, I explore lattice independent duality and systems to which it can be applied. I first demonstrate classical duality on models in an external field, including the Ising, Potts, and x -- y models, showing in particular how this modifies duality to be lattice independent and applicable to networks. I then present a novel application of duality on the boolean satsifiability problem, one of the most important problems in computational complexity, through mapping to a low temperature Ising model. This establishes the equivalence between boolean satisfiability and a problem of enumerating the positive solutions to a Diophantine system of equations. I continue by combining duality with a prominent tool for models on networks, belief propagation, deriving a new message passing procedure, dual belief propagation. In the final part of my thesis, I shift to propose and examine a semiclassical model, the two-component Coulomb glass model, which can explain the giant magnetoresistance peak present in disordered films near a superconductor-insulator transition as the effect of competition between single particle and localized pair transport. I numerically analyze the density of states and transport properties of this model.

  3. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  4. Probabilistic models for feedback systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Matthew D.; Boggs, Paul T.

    2011-02-01

    In previous work, we developed a Bayesian-based methodology to analyze the reliability of hierarchical systems. The output of the procedure is a statistical distribution of the reliability, thus allowing many questions to be answered. The principal advantage of the approach is that along with an estimate of the reliability, we also can provide statements of confidence in the results. The model is quite general in that it allows general representations of all of the distributions involved, it incorporates prior knowledge into the models, it allows errors in the 'engineered' nodes of a system to be determined by the data, and leads to the ability to determine optimal testing strategies. In this report, we provide the preliminary steps necessary to extend this approach to systems with feedback. Feedback is an essential component of 'complexity' and provides interesting challenges in modeling the time-dependent action of a feedback loop. We provide a mechanism for doing this and analyze a simple case. We then consider some extensions to more interesting examples with local control affecting the entire system. Finally, a discussion of the status of the research is also included.

  5. Visual attentional capture predicts belief in a meaningful world.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Kramer, Peter; Germani, Mara

    2008-01-01

    Here we show that the automatic, involuntary process of attentional capture is predictive of beliefs that are typically considered as much more complex and higher-level. Whereas some beliefs are well supported by evidence, others, such as the belief that coincidences occur for a reason, are not. We argue that the tendency to assign meaning to coincidences is a byproduct of an adaptive system that creates and maintains cognitive schemata, and automatically directs attention to violations of a currently active schema. Earlier studies have shown that, within subjects, attentional capture increases with schema strength. Yet, between-subjects effects could exist too: whereas each of us has schemata of various strengths, most likely different individuals are differently inclined to maintain strong or weak ones. Since schemata can be interpreted as beliefs, we predict more attentional capture for subjects with stronger beliefs than for subjects with weaker ones. We measured visual attentional capture in a reaction time experiment, and correlated it with scores on questionnaires about religious and other beliefs and about meaningfulness and surprisingness of coincidences. We found that visual attentional capture predicts a belief in meaningfulness of coincidences, and that this belief mediates a relationship between visual attentional capture and religiosity. Remarkably, strong believers were more disturbed by schema violations than weak believers, and yet appeared less aware of the disrupting events. We conclude that (a) religious people have a stronger belief in meaningfulness of coincidences, indicative of a more general tendency to maintain strong schemata, and that (b) this belief leads them to suppress, ignore, or forget information that has demonstrably captured their attention, but happens to be inconsistent with their schemata.

  6. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  7. Daily affect and daily beliefs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Daniels, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Human resource directorate employees of a large United Kingdom public hospital (N=36) completed an initial questionnaire and then participated in a daily diary study. The questionnaire included measures of affect and beliefs about high work demands' influence on affect and work performance. The diary included measures of affect, extent of high work demands, and daily beliefs, corresponding to those measured in the questionnaire. Participants were required to complete the diary twice daily, before and after work over a 2-week period. Measures of affect after work were associated with beliefs concerning work demands' influence on work performance and on affect measured after work. Beliefs about work demands measured in the questionnaire were associated with subsequent daily assessments of beliefs.

  8. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  9. Modeling Epistemic and Ontological Cognition: Philosophical Perspectives and Methodological Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey A.; Azevedo, Roger A.; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integration of aspects of several developmental and systems of beliefs models of personal epistemology. Qualitatively different positions, including realism, dogmatism, skepticism, and rationalism, are characterized according to individuals' beliefs across three dimensions in a model of epistemic and ontological cognition. This model…

  10. Airfoil flutter model suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel suspension system for testing flutter models under various loads and at various angles of attack is described. The invention comprises a mounting bracket assembly affixing the suspension system to the wind tunnel, a drag-link assembly and a compound spring arrangement comprises a plunge spring working in opposition to a compressive spring so as to provide a high stiffness to trim out steady state loads and simultaneously a low stiffness to dynamic loads. By this arrangement an airfoil may be tested for oscillatory response in both plunge and pitch modes while being held under high lifting loads in a wind tunnel.

  11. Changes in teacher efficacy and beliefs during a one-year teacher preparation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockman, Alison Schirmer

    This study attempted to further understanding of factors affecting the teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary science preservice teachers, and to develop a model relating teacher efficacy to beliefs about teaching and students. A mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology was utilized in order to track participants' beliefs both broadly and in depth throughout a one-year teacher preparation program. Results from this analysis revealed that preservice teachers at the end of the program had significantly higher personal science teaching efficacy beliefs than at the beginning of the program. No significant difference in science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs was found, although individual preservice teachers did develop alternate beliefs. Teacher efficacy beliefs were directly affected by three of Bandura's four sources of self-efficacy beliefs---Mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and verbal persuasion---with the influence of each source of self-efficacy information appearing to change during the course of the teacher preparation program. No evidence was found that affective states by themselves had resulted in belief changes, although many of the other experiences were more powerful because they were accompanied by an emotional incident. Connections between teacher efficacy beliefs, beliefs about students, and beliefs about teaching were uncovered, as was the importance of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge on a teacher's sense of efficacy.

  12. Models for multimegawatt space power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenburn, M. W.

    1990-06-01

    This report describes models for multimegawatt, space power systems which Sandia's Advanced Power Systems Division has constructed to help evaluate space power systems for SDI's Space Power Office. Five system models and models for associated components are presented for both open (power system waste products are exhausted into space) and closed (no waste products) systems: open, burst mode, hydrogen cooled nuclear reactor - turboalternator system; open, hydrogen-oxygen combustion turboalternator system; closed, nuclear reactor powered Brayton cycle system; closed, liquid metal Rankine cycle system; and closed, in-core, reactor thermionic system. The models estimate performance and mass for the components in each of these systems.

  13. Models for multimegawatt space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-06-01

    This report describes models for multimegawatt, space power systems which Sandia's Advanced Power Systems Division has constructed to help evaluate space power systems for SDI's Space Power Office. Five system models and models for associated components are presented for both open (power system waste products are exhausted into space) and closed (no waste products) systems: open, burst mode, hydrogen cooled nuclear reactor -- turboalternator system; open, hydrogen-oxygen combustion turboalternator system; closed, nuclear reactor powered Brayton cycle system; closed, liquid metal Rankine cycle system; and closed, in-core, reactor therminonic system. The models estimate performance and mass for the components in each of these systems. 17 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Fire in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, S.; Lasslop, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is the most important disturbance process for vegetation impacting the land carbon cycle. Only recently fire models have been developed that are able to represent the important role of fire for vegetation dynamics and land carbon cycling at global scale. Here, we investigate how fire is represented in Earth System Models (ESMs) that participated in the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and present more recent advances in global fire modeling for upcoming CMIPs. Burned area and carbon emissions from fire are among the variables reported in CMIP5. ESMs from CMIP5 use common simulation and output protocols, enabling direct comparisons between models. For this study ESMs were selected from the CMIP5 repository based on the availability of burned area and/or carbon emissions from fires for the historical and the rcp2.6/4.5/8.5 simulations. All ESMs analyzed show a comparable global total burned area of about 150 to 200 Mha burned per year for the present day period, which is lower than satellite based observations (e.g. GFEDv3 ~370 Mha/year). Most models show over the historical period (1850 - 2005) only a weak change in global fire activity and for the future (2006 - 2100) strong increases in fire activity for rcp4.5 and rcp8.5, but only moderate changes for the rcp2.6 projection. Regionally the response differs strongly between the models, which is partly related to different climate projections. We further analysed the simulated changes in fire activity with respect to simulated changes in temperature and precipitation from which no general pattern of the sensitivity of fire carbon emissions towards changes in climate emerged. We will end the presentation with more recent results from the JSBACH-SPITFIRE model to give some insights into the capability of global fire models that will take part in upcoming CMIPs.

  15. Aerial Measuring System Sensor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Detwiler

    2002-04-01

    This project deals with the modeling the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) fixed-wing and rotary-wing sensor systems, which are critical U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management assets. The fixed-wing system is critical in detecting lost or stolen radiography or medical sources, or mixed fission products as from a commercial power plant release at high flying altitudes. The helicopter is typically used at lower altitudes to determine ground contamination, such as in measuring americium from a plutonium ground dispersal during a cleanup. Since the sensitivity of these instruments as a function of altitude is crucial in estimating detection limits of various ground contaminations and necessary count times, a characterization of their sensitivity as a function of altitude and energy is needed. Experimental data at altitude as well as laboratory benchmarks is important to insure that the strong effects of air attenuation are modeled correctly. The modeling presented here is the first attempt at such a characterization of the equipment for flying altitudes. The sodium iodide (NaI) sensors utilized with these systems were characterized using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For the fixed wing system, calculations modeled the spectral response for the 3-element NaI detector pod and High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, in the relevant energy range of 50 keV to 3 MeV. NaI detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and flying altitude. For point sources, photopeak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 {micro}Ci/m{sup 2}. The helicopter calculations modeled the transport of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am

  16. Propulsion System Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Jimmy C. M.; McClure, Erin K.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Burg, Cecile

    2002-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at the School of Aerospace Engineering in Georgia Institute of Technology has developed a core competency that enables propulsion technology managers to make technology investment decisions substantiated by propulsion and airframe technology system studies. This method assists the designer/manager in selecting appropriate technology concepts while accounting for the presence of risk and uncertainty as well as interactions between disciplines. This capability is incorporated into a single design simulation system that is described in this paper. This propulsion system design environment is created with a commercially available software called iSIGHT, which is a generic computational framework, and with analysis programs for engine cycle, engine flowpath, mission, and economic analyses. iSIGHT is used to integrate these analysis tools within a single computer platform and facilitate information transfer amongst the various codes. The resulting modeling and simulation (M&S) environment in conjunction with the response surface method provides the designer/decision-maker an analytical means to examine the entire design space from either a subsystem and/or system perspective. The results of this paper will enable managers to analytically play what-if games to gain insight in to the benefits (and/or degradation) of changing engine cycle design parameters. Furthermore, the propulsion design space will be explored probabilistically to show the feasibility and viability of the propulsion system integrated with a vehicle.

  17. Modeling software systems by domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippolito, Richard; Lee, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The Software Architectures Engineering (SAE) Project at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed engineering modeling techniques that both reduce the complexity of software for domain-specific computer systems and result in systems that are easier to build and maintain. These techniques allow maximum freedom for system developers to apply their domain expertise to software. We have applied these techniques to several types of applications, including training simulators operating in real time, engineering simulators operating in non-real time, and real-time embedded computer systems. Our modeling techniques result in software that mirrors both the complexity of the application and the domain knowledge requirements. We submit that the proper measure of software complexity reflects neither the number of software component units nor the code count, but the locus of and amount of domain knowledge. As a result of using these techniques, domain knowledge is isolated by fields of engineering expertise and removed from the concern of the software engineer. In this paper, we will describe kinds of domain expertise, describe engineering by domains, and provide relevant examples of software developed for simulator applications using the techniques.

  18. Overdose beliefs and management practices among ethnic Vietnamese heroin users in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Ho, Hien T

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic Vietnamese injecting drug users (IDUs) in Australia draw on a range of beliefs and etiologic models, sometimes simultaneously, in order to make sense of health and illness. These include understandings of illness as the result of internal imbalances and Western concepts of disease causation including germ/pollution theory. Methods Observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews were conducted between 2001 and 2006 in neighbourhoods characterised by high proportions of Asian background IDUs and street-based drug markets. Eligibility criteria for the study were: 1) ethnic Vietnamese cultural background; 2) aged 16 years and over and; 3) injected drugs in the last 6 months. Results Participants commonly attempted to treat heroin overdose by withdrawing blood (rút máu) from the body. Central to this practice are cultural beliefs about the role and function of blood in the body and its relationship to illness and health. Participants' beliefs in blood were strongly influenced by understandings of blood expressed in traditional Chinese and Vietnamese medicine. Many participants perceived Western drugs, particularly heroin, as "hot" and "strong". In overdose situations, it was commonly believed that an excessive amount of drugs (particularly heroin) entered the bloodstream and traveled to the heart, making the heart work too hard. Withdrawing blood was understood to reduce the amount of drugs in the body which in turn reduced the effects of drugs on the blood and the heart. Conclusion The explanatory model of overdose employed by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs privileges traditional beliefs about the circulatory, rather than the respiratory, system. This paper explores participants' beliefs about blood, the effects of drugs on blood and the causes of heroin overdose in order to document the explanatory model of overdose used by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs. Implications for overdose prevention, treatment and management are identified and discussed. PMID:19397811

  19. Quantitative Predictive Models for Systemic Toxicity (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models to identify systemic and specific target organ toxicity were developed to help transition the field of toxicology towards computational models. By leveraging multiple data sources to incorporate read-across and machine learning approaches, a quantitative model of systemic ...

  20. Models of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fellner, Lisa; Wenning, Gregor K.; Stefanova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a predominantly sporadic, adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. MSA is characterized by autonomic failure, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs in any combination. MSA belongs to a group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies, which also include Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Their common pathological feature is the occurrence of abnormal α-synuclein positive inclusions in neurons or glial cells. In MSA, the main cell type presenting aggregates composed of α-synuclein are oligodendroglial cells. This pathological hallmark, also called glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), is associated with progressive and profound neuronal loss in various regions of the brain. The development of animal models of MSA is justified by the limited understanding of the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and GCIs formation, which is paralleled by a lack of therapeutic strategies. Two main types of rodent models have been generated to replicate different features of MSA neuropathology. On one hand, neurotoxin-based models have been produced to reproduce neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum. On the other hand, transgenic mouse models with overexpression of α-synuclein in oligodendroglia have been used to reproduce GCIs-related pathology. This chapter gives an overview of the atypical Parkinson’s syndrome MSA and summarizes the currently available MSA animal models and their relevance for pre-clinical testing of disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24338664

  1. [Health beliefs for the control of arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Pires, Cláudia Geovana da Silva; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2008-12-01

    Health beliefs can interfere with the adherence to arterial hypertension therapy. The aim of this descriptive-exploratory study that adopted the Model of Health Beliefs as a theoretical reference was to estimate percentages of health beliefs about the benefits of prevention and control measures of arterial hypertension and to identify the social-demographic factors associated with these beliefs. The study was conducted in a Health Center in the city of Salvador, with 106 adults self-declared as black, and with a medical diagnosis of arterial hypertension. For the interviews we used a "Scale of Health Beliefs" about 13 behaviors related to disease prevention and control measures. The data analysis was based on percentage rates, frequency of cases and scores and the social-demographic factors associated to these beliefs were analyzed based on the prevalence rate. The global analysis showed predominance in the category "beliefs about benefits" for 12 behaviors. Men and women realized different benefits from these behaviors. The socio-economically less favored strata, young adults and individuals living without a partner tended to perceive less benefits from the prevention and control measures of arterial hypertension.

  2. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  3. Internal and External Beliefs as the Determinants of Use Continuance for an Internet Search Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soongeun; Kang, Young Sik; Lee, Heeseok; Lee, Jongwon

    The antecedents of IS use continuance is gaining research focus recently. The traditional beliefs based on TRA have been adopted as the main drivers of IS use continuance. They are based on the assumptions that continuance is a simple repetition of initial adoption because those belief constructs are the same with those for TAM. However, continued usage is a matter of continuous decision making in the competitive alternative systems. Furthermore, control factors such as habit, self efficacy, and self identity have been suggested to extend TRA. This study introduced self-identity, self-efficacy and perceived switching cost as a new driver for IS use continuance. 395 samples were collected from the users of a Korean internet search engine portal site. Data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows that while the effect of habit overwhelms the effect of intention on continuance, it is also mediated by self identity and self efficacy. These can be considered as the internal beliefs formed by the internalization of habit. On the contrary, external beliefs such as switching cost and perceived usefulness showed no significant effect on continuance.

  4. [Beliefs of diabetic patients about nutritional therapy and its influence on their compliance with treatment].

    PubMed

    Pontieri, Flavia Melo; Bachion, Maria Márcia

    2010-01-01

    The system of health beliefs influences the process of compliance with diabetes treatment. Compliance with nutritional therapy is one of the greatest challenges found. The purpose of this qualitative approach study was to analyze the beliefs of type 2 diabetic patients regarding nutritional therapy and its influence on the compliance with it. The participants of the study were nine patients being treated in a reference unit for diabetic patients' treatment. The procedures involved were blood exam to check the glycated hemoglobin, a questionnaire, semi-structured recorded interview and patient report checking. The analysis of the speeches was made using the thematic categories of Bardin (2000), and the models of Rokeach (1981) and Rosenstock (1974). All participants showed glycated hemoglobin levels higher than 7%, what shows that is difficult for them to control their glicemic levels and possible non compliance. After the analysis of the speeches, two thematic categories were identified: 'Recommendations received about feeding' and 'Nutritional therapy compliance'. Both categories showed authority beliefs and consensus zero, and barriers to nutritional therapy, which the participants see as a restrictive imposition. Those beliefs have negative influence on the compliance, and so, they have to be considered when providing health assistance to the population.

  5. The Impact of High Stakes Accountability Systems and the New Performance Demands on Special Education Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Robin Lee

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) articulates the goal that all children can learn and are expected to achieve grade level academic proficiency by 2014. Based on theories underlying models of extrinsic motivation, the fundamental assumption and theory of action is that a system of rewards and sanctions will motivate teachers to focus on…

  6. Negative emotions can attenuate the influence of beliefs on logical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod; Vartanian, Oshin

    2011-01-01

    Although the influence of beliefs on logical reasoning is well documented, how emotions modulate the effect of beliefs during reasoning remains unexamined. We instructed participants to reason about syllogisms involving neutral or emotionally charged content. We also manipulated the consistency of beliefs with logical validity. When content was neutral, participants exhibited the belief-bias effect observed in previous studies of reasoning. In contrast, when confronted with emotionally charged content participants were less likely to be influenced by their beliefs. Our results suggest that under certain conditions negative emotions can attenuate the influence of beliefs during logical reasoning. Drawing on the affect infusion model, we attribute this effect to a more vigilant, systematic scrutiny of beliefs in the presence of negative emotions.

  7. A Christmas without memories: Beliefs about grief and mothering--a clinical case analysis.

    PubMed

    Moules, Nancy J; Thirsk, Lorraine M; Bell, Janice M

    2006-11-01

    In clinical work using the Illness Beliefs Model, therapeutic leverage is focused on challenging constraining beliefs of family members that are contributing to their suffering. This challenge occurs in many ways, including offering alternative facilitating beliefs that may lead to healing rather than suffering. This article describes an exemplar of clinical work with a family who sought services in the Family Nursing Unit at the University of Calgary, with the presenting concern of unresolved grief. This analysis describes the therapeutic conversation that occurred between the family and a team of nurse clinicians, where the young woman's beliefs about grief and mothering were distinguished as beliefs that were contributing to her emotional pain and her belief in her mothering capabilities. The nursing team offered alternative beliefs of which the family rapidly embraced and, subsequently, experienced diminishment of the suffering previously experienced.

  8. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability

  9. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  10. Beliefs of Professional and Family Caregivers about the Sexuality of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Examining Beliefs Using a Q-Methodology Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randel D.; Pirtle, Trace

    2008-01-01

    This investigation described the perceptions of involved adults concerning the sexuality of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Participants completed a Q-sort with a concourse of 36 items. Analysis produced four different belief systems: advocates, supporters, regulators, and humanists. These belief systems describe the respondents' views…

  11. Mathematical modeling of radio systems and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Iu. P.; Tsvetnov, V. V.

    Methods for developing mathematical models of radio systems and devices are presented with emphasis on the functional approach to the modeling of radio systems. In particular, attention is given to the formal description of radio systems, computer-aided modeling of radio systems, a classification of methods of radio system modeling, and methods of mathematical description of signals and noise. Specific methods discussed include the carrier method, the complex envelope method, the method of statistical equivalents, and the information parameter method.

  12. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  13. Mass Transportation Operators' Beliefs about Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Pamela A.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated 171 mass transit operators' beliefs about blindness and the factors that may influence their beliefs. There were statistically significant differences among transit operators' beliefs on the basis of the operators' ethnicity. White participants had significantly fewer irrational beliefs about blindness than Hispanic and…

  14. Geochemical Modeling Of Aqueous Systems

    1995-09-07

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This description pertains to version 7.2b. It addresses aqueous speciation, thermodynamic equilibrium, disequilibrium, and chemical kinetics. The major components of the package are EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code, and EQ6 a reaction path code. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of equilibrium or disequilibrium. It also initializes EQ6 calculations. EQ6 models themore » consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a specified set of reactants (e.g., minerals or waste forms). It can also model fluid mixing and the effects of changes in temperature. Each of five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer''s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25 degrees C only to 0-300 degrees C.« less

  15. Using Co-Occurrence to Evaluate Belief Coherence in a Large Non Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Halligan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions) has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow “cohere” with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs). The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural). Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian’s coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance. PMID:23155383

  16. Relaxation Models for Glassy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay

    In this thesis we explore some models based on constrained dynamics to understand the origin and ubiquity of the stretched exponential relaxation q(t) = exp(-(t/tau)^{ beta}). The first chapter has a pedagogical introduction to this field. Then we explore two models based primarily on constraints to see whether they would exhibit a stretched exponential relaxation. The first is a sliding block type of model based on a child's puzzle which has blocks and vacancies. The blocks can move only when they are nearest neighbor to a vacancy. We simulate random walk of the blocks and explore the relaxation behavior to equilibrium. We obtain three regimes of relaxation. In the short time regime (where the constraints are strong) we see a stretched exponential behavior. The intermediate time regime is best described as a simple random walk and we obtain a power law (with exponent 1/2). The long time behavior is a simple exponential, as expected. We do a Monte Carlo simulation of random walk on a bond-diluted hypercube. The site-diluted version of this model was suggested by Campbell as an explanation of the relaxation behavior seen in spin glasses. We come to it from the perspective of a system which exemplifies only constraints and nothing else (we have hard constraints with {cal H} = 0). We see that the relaxation to equilibrium is exponential for all p >=q 1/2 and below that it is a stretched exponential. In fact, the beta decreases as p decreases and attains a value of 1/4 at the percolation threshold of p = 1/n, where n is the dimensionality of the hypercube. We also do a calculation for determining the probability of connectivity for finite graphs. This demonstrates that the usual numerical results provided in graph theory, which are in the limit of infinite graphs, are not accurate for finite graphs. The final chapter has a conclusion. We also propose a model based on random graphs and percolation for studying sliding block kind of models.

  17. Modeling the Earth System, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojima, Dennis (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered fall under the following headings: critical gaps in the Earth system conceptual framework; development needs for simplified models; and validating Earth system models and their subcomponents.

  18. Using the Model Coupling Toolkit to couple earth system models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Perlin, N.; Skyllingstad, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continued advances in computational resources are providing the opportunity to operate more sophisticated numerical models. Additionally, there is an increasing demand for multidisciplinary studies that include interactions between different physical processes. Therefore there is a strong desire to develop coupled modeling systems that utilize existing models and allow efficient data exchange and model control. The basic system would entail model "1" running on "M" processors and model "2" running on "N" processors, with efficient exchange of model fields at predetermined synchronization intervals. Here we demonstrate two coupled systems: the coupling of the ocean circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to the surface wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of ROMS to the atmospheric model Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS). Both coupled systems use the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT) as a mechanism for operation control and inter-model distributed memory transfer of model variables. In this paper we describe requirements and other options for model coupling, explain the MCT library, ROMS, SWAN and COAMPS models, methods for grid decomposition and sparse matrix interpolation, and provide an example from each coupled system. Methods presented in this paper are clearly applicable for coupling of other types of models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metric Ranking of Invariant Networks with Belief Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Changxia; Ge, Yong; Song, Qinbao; Ge, Yuan; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2014-01-01

    The management of large-scale distributed information systems relies on the effective use and modeling of monitoring data collected at various points in the distributed information systems. A promising approach is to discover invariant relationships among the monitoring data and generate invariant networks, where a node is a monitoring data source (metric) and a link indicates an invariant relationship between two monitoring data. Such an invariant network representation can help system experts to localize and diagnose the system faults by examining those broken invariant relationships and their related metrics, because system faults usually propagate among the monitoring data and eventually lead to some broken invariant relationships. However, at one time, there are usually a lot of broken links (invariant relationships) within an invariant network. Without proper guidance, it is difficult for system experts to manually inspect this large number of broken links. Thus, a critical challenge is how to effectively and efficiently rank metrics (nodes) of invariant networks according to the anomaly levels of metrics. The ranked list of metrics will provide system experts with useful guidance for them to localize and diagnose the system faults. To this end, we propose to model the nodes and the broken links as a Markov Random Field (MRF), and develop an iteration algorithm to infer the anomaly of each node based on belief propagation (BP). Finally, we validate the proposed algorithm on both realworld and synthetic data sets to illustrate its effectiveness.

  20. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  1. Peer beliefs and smoking in adolescence: A longitudinal social network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peer smoking is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent cigarette use, but less is known about whether other peer characteristics also contribute to this behavior. Objectives This study examines the links between adolescent cigarette use and peer beliefs about smoking. It tests whether peer beliefs about smoking are associated with changes in cigarette use, whether this association is a result of changes in individual beliefs about smoking, and how beliefs inform friendship choices. Methods Analyses draw on data collected from 29 school-based networks, each measured at five occasions as students moved from 6th through 9th grade, as part of the study of the PROSPER partnership model. Longitudinal social network models provide estimates of friendship selection and behavior for an average of 6,200 students at each measurement point and more than 9,000 students overall. Results Peer beliefs about smoking influence cigarette use both directly and through their impact on individual beliefs. Respondents tend to name friends whose beliefs about smoking are similar to their own, and the likelihood of being named as a friend is higher for those who report more positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that peer beliefs about smoking, in addition to peer cigarette use itself, are associated with adolescent smoking through several mechanisms. Because beliefs favorable to cigarette use are present before adolescents actually smoke, these results underscore the importance of implementing smoking prevention programs in early adolescence. PMID:26809592

  2. Brain networks shaping religious belief.

    PubMed

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank; Thornburg, Matthew P; Grafman, Jordan Henry

    2014-02-01

    We previously demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that religious belief depends upon three cognitive dimensions, which can be mapped to specific brain regions. In the present study, we considered these co-activated regions as nodes of three networks each one corresponding to a particular dimension, corresponding to each dimension and examined the causal flow within and between these networks to address two important hypotheses that remained untested in our previous work. First, we hypothesized that regions involved in theory of mind (ToM) are located upstream the causal flow and drive non-ToM regions, in line with theories attributing religion to the evolution of ToM. Second, we hypothesized that differences in directional connectivity are associated with differences in religiosity. To test these hypotheses, we performed a multivariate Granger causality-based directional connectivity analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate the causal flow within religious belief-related networks. Our results supported both hypotheses. Religious subjects preferentially activated a pathway from inferolateral to dorsomedial frontal cortex to monitor the intent and involvement of supernatural agents (SAs; intent-related ToM). Perception of SAs engaged pathways involved in fear regulation and affective ToM. Religious beliefs are founded both on propositional statements for doctrine, but also on episodic memory and imagery. Beliefs based on doctrine engaged a pathway from Broca's to Wernicke's language areas. Beliefs related to everyday life experiences engaged pathways involved in imagery. Beliefs implying less involved SAs and evoking imagery activated a pathway from right lateral temporal to occipital regions. This pathway was more active in non-religious compared to religious subjects, suggesting greater difficulty and procedural demands for imagining and processing the intent of SAs. Insights gained by Granger connectivity analysis inform us about the causal

  3. New model systems for experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sinéad

    2013-07-01

    Microbial experimental evolution uses a few well-characterized model systems to answer fundamental questions about how evolution works. This special section highlights novel model systems for experimental evolution, with a focus on marine model systems that can be used to understand evolutionary responses to global change in the oceans.

  4. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  5. Modelling Information System Dynamics: A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswitch, Pauline

    1983-01-01

    Describes British Library's work on Systems Dynamics, a set of techniques for building simulation models based on analysis of information feedback loops. Highlights include macro-simulation modelling activities of social science disciplines, systems analyses and models of information retrieval processes and library services, policy models, and…

  6. The Relationship between Metacognition and Obsessive Beliefs, and Procrastination in Students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Hasan; Hajloo, Nader; Babayi, Karim; Shahri, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between metacognition and obsessive beliefs, and procrastination. Methods: 285 students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran, were selected by random sampling, and completed the metacognition (MCQ-30) questionnaire, obsessive beliefs questionnaire (OBQ-44), and General Procrastination Scale. The research method was descriptive. Data was implemented by structural equation modeling, using Amos software (version 19) and Anderson and Greenberg’s (1988) two-step approach was followed. First, the model measurement, and then the structural model were examined. Results: Results showed that obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs, directly and indirectly, predict the behavior of procrastination. Cognitive confidence, need for control of thoughts, and positive beliefs about worry from metacognitive beliefs were positively and significantly correlated with procrastination. In addition, cognitive self-consciousness was inversely correlated with procrastination. Perfectionism/certainty from obsessive beliefs was inversely correlated with procrastination. Moreover, the relationship between obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs were positive and significant. Conclusion: Our findings show a significant relationship between obsessive and metacognitive beliefs and procrastination. To reduce behaviors of procrastination, control of obsessive beliefs and metacognition seems to be necessary. Moreover, controlling and shaping metacognitive beliefs can be effective in reducing compulsive behavior. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24995029

  7. Visual computing model for immune system and medical system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Cao, Xinxue; Xiong, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Natural immune system is an intelligent self-organizing and adaptive system, which has a variety of immune cells with different types of immune mechanisms. The mutual cooperation between the immune cells shows the intelligence of this immune system, and modeling this immune system has an important significance in medical science and engineering. In order to build a comprehensible model of this immune system for better understanding with the visualization method than the traditional mathematic model, a visual computing model of this immune system was proposed and also used to design a medical system with the immune system, in this paper. Some visual simulations of the immune system were made to test the visual effect. The experimental results of the simulations show that the visual modeling approach can provide a more effective way for analyzing this immune system than only the traditional mathematic equations.

  8. Belief propagation in genotype-phenotype networks.

    PubMed

    Moharil, Janhavi; May, Paul; Gaile, Daniel P; Blair, Rachael Hageman

    2016-03-01

    Graphical models have proven to be a valuable tool for connecting genotypes and phenotypes. Structural learning of phenotype-genotype networks has received considerable attention in the post-genome era. In recent years, a dozen different methods have emerged for network inference, which leverage natural variation that arises in certain genetic populations. The structure of the network itself can be used to form hypotheses based on the inferred direct and indirect network relationships, but represents a premature endpoint to the graphical analyses. In this work, we extend this endpoint. We examine the unexplored problem of perturbing a given network structure, and quantifying the system-wide effects on the network in a node-wise manner. The perturbation is achieved through the setting of values of phenotype node(s), which may reflect an inhibition or activation, and propagating this information through the entire network. We leverage belief propagation methods in Conditional Gaussian Bayesian Networks (CG-BNs), in order to absorb and propagate phenotypic evidence through the network. We show that the modeling assumptions adopted for genotype-phenotype networks represent an important sub-class of CG-BNs, which possess properties that ensure exact inference in the propagation scheme. The system-wide effects of the perturbation are quantified in a node-wise manner through the comparison of perturbed and unperturbed marginal distributions using a symmetric Kullback-Leibler divergence. Applications to kidney and skin cancer expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data from different mus musculus populations are presented. System-wide effects in the network were predicted and visualized across a spectrum of evidence. Sub-pathways and regions of the network responded in concert, suggesting co-regulation and coordination throughout the network in response to phenotypic changes. We demonstrate how these predicted system-wide effects can be examined in connection with

  9. NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles

    1996-01-01

    SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

  10. Generic CSP Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2011-08-01

    The suite of concentrating solar power (CSP) modeling tools in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) includes technology performance models for parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish-Stirling systems. Each model provides the user with unique capabilities that are catered to typical design considerations seen in each technology. Since the scope of the various models is generally limited to common plant configurations, new CSP technologies, component geometries, and subsystem combinations can be difficult to model directly in the existing SAM technology models. To overcome the limitations imposed by representative CSP technology models, NREL has developed a 'Generic Solar System' (GSS) performance model for use in SAM. This paper discusses the formulation and performance considerations included in this model and verifies the model by comparing its results with more detailed models.

  11. The ecology of religious beliefs.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D

    2014-11-25

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  12. The ecology of religious beliefs.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D

    2014-11-25

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species.

  13. The ecology of religious beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  14. Latino Caregivers' Beliefs about Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Friedman, Deborah; Colon, Angel; Soto, Jesus; Rivera, Doriliz Vila; Fritz, Gregory K.; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study examined belief systems of Latino caregivers who have children with asthma from Puerto Rican and Dominican backgrounds who resided on the Island of PR and the Mainland. The goal of this study was to document similarities and differences in beliefs about the causes, symptoms and treatments of asthma across two sites and two Latino ethnic sub-groups of children who remain the most at risk for asthma morbidity. Methods: Participants included 100 primary caregivers of a child with asthma. Fifty caregivers from Island PR and fifty caregivers from mainland RI were interviewed (at each site, 25 caregivers were from Puerto Rican backgrounds and 25 caregivers were from Dominican backgrounds). The interview included an assessment of demographic information and beliefs about the causes and symptoms of asthma, and asthma practices. Results: Results indicated more similarities in beliefs about the causes and symptoms of asthma across site and ethnic group. The majority of differences were among beliefs about asthma practices by site and ethnic group. For example, a higher proportion of caregivers from Island PR, particularly those of Dominican descent, endorsed that a range of home and botanical remedies are effective for treating asthma. Conclusions: Results from this study point to several interesting directions for future research including larger samples of Latino caregivers with children who have asthma. A discussion of the importance of understanding cultural beliefs about asthma and asthma practices is also reviewed. PMID:18415827

  15. Effects of Increased Psychiatric Treatment Contact and Acculturation on the Causal Beliefs of Chinese Immigrant Relatives of Individuals with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Graciete; Tu, Ming; Wu, Olivia; Anglin, Deidre; Saw, Anne; Chen, Fang-pei

    2016-01-01

    Encounters with Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation may influence causal beliefs of psychiatric illness endorsed by Chinese immigrant relatives, thus affecting help-seeking. We examined causal beliefs held by forty-six Chinese immigrant relatives and found that greater acculturation was associated with an increased number of causal beliefs. Further, as Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation increased, causal models expanded to incorporate biological/physical causes. However, frequency of Chinese immigrant relatives' endorsing spiritual beliefs did not appear to change with acculturation. Clinicians might thus account for spiritual beliefs in treatment even after acculturation increases and biological causal models proliferate. PMID:27127454

  16. Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Sola

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

  17. Is It the Teaching or the Discipline? Influences of Disciplinary Epistemology and Pedagogy on Students Adapting Study Behaviour and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie; Ho, Amaly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pace and degree of adaptation of study behaviour and personal epistemological beliefs between school and university through interviews with 110 final-year university students. The study took place in Hong Kong, where the highly competitive school system encourages remembering modelling answers for the public examinations;…

  18. Neural correlates of obsessive-compulsive related dysfunctional beliefs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Pino; Orbegozo, Arantxa; Pujol, Jesús; López-Solà, Clara; Fullana, Miquel Àngel; Segalàs, Cinto; Real, Eva; Subirà, Marta; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Menchón, José M; Harrison, Ben J; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2013-12-01

    There have been few attempts to integrate neurobiological and cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), although this might constitute a key approach to clarify the complex etiology of the disorder. Our study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying dysfunctional beliefs hypothesized by cognitive models to be involved in the development and maintenance of OCD. We obtained a high-resolution magnetic resonance image from fifty OCD patients and 30 healthy controls, and correlated them, voxel-wise, with the severity of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs assessed by the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44. In healthy controls, significant negative correlations were observed between anterior temporal lobe (ATL) volume and scores on perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty and overimportance/need to control thoughts. No significant correlations between OBQ-44 domains and regional gray matter volumes were observed in OCD patients. A post-hoc region-of-interest analysis detected that the ATLs was bilaterally smaller in OCD patients. On splitting subjects into high- and low-belief subgroups, we observed that such brain structural differences between OCD patients and healthy controls were explained by significantly larger ATL volumes among healthy subjects from the low-belief subgroup. Our results suggest a significant correlation between OC-related dysfunctional beliefs and morphometric variability in the anterior temporal lobe, a brain structure related to socio-emotional processing. Future studies should address the interaction of these correlations with environmental factors to fully characterize the bases of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs and to advance in the integration of biological and cognitive models of OCD.

  19. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  20. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  1. Human systems dynamics: Toward a computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eoyang, Glenda H.

    2012-09-01

    A robust and reliable computational model of complex human systems dynamics could support advancements in theory and practice for social systems at all levels, from intrapersonal experience to global politics and economics. Models of human interactions have evolved from traditional, Newtonian systems assumptions, which served a variety of practical and theoretical needs of the past. Another class of models has been inspired and informed by models and methods from nonlinear dynamics, chaos, and complexity science. None of the existing models, however, is able to represent the open, high dimension, and nonlinear self-organizing dynamics of social systems. An effective model will represent interactions at multiple levels to generate emergent patterns of social and political life of individuals and groups. Existing models and modeling methods are considered and assessed against characteristic pattern-forming processes in observed and experienced phenomena of human systems. A conceptual model, CDE Model, based on the conditions for self-organizing in human systems, is explored as an alternative to existing models and methods. While the new model overcomes the limitations of previous models, it also provides an explanatory base and foundation for prospective analysis to inform real-time meaning making and action taking in response to complex conditions in the real world. An invitation is extended to readers to engage in developing a computational model that incorporates the assumptions, meta-variables, and relationships of this open, high dimension, and nonlinear conceptual model of the complex dynamics of human systems.

  2. Comparison of Photovoltaic Models in the System Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N. J.; Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is free software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for predicting the performance of renewable energy systems and analyzing the financial feasibility of residential, commercial, and utility-scale grid-connected projects. SAM offers several options for predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The model requires that the analyst choose from three PV system models, and depending on that choice, possibly choose from three module and two inverter component models. To obtain meaningful results from SAM, the analyst must be aware of the differences between the model options and their applicability to different modeling scenarios. This paper presents an overview the different PV model options and presents a comparison of results for a 200-kW system using different model options.

  3. Religious beliefs in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysh, Robert; Lucas, Keith B.

    1998-12-01

    The question of the relationship between science and religion assumes importance for many secondary school students of science, especially but not exclusively for those in Christian schools. Science as presented in many school classrooms is not as objective and value free as it might seem on first examination, nor does it represent adequately the range of beliefs about science held by students and teachers. This paper reports part of a larger research study into beliefs about science and religion held by students, teachers and clergy in a Lutheran secondary school. Results indicate that participants in the study was the relationship between science and religious belief in ways unforeseen and unappreciated by traditional school science programs. The stories of selected participants are told and they frame a discussion of implications of the study for science teaching.

  4. Families living with chronic illness: beliefs about illness, family, and health care.

    PubMed

    Årestedt, Liselott; Benzein, Eva; Persson, Carina

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs can be described as the lenses through which we view the world. With emerging illness, beliefs about the illness experience become important for nurses to understand to enhance well-being and healing. The aim of this study was to illuminate illness beliefs of families living with chronic illness. A qualitative design was chosen, including repeated narrative research interviews with seven Swedish families living with chronic illness. Hermeneutic analysis was used to interpret the transcribed family interviews. The result described beliefs in families, both within and across families. Both core beliefs and secondary beliefs about illness, family, and health care were revealed. Illness beliefs have importance for how families respond to and manage situations that arise from their encounters with illness. Nurses have to make space for and listen to families' stories of illness to become aware of what beliefs may support and encourage family well-being and healing. The Illness Beliefs Model provides a touchstone whereby nurses can distinguish both individual and shared beliefs within families living with chronic illness and provide ideas for family intervention if needed.

  5. Thirdhand Smoke Beliefs of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Jeremy E.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Nabi-Burza, Emara; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Hipple, Bethany; Woo, Heide; Chang, Yuchiao

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the belief that thirdhand smoke is harmful to children is associated with smoking parents’ attitudes, home or car smoking policies, and quitting behaviors. METHODS: Data from a national randomized controlled trial, Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, assessed thirdhand smoke beliefs of 1947 smoking parents in an exit survey after a pediatric office visit in 10 intervention and 10 control practices. Twelve-month follow-up data were collected from 1355 parents. Multivariable logistic regression determined whether belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children is independently associated with parental behaviors and attitudes 12 months later. A χ2 test assessed whether parents who disagreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful were more likely to make a quit attempt if they later believed that thirdhand smoke is harmful. RESULTS: Belief at the exit survey that thirdhand smoke is harmful was independently associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free home policy (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.37–3.05) and car policy (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04–2.74) at the 12-month follow-up. A significantly higher percentage (71% vs 50%) of parents who did not hold the thirdhand smoke harm belief at baseline made at least 1 quit attempt if they agreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful at the 12-month follow-up (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Thirdhand smoke harm belief was associated with a strictly enforced smoke-free home and car and attempts to quit smoking. Sensitizing parents to thirdhand smoke risk could facilitate beneficial tobacco control outcomes. PMID:24590745

  6. Nurses' beliefs and self-reported practices related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients.

    PubMed

    Wysong, Peggy Rupp

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the beliefs and self-reported practices of nurses related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients. A convenience sample of 74 nurses from one Midwestern community hospital responded to a researcher-developed questionnaire based on established pain standards and clinical practice recommendations. Areas of nonverbal pain assessment beliefs and practices with low scores were identified. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests showed a significant difference in belief scores based on unit worked. No significant differences in beliefs or practices were found based on age, years of experience, or degree. Paired t tests showed significant differences between general pain beliefs and nonverbal pain beliefs, between general pain beliefs and practices, and between nonverbal pain beliefs and practices. Additional testing using Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated that only three out of seven questions relating to beliefs were significantly correlated with similar questions related to practices. Good reliability of the instrument was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha coefficient α = 0.82. Recommendations include further education for hospital nurses related to pain assessment standards in nonverbal patients, as well as utilization of techniques to integrate this knowledge into nurses' belief systems and practice environment. PMID:24602435

  7. Nurses' beliefs and self-reported practices related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients.

    PubMed

    Wysong, Peggy Rupp

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the beliefs and self-reported practices of nurses related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients. A convenience sample of 74 nurses from one Midwestern community hospital responded to a researcher-developed questionnaire based on established pain standards and clinical practice recommendations. Areas of nonverbal pain assessment beliefs and practices with low scores were identified. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests showed a significant difference in belief scores based on unit worked. No significant differences in beliefs or practices were found based on age, years of experience, or degree. Paired t tests showed significant differences between general pain beliefs and nonverbal pain beliefs, between general pain beliefs and practices, and between nonverbal pain beliefs and practices. Additional testing using Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated that only three out of seven questions relating to beliefs were significantly correlated with similar questions related to practices. Good reliability of the instrument was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha coefficient α = 0.82. Recommendations include further education for hospital nurses related to pain assessment standards in nonverbal patients, as well as utilization of techniques to integrate this knowledge into nurses' belief systems and practice environment.

  8. An online model composition tool for system biology models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are multiple representation formats for Systems Biology computational models, and the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is one of the most widely used. SBML is used to capture, store, and distribute computational models by Systems Biology data sources (e.g., the BioModels Database) and researchers. Therefore, there is a need for all-in-one web-based solutions that support advance SBML functionalities such as uploading, editing, composing, visualizing, simulating, querying, and browsing computational models. Results We present the design and implementation of the Model Composition Tool (Interface) within the PathCase-SB (PathCase Systems Biology) web portal. The tool helps users compose systems biology models to facilitate the complex process of merging systems biology models. We also present three tools that support the model composition tool, namely, (1) Model Simulation Interface that generates a visual plot of the simulation according to user’s input, (2) iModel Tool as a platform for users to upload their own models to compose, and (3) SimCom Tool that provides a side by side comparison of models being composed in the same pathway. Finally, we provide a web site that hosts BioModels Database models and a separate web site that hosts SBML Test Suite models. Conclusions Model composition tool (and the other three tools) can be used with little or no knowledge of the SBML document structure. For this reason, students or anyone who wants to learn about systems biology will benefit from the described functionalities. SBML Test Suite models will be a nice starting point for beginners. And, for more advanced purposes, users will able to access and employ models of the BioModels Database as well. PMID:24006914

  9. A model for plant lighting system selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciolkosz, D. E.; Albright, L. D.; Sager, J. C.; Langhans, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    A decision model is presented that compares lighting systems for a plant growth scenario and chooses the most appropriate system from a given set of possible choices. The model utilizes a Multiple Attribute Utility Theory approach, and incorporates expert input and performance simulations to calculate a utility value for each lighting system being considered. The system with the highest utility is deemed the most appropriate system. The model was applied to a greenhouse scenario, and analyses were conducted to test the model's output for validity. Parameter variation indicates that the model performed as expected. Analysis of model output indicates that differences in utility among the candidate lighting systems were sufficiently large to give confidence that the model's order of selection was valid.

  10. Designing control system information models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panin, K. I.; Zinchenko, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    Problems encountered in modeling information models are discussed, Data cover condition, functioning of the object of control, and the environment involved in the control. Other parameters needed for the model include: (1) information for forming an image of the real situation, (2) data for analyzing and evaluating an evolving situation, (3) planning actions, and (4) data for observing and evaluating the results of model realization.

  11. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Correlates of Belief Updating

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Carsten; Bode, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Belief updating—the process by which an agent alters an internal model of its environment—is a core function of the CNS. Recent theory has proposed broad principles by which belief updating might operate, but more precise details of its implementation in the human brain remain unclear. In order to address this question, we studied how two components of the human event-related potential encoded different aspects of belief updating. Participants completed a novel perceptual learning task while electroencephalography was recorded. Participants learned the mapping between the contrast of a dynamic visual stimulus and a monetary reward and updated their beliefs about a target contrast on each trial. A Bayesian computational model was formulated to estimate belief states at each trial and was used to quantify the following two variables: belief update size and belief uncertainty. Robust single-trial regression was used to assess how these model-derived variables were related to the amplitudes of the P3 and the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), respectively. Results showed a positive relationship between belief update size and P3 amplitude at one fronto-central electrode, and a negative relationship between SPN amplitude and belief uncertainty at a left central and a right parietal electrode. These results provide evidence that belief update size and belief uncertainty have distinct neural signatures that can be tracked in single trials in specific ERP components. This, in turn, provides evidence that the cognitive mechanisms underlying belief updating in humans can be described well within a Bayesian framework. PMID:26473170

  12. Electronic Education System Model-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güllü, Fatih; Kuusik, Rein; Laanpere, Mart

    2015-01-01

    In this study we presented new EES Model-2 extended from EES model for more productive implementation in e-learning process design and modelling in higher education. The most updates were related to uppermost instructional layer. We updated learning processes object of the layer for adaptation of educational process for young and old people,…

  13. Multiple system modelling of waste management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2011-12-01

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  14. Dispersion Modeling in Complex Urban Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models are used to represent real systems in an understandable way. They take many forms. A conceptual model explains the way a system works. In environmental studies, for example, a conceptual model may delineate all the factors and parameters for determining how a particle move...

  15. Building a generalized distributed system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    A number of topics related to building a generalized distributed system model are discussed. The effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks, the measurement of effects of distributed database models on transaction availability measures, and a performance analysis of static locking in replicated distributed database systems are covered.

  16. NASA Lewis Wind Tunnel Model Systems Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.; Haller, Henry C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes criteria for the design, analysis, quality assurance, and documentation of models or test articles that are to be tested in the aeropropulsion facilities at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The report presents three methods for computing model allowable stresses on the basis of the yield stress or ultimate stress, and it gives quality assurance criteria for models tested in Lewis' aeropropulsion facilities. Both customer-furnished model systems and in-house model systems are discussed. The functions of the facility manager, project engineer, operations engineer, research engineer, and facility electrical engineer are defined. The format for pretest meetings, prerun safety meetings, and the model criteria review are outlined Then, the format for the model systems report (a requirement for each model that is to be tested at NASA Lewis) is described, the engineers that are responsible for developing the model systems report are listed, and the time table for its delivery to the facility manager is given.

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Refinery Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Refinery Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Industrial Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Industrial Model (WIM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  19. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Residential Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Residential Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  20. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Main Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Main Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.