Science.gov

Sample records for modeling exercise evaluation

  1. Work performance evaluation using the exercising rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Stavert, D.M.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    A treadmill-metabolic chamber system and a stress testing protocol have been developed to evaluate aerobic work performance on exercising rats that have inhaled toxic substances. The chamber with an enclosed treadmill provides the means to measure the physiologic status of rats during maximal work intensities in terms of O/sub 2/ consumption (V/sub 02/) and CO/sub 2/ production (V/sub c02/). The metabolic chamber can also accommodate instrumented rats for more detailed analyses of their cardiopulmonary status, e.g., ECG, cardiac output, arterial blood gases and pH, and arterial and venous blood pressures. For such studies, an arterial/venous catheter preparation is required. Because of the severe metabolic alterations after such surgery, a post surgical recovery strategy using hyperalimentation was developed to ensure maximal performance of instrumented animals during stress testing. Actual work performance studies are conducted using an eight minute stress test protocol in which the rat is subjected to increasing external work. The metabolic state of the animal is measured from resting levels to maximum oxygen consumption (V/sub 02max/). V/sub 02max/ has been shown to be reproducible in individual rats and is a sensitive indicator of oxidant gas-induced pulmonary damage. 3 tabs.

  2. Evaluation Training: Simulation Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.; Farr, Roger

    The preparation of this simulation material package is guided by the concept of an evaluator as a decision-maker, based on the definition of evaluation as a continuous assessment concerned with answering decision-making questions. The continuous concept of evaluation is based on the model created by Egon Guba and Daniel Stufflebeam, named by its…

  3. What are the Starting Points? Evaluating Base-Year Assumptions in the Asian Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Clarke, Leon E.; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-12-01

    A common feature of model inter-comparison efforts is that the base year numbers for important parameters such as population and GDP can differ substantially across models. This paper explores the sources and implications of this variation in Asian countries across the models participating in the Asian Modeling Exercise (AME). Because the models do not all have a common base year, each team was required to provide data for 2005 for comparison purposes. This paper compares the year 2005 information for different models, noting the degree of variation in important parameters, including population, GDP, primary energy, electricity, and CO2 emissions. It then explores the difference in these key parameters across different sources of base-year information. The analysis confirms that the sources provide different values for many key parameters. This variation across data sources and additional reasons why models might provide different base-year numbers, including differences in regional definitions, differences in model base year, and differences in GDP transformation methodologies, are then discussed in the context of the AME scenarios. Finally, the paper explores the implications of base-year variation on long-term model results.

  4. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.

  5. Affective Evaluations of Exercising: The Role of Automatic-Reflective Evaluation Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Antoniewicz, Branziska

    2016-12-29

    Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the APE model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise, then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous three months could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one's negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

  6. A Modeling Exercise for the Organic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    An in-class molecular modeling exercise is described. Groups of students are given molecular models to investigate and questions about the models to answer. This exercise is a quick and effective way to review nomenclature, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis.

  7. A Modeling Exercise for the Organic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    An in-class molecular modeling exercise is described. Groups of students are given molecular models to investigate and questions about the models to answer. This exercise is a quick and effective way to review nomenclature, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis.

  8. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  9. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  10. Humanized animal exercise model for clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Exercise and physical activity function as a patho-physiological process that can prevent, manage, and regulate numerous chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome and age-related sarcopenia. Because of research ethics and technical difficulties in humans, exercise models using animals are requisite for the future development of exercise mimetics to treat such abnormalities. Moreover, the beneficial or adverse outcomes of a new regime or exercise intervention in the treatment of a specific condition should be tested prior to implementation in a clinical setting. In rodents, treadmill running (or swimming) and ladder climbing are widely used as aerobic and anaerobic exercise models, respectively. However, exercise models are not limited to these types. Indeed, there are no golden standard exercise modes or protocols for managing or improving health status since the types (aerobic vs. anaerobic), time (morning vs. evening), and duration (continuous vs. acute bouts) of exercise are the critical determinants for achieving expected beneficial effects. To provide insight into the understanding of exercise and exercise physiology, we have summarized current animal exercise models largely based on aerobic and anaerobic criteria. Additionally, specialized exercise models that have been developed for testing the effect of exercise on specific physiological conditions are presented. Finally, we provide suggestions and/or considerations for developing a new regime for an exercise model.

  11. Positive effect of combined exercise training in a model of metabolic syndrome and menopause: autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress evaluations.

    PubMed

    Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Malfitano, Christiane; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana Francisca; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-12-15

    It is now well established that after menopause cardiometabolic disorders become more common. Recently, resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement to aerobic (combined training, CT) for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CT in hypertensive ovariectomized rats undergoing fructose overload in blood pressure variability (BPV), inflammation, and oxidative stress parameters. Female rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8/group): sedentary normotensive Wistar rats (C), and sedentary (FHO) or trained (FHOT) ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats undergoing and fructose overload. CT was performed on a treadmill and ladder adapted to rats in alternate days (8 wk; 40-60% maximal capacity). Arterial pressure (AP) was directly measured. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured on cardiac and renal tissues. The association of risk factors (hypertension + ovariectomy + fructose) promoted increase in insulin resistance, mean AP (FHO: 174 ± 4 vs. C: 108 ± 1 mmHg), heart rate (FHO: 403 ± 12 vs. C: 352 ± 11 beats/min), BPV, cardiac inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α-FHO: 65.8 ± 9.9 vs. C: 23.3 ± 4.3 pg/mg protein), and oxidative stress cardiac and renal tissues. However, CT was able to reduce mean AP (FHOT: 158 ± 4 mmHg), heart rate (FHOT: 303 ± 5 beats/min), insulin resistance, and sympathetic modulation. Moreover, the trained rats presented increased nitric oxide bioavailability, reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (FHOT: 33.1 ± 4.9 pg/mg protein), increased IL-10 in cardiac tissue and reduced lipoperoxidation, and increased antioxidant defenses in cardiac and renal tissues. In conclusion, the association of risk factors promoted an additional impairment in metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters and combined exercise training was able to attenuate these dysfunctions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Evaluation of internal medicine residents as exercise role models and associations with self-reported counseling behavior, confidence, and perceived success.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Laura Q; Gutin, Bernard; Humphries, Matthew C; Lemmon, Christian R; Waller, Jennifer L; Baranowski, Tom; Saunders, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Patients perceive physicians who practice healthy personal behaviors as more credible and better able to motivate patients to make healthy lifestyle choices. To evaluate internal medicine resident physicians as role models for promoting exercise by an assessment of physician physical activity behavior, cardiovascular fitness, physical activity knowledge, personal use of behavior modification techniques, attitudes toward personal physical activity practice, and confidence (i.e., self-efficacy) in the knowledge and personal utilization of behavior modification techniques and to explore the associations with self-reported patient counseling behavior, confidence, and perceived success. Cross-sectional study of internal medicine resident physicians with a self-administered survey, treadmill fitness testing, and a 7-day physical activity recall. Fifty-one resident physicians agreed to participate (response rate = 81%). Fitness levels were below average for 60%, average for 25%, and above average or excellent for 15%. The mean energy expenditure was 234 kcal/kg/week, with 41% of physicians meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. Few reported high self-efficacy (33%) or perceived success (25%) in the ability to be regularly active. Few demonstrated adequate knowledge useful for patient counseling (e.g., listing 3 ways to integrate physical activity into daily life [27%], calculating target heart rate [29%], and identifying personal exercise stages of change [25%]). Personal use of behavior modification techniques was reported infrequently. Although 88% reported confidence in the knowledge of exercise benefits, less than half reported confidence in the knowledge of local facilities, American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, and behavior modification techniques. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that a higher level of training (p = .02) and a greater confidence in the knowledge of ACSM guidelines (p = .048, total R2 = .21) independently predicted

  13. Exer-Genie(Registered Trademark) Exercise Device Hardware Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Sharp,Carwyn; Stroud, Leah

    2008-01-01

    An engineering evaluation was performed on the ExerGenie(r) exercise device to quantify its capabilities and limitations to address questions from the Constellation Program. Three subjects performed rowing and circuit training sessions to assess the suitability of the device for aerobic exercise. Three subjects performed a resistive exercise session to assess the suitability of the device for resistive exercise. Since 1 subject performed both aerobic and resistive exercise sessions, a total of 5 subjects participated.

  14. Presentation of the EURODELTA III intercomparison exercise - evaluation of the chemistry transport models' performance on criteria pollutants and joint analysis with meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessagnet, Bertrand; Pirovano, Guido; Mircea, Mihaela; Cuvelier, Cornelius; Aulinger, Armin; Calori, Giuseppe; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Manders, Astrid; Stern, Rainer; Tsyro, Svetlana; García Vivanco, Marta; Thunis, Philippe; Pay, Maria-Teresa; Colette, Augustin; Couvidat, Florian; Meleux, Frédérik; Rouïl, Laurence; Ung, Anthony; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; María Baldasano, José; Bieser, Johannes; Briganti, Gino; Cappelletti, Andrea; D'Isidoro, Massimo; Finardi, Sandro; Kranenburg, Richard; Silibello, Camillo; Carnevale, Claudio; Aas, Wenche; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Fagerli, Hilde; Gonzalez, Lucia; Menut, Laurent; Prévôt, André S. H.; Roberts, Pete; White, Les

    2016-10-01

    The EURODELTA III exercise has facilitated a comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of chemistry transport model performances. Participating models performed calculations for four 1-month periods in different seasons in the years 2006 to 2009, allowing the influence of different meteorological conditions on model performances to be evaluated. The exercise was performed with strict requirements for the input data, with few exceptions. As a consequence, most of differences in the outputs will be attributed to the differences in model formulations of chemical and physical processes. The models were evaluated mainly for background rural stations in Europe. The performance was assessed in terms of bias, root mean square error and correlation with respect to the concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5), as well as key meteorological variables. Though most of meteorological parameters were prescribed, some variables like the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the vertical diffusion coefficient were derived in the model preprocessors and can partly explain the spread in model results. In general, the daytime PBL height is underestimated by all models. The largest variability of predicted PBL is observed over the ocean and seas. For ozone, this study shows the importance of proper boundary conditions for accurate model calculations and then on the regime of the gas and particle chemistry. The models show similar and quite good performance for nitrogen dioxide, whereas they struggle to accurately reproduce measured sulfur dioxide concentrations (for which the agreement with observations is the poorest). In general, the models provide a close-to-observations map of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations over Europe rather with correlations in the range 0.4-0.7 and a systematic underestimation reaching -10 µg m-3 for PM10. The highest concentrations are much more underestimated, particularly in wintertime. Further evaluation of

  15. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating

    PubMed Central

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; McEwen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    Context: For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. Objective: To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Methods: Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Results: Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Conclusions: Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that

  16. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; Mcewen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that required for health benefits, and costs for treatment

  17. An Evaluation Primer Workbook: Practical Exercises for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene; Kosecoff, Jacqueline

    This workbook, which accompanies An Evaluation Primer (TM 007 500) consists of 19 practical exercises for applying evaluation skills to hypothetical educational programs. Each chapter corresponds to a chapter in the primer, with answers keyed accordingly. Intended to provide an introduction to evaluation, the exercises include: identifying the…

  18. Exercise-Related Sudden Death: Cardiovascular Evaluation of Exercisers (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    A primary goal of the cardiovascular evaluation of exercisers is to identify conditions that carry the risk of exercise-related sudden death. These conditions, which are found in a careful evaluation of the patient, are identifed and described in detail. (Author/JL)

  19. Integrated Assessment Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J. A.; Weyant, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment models of climate change (IAMs) are widely used to provide insights into the dynamics of the coupled human and socio-economic system, including emission mitigation analysis and the generation of future emission scenarios. Similar to the climate modeling community, the integrated assessment community has a two decade history of model inter-comparison, which has served as one of the primary venues for model evaluation and confirmation. While analysis of historical trends in the socio-economic system has long played a key role in diagnostics of future scenarios from IAMs, formal hindcast experiments are just now being contemplated as evaluation exercises. Some initial thoughts on setting up such IAM evaluation experiments are discussed. Socio-economic systems do not follow strict physical laws, which means that evaluation needs to take place in a context, unlike that of physical system models, in which there are few fixed, unchanging relationships. Of course strict validation of even earth system models is not possible (Oreskes etal 2004), a fact borne out by the inability of models to constrain the climate sensitivity. Energy-system models have also been grappling with some of the same questions over the last quarter century. For example, one of "the many questions in the energy field that are waiting for answers in the next 20 years" identified by Hans Landsberg in 1985 was "Will the price of oil resume its upward movement?" Of course we are still asking this question today. While, arguably, even fewer constraints apply to socio-economic systems, numerous historical trends and patterns have been identified, although often only in broad terms, that are used to guide the development of model components, parameter ranges, and scenario assumptions. IAM evaluation exercises are expected to provide useful information for interpreting model results and improving model behavior. A key step is the recognition of model boundaries, that is, what is inside

  20. Transtheoretical Model Based Exercise Counseling Combined with Music Skipping Rope Exercise on Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Lee, Bo Gyeong; Choi, Hee Won; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effects of a transtheoretical model (TTM) based exercise counseling offered with music skipping rope exercise on components of the TTM (stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy), body mass index, glucose, and lipid profile of overweight/obese children in Korea. This study used a nonequivalent pretest and posttest experimental study design. A total of 75 overweight/obese children participated in the study. Eight sessions of exercise counseling combined with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks were offered for children in the experimental group, while one session of exercise counseling with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks was offered for children in the control group. Outcomes were measured at baseline, and 6 months after the intervention. After the intervention, self-efficacy significantly improved among children in the experimental group (p = .049), while these children maintained their baseline BMI at 6-month follow-up (p > .05). Among children in the control group, BMI significantly increased (p < .05). Fasting blood sugar significantly increased for both groups after the intervention (p < .05). However, a greater increase was observed for the control group. Our study partially supports the hypothesis that a TTM-based exercise intervention is effective in maintaining BMI and improving self-efficacy of overweight/obese children. The TTM-based counseling combined with exercise classes has potential to control weight among overweight/obese children, while involvement of parents and children in the development of the theory-based intervention may generate further benefits regarding health and well-being of overweight/obese children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Puget Sound 1999 Area Oil Spill Exercise: Evaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    This report serves as the Navy’s formal evaluation for the 1999 Puget Sound Area Oil Spill Exercise. The report includes exercise results, lessons...effort to organize and respond to a worst-case oil spill and to test the response strategies set forth in the region’s Area Contingency Plan and...exercises, and predetermining where the command center should be established in the event of a real oil spill .

  2. SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION SOFTWARE TOOL EXERCISE AND EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, J.; Nichols, R.; Looney, B.

    2011-05-12

    The goal of this study was to examine two different software tools designed to account for the environmental impacts of remediation projects. Three case studies from the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC were used to exercise SiteWise (SW) and Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT) by including both traditional and novel remediation techniques, contaminants, and contaminated media. This study combined retrospective analysis of implemented projects with prospective analysis of options that were not implemented. Input data were derived from engineering plans, project reports, and planning documents with a few factors supplied from calculations based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Conclusions drawn from software output were generally consistent within a tool; both tools identified the same remediation options as the 'best' for a given site. Magnitudes of impacts varied between the two tools, and it was not always possible to identify the source of the disagreement. The tools differed in their quantitative approaches: SRT based impacts on specific contaminants, media, and site geometry and modeled contaminant removal. SW based impacts on processes and equipment instead of chemical modeling. While SW was able to handle greater variety in remediation scenarios, it did not include a measure of the effectiveness of the scenario.

  3. Puget Sound 1999 Area Oil Spill Exercise: Evaluation Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    This report serves as the Navy’s formal evaluation for the 1999 Pugent Sound Area Oil Spill Exercise. The report includes exercise results, lessons...effort to organize and respond to a worst-case oil spill and to test the response strategies set forth in the region’s Area Contingency Plan and

  4. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  5. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  6. Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Patient Exercises during Physical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Ferguson, Jake M; Lee, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The article proposes a set of metrics for evaluation of patient performance in physical therapy exercises. Taxonomy is employed that classifies the metrics into quantitative and qualitative categories, based on the level of abstraction of the captured motion sequences. Further, the quantitative metrics are classified into model-less and model-based metrics, in reference to whether the evaluation employs the raw measurements of patient performed motions, or whether the evaluation is based on a mathematical model of the motions. The reviewed metrics include root-mean square distance, Kullback Leibler divergence, log-likelihood, heuristic consistency, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and similar. The metrics are evaluated for a set of five human motions captured with a Kinect sensor. The metrics can potentially be integrated into a system that employs machine learning for modelling and assessment of the consistency of patient performance in home-based therapy setting. Automated performance evaluation can overcome the inherent subjectivity in human performed therapy assessment, and it can increase the adherence to prescribed therapy plans, and reduce healthcare costs.

  7. Global off-line evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrological system used in the CNRM-CM6 climate model for the next CMIP6 exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Minvielle, Marie; Colin, Jeanne; Delire, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The land surface hydrology represents an active component of the climate system. It is likely to influence the water and energy exchanges at the land surface, the ocean salinity and temperature at the mouth of the largest rivers, and the climate at least at the regional scale. In climate models, the continental hydrology is simulated via Land Surface Models (LSM), which compute water and energy budgets at the surface, coupled to River Routing Model (RRM), which convert the runoff simulated by the LSMs into river discharge in order to transfer the continental fresh water into the oceans and then to close the global hydrological cycle. Validating these Continental Hydrological Systems (CHS) at the global scale is therefore a crucial task, which requires off-line simulations driven by realistic atmospheric fluxes to avoid the systematic biases commonly found in the atmospheric models. In the CNRM-CM6 climate model of Météo-France, that will be used for the next Coupled Climate Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) exercise, the land surface hydrology is simulated using the ISBA-TRIP CHS coupled via the OASIS-MCT coupler. The ISBA LSM solves explicitly the one dimensional Fourier law for soil temperature and the mixed form of the Richards equation for soil moisture using a 14-layers discretization over 12m depths. For the snowpack, a discretization using 12 layers allows the explicit representation of some snow key processes as its viscosity, its compaction due to wind, its age and its albedo on the visible and near infrared spectra. The TRIP RRM uses a global river channel network at 0.5° resolution. It is based on a three prognostic equations for the surface stream water, the seasonal floodplains, and the groundwater. The streamflow velocity is computed using the Maning's formula. The floodplain reservoir fills when the river height exceeds the river bankfull height and vice-versa. The flood interacts with the ISBA soil hydrology through infiltration and with

  8. Computational Models of Exercise on the Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, Nate; Caldwell, Erin; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Peters,Brian; Fincke, Renita; DeWitt, John; Poutz-Snyder, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Muscle and bone loss remain a concern for crew returning from space flight. The advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) is used for on-orbit resistance exercise to help mitigate these losses. However, characterization of how the ARED loads the body in microgravity has yet to be determined. Computational models allow us to analyze ARED exercise in both 1G and 0G environments. To this end, biomechanical models of the squat, single-leg squat, and deadlift exercise on the ARED have been developed to further investigate bone and muscle forces resulting from the exercises.

  9. Clinical applications of exercise stress echocardiography in the treadmill with upright evaluation during and after exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Exercise stress echocardiography is the most frequently used stress test in our laboratory. Exercise echocardiography is used mainly in the study of patients with coronary artery disease. However, the technique is increasingly being used to study other diseases. In our centre, we use an original methodology, published by us in 2000, in which we evaluate heart function during exercise in the treadmill. After the exercise, patients are maintained in orthostatic position when appropriate or lying down in left lateral decubitus for further evaluation. Since this method seems to increase the quality and the quantity of information obtained in so many clinical arenas, we now present a detailed review of this methodology and its applications. PMID:23875614

  10. A Placer-Gold Evaluation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunley, A. Tom

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory exercise allowing students to use drillhole data to simulate the process of locating a placer gold paystreak is presented. As part of the activity students arithmetically compute the value of their gold, mining costs, and personal profits or losses, and decide on development plans for the claim. (BC)

  11. Animal models of resistance exercise and their application to neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that participation in regular resistance exercise (e.g., strength training) is associated with improvements in mental health, memory, and cognition. However, less is known about the neurobiological mechanisms mediating these effects. The goal of this mini-review is to describe and evaluate the available animal models of resistance exercise that may prove useful for examining CNS activity. Various models have been developed to examine resistance exercise in laboratory animals. Resistance exercise models vary in how the resistance manipulation is applied, either through direct stimulation of the muscle (e.g., in situ models) or through behavior maintained by operant contingencies (e.g., whole organism models). Each model presents distinct advantages and disadvantages for examining central nervous system (CNS) activity, and consideration of these attributes is essential for the future investigation of underlying neurobiological substrates. Potential neurobiological mechanisms mediating the effects of resistance exercise on pain, anxiety, memory, and drug use have been efficiently and effectively investigated using resistance exercise models that minimize stress and maximize the relative contribution of resistance over aerobic factors. Whole organism resistance exercise models that (1) limit the use of potentially stressful stimuli and (2) minimize the contribution of aerobic factors will be critical for examining resistance exercise and CNS function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of the transtheoretical model: exercise behavior in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2010-01-01

    Although regular exercise has been recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people with metabolic syndrome, little information is available about psychobehavioral strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the stages, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy of exercise behavior and to determine the significant predictors explaining regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey design enrolled a convenience sample of 210 people with metabolic syndrome at a university hospital in South Korea. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and transtheoretical model-related variables. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of regular exercise stages. Action and maintenance stages comprised 51.9% of regular exercise stages, whereas 48.1% of non-regular exercise stages were precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Adults with regular exercise stages displayed increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, were more likely to use consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation strategies, and were less likely to evaluate the merits/disadvantages of exercise, compared with those in non-regular exercise stages. In this study of regular exercise behavior and transtheoretical model-related variables, consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation were associated with a positive effect on regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. Our findings could be used to develop strategies and interventions to maintain regular exercise behavior directed at Korean adults with metabolic syndrome to reduce CVD risk. Further prospective intervention studies are needed to investigate the effect of regular exercise program on the prevention and/or reduction of CVD risk among this

  13. The Contribution of Exercise Testing in the Prescription and Outcome Evaluation of Exercise Training in Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    STROESCU, Carmen; IONITA, Diana; CROITORU, Alina; TOMA, Claudia; PARASCHIV, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive therapeutic intervention with proven efficacy in relieving symptoms and increasing exercise tolerance in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. One of the main components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program is lower limbs exercise training. There are several ways of establishing the optimal intensity of the exercise training, using the target heart rate, symptom scores, walking tests and laboratory exercise tests with or without ventilation or gas exchange measurements. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages. The gold standard in exercise capacity evaluation is cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) which brings a high level of objectivity in exercise tolerance evaluation and provides information on mechanisms responsible for its decline; this allows a better training prescription and a correct evaluation of rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:23118826

  14. A stage-matched intervention for exercise behavior change based on the transtheoretical model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngho

    2008-06-01

    The effectiveness of a stage-matched intervention for enhancing exercise behavior was investigated with related Transtheoretical Model constructs among young Korean adults. 265 university students (147 men, 118 women; M age=24.1 yr., SD=3.5) enrolled in Seoul National University of Technology voluntarily participated in an 8-wk. intervention study. In order to measure exercise behavior and its related psychological constructs, the Stages of Readiness for Exercise Behavior Scale, Decision Balance Scale for Exercise, Exercise Self-efficacy Scale, Processes of Change Scale, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were used. Results indicated that the participants' exercise readiness was significantly changed in a positive way after the 8-wk. intervention. There was a significant main effect of testing time and an interaction between testing time and exercise readiness stage at baseline. There were significant interactions between testing times and groups for all Transtheoretical Model measures, implying that the stage-matched intervention can be an effective tool for increasing exercise readiness and related psychological variables. The present study provides a starting point for stage-matched interventions aimed at increasing exercise levels, and a baseline level from which to evaluate interventions.

  15. Evaluation of a Game-Based Simulation During Distributed Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1931 Evaluation of a Game-Based...Simulation During Distributed Exercises Michael J. Singer and Bruce W. Knerr U. S. Army Research Institute September 2010...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Department of

  16. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Seamon, Bryant A.; Gonzales, Tomas I.; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0–10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from −5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s−1

  17. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications.

    PubMed

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Gonzales, Tomas I; Hernandez, Haniel J; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from -5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s(-1) while

  18. Evaluation models and evaluation use

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Brousselle, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The use of evaluation results is at the core of evaluation theory and practice. Major debates in the field have emphasized the importance of both the evaluator’s role and the evaluation process itself in fostering evaluation use. A recent systematic review of interventions aimed at influencing policy-making or organizational behavior through knowledge exchange offers a new perspective on evaluation use. We propose here a framework for better understanding the embedded relations between evaluation context, choice of an evaluation model and use of results. The article argues that the evaluation context presents conditions that affect both the appropriateness of the evaluation model implemented and the use of results. PMID:23526460

  19. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  20. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  1. Hardware Evaluation of the Horizontal Exercise Fixture with Weight Stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, Nate; Leach, Mark; Fincke, Renita; Sharp, Carwyn

    2009-01-01

    HEF with weight stack seems to be a very sturdy and reliable exercise device that should function well in a bed rest training setting. A few improvements should be made to both the hardware and software to improve usage efficiency, but largely, this evaluation has demonstrated HEF's robustness. The hardware offers loading to muscles, bones, and joints, potentially sufficient to mitigate the loss of muscle mass and bone mineral density during long-duration bed rest campaigns. With some minor modifications, the HEF with weight stack equipment provides the best currently available means of performing squat, heel raise, prone row, bench press, and hip flexion/extension exercise in a supine orientation.

  2. Evaluation of acute cardiorespiratory responses to hydraulic resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Katch, F I; Freedson, P S; Jones, C A

    1985-02-01

    Accurate evaluation of the acute responses to resistance exercise training depends on the stability of the criterion measures. This is particularly true for maximal effort exercise where continuous "all-out" effort for each repetition is encouraged. The present study evaluated reliability of repetition number (repN), respiratory gas parameters (VO2, VCO2, VE), and heart rate (HR) for shoulder (SE), chest (CE), and leg (LE) exercise performed maximally on a single-unit, 3-station hydraulic resistance exercise machine (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX). On 2 separate days, 20 college men completed three 20-s bouts of SE, CE, and LE with a 20-s rest between bouts and 5 min between exercise modes. There were no significant differences between bouts or test days for repN, gas measures, or HR. Subjects performed 17, 19, and 21 reps during SE, LE, and CE. VO2 was 1.7 l . min-1 (24.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1) for SE, 1.87 l . min-1 (25.5 ml . kg-1 . min-1) for CE, and 2.1 l . min-1 (28.6 ml . kg-1 . min-1) for LE. These values, averaged, represented 52.8% of the max VO2 determined on a continuous cycle ergometer test. The corresponding HR's during hydraulic exercise averaged 84.6% of HR max. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from r = .67 to .87 for repN, r = .41 to .83 for gas measures, and r = .72 to .89 for HR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Dialysis patient-perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; You, Li-Ming; Lou, Tan-Qi; Chen, Nian-Chang; Lai, De-Yuan; Liang, Yan-Yi; Li, Ying-Na; Gu, Ying-Ming; Lv, Shao-Fen; Zhai, Cui-Qiu

    2010-02-01

    Perceptions of exercise benefits and barriers affect exercise behavior. Because of the clinical course and treatment, dialysis patients differ from the general population in their perceptions of exercise benefits and barriers, especially the latter. At present, no valid instruments for assessing perceived exercise benefits and barriers in dialysis patients are available. Our goal was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Dialysis patient-perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (DPEBBS). A literature review and two focus groups were conducted to generate the initial item pool. An expert panel examined the content validity. Then, 269 Chinese hemodialysis patients were recruited by convenience sampling. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test construct validity. Finally, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. The expert panel determined that the content validity index was satisfactory. The final 24-item scale consisted of six factors explaining 57% of the total variance in the data. Confirmative factor analysis supported the six-factor structure and a higher-order model. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for the total scale, and 0.84 for test-retest reliability. The DPEBBS was a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating dialysis patients' perceived benefits and barriers to exercise. The application value of this scale remains to be investigated by increasing the sample size and evaluating patients undergoing different dialysis modalities and coming from different regions and cultural backgrounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sepsis and mechanisms of inflammatory response: is exercise a good model?

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—The immune changes induced by a bout of prolonged and vigorous exercise have been suggested to be a useful experimental model of sepsis and the inflammatory response. Available literature was reviewed to evaluate this hypothesis. Methods—Literature describing the immune response to various patterns of exercise was compared with data on the immune changes observed during sepsis and inflammation. Results—Although there are qualitative similarities between the immune responses to exercise and sepsis, the magnitude of the changes induced by most forms of exercise remains much smaller than in a typical inflammatory response. Indeed, the exercise induced changes in some key elements such as plasma cytokine concentrations are too small to be detected reliably by current technology. Conclusions—If exercise is to provide a valid model of sepsis and the inflammatory response, it will be necessary to focus on subjects who are willing to exercise extremely hard, to use the pattern of exercise that has the greatest effect on the immune system, and to combine this stimulus with other psychological, environmental, or nutritional stressors. Key Words: sepsis; inflammatory response; exercise; cytokines; endorphins; immune function PMID:11477013

  5. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evaluation of exercise tolerance using three different exercise tests].

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, M; Ortega Balza, M; Lezama, J; López, J M

    2001-02-01

    The clinical usefulness of simple exercise tests in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continues to give rise to debate. Questions remain about whether these tests assess maximum effort or only exercise tolerance (submaximal effort). To determine the levels of stress reached during the six-minute walking (6MW) test and stair climbing (SC) test and their relation to maximum aerobic capacity, 50 patients with COPD (FEV1 49 +/- 19%) were studied. Data collected included spirometric variables and VO2, heart rate (HR), ventilatory response and dyspnea during the progressive effort ergometric cycle (PEEC) test. Two 6MW and SC tests were completed on two separate days, with distance, number of steps, HR and dyspnea recorded. HR was higher during the PEEC test. Among the simple tests, SC caused a faster HR than did the 6MW test. Likewise, a significant linear relation was observed between VO2/kgpeak during the 6MW test (r2 = 0.27; p < 0.05) and the SC test (r2 = 0.33; p < 0.01). We therefore conclude that exercise tolerance in patients with COPD can be evaluated using simple stress tests. The SC test is probably the best simple way to determine maximum functional capacity, whereas the 6MW test can be reserved for measurement of exercise tolerance.

  6. A Practical Exercise to Demonstrate the Variable Source Area Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Tim

    1988-01-01

    Describes a field exercise exemplifying aspects of the variable source area model. States that objectives of the exercise are to ensure that students understand why there is a variation in discharge in different parts of a basin, learn a dilution gauging method, and perform necessary calculations. Appendices describe the Gulp Injection method and…

  7. Jogging in place. Evaluation of a simplified exercise test

    SciTech Connect

    Papazoglou, N.; Kolokouri-Dervou, E.; Fanourakis, I.; Natsis, P.; Koutsiouba, P. )

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate jogging in place as an electrocardiographic exercise test. Jogging in place continuously recorded via an ordinary single-channel electrocardiograph was compared with the Bruce treadmill protocol with a three-channel monitor and recorder in 141 cases with a wide spectrum of chest complaints. Agreement for the presence or absence of electrocardiographic ischemia (ST-segment displacement greater than or equal to 1 mm at 80 ms from the J point, or U-wave inversion) for the two tests was observed in 91 percent of the cases (95 percent confidence intervals: 86 percent to 95.5 percent). One hundred of the previous cases with paired electrocardiographic exercise tests were compared with the presence of reversible defects on exercise myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy. The electrocardiographic ischemia had a similar correct classification rate in both methods (83 percent with jogging in place and 85 percent with Bruce treadmill protocol; not significant) against the finding of scintigraphic ischemia. This was also true for 52 cases having selective coronary arteriography. The correct classification rate was 54 percent (28/52) with jogging in place and 48 percent (25/52) with Bruce treadmill protocol (not significant). Given the safety and the easy applicability, even in older persons, this simplified test can be recommended as a valid alternative to the established multistage exercise tests.

  8. Exercise instruments, schemes, and protocols for evaluating the dyspneic patient.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J E

    1984-02-01

    A number of exercise instruments, schemes, and protocols for evaluating the dyspneic patient are characterized. The cycle is safe, allows quantification of external work and work efficiency, and has less measurement artifact, whereas the treadmill allows a higher maximum oxygen uptake. Repeated measures of cardiorespiratory function at rest, during several minutes of warmup, and during work, with equal 1-min increments, to a symptom-limited maximum in approximately 10 min is an advantageous protocol.

  9. Biomechanical Modeling of the Deadlift Exercise to Improve the Efficacy of Resistive Exercise Microgravity Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagodnik, K. M.; Thompson, W. K.; Gallo, C. A.; DeWitt, J. K.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    During long-duration spaceflight missions, astronauts exposure to microgravity without adequate countermeasures can result in losses of muscular strength and endurance, as well as loss of bone mass. As a countermeasure to this challenge, astronauts engage in resistive exercise during spaceflight to maintain their musculoskeletal function. The Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) has been designed as a prototype exercise device for an exploration-class vehicle; the HULK features a much smaller footprint than previous devices such as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on the International Space Station (ISS), which makes the HULK suitable for extended spaceflight missions in vehicles with limited volume. As current ISS exercise countermeasure equipment represents an improvement over previous generations of such devices, the ARED is being employed as a benchmark of functional performance. This project involves the development of a biomechanical model of the deadlift exercise, and is novel in that it is the first exercise analyzed in this context to include the upper limbs in the loading path, in contrast to the squat, single-leg squat, and heel raise exercises also being modeled by our team. OpenSim software is employed to develop these biomechanical models of humans performing resistive exercises to assess and improve the new exercise device designs. Analyses include determining differences in joint and muscle forces when using different loading strategies with the device, comparing and contrasting with the ARED benchmark, and determining whether the loading is sufficient to maintain musculoskeletal health. During data collection, the number of repetitions, load, cadence, stance, and grip width are controlled in order to facilitate comparisons between loading configurations. To date, data have been collected for two human subjects performing the deadlift exercise on the HULK device using two different loading conditions. Recorded data include motion capture

  10. Going to the gym or to the movies?: situated decisions as a functional link connecting automatic and reflective evaluations of exercise with exercising behavior.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the present paper is to propose a model for the study of automatic cognition and affect in exercise. We have chosen a dual-system approach to social information processing to investigate the hypothesis that situated decisions between behavioral alternatives form a functional link between automatic and reflective evaluations and the time spent on exercise. A new questionnaire is introduced to operationalize this link. A reaction-time-based evaluative priming task was used to test participants' automatic evaluations. Affective and cognitive reflective evaluations, as well as exercising time, were requested via self-report. Path analyses suggest that the affective reflective (beta = .71) and the automatic evaluation (beta = .15) independently explain situated decisions, which, in turn (beta = .60) explain time spent on exercise. Our findings highlight the concept of contextualized decisions. They can serve as a starting point from which the so far seldom investigations of automatic cognition and affect in exercise can be integrated with multitudinous results from studies on reflective psychological determinants of health behavior.

  11. Exercise-responsive cardiac pacemakers: review and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Galambos, T; Inbar, G

    1991-01-01

    The various aspects of the state of the art of exercise, or physiological responsive pacemakers (PM) are discussed. Models are used to assess the performance of PM controllers already on the market or in experimental stages. Emphasis is placed on comparison between open-loop and closed-loop controllers in light of the anticipation that future PM will have more sophisticated multiparameter expert system controllers.

  12. Regular exercise prevents non-cognitive disturbances in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dao, An T; Zagaar, Munder A; Salim, Samina; Eriksen, Jason L; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we reported that in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) generated by exogenous administration of Aβ₁₋₄₂ (250 pmol/d for 2 wk) via mini-osmotic pump, the animals exhibited learning and memory impairment, which could be attributed to the deleterious alterations in the levels of cognition-related signalling molecules. We showed that 4 wk of treadmill exercise totally prevented these impairments. Here, we evaluated the effect of exercise on non-cognitive function and basal synaptic transmission in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) area using the same AD model. Our results indicated that the anxiety behaviour of Aβ-treated rats was prevented by 4 wk of treadmill exercise. Exercised/Aβ-infused rats spent a longer time in the centre area of the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigms and the light area of the light-dark (LD) box, which were similar to those of control and exercise rats. Furthermore, under basal conditions the aberrant up-regulation of calcineurin (PP2B) and reduction of phosphorylated Ca²⁺/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (p-CaMKII) levels induced by AD-like pathology were normalised by the exercise regimen. We conclude that regular exercise may exert beneficial effects on both cognitive and non-cognitive functions in this AD model.

  13. Comparison of heart and respiratory rate variability measures using an intermittent incremental submaximal exercise model.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Ramirez, Juliana; Bravi, Andrea; Green, Geoffrey; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-11-01

    To better understand the alterations in cardiorespiratory variability during exercise, the present study characterized the patterns of change in heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate variability (RRV), and combined cardiorespiratory variability (HRV-RRV) during an intermittent incremental submaximal exercise model. Six males and six females completed a submaximal exercise protocol consisting of an initial baseline resting period followed by three 10-min bouts of exercise at 20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2max). The R-R interval and interbreath interval variability were measured at baseline rest and throughout the submaximal exercise. A group of 93 HRV, 83 RRV, and 28 HRV-RRV measures of variability were tracked over time through a windowed analysis using a 5-min window size and 30-s window step. A total of 91 HRV measures were able to detect the presence of exercise, whereas only 46 RRV and 3 HRV-RRV measures were able to detect the same stimulus. Moreover, there was a loss of overall HRV and RRV, loss of complexity of HRV and RRV, and loss of parasympathetic modulation of HRV (up to 40% V̇O2max) with exercise. Conflicting changes in scale-invariant structure of HRV and RRV with increases in exercise intensity were also observed. In summary, in this simultaneous evaluation of HRV and RRV, we found more consistent changes across HRV metrics compared with RRV and HRV-RRV.

  14. Optimizing cardiovascular benefits of exercise: a review of rodent models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brittany; Moriguchi, Takeshi; Sumpio, Bauer

    2013-03-01

    Although research unanimously maintains that exercise can ward off cardiovascular disease (CVD), the optimal type, duration, intensity, and combination of forms are yet not clear. In our review of existing rodent-based studies on exercise and cardiovascular health, we attempt to find the optimal forms, intensities, and durations of exercise. Using Scopus and Medline, a literature review of English language comparative journal studies of cardiovascular benefits and exercise was performed. This review examines the existing literature on rodent models of aerobic, anaerobic, and power exercise and compares the benefits of various training forms, intensities, and durations. The rodent studies reviewed in this article correlate with reports on human subjects that suggest regular aerobic exercise can improve cardiac and vascular structure and function, as well as lipid profiles, and reduce the risk of CVD. Findings demonstrate an abundance of rodent-based aerobic studies, but a lack of anaerobic and power forms of exercise, as well as comparisons of these three components of exercise. Thus, further studies must be conducted to determine a truly optimal regimen for cardiovascular health.

  15. [The mini-clinical evaluation exercise: from 'judgement' to 'guidance'].

    PubMed

    Boendermaker, Peter M; Venekamp, Ruud; Brand, Paul L P

    2013-01-01

    The mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a sort of test in which the assessor's evaluation is based on a short observation of the resident in a clinical situation. A mini-CEX is not an examination but a useful educational instrument to monitor and to foster the resident's development. The central concepts of a good mini-CEX are 'short' (limited both in content and duration) and 'often' (the more frequent the better). It is important the assessor should provide feedback as soon as possible after the evaluation; this feedback should be constructive and task-oriented and be presented to the resident in a credible manner. Multiple observations by different assessors will ensure that the overall picture of the resident's progress is more reliable. Because the particular value of the mini-CEX lies mainly in the repetition involved, we would like to replace the 'E' for 'evaluation' with the 'G' for 'guidance'.

  16. Evaluation of eccentric exercise in treatment of patellar tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Di Fabio, R P

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a quadriceps femoris muscle eccentric training program on strength gain in patients with patellar tendinitis. The effect of an eight-week eccentric exercise program on quadriceps femoris muscle work was evaluated in four groups of subjects--two groups of "normal" (healthy) subjects and two groups of patients with patellar tendinitis. All four groups participated in a home muscle stretching exercise program, but only two groups--one group of normal subjects (N-A) and one group of subjects with tendinitis (T-A)--received additional eccentric training on an eccentric isokinetic dynamometer. The eccentric quadriceps femoris muscle work ratio (involved limb/uninvolved limb x 100) was used to quantify strength in the N-A and T-A Groups. Pain ratings were recorded for subjects with tendinitis before and after the eight-week experiment and were correlated with the dependent variable using a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient. The N-A Group performed significantly better than all subjects with tendinitis (p less than .05). Subjects in the T-A Group, however, showed a trend toward increasing eccentric quadriceps femoris muscle work capacity over the eight-week training period. As pain ratings in the T-A Group increased, work ratios decreased. We concluded that eccentric exercise may be an effective treatment for patellar tendinitis, but that knee pain may limit optimal gains in strength.

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of using ranking task exercises in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Michi

    2007-05-01

    Ranking task (RT) exercises in physics, translated into Japanese, were introduced to improve Japanese students’ conceptual understanding of introductory mechanics. The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) was used to measure these students’ conceptual understanding of mechanical concepts. RT exercises in physics were introduced for the following two reasons: (1) to give Japanese students, who are typically shy and have little experience participating in debates in physics class, the tools to encourage peer communication; and (2) to improve Japanese students’ conceptual understanding by asking them to provide a written explanation of their reasoning. These students were divided into 13 groups, consisting of 4 to 5 students. Each group included 1 student who had performed well on the FMCE pretest. The RT exercises were assigned as homework to each group, whose members were expected to work on the assignment together to submit a consensus with an emphasis on reasoning. A gain on the FMCE showed a little improvement over the whole class; however, some students showed remarkable improvement.

  18. Exercise on prescription: trial protocol and evaluation of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jes B; Kragstrup, Jakob; Kjaer, Kirsten; Puggaard, Lis

    2007-03-02

    In many countries exercise prescriptions are used in an attempt to initiate a physically active lifestyle in sedentary populations. Previous studies have primarily evaluated low intensive exercise prescription interventions and found moderately positive effects on physical activity and aerobic fitness. In a highly intensive Danish exercise prescription scheme called 'Exercise on Prescription' (EoP) the general practitioners can prescribe EoP to sedentary patients with lifestyle diseases. The aim of this randomized trial is to assess the short- and long-term effects of the EoP scheme. Thus, the aim of this paper is to describe the randomized controlled trial designed for evaluating effectiveness of EoP, and to present results from validations of outcome measures. EoP involves a 16-week supervised training intervention and five counselling sessions (health profiles). All patients referred to EoP were eligible for the trial and were offered participation during the baseline health profile. Comparisons between the EoP group and the control group were made at baseline, and after four and ten months. Physiological measures used were maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), bodyweight, and BMI. Patient-reported measures used were physical activity, health-related quality of life, amount and intensity of exercise, compliance with national guidelines for physical activity, and physical fitness. The validation of the cycle ergometer test found a strong correlation between maximal work capacity and VO2max, and acceptable test-retest reliability at group level. Calibration of the HbA1c apparatus was stable over ten weeks with minimal use, and test-retest reliability was good. High agreement percents were found for test-retest reliability for the self-administered questionnaire. The trial is designed to provide information about the effectiveness of the EoP scheme. The trial is part of a health technology assessment of EoP, which besides the

  19. Exercise on Prescription: trial protocol and evaluation of outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jes B; Kragstrup, Jakob; Kjær, Kirsten; Puggaard, Lis

    2007-01-01

    Background In many countries exercise prescriptions are used in an attempt to initiate a physically active lifestyle in sedentary populations. Previous studies have primarily evaluated low intensive exercise prescription interventions and found moderately positive effects on physical activity and aerobic fitness. In a highly intensive Danish exercise prescription scheme called 'Exercise on Prescription' (EoP) the general practitioners can prescribe EoP to sedentary patients with lifestyle diseases. The aim of this randomized trial is to assess the short- and long-term effects of the EoP scheme. Thus, the aim of this paper is to describe the randomized controlled trial designed for evaluating effectiveness of EoP, and to present results from validations of outcome measures. Methods/Design EoP involves a 16-week supervised training intervention and five counselling sessions (health profiles). All patients referred to EoP were eligible for the trial and were offered participation during the baseline health profile. Comparisons between the EoP group and the control group were made at baseline, and after four and ten months. Physiological measures used were maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), bodyweight, and BMI. Patient-reported measures used were physical activity, health-related quality of life, amount and intensity of exercise, compliance with national guidelines for physical activity, and physical fitness. The validation of the cycle ergometer test found a strong correlation between maximal work capacity and VO2max, and acceptable test-retest reliability at group level. Calibration of the HbA1c apparatus was stable over ten weeks with minimal use, and test-retest reliability was good. High agreement percents were found for test-retest reliability for the self-administered questionnaire. Discussion The trial is designed to provide information about the effectiveness of the EoP scheme. The trial is part of a health technology assessment

  20. Evaluation of Various Cooling Systems After Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pearl M S; Teo, Eunice Y N; Ali, Noreffendy B; Ang, Bryan C H; Iskandar, Iswady; Law, Lydia Y L; Lee, Jason K W

    2017-02-01

    Rapid diagnosis and expeditious cooling of individuals with exertional heat stroke is paramount for survival. To evaluate the efficacy of various cooling systems after exercise-induced hyperthermia. Crossover study. Laboratory. Twenty-two men (age = 24 ± 2 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.07 m, mass = 70.7 ± 9.5 kg) participated. Each participant completed a treadmill walk until body core temperature reached 39.50°C. The treadmill walk was performed at 5.3 km/h on an 8.5% incline for 50 minutes and then at 5.0 km/h until the end of exercise. Each participant experienced 4 cooling phases in a randomized, repeated-crossover design: (1) no cooling (CON), (2) body-cooling unit (BCU), (3) EMCOOLS Flex.Pad (EC), and (4) ThermoSuit (TS). Cooling continued for 30 minutes or until body core temperature reached 38.00°C, whichever occurred earlier. Body core temperature (obtained via an ingestible telemetric temperature sensor) and heart rate were measured continuously during the exercise and cooling phases. Rating of perceived exertion was monitored every 5 minutes during the exercise phase and thermal sensation every minute during the cooling phase. The absolute cooling rate was greatest with TS (0.16°C/min ± 0.06°C/min) followed by EC (0.12°C/min ± 0.04°C/min), BCU (0.09°C/min ± 0.06°C/min), and CON (0.06°C/min ± 0.02°C/min; P < .001). The TS offered a greater cooling rate than all other cooling modalities in this study, whereas EC offered a greater cooling rate than both CON and BCU (P < .0083 for all). Effect-size calculations, however, showed that EC and BCU were not clinically different. These findings provide objective evidence for selecting the most effective cooling system of those we evaluated for cooling individuals with exercise-induced hyperthermia. Nevertheless, factors other than cooling efficacy need to be considered when selecting an appropriate cooling system.

  1. Computational modeling of pathophysiologic responses to exercise in Fontan patients.

    PubMed

    Kung, Ethan; Perry, James C; Davis, Christopher; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Giardini, Alessandro; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Reduced exercise capacity is nearly universal among Fontan patients. Although many factors have emerged as possible contributors, the degree to which each impacts the overall hemodynamics is largely unknown. Computational modeling provides a means to test hypotheses of causes of exercise intolerance via precisely controlled virtual experiments and measurements. We quantified the physiological impacts of commonly encountered, clinically relevant dysfunctions introduced to the exercising Fontan system via a previously developed lumped-parameter model of Fontan exercise. Elevated pulmonary arterial pressure was observed in all cases of dysfunction, correlated with lowered cardiac output (CO), and often mediated by elevated atrial pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance was not the most significant factor affecting exercise performance as measured by CO. In the absence of other dysfunctions, atrioventricular valve insufficiency alone had significant physiological impact, especially under exercise demands. The impact of isolated dysfunctions can be linearly summed to approximate the combined impact of several dysfunctions occurring in the same system. A single dominant cause of exercise intolerance was not identified, though several hypothesized dysfunctions each led to variable decreases in performance. Computational predictions of performance improvement associated with various interventions should be weighed against procedural risks and potential complications, contributing to improvements in routine patient management protocol.

  2. Development of an evaluation framework suitable for assessing humanitarian workforce competencies during crisis simulation exercises.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Hilarie; Chan, Jennifer L; Kayden, Stephanie; Musani, Altaf; Gasquet, Philippe E; Walker, Peter; Burkle, Frederick M; Johnson, Kirsten

    2014-02-01

    The need to provide a professionalization process for the humanitarian workforce is well established. Current competency-based curricula provided by existing academically affiliated training centers in North America, the United Kingdom, and the European Union provide a route toward certification. Simulation exercises followed by timely evaluation is one way to mimic the field deployment process, test knowledge of core competences, and ensure that a competent workforce can manage the inevitable emergencies and crises they will face. Through a 2011 field-based exercise that simulated a humanitarian crisis, delivered under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO), a competency-based framework and evaluation tool is demonstrated as a model for future training and evaluation of humanitarian providers.

  3. Role of exercise in the evaluation and management of pulmonary disease in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Nixon, P A

    1996-04-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disorder affecting children in the U.S. Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-shortening inherited disease affecting white populations. With both disorders, children may have impaired exercise tolerance and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to exercise. Exercise testing can aid in the diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma, and in determining prognosis in cystic fibrosis. Children with asthma and cystic fibrosis have been shown to benefit from exercise training, mainly through improved aerobic fitness and cardiopulmonary efficiency. In summary, exercise plays a valuable role in the evaluation and management of children with asthma and cystic fibrosis.

  4. Evaluation of the Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory program.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L

    2009-12-01

    The Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory (VPEL) program was created to simulate the test design, data collection, and analysis phases of selected exercise physiology laboratories. The VPEL program consists of four modules: 1) cardiovascular, 2) maximal O(2) consumption (Vo(2max)), 3) lactate and ventilatory thresholds, and 4) respiratory exchange ratio. The purpose of this investigation was to compare student learning from the VPEL program with that from traditional "hands-on" exercise physiology laboratory activities. Student participants from the spring 2009 Integrated Fitness Programming course were randomly assigned to either experimental group 1 or group 2. Group 1 completed a hands-on version of a typical Vo(2max) laboratory activity, whereas group 2 completed the VPEL Vo(2max) module. Both groups then completed the same assessment to evaluate their understanding of Vo(2max) laboratory concepts. Group 1 then completed the VPEL lactate and ventilatory threshold module, whereas group 2 completed a hands-on version of that same activity. Both groups then completed the same assessment to evaluate their understanding of lactate and ventilatory threshold laboratory concepts. Mean Vo(2max) assessment scores were 86.39 +/- 4.13 and 85.64 +/- 6.72 and mean lactate and ventilatory threshold assessment scores were 85.50 +/- 8.05 and 86.15 +/- 6.45 for groups 1 and 2, respectively. These findings lend additional support to the following conclusion of similar investigations (2, 4, 6): that virtual laboratories instruct students as effectively as hands-on laboratories.

  5. Evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Stoller, O; de Bruin, E D; Schindelholz, M; Schuster, C; de Bie, R A; Hunt, K J

    2013-01-01

    Robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) with focus on motor recovery has become popular in early post-stroke rehabilitation but low endurance for exercise is highly prevalent in these individuals. This study aimed to develop an exercise testing method using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to evaluate aerobic capacity after severe stroke. Constant load testing (CLT) based on body weight support (BWS) control, and incremental exercise testing (IET) based on guidance force (GF) control were implemented during RATE. Analyses focussed on step change, step response kinetics, and peak performance parameters of oxygen uptake. Three subjects with severe motor impairment 16-23 days post-stroke were included. CLT yielded reasonable step change values in oxygen uptake, whereas response kinetics of oxygen uptake showed low goodness of fit. Peak performance parameters were not obtained during IET. Exercise testing in post-stroke individuals with severe motor impairments using a BWS control strategy for CLT is deemed feasible and safe. Our approach yielded reasonable results regarding cardiovascular performance parameters. IET based on GF control does not provoke peak cardiovascular performance due to uncoordinated walking patterns. GF control needs further development to optimally demand active participation during RATE. The findings warrant further research regarding the evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke.

  6. A Computer Aided Exercise Facility for Tactical Air Command and Control Evaluation: Concepts and Design Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    series of conceptually distinct one-time exercises . The most obvious parts of this activity take place during the run of an exercise , but a great deal of...important preparatory activity takes place before the exercise , and much of the analysis and synthesis for the final evaluation must be done...of people performing the same types of activities are involved in both. Ihe simulated environment within which most exercises are conducted, however

  7. A model-based prioritisation exercise for the European water framework directive.

    PubMed

    Daginnus, Klaus; Gottardo, Stefania; Payá-Pérez, Ana; Whitehouse, Paul; Wilkinson, Helen; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2011-02-01

    A model-based prioritisation exercise has been carried out for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. The approach considers two aspects: the hazard of a certain chemical and its exposure levels, and focuses on aquatic ecosystems, but also takes into account hazards due to secondary poisoning, bioaccumulation through the food chain and potential human health effects. A list provided by EU Member States, Stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organizations comprising 2,034 substances was evaluated according to hazard and exposure criteria. Then 78 substances classified as "of high concern" where analysed and ranked in terms of risk ratio (Predicted Environmental Concentration/Predicted No-Effect Concentration). This exercise has been complemented by a monitoring-based prioritization exercise using data provided by Member States. The proposed approach constitutes the first step in setting the basis for an open modular screening tool that could be used for the next prioritization exercises foreseen by the WFD.

  8. Integrating stage and continuum models to explain processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation among sedentary college students.

    PubMed

    Rosen, C S

    2000-03-01

    Concepts from the transtheoretical model (J.O. Prochaska, C.C. DiClemente, & J.C. Norcross, 1992), theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985), and the elaboration likelihood model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1986b) were used to examine how exercise readiness impacted processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation. Sedentary college students (n = 147) were assessed for exercise attitude, intent, behavior, and stage of change. Students also listed their thoughts after reading messages with either strong or weak arguments for exercise. Attitude predicted depth of message processing, but stage of change did not. Stage of change and intent at baseline predicted exercise adoption at 1- to 3-month follow-up (n = 134), with baseline activity moderating the effect of intent. Tailoring messages to recipients' depth of processing and interactive effects of intent and behavior on exercise adoption should be considered in future research.

  9. Detection of Urine Metabolites in a Rat Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome before and after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Changzhuan; Ren, Yiming; Wang, Zinan; Kang, Chenzhe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) via an analysis of urine metabolites prior to and following exercise in a rat model. Methods. A rat model of CFS was established using restraint-stress, forced exercise, and crowded and noisy environments over a period of 4 weeks. Behavioral experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the model. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis before and after exercise. Results. A total of 20 metabolites were detected in CFS rats before and after exercise. Three metabolic pathways (TCA cycle; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; steroid hormone biosynthesis) were significantly impacted before and after exercise, while sphingolipid metabolism alone exhibited significant alterations after exercise only. Conclusion. In addition to metabolic disturbances involving some energy substances, alterations in steroid hormone biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism were detected in CFS rats. Sphingosine and 21-hydroxypregnenolone may be key biomarkers of CFS, potentially offering evidence in support of immune dysfunction and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity in patients with CFS. PMID:28421200

  10. Rodent models for resolving extremes of exercise and health.

    PubMed

    Garton, Fleur C; North, Kathryn N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    The extremes of exercise capacity and health are considered a complex interplay between genes and the environment. In general, the study of animal models has proven critical for deep mechanistic exploration that provides guidance for focused and hypothesis-driven discovery in humans. Hypotheses underlying molecular mechanisms of disease and gene/tissue function can be tested in rodents to generate sufficient evidence to resolve and progress our understanding of human biology. Here we provide examples of three alternative uses of rodent models that have been applied successfully to advance knowledge that bridges our understanding of the connection between exercise capacity and health status. First we review the strong association between exercise capacity and all-cause morbidity and mortality in humans through artificial selection on low and high exercise performance in the rat and the consequent generation of the "energy transfer hypothesis." Second we review specific transgenic and knockout mouse models that replicate the human disease condition and performance. This includes human glycogen storage diseases (McArdle and Pompe) and α-actinin-3 deficiency. Together these rodent models provide an overview of the advancements of molecular knowledge required for clinical translation. Continued study of these models in conjunction with human association studies will be critical to resolving the complex gene-environment interplay linking exercise capacity, health, and disease.

  11. Rodent models for resolving extremes of exercise and health

    PubMed Central

    North, Kathryn N.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The extremes of exercise capacity and health are considered a complex interplay between genes and the environment. In general, the study of animal models has proven critical for deep mechanistic exploration that provides guidance for focused and hypothesis-driven discovery in humans. Hypotheses underlying molecular mechanisms of disease and gene/tissue function can be tested in rodents to generate sufficient evidence to resolve and progress our understanding of human biology. Here we provide examples of three alternative uses of rodent models that have been applied successfully to advance knowledge that bridges our understanding of the connection between exercise capacity and health status. First we review the strong association between exercise capacity and all-cause morbidity and mortality in humans through artificial selection on low and high exercise performance in the rat and the consequent generation of the “energy transfer hypothesis.” Second we review specific transgenic and knockout mouse models that replicate the human disease condition and performance. This includes human glycogen storage diseases (McArdle and Pompe) and α-actinin-3 deficiency. Together these rodent models provide an overview of the advancements of molecular knowledge required for clinical translation. Continued study of these models in conjunction with human association studies will be critical to resolving the complex gene-environment interplay linking exercise capacity, health, and disease. PMID:26395598

  12. An Evaluation of New After-Action Review Tools in Exercise Black Skies 10 & Exercise Black Skies 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    EBS10 and EBS12 built upon the outcomes of previous exercises such as the Pacific Link exercises (e.g., Best, Hasenbosch, Skinner , Crane, Burchat, Finch...the evaluation of simulation-based mission preparation for Close Air Support (CAS) teams, comprising of F /A-18 pilots and Joint Terminal Attack...screen entity and voice interaction with the ABM team. The white force subject matter experts, consisting of one former ABM and one former F /A-18

  13. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  14. The Singing Wineglass: An Exercise in Mathematical Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voges, E. L.; Joubert, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Lecturers in mathematical modelling courses are always on the lookout for new examples to illustrate the modelling process. A physical phenomenon, documented as early as the nineteenth century, was recalled: when a wineglass "sings", waves are visible on the surface of the wine. These surface waves are used as an exercise in mathematical…

  15. The Singing Wineglass: An Exercise in Mathematical Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voges, E. L.; Joubert, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Lecturers in mathematical modelling courses are always on the lookout for new examples to illustrate the modelling process. A physical phenomenon, documented as early as the nineteenth century, was recalled: when a wineglass "sings", waves are visible on the surface of the wine. These surface waves are used as an exercise in mathematical…

  16. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  17. Effects of exercise on brain functions in diabetic animal models.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-05-15

    Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters. Since brain health is the most significant factor in human life, it is very important to assess brain functions according to the different exercise conditions using experimental animal models. Generally, there are two types of DM; insulin-dependent type 1 DM and an insulin-independent type 2 DM (T2DM); however, the author will mostly discuss brain functions in T2DM animal models in this review. Additionally, many physiopathologic alterations are caused in the brain by DM such as increased adiposity, inflammation, hormonal dysregulation, uncontrolled hyperphagia, insulin and leptin resistance, and dysregulation of neurotransmitters and declined neurogenesis in the hippocampus and we describe how exercise corrects these alterations in animal models. The results of changes in the brain environment differ according to voluntary, involuntary running exercises and resistance exercise, and gender in the animal studies. These factors have been mentioned in this review, and this review will be a good reference for studying how exercise can be used with therapy for treating DM.

  18. Re-Evaluation of Sarcolemma Injury and Muscle Swelling in Human Skeletal Muscles after Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Liu, Jing-Xia; Carlsson, Lena; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Stål, Per S.

    2013-01-01

    The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2–3 days and 7–8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7–8 days than at 2–3 days post exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, the value of capillary number per fibre area tended to decrease from 2–3 days to 7–8 days post exercise (lower in 5 of the 6 subjects at 7–8 days than at 2–3 days; p<0.05). Thus, the increased fibre size at 7–8 days post exercise was interpreted to reflect fibre swelling. Because the fibre swelling did not appear at the time that DOMS peaked (between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise), we concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS. PMID:23614012

  19. Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Liu, Jing-Xia; Carlsson, Lena; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Stål, Per S

    2013-01-01

    The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2-3 days and 7-8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days post exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, the value of capillary number per fibre area tended to decrease from 2-3 days to 7-8 days post exercise (lower in 5 of the 6 subjects at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days; p<0.05). Thus, the increased fibre size at 7-8 days post exercise was interpreted to reflect fibre swelling. Because the fibre swelling did not appear at the time that DOMS peaked (between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise), we concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS.

  20. Introducing Earth Sciences Students to Modeling Using MATLAB Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there

  1. Biomechanical Modeling Analysis of Loads Configuration for Squat Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen; De Witt, John K.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to assist loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft for travel to the Moon or to Mars is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. METHODS The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim [1] software platform, consisting of open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, using biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The OpenSim Full Body Model [2] is used for all analyses. The model incorporates simplified wrap surfaces, a new knee model and updated lower body muscle parameters derived from cadaver measurements and magnetic resonance imaging of young adults. The upper body uses torque actuators at the lumbar and extremity joints. The test subjects who volunteer for this study are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while performing squat exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device (ZIN Technologies, Middleburg Heights, OH). Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet, and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include

  2. Computer model of cardiovascular control system responses to exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches of systems analysis and mathematical modeling together with computer simulation techniques are applied to the cardiovascular system in order to simulate dynamic responses of the system to a range of exercise work loads. A block diagram of the circulatory model is presented, taking into account arterial segments, venous segments, arterio-venous circulation branches, and the heart. A cardiovascular control system model is also discussed together with model test results.

  3. Evaluation of a C57BL/6J × 129S1/SvImJ Hybrid Nestin-Thymidine Kinase Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying the Functional Significance of Exercise-Induced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, G.F.; Majdak, P.; Miller, D.S.; Bucko, P.J.; Merritt, J.R.; Krebs, C.P.; Rhodes, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    New neurons are continuously generated in the adult hippocampus but their function remains a mystery. The nestin thymidine kinase (nestin-TK) transgenic method has been used for selective and conditional reduction of neurogenesis for the purpose of testing the functional significance of new neurons in learning, memory and motor performance. Here we explored the nestin-TK model on a hybrid genetic background (to increase heterozygosity, and “hybrid vigor”). Transgenic C57BL/6J (B6) were crossed with 129S1/SvImJ (129) producing hybrid offspring (F1) with the B6 half of the genome carrying a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) transgene regulated by a modified nestin promoter. In the presence of exogenously administered valganciclovir, new neurons expressing TK undergo apoptosis. Female B6 nestin-TK mice (n = 80) were evaluated for neurogenesis reduction as a positive control. Male and female F1 nestin-TK mice (n = 223) were used to determine the impact of neurogenesis reduction on the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod. All mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells and either valganciclovir or control chow, with or without a running wheel for 30 days. Both the F1 and B6 background displayed approximately 50% reduction in neurogenesis, a difference that did not impair learning and memory on the MWM or rotarod performance. Running enhanced neurogenesis and performance on the rotarod but not MWM suggesting the F1 background may not be suitable for studying pro-cognitive effects of exercise on MWM. Greater reduction of neurogenesis may be required to observe behavioral impacts. Alternatively, new neurons may not play a critical role in learning, or compensatory mechanisms in pre-existing neurons could have masked the deficits. Further work using these and other models for selectively reducing neurogenesis are needed to establish the functional significance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in behavior.

  4. Exercise Challenge for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm. Confirming Presence, Evaluating Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Ted A.

    1995-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm commonly strikes young people, keeping many away from activity. The exercise challenge test (a powerful tool in diagnosing the condition, fine-tuning treatment, and improving patient compliance) can help get patients back in action. Knowing how to interpret and use test results helps physicians expedite effective…

  5. Toward Health Exercise Behavior Change for Teams Using Lifelog Sharing Models.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yuuki; Okoshi, Tadashi; Yonezawa, Takuro; Nakazawa, Jin; Takashio, Kazunori; Tokuda, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Recent technological trends in mobile/wearable devices and sensors have been enabling an increasing number of people to collect and store their "lifelog" easily in their daily lives. Beyond exercise behavior change of individual users, our research focus is on the behavior change of teams, based on lifelogging technologies and lifelog sharing. In this paper, we propose and evaluate six different types of lifelog sharing models among team members for their exercise promotion, leveraging the concepts of "competition" and "collaboration." According to our experimental mobile web application for exercise promotion and an extensive user study conducted with a total of 64 participants over a period of three weeks, the model with a "competition" technique resulted in the most effective performance for competitive teams, such as sports teams.

  6. Health economic evaluation of controlled and maintained physical exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular and other prosperity diseases.

    PubMed

    Annemans, Lieven; Lamotte, Mark; Clarys, Peter; Van den Abeele, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Several studies and reports support the health benefits of frequent physical exercise, on the condition that this exercise is controlled and maintained. Given the scarce resources that can be spent on health and health care, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term health and economic outcomes of controlled and maintained physical exercise in a fitness setting. A 25-year Markov model with a 12-month cycle-length and states representing diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and breast cancer was developed to predict cumulative costs and QALYs (quality adjusted life years) for three defined population cohorts, of different risk levels. Physical exercise was thereby compared with no intervention. Reduced risks associated with physical exercise, cost of diseases and loss of quality of life in case of disease were obtained from published literature. Costs were taken from a societal perspective; Belgium was selected as the setting. One way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out. For each of the cohorts, physical exercise is predicted to increase the QALYs and to offset a large part of the initial investment. The cost per QALY varies from 2000 to 15,000 Euro per QALY depending on the risk levels, which is better compared with a majority of secondary preventions that are currently publicly financed. Controlled and maintained physical exercise is projected to be cost-effective, which is likely to be explained by its simultaneous effect on several diseases and the associated weight loss, which affects quality of life positively.

  7. Fischer and Schrock Carbene Complexes: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    An exercise in molecular modeling that demonstrates the distinctive features of Fischer and Schrock carbene complexes is presented. Semi-empirical calculations (PM3) demonstrate the singlet ground electronic state, restricted rotation about the C-Y bond, the positive charge on the carbon atom, and hence, the electrophilic nature of the Fischer…

  8. Fischer and Schrock Carbene Complexes: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    An exercise in molecular modeling that demonstrates the distinctive features of Fischer and Schrock carbene complexes is presented. Semi-empirical calculations (PM3) demonstrate the singlet ground electronic state, restricted rotation about the C-Y bond, the positive charge on the carbon atom, and hence, the electrophilic nature of the Fischer…

  9. An Experimental Model for Resistance Exercise in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Humberto; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy; da Luz, Claudia Ribeiro; Chaves, Daniela Fojo Seixas; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an equipment and system of resistance exercise (RE), based on squat-type exercise for rodents, with control of training variables. We developed an operant conditioning system composed of sound, light and feeding devices that allowed optimized RE performance by the animal. With this system, it is not necessary to impose fasting or electric shock for the animal to perform the task proposed (muscle contraction). Furthermore, it is possible to perform muscle function tests in vivo within the context of the exercise proposed and control variables such as intensity, volume (sets and repetitions), and exercise session length, rest interval between sets and repetitions, and concentric strength. Based on the experiments conducted, we demonstrated that the model proposed is able to perform more specific control of other RE variables, especially rest interval between sets and repetitions, and encourages the animal to exercise through short-term energy restriction and “disturbing” stimulus that do not promote alterations in body weight. Therefore, despite experimental limitations, we believe that this RE apparatus is closer to the physiological context observed in humans. PMID:22496606

  10. Evaluating an Introductory Geoscience Classroom Exercise using Pre- and Post-Exercise Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S.; Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    Discovering Plate Boundaries is a data-rich classroom exercise that has been used successfully in middle school, high school, and college-level science classes. It is an active learning exercise that encourages students to discover the theory of plate tectonics based on their observations of maps containing earthquake, volcano, topography, and seafloor age data. Students and educators have responded with enthusiasm to this exercise, especially the jigsaw component that promotes random group interaction. We now focus our attention on assessing the impact of the exercise on student learning in order to determine whether it conveys sufficient content knowledge. We designed a pre-exercise assessment consisting of questions relating to introductory geoscience concepts, with particular emphasis on plate tectonics. These questions were based on student learning goals for introductory geoscience courses that utilize the Discovering Plate Boundaries exercise. The questions have evolved with repeated use in order to more effectively gauge student knowledge. The pre-exercise assessments have been completed by middle school, high school, and college students, and have identified some common student misconceptions about geoscience. For example, many students believe that earthquakes are a key component of mountain-building, while volcanoes are not. This type of information should be used by the instructor to stress certain concepts during the course in order to address these preconceived notions. A post-exercise assessment consisting of the same questions was administered at the end of the courses and we found that some of the initial misconceptions remained. We conclude that more pre-exercise assessments should be administered in order to establish a database of student misconceptions so that educators can focus instruction in these areas.

  11. Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lung Inflammation by IgE Decrement in an OVA Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Camargo Hizume-Kunzler, Deborah; Greiffo, Flavia R; Fortkamp, Bárbara; Ribeiro Freitas, Gabriel; Keller Nascimento, Juliana; Regina Bruggemann, Thayse; Melo Avila, Leonardo; Perini, Adenir; Bobinski, Franciane; Duarte Silva, Morgana; Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Vargas Horewicz, Verônica; Soares Dos Santos, Adair Roberto; Cattelan Bonorino, Kelly

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) reduces lung function decline and risk of exacerbations in asthmatic patients. However, the inflammatory lung response involved in exercise during the sensitization remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of exercise for 2 weeks in an experimental model of sensitization and single ovalbumin-challenge. Mice were divided into 4 groups: mice non-sensitized and not submitted to exercise (Sedentary, n=10); mice non-sensitized and submitted to exercise (Exercise, n=10); mice sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, n=10); and mice sensitized, submitted to exercise and exposed to OVA (OVA+Exercise, n=10). 24 h after the OVA/saline exposure, we counted inflammatory cells from bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), lung levels of total IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-1ra, measurements of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE, and VEGF and NOS-2 expression via western blotting. AE reduced cell counts from BALF in the OVA group (p<0.05), total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 lung levels and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 titers (p<0.05). There was an increase of NOS-2 expression, IL-10 and IL-1ra lung levels in the OVA groups (p<0.05). Our results showed that AE attenuated the acute lung inflammation, suggesting immunomodulatory properties on the sensitization process in the early phases of antigen presentation in asthma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with MS about their perspectives on aquatics exercise. Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Discover More Here are a few related topics that may interest you Accessible Nature Trails Learn More Finding Another Sport To Love Learn More Accessible Bicycling Learn More ...

  13. Biomechanical Modeling of the Deadlift Exercise on the HULK Device to Improve the Efficacy of Resistive Exercise Microgravity Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagodnik, K. M.; Thompson, W. K.; Gallo, C. A.; Crentsil, L.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Extended spaceflight typically results in the loss of muscular strength and bone density due to exposure to microgravity. Resistive exercise countermeasures have been developed to maintain musculoskeletal health during spaceflight. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the "gold standard" of available devices; however, its footprint and volume are too large for use in space capsules employed in exploration missions. The Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) device, with its smaller footprint, is a prototype exercise device for exploration missions. This work models the deadlift exercise being performed on the HULK device using biomechanical simulation, with the long-term goal to improve and optimize astronauts' exercise prescriptions, to maximize the benefit of exercise while minimizing time and effort invested.

  14. The EMEFS model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Barchet, W.R. ); Dennis, R.L. ); Seilkop, S.K. ); Banic, C.M.; Davies, D.; Hoff, R.M.; Macdonald, A.M.; Mickle, R.E.; Padro, J.; Puckett, K. ); Byun, D.; McHenry, J.N.

    1991-12-01

    The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Bayesian structural equation modeling in sport and exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach.

  16. Modeling rate sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide

    2014-10-01

    Transient responses of ventilation (V̇e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V̇e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. Rate sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V̇e responses to limb motion. A simple model assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V̇e proportional to the rate of change of limb motion was studied. This model was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of rate sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V̇e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V̇e response could occur by reduction of rate sensitivity. Rate sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the model to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V̇e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V̇e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed model. Rate sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Evaluation of the Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory (VPEL) program was created to simulate the test design, data collection, and analysis phases of selected exercise physiology laboratories. The VPEL program consists of four modules: (1) cardiovascular, (2) maximal O[subscript 2] consumption [Vo[subscript 2max], (3) lactate and ventilatory thresholds,…

  18. [Evaluation of the appropriateness of prescribing exercise tests].

    PubMed

    Orsini, Enrico; Mazzuoli, Francesco; Odoguardi, Leonardo; Magnani, Mirco; Lorenzoni, Roberto

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the appropriateness of the indications to exercise testing for ambulatory patients performed during 4 weeks in 21 laboratories in Tuscany and Umbria, Italy. We collected the following data: the appropriateness of the prescription (according to the guidelines of the Italian Federation of Cardiology), the prescribing physician (cardiologist vs non-cardiologist), the synthetic result (normal vs abnormal) and the clinical utility (useful vs useless) of each exam. We evaluated 1158 prescriptions (population: 822 males, 336 females; mean age 60 years, range 16-82 years). Prescriptions were of class I (appropriate) in 38.9%, of class II (of doubtful appropriateness) in 52.5% and of class III (inappropriate) in 8.6% of the cases. In 14.2% of the cases the exam was abnormal: it was abnormal in 35.5% of class I, in 26.6% of class II and in 23% of class III exams (p < 0.05). The exam was useful in 51.6% of the cases; it was useful in 62.4% of class I, in 50.2% of class II and in 13% of class III exams (p < 0.05). Cardiologists required 596/1158 tests (51.5%). Their indications were included in class I in 45.6%, in class II in 49.7% and in class III in 4.7% of the cases vs 31.7, 55.5 e 12.8% of non-cardiologists' prescriptions (p < 0.05). The test was abnormal in 35.7% of cardiologist vs 23.5% of non-cardiologist-prescribed examinations (odds ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.4-2.34; p < 0.05); the test was useful in 64.4% of cardiologist vs 38.2% of non-cardiologist-prescribed exams (odds ratio 2.92, 95% confidence interval 2.3-3.71; p < 0.05). In Tuscany and Umbria, Italy, less than half of exercise testing procedures are appropriate; appropriately-prescribed exams are more often abnormal and useful; cardiologist-prescribed exams are significantly more appropriate, abnormal and useful.

  19. Third Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.-P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; Leblanc, S.; Lewis, P. E.; Martin, E.; Mõttus, M.; North, P. R. J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Soler, C.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Verstraete, M. M.; Xie, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well-controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary basis. The first phase of RAMI focused on documenting the spread among radiative transfer (RT) simulations over a small set of primarily 1-D canopies. The second phase expanded the scope to include structurally complex 3-D plant architectures with and without background topography. Here sometimes significant discrepancies were noted which effectively prevented the definition of a reliable "surrogate truth," over heterogeneous vegetation canopies, against which other RT models could then be compared. The present paper documents the outcome of the third phase of RAMI, highlighting both the significant progress that has been made in terms of model agreement since RAMI-2 and the capability of/need for RT models to accurately reproduce local estimates of radiative quantities under conditions that are reminiscent of in situ measurements. Our assessment of the self-consistency and the relative and absolute performance of 3-D Monte Carlo models in RAMI-3 supports their usage in the generation of a "surrogate truth" for all RAMI test cases. This development then leads (1) to the presentation of the "RAMI Online Model Checker" (ROMC), an open-access web-based interface to evaluate RT models automatically, and (2) to a reassessment of the role, scope, and opportunities of the RAMI project in the future.

  20. Guidelines for Model Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    by a decisionmaker. The full-scale evaluation of a complex model can be an expensive, time- consuming effort requiring diverse talents and skills...relative to PIES, were documented in a report to the Congress. 2/ An important side- effect of that document was that a foundation was laid for model...while for model evaluation there are no generally accepted standards or methods. Hence, GAO perceives the need to expand upon the lessons learned in

  1. Climate models and model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    This brief overview addresses aspects of the nature, uses, evaluation and limitations of climate models. A comprehensive global modeling capability has been achieved only for the physical climate system, which is characterized by processes that serve to transport and exchange momentum, heat and moisture within and between the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. The fundamental aim of climate modeling, and the justification for the use of climate models, is the need to achieve a quantitative understanding of the operation of the climate system and to exploit any potential predictability that may exist.

  2. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  3. Developing a model osteoarthritis consultation: a Delphi consensus exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition managed in general practice, but often not in line with published guidance. The ideal consultation for a patient presenting with possible OA is not known. The aim of the study was to develop the content of a model OA consultation for the assessment and treatment of older adults presenting in general practice with peripheral joint problems. Methods A postal Delphi consensus exercise was undertaken with two expert groups: i) general practitioners (GPs) with expertise in OA management and ii) patients with experience of living with OA. An advisory group generated 61 possible consultation tasks for consideration in the consensus exercise. Expert groups were asked to consider which tasks should be included in the model OA consultation. The exercise was completed by 15 GPs and 14 patients. The level of agreement for inclusion in the model was set at 90%. Results The model OA consultation included 25 tasks to be undertaken during the initial consultation between a GP and a patient presenting with peripheral joint pain. The 25 tasks provide detailed advice on how the following elements of the consultation should be addressed: i) assessment of chronic joint pain, ii) patient’s ideas and concerns, iii) exclusion of red flags, iv) examination, v) provision of the diagnosis and written information, vi) promotion of exercise and weight loss, vii) initial pain management and viii) arranging a follow-up appointment. Both groups prioritised a bio-medical approach to the consultation, rather than a bio-psycho-social one, suggesting a discordance between current thinking and research evidence. Conclusions This study has enabled the priorities of GPs and patients to be identified for a model OA consultation. The results of this consensus study will inform the development of best practice for the management of OA in primary care and the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for OA in primary care. PMID:23320630

  4. Developing a model osteoarthritis consultation: a Delphi consensus exercise.

    PubMed

    Porcheret, Mark; Grime, Janet; Main, Chris; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2013-01-16

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition managed in general practice, but often not in line with published guidance. The ideal consultation for a patient presenting with possible OA is not known. The aim of the study was to develop the content of a model OA consultation for the assessment and treatment of older adults presenting in general practice with peripheral joint problems. A postal Delphi consensus exercise was undertaken with two expert groups: i) general practitioners (GPs) with expertise in OA management and ii) patients with experience of living with OA. An advisory group generated 61 possible consultation tasks for consideration in the consensus exercise. Expert groups were asked to consider which tasks should be included in the model OA consultation. The exercise was completed by 15 GPs and 14 patients. The level of agreement for inclusion in the model was set at 90%. The model OA consultation included 25 tasks to be undertaken during the initial consultation between a GP and a patient presenting with peripheral joint pain. The 25 tasks provide detailed advice on how the following elements of the consultation should be addressed: i) assessment of chronic joint pain, ii) patient's ideas and concerns, iii) exclusion of red flags, iv) examination, v) provision of the diagnosis and written information, vi) promotion of exercise and weight loss, vii) initial pain management and viii) arranging a follow-up appointment. Both groups prioritised a bio-medical approach to the consultation, rather than a bio-psycho-social one, suggesting a discordance between current thinking and research evidence. This study has enabled the priorities of GPs and patients to be identified for a model OA consultation. The results of this consensus study will inform the development of best practice for the management of OA in primary care and the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for OA in primary care.

  5. Factor structure and internal reliability of an exercise health belief model scale in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Villar, Oscar Armando Esparza-Del; Montañez-Alvarado, Priscila; Gutiérrez-Vega, Marisela; Carrillo-Saucedo, Irene Concepción; Gurrola-Peña, Gloria Margarita; Ruvalcaba-Romero, Norma Alicia; García-Sánchez, María Dolores; Ochoa-Alcaraz, Sergio Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with the highest rates of overweight and obesity around the world, with 68.8% of men and 73% of women reporting both. This is a public health problem since there are several health related consequences of not exercising, like having cardiovascular diseases or some types of cancers. All of these problems can be prevented by promoting exercise, so it is important to evaluate models of health behaviors to achieve this goal. Among several models the Health Belief Model is one of the most studied models to promote health related behaviors. This study validates the first exercise scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in Mexicans with the objective of studying and analyzing this model in Mexico. Items for the scale called the Exercise Health Belief Model Scale (EHBMS) were developed by a health research team, then the items were applied to a sample of 746 participants, male and female, from five cities in Mexico. The factor structure of the items was analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis and the internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha. The exploratory factor analysis reported the expected factor structure based in the HBM. The KMO index (0.92) and the Barlett's sphericity test (p < 0.01) indicated an adequate and normally distributed sample. Items had adequate factor loadings, ranging from 0.31 to 0.92, and the internal consistencies of the factors were also acceptable, with alpha values ranging from 0.67 to 0.91. The EHBMS is a validated scale that can be used to measure exercise based on the HBM in Mexican populations.

  6. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. Design A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Patients Forty-four severely fatigued individuals with PPS were randomized to exercise therapy (n = 22) or usual care (n = 22). Methods Participants in the exercise group were instructed to exercise 3 times weekly for 4 months on a bicycle ergometer (60–70% heart rate reserve). Results The attendance rate was high (median 89%). None of the participants trained within the target heart rate range during >75% of the designated time. Instead, participants exercised at lower intensities, though still around the anaerobic threshold (AT) most of the time. Muscle function did not improve in the exercise group. Conclusion Our results suggest that severely fatigued individuals with PPS cannot adhere to a high intensity aerobic exercise program on a cycle ergometer. Despite exercise intensities around the AT, lower extremity muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness improved. Improving the aerobic capacity in PPS is difficult through exercise primarily focusing on the lower extremities, and may require a more individualized approach, including the use of other large muscle groups instead. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1371 PMID:27419388

  7. Computer Aided Modeling to Determine the Effectiveness of Resistive Exercises as Countermeasures for Bone Mineral Density Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Benjamin M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the loss of gravitational loading, astronauts have a tendency to lose bone mineral density in their lumbar spine and lower extremities on orbit. NASA requires astronauts to perform exercises during space flight to help reduce the amount of demineralization. To test these exercises on earth, 17 week bed rest studies are conducted that consist of specific diet and exercise regimes. Developing a finite element model of these exercises will help to quantify the stress distribution imposed by of each of these exercises. To help develop this model, MRI images are acquired from individuals participating in the bed rest studies. The MRIs can be used to create a subject specific model of each individual for testing. The MRIs are processed in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Transfer System program to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of the femur for evaluation. Modifications were made to the MRIDTS that simplified the model creation process. These modifications made it possible to construct two separate models of different portions of a bone simultaneously and then later connect them manually. This helped alleviate the warping problem associated with the drastic changes in geometry found in some body parts, such as the joints. The code was also modified to incorporate material properties of various bone components into the model. Interior meshing was also incorporated into the program to allow for both the cortical shell and the entire bone to be modeled. A prototype model of the right femur of an adult female is being constructed and tested to determine the feasibility of finite element analysis as a tool for evaluating exercise effectiveness. The model is being run through the ANSYS finite element program on the Alabama Super Computer Network. After the model is validated, models of bedrest subjects can be generated to investigate exercise countermeasures.

  8. Computer Aided Modeling to Determine the Effectiveness of Resistive Exercises as Countermeasures for Bone Mineral Density Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Benjamin M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the loss of gravitational loading, astronauts have a tendency to lose bone mineral density in their lumbar spine and lower extremities on orbit. NASA requires astronauts to perform exercises during space flight to help reduce the amount of demineralization. To test these exercises on earth, 17 week bed rest studies are conducted that consist of specific diet and exercise regimes. Developing a finite element model of these exercises will help to quantify the stress distribution imposed by of each of these exercises. To help develop this model, MRI images are acquired from individuals participating in the bed rest studies. The MRIs can be used to create a subject specific model of each individual for testing. The MRIs are processed in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Transfer System program to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of the femur for evaluation. Modifications were made to the MRIDTS that simplified the model creation process. These modifications made it possible to construct two separate models of different portions of a bone simultaneously and then later connect them manually. This helped alleviate the warping problem associated with the drastic changes in geometry found in some body parts, such as the joints. The code was also modified to incorporate material properties of various bone components into the model. Interior meshing was also incorporated into the program to allow for both the cortical shell and the entire bone to be modeled. A prototype model of the right femur of an adult female is being constructed and tested to determine the feasibility of finite element analysis as a tool for evaluating exercise effectiveness. The model is being run through the ANSYS finite element program on the Alabama Super Computer Network. After the model is validated, models of bedrest subjects can be generated to investigate exercise countermeasures.

  9. Noninvasive diagnostic test choices for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in women: a multivariate comparison of cardiac fluoroscopy, exercise electrocardiography and exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Chaitman, B.R.; Lam, J.; Lesperance, J.; Dupras, G.; Fines, P.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-07-01

    Several diagnostic noninvasive tests to detect coronary and multivessel coronary disease are available for women. However, all are imperfect and it is not yet clear whether one particular test provides substantially more information than others. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical findings, exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy in 92 symptomatic women without previous infarction and determine which tests were most useful in determining the presence of coronary disease and its severity. Univariate analysis revealed two clinical, eight exercise electrocardiographic, seven myocardial scintigraphic and seven fluoroscopic variables predictive of coronary or multivessel disease with 70% or greater stenosis. The multivariate discriminant function analysis selected a reversible thallium defect, coronary calcification and character of chest pain syndrome as the variables most predictive of presence or absence of coronary disease. The ranked order of variables most predictive of multivessel disease were cardiac fluoroscopy score, thallium score and extent of ST segment depression in 14 electrocardiographic leads. Each provided statistically significant information to the model. The estimate of predictive accuracy was 89% for coronary disease and 97% for multivessel coronary disease. The results suggest that cardiac fluoroscopy or thallium scintigraphy provide significantly more diagnostic information than exercise electrocardiography in women over a wide range of clinical patient subsets.

  10. Beneficial effects of exercise in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like Tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Belarbi, Karim; Burnouf, Sylvie; Fernandez-Gomez, Francisco-Jose; Laurent, Cyril; Lestavel, Sophie; Figeac, Martin; Sultan, Audrey; Troquier, Laetitia; Leboucher, Antoine; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Grosjean, Marie-Eve; Demeyer, Dominique; Obriot, Hélène; Brion, Ingrid; Barbot, Bérangère; Galas, Marie-Christine; Staels, Bart; Humez, Sandrine; Sergeant, Nicolas; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Muhr-Tailleux, Anne; Hamdane, Malika; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2011-08-01

    Tau pathology is encountered in many neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity is a lifestyle factor affecting processes crucial for memory and synaptic plasticity. Whether long-term voluntary exercise has an impact on Tau pathology and its pathophysiological consequences is currently unknown. To address this question, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary exercise in the THY-Tau22 transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease-like Tau pathology, characterized by the progressive development of Tau pathology, cholinergic alterations and subsequent memory impairments. Three-month-old THY-Tau22 mice and wild-type littermates were assigned to standard housing or housing supplemented with a running wheel. After 9 months of exercise, mice were evaluated for memory performance and examined for hippocampal Tau pathology, cholinergic defects, inflammation and genes related to cholesterol metabolism. Exercise prevented memory alterations in THY-Tau22 mice. This was accompanied by a decrease in hippocampal Tau pathology and a prevention of the loss of expression of choline acetyltransferase within the medial septum. Whereas the expression of most cholesterol-related genes remained unchanged in the hippocampus of running THY-Tau22 mice, we observed a significant upregulation in mRNA levels of NPC1 and NPC2, genes involved in cholesterol trafficking from the lysosomes. Our data support the view that long-term voluntary physical exercise is an effective strategy capable of mitigating Tau pathology and its pathophysiological consequences.

  11. Effects of exercise training on breast cancer metastasis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Antonieta; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Ferreira, Rita; Lopes, Carlos; Oliveira, Paula A; Colaço, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Exercise training is thought to play a protective role against cancer development and metastasis, either by reducing hormonal stimulation of hormone-dependent cancers or by reducing the permeability of vascular walls towards invading metastatic cells. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the role of long-term exercise training in the development and metastasis of breast cancer, in an immune-competent 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) induced rat model. A single MNU dose was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats at 50 days of age and the rats were subjected to exercise training on a treadmill at 20 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks. Exercised animals developed slightly less (2.30 ± 1.42) tumours per animal than sedentary animals (2.55 ± 1.44) and did not develop any metastasis, while two pulmonary metastases were observed in the sedentary group. All primary neoplasms and their metastases were positive for oestrogen (ER) α and progesterone (PR) receptors, indicating high hormonal sensitivity. Interestingly, exercise training increased circulating oestrogen levels, thus suggesting that the mechanism might involve either or both of a protective hormone-independent effect and modulation of tumoural vascularization. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  12. Use of deterministic models in sports and exercise biomechanics research.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Knudson, Duane V

    2011-09-01

    A deterministic model is a modeling paradigm that determines the relationships between a movement outcome measure and the biomechanical factors that produce such a measure. This review provides an overview of the use of deterministic models in biomechanics research, a historical summary of this research, and an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of using deterministic models. The deterministic model approach has been utilized in technique analysis over the last three decades, especially in swimming, athletics field events, and gymnastics. In addition to their applications in sports and exercise biomechanics, deterministic models have been applied successfully in research on selected motor skills. The advantage of the deterministic model approach is that it helps to avoid selecting performance or injury variables arbitrarily and to provide the necessary theoretical basis for examining the relative importance of various factors that influence the outcome of a movement task. Several disadvantages of deterministic models, such as the use of subjective measures for the performance outcome, were discussed. It is recommended that exercise and sports biomechanics scholars should consider using deterministic models to help identify meaningful dependent variables in their studies.

  13. Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) framework for planning exercises.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest J.; Plantenga, Todd D.

    2010-06-01

    The Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) program is designing and prototyping a simulation and collaboration environment for linking together existing and future modeling and simulation tools to enable analysts, emergency planners, and incident managers to more effectively, economically, and rapidly prepare, analyze, train, and respond to real or potential incidents. When complete, the IMMS program will demonstrate an integrated modeling and simulation capability that supports emergency managers and responders with (1) conducting 'what-if' analyses and exercises to address preparedness, analysis, training, operations, and lessons learned, and (2) effectively, economically, and rapidly verifying response tactics, plans and procedures.

  14. San Diego 1995 Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Exercise Evaluation Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Center San Diego ( PWC ) (Communications, Transportation) Submarine Base, San Diego (SUBASE) (Emergency Manage - ment, Security, Waterfront...Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC...Office of Pipeline Safety, and Mineral Management Service developed the Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP). The country is divided

  15. Exercise activates compensatory thermoregulatory reaction in rats: a modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yeonjoo; LaPradd, Michelle; Kline, Hannah; Zaretskaia, Maria V.; Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Rusyniak, Daniel E.; Molkov, Yaroslav I.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of exercise is increasingly emphasized for maintaining health. However, exercise itself can pose threats to health such as the development of exertional heat shock in warm environments. Therefore, it is important to understand how the thermoregulation system adjusts during exercise and how alterations of this can contribute to heat stroke. To explore this we measured the core body temperature of rats (Tc) running for 15 min on a treadmill at various speeds in two ambient temperatures (Ta = 25°C and 32°C). We assimilated the experimental data into a mathematical model that describes temperature changes in two compartments of the body, representing the muscles and the core. In our model the core body generates heat to maintain normal body temperature, and dissipates it into the environment. The muscles produce additional heat during exercise. According to the estimation of model parameters, at Ta = 25°C, the heat generation in the core was progressively reduced with the increase of the treadmill speed to compensate for a progressive increase in heat production by the muscles. This compensation was ineffective at Ta = 32°C, which resulted in an increased rate of heat accumulation with increasing speed, as opposed to the Ta = 25°C case. Interestingly, placing an animal on a treadmill increased heat production in the muscles even when the treadmill speed was zero. Quantitatively, this “ready-to-run” phenomenon accounted for over half of the heat generation in the muscles observed at maximal treadmill speed. We speculate that this anticipatory response utilizes stress-related circuitry. PMID:26472864

  16. A model to predict multivessel coronary artery disease from the exercise thallium-201 stress test

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, S.G.; Abbott, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Watson, D.D.; Kaul, S. )

    1991-03-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine whether nonimaging variables add to the diagnostic information available from exercise thallium-201 images for the detection of multivessel coronary artery disease; and (2) to develop a model based on the exercise thallium-201 stress test to predict the presence of multivessel disease. The study populations included 383 patients referred to the University of Virginia and 325 patients referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital for evaluation of chest pain. All patients underwent both cardiac catheterization and exercise thallium-201 stress testing between 1978 and 1981. In the University of Virginia cohort, at each level of thallium-201 abnormality (no defects, one defect, more than one defect), ST depression and patient age added significantly in the detection of multivessel disease. Logistic regression analysis using data from these patients identified three independent predictors of multivessel disease: initial thallium-201 defects, ST depression, and age. A model was developed to predict multivessel disease based on these variables. As might be expected, the risk of multivessel disease predicted by the model was similar to that actually observed in the University of Virginia population. More importantly, however, the model was accurate in predicting the occurrence of multivessel disease in the unrelated population studied at the Massachusetts General Hospital. It is, therefore, concluded that (1) nonimaging variables (age and exercise-induced ST depression) add independent information to thallium-201 imaging data in the detection of multivessel disease; and (2) a model has been developed based on the exercise thallium-201 stress test that can accurately predict the probability of multivessel disease in other populations.

  17. An Evaluation of Levalbuterol HFA in the Prevention of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, D.S.; Rees, William; Schaefer, Kendyl; Huang, Holly; Andrews, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 90% of all patients with asthma. Objective This study evaluated the ability of levalbuterol hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 90 μg (two actuations of 45 μg) administered via metered dose inhaler (MDI) to protect against EIB in mild-to-moderate asthmatics. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way cross-over study. Patients with asthma (n = 15) were ≥18 years, had a ≥6-month history of EIB, ≥70% baseline predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and a 20% to 50% decrease in FEV1 after treadmill exercise challenge using single-blind placebo MDI. Levalbuterol or placebo was self-administered 30 minutes before exercise. Treatment sequences were separated by a 3-to 7-day washout period. Spirometry was performed predose, 20 minutes postdose/pre-exercise, and 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-exercise. The primary endpoint was the maximum percent decrease in FEV1 from baseline (postdose/pre-exercise). The percentage of protected (≤20% decrease in post-exercise FEV1) patients was also assessed. Results Levalbuterol had significantly smaller maximum percent post-exercise decrease in FEV1 compared with placebo (LS mean ± SE; −4.8% ± 2.8% versus −22.5% ± 2.8%, respectively). For levalbuterol, 14/15 (93.3%) patients had <20% decrease in post-exercise FEV1 compared with 8/15 (53.3%) for placebo (p = 0.0143). Treatment was well tolerated. Conclusion Levalbuterol HFA MDI (90 μg) administered 30 minutes before exercise was significantly more effective than placebo in protecting against EIB after a single exercise challenge and was well tolerated. Clinical Implications Levalbuterol HFA MDI when administered before exercise was effective in protecting adults with asthma from EIB. PMID:17994402

  18. Just a moment—a modelling exercise for physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, Gren, Dr

    2006-11-01

    This paper addresses the seemingly simple concept of turning moments. The approach taken is to set the learning in the context of the action of the biceps brachi or muscle of the upper arm. A simple laboratory exercise can be used to generate data and these data can then be modelled mathematically. Real data, from muscle activity, can then be collected for comparison. This approach develops the physics, in context, and allows the student to develop modelling skills, appropriate mathematics and the application of ICT.

  19. [Evaluation of cardiac reserve in patients with angina pectoris by dynamic exercise echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Y; Nakano, S; Iwase, T; Samoto, T; Fujinami, T

    1982-03-01

    To evaluate cardiac reserve in patients with angina pectoris, 10 healthy control subjects and 15 patients with angina pectoris were examined by exercise echocardiography. Exercise on the bicycle ergometer in supine position was imposed at 25 watts per min initially and the exercise was increased by 25 watts every 3 min until attainment of either maximal predicted heart rate or ST segment depression in the electrocardiogram (ECG) or appearance of severe chest pain. Blood pressure, two-dimensional echocardiogram at the level of the papillary muscle in the short-axis view (Fig. 1) and 12 leads ECG were recorded at the end of each exercise level. Cardiac response to the exercise was evaluated by blood pressure, areas of left ventricular cavity at the end diastole and end systole, percent change of the area, ejection fraction and mVCF, as shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4. From these parameters, the behavior of cardiac response to exercise was divided into four types (cf. Fig. 5). Type A: left ventricular volume was increased slightly at the initial stage of exercise, and thereafter, the cardiac response was maintained by a gradual increase of myocardial contractility. Type B: initial response to exercise was similar to type A, but cardiac output was maintained only with an increase of heart rate in further exercise load. Type C: left ventricular contractility and increased left ventricular volume were observed from 25 watts load of exercise. Most of the control subjects responded as type A. Patients with angina who underwent 125 watts exercise showed type B response, while those who tolerated only 75 watts exercise revealed type C or type D (Table 1). The latter indicates decreased cardiac reserve to exercise. From the results of 10 patients who showed ST depression during exercise, deterioration of left ventricular contractile function appeared before ST segment depression, indicating that a change in mechanical pump function preceded electrical function of the myocardium

  20. Psychometric evaluation of the Korean Version of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale for older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mona; Ahn, Sangwoo; Jung, Dukyoo

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE-K). The SEE-K consists of nine items and was translated into Korean using the forward-backward translation method. We administered it to 212 community-dwelling older adults along with measures of outcome expectation for exercise, quality of life, and physical activity. The validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis with INFIT and OUTFIT statistics, which showed acceptable model fit. The concurrent validity was confirmed according to positive correlations between the SEE-K, outcome expectation for exercise, and quality of life. Furthermore, the high physical activity group had higher SEE-K scores. Finally, the reliability of the SEE-K was deemed acceptable based on Cronbach's alpha, coefficients of determination, and person and item separation indices with reliability. Thus, the SEE-K appears to have satisfactory validity and reliability among older adults in South Korea.

  1. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  2. Modelling mass casualty decontamination systems informed by field exercise data.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joseph R; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-10-16

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  3. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  4. Evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output methods during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Barrows, Linda H.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (Qc) will be used during future space flight. This retrospective literature survey compared the Qc techniques of carbon dioxide rebreathing (CO2-R), CO2 single breath (CO2-S), Doppler (DOP), impedance (IM), and inert gas (IG: acetylene or nitrous oxide) to direct (DIR) assessments measured at rest and during exercise.

  5. Evaluating and Treating Exercise-Related Menstrual Irregularities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Kimberly G.

    2002-01-01

    Menstrual abnormalities are extremely common in both athletic and non-athletic adolescents and young women. Exercise- related menstrual abnormality is linked with hypothalamic pituitary axis-dysfunction and is a diagnosis of exclusion. In athletes, treatment of secondary menstrual abnormalities and associated health concerns such as bone density…

  6. An Evaluation of the Simulated Minority Admissions Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, William E.; Prieto, Dario O.

    1982-01-01

    The Simulated Minority Admissions Exercise, an educational technique that simulates a typical medical school admissions situation, is described. The main objective is to help medical schools to select potentially successful minority applicants and to improve their retention by ensuring that they enter medical school under positive circumstances.…

  7. Evaluating and Treating Exercise-Related Menstrual Irregularities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Kimberly G.

    2002-01-01

    Menstrual abnormalities are extremely common in both athletic and non-athletic adolescents and young women. Exercise- related menstrual abnormality is linked with hypothalamic pituitary axis-dysfunction and is a diagnosis of exclusion. In athletes, treatment of secondary menstrual abnormalities and associated health concerns such as bone density…

  8. Computer technology to evaluate body composition, nutrition, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Katch, F I; Katch, V L

    1983-09-01

    The use of computer technology has made it possible to make accurate determinations of body composition, nutrition, and exercise. With the FITCOMP computer assessment system, detailed measurements of physique status have been made on a variety of world-class athletes, including professional football and baseball players, as well as on diverse groups of young and older men and women throughout the United States. The FITCOMP measurement system allows the user a choice of measurement techniques: fatfolds, girths, bone diameters, and hydrostatic weighing. Combined with body composition assessment is a nutrition and exercise plan. The nutrition plan is based on guidelines formulated by the American Dietetic Association. This application of computer technology is unique, because individuals can select the foods they will eat from a list of preferred choices from the basic food groups. Individual menu plans for breakfast, lunch, and dinner are generated to provide an optimal blend of nutrients aimed at achieving ideal body mass and fat percentage. This is coupled with an aerobic exercise program that is selected by the individual from nine different forms, including walking, jogging, running, swimming, cycling, and various sport activities. The caloric output is designed to reduce total body fat through reductions in body weight of 1.4 to 2.5 pounds per week, depending on the exercise selected and total weight loss necessary to achieve a weight goal (and ideal fat percentage). The aerobic exercise plan is based on the method of overload, where intensity and duration are periodically increased dependent on individual capabilities. The use of fitness-oriented computer technology makes it possible to prepare detailed reports about current status and progress as well as to systematize record keeping.

  9. Consumption of oxygen and blood flow during exercise and recovery phase evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopy and its relationship to skin forehead, quadriceps, tympanic, and rectal temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Pujol, P.; Drobnic, F.; Galilea, P.; Riera, J.; Pons, V.; Banquells, M.; Ruiz, O.

    1995-12-01

    The availability of oxygen in the human vastus medialis muscle and the tympanic, skin forehead, quadriceps, and rectal temperatures has been investigated during exercise test and post-exercise with non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy, infrared thermometer, and an array of four thermistors, respectively. During exercise time rectal temperature was not recorded, before exercise basal values were obtained, and after exercise all the data for two hours were recorded. The signals from near-infrared spectroscopy have been studied by analogy to forced vibration and viscously damped free vibration. Other models have been used to evaluate the temperatures. The time necessary for the reoxygenation signal to cross the baseline during the post exercise period was from 30 min to over 100 min. The peak of pH values was 5 min post-exercise and to arrive at basal levels needed 25 min to more than 40 min. The peak of rectal temperature starts around 20 - 30 min post-exercise remaining 25 - 40 min at the same value, starting to slip down slowly at variable intervals of several minutes requiring over two hours to arrive at basal levels. The data obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy and skin quadriceps, rectal temperatures confirm that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied.

  10. Design and Evaluation of an Interactive Exercise Coaching System for Older Adults: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Ofli, Ferda; Kurillo, Gregorij; Obdržálek, Štěpán; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive effects of exercise on the well-being and quality of independent living for older adults are well-accepted, many elderly individuals lack access to exercise facilities, or the skills and motivation to perform exercise at home. To provide a more engaging environment that promotes physical activity, various fitness applications have been proposed. Many of the available products, however, are geared toward a younger population and are not appropriate or engaging for an older population. To address these issues, we developed an automated interactive exercise coaching system using the Microsoft Kinect. The coaching system guides users through a series of video exercises, tracks and measures their movements, provides real-time feedback, and records their performance over time. Our system consists of exercises to improve balance, flexibility, strength, and endurance, with the aim of reducing fall risk and improving performance of daily activities. In this paper, we report on the development of the exercise system, discuss the results of our recent field pilot study with six independently-living elderly individuals, and highlight the lessons learned relating to the in-home system setup, user tracking, feedback, and exercise performance evaluation. PMID:25594988

  11. Design and Evaluation of an Interactive Exercise Coaching System for Older Adults: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Kurillo, Gregorij; Obdržálek, Štěpán; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Jimison, Holly Brugge; Pavel, Misha

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive effects of exercise on the well-being and quality of independent living for older adults are well accepted, many elderly individuals lack access to exercise facilities, or the skills and motivation to perform exercise at home. To provide a more engaging environment that promotes physical activity, various fitness applications have been proposed. Many of the available products, however, are geared toward a younger population and are not appropriate or engaging for an older population. To address these issues, we developed an automated interactive exercise coaching system using the Microsoft Kinect. The coaching system guides users through a series of video exercises, tracks and measures their movements, provides real-time feedback, and records their performance over time. Our system consists of exercises to improve balance, flexibility, strength, and endurance, with the aim of reducing fall risk and improving performance of daily activities. In this paper, we report on the development of the exercise system, discuss the results of our recent field pilot study with six independently living elderly individuals, and highlight the lessons learned relating to the in-home system setup, user tracking, feedback, and exercise performance evaluation.

  12. CMAQ Model Evaluation Framework

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is tested to establish the modeling system’s credibility in predicting pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Evaluation of CMAQ has been designed to assess the model’s performance for specific time periods and for specific uses.

  13. A public health academic-practice partnership to develop capacity for exercise evaluation and improvement planning.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kate S; Thomas, Michael W; Durham, Dennis P; Jackson, Lillie M; Porth, Leslie L; Buxton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In December 2006, Congress passed the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act to improve the nation's public health preparedness and response capabilities. It includes the role of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHPs) to establish a competency-based core curriculum and perform evaluation of impact on newly developed materials. The Heartland Center for Public Health Preparedness (HCPHP) at the Saint Louis University School of Public Health is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national CPHP network and is engaged with state and regional partners in workforce development, preparedness planning, evaluation, and multi-year exercise and training cycles. This includes development, implementation, and evaluation of the HCPHP Exercise Evaluation Training Program to improve the competence and capacity for exercise evaluation and improvement planning. This program is designed to enhance quality improvement and performance measurement capabilities to identify increase of workforce competence over time (maturity).

  14. Evaluation of knee proprioception and effects of proprioception exercise in patients with benign joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nilay; Baskent, Akin; Cakmak, Aysegul; Salli, Ali; Ugurlu, Hatice; Berker, Ender

    2008-08-01

    The first aim is to show if there is a disorder in proprioception in cases with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) when compared to healthy subjects. The second aim is to evaluate the effect of proprioception exercise in BJHS cases. To evaluate the proprioceptive sensibility of the knee joint with 40 BJHS and 30 healthy subjects enrolled in the study. Then, cases with BJHS were randomized into two groups; proprioceptive exercises were applied to 15 patients for 8 weeks in clinic and 25 patients were taken as controls. Outcome measures included proprioceptive sensation, AIMS2 and VAS. Proprioception is significantly impaired in cases with BJHS. In BJHS group, significant decreases in VAS levels were detected in cases who did exercise compared with cases who did not, and statistically significant improvements were detected in occupational activity. For this reason proprioception exercises cause decrease in pain and improvement of functional status in BJHS group.

  15. Evaluation of automated blood pressure measurements during exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Hossack, K F; Gross, B W; Ritterman, J B; Kusumi, F; Bruce, R A

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were made at rest and during symptom-limited exercise with an automated blood pressure measuring device (EBPM). Comparisons were made between the EBPM readings and those made with mercury manometer. Correlations were high (SBP r = 0.92, DBP r = 0.80) when readings were made in the same arm, but were less satisfactory when the cuffs were on different arms (SBP r = 0.80, DBP r = 0.46). The correlation between two mercury manometer readings was SBP r = 0.90, and DBP r = 0.75. Comparison between EBPM and intra-arterial measurements were similar (SBP r = 0.74, DBP r = 0.79) to comparison between mercury manometer and intra-arterial measurements (SBP r = 0.81, DBP r = 0.61). The EBPM detected SBP at consistently higher levels than did physicians, which may be an advantage in the noisy environment of an exercise test. There was a definite tendency for physicians to record blood pressure to the nearest 10 mm Hg, whereas the frequency distribution curve for EBPM measurements was smoother. The EBPM operated satisfactorily at rest and during maximal exercise and gave as reliable measurements as a physician using a mercury manometer and, in the small number of available cases, detected exertional hypotension more often than the physician.

  16. VPPA weld model evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, Kimble D.; Gordon, Stephen S.; Thompson, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    NASA uses the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process extensively for fabrication of Space Shuttle External Tanks. This welding process has been in use at NASA since the late 1970's but the physics of the process have never been satisfactorily modeled and understood. In an attempt to advance the level of understanding of VPPAW, Dr. Arthur C. Nunes, Jr., (NASA) has developed a mathematical model of the process. The work described in this report evaluated and used two versions (level-0 and level-1) of Dr. Nunes' model, and a model derived by the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) from Dr. Nunes' level-1 model. Two series of VPPAW experiments were done, using over 400 different combinations of welding parameters. Observations were made of VPPAW process behavior as a function of specific welding parameter changes. Data from these weld experiments was used to evaluate and suggest improvements to Dr. Nunes' model. Experimental data and correlations with the model were used to develop a multi-variable control algorithm for use with a future VPPAW controller. This algorithm is designed to control weld widths (both on the crown and root of the weld) based upon the weld parameters, base metal properties, and real-time observation of the crown width. The algorithm exhibited accuracy comparable to that of the weld width measurements for both aluminum and mild steel welds.

  17. Evaluating Health Risk Models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Interest in targeted disease prevention has stimulated development of models that assign risks to individuals, using their personal covariates. We need to evaluate these models and quantify the gains achieved by expanding a model to include additional covariates. This paper reviews several performance measures and shows how they are related. Examples are used to show that appropriate performance criteria for a risk model depend upon how the model is used. Application of the performance measures to risk models for hypothetical populations and for US women at risk of breast cancer illustrate two additional points. First, model performance is constrained by the distribution of risk-determining covariates in the population. This complicates the comparison of two models when applied to populations with different covariate distributions. Second, all summary performance measures obscure model features of relevance to its utility for the application at hand, such as performance in specific subgroups of the population. In particular, the precision gained by adding covariates to a model can be small overall, but large in certain subgroups. We propose new ways to identify these subgroups and to quantify how much they gain by measuring the additional covariates. Those with largest gains could be targeted for cost-efficient covariate assessment. PMID:20623821

  18. Hand strengthening exercises in chronic stroke patients: Dose-response evaluation using electromyography.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Casaña, Jose; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-05-17

    Cross-sectional. This study evaluates finger flexion and extension strengthening exercises using elastic resistance in chronic stroke patients. Eighteen stroke patients (mean age: 56.8 ± 7.6 years) with hemiparesis performed 3 consecutive repetitions of finger flexion and extension, using 3 different elastic resistance levels (easy, moderate, and hard). Surface electromyography was recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and extensor digitorum (ED) muscles and normalized to the maximal electromyography of the non-paretic arm. Maximal grip strength was 39.2 (standard deviation: 12.5) and 7.8 kg (standard deviation: 9.4) in the nonparetic and paretic hand, respectively. For the paretic hand, muscle activity was higher during finger flexion exercise than during finger extension exercise for both ED (30% [95% confidence interval {CI}: 19-40] vs 15% [95% CI: 5-25] and FDS (37% [95% CI: 27-48] vs 24% [95% CI: 13-35]). For the musculature of both the FDS and ED, no dose-response association was observed for resistance and muscle activity during the flexion exercise (P > .05). The finger flexion exercise showed higher muscle activity in both the flexor and extensor musculature of the forearm than the finger extension exercise. Furthermore, greater resistance did not result in higher muscle activity during the finger flexion exercise. The present results suggest that the finger flexion exercise should be the preferred strengthening exercise to achieve high levels of muscle activity in both flexor and extensor forearm muscles in chronic stroke patients. The finger extension exercise may be performed with emphasis on improving neuromuscular control. 4b. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of a transtheoretical model-based exercise stage-matched intervention on exercise behavior in patients with coronary heart disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Ho, Shuk-Ching; Sit, Janet Wing Hung; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether a transtheoretical model-based exercise stage-matched intervention (ESMI) has positive effects on the exercise behavior of sedentary patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The study was a randomized controlled trial with a repeated measures design. Participants (N=196) were randomly allocated to either a conventional (C) group, a patient education (PE) group, or an ESMI group. Exercise behavior was measured by exercise stages of change, exercise self-efficacy, exercise decisional balance, and duration of moderate exercise at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Our results showed that the ESMI group demonstrated a more positive shift in exercise stages of change (p<0.01), higher exercise self-efficacy (p<0.01), greater exercise benefits (p<0.01), fewer exercise barriers (p<0.01), and longer moderate exercise duration (minutes/week) (p<0.01) after completion of the 8-week intervention compared with the C and PE groups. These significantly positive effects were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The transtheoretical model-based ESMI had significantly positive effects on the exercise behavior of sedentary CHD patients. It is important to provide a structured education program for CHD patients, preferably guided by the transtheoretical model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester after chronic exercise rat model

    PubMed Central

    Alp, Ayse; Buyukbas, Sadik; Alp, Harun; Gergerlioglu, H. Serdar; Oz, Mehmet; Basarali, M. Kemal; Kiyici, Aysel

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand whether exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has an effect on obesity and weight control, we investigated the effects of CAPE, and exercise on lipid parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin in rats. 40 male rat were randomly assigned into 4 groups. It was determined that CAPE does not have any significant effect on these parameters but that lipid parameters and leptin values in exercise groups decreased considerably, while no significant change occurred in resistin levels. In order to understand whether diet has an effect on exercise, body weights of all animal groups in pre and post-exercise were compared. A significant weight gain was observed (p = 0.005) in all groups. This study concluded that exercise has a considerable effect on leptin and lipid parameters; however, exercise alone was not sufficient for weight control and could be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet. Key points Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is not effective on weight control, lipid parameters, and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin. Exercise can be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet. PMID:24149554

  1. Planning, Executing, and Evaluating Handcrafts Exercise in English for Foreign Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Shinkoh; Yamamoto, Koji; Tachibana, Kazushi; Shiraki, Naoyasu; Nakakimura, Masafumi; Umehara, Noritsugu

    Nagoya University has more than one thousand foreign students. Some of them cannot understand Japanese well. In order to promote well understanding engineering, and to increase interaction among foreign students, technical staffs in Engineering School organized handcrafts exercise in English for foreign students based on suggestions by teachers at Creation Plaza. The subject in the exercise is to assemble models of a Stirling Engine. Technical staffs prepared all the parts of test equipments and gave English instructions to the registered students. All the participants appreciated the handcrafts exercised. Their comments are as follows : it was very fruitful ; good experience ; good opportunity to increase mutual interaction ; and so on.

  2. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong

    2007-09-30

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of muscle usage associated with three exercises for rotator cuff rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, J M; Shellock, F G; Mink, J H; Deutsch, A L

    1999-10-01

    Methods of determining muscle usage for exercises involving rotator cuff muscles are limited. Therefore, this investigation used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the effect of three different exercises used for rehabilitation of the rotator cuff. Five normal volunteer subjects (3 men, 2 women, mean age 31.4 yr) were studied. The exercises were scaption with internal rotation (SIR), military press (MP), and side-lying 45 degrees abduction (SLA). MR imaging was performed immediately before and after exercise using a "fast" spin echo STIR sequence and oblique coronal plane imaging. Changes in signal intensity pre- and post-exercise were measured at comparable section locations for the MR images of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis, deltoid, and trapezius. The SLA showed the greatest increase in signal intensity in all the muscles (percent change, P < 0.01) except for the trapezius, which was used more by the MP and SIR. None of the exercises activated the teres minor (percent change, P = not significant). These findings have important implications in efficacy of physical rehabilitation of the rotator cuff and avoidance of subacromial impingement exercise motions.

  4. Simulation of exercise-induced syncope in a heart model with severe aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sever, Matjaž; Ribarič, Samo; Kordaš, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Severe aortic valve stenosis (AVS) can cause an exercise-induced reflex syncope (RS). The precise mechanism of this syncope is not known. The changes in hemodynamics are variable, including arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia, and one of the few consistent changes is a sudden fall in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures (suggesting a reduced vascular resistance) followed by a decline in heart rate. The contribution of the cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor components of the RS to hemodynamics was evaluated by a computer model. This lumped-parameter computer simulation was based on equivalent electronic circuits (EECs) that reflect the hemodynamic conditions of a heart with severe AVS and a concomitantly decreased contractility as a long-term detrimental consequence of compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, the EECs model simulated the resetting of the sympathetic nervous tone in the heart and systemic circuit during exercise and exercise-induced syncope, the fluctuating intra-thoracic pressure during respiration, and the passive relaxation of ventricle during diastole. The results of this simulation were consistent with the published case reports of exertional syncope in patients with AVS. The value of the EEC model is its ability to quantify the effect of a selective and gradable change in heart rate, ventricular contractility, or systemic vascular resistance on the hemodynamics during an exertional syncope in patients with severe AVS.

  5. Mass medication modeling in response to public health emergencies: outcomes of a drive-thru exercise.

    PubMed

    Zerwekh, Tyler; McKnight, Jason; Hupert, Nathaniel; Wattson, Daniel; Hendrickson, Lisa; Lane, David

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a full-scale training exercise utilizing a drive-thru clinic model for dispensing of Strategic National Stockpile medication. The Hawaii Department of Health developed a clinic design for vehicles based on previous exercises and research on sample throughput rates. The streamlined model selected includes a triage area near the entrance and consecutive stations for the public to register, have an evaluation for drug contradictions, and receive the medication. During the 2-hour exercise held in April 2005, a total of 622 patients were processed in their vehicles for an overall rate of 5.2 persons per minute. Although patient services were reduced in comparison to current walk-in clinic models, the public was able to receive prophylactic medication in a timely manner with a high rate of accuracy and minimal human-to-human contact. These results demonstrate that local health departments, particularly in rural areas, can provide essential medications, vaccinations, or rations through a drive-thru clinic, thus limiting morbidity and mortality during a public health emergency.

  6. Design of a dual-hormone model predictive control for artificial pancreas with exercise model.

    PubMed

    Resalat, Navid; El Youssef, Joseph; Reddy, Ravi; Jacobs, Peter G

    2016-08-01

    The Artificial Pancreas (AP) is a new technology for helping people with type 1 diabetes to better control their glucose levels through automated delivery of insulin and optionally glucagon in response to sensed glucose levels. In a dual hormone AP, insulin and glucagon are delivered automatically to the body based on glucose sensor measurements using a control algorithm that calculates the amount of hormones to be infused. A dual-hormone MPC may deliver insulin continuously; however, it must avoid continuous delivery of glucagon because nausea can occur from too much glucagon. In this paper, we propose a novel dual-hormone (DH) switching model predictive control and compare it with a single-hormone (SH) MPC. We extended both MPCs by integrating an exercise model and compared performance with and without the exercise model included. Results were obtained on a virtual patient population undergoing a simulated exercise event using a mathematical glucoregulatory model that includes exercise. Time spent in hypoglycemia is significantly less with the DH-MPC than the SH-MPC (p=0.0022). Additionally, including the exercise model in the DH-MPC can help prevent hypoglycemia (p <; 0.001).

  7. Evaluation of sprint exercise testing protocols in wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B; Hardegger, K; Müller, G; Odermatt, P; Eser, P; Knecht, H

    2003-03-01

    Comparison of five different exercise testing protocols with different speeds on a treadmill with seven wheelchair athletes. To determine which speed and duration in an exercise protocol is best to test wheelchair athletes performing sprint races on a track. Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland. Three elite and four junior wheelchair athletes (18.7+/-6.8 years, 52.1+/-9.7 kg and 165.3+/-19.3 cm) performed five different exercise testing protocols at different speeds on a treadmill until exhaustion. Maximal effort treadmill (0.7% incline) testing protocols were performed using three timeframes. The first was focussing on short duration tests (S1 and S2) where incremental increases in velocity (0.42 and 0.1 m.s(-1)) were required from a stationary start. The second were medium duration tests (M1 and M2) where the athlete started at their 200 m and 800 m personal best time (mean velocities) and then had the velocity increased 1 km.h(-1) by every 10 and 60 s respectively. The long duration test (L) started at 14 km.h(-1) and velocity was increased by 2 km.h(-1) every 120 s. Maximal heart rate, maximal concentration of lactate, maximal speed, and maximal duration of the test were measured. The highest concentration of lactate and the highest heart rates were measured in the longest tests. During maximal effort testing wheelchair athletes are able to produce higher lactate concentrations when tested for longer duration. Post test lactate assessments provide little information in short duration testing protocols. Sequential lactate assessments post-test may provide additional information on the rate of recovery for middle distance wheelchair athletes and warrants further investigation.

  8. Pragmatic geometric model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of subsurface model reliability is mathematically and technically demanding as there are many different sources of uncertainty and some of the factors can be assessed merely in a subjective way. For many practical applications in industry or risk assessment (e. g. geothermal drilling) a quantitative estimation of possible geometric variations in depth unit is preferred over relative numbers because of cost calculations for different scenarios. The talk gives an overview of several factors that affect the geometry of structural subsurface models that are based upon typical geological survey organization (GSO) data like geological maps, borehole data and conceptually driven construction of subsurface elements (e. g. fault network). Within the context of the trans-European project "GeoMol" uncertainty analysis has to be very pragmatic also because of different data rights, data policies and modelling software between the project partners. In a case study a two-step evaluation methodology for geometric subsurface model uncertainty is being developed. In a first step several models of the same volume of interest have been calculated by omitting successively more and more input data types (seismic constraints, fault network, outcrop data). The positions of the various horizon surfaces are then compared. The procedure is equivalent to comparing data of various levels of detail and therefore structural complexity. This gives a measure of the structural significance of each data set in space and as a consequence areas of geometric complexity are identified. These areas are usually very data sensitive hence geometric variability in between individual data points in these areas is higher than in areas of low structural complexity. Instead of calculating a multitude of different models by varying some input data or parameters as it is done by Monte-Carlo-simulations, the aim of the second step of the evaluation procedure (which is part of the ongoing work) is to

  9. Muscle recruitment variations during wrist flexion exercise: MR evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleckenstein, J. L.; Watumull, D.; Bertocci, L. A.; Nurenberg, P.; Peshock, R. M.; Payne, J. A.; Haller, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many exercise protocols used in physiological studies assume homogeneous and diffuse muscle recruitment. To test this assumption during a "standard" wrist flexion protocol, variations in muscle recruitment were assessed using MRI in eight healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Variations were assessed by comparing the right to the left forearms and the effect of slight (15 degrees) pronation or supination at the wrist. RESULTS: Postexercise imaging showed focal regions of increased signal intensity (SI), indicating relatively strong recruitment, most often in entire muscles, although occasionally only in subvolumes of muscles. In 15 of 26 studies, flexor carpi radialis (FCR) showed more SI than flexor carpi ulnaris, while in 11 studies SI in these muscles increased equivalently. Relatively greater FCR recruitment was seen during pronation and/or use of the nondominant side. Palmaris longus, a wrist flexor, did not appear recruited in 4 of 11 forearms in which it was present. A portion of the superficial finger flexor became hyperintense in 89% of studies, while recruitment of the deep finger flexor was seen only in 43%. CONCLUSION: Inter- and intraindividual variations in forearm muscle recruitment should be anticipated in physiological studies of standard wrist flexion exercise protocols.

  10. Examination of a sociocultural model of excessive exercise among male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2010-06-01

    There is substantial evidence that sociocultural pressures and body image disturbances can lead to disordered eating, yet few studies have examined their impact on excessive exercise. The study adapted a sociocultural model for disordered eating to predict excessive exercise using data from boys and girls in early adolescence (N=421). Perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight and build muscle, body image disturbance and appearance investment were associated with a compulsive need to exercise. Adolescents' investment in appearance and body image disturbance fully mediated the relationship between sociocultural pressures and a compulsive need for exercise. There was no support for the meditational model in predicting adolescents' frequency or duration of exercise. Results support the sociocultural model as an explanatory model for excessive exercise, but suggest appearance investment and body image disturbance are important mediators of sociocultural pressures. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maximal intermittent handgrip strategy: design and evaluation of an exercise protocol and a grip tool

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Danielle Christine; Thomas, Scott Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip (HG) exercise has been prescribed as a lifestyle intervention to successfully reduce resting blood pressure (BP) among heterogeneous groups of participants. Current HG protocols have limited accessibility due to complicated exercise prescriptions and sophisticated required equipment. Therefore, this research describes the design and evaluation of the maximal intermittent (MINT) HG exercise strategy, consisting of both a novel exercise protocol (32×5 seconds maximal grip squeezes separated by 5 seconds of rest between sets) and an original grip tool. This research was a multistep progressive design that included 51 postmenopausal women as participants in three separate research studies. Part 1 of this research focuses on the MINT exercise protocol. A literature-informed rationale for the design of the protocol is described. This includes exercise intensity, work-to-rest ratio, and total exercise duration with reference to the unique physiology (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex) of postmenopausal women. Subsequent experimental analyses of acute responses to the MINT protocol revealed that women produced 50% of their maximum grip force with moderate cardiovascular responses (increases of systolic BP: 41.6 mmHg, diastolic BP: 20.1 mmHg, heart rate: 35.1 bpm) that remained far below the thresholds of concern identified by the American College of Sports Medicine. Part 2 of this research describes the creation of a novel grip tool, beginning with a mixed-methods assessment of participant opinions regarding two distinct in-laboratory grip tools, leading to the creation of four prototype MINT tools. Structured focus groups revealed a strong preference for MINT prototype 1 for all tool design features, including color, shape, size, and foam grip. Collectively, the result of this multistep research is a novel HG exercise strategy with enhanced accessibility by being easy to understand and simple to execute. The long-term training effectiveness of MINT as an exercise

  12. Maximal intermittent handgrip strategy: design and evaluation of an exercise protocol and a grip tool.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Danielle Christine; Thomas, Scott Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip (HG) exercise has been prescribed as a lifestyle intervention to successfully reduce resting blood pressure (BP) among heterogeneous groups of participants. Current HG protocols have limited accessibility due to complicated exercise prescriptions and sophisticated required equipment. Therefore, this research describes the design and evaluation of the maximal intermittent (MINT) HG exercise strategy, consisting of both a novel exercise protocol (32×5 seconds maximal grip squeezes separated by 5 seconds of rest between sets) and an original grip tool. This research was a multistep progressive design that included 51 postmenopausal women as participants in three separate research studies. Part 1 of this research focuses on the MINT exercise protocol. A literature-informed rationale for the design of the protocol is described. This includes exercise intensity, work-to-rest ratio, and total exercise duration with reference to the unique physiology (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex) of postmenopausal women. Subsequent experimental analyses of acute responses to the MINT protocol revealed that women produced 50% of their maximum grip force with moderate cardiovascular responses (increases of systolic BP: 41.6 mmHg, diastolic BP: 20.1 mmHg, heart rate: 35.1 bpm) that remained far below the thresholds of concern identified by the American College of Sports Medicine. Part 2 of this research describes the creation of a novel grip tool, beginning with a mixed-methods assessment of participant opinions regarding two distinct in-laboratory grip tools, leading to the creation of four prototype MINT tools. Structured focus groups revealed a strong preference for MINT prototype 1 for all tool design features, including color, shape, size, and foam grip. Collectively, the result of this multistep research is a novel HG exercise strategy with enhanced accessibility by being easy to understand and simple to execute. The long-term training effectiveness of MINT as an exercise

  13. Noninvasive Evaluation of Trunk Muscle Recruitment after Trunk Exercises using Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naoto; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated trunk muscle recruitment in abdominal and back exercises with magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging. Twelve men performed bent-knee sit-up, crunch, trunk lateral flexion, and trunk extension exercises. We obtained axial diffusion-weighted images of the trunk before and after each exercise using a 1.5-tesla MR system, calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the right and left rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and intrinsic back muscles to evaluate the activity of these muscles during each exercise, and compared ADC values before and after exercise using a paired t-test. The ADCs of the rectus abdominis (right, +19.1%; left, +11.7%), lateral abdominal (right, +15.5%; left, +14.1%), and psoas major (right, +14.8%; left, +15.9%) muscles on both sides increased after the bent-knee sit-up (P < 0.01). The ADCs of the rectus abdominis (right, +16.8%; left, +10.2%) and lateral abdominal (right, +8.4%; left, +7.0%) muscles on both sides increased after the crunch exercise (P < 0.01). Trunk lateral flexion resulted in increased ADC on only the right side of all of the muscles (rectus abdominis, +12.3%; lateral abdominal muscles, +20.3%; quadratus lumborum, +17.1%; intrinsic back muscles, +12.0%; psoas major, +15.4%) (P < 0.01). The ADCs of the lateral abdominal (right, +5.2%; left, +5.6%), quadratus lumborum (right, +6.0%; left, +3.0%), and intrinsic back (right, +13.2%; left, +14.6%) muscles on both sides were elevated after trunk extension (right lateral abdominal muscles and left quadratus lumborum, P < 0.05; other muscles, P < 0.01). Diffusion-weighted imaging reveals the recruitment patterns of superficial and deep trunk muscles in abdominal and back exercises through exercise-induced activation in intramuscular water movement.

  14. Translational studies for exercise in high-risk pregnancy: Pre-eclampsia model.

    PubMed

    Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto E Silva, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Reviewed literature regarding exercise effects on pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, analyzing basic science perspectives and clinical studies. Scientific databases were accessed by research strategy combining Medical Subject Headings terms. Studies published between 2000 and 2015, in English, Portuguese, and Spanish language, were considered. Studies were classified into: recommendations for exercise on high-risk pregnancy; animal models for hypertension in pregnancy; exercise on hypertensive disorders in animal models and pregnant women. There are several animal models to mimic hypertensive disorders in pregnancy; however, clinical studies are still needed for exercise recommendation in pregnant women with hypertensive disorders.

  15. The Characterization of Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat Model Suitable for Exercise Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention. PMID:24905232

  16. Exercise-Based Oncology Rehabilitation: Leveraging the Cardiac Rehabilitation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Kim L.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Savage, Patrick D.; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; O’Brien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose is to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a cardiac rehabilitation model. METHODS We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. RESULTS Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current cardiac rehabilitation models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors. PMID:25407596

  17. Utility of a Non-Exercise VO2max Prediction Model for Designing Ramp Test Protocols.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F A; Midgley, A; Montenegro, R; Vasconcellos, F; Farinatti, P

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the validity of determining the final work rates of cycling and walking ramp-incremented maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) using a non-exercise model to predict maximal oxygen uptake VO2max and the American College of Sports Medicine ACSM's metabolic equations. The validity of using this methodology to elicit the recommended test duration of between 8 and 12 min was then evaluated. First, 83 subjects visited the laboratory once to perform a cycling (n=49) or walking (n=34) CPET to investigate the validity of the methodology. Second, 25 subjects (cycling group: n=13; walking group: n=12) performed a CPET on 2 separate days to test the reliability of CPET outcomes. Observed VO2max was 1.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) lower than predicted in the cycling CPET (P=0.001) and 1.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) lower in the walking CPET (P=0.001). Only one of the 133 conducted CPETs was outside the test duration range of 8-12 min. Test-retest reliability was high for all CPET outcomes, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 to 0.99. In conclusion, the non-exercise model is a valid and reliable method for establishing the final work rate of cycling and walking CPETs for eliciting test durations of between 8 and 12 min.

  18. Modeling arson - An exercise in qualitative model building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed example is given of the role of von Neumann and Morgenstern's 1944 'expected utility theorem' (in the theory of games and economic behavior) in qualitative model building. Specifically, an arsonist's decision as to the amount of time to allocate to arson and related activities is modeled, and the responsiveness of this time allocation to changes in various policy parameters is examined. Both the activity modeled and the method of presentation are intended to provide an introduction to the scope and power of the expected utility theorem in modeling situations of 'choice under uncertainty'. The robustness of such a model is shown to vary inversely with the number of preference restrictions used in the analysis. The fewer the restrictions, the wider is the class of agents to which the model is applicable, and accordingly more confidence is put in the derived results. A methodological discussion on modeling human behavior is included.

  19. Modeling arson - An exercise in qualitative model building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed example is given of the role of von Neumann and Morgenstern's 1944 'expected utility theorem' (in the theory of games and economic behavior) in qualitative model building. Specifically, an arsonist's decision as to the amount of time to allocate to arson and related activities is modeled, and the responsiveness of this time allocation to changes in various policy parameters is examined. Both the activity modeled and the method of presentation are intended to provide an introduction to the scope and power of the expected utility theorem in modeling situations of 'choice under uncertainty'. The robustness of such a model is shown to vary inversely with the number of preference restrictions used in the analysis. The fewer the restrictions, the wider is the class of agents to which the model is applicable, and accordingly more confidence is put in the derived results. A methodological discussion on modeling human behavior is included.

  20. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and integration schemes for physiological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Exercise subroutine modifications are implemented in an exercise-respiratory system model yielding improvement of system response to exercise forcings. A more physiologically desirable respiratory ventilation rate in addition to an improved regulation of arterial gas tensions and cerebral blood flow is observed. A respiratory frequency expression is proposed which would be appropriate as an interfacing element of the respiratory-pulsatile cardiovascular system. Presentation of a circulatory-respiratory system integration scheme along with its computer program listing is given. The integrated system responds to exercise stimulation for both nonstressed and stressed physiological states. Other integration possibilities are discussed with respect to the respiratory, pulsatile cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and the long-term circulatory systems.

  1. THE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL EVALUATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes a model evaluation tool that is currently being developed and applied for meteorological and air quality model evaluation. The poster outlines the framework and provides examples of statistical evaluations that can be performed with the model evaluation tool...

  2. THE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL EVALUATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes a model evaluation tool that is currently being developed and applied for meteorological and air quality model evaluation. The poster outlines the framework and provides examples of statistical evaluations that can be performed with the model evaluation tool...

  3. Outpatient Closed-Loop Control with Unannounced Moderate Exercise in Adolescents Using Zone Model Predictive Control.

    PubMed

    Huyett, Lauren M; Ly, Trang T; Forlenza, Gregory P; Reuschel-DiVirgilio, Suzette; Messer, Laurel H; Wadwa, R Paul; Gondhalekar, Ravi; Doyle, Francis J; Pinsker, Jordan E; Maahs, David M; Buckingham, Bruce A; Dassau, Eyal

    2017-06-01

    The artificial pancreas (AP) has the potential to improve glycemic control in adolescents. This article presents the first evaluation in adolescents of the Zone Model Predictive Control and Health Monitoring System (ZMPC+HMS) AP algorithms, and their first evaluation in a supervised outpatient setting with frequent exercise. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes underwent 3 days of closed-loop control (CLC) in a hotel setting with the ZMPC+HMS algorithms on the Diabetes Assistant platform. Subjects engaged in twice-daily exercise, including soccer, tennis, and bicycling. Meal size (unrestricted) was estimated and entered into the system by subjects to trigger a bolus, but exercise was not announced. Ten adolescents (11.9-17.7 years) completed 72 h of CLC, with data on 95 ± 14 h of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy before CLC as a comparison to usual therapy. The percentage of time with continuous glucose monitor (CGM) 70-180 mg/dL was 71% ± 10% during CLC, compared to 57% ± 16% during SAP (P = 0.012). Nocturnal control during CLC was safe, with 0% (0%, 0.6%) of time with CGM <70 mg/dL compared to 1.1% (0.0%, 14%) during SAP. Despite large meals (estimated up to 120 g carbohydrate), only 8.0% ± 6.9% of time during CLC was spent with CGM >250 mg/dL (16% ± 14% during SAP). The system remained connected in CLC for 97% ± 2% of the total study time. No adverse events or severe hypoglycemia occurred. The use of the ZMPC+HMS algorithms is feasible in the adolescent outpatient environment and achieved significantly more time in the desired glycemic range than SAP in the face of unannounced exercise and large announced meal challenges.

  4. Exercise testing in the evaluation of human responses to powerline frequency fields.

    PubMed

    Maresh, C M; Cook, M R; Cohen, H D; Graham, C; Gunn, W S

    1988-12-01

    The present study used exercise testing to examine the effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic field exposure. Eleven males, 21-29 years, were tested during four experimental sessions (counterbalanced order and double-blind design). These included either 45-min exercise (50% of VO2 max) or no-exercise periods followed by either real field (9-kV/m, 16-A/m) or sham exposure for 2 h in a 60-Hz human exposure facility. Exercise produced a decrease in plasma volume and increases (p less than 0.05) in lactic acid, cortisol, growth hormone and testosterone levels, but these were not different under real and sham field conditions during the 2-h recovery periods. During no-exercise sessions, cardiac interbeat interval was increased (p less than 0.05), i.e., heart rate was slower, when subjects were exposed to real fields. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on evaluation of the effects of 60-Hz fields on the entire process of exercise-induced activation and recovery.

  5. Cardiovascular evaluation, including resting and exercise electrocardiography, before participation in competitive sports: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Andrea; Pucci, Nicola; Giuliattini, Jacopo; Condino, Francesca; Alessandri, Flavio; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Califano, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical usefulness of complete preparticipation cardiovascular screening in a large cohort of sports participants. Design Cross sectional study of data over a five year period. Setting Institute of Sports Medicine in Florence, Italy. Participants 30 065 (23 570 men) people seeking to obtain clinical eligibility for competitive sports. Main outcome measures Results of resting and exercise 12 lead electrocardiography. Results Resting 12 lead ECG patterns showed abnormalities in 1812 (6%) participants, with the most common abnormalities (>80%) concerning innocent ECG changes. Exercise ECG showed an abnormal pattern in 1459 (4.9%) participants. Exercise ECG showed cardiac anomalies in 1227 athletes with normal findings on resting ECG. At the end of screening, 196 (0.6%) participants were considered ineligible for competitive sports. Among the 159 participants who were disqualified at the end of the screening for cardiac reasons, a consistent proportion (n=126, 79.2%) had shown innocent or negative findings on resting 12 lead ECG but clear pathological alterations during the exercise test. After adjustment for possible confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that age >30 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of being disqualified for cardiac findings during exercise testing. Conclusions Among people seeking to take part in competitive sports, exercise ECG can identify those with cardiac abnormalities. Follow-up studies would show if disqualification of such people would reduce the incidence of CV events among athletes. PMID:18599474

  6. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk-lowering health benefits accruing from laboratory-based, community-based and exercise-referral exercise programmes.

    PubMed

    Webb, R; Thompson, J E S; Ruffino, J-S; Davies, N A; Watkeys, L; Hooper, S; Jones, P M; Walters, G; Clayton, D; Thomas, A W; Morris, K; Llewellyn, D H; Ward, M; Wyatt-Williams, J; McDonnell, B J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of community-based exercise programmes to facilitate public participation in exercise and hence improved cardiovascular health, we assessed the respective impacts of: a continuously monitored exercise programme based within our university (study 1); a Valleys Regional Park-facilitated community-based outdoor exercise programme (study 2); a Wales National Exercise Referral Scheme-delivered exercise-referral programme (study 3). Biomolecular (monocytic PPARγ target gene expression), vascular haemodynamic (central/peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness), clinical (insulin sensitivity, blood lipids) and anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference, heart rate) parameters were investigated using RT-PCR, applanation tonometry, chemical analysis and standard anthropometric techniques. In studies 1-3, 22/28, 32/65 and 11/14 participants adhered to their respective exercise programmes, and underwent significant increases in physical activity levels. Importantly, beneficial effects similar to those seen in our previous studies (eg, modulations in expression of monocytic PPARγ target genes, decreases in blood pressure/arterial stiffness, improvements in blood lipids/insulin sensitivity) were observed (albeit to slightly differing extents) only in participants who adhered to their respective exercise programmes. While study 1 achieved more intense exercise and more pronounced beneficial effects, significant cardiovascular risk-lowering health benefits related to biomolecular markers, blood pressure, arterial stiffness and blood lipids were achieved via community/referral-based delivery modes in studies 2 and 3. Because cardiovascular health benefits were observed in all 3 studies, we conclude that the majority of benefits previously reported in laboratory-based studies can also be achieved in community-based/exercise-referral settings. These findings may be of use in guiding policymakers with regard to introduction and/or continued

  7. Verification, Validation and Credibility Assessment of a Computational Model of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, C. R.; Humphreys, B. T.; Mulugeta, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the resistive exercise device used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to mitigate bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to microgravity (micro g). The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a multi-body dynamics model of biomechanics models for use in spaceflight exercise physiology research and operations. In an effort to advance model maturity and credibility of the ARED model, the DAP performed verification, validation and credibility (VV and C) assessment of the analyses of the model in accordance to NASA-STD-7009 'Standards for Models and Simulations'.

  8. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  9. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in evaluation of asymptomatic individuals with ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise electrocardiogram.

    PubMed Central

    Caralis, D G; Bailey, I; Kennedy, H L; Pitt, B

    1979-01-01

    Asymptomatic adults with normal physical examination, normal resting electrocardiogram, and normal routine laboratory evaluation who have a positive exercise electrocardiogram and abnormal exercise thallium-201 myocardial image have a very high probability of angiographically significant coronary artery disease. If, on the other hand, the exercise electrocardiogram is positive for "ischaemic" ST segment changes, but the exercise thallium image is normal, the probability for coronary disease is low. The exercise electrocardiogram combined with thallium-201 myocardial image are safe non-invasive methods which can be performed on an out-patient basis. Images PMID:518780

  10. Integrative model for predicting thermal balance in exercising horses.

    PubMed

    Mostert, H J; Lund, R J; Guthrie, A J; Cilliers, P J

    1996-07-01

    A theoretical integrative model was developed to determine the heat balance of horses working in a given environment. This model included the following parameters: metabolic heat gain, solar heat gain, evaporative heat loss due to sweating, respiratory tract heat loss, radiation from the body and heat gain or loss due to convection and conduction. The model developed in this study includes an unique approach for estimating heat loss via evaporation of sweat from the animal's skin surface. Previous studies modelling evaporative heat dissipation were based on the volume of sweat loss. While it is known that the ambient conditions affect evaporation rate, these effects have not been adequately described. The present model assumes the horse's skin surface is adequately represented by a body of water and it describes the interaction of that water body with the atmosphere. It is assumed that sweat has thermodynamic characteristics equivalent to distilled water. Sweat, however, has high electrolyte and protein concentrations and anecdotal evidence has shown that the thermodynamic characteristics may be significantly affected. Further research is, therefore, required to confirm these characteristics for equine sweat. The model describes all factors known to affect the thermal balance of the horse working in a given environment. The relative significance of the various variables on the whole integrative model has been illustrated. The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the evaporative heat loss, the most significant and critical avenue of heat dissipation, is defined and quantified. The model illustrates clearly how increasing relative humidity limits evaporative heat loss, which can be further compromised when horses exercise on treadmills with no air movement.

  11. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    PubMed

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles.

  12. A Transdisciplinary Model Integrating Genetic, Physiological, and Psychological Correlates of Voluntary Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Angela; Hutchison, Kent E.; Seals, Douglas R.; Allen, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity contributes to as many as 250,000 premature deaths per year (R. R. Pate et al., 1995). The authors’ objective was to test a transdisciplinary model of the ways in which genetic variants, physiological factors, and psychological factors are thought to influence exercise with 64 healthy, regular exercisers. Design In a within-subjects design, psychological and physiological responses to exercise were compared with responses to a sedentary activity. Main Outcome Measures The authors measured affective state, perceived exertion, heart rate, and temperature change in response to moderate exercise versus sedentary activity. They also quantified genotypes on a single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Results and Conclusions The data show a relation between increases in positive affective states and acute exercise behavior, as opposed to a sedentary control. The BDNF gene moderated the effect of exercise on mood, heart rate, and perceived exertion. Physiological factors were, in turn, related to mood response, and mood response was a significant correlate of motivation to exercise in the future and of current exercise behavior. The model has potential as a framework for the basic study of the genetic, physiological, and psychological processes involved with voluntary exercise and as a tool for the applied examination of tailored exercise interventions and their efficacy for different subsets of individuals. PMID:17209695

  13. Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) Framework for Exercise and Response Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mapar, Jalal; Hoette, Trisha; Mahrous, Karim; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Plantenga, Todd; Yang, Christine; Yang, Lynn; Hopmeier, Michael

    2011-01-01

    EmergenCy management personnel at federal, stale, and local levels can benefit from the increased situational awareness and operational efficiency afforded by simulation and modeling for emergency preparedness, including planning, training and exercises. To support this goal, the Department of Homeland Security's Science & Technology Directorate is funding the Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) program to create an integrating framework that brings together diverse models for use by the emergency response community. SUMMIT, one piece of the IMMS program, is the initial software framework that connects users such as emergency planners and exercise developers with modeling resources, bridging the gap in expertise and technical skills between these two communities. SUMMIT was recently deployed to support exercise planning for National Level Exercise 2010. Threat, casualty. infrastructure, and medical surge models were combined within SUMMIT to estimate health care resource requirements for the exercise ground truth.

  14. A theoretical model to describe progressions and regressions for exercise rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Sam; Glasgow, Phil

    2014-08-01

    This article aims to describe a new theoretical model to simplify and aid visualisation of the clinical reasoning process involved in progressing a single exercise. Exercise prescription is a core skill for physiotherapists but is an area that is lacking in theoretical models to assist clinicians when designing exercise programs to aid rehabilitation from injury. Historical models of periodization and motor learning theories lack any visual aids to assist clinicians. The concept of the proposed model is that new stimuli can be added or exchanged with other stimuli, either intrinsic or extrinsic to the participant, in order to gradually progress an exercise whilst remaining safe and effective. The proposed model maintains the core skills of physiotherapists by assisting clinical reasoning skills, exercise prescription and goal setting. It is not limited to any one pathology or rehabilitation setting and can adapted by any level of skilled clinician. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational Model of Cellular Metabolic Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle Fibers during Moderate Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjun; Lai, Nicola; Kirwan, John P.; Saidel, Gerald M.

    2012-01-01

    Human skeletal muscles have different fiber types with distinct metabolic functions and physiological properties. The quantitative metabolic responses of muscle fibers to exercise provide essential information for understanding and modifying the regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle. Since in vivo data from skeletal muscle during exercise is limited, a computational, physiologically based model has been developed to quantify the dynamic metabolic responses of many key chemical species. This model distinguishes type I and II muscle fibers, which share the same blood supply. An underlying hypothesis is that the recruitment and metabolic activation of the two main types of muscle fibers differ depending on the pre-exercise state and exercise protocols. Here, activation measured by metabolic response (or enzymatic activation) in single fibers is considered linked but distinct from fiber recruitment characterized by the number (or mass) of each fiber type involved during a specific exercise. The model incorporates species transport processes between blood and muscle fibers and most of the important reactions/pathways in cytosol and mitochondria within each fiber type. Model simulations describe the dynamics of intracellular species concentrations and fluxes in muscle fibers during moderate intensity exercise according to various experimental protocols and conditions. This model is validated by comparing model simulations with experimental data in single muscle fibers and in whole muscle. Model simulations demonstrate that muscle-fiber recruitment and metabolic activation patterns in response to exercise produce significantly distinctive effects depending on the exercise conditions. PMID:22942911

  16. Evaluation of Exercise Response in a Young, High Risk Population: Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (ICPET) in Active Duty Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-17

    Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing iCPET in AD Soldiers presented at/published to American College of Cardiology’s 661h Annual...Eval of Exercise Response in a Young, High Risk Population: Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (iCPET) in AD Sol<ldi 7. FUNDING

  17. Evaluation of a Tabletop Emergency Preparedness Exercise for Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity’s effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity’s success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students’ knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes. PMID:27170821

  18. An evaluation of the potential role of the physician in influencing community exercise behavior.

    PubMed

    Godin, G; Shephard, R J

    1990-03-01

    Abstract The potential influence of physicians upon the exercise behavior of individuals has been examined. Key questions explored were a) whether people believed that their personal physician thought that they should exercise, and b) the level of motivation to comply with these perceived expectations. Subjects were drawn from four independent populations: 1) parents of junior high school students (N = 479); 2) university employees (N = 190); 3) lower-limb disabled adults (N = 62); and 4) pregnant women (N = 68). Questionnaire-based physical activity scores were transformed into Z-scores and the data sets for activity and beliefs were pooled. Multiple regression models were developed for each individual data set and for the combined data. The proportion of the variance in reported physical activity explained by the normative belief regarding the physician and the level of motivation to comply with the perceived physician's expectations was very low (adjusted R(2) = 0.026 for the combined data sets). In general, healthy adults thought that their personal physician wanted them to exercise and were motivated to comply with such advice. In contrast, disabled adults saw their personal physician as opposed to exercise which they were motivated to undertake. These findings are discussed in terms of the importance of social norms as determinants of exercise behavior and the position that physicians should adopt when seeking to enhance exercise behavior.

  19. [Evaluation of the deficiency and the submaximal exercise capacity in obstructive sleep apnoea patients].

    PubMed

    Abdelghani, A; Ben Saad, H; Ben Hassen, I; Ghannouchi, I; Ghrairi, H; Bougmiza, I; Slama, R; Tabka, Z; Benzarti, M

    2010-03-01

    In addition to excessive daytime somnolence, exercise limitation is a likely consequence of the cardiorespiratory problems that occur in patients who have obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, few studies have evaluated the aerobic capacity of this patient group. To evaluate submaximal exercise capacity over the 6-minute walking test (6-MWT). To determine the factors that influence 6-minutes walking distance (6-MWD). 120 consecutive patients with severe OSA treated by continuous positive airway pressure who were medically stable will be included. 6-MWT contraindications, orthopaedic or rheumatologic diseases likely to influence walking capacity and corticosteroid therapy. polysomnography, electrocardiogram, plethysmography, and two 6-MWT's. Indicators of impaired exercise capacity: stops during the walk, 6-MWD less than or equal to predicted lower limit of normal, end walking dyspnoea greater than or equal to 5/10, oxygen saturation fall greater than or equal to five points, end walking heart rate less than or equal to 60 % maximal predicted. Data from our obese patients aged 40-60 years old will be compared with data from 45 age-matched obese subjects free from OSA. OSA will significantly affect the submaximal exercise capacity and will accelerate the ageing of the cardiorespiratory-muscle chain. Submaximal exercise capacity of obese subjects having OSA, compared to subjects free from OSA, will be significantly deteriorated. 6-MWD of OSA patients will be significantly influenced by: resting plethysmographic data, apnoea hypopnoea index, arterial hypertension, obesity or smoking histories. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. BioVapor Model Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    General background on modeling and specifics of modeling vapor intrusion are given. Three classical model applications are described and related to the problem of petroleum vapor intrusion. These indicate the need for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Evaluation of Bi...

  1. BioVapor Model Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    General background on modeling and specifics of modeling vapor intrusion are given. Three classical model applications are described and related to the problem of petroleum vapor intrusion. These indicate the need for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Evaluation of Bi...

  2. Dropping Out or Keeping Up? Early-Dropouts, Late-Dropouts, and Maintainers Differ in Their Automatic Evaluations of Exercise Already before a 14-Week Exercise Course

    PubMed Central

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how automatic evaluations of exercising (AEE) varied according to adherence to an exercise program. Eighty-eight participants (24.98 years ± 6.88; 51.1% female) completed a Brief-Implicit Association Task assessing their AEE, positive and negative associations to exercising at the beginning of a 3-month exercise program. Attendance data were collected for all participants and used in a cluster analysis of adherence patterns. Three different adherence patterns (52 maintainers, 16 early dropouts, 20 late dropouts; 40.91% overall dropouts) were detected using cluster analyses. Participants from these three clusters differed significantly with regard to their positive and negative associations to exercising before the first course meeting (ηp2 = 0.07). Discriminant function analyses revealed that positive associations to exercising was a particularly good discriminating factor. This is the first study to provide evidence of the differential impact of positive and negative associations on exercise behavior over the medium term. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of evaluative processes from a dual-process perspective and may provide a basis for targeted interventions. PMID:27313559

  3. Dropping Out or Keeping Up? Early-Dropouts, Late-Dropouts, and Maintainers Differ in Their Automatic Evaluations of Exercise Already before a 14-Week Exercise Course.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how automatic evaluations of exercising (AEE) varied according to adherence to an exercise program. Eighty-eight participants (24.98 years ± 6.88; 51.1% female) completed a Brief-Implicit Association Task assessing their AEE, positive and negative associations to exercising at the beginning of a 3-month exercise program. Attendance data were collected for all participants and used in a cluster analysis of adherence patterns. Three different adherence patterns (52 maintainers, 16 early dropouts, 20 late dropouts; 40.91% overall dropouts) were detected using cluster analyses. Participants from these three clusters differed significantly with regard to their positive and negative associations to exercising before the first course meeting ([Formula: see text] = 0.07). Discriminant function analyses revealed that positive associations to exercising was a particularly good discriminating factor. This is the first study to provide evidence of the differential impact of positive and negative associations on exercise behavior over the medium term. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of evaluative processes from a dual-process perspective and may provide a basis for targeted interventions.

  4. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Model Chronic Compartment Syndrome In Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.

  5. Evaluating Training Courses: An Exercise in Social Desirability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jenny A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors which influence responses on open-ended evaluations of training courses. Design/methodology/approach: Course participants completed open-ended evaluation forms about their experience on a course. These consisted of 377 senior teachers attending a training programme dealing with child abuse.…

  6. Advances in the Evaluation of Respiratory Pathophysiology during Exercise in Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Denis E.; Elbehairy, Amany F.; Berton, Danilo C.; Domnik, Nicolle J.; Neder, J. Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Dyspnea and exercise limitation are among the most common symptoms experienced by patients with various chronic lung diseases and are linked to poor quality of life. Our understanding of the source and nature of perceived respiratory discomfort and exercise intolerance in chronic lung diseases has increased substantially in recent years. These new mechanistic insights are the primary focus of the current review. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides a unique opportunity to objectively evaluate the ability of the respiratory system to respond to imposed incremental physiological stress. In addition to measuring aerobic capacity and quantifying an individual's cardiac and ventilatory reserves, we have expanded the role of CPET to include evaluation of symptom intensity, together with a simple “non-invasive” assessment of relevant ventilatory control parameters and dynamic respiratory mechanics during standardized incremental tests to tolerance. This review explores the application of the new advances in the clinical evaluation of the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic asthma, interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hope to demonstrate how this novel approach to CPET interpretation, which includes a quantification of activity-related dyspnea and evaluation of its underlying mechanisms, enhances our ability to meaningfully intervene to improve quality of life in these pathologically-distinct conditions. PMID:28275353

  7. Evaluating a Pre-Session Homework Exercise in a Standalone Information Literacy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Joseph E.; Barber, Catherine R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, researchers evaluate a homework exercise assigned before a standalone information literacy session. Students in a Master of Education program completed a worksheet using the ERIC database thesaurus. The researchers conducted pre- and posttests within a single library session to assess student learning, using a control group for…

  8. Clinical Problem Solving Exercises for Pre-Clinical Medical Education: A Design, Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordage, Georges

    Clinical problem solving exercises for preclinical medical education that were developed at Michigan State University School of Osteopathic Medicine are described. Two types of outcomes were set as priorities in the design and implementation of the problem solving sessions: small group peer interactions as instructional and evaluative resources;…

  9. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  10. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  11. Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stufflebeam, Daniel L.; Shinkfield, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    "Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications" is designed for evaluators and students who need to develop a commanding knowledge of the evaluation field: its history, theory and standards, models and approaches, procedures, and inclusion of personnel as well as program evaluation. This important book shows how to choose from a growing…

  12. Emerging concept: 'central benefit model' of exercise in falls prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, Chun Liang; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a common geriatric syndrome and are the third leading cause of chonic disability worldwide. Falls are not random events and occur, at least in part, due to impaired physiological function, such as impaired balance, and cognitive impairment. The clinical syndrome of falls is important for Sports and Exercise Medicine Clinicians as there is Level 1 evidence that targeted exercise prescription is an effective intervention strategy. The widely accepted dogma is that improved physical function, balance and muscle strength, underlies the effectiveness of the exercise in reducing falls. However, findings from randomised controlled trials suggest that exercise reduce falls via mechanisms other than improved physiological function. The authors propose that improved cognitive function - specifically, executive functions - and associated functional plasticity may be an important yet underappreciated mechanism by which the exercise reduces falls in older adults.

  13. a Mathematical Model for Training Impulse and Lactate Influx and Outflux during Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical description based on the theory of differential equations, for the dynamics of lactate production and removal. Analytical and numerical results for training/exercise of endurance of athletes are presented based on the common concept of training impulse (Trimp). The relationships between activity, production rate, and removal strategies of lactate are studied. Parameters are estimated from published data. A model for optimum removal of lactate after exercise is developed. The model provides realistic predictions when compared with experimental results. We show some specific examples for the usefulness of the mathematical model by studying some recent problems discussed in the literature. (a) Is interval exercise more beneficial than steady-state exercise? (b) What is the optimum aerobic power during recovery? We discuss whether steady-state exercise gives higher Trimp than interval exercise, when imposing an upper boundary for the lactate concentration as a constraint. The model allows for testing all imaginable kinds of steady-state and interval exercises in search of the optimal exercise regime for individuals with various kinds of characteristics. In general, the dynamic model constitute a powerful tool describing the processes by which the concentration of lactate can be studied and controlled to decrease fatigue and increase endurance.

  14. Evaluation of two methods for continuous cardiac output assessment during exercise in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Hareld M C; Thijssen, Eric J M; Schep, Goof; Sleutjes, Boudewijn T H M; De Vries, Wouter R; Hoogeveen, Adwin R; Wijn, Pieter F F; Doevendans, Pieter A F M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of two techniques for the continuous assessment of cardiac output in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF): a radial artery pulse contour analysis method that uses an indicator dilution method for calibration (LiDCO) and an impedance cardiography technique (Physioflow), using the Fick method as a reference. Ten male CHF patients (New York Heart Association class II-III) were included. At rest, cardiac output values obtained by LiDCO and Physioflow were compared with those of the direct Fick method. During exercise, the continuous Fick method was used as a reference. Exercise, performed on a cycle ergometer in upright position, consisted of two constant-load tests at 30% and 80% of the ventilatory threshold and a symptom-limited maximal test. Both at rest and during exercise LiDCO showed good agreement with reference values [bias +/- limits of agreement (LOA), -1% +/- 28% and 2% +/- 28%, respectively]. In contrast, Physioflow overestimated reference values both at rest and during exercise (bias +/- LOA, 48% +/- 60% and 48% +/- 52%, respectively). Exercise-related within-patient changes of cardiac output, expressed as a percent change, showed for both techniques clinically acceptable agreement with reference values (bias +/- LOA: 2% +/- 26% for LiDCO, and -2% +/- 36% for Physioflow, respectively). In conclusion, although the limits of agreement with the Fick method are pretty broad, LiDCO provides accurate measurements of cardiac output during rest and exercise in CHF patients. Although Physioflow overestimates cardiac output, this method may still be useful to estimate relative changes during exercise.

  15. Exercise improves motor deficits and alters striatal GFAP expression in a 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Jaeger, Mariane; Ilha, Jocemar; Kalil-Gaspar, Pedro Ivo; Marcuzzo, Simone; Achaval, Matilde

    2012-10-01

    Astrocytic changes have been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases, showing that these cells play an important role in functional recovery/maintenance against brain damage. Physical exercise is known to contribute to this process; however, the cellular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of physical exercise on motor deficits and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were divided into four groups: sham sedentary (SS) and sham trained (ST); lesioned sedentary (LS) and lesioned trained (LT). 6-OHDA was infused unilaterally into the medial forebrain bundle. Behavioral tasks were applied to evaluate motor abilities. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-in substantia nigra) and GFAP (in striatum) immunoreactivities (ir) were semi-quantified using optical density. The animals submitted to treadmill training completed fewer pharmacological-induced rotations when compared with sedentary animals and they also showed ameliorated motor impairments. Interestingly, although no change in TH-ir, the exercise led to restored striatal GFAP expression in the LT group while there was no effect in the ST group. This study is the first study to show data indicating the recovery of GFAP expression post-exercise in this model and further research is necessary to determine the precise action mechanisms of exercise on astrocytes in the PD.

  16. Grit, conscientiousness, and the transtheoretical model of change for exercise behavior.

    PubMed

    Reed, Justy; Pritschet, Brian L; Cutton, David M

    2013-05-01

    Grit and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) Conscientiousness dimension were examined with respect to the transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change for exercise behavior. Participants (N = 1171) completed an online survey containing exercise-related TTM staging questions, the Short Grit Scale and BFI Conscientiousness. Ordinal regression analyses showed that grit significantly predicted high intensity and moderate intensity exercise TTM stage while BFI Conscientiousness did not. The results suggest that grit is a potentially important differentiator of TTM stage for moderate and high intensity exercise.

  17. Treadmill exercise represses neuronal cell death in an aged transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Um, Hyun-Sub; Kang, Eun-Bum; Koo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Jin-Lee; Kim, Eung-Joon; Yang, Chun-Ho; An, Gil-Young; Cho, In-Ho; Cho, Joon-Yong

    2011-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to further investigate the protective effect of treadmill exercise on the hippocampal proteins associated with neuronal cell death in an aged transgenic (Tg) mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address this, Tg mouse model of AD, Tg-NSE/PS2m, which expresses human mutant PS2 in the brain, was chosen. Animals were subjected to treadmill exercise for 12 weeks from 24 months of age. The exercised mice were treadmill run at speed of 12 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week on a 0% gradient for 3 months. Treadmill exercised mice improved cognitive function in water maze test. Treadmill exercised mice significantly reduced the expression of Aβ-42, Cox-2, and caspase-3 in the hippocampus. In parallel, treadmill exercised Tg mice decreased the phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38MAPK and tau (Ser404, Ser202, Thr231), and increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, PI3K, Akt and GSK-3α/β. In addition, treadmill exercised Tg mice up-regulated the expressions of NGF, BDNF and phospho-CREB, and the expressions of SOD-1, SOD-2 and HSP-70. Treadmill exercised Tg mice up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and down-regulated the expressions of cytochrome c and Bax in the hippocampus. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus in mice was significantly decreased after treadmill exercise. Finally, serum TC, insulin, glucose, and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in the Tg mice after treadmill exercise. As a consequence of such change, Aβ-dependent neuronal cell death in the hippocampus of Tg mice was markedly suppressed following treadmill exercise. These results strongly suggest that treadmill exercise provides a therapeutic potential to inhibit both Aβ-42 and neuronal death pathways. Therefore, treadmill exercise may be beneficial in prevention or treatment of AD.

  18. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R2 = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = −131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  19. Evaluation of human muscle hardness after dynamic exercise with ultrasound real-time tissue elastography: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, O; Niitsu, M; Kurihara, T; Fukubayashi, T

    2011-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE) for measuring exercise-induced changes in muscle hardness and to compare the findings of RTE with those of a tissue hardness meter for semi-quantitative assessment of the hardness of exercised muscles. Nine male participants performed an arm-curl exercise. RTE measurements were performed by manually applying repetitive compression with the transducer on the scan position before exercise, immediately after exercise, and at 30 min after exercise; strain ratios between muscle and a reference material (hydrogel) were calculated (muscle strain/material strain). A tissue hardness meter was also used to evaluate muscle hardness. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the three repeated measurements at each measurement time were calculated to evaluate the intra-observer reproducibility of each technique. Immediately after exercise, the strain ratio and the value obtained using the tissue hardness meter significantly decreased (from 1.65 to 1.35) and increased (from 51.8 to 54.3), respectively. Both parameters returned to their pre-exercise value 30 min after exercise. The ICCs of the RTE (and the ICCs of the muscle hardness meter) were 0.971 (0.816) before exercise, 0.939 (0.776) immediately after exercise, and 0.959 (0.882) at 30 min after exercise. Similar to the muscle hardness meter, RTE revealed the exercise-induced changes of muscle hardness semi-quantitatively. The intra-observer reproducibility of RTE was very high at each measurement time. These findings suggest that RTE is a clinically useful technique for assessing hardness of specific exercised muscles. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of different frequency treadmill exercise on lipoxin A4 and articular cartilage degeneration in an experimental model of monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Yang; Kong, Yawei; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of different frequencies treadmill exercise with total exercise time being constancy on articular cartilage, lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and the NF-κB pathway in rat model of monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10): controls (CG), knee OA model (OAG), OA + treadmill exercise once daily (OAE1), OA + treadmill exercise twice daily, rest interval between exercise>4h (OAE2) and OA + treadmill exercise three times daily, rest interval between exercise>4h (OAE3). Rats were evaluated after completing the treadmill exercise program (speed, 18 m/min; total exercise time 60 min/day; 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and LXA4 in serum and intra-articular lavage fluid were measured by ELISA. Changes in articular cartilage were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and quantitative real-time-PCR. LXA4 in the serum and intra-articular lavage fluid increased in all OAE groups, and histological evaluation indicated that the OAE3 group had the best treatment response. The expression of COL2A1 and IκB-β in articular cartilage increased in all OAE groups vs the OAG group, whereas expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and NF-κB p65 was reduced in all OAE groups compared with the OAG. Under the condition of 60 min treadmill exercise with moderate-intensity, to fulfill in three times would have better chondroprotective effects than to fulfill in two or one time on monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA in rats. And it may be worked through the anti-inflammatory activity of LXA4 and the NF-κB pathway. PMID:28594958

  1. Tai Chi-based exercise for older adults with Parkinson's disease: a pilot-program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Fisher, K John; Xu, Junheng; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide preliminary evaluation of the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a newly developed Tai Chi-based exercise program for older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, 17 community-dwelling adults (mean age 71.51 years) with mild to moderate idiopathic PD (Stage I, II, or III on the Hoehn and Yahr scale) and stable medication use completed a 5-day, 90-min/day Tai Chi exercise-evaluation program. Outcome measures included face-to-face exit interviews on appropriateness and safety and physical performance (i.e., 50-ft speed walk, up-and-go, functional reach). At the end of this brief intervention, exercise adherence was 100% and the program was shown to be safe. Exit interviews indicated that the program was well received by all participants with respect to program appropriateness, participant satisfaction and enjoyment, and intentions to continue. Furthermore, a significant pretest-to-posttest change was observed at the end of the 5-day program in all three physical-performance measures (p < .05). The results of this pilot evaluation suggest that Tai Chi is an appropriate physical activity for older adults with PD and might also be useful as a therapeutic exercise modality for improving and maintaining physical function. These preliminary findings warrant further investigation.

  2. OpenSim Model Improvements to Support High Joint Angle Resistive Exercising

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William; Lewandowski, Beth; Humphreys, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Rigorous testing of these proposed devices in space flight is difficult so computational modeling provides an estimation of the muscle forces and joint loads during exercise to gain insight on the efficacy to protect the musculoskeletal health of astronauts. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts

  3. Evaluating Daily Load Stimulus Formulas in Relating Bone Response to Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Six formulas representing what is commonly referred to as "daily load stimulus" are identified, compared and tested in their ability to relate skeletal mechanical loading to bone maintenance and osteogenic response. Particular emphasis is placed on exercise- induced skeletal loading and whether or not the formulas can adequately capture the known experimental observations of saturation of continuous cyclic loading, rest insertion between repetitions (cycles), recovery of osteogenic potential following saturation, and multiple shorter bouts versus a single long bout of exercise. To evaluate the ability of the formulas to capture these characteristics, a set of exercise scenarios with type of exercise bout, specific duration, number of repetitions, and rest insertion between repetitions is defined. The daily load values obtained from the formulas for the loading conditions of the set of scenarios is illustrated. Not all of the formulas form estimates of daily load in units of stress or in terms of strain at a skeletal site due to the loading force from a specific exercise prescription. The comparative results show that none of the formulas are able to capture all of the experimentally observed characteristics of cyclic loading. However, the enhanced formula presented by Genc et al. does capture several characteristics of cyclic loading that the others do not, namely recovery of osteogenic potential and saturation. This could be a basis for further development of mathematical formulas that more adequately approximates the amount of daily stress at a skeletal site that contributes to bone adaptation.

  4. Use of exercise testing in the evaluation of interventional efficacy: an official ERS statement.

    PubMed

    Puente-Maestu, Luis; Palange, Paolo; Casaburi, Richard; Laveneziana, Pierantonio; Maltais, François; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E; Onorati, Paolo; Porszasz, Janos; Rabinovich, Roberto; Rossiter, Harry B; Singh, Sally; Troosters, Thierry; Ward, Susan

    2016-02-01

    This document reviews 1) the measurement properties of commonly used exercise tests in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and 2) published studies on their utilty and/or evaluation obtained from MEDLINE and Cochrane Library searches between 1990 and March 2015.Exercise tests are reliable and consistently responsive to rehabilitative and pharmacological interventions. Thresholds for clinically important changes in performance are available for several tests. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, the 6-min walk test (6MWT), peak oxygen uptake and ventilation/carbon dioxide output indices appear to be the variables most responsive to vasodilators. While bronchodilators do not always show clinically relevant effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high-intensity constant work-rate (endurance) tests (CWRET) are considerably more responsive than incremental exercise tests and 6MWTs. High-intensity CWRETs need to be standardised to reduce interindividual variability. Additional physiological information and responsiveness can be obtained from isotime measurements, particularly of inspiratory capacity and dyspnoea. Less evidence is available for the endurance shuttle walk test. Although the incremental shuttle walk test and 6MWT are reliable and less expensive than cardiopulmonary exercise testing, two repetitions are needed at baseline. All exercise tests are safe when recommended precautions are followed, with evidence suggesting that no test is safer than others.

  5. Evaluation of the benefits of exercise on cognition in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Greer, Tracy L; Furman, Jennifer L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2017-07-06

    Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a significant symptom in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). While exercise is already recommended in many treatment guidelines for patients with MDD and has been shown to improve cognition in other disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia), limited research is available evaluating the effect of exercise on cognition in MDD. We provide a narrative review of existing literature regarding the effect(s) of exercise on cognition across several neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, and particularly in MDD, with specific emphasis on study design and methodology that may impair adequate synthesis of the results. We also describe mechanisms by which exercise may improve cognition in depression and other brain disorders. Of existing studies with MDD, data are equivocal, as some are supportive of improved cognition, whereas others demonstrate no benefit. Several limitations were noted, including insufficiently-powered designs, variability in interventions examined (e.g., aerobic, anaerobic, mind-body) or control groups, lack of attention to the status of baseline cognitive impairment, and/or heterogeneity across outcome measures and clinical characteristics. While preliminary results suggest the potential for exercise as a beneficial treatment or augmentation strategy for impaired cognition in MDD, the aforementioned limitations necessitate further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [pi] Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon-Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    An exercise is described that has illustrated the effect of various factors on [pi] backbonding to carbonyl ligands, where the students can view the molecular orbitals corresponding to the M-CO [pi] interaction as well as the competing interaction between the metal and co-ligands. The visual and hands-on nature of the modeling exercise has helped…

  7. It Takes One to Know One: A Class Exercise in Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    An active learning class exercise is presented that gives students the personal experience of the decision-making limitations of mental models. This innovative exercise was shown to increase student learning through greater understanding of the concept and higher retention of knowledge. The results suggest that student critical thinking skills…

  8. [pi] Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon-Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    An exercise is described that has illustrated the effect of various factors on [pi] backbonding to carbonyl ligands, where the students can view the molecular orbitals corresponding to the M-CO [pi] interaction as well as the competing interaction between the metal and co-ligands. The visual and hands-on nature of the modeling exercise has helped…

  9. It Takes One to Know One: A Class Exercise in Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    An active learning class exercise is presented that gives students the personal experience of the decision-making limitations of mental models. This innovative exercise was shown to increase student learning through greater understanding of the concept and higher retention of knowledge. The results suggest that student critical thinking skills…

  10. An Exercise in Evaluating the Contamination Potential of Surface Impoundments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines a laboratory procedure which enables students to evaluate the contamination potential of surface impoundments and apply basic principles of hydrogeology to the land disposal of waste material. Includes a list of materials needed and directions for the instructor. (Author/DC)

  11. Evaluation of a Classroom Exercise on Social Distance and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Trent W.

    2013-01-01

    This project evaluated a class activity on social distance and discrimination using the Bogardus Social Distance Scale. Students [N = 266] in six sections of a family development course received either lecture or lecture plus the activity and completed two pretest and posttest measures. Results revealed greater positive shifts on the Scale for…

  12. OS060. Exercise training promotes placental growth and development in an animal model of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Genest, D S; Falcao, S; Michel, C; Lacasse, A-A; Vaillancourt, C; Gutkowska, J; Lavoie, J L

    2012-07-01

    Chronic hypertension is an important risk factor for preeclampsia, increasing the prevalence of the disease to 15-25% in pregnant women. Unfortunately there are no known treatments for this disease aside from inducing delivery of the fetus. Nonetheless, several studies have found exercise training to have a protective effect on the risk of developing preeclampsia. To determine the mechanisms implicated in the preventive effect of exercise training on preeclampsia, by focusing on the placenta. Double transgenic mice, overexpressing both human renin and angiotensinogen (R(+)/A(+)), were used to investigate the effect of exercise training on an animal model of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. Mice were placed in cages with free access to an exercise wheel 4 weeks prior to and during pregnancy. At gestational day 18, mice were sacrificed and their organs were collected. Real time PCR and Western Blot were performed to evaluate placental genes and proteins, respectively. Circulating sFlt-1(soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) levels were investigated by ELISA. Placental alterations were assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry, while blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry. Sedentary R(+)/A(+) mice presented with significantly greater placental pathology, which was normalized with exercise training. This was characterized by a normalization of cytokeratin and histone H3 protein expression, thereby restoring placental development, specifically looking at trophoblasts and trophoblast giant cells, respectively. This exercise training effect appears to normalize placental growth primarily by promoting angiogenesis and development. Indeed, a pro-angiogenic shift could be detected which was characterized by an increase in placental growth factor gene expression, along with a decrease in sFlt-1 gene expression, which produced a decrease in circulating sFlt-1. Sedentary R(+)/A(+) mice also presented with a significant increase in VEGF protein, which

  13. Two dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of exercise-induced left and right ventricular asynergy: correlation with thallium scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, G.; Nanda, N.C.

    1981-10-01

    Adequate real time two dimensional echocardiograms were prospectively obtained before and immediately after graded treadmill exercise testing in 41 of 48 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization for suspected coronary artery disease. Findings were correlated with thallium perfusion scans performed 5 to 10 minutes and 3 hours after the same exercise test. Exercise-induced wall motion abnormalities were detected in 19 of 23 patients with significant coronary artery disease and no prior myocardial infarction as well as in all 5 patients with known previous infarction. Three patients with coronary artery disease experienced new isolated right ventricular asynergy with exercise that would have been missed if only the left ventricle had been evaluated. Exercise-induced thallium perfusion defects showed good correlation with exercise-induced asynergy as detected with echocardiography. Two dimensional echocardiography performed immediately after treadmill stress testing is a feasible and rewarding technique in the evaluation of patients suspected to have coronary artery disease.

  14. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations.

    PubMed

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Bergman, Esther M; Donders, Rogier A R T; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments, the learning effects of clay modeling were compared to either live observations (Experiment I) or video observations (Experiment II) of the clay-modeling exercise. The effects of learning were measured with multiple choice questions, extended matching questions, and recognition of structures on illustrations of cross-sections. Analysis of covariance with pretest scores as the covariate was used to elaborate the results. Experiment I showed a significantly higher post-test score for the observers, whereas Experiment II showed a significantly higher post-test score for the clay modelers. This study shows that (1) students who perform clay-modeling exercises show less gain in anatomical knowledge than students who attentively observe the same exercise being carried out and (2) performing a clay-modeling exercise is better in anatomical knowledge gain compared to the study of a video of the recorded exercise. The most important learning effect seems to be the engagement in the exercise, focusing attention and stimulating time on task.

  15. Predictors of exercise in individuals with schizophrenia: A test of the transtheoretical model of behavior change.

    PubMed

    Bassilios, Bridget; Judd, Fiona; Pattison, Philippa; Nicholas, Angela; Moeller-Saxone, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Mortality in individuals with schizophrenia, including deaths not attributable to accidents and suicide, is at least twice that of the general population. While increasing physical exercise could promote positive mental and physical health outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia, only one other study of the determinants of exercise within this population has been reported. Our study attempts to resolve this void in knowledge by testing the applicability of the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavior change to predicting exercise behavior in those with schizophrenia. Forty-nine participants (42 with schizophrenia and 7 with schizoaffective disorder) from three community mental health centers in Melbourne, Australia, completed a series of questionnaires, an interview, physical health measures, and had their medical records examined. These measures were used: TTM exercise stage, TTM mediators of change, health status, health-risk behaviors, use of antipsychotic medications, psychopathology, psychiatric history, and demographic information. Variables found to be significantly correlated with exercise stage were then included in a series of regression analyses to determine their relative predictive power for exercise stage. The results demonstrated that the TTM and its associated measures may be valid for integration into interventions for promoting exercise in individuals with schizophrenia, despite high levels of psychopathology symptoms. Routine clinical practice should promote exercise in people with schizophrenia and the TTM may be of benefit to this end. Strategies that promote exercise when self-perceived poor health is seen as a significant barrier are particularly important, as is the reduction of caffeine consumption and other health-adverse behaviors.

  16. [Development and evaluation of a dance-based exercise therapy for patients with haemophilia].

    PubMed

    Czepa, D; van Ravenstein, S; Stäuber, F; Hilberg, T

    2013-01-01

    So far, the use of methods derived from creative arts has not been considered in the haemophilia treatment. The AIM was to investigate the expectations for a dance-based exercise therapy for patients with haemophilia and the extent of its acceptance. The one-hour dance-based exercise therapy was offered to 30 haemophilia patients (HI30) (49 ± 11, 30-67 years). For the evaluation of expectations, questionnaires were created and filled out by participants before and after the intervention. Additionally, 19 haemophilia patients (HF) and 20 controls without haemophilia (KF) who did not participate in the intervention were also questioned. The RESULTS show that haemophilia patients have more experience in dance than controls (HI30:62%, HF:74%, KF:45%). In contrast, the proportion of those who are currently dancing is higher in controls without haemophilia (HI30: 17%, HF: 10%, KF:26%). The termination of dance activity in patients with haemophilia who were part of the intervention was mainly due to pain (HI30: 40%, HF: 29%, KF: 0%), whereby controls without intervention terminated the dance activity mainly due to lack of time (HI30: 30%, HF: 57%, KF: 56%). Ultimately, 24 out of 30 patients with haemophilia (HI24) completed the intervention. All HI24 met their expectations. 38% felt limited by haemophilia while carrying out the exercises. The majority of the participants were able to follow the exercises well (96%) and were did not overstrain physically (92%) nor mentally (87%), also 79% did not have pain. 23 of HI24 (96%) can envision a continuation of the dance-based exercise therapy. The experience with the dance-based exercise therapy was predominantly positive. It represents an alternative sports therapy programme for patients with haemophilia. Further studies are needed in order to make statements concerning the long-term use of such training.

  17. Modeling the effects of exercise during 100% oxygen prebreathe on the risk of hypobaric decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, K. C.; Conkin, J.; Powell, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several previous studies indicated that exercise during prebreathe with 100% O2 decreased the incidence of hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS). We report a meta-analysis of these investigations combined with a new study in our laboratory to develop a statistical model as a predictive tool for DCS. HYPOTHESIS: Exercise during prebreathe increases N2 elimination in a theoretical 360-min half-time compartment decreasing the incidence of DCS. METHODS: A dose-response probability tissue ratio (TR) model with 95% confidence limits was created for two groups, prebreathe with exercise (n = 113) and resting prebreathe (n = 113), using nonlinear regression analysis with maximum likelihood optimization. RESULTS: The model predicted that prebreathe exercise would reduce the residual N2 in a 360-min half-time compartment to a level analogous to that in a 180-min compartment. This finding supported the hypothesis. The incidence of DCS for the exercise prebreathe group was significantly decreased (Chi-Square = 17.1, p < 0.0001) from the resting prebreathe group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that exercise during prebreathe increases tissue perfusion and N2 elimination approximately 2-fold and markedly lowers the risk of DCS. Based on the model, the prebreathe duration may be reduced from 240 min to a predicted 91 min for the protocol in our study, but this remains to be verified. The model provides a useful planning tool to develop and test appropriate prebreathe exercise protocols and to predict DCS risks for astronauts.

  18. A Probability Model of Decompression Sickness at 4.3 Psia after Exercise Prebreathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Powell, Michael R.; Pollock, Neal

    2004-01-01

    Exercise PB can reduce the risk of decompression sickness on ascent to 4.3 psia when performed at the proper intensity and duration. Data are from seven tests. PB times ranged from 90 to 150 min. High intensity, short duration dual-cycle ergometry was done during the PB. This was done alone, or combined with intermittent low intensity exercise or periods of rest for the remaining PB. Nonambulating men and women performed light exercise from a semi-recumbent position at 4.3 psia for four hrs. The Research Model with age tested the probability that DCS increases with advancing age. The NASA Model with gender hypothesized that the probability of DCS increases if gender is female. Accounting for exercise and rest during PB with a variable half-time compartment for computed tissue N2 pressure advances our probability modeling of hypobaric DCS. Both models show that a small increase in exercise intensity during PB reduces the risk of DCS, and a larger increase in exercise intensity dramatically reduces risk. These models support the hypothesis that aerobic fitness is an important consideration for the risk of hypobaric DCS when exercise is performed during the PB.

  19. An Evaluation of Antecedent Exercise on Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Using a Three-Component Multiple Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule…

  20. Adaptations to exercise training and contraction-induced muscle injury in animal models of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Abresch, R Ted; Fowler, William M

    2002-11-01

    This article reviews the current status of exercise training and contraction-induced muscle-injury investigations in animal models of muscular dystrophy. Most exercise-training studies have compared the adaptations of normal and dystrophic muscles with exercise. Adaptation of diseased muscle to exercise occurs at many levels, starting with the extracellular matrix, but also involves cytoskeletal architecture, muscle contractility, repair mechanisms, and gene regulation. The majority of exercise-injury investigations have attempted to determine the susceptibility of dystrophin-deficient muscles to contraction-induced injury. There is some evidence in animal models that diseased muscle can adapt and respond to mechanical stress. However, exercise-injury studies show that dystrophic muscles have an increased susceptibility to high mechanical forces. Most of the studies involving exercise training have shown that muscle adaptations in dystrophic animals were qualitatively similar to the adaptations observed in control muscle. Deleterious effects of the dystrophy usually occur only in older animals with advanced muscle fiber degeneration or after high-resistive eccentric training. The main limitations in applying these conclusions to humans are the differences in phenotypic expression between humans and genetically homologous animal models and in the significant biomechanical differences between humans and these animal models.

  1. An exercise intervention to prevent falls in Parkinson’s: an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People with Parkinson’s (PwP) experience frequent and recurrent falls. As these falls may have devastating consequences, there is an urgent need to identify cost-effective interventions with the potential to reduce falls in PwP. The purpose of this economic evaluation is to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of a targeted exercise programme versus usual care for PwP who were at risk of falling. Methods One hundred and thirty participants were recruited through specialist clinics, primary care and Parkinson’s support groups and randomised to either an exercise intervention or usual care. Health and social care utilisation and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) were assessed over the 20 weeks of the study (ten-week intervention period and ten-week follow up period), and these data were complete for 93 participants. Incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) was estimated. The uncertainty around costs and QALYs was represented using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results The mean cost of the intervention was £76 per participant. Although in direction of favour of exercise intervention, there was no statistically significant differences between groups in total healthcare (−£128, 95% CI: -734 to 478), combined health and social care costs (£-35, 95% CI: -817 to 746) or QALYs (0.03, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.03) at 20 weeks. Nevertheless, exploration of the uncertainty surrounding these estimates suggests there is more than 80% probability that the exercise intervention is a cost-effective strategy relative to usual care. Conclusion Whilst we found no difference between groups in total healthcare, total social care cost and QALYs, analyses indicate that there is high probability that the exercise intervention is cost-effective compared with usual care. These results require confirmation by larger trial-based economic evaluations and over the longer term. PMID:23176532

  2. CDER risk assessment exercise to evaluate potential risks from the use of nanomaterials in drug products.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Celia N; Tyner, Katherine M; Velazquez, Lydia; Hyams, Kenneth C; Jacobs, Abigail; Shaw, Arthur B; Jiang, Wenlei; Lionberger, Robert; Hinderling, Peter; Kong, Yoon; Brown, Paul C; Ghosh, Tapash; Strasinger, Caroline; Suarez-Sharp, Sandra; Henry, Don; Van Uitert, Maat; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Morefield, Elaine

    2013-07-01

    The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration was established to assess the possible impact of nanotechnology on drug products. The group is in the process of performing risk assessment and management exercises. The task of the working group is to identify areas where CDER may need to optimize its review practices and to develop standards to ensure review consistency for drug applications that may involve the application of nanotechnology. The working group already performed risk management exercises evaluating the potential risks from administering nanomaterial active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) or nanomaterial excipients by various routes of administration. This publication outlines the risk assessment and management process used by the working group, using nanomaterial API by the oral route of administration as an example.

  3. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of system models and techniques for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness is reported. Topics covered include: analysis of functional dependence: a prototype software package, METAPHOR, developed to aid the evaluation of performability; and a comprehensive performability modeling and evaluation exercise involving the SIFT computer.

  4. Understanding exercise uptake and adherence for people with chronic conditions: a new model demonstrating the importance of exercise identity, benefits of attending and support.

    PubMed

    Pentecost, C; Taket, A

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the factors influencing uptake and adherence to exercise for people with chronic conditions from different ages, genders and ethnicities is important for planning exercise services. This paper presents evidence supporting a new model of exercise uptake and adherence applicable to people with chronic conditions from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds. The study is based on 130 semi-structured interviews with people with chronic conditions, including both those who did and those who did not attend exercise services, and supporters of those who attended. Analysis followed the guidelines of 'framework analysis'. Results show that three factors were particularly important in influencing adherence behavior: (i) exercise identity, (ii) support and (iii) perceived benefits of attending. Social and cultural identities impacted on willingness to exercise, importance of exercise and perceived appropriateness of exercising. Having at least one supporter providing different types of support was associated with high levels of attendance. Those people who valued the social and psychological benefits of attending were more likely to be high attenders. The new model illustrates interaction between these three factors and discusses how these can be taken into account when planning exercise services for people with chronic conditions drawn from diverse socio-demographic groups.

  5. FVB/NJ Mice Are a Useful Model for Examining Cardiac Adaptations to Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Andrew A.; McNally, Lindsey A.; Riggs, Daniel W.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Hill, Bradford G.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are commonly used to examine the mechanisms by which exercise improves cardiometabolic health; however, exercise compliance and adaptations are often strain-dependent or are variable due to inconsistency in exercise training protocols. In this study, we examined nocturnal/diurnal behavior, treadmill exercise compliance, and systemic as well as cardiac-specific exercise adaptations in two commonly used mouse strains, C57BL/6J, and FVB/NJ mice. Metabolic cage analysis indicated a strong nocturnal nature of C57BL/6J mice, whereas FVB/NJ mice showed no circadian element to activity, food or water intake, VO2, or VCO2. Initial exercise capacity tests revealed that, compared with C57BL/6J mice, FVB/NJ mice are capable of achieving nearly 2-fold higher workloads prior to exhaustion. FVB/NJ mice tested during the day were capable of achieving significantly more work compared with their night-tested counterparts. Following 4 weeks of training, FVB/NJ mice showed significant increases in exercise capacity as well as physiologic cardiac growth characterized by enlarged myocytes and higher mitochondrial DNA content. C57BL/6J mice showed no increases in exercise capacity or cardiac growth regardless of whether they exercised during the day or the night. This lack of adaptation in C57BL/6J mice was attributable, at least in part, to their progressive loss of compliance to the treadmill training protocol. We conclude that the FVB/NJ strain is a useful and robust mouse model for examining cardiac adaptations to treadmill exercise and that treadmill training during daytime hours does not negatively affect exercise compliance or capacity. PMID:28066267

  6. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  7. Effectiveness of hamstring knee rehabilitation exercise performed in training machine vs. elastic resistance: electromyography evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Persson, Roger; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine exercise, slightly lower (P < 0.05) normalized EMG values were observed using elastic resistance at 30- to 50-degree knee joint angle for the semitendinosus and the biceps femoris during the concentric and the eccentric phase, respectively. Perceived loading (Borg CR10) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) during hamstring curl performed with elastic resistance (7.58 ± 0.08) compared with hamstring curl performed in a machine (5.92 ± 0.03). Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.

  8. Evaluation of an Exercise Program for Older Adults in a Residential Environment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Juh Hyun

    2016-11-05

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an older-adult exercise program in a senior-living complex campus. A longitudinal one-group design was used. To supply residents with tools to maintain or improve general quality of life, balance, endurance, depression, and functional mobility, the Wellness and Fitness Center at the research setting provided a wide assortment of user-friendly equipment with many options. One fitness director in the selected setting evaluated participants every 6 months with 33 participants using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Repeated ANOVAs identified factors impacting the effects of the exercise program using PROC MIXED SAS 9.0. The improvement or deterioration rate of SFT scores was tested as a time effect in balance, upper body strength, and lower body flexibility. A statistically significant gender effect emerged on the 6-minute walk, which measured aerobic endurance and the chair-sit-and-reach test, which measured lower body flexibility. The 8-foot-up-and-go, arm-curl, chair-stand, and chair-sit-and-reach tests showed statistically significant improvement over time, which means balance, upper body strength, lower body strength, and lower body flexibility improved. Developing customized exercise protocols and using standardized measurement tools should be encouraged to enhance effective research and consistent measurement of exercise programs. © 2016 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  9. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of

  10. Basic Neuron Model Electrical Equivalent Circuit: An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowski, Katie M.; Castaño, Diego J.; Tartar, Jaime L.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise for undergraduate students in which they can build and manipulate a neuron equivalent circuit. This exercise uses electrical circuit components that resemble neuron components and are easy to construct. We describe the methods for creating the equivalent circuit and how to observe different neuron properties through altering the structure of the equivalent circuit. We explain how this hands-on laboratory activity allows for the better understanding of this fundamental neuroscience concept. At the conclusion of this laboratory exercise, undergraduate students will be able to apply the principles of Ohm’s law, cable theory with regards to neurons, and understand the functions of resistance and capacitance in a neuron. PMID:24319391

  11. Basic neuron model electrical equivalent circuit: an undergraduate laboratory exercise.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Katie M; Castaño, Diego J; Tartar, Jaime L

    2013-01-01

    We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise for undergraduate students in which they can build and manipulate a neuron equivalent circuit. This exercise uses electrical circuit components that resemble neuron components and are easy to construct. We describe the methods for creating the equivalent circuit and how to observe different neuron properties through altering the structure of the equivalent circuit. We explain how this hands-on laboratory activity allows for the better understanding of this fundamental neuroscience concept. At the conclusion of this laboratory exercise, undergraduate students will be able to apply the principles of Ohm's law, cable theory with regards to neurons, and understand the functions of resistance and capacitance in a neuron.

  12. Aging is not a barrier to muscle and redox adaptations: applying the repeated eccentric exercise model.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Spanou, Chrysa; Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-08-01

    Despite the progress of analytic techniques and the refinement of study designs, striking disagreement exists among studies regarding the influence of exercise on muscle function and redox homeostasis in the elderly. The repeated eccentric exercise model was applied to produce long-lasting and extensive changes in redox biomarkers and to reveal more effectively the potential effects of aging on redox homeostasis. Ten young (20.6±0.5 years) and ten elderly men (64.6±1.1 years) underwent an isokinetic eccentric exercise session, which was repeated after three weeks. Muscle function/damage indices (torque, range of movement, muscle soreness and creatine kinase) and redox biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, uric acid, bilirubin and albumin) were assessed in plasma, erythrocytes or urine pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and at 2 and 4 days post-exercise. As expected, the elderly group exhibited oxidative stress in baseline compared to the young group. Extensive muscle damage and extensive alterations in redox homeostasis appeared after the first bout of eccentric exercise. Noteworthy, the redox responses were similar between the age groups despite their differences in baseline values. Likewise, both age groups demonstrated blunted alterations in muscle damage and redox homeostasis after the second bout of eccentric exercise indicating adaptations from the first bout of exercise. Elderly individuals seem to be well fitted to participate in demanding physical activities without suffering detrimental effects on skeletal muscle and/or disturbances on redox homeostasis. The repeated eccentric exercise model may be a useful and practical physiological tool to study redox biology in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  14. Evaluating Causal Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.

    Pointing out that linear causal models can organize the interrelationships of a large number of variables, this paper contends that such models are particularly useful to mass communication research, which must by necessity deal with complex systems of variables. The paper first outlines briefly the philosophical requirements for establishing a…

  15. Landscape - Soilscape Modelling: Proposed framework for a model comparison benchmarking exercise, who wants to join?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoorl, Jeroen M.; Jetten, Victor G.; Coulthard, Thomas J.; Hancock, Greg R.; Renschler, Chris S.; Irvine, Brian J.; Cerdan, Olivier; Kirkby, Mike J.; (A) Veldkamp, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Current landscape - soilscape modelling frameworks are developed under a wide range of spatial and temporal resolutions and extents, from the so called event-based models, soil erosion models to the landscape evolution models. In addition, these models are based on different assumptions, include variable and different processes descriptions and produce different outcomes. Consequently, the models often need specific input data and their development and calibration is best linked to a specific area and local conditions. Model validation is often limited and restricted to the shorter time scales and single events. A first workshop on catchment based modelling (6 event based models were challenged then) was organised in the late 90's and the results lead to some excellent discussions on predictive modelling, equifinality and a special issue in Catena. It is time for a similar exercise: new models have been made, older models have been updated, and judging from literature there is a lot more experience in calibration/validation and reflections on processes observed in the field and how these should be simulated. In addition there are new data sources, such as high resolution remote sensing (including DEMs), new pattern analysis, comparison techniques and continuous developments and results in dating sediment archives and erosion rates. The main goal of this renewed exercise will be to come up with a benchmarking methodology for comparing and judging model behaviour including the issues of upscaling and downscaling of results. Model comparison may lead to the development of new research questions and lead to a firmer understanding of different models performance under different circumstances.

  16. An evaluation of antecedent exercise on behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement using a three-component multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule sequences: an antecedent-exercise test sequence, a noncontingent leisure-item control sequence, and a social-interaction control sequence. Within each sequence, we used a 3-component multiple schedule to evaluate preintervention, intervention, and postintervention effects. Problem behavior decreased during the postintervention component relative to the preintervention component for 3 of the 4 participants during the exercise-item assessment; however, the effects could not be attributed solely to exercise for 1 of these participants.

  17. Evaluation of left ventricular performance during supine exercise by transoesophageal M-mode echocardiography in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, M; Hanrath, P; Kremer, P; Tams, C; Langenstein, B A; Schlüter, M; Weiter, R; Bleifeld, W

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate left ventricular function during dynamic exercise transoesophageal M-mode recordings of the left ventricle were carried out with a newly developed transducer gastroscope system. Twelve healthy subjects performed a graded supine bicycle exercise test. Stable and good quality images of the left ventricle at rest and during exercise at different steps up to a maximum workload of 100 watts were obtained in all patients. Isotonic maximum exercise resulted in a significant increase in fractional shortening of the left ventricle, peak shortening rate, and peak lengthening rate of the left ventricular minor axis. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension decreased significantly. With increasing workload the pressure rate product increased significantly. It is concluded that transoesophageal M-mode echocardiography is a useful method of evaluating left ventricular performance during dynamic exercise. Images PMID:7082515

  18. The role of exercise testing in the evaluation and management of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D; Tan, L

    1999-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of heart failure has been investigated so extensively that it may now almost be regarded as a metabolic disorder. Although an initial insult reduces cardiac pump efficacy, the resultant physiological response culminates in complex neurohormonal dysfunction. This has created confusion and prevented the acceptance of a universal definition of cardiac failure. With much current research concentrating on the pharmacological modification of neuro-endocrine imbalance, it is easy to lose sight of the fundamental principles behind heart failure management, namely, to improve cardiac function. In attempting to achieve this, the issues of morbidity and mortality must be addressed jointly; they are not mutually exclusive entities. Discrepant results between mortality studies and changes in exercise capacity have undermined the value of exercise testing. Because a treatment enhances longevity we should not ignore its effect on symptomatic status, and likewise we should not discard a therapy, which improves function because adverse events result in occasional premature deaths. Informed patient choice must exist.
Historically, exercise testing has been quintessential in our understanding and evaluation of heart failure. Peak oxygen consumption remains the best overall indicator of symptomatic status, exercise capacity, prognosis and hospitalisation. Unfortunately, muddling of surrogate and true end-points has confused many of these issues. Improved comprehension may be gained by applying the concept of cardiac reserve which has been described in a variety of heart conditions and used in cardiac failure patients to provide an indication of prognosis and functional capacity.


Keywords: exercise testing; heart failure PMID:10646020

  19. Evaluation of an exercise-based treatment for children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, David; Nicolson, Roderick I; Hambly, Helen

    2003-02-01

    An evaluation is reported of an exercise-based approach to remediation of dyslexia-related disorders. Pupils in three years of a Warwickshire junior school were screened for risk of literacy difficulty using the Dyslexia Screening Test (DST). The 35 children scoring 0.4 or over on the DST were divided randomly into two groups matched for age and DST score. One quarter of the participants had an existing diagnosis of dyslexia, dyspraxia or ADHD. Both groups received the same treatment at school but the intervention group used the DDAT exercise programme daily at home. Performance on the DST and specialist cerebellar/vestibular and eye movement tests were assessed initially and after six months. Cerebellar/vestibular signs were substantially alleviated following the exercise treatment whereas there were no significant changes for the control group. Even after allowing for the passage of time, there were significant improvements for the intervention group in postural stability, dexterity, phonological skill, and (one-tailed) for naming fluency and semantic fluency. Reading fluency showed a highly significant improvement for the intervention group, and nonsense passage reading was also improved significantly. Significantly greater improvements for the intervention group than the control group occurred for dexterity, reading, verbal fluency and semantic fluency. Substantial and significant improvements (compared with those in the previous year) also occurred for the exercise group on national standardized tests of reading, writing and comprehension. It is concluded that, in addition to its direct effects on balance, dexterity and eye movement control, the benefits of the DDAT exercise treatment transferred significantly to cognitive skills underlying literacy, to the reading process, and to standardized national literacy attainment tests.

  20. Feasibility of Doppler hemodynamic evaluation of primary and secondary mitral regurgitation during exercise echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Coisne, Augustin; Levy, Franck; Malaquin, Dorothée; Richardson, Marjorie; Quéré, Jean Paul; Montaigne, David; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Exercise transthoracic echocardiography (ExE) was recently proposed to evaluate tolerance and help risk stratification of mitral regurgitation (MR). Few data are available on the feasibility of Doppler echocardiographic recordings at exercise in daily practice in both secondary and primary MR. Comprehensive resting and ExE were performed in 72 unselected patients (age 59 ± 15 years, 62 % men), with no or minimal symptoms, with at least moderate (mean effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) = 36 ± 14 mm(2)) primary or secondary MR in two French university hospitals. At rest, quantification of ERO was more challenging in semi-supine position than in classic left lateral decubitus position (55/72; 76 % vs 66/72; 92 %; p = 0.012), particularly in mitral valve (MV) prolapse (35/47; 74 %). During exercise, ERO was only obtained in 30/55 (55 %) patients and was more difficult to assess in MV prolapse than in rheumatic or ischemic MR (respectively in 43, 67 and 88 %, p = 0.046). At peak exercise, ERO was more frequently obtained in symptomatic than asymptomatic patients (77 vs 37 %, p = 0.046) because peak heart rate was lower (113 ± 20 vs 133 ± 23 bpm, p = 0.026). Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) was obtained in 69 patients (96 %) at rest and in 60 patients (83 %) at peak exercise (Pex). LV contractile reserve (CR), monitored in all patients (100 %), was found in 51/72 patients (71 %). In daily ExE, monitoring of the CR and SPAP appeared less challenging than MR quantification by the PISA method. Monitoring of ERO was more feasible in ischemic MR than in MV prolapse.

  1. Model Program Evaluations. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2002

    2002-01-01

    There are probably thousands of programs and courses intended to prevent or reduce violence in this nation's schools. Evaluating these many programs has become a problem or goal in itself. There are now many evaluation programs, with many levels of designations, such as model, promising, best practice, exemplary and noteworthy. "Model program" is…

  2. Use of the varying coefficient model in an exercise and depression meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2012-06-26

    Use a recently developed varying coefficient model to determine the effects of exercise in adults with depression. Data from a recent meta-analysis addressing the effects of exercise on depression in adults were used. Studies were limited to randomized controlled intervention trials of any type of chronic exercise (for example, walking and jogging) in adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age with a diagnosis of depression. For each study, the standardized mean difference (exercise minus control) effect size for depression, adjusted for small-sample bias, was calculated. Variance statistics for each effect size and pooling of results were calculated using the recently proposed varying coefficient (VC) model for standardized mean differences. Standardized effect-sizes of 0.20, 0.50 and 0.80 were considered to represent small, medium and large effects. Results were considered statistically significant if the 95% confidence intervals did not cross 0, with negative results indicative of reductions in depression. These findings were then compared with results using traditional random-effects (RE) models. A total of 23 studies representing 907 men and women (476 exercise, 431 control) were pooled for analysis. Both RE and VC models resulted in large, statistically significant improvements in depression as a result of exercise in adults. However, the VC model resulted in a larger overall effect size as well as confidence intervals that were narrower than previously reported using the RE model. The overall mean effect size for the RE model was -0.82 with a 95% confidence interval of -1.12 to -0.51. For the VC model, overall mean effect size was -0.88 with a 95% confidence interval of -1.08 to -0.68. The relative difference between the RE and VC approaches was 7.3%. The VC model, a potentially preferable model, confirms the positive effects of exercise on depression in adults.

  3. Improving the psychological evaluation of exercise referral: Psychometric properties of the Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Charlotte; Trigg, Richard; Minniti, Antoinette

    2015-07-01

    There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral.

  4. Improving the psychological evaluation of exercise referral: Psychometric properties of the Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, Richard; Minniti, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral. PMID:28070361

  5. Multiple Time Scale Models in Sport and Exercise Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel M.; Walls, Theodore A.

    2016-01-01

    In sport and exercise research, examining both within- and between-individual variation is crucial. The ability to investigate change both within competitive events and across a competitive season is a priority for many sport researchers. The aim of this article is to demonstrate an approach to analyzing intensive longitudinal data collected…

  6. Multiple Time Scale Models in Sport and Exercise Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel M.; Walls, Theodore A.

    2016-01-01

    In sport and exercise research, examining both within- and between-individual variation is crucial. The ability to investigate change both within competitive events and across a competitive season is a priority for many sport researchers. The aim of this article is to demonstrate an approach to analyzing intensive longitudinal data collected…

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of home based or hospital based calisthenic exercises in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Teoman; Taşpınar, Özgür; Sarıyıldız, M Akif; Güneşer, Meryem; Keskin, Yasar; Canbaz, Nurayet; Gök, Murat; Camli, Adil; Kiziltan, Huriye; Eris, Ali H

    2016-11-21

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of calisthenic exercises on functionality, mobility, disaese activity, quality of life, and psychological status in patients with Ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Prospective analysis of forty patients diagnosed with AS were randomized into two exercise groups. AS patients having diagnosis based on 1984-modified New York criteria were involved. Patients were given 8 weeks calisthenic exercise program. Outcome measures including the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI), AS Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL), Bath AS Patient Global Score (BAS-G) Hospital Anxiety Depression Score (HADS), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were assessed at the baseline and at 8 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the exercise programme. After the 8-week exercise programme, the home-based exercise group showed significant improvement in ESR levels and hospital-based exercise group showed significant improvements in terms of the BASMI and HADS-A scores. Calisthenic exercises can be easily performed both at home and in hospital setting. In patients with AS, calisthenic exercises performed at the hospital may improve the mobility, and psychological status (anxiety).

  8. COMPARING MODEL RESULTS TO NATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY GOALS: RESULTS FROM THE ASIA MODELING EXERCISE

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Jiang, Kejun

    2012-12-01

    While the world has yet to adopt a single unified policy to limit climate change, many countries and regions have adopted energy and climate policies that have implications for global emissions. In this paper, we discuss a few key policies and how they are included in a set of 24 energy and integrated assessment models that participated in the Asia Modeling Exercise. We also compare results from these models for a small set of stylized scenarios to the pledges made as part of the Copenhagen Accord and the goals stated by the Major Economies Forum. We find that the targets outlined by the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Korea require significant policy action in most of the models analyzed. For most of the models in the study, however, the goals outlined by India are met without any climate policy. The stringency of climate policy required to meet China’s Copenhagen pledges varies across models and accounting methodologies.

  9. Preoperative evaluation of patients submitted to pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma: role of exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Villani, Fabrizio; Busia, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate which parameters of preoperative spirometry, arterial blood gas, radionuclide lung scanning and cardiopulmonary exercise test are the best predictor of postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients submitted to pneumonectomy. The study was conducted in 150 patients (mean age, 57.1). Forty-four patients (29.3%) had postoperative complications. Four patients (2.7%) died within one month of the pneumonectomy. Patients with complications had significantly lower ppoFEV1 as percentage of predicted and lower VO2 max, and those who died also had a significant decrease in PaO2 during exercise. Moreover, among patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (FEV1<70% of predicted), we found a significantly higher percentage predicted residual volume and a significantly lower VO2 max in complicated patients. The present data support the suggestion that exercise testing could be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of postoperative risk for pneumonectomy, especially in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. In particular, patients with VO2 max <50% of predicted should be considered at high risk of morbidity from cardiopulmonary causes.

  10. Evaluation of Muscle Activities in Human Forearms under Exercises by Diffuse Optical Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Yukari; Gao, Feng; Miyakawa, Michio; Kiryu, Toru; Kizuka, Tomohiro; Endo, Yasuomi; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio

    During the forearm exercise, it is generally understood that the inner muscles work for the task, and the outer muscles work to fix the joints for the efficient work of the inner muscles. For evaluation of the exercise, quantitative measurement of inner muscle activities is necessary. Electromyograph (EMG) and oxygen monitoring using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) have been used for the evaluation because both of them are the modalities of safe, portable and noninvasive measurements of muscle activities. However, these modalities can show the qualitative changes in the muscle activities in the vicinity of the skin surface. Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography (TR-DOT) can quantitatively provide tomographic images of the changes in the oxygenation state of the whole muscles. In vivo experiments of TR-DOT were performed for human forearms under handgrip exercises, and DOT images of the changes in the oxygenation state of the forearms were reconstructed using the algorithm based on the modified generalized pulsed spectrum technique. The DOT images are compared with the MR-images, and it is shown that the activities of the inner muscles of the forearms were active during the handgrip excises.

  11. [Evaluation of a structured program of physical exercise in morbidly obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Ortega, Laura; Sánchez Juan, Carlos; García, Antonio Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease whose prevalence is increasing up to be considered a real epidemic. In the case of morbid obesity, in many cases required to resort to surgery to achieve adequate weight reduction and improvement of comorbidities. There are, however, few studies have evaluated the influence of a structured program of physical exercise in these patients before surgery. To evaluate the influence of a structured program of physical exercise in morbidly obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Prospective intervention study in 10 patients (6 women and 4 men) morbidly obese bariatric surgery pending of 47.1 ± 4.6 years. Structured exercise program for 2 months (16 sessions) along with "food education". It was assessed before and after intervention anthropometric and body composition by bioelectrical impedance, fitness, food habits survey, physical activity, quality of life and satisfaction with the program. Weight loss achieved after the program was 5.17 ± 4.01 kg and BMI of 1.77. There was also a favorable change in body composition with 1.77% increase of muscle mass and decrease of 2.83% and 1.43% in total fat mass and visceral, respectively. The distance traveled as an expression of the physical condition of the subjects improved significantly going from 586.72 ± 82.8 m to 625.59 ± 78.2 m. No significant differences in the assessment of quality of life, adherence to the program was 75% and the degree of satisfaction with it was very high. A structured program of physical exercise in morbidly obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery helps in reducing weight and improving body composition while increasing fitness and is well accepted by patients, so it can be a part of the multidisciplinary approach to this disease.

  12. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation to exercise training in a novel model of physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Al-Asoom, L I; Al-Shaikh, B A; Bamosa, A O; El-Bahai, M N

    2014-09-01

    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapy to patients with heart failure due to its multiple beneficial cardiac effects including physiological remodeling of the heart. However, precautions might be taken for the concomitant high oxidant release. Nigella sativa (NS) has been found to induce cardiac hypertrophy and enhance cardiac function. Combination of NS supplementation and exercise training might induce a safer model of cardiac hypertrophy. Our aim was to study biomarkers associated with cardiac hypertrophy induced by NS supplementation of exercise-trained rats. Forty-five adult male Wistar rats (body weight 150-220 g) were divided equally into three groups: control, exercise-trained (ET) and NS-treated-exercise-trained (NSET) groups. Daily 800 mg/kg NS was administered orally to NSET group for 8 weeks. Rats of the ET and NSET groups were subjected to treadmill running sessions for 2 h/day for 8 weeks. By the end of the experiment, the following were recorded: body, heart and left ventricular weights (BW, HW, LVW), cardiomyocyte diameter, serum growth hormone, insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid hormones, catecholamines, total nitrate, ICAM and antioxidant capacity. A homogenous cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced by increased HW/BW, LVW/BW ratios and cardiomyocyte diameter in the two groups of exercise-trained compared with control rats. Rats of ET group had higher growth hormone. Those of NSET group developed higher IGF-I and total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower serum thyroxin level. Simultaneous NS supplementation to an exercise training program preserves and augments exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy with step-forward adaptive signs of increased IGF-I and reduced thyroxin level, and with an added advantage of elevation of total serum antioxidant capacity. Thus, the novel model of NSET-induced cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heart failure with superior

  13. Squat Biomechanical Modeling Results from Exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data is also obtained using free weights for a comparison to the resistively loaded exercise device. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the body loads. The focus of this presentation is to summarize the results from the full squat exercises

  14. Role of the cardio-pulmonary exercise test and six-minute walking test in the evaluation of exercise performance in patients with late-onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Crescimanno, G; Modica, R; Lo Mauro, R; Musumeci, O; Toscano, A; Marrone, O

    2015-07-01

    In patients with late-onset Pompe disease, we explored the role of the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) and the Six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT) in the assessment of exercise capacity and in the evaluation of the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Eight patients affected by late-onset Pompe disease, followed up at the Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases and treated with ERT, underwent a baseline evaluation with a spirometry, a CPET and a 6MWT. Four of them were restudied after 36 months of treatment. Three patients showed a reduction in exercise capacity as evaluated by peak oxygen uptake (VO2) measured at the CPET and Distance Walked (DW) measured at the 6MWT (median % predicted: 67.1 [range 54.3-99.6] and 67.3 [56.6-82.6], respectively). Cardiac and respiratory limitations revealed by the CPET were correlated to peak VO2, but not to the DW. Nevertheless, percent of predicted values of peak VO2 and DW were strongly correlated (rho = 0.85, p = 0.006), and close to identity. In the longitudinal evaluation forced vital capacity decreased, while peak VO2 and DW showed a trend to a parallel improvement. We concluded that although only the CPET revealed causes of exercise limitation, which partially differed among patients, CPET and 6MWT showed a similar overall degree of exercise impairment. That held true in the longitudinal assessment during ERT, where both tests demonstrated similar small improvements, occurring despite deterioration in forced vital capacity.

  15. Exercise and Nutritional Benefits in PD: Rodent Models and Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise offers a highly effective health-endowering activity as has been evidence using rodent models of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is a particularly useful intervention in individuals employed in sedentary occupations or afflicted by a neurodegenerative disorder, such as PD. The several links between exercise and quality-of-life, disorder progression and staging, risk factors and symptoms-biomarkers in PD all endower a promise for improved prognosis. Nutrition provides a strong determinant for disorder vulnerability and prognosis with fish oils and vegetables with a mediterranean diet offering both protection and resistance. Three factors determining the effects of exercise on disorder severity of patients may be presented: (i) Exercise effects upon motor impairment, gait, posture and balance, (ii) Exercise reduction of oxidative stress, stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and up-regulation of autophagy, and (iii) Exercise stimulation of dopamine (DA) neurochemistry and trophic factors. Running-wheel performance, as measured by distance run by individual mice from different treatment groups, was related to DA-integrity, indexed by striatal DA levels. Finally, both nutrition and exercise may facilitate positive epigenetic outcomes, such as lowering the dosage of L-Dopa required for a therapeutic effect.

  16. Modeling heat exchange characteristics of long term space operations: Role of skin wettedness and exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of heat exchange during rest and exercise during long term space operations are covered in this report. Particular attention is given to the modeling and description of the consequences of requirement to exercise in a zero-g atmosphere during Space Shuttle flights, especially long term ones. In space environments, there exists no free convection therefore only forced convection occurring by movement, such as pedalling on a cycle ergometer, augments required heat dissipation necessary to regulate body temperature. The requirement to exercise at discrete periods of the day is good practice in order to resist the deleterious consequences of zero-gravity problems and improve distribution of body fluids. However, during exercise (ca. 180 to 250W), in zero-g environments, the mass of eccrine sweating rests as sheets on the skin surface and the sweat cannot evaporate readily. The use of exercise suits with fabrics that have hydrophobic or outwicking properties somewhat distributes the mass of sweat to a larger surface from which to evaporate. However, with no free convection, increased skin wettedness throughout the body surface induces increasing thermal discomfort, particularly during continuous exercise. This report presents several alternatives to aid in this problem: use of intermittent exercise, methods to quantify local skin wettedness, and introduction of a new effective temperature that integrates thermal stress and heat exchange avenues in a zero-g atmosphere.

  17. The Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Oocyte Quality in a Diet-Induced Obese Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie; Thompson, Alysha; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity negatively affects many aspects of the human body, including reproductive function. In females, the root of the decline in fertility is linked to problems in the oocyte. Problems seen in oocytes that positively correlate with increasing BMI include changes to the metabolism, lipid accumulation, meiosis, and metaphase II (MII) spindle structure. Studies in mice indicate dietary interventions fail to reverse these problems [4]. How exercise affects the oocytes has not been addressed. Therefore, we hypothesized an exercise intervention would improve oocyte quality. Here we show in a mouse model of an exercise intervention can improve lipid metabolism in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. Oocytes significantly increased activity and transcription of the β-oxidation enzyme Hadha (Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase) in response to exercise training only if the mice had been fed a high fat diet (HFD). An exercise intervention also reversed the lipid accumulation seen in GV stage oocytes of HFD females. However, delays in meiosis and disorganized MII spindles remained present. Therefore, exercise is able to improve, but not reverse, damage imparted on oocytes as a result of a high fat diet and obesity. By utilizing an exercise intervention on a HFD, we determined only lipid content and lipid metabolism is changed in GV oocytes. Moving forward, interventions to improve oocyte quality may need to be more targeted to the oocyte specifically. Because of the HFD induced deficiency in β-oxidation, dietary supplementation with substrates to improve lipid utilization may be more beneficial. PMID:26700938

  18. Efficacy of green tea extract in two exercise models.

    PubMed

    Novozhilov, A V; Tavrovskaya, T V; Voitenko, N G; Maslova, M N; Goncharov, N V; Morozov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Oral administration of green tea extract in a dose of 6 mg/kg twice a day (before and after exercise) over 2 weeks significantly increased swimming times on week 1 and 2 in comparison with control animals receiving water. The 7-day and final exhaustive running in rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in spleen weight and iron serum levels associated with developed reticulocytosis. Administration of green tea extract in a dose of 12 mg/kg once a day (before exercise) for 2 weeks did not affect the duration of the running, but prevented the decrease in serum iron and spleen weight, that, along with a significantly increased concentration of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes, can indicate a normalizing effect of green tea extract on hemopoiesis and stimulating effect on the antioxidant system of erythrocytes.

  19. Guiding research and practice: a conceptual model for aerobic exercise training in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fang Yu

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a global, epidemic problem affecting mainly older adults with tremendous social and financial burdens. Older adults with Alzheimer's disease showed reduced physical activity and cognitive changes that are probably amenable to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to guide future aerobic exercise research and practice by synthesizing the current state of the science on aerobic exercise training in older adults with AD. The literature review found 12 qualified studies that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review and revealed six constructs (aerobic exercise training, physical fitness, physical performance, activities of daily living limitations, cognition, and psychological and behavioral symptoms), which composed the Functional Impact of aerobic exercise Training in Alzheimer's disease (FIT-AD) model. The state of science on each construct in older adults with Alzheimer's disease is reviewed and summarized. The emerging evidence suggests that aerobic exercise training might positively impacts all five other constructs. The implications of the FIT-AD model for future research and practice are discussed highlighted.

  20. Using stochastic models to incorporate spatial and temporal variability [Exercise 14

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Rudy M. King; Fred Van Dyke

    2003-01-01

    To this point, our analysis of population processes and viability in the western prairie fringed orchid has used only deterministic models. In this exercise, we conduct a similar analysis, using a stochastic model instead. This distinction is of great importance to population biology in general and to conservation biology in particular. In deterministic models,...

  1. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

  2. Proposing a standardized method for evaluating patient report of the intensity of dyspnea during exercise testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hareendran, Asha; Leidy, Nancy K; Monz, Brigitta U; Winnette, Randall; Becker, Karin; Mahler, Donald A

    2012-01-01

    Measuring dyspnea intensity associated with exercise provides insights into dyspnea-limited exercise capacity, and has been used to evaluate treatment outcomes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Three patient-reported outcome scales commonly cited for rating dyspnea during exercise are the modified Borg scale (MBS), numerical rating scale for dyspnea (NRS-D), and visual analogue scale for dyspnea (VAS-D). Various versions of each scale were found. Our objective was to evaluate the content validity of scales commonly used in COPD studies, to explore their ability to capture patients' experiences of dyspnea during exercise, and to evaluate a standardized version of the MBS. A two-stage procedure was used, with each stage involving one-on-one interviews with COPD patients who had recently completed a clinic-based exercise event on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. An open-ended elicitation interview technique was used to understand patients' experiences of exercise-induced dyspnea, followed by patients completing the three scales. The cognitive interviewing component of the study involved specific questions to evaluate the patients' perspectives of the content and format of the scales. Results from Stage 1 were used to develop a standardized version of the MBS, which was then subjected to further content validity assessment during Stage 2. Thirteen patients participated in the two-stage process (n = 6; n = 7). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) percent predicted was 40%, mean age 57 years, and 54% were male. Participants used a variety of terms to describe the intensity and variability of exercise-induced dyspnea. Subjects understood the instructions and format of the standardized MBS, and were able to easily select a response to report the level of dyspnea associated with their recent standardized exercise. This study provides initial evidence in support of using a standardized version of the MBS version for quantifying dyspnea intensity

  3. Analysis of Regional Budgets of Sulfur Species Modeled for the COSAM Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Roelofs, G.-J.; Kasibhatla, P.; Barrie, Leonard A.; Bergmann, D.; Bridgeman, C.; Chin, M.; Christensen, J.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, J.; Jeuken, A.; Kjellstrom, E.; Koch, D.; Land, C.; Lohmann, U.; Rasch, P.

    2001-11-01

    The COSAM intercomparison exercise (comparison of large-scale sulfur models) was organized to compare and evaluate the performance of global sulfur cycle models. Eleven models participated, and from these models the simulated surface concentrations, vertical profiles and budget terms were submitted. This study focuses on simulated budget terms for the sources and sinks of SO2 and sulfate in three polluted regions in the Northern Hemisphere, i.e., eastern North America, Europe, and Southeast Asia. Qualitatively, features of the sulfur cycle are modeled quite consistently between models, such as the relative importance of dry deposition as a removal mechanism for SO2, the important of aqueous phase oxidation over gas phase oxidation for SO2, and the importance of wet over dry deposition for removal of sulfate aerosol. Quantitatively, however, models may show large differences, especially for cloud-related processes, i.e., aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 and sulfate wet deposition. In some cases a specific behavior can be related to the treatment of oxidants for aqueous phase SO2 oxidation, or the vertical resolution applied in models. Generally, however, the differences between models appear to be related to simulated cloud (micro-)physics and distributions, whereas differences in vertical transport efficiencies related to convection play an additional role. The estimated sulfur column burdens, lifetimes and export budgets vary between models by about a factor of 2 or 3. It can be expected that uncertainties in related effects which are derived from global sulfur model calculations, such as direct and indirect climate forcing estimates by sulfate aerosol, are at least of similar magnitude.

  4. Prognostic value of exercise thallium-201 imaging in patients presenting for evaluation of chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Guiney, T.E.; Newell, J.B.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Accurate prognostic information is important in determining optimal management of patients presenting for evaluation of chest pain. In this study, the ability of exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging to predict future cardiac events (cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction) was correlated with clinical, coronary and left ventricular angiographic and exercise electrocardiographic data in 139 consecutive, nonsurgically managed patients followed-up over a 3 to 5 year period (mean follow-up, 3.7 +/- 0.9), using a logistic regression analysis. Among patients without prior myocardial infarction (100 of 139), the number of myocardial segments with transient thallium-201 defects was the only statistically significant predictor of future cardiac events when all patient variables were evaluated. Among patients with myocardial infarction before evaluation (39 of 139), angiographic ejection fraction was the only significant predictor of future cardiac events when all variables were considered. This study suggests an approach to evaluate the risk of future cardiac events in patients with possible ischemic heart disease.

  5. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Ke, Zheng; Yip, Shea Ping; Li, Le; Zheng, Xiao-Xiang; Tong, Kai-Yu

    2011-02-08

    Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES) have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con), Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex), Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex), and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex) with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less corticosterone stress response than other groups. The results also suggested that the

  6. Development and evaluation of a treadmill-based exercise tolerance test in cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Barton, Stephanie; Bigej-Cerqua, Janet; Mims, Lisa; Molden, Jennifer; Anderson, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation exercise prescriptions should be based on exercise stress tests; however, limitations in performing stress tests in this setting typically force reliance on subjective measures like the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI). We developed and evaluated a treadmill-based exercise tolerance test (ETT) to provide objective physiologic measures without requiring additional equipment or insurance charges. The ETT is stopped when the patient's Borg scale rating of perceived exertion (RPE) reaches 15 or when any sign/symptom indicates risk of an adverse event. Outcomes of the study included reasons for stopping; maximum heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate pressure product; and adverse events. We tested equivalence to the DASI as requiring the 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between DASI and ETT metabolic equivalents (METs) to fall within the range (–1, 1). Among 502 consecutive cardiac rehabilitation patients, one suffered a panic attack; no other adverse events occurred. Most (80%) stopped because they reached an RPE of 15; the remaining 20% were stopped on indications that continuing risked an adverse event. Mean maximum systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product were significantly (P < 0.001) below thresholds of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Two patients’ heart rates exceeded 150 beats per minute, but their rate pressure products remained below 36,000. The mean difference between DASI and ETT METs was −0.8 (−0.98, −0.65), indicating equivalence at our threshold. In conclusion, the ETT can be performed within cardiac rehabilitation, providing a functional capacity assessment equivalent to the DASI and objective physiologic measures for developing exercise prescriptions and measuring progress. PMID:23814381

  7. Computational Modeling Using OpenSim to Simulate a Squat Exercise Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, C. A.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Humphreys, B. T.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. H.; Weaver, A. S.; Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2015-01-01

    Long duration space travel to destinations such as Mars or an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Astronauts will use an exercise regime for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Since the area available in the spacecraft for an exercise device is limited and gravity is not present to aid loading, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. Since it is difficult to rigorously test these proposed devices in space flight, computational modeling provides an estimation of the muscle forces, joint torques and joint loads during exercise to gain insight on the efficacy to protect the musculoskeletal health of astronauts.

  8. An exercise regimen prevents development paclitaxel induced peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sangri; Hoke, Ahmet

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a major, dose-limiting complication of many chemotherapeutic agents. Currently there is no effective method to prevent development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Recent studies have shown that exercise can improve regeneration of peripheral nerves but its effect in preventing peripheral neuropathy is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of a rigorous treadmill exercise program that was started 1 week before administration of paclitaxel and continued throughout the study in a mouse model of CIPN. We showed that exercise can partially abrogate features of axonal degeneration induced by paclitaxel including reduction in epidermal nerve fiber density in the plantar hind paw and thermal hypoalgesia. Furthermore, detyrosinated tubulin that is elevated in nerves treated with paclitaxel was normal in exercised animals. This study points to a relatively simple and potentially effective therapeutic option to reduce the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  9. Science Process Evaluation Model. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Larry

    The goal of this monograph is to explain the evaluation program designed by Schaumburg Community Consolidated District 54, Schaumberg, Illinois. It discusses the process used in the development of the model, the product, the implication for classroom teachers and the effects of using an evaluation to assess science process skills. The process…

  10. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lee W; Antonelli, Jodi; Masko, Elizabeth M; Broadwater, Gloria; Lascola, Christopher D; Fels, Diane; Dewhirst, Mark W; Dyck, Jason R B; Nagendran, Jeevan; Flores, Catherine T; Betof, Allison S; Nelson, Erik R; Pollak, Michael; Dash, Rajesh C; Young, Martin E; Freedland, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6-8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 10(5)) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study. Four mice per group were serially killed on days 14, 31, and 36; the remaining 38 mice (exercise, n = 18; control, n = 20) were killed on day 53. Before death, MRI was performed to assess tumor blood perfusion. Primary tumor growth rate was comparable between groups, but expression of prometastatic genes was significantly modulated in exercising animals with a shift toward reduced metastasis. Exercise was associated with increased activity of protein kinases within the MEK/MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling cascades with subsequent increased intratumoral protein levels of HIF-1α and VEGF. This was associated with improved tumor vascularization. Multiplex ELISAs revealed distinct reductions in plasma concentrations of several angiogenic cytokines in the exercise group, which was associated with increased expression of angiogenic and metabolic genes in the skeletal muscle. Exercise-induced stabilization of HIF-1α and subsequent upregulation of VEGF was associated with "productive" tumor vascularization with a shift toward suppressed metastasis in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer.

  11. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Jodi; Masko, Elizabeth M.; Broadwater, Gloria; Lascola, Christopher D.; Fels, Diane; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Nagendran, Jeevan; Flores, Catherine T.; Betof, Allison S.; Nelson, Erik R.; Pollak, Michael; Dash, Rajesh C.; Young, Martin E.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6–8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 105) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study. Four mice per group were serially killed on days 14, 31, and 36; the remaining 38 mice (exercise, n = 18; control, n = 20) were killed on day 53. Before death, MRI was performed to assess tumor blood perfusion. Primary tumor growth rate was comparable between groups, but expression of prometastatic genes was significantly modulated in exercising animals with a shift toward reduced metastasis. Exercise was associated with increased activity of protein kinases within the MEK/MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling cascades with subsequent increased intratumoral protein levels of HIF-1α and VEGF. This was associated with improved tumor vascularization. Multiplex ELISAs revealed distinct reductions in plasma concentrations of several angiogenic cytokines in the exercise group, which was associated with increased expression of angiogenic and metabolic genes in the skeletal muscle. Exercise-induced stabilization of HIF-1α and subsequent upregulation of VEGF was associated with “productive” tumor vascularization with a shift toward suppressed metastasis in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer. PMID:22604887

  12. The Education and Evaluation of Vitamin Consumption Effects on Stress Markers Oxidative after Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Cemil Tugrulhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate the effect of 4-week vitamin C and E supplementation on the markers of oxidative stress after exercise session in students. 30 non-athlete persons (25.21 ± 1.5 years, 173.42 ± 5.62 cm, 75.6±5.75 kg, VO[subscript 2] max of 42.26 ± 1.11 ml/kg/min, and waist-hip ratio of 0.91 ±0.02 cm) volunteered for the…

  13. Relationships between personality, an extended theory of planned behaviour model and exercise behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Courneya, Kerry S

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the theory of planned behaviour's (TPB) mediating hypothesis between the five-factor model of personality and exercise behaviour using an extended TPB model including concepts of affective and instrumental attitude, injunctive and descriptive norm, controllability, and selfefficacy. It was hypothesized that extraversion's activity facet would have a significant direct effect on exercise behaviour while controlling for the TPB, based on the presupposition that activity may represent a disposition that predicts exercise beyond planned behaviour. To test the replicability of these findings, we examined this research question with undergraduate students prospectively and cancer survivors, using a cross-sectional design. Using structural equation modelling, the results indicated that activity had a significant effect (p <.05) on exercise behaviour (study 1 =.20; study 2 =.31) while controlling for the TPB. This study suggests the importance of extraversion's activity facet on exercise behaviour, even when controlling for a TPB model with additional socialcognitive concepts and disparate population samples.

  14. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain: economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hollinghurst, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Ballard, Kathleen; Barnett, Jane; Beattie, Angela; Evans, Maggie; Lewith, George; Middleton, Karen; Oxford, Frances; Webley, Fran; Little, Paul

    2008-12-11

    An economic evaluation of therapeutic massage, exercise, and lessons in the Alexander technique for treating persistent back pain. Cost consequences study and cost effectiveness analysis at 12 month follow-up of a factorial randomised controlled trial. 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain recruited from primary care. Normal care (control), massage, and six or 24 lessons in the Alexander technique. Half of each group were randomised to a prescription for exercise from a doctor plus behavioural counselling from a nurse. Costs to the NHS and to participants. Comparison of costs with Roland-Morris disability score (number of activities impaired by pain), days in pain, and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Comparison of NHS costs with QALY gain, using incremental cost effectiveness ratios and cost effectiveness acceptability curves. Intervention costs ranged from pound30 for exercise prescription to pound596 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique plus exercise. Cost of health services ranged from pound50 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique to pound124 for exercise. Incremental cost effectiveness analysis of single therapies showed that exercise offered best value ( pound61 per point on disability score, pound9 per additional pain-free day, pound2847 per QALY gain). For two-stage therapy, six lessons in Alexander technique combined with exercise was the best value (additional pound64 per point on disability score, pound43 per additional pain-free day, pound5332 per QALY gain). An exercise prescription and six lessons in Alexander technique alone were both more than 85% likely to be cost effective at values above pound20 000 per QALY, but the Alexander technique performed better than exercise on the full range of outcomes. A combination of six lessons in Alexander technique lessons followed by exercise was the most effective and cost effective option.

  15. Consensus evaluation of radioactivity-in-soil reference materials in the context of an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian; Collins, Sean; Garcia Miranda, Maria; Ivanov, Peter; Larijani, Cyrus; Woods, Selina

    2017-01-25

    The development of two radioactivity-in-soil reference materials is described - one for peat and one for soil with high sand content. Each bulk material was processed, subdivided and measured before being sent to participants in an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in each material were determined by 'consensus' evaluations of participants' results using two weighted mean methods. The project demonstrated the use of such exercises in delivering reference materials to the user community.

  16. Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    A crystal model laboratory exercise is presented that allows students to examine relations among the microscopic-macroscopic-symbolic levels, using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. Students explore the relationship between solid-state structure and crystal form. Other structure-property relationships are explored. The…

  17. User's instructions for the high speed version of the cardiovascular exercise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model and digital computer simulation of the human cardiovascular system and its controls were developed to simulate transient responses to bicycle ergometer exercise. The purpose of the model was to provide a method to analyze cardiovascular control hypotheses which cannot be easily tested in an animal or human or in a spaceflight environment.

  18. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  19. Modeling Biological Membranes with Circuit Boards and Measuring Electrical Signals in Axons: Student Laboratory Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Martha M.; Martin, Jonathan M.; Atwood, Harold L.; Cooper, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    This is a demonstration of how electrical models can be used to characterize biological membranes. This exercise also introduces biophysical terminology used in electrophysiology. The same equipment is used in the membrane model as on live preparations. Some properties of an isolated nerve cord are investigated: nerve action potentials, recruitment of neurons, and responsiveness of the nerve cord to environmental factors. PMID:21304461

  20. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  1. Modeling of breath methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer*

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Anna; Unterkofler, Karl; Mochalski, Pawel; Jandacka, Martin; Ruzsanyi, Vera; Szabó, Gábor; Mohácsi, Árpád; Teschl, Susanne; Teschl, Gerald; King, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We develop a simple three compartment model based on mass balance equations which quantitatively describes the dynamics of breath methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer. With the help of this model it is possible to estimate the endogenous production rate of methane in the large intestine by measuring breath gas concentrations of methane. PMID:26828421

  2. Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    A crystal model laboratory exercise is presented that allows students to examine relations among the microscopic-macroscopic-symbolic levels, using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. Students explore the relationship between solid-state structure and crystal form. Other structure-property relationships are explored. The…

  3. Using Visual Models as Pre-Reading Exercises in Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Michael W.

    Adapting strategies of invention from the new process-oriented rhetoric, the literature teacher can help students understand what they read through prereading exercises. Presenting students with an abstract model of a text's metaphoric structure, the teacher can spark students' immediate and imaginative response to the model, involving them…

  4. The concept and use of elasticity in population viability models [Exercise 13

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Rudy M. King; Fred Van Dyke

    2003-01-01

    As you have seen in exercise 12, plants, such as the western prairie fringed orchid, typically have distinct life stages and complex life cycles that require the matrix analyses associated with a stage-based population model. Some statistics that can be generated from such matrix analyses can be very informative in determining which variables in the model have the...

  5. Evaluation of Psoas Major and Quadratus Lumborum Recruitment Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Before and After 5 Trunk Exercises.

    PubMed

    Imai, Atsushi; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, with a pretest-posttest design. Background Diffusion-weighted imaging is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that can be used to assess the recruitment of the psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL). The recruitment of these muscles during trunk exercises has not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate the diffusion of water movement in several trunk muscles using diffusion-weighted imaging before and after specific trunk exercises and thereby to understand the level of recruitment of each muscle during each exercise. Methods Nine healthy male participants performed the right side bridge, knee raise, and 3 front bridges, including the hand-knee, elbow-knee, and elbow-toe bridges. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed before and after each exercise. After scanning, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map was constructed, and ADC values of the rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal muscles, QL, PM, and back muscles were calculated. Results The right PM following the elbow-toe bridge demonstrated the largest increase in ADC values, a change significantly greater than that demonstrated by the hand-knee bridge (P<.001) and side bridge (P = .002) exercises. The ADC change in the right QL following the side bridge exercise was significantly larger than that of other exercises (P<.008). Conclusion Of the 5 exercises investigated, the elbow-toe bridge and side bridge exercises elicit the greatest recruitment of the PM and QL, respectively. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(2):108-114. Epub 5 Nov 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6730.

  6. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  7. Exercise benefits in chronic graft versus host disease: a murine model study.

    PubMed

    Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; González-Murillo, Africa; Palacio, Jesús Martínez; Colmenero, Isabel; Casco, Fernando; Melén, Gustavo J; Delmiro, Aitor; Morán, María; Ramírez, Manuel; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that generates considerable morbidity and compromises the physical capacity of patients. We determined the effects of an exercise training program performed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on clinical and biological variables in a minor histocompatibility antigen-driven murine model of cGVHD treated with cyclosporine A. Recipient BALB/C female mice (age 8 wk) received bone marrow cells and splenocytes from donor B10.D2 male mice and were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 11) or control group (n = 12). For approximately 11 wk after transplant, the exercise group completed a moderate-intensity treadmill program. Variables assessed were clinical severity scores, survival, physical fitness, cytokine profile, immune cell reconstitution, molecular markers of muscle exercise adaptations, and histological scores in affected tissues. Exercise training increased survival (P = 0.011), diminished total clinical severity scores (P = 0.002), improved physical fitness (P = 0.030), and reduced blood IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor α levels (P = 0.03), while increasing circulating B220 (P = 0.008) and CD4 lymphocytes (P = 0.043). A moderate-intensity exercise program that mimics widely accepted public health recommendations for physical activity in human adults was well tolerated and positive effects on survival as well as on clinical and biological indicators of cGVHD.

  8. Physical Exercise Restores the Generation of Newborn Neurons in an Animal Model of Chronic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Fabricio N.; Santos, Luiz E. C.; Rodrigues, Antônio M.; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Arida, Ricardo M.; da Silveira, Gilcélio A.; Scorza, Fulvio A.; Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G.

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis impairment is associated with the chronic phase of the epilepsy in humans and also observed in animal models. Recent studies with animal models have shown that physical exercise is capable of improving neurogenesis in adult subjects, alleviating cognitive impairment and depression. Here, we show that there is a reduction in the generation of newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats subjected to a chronic model of epilepsy during the postnatal period of brain development. We also show that the physical exercise was capable to restore the number of newborn granule cells in this animals to the level observed in the control group. Notably, a larger number of newborn granule cells exhibiting morphological characteristics indicative of correct targeting into the hippocampal circuitry and the absence of basal dendrite projections was also observed in the epileptic animals subjected to physical exercise compared to the epileptic animals. The results described here could represent a positive interference of the physical exercise on the neurogenesis process in subjects with chronic epilepsy. The results may also help to reinterpret the benefits of the physical exercise in alleviating symptoms of depression and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:28298884

  9. Physical Exercise Restores the Generation of Newborn Neurons in an Animal Model of Chronic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fabricio N; Santos, Luiz E C; Rodrigues, Antônio M; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Arida, Ricardo M; da Silveira, Gilcélio A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis impairment is associated with the chronic phase of the epilepsy in humans and also observed in animal models. Recent studies with animal models have shown that physical exercise is capable of improving neurogenesis in adult subjects, alleviating cognitive impairment and depression. Here, we show that there is a reduction in the generation of newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats subjected to a chronic model of epilepsy during the postnatal period of brain development. We also show that the physical exercise was capable to restore the number of newborn granule cells in this animals to the level observed in the control group. Notably, a larger number of newborn granule cells exhibiting morphological characteristics indicative of correct targeting into the hippocampal circuitry and the absence of basal dendrite projections was also observed in the epileptic animals subjected to physical exercise compared to the epileptic animals. The results described here could represent a positive interference of the physical exercise on the neurogenesis process in subjects with chronic epilepsy. The results may also help to reinterpret the benefits of the physical exercise in alleviating symptoms of depression and cognitive dysfunction.

  10. A Simulation Protocol for Exercise Physiology in Fontan Patients Using a Closed Loop Lumped-Parameter Model

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Ethan; Pennati, Giancarlo; Migliavacca, Francesco; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Figliola, Richard; Marsden, Alison; Giardini, Alessandro; MOCHA Investigators

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reduced exercise capacity is nearly universal among Fontan patients, though its etiology is not yet fully understood. While previous computational studies have attempted to model Fontan exercise, they did not fully account for global physiologic mechanisms nor directly compare results against clinical and physiologic data. Methods: In this study, we developed a protocol to simulate Fontan lower-body exercise using a closed-loop lumped-parameter model describing the entire circulation. We analyzed clinical exercise data from a cohort of Fontan patients, incorporated previous clinical findings from literature, quantified a comprehensive list of physiological changes during exercise, translated them into a computational model of the Fontan circulation, and designed a general protocol to model Fontan exercise behavior. Using inputs of patient weight, height, and if available, patient-specific reference heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption, this protocol enables the derivation of a full set of parameters necessary to model a typical Fontan patient of a given body-size over a range of physiologic exercise levels. Results: In light of previous literature data and clinical knowledge, the model successfully produced realistic trends in physiological parameters with exercise level. Applying this method retrospectively to a set of clinical Fontan exercise data, direct comparison between simulation results and clinical data demonstrated that the model successfully reproduced the average exercise response of a cohort of typical Fontan patients. Conclusion: This work is intended to offer a foundation for future advances in modeling Fontan exercise, highlight the needs in clinical data collection, and provide clinicians with quantitative reference exercise physiologies for Fontan patients. PMID:24658635

  11. Joint protection and hand exercises for hand osteoarthritis: an economic evaluation comparing methods for the analysis of factorial trials

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Raymond; Nicholls, Elaine; Whitehurst, David G. T.; Hill, Susan; Hammond, Alison; Hay, Elaine M.; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of joint protection and hand exercises for the management of hand OA is not well established. The primary aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness (cost-utility) of these management options. In addition, given the absence of consensus regarding the conduct of economic evaluation alongside factorial trials, we compare different analytical methodologies. Methods. A trial-based economic evaluation to assess the cost-utility of joint protection only, hand exercises only and joint protection plus hand exercises compared with leaflet and advice was undertaken over a 12 month period from a UK National Health Service perspective. Patient-level mean costs and mean quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated for each trial arm. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were constructed. The base case analysis used a within-the-table analysis methodology. Two further methods were explored: the at-the-margins approach and a regression-based approach with or without an interaction term. Results. Mean costs (QALYs) were £58.46 (s.d. 0.662) for leaflet and advice, £92.12 (s.d. 0.659) for joint protection, £64.51 (s.d. 0.681) for hand exercises and £112.38 (s.d. 0.658) for joint protection plus hand exercises. In the base case, hand exercises were the cost-effective option, with an ICER of £318 per QALY gained. Hand exercises remained the most cost-effective management strategy when adopting alternative methodological approaches. Conclusion. This is the first trial evaluating the cost-effectiveness of occupational therapy-supported approaches to self-management for hand OA. Our findings showed that hand exercises were the most cost-effective option. PMID:25339642

  12. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students’ interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students’ physical fitness. PMID:27065556

  13. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  14. Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise in patients with aortic regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.

    1986-06-01

    Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of LV performance at rest and during exercise in patients with AR have shown that an abnormal EF response to exercise may be observed in asymptomatic patients with normal resting LV function. The EF response to exercise has been correlated with a number of clinical and exercise measurements; important among these are the slope of the systolic pressure-to-end-systolic volume, end-systolic volume, cardiac index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and wall stress. The changes in the regurgitant fraction, EF, and LV volume have shown considerable individual variability; they have also allowed a better understanding of the circulatory responses during exercise. Radionuclide angiography provides a reliable and reproducible method of measuring the rest LVEF that is important in the timing and the outcome of valve replacement. The value of the EF response to exercise in patient management is not yet clear; it is possible that other radionuclide-derived measurements at rest or during exercise, such as the systolic pressure-to-end-systolic volume relationship, and the end-systolic volume may provide complementary information to that provided by the EF.

  15. Intensity level for exercise training in fibromyalgia by using mathematical models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has not been assessed before whether mathematical models described in the literature for prescriptions of exercise can be used for fibromyalgia syndrome patients. The objective of this paper was to determine how age-predicted heart rate formulas can be used with fibromyalgia syndrome populations as well as to find out which mathematical models are more accurate to control exercise intensity. Methods A total of 60 women aged 18-65 years with fibromyalgia syndrome were included; 32 were randomized to walking training at anaerobic threshold. Age-predicted formulas to maximum heart rate ("220 minus age" and "208 minus 0.7 × age") were correlated with achieved maximum heart rate (HRMax) obtained by spiroergometry. Subsequently, six mathematical models using heart rate reserve (HRR) and age-predicted HRMax formulas were studied to estimate the intensity level of exercise training corresponding to heart rate at anaerobic threshold (HRAT) obtained by spiroergometry. Linear and nonlinear regression models were used for correlations and residues analysis for the adequacy of the models. Results Age-predicted HRMax and HRAT formulas had a good correlation with achieved heart rate obtained in spiroergometry (r = 0.642; p < 0.05). For exercise prescription in the anaerobic threshold intensity, the percentages were 52.2-60.6% HRR and 75.5-80.9% HRMax. Formulas using HRR and the achieved HRMax showed better correlation. Furthermore, the percentages of HRMax and HRR were significantly higher for the trained individuals (p < 0.05). Conclusion Age-predicted formulas can be used for estimating HRMax and for exercise prescriptions in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Karnoven's formula using heart rate achieved in ergometric test showed a better correlation. For the prescription of exercises in the threshold intensity, 52% to 60% HRR or 75% to 80% HRMax must be used in sedentary women with fibromyalgia syndrome and these values are higher and must be corrected for

  16. Evaluation of Water Retention in Lumbar Intervertebral Disks Before and After Exercise Stress With T2 Mapping.

    PubMed

    Chokan, Kou; Murakami, Hideki; Endo, Hirooki; Mimata, Yoshikuni; Yamabe, Daisuke; Tsukimura, Itsuko; Oikawa, Ryosuke; Doita, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    T2 mapping was used to quantify moisture content of the lumbar spinal disk nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus before and after exercise stress, and after rest, to evaluate the intervertebral disk function. To clarify water retention in intervertebral disks of the lumbar vertebrae by performing magnetic resonance imaging before and after exercise stress and quantitatively measuring changes in moisture content of intervertebral disks with T2 mapping. To date, a few case studies describe functional evaluation of articular cartilage with T2 mapping; however, T2 mapping to the functional evaluation of intervertebral disks has rarely been applied. Using T2 mapping might help detect changes in the moisture content of intervertebral disks, including articular cartilage, before and after exercise stress, thus enabling the evaluation of changes in water retention shock absorber function. Subjects, comprising 40 healthy individuals (males: 26, females: 14), underwent magnetic resonance imaging T2 mapping before and after exercise stress and after rest. Image J image analysis software was then used to set regions of interest in the obtained images of the anterior annulus fibrosus, posterior annulus fibrosus, and NP. T2 values were measured and compared according to upper vertebrae position and degeneration grade. T2 values significantly decreased in the NP after exercise stress and significantly increased after rest. According to upper vertebrae position, in all of the upper vertebrae positions, T2 values for the NP significantly decreased after exercise stress and significantly increased after rest. According to the degeneration grade, in the NP of grade 1 and 2 cases, T2 values significantly decreased after exercise stress and significantly increased after rest. T2 mapping could be used to not only diagnose the degree of degeneration but also evaluate intervertebral disk function. 3.

  17. Technology in Rehabilitation: Evaluating the Single Leg Squat Exercise with Wearable Inertial Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Darragh F; O'Reilly, Martin A; Ward, Tomás E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian

    2017-03-23

    The single leg squat (SLS) is a common lower limb rehabilitation exercise. It is also frequently used as an evaluative exercise to screen for an increased risk of lower limb injury. To date athlete / patient SLS technique has been assessed using expensive laboratory equipment or subjective clinical judgement; both of which are not without shortcomings. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) may offer a low cost solution for the objective evaluation of athlete / patient SLS technique. The aims of this study were to determine if in combination or in isolation IMUs positioned on the lumbar spine, thigh and shank are capable of: (a) distinguishing between acceptable and aberrant SLS technique; (b) identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. Eighty-three healthy volunteers participated (60 males, 23 females, age: 24.68 + / - 4.91 years, height: 1.75 + / - 0.09 m, body mass: 76.01 + / - 13.29 kg). All participants performed 10 SLSs on their left leg. IMUs were positioned on participants' lumbar spine, left shank and left thigh. These were utilized to record tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data during all repetitions of the SLS. SLS technique was labelled by a Chartered Physiotherapist using an evaluation framework. Features were extracted from the labelled sensor data. These features were used to train and evaluate a variety of random-forests classifiers that assessed SLS technique. A three IMU system was moderately successful in detecting the overall quality of SLS performance (77 % accuracy, 77 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity). A single IMU worn on the shank can complete the same analysis with 76 % accuracy, 75 % sensitivity and 76 % specificity. Single sensors also produce competitive classification scores relative to multi-sensor systems in identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. A single IMU positioned on the shank can differentiate between acceptable and aberrant

  18. Age-related changes in mastication are not improved by tongue exercise in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Krekeler, Brittany N; Connor, Nadine P

    2017-01-01

    Aging results in progressive changes in deglutitive functions, which may be due in part to alterations in muscle morphology and physiology. Mastication is a critical component of bolus formation and swallowing, but aging effects on masticatory function have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify the effects of aging on mastication, and 2) determine the effects of tongue exercise on mastication in young adult and old rats. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mastication characteristics (number of bites, interval between bites, time to eat) as a function of age, and that tongue exercise would resolve preexercise differences between age groups. We expanded the established model of progressive, 8-week tongue exercise to include a mastication measurement: acoustic recordings of vermicelli pasta biting from 17 old and 17 young adult rats, randomized into exercise and control groups. We found the following: 1) Mastication characteristics were impacted by age. Specifically in older rats, there was an increase in time to eat and number of bites and intervals between bites decreased, suggesting increased oral motor-processing requirements for bolus formation. 2) tongue exercise did not impact mastication behaviors in young adult or old rats. Tongue exercise may not have been specific enough to result in behavioral changes in mastication or exercise dose may not have been sufficient. Nevertheless, results were noteworthy in expanding the established rat model of aging and have relevant clinical implications for future translation to human populations. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E29-E34, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Simulated minority admissions exercise at Louisiana State University School of Medicine: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Helm, E G; Prieto, D O; Sedlacek, W E

    1997-09-01

    The Louisiana State University (LSU) School of Medicine-New Orleans has been active in recruiting minority students to create a diverse medical student body. Recognizing the need to explore ways to assess minority applicants, over the past 10 years, LSU has offered Stimulated Minority Admissions Exercise (SMAE) workshops to its admission committee members. Participants in six of LSU's SMAE workshops were asked to respond anonymously to an evaluation form immediately following the workshop. Sixty of the 64 participants responded. The overall evaluation of the workshops was positive. More than 80% of participants indicated that due to their participation in SMAE, they knew how to locate and assess application data particularly relevant to minority applicants. The results suggest that identifying variables that enhance minority student admission and retention is desirable.

  20. Simulated minority admissions exercise at Louisiana State University School of Medicine: an evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Helm, E. G.; Prieto, D. O.; Sedlacek, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    The Louisiana State University (LSU) School of Medicine-New Orleans has been active in recruiting minority students to create a diverse medical student body. Recognizing the need to explore ways to assess minority applicants, over the past 10 years, LSU has offered Stimulated Minority Admissions Exercise (SMAE) workshops to its admission committee members. Participants in six of LSU's SMAE workshops were asked to respond anonymously to an evaluation form immediately following the workshop. Sixty of the 64 participants responded. The overall evaluation of the workshops was positive. More than 80% of participants indicated that due to their participation in SMAE, they knew how to locate and assess application data particularly relevant to minority applicants. The results suggest that identifying variables that enhance minority student admission and retention is desirable. PMID:9302857

  1. Hemodynamic response to exercise and head-up tilt of patients implanted with a rotary blood pump: a computational modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Einly; Salamonsen, Robert Francis; Mansouri, Mahdi; Gaddum, Nicholas; Mason, David Glen; Timms, Daniel L; Stevens, Michael Charles; Fraser, John; Akmeliawati, Rini; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigates the response of implantable rotary blood pump (IRBP)-assisted patients to exercise and head-up tilt (HUT), as well as the effect of alterations in the model parameter values on this response, using validated numerical models. Furthermore, we comparatively evaluate the performance of a number of previously proposed physiologically responsive controllers, including constant speed, constant flow pulsatility index (PI), constant average pressure difference between the aorta and the left atrium, constant average differential pump pressure, constant ratio between mean pump flow and pump flow pulsatility (ratioP I or linear Starling-like control), as well as constant left atrial pressure ( P l a ¯ ) control, with regard to their ability to increase cardiac output during exercise while maintaining circulatory stability upon HUT. Although native cardiac output increases automatically during exercise, increasing pump speed was able to further improve total cardiac output and reduce elevated filling pressures. At the same time, reduced venous return associated with upright posture was not shown to induce left ventricular (LV) suction. Although P l a ¯ control outperformed other control modes in its ability to increase cardiac output during exercise, it caused a fall in the mean arterial pressure upon HUT, which may cause postural hypotension or patient discomfort. To the contrary, maintaining constant average pressure difference between the aorta and the left atrium demonstrated superior performance in both exercise and HUT scenarios. Due to their strong dependence on the pump operating point, PI and ratioPI control performed poorly during exercise and HUT. Our simulation results also highlighted the importance of the baroreflex mechanism in determining the response of the IRBP-assisted patients to exercise and postural changes, where desensitized reflex response attenuated the percentage increase in cardiac output during exercise and

  2. [Effects of physical exercise on cognitive alterations and oxidative stress in an APP/PSN1 transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Brioche, Thomas; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Escrivá, Consuelo; Dromant, Mar; Gómez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, José

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise, in both the treatment and the prevention of several diseases, have been extensively demonstrated. The most common dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a disorder in which exercise induces significant improvement at pathophysiopathological and cognitive levels. In the present work, we studied the relationship between physical exercise, oxidative stress, and cognition in the double transgenic mice model (2×Tg) for AD, APP/PSN1. This model is mainly based on the cerebral deposition of amyloid β plaques. Eighteen ten-month-old mice were divided into four experimental groups: exercised 2×Tg (2×Tg-E) (n=5), rested 2×Tg (2×Tg-R) (n=5), exercised controls (control-E) (n=4) and rested controls (control-R) (n=4). We trained the animals for twelve weeks with a combination of forced exercise (treadmill running three days/week) and spontaneous wheel running. The animals were evaluated with physical and cognitive tests before and after the training period. We analyzed systemic and cortical oxidative damage and the induction of antioxidant enzymes. The 2×Tg-R mice showed a decrease in their grip strength and VO(2max) as they grew older which was prevented by training. The 2×Tg-E group showed better memory than the 2×Tg-R animals. All the trained groups demonstrated greater exploratory capacity and less anxiety than the sedentary animals. Systemic oxidative damage was slightly decreased in the 2×Tg, although we found no difference in the lipoperoxidation and in the induction of the antioxidant defense in cortex between groups. Physical exercise leads to improvements in the grip strength, VO(2max), cognition, and memory in 2×Tg mice. These improvements are not significantly related to changes in the antioxidant defenses or a reduction in the oxidative damage brought about by exercise. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Re-Evaluation of Old Findings on Stroke Volume Responses to Exercise and Recovery by Nitrous-Oxide Rebreathin.

    PubMed

    Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Ozkaya, Ozgur; Balci, Gorkem Aybars; Yapicioglu, Bulent

    2016-12-01

    It is important to verify the old findings of Cumming (1972) and Goldberg and Shephard (1980) who showed that stroke volume (SV) may be higher during recovery rather than during exercise, in order to organize the number of intervals throughout training sessions. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate individual SV responses to various upright cycling exercises using the nitrous-oxide rebreathing method. Nine moderate to well-trained male athletes volunteered to take part in the study (maximal O2 uptake (VO2max): 60.2 ± 7 mL⋅min(-1)⋅kg(-1)). Workloads ranging from 40-100% of VO2max were applied to determine individual peak SV (SVpeak) response. Results showed that SV responses were higher during exercise compared to recovery in all exercise loads from 40-100% of VO2max. Mean SV responses to individual SVpeak loads were also higher during exercise compared to recovery (122.9 ± 2.5 versus 105.3 ± 5.93 mL). The highest SV responses to 10 min exercises of 40-70% of VO2max were obtained in the 5(th) or 7.5(th) min of each stage (p≤0.05). Meanwhile, during 5 min exercises between 80-100% of VO2max, peak SV responses were observed in the 3(rd) min of loading (p≤0.05). In conclusion, individual SVpeak levels encountered over wide exercise intensity ranges showed that SVpeak development may also be correlated to exercise intensity corresponding to individual SVpeak loads.

  4. Re-Evaluation of Old Findings on Stroke Volume Responses to Exercise and Recovery by Nitrous-Oxide Rebreathin

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Ozgur; Balci, Gorkem Aybars; Yapicioglu, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It is important to verify the old findings of Cumming (1972) and Goldberg and Shephard (1980) who showed that stroke volume (SV) may be higher during recovery rather than during exercise, in order to organize the number of intervals throughout training sessions. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate individual SV responses to various upright cycling exercises using the nitrous-oxide rebreathing method. Nine moderate to well-trained male athletes volunteered to take part in the study (maximal O2 uptake (VO2max): 60.2 ± 7 mL⋅min-1⋅kg-1). Workloads ranging from 40-100% of VO2max were applied to determine individual peak SV (SVpeak) response. Results showed that SV responses were higher during exercise compared to recovery in all exercise loads from 40-100% of VO2max. Mean SV responses to individual SVpeak loads were also higher during exercise compared to recovery (122.9 ± 2.5 versus 105.3 ± 5.93 mL). The highest SV responses to 10 min exercises of 40-70% of VO2max were obtained in the 5th or 7.5th min of each stage (p≤0.05). Meanwhile, during 5 min exercises between 80-100% of VO2max, peak SV responses were observed in the 3rd min of loading (p≤0.05). In conclusion, individual SVpeak levels encountered over wide exercise intensity ranges showed that SVpeak development may also be correlated to exercise intensity corresponding to individual SVpeak loads. PMID:28149412

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  6. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  7. The mini-clinical evaluation exercise during medical clerkships: are learning needs and learning goals aligned?

    PubMed

    Montagne, Stephanie; Rogausch, Anja; Gemperli, Armin; Berendonk, Christoph; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; Beyeler, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The generation of learning goals (LGs) that are aligned with learning needs (LNs) is one of the main purposes of formative workplace-based assessment. In this study, we aimed to analyse how often trainer-student pairs identified corresponding LNs in mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) encounters and to what degree these LNs aligned with recorded LGs, taking into account the social environment (e.g. clinic size) in which the mini-CEX was conducted. Retrospective analyses of adapted mini-CEX forms (trainers' and students' assessments) completed by all Year 4 medical students during clerkships were performed. Learning needs were defined by the lowest score(s) assigned to one or more of the mini-CEX domains. Learning goals were categorised qualitatively according to their correspondence with the six mini-CEX domains (e.g. history taking, professionalism). Following descriptive analyses of LNs and LGs, multi-level logistic regression models were used to predict LGs by identified LNs and social context variables. A total of 512 trainers and 165 students conducted 1783 mini-CEXs (98% completion rate). Concordantly, trainer-student pairs most often identified LNs in the domains of 'clinical reasoning' (23% of 1167 complete forms), 'organisation/efficiency' (20%) and 'physical examination' (20%). At least one 'defined' LG was noted on 313 student forms (18% of 1710). Of the 446 LGs noted in total, the most frequently noted were 'physical examination' (49%) and 'history taking' (21%). Corresponding LNs as well as social context factors (e.g. clinic size) were found to be predictors of these LGs. Although trainer-student pairs often agreed in the LNs they identified, many assessments did not result in aligned LGs. The sparseness of LGs, their dependency on social context and their partial non-alignment with students' LNs raise questions about how the full potential of the mini-CEX as not only a 'diagnostic' but also an 'educational' tool can be exploited. © 2014

  8. Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Michelle W.; Vivar, Carmen; Kramer, Arthur F.; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms through which exercise protects and restores the brain. In this feature review, we integrate animal and human research, examining physical activity effects across multiple levels of description (neurons up to inter-regional pathways). We evaluate the influence of exercise on hippocampal structure and function, addressing common themes such as spatial memory and pattern separation, brain structure and plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and vasculature. Areas of research focused more within species, such as hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents, also provide crucial insight into the protective role of physical activity. Overall, converging evidence suggests exercise benefits brain function and cognition across the mammalian lifespan, which may translate into reduced risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in humans. PMID:24029446

  9. Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Vivar, Carmen; Kramer, Arthur F; van Praag, Henriette

    2013-10-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms through which exercise protects and restores the brain. In this feature review, we integrate animal and human research, examining physical activity effects across multiple levels of description (neurons up to inter-regional pathways). We evaluate the influence of exercise on hippocampal structure and function, addressing common themes such as spatial memory and pattern separation, brain structure and plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and vasculature. Areas of research focused more within species, such as hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents, also provide crucial insight into the protective role of physical activity. Overall, converging evidence suggests exercise benefits brain function and cognition across the mammalian lifespan, which may translate into reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans.

  10. Advocacy Evaluation: A Model for Internal Evaluation Offices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnichsen, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    As evaluations are more often implemented by internal staff, internal evaluators must begin to assume decision-making and advocacy tasks. This advocacy evaluation concept is described using the Federal Bureau of Investigation evaluation staff as a model. (TJH)

  11. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12-13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham‑surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD.

  12. Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

    2004-01-01

    An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

  13. Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

    2004-01-01

    An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

  14. Comparison of Nigella sativa- and exercise-induced models of cardiac hypertrophy: structural and electrophysiological features.

    PubMed

    Al-Asoom, Lubna Ibrahim; Al-Shaikh, Basil Abdulrahman; Bamosa, Abdullah Omar; El-Bahai, Mohammad Nabil

    2014-09-01

    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapeutic intervention for heart failure, due to its ability to induce physiological cardiac hypertrophy. In parallel, supplementation with Nigella sativa (N. sativa) was found to enhance myocardial function and induce cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we aim to compare the morphological and electrophysiological changes associated with these patterns of cardiac hypertrophy and the possible changes upon administration of N. sativa to exercise-trained animals. Fifty-six adult Wistar rats were divided into: control, Nigella-treated (N), exercise-trained (E), and Nigella-treated-exercise-trained (NE) rats. Daily 800 mg/kg N. sativa was administered orally to N and NE. E and NE ran on treadmill, 2 h/day. At the end of 8 weeks ECG, body weight (BW), heart weight (HW), and left ventricular weight (LVW) were recorded. Hematoxylin and Eosin and periodic acid-Schiff sections were prepared to study the histology of left ventricles and to measure diameter of cardiomyocytes (Cdia). HW/BW, LVW/BW, and mean Cdia were significantly higher in all experimental animals compared to the controls. Histology showed normal cardiomyocytes with no fibrosis. ECG showed significantly lower heart rates, higher QRS amplitude, and ventricular specific potential in NE group compared to control group. Supplementation of N. sativa demonstrated a synergistic effect with exercise training as Nigella-exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy had lower heart rate and well-matched electrical activity of the heart to its mass. Therefore, this model of cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment for heart failure with superior advantages to exercise training.

  15. Action control of exercise behavior: evaluation of social cognition, cross-behavioral regulation, and automaticity.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Fiala, Bonnie; Nasuti, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Intention is considered the proximal determinant of behavior in many popular theories applied to understanding physical activity, yet intention-behavior discordance is high. Thus, an understanding of constructs that facilitate or inhibit the successful translation of intentions into behavior is both timely and important. The action control approach of dividing the intention-behavior relationship into quadrants of successful/unsuccessful intenders has shown utility in the past by demonstrating the magnitude of intention-behavior discordance and allowing for an outcome variable to test predictors. The purpose of this article was to evaluate automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation as predictors of exercise action control, in conjunction with other more standard social cognitive predictors of perceived behavioral control and affective and instrumental attitudes. Participants were a random sample of 263 college students who completed predictor measures at time one, followed by exercise behavior two weeks later. Participants were classified into three intention-behavior profiles: (1) nonintenders (14.1%; n = 31), (2) unsuccessful intenders (35.5%; n = 78), and (3) successful intenders (48.6%; n = 107). Affective attitude, perceived behavioral control, automaticity, and cross-behavioral regulation were predictors of action control. The results demonstrate that automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation, constructs not typically used in intention-based theories, predict intention-behavior discordance.

  16. Evaluating the Spatial Distributions of Ethnic Populations: A Quantitative Exercise for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivizzigno, Victoria L.

    This exercise teaches undergraduate geography students to use the Lorenz Curve and the Index of Dissimilarity to assess the spatial distributions of the White, Black, and American Indian populations of the United States in 1980. Specific procedures for implementing the exercise are provided; solutions to the exercise are also included. Students…

  17. Model simulations of cardiovascular changes at the onset of moderate exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Elstad, Maja; Toska, Karin; Walløe, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We have tested whether the cardiovascular changes at the onset of exercise could be simulated only by an increase in the baroreflex set point and locally induced vasodilatation in the exercising muscles. The mathematical model consists of a heart, a linear elastic arterial reservoir and two parallel resistive vascular beds. The arterial baroreflex loop is modelled by three separate time domain processing objects, each with its own gain, time constant and delay. These are intended to simulate the action of a sympathetic signal to the peripheral vascular bed, a parasympathetic signal to the heart and a sympathetic signal to the heart. We used this model with previously published experimental data to estimate the unknown parameters in the reflex control loop. In all 10 subjects and in the global averaged response, the short-term cardiovascular responses were adequately simulated by using individual sets of parameters in the model. An increase in the baroreflex set point and locally induced vasodilatation in the exercising muscles can explain almost all of the cardiovascular changes in the recorded variables (mean arterial pressure, RR interval and stroke volume) at the onset of exercise. PMID:12205203

  18. Coupling Molecular Modeling to the Traditional "IR-ID" Exercise in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Huby, Heather; Vitale, Dale E.

    2007-01-01

    This exercise integrates the infrared unknown identification ("IR-ID") experiment common to most organic laboratory syllabi with computer molecular modeling. In this modification students are still required to identify unknown compounds from their IR spectra, but must additionally match some of the absorptions with computed frequencies they…

  19. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  20. Coupling Molecular Modeling to the Traditional "IR-ID" Exercise in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Huby, Heather; Vitale, Dale E.

    2007-01-01

    This exercise integrates the infrared unknown identification ("IR-ID") experiment common to most organic laboratory syllabi with computer molecular modeling. In this modification students are still required to identify unknown compounds from their IR spectra, but must additionally match some of the absorptions with computed frequencies they…

  1. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  2. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  3. An EFQM Model Self-Assessment Exercise at a Spanish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the EFQM model self-assessment in a Spanish university. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology is used based on five services provided by a public university in Spain. Findings: The findings show the steps that one university can follow in order to apply this exercise in a successful…

  4. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  5. Voluntary exercise enhances activity rhythms and ameliorates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the sand rat model of circadian rhythm-related mood changes.

    PubMed

    Tal-Krivisky, Katy; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological treatment for affective disorders. The mechanisms of its effects are unknown although some suggest a relationship to synchronization of circadian rhythms. One way to explore mechanisms is to utilize animal models. We previously demonstrated that the diurnal fat sand rat is an advantageous model for studying the interactions between photoperiods and mood. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of voluntary exercise on activity rhythms and anxiety and depression-like behaviors in sand rats as a step towards better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Male sand rats were housed in short photoperiod (SP; 5h light/19 h dark) or neutral light (NP; 12h light/12h dark) regimens for 3 weeks and divided into subgroups with or without running wheels. Activity was monitored for 3 additional weeks and then animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze, the forced swim test and the social interaction test. Activity rhythms were enhanced by the running wheels. As hypothesized, voluntary exercise had significant effects on SP animals' anxiety- and depression-like behaviors but not on NP animals. Results are discussed in the context of interactions between physical exercise, circadian rhythms and mood. We suggest that the sand rat model can be used to explore the underlying mechanism of the effects of physical exercise for mood disorders.

  6. The role of social capital and community belongingness for exercise adherence: An exploratory study of the CrossFit gym model.

    PubMed

    Whiteman-Sandland, Jessica; Hawkins, Jemma; Clayton, Debbie

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to measure the 'sense of community' reportedly offered by the CrossFit gym model. A cross-sectional study adapted Social Capital and General Belongingness scales to compare perceptions of a CrossFit gym and a traditional gym. CrossFit gym members reported significantly higher levels of social capital (both bridging and bonding) and community belongingness compared with traditional gym members. However, regression analysis showed neither social capital, community belongingness, nor gym type was an independent predictor of gym attendance. Exercise and health professionals may benefit from evaluating further the 'sense of community' offered by gym-based exercise programmes.

  7. Equine Welfare during Exercise: An Evaluation of Breathing, Breathlessness and Bridles

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, David J.; Beausoleil, Ngaio J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Horses have superior athletic capabilities due largely to their exceptional cardiorespiratory responses during exercise. This has particular relevance to horses’ potential to experience breathlessness, especially when their athletic performance is reduced by impaired respiratory function. Breathlessness, incorporating three types of unpleasant experiences, has been noted as of significant animal welfare concern in other mammals. However, the potential for breathlessness to occur in horses as usually ridden wearing bitted bridles has not yet been evaluated in detail. Accordingly, key physiological responses to exercise and the consequences of impaired respiratory function are outlined. Then the physiological control of breathing and the generation of the aversive experiences of breathlessness are explained. Finally, the potential for horses with unimpaired and impaired respiratory function to experience the different types of breathlessness is evaluated. This information provides a basis for considering the circumstances in which breathlessness may have significant negative welfare impacts on horses as currently ridden wearing bitted bridles. Potential beneficial impacts on respiratory function of using bitless bridles are then discussed with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms and their relevance to breathlessness. It is noted that direct comparisons of cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in horses wearing bitless and bitted bridles are not available and it is recommended that such studies be undertaken. Abstract Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use

  8. Adaptive Capacity: An Evolutionary Neuroscience Model Linking Exercise, Cognition, and Brain Health.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Alexander, Gene E

    2017-07-01

    The field of cognitive neuroscience was transformed by the discovery that exercise induces neurogenesis in the adult brain, with the potential to improve brain health and stave off the effects of neurodegenerative disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying exercise-brain connections are not well understood. We use an evolutionary neuroscience approach to develop the adaptive capacity model (ACM), detailing how and why physical activity improves brain function based on an energy-minimizing strategy. Building on studies showing a combined benefit of exercise and cognitive challenge to enhance neuroplasticity, our ACM addresses two fundamental questions: (i) what are the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying age-related brain atrophy, and (ii) how do lifestyle changes influence the trajectory of healthy and pathological aging? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Mini clinical evaluation exercise as evaluation tool of communicative and cooperative skills in the outpatient clinic].

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Simonsen, Dorit; Bastholt, Lars; Aspegren, Knut; Vinther, Claus; Kruse, Kirsten; Kodal, Troels

    2009-03-16

    In the revised Danish medical specialist training increased focus has been placed on competences which are hard to evaluate such as communication skills. Mini-CEX seems promising as an evaluation tool. Our aim was to test: 1) whether mini-CEX was useable in the evaluation of communicative and cooperative skills and 2) whether mini-CEX would provide reproducible data. Twenty-one residents were evaluated by mini-CEX by trained observers. Seventeen residents had at least two observations within a short period of time and these data were used to estimate the mini-CEX reproducibility. In addition to the residents, the nurses who assisted them in the outpatient clinic answered a questionnaire regarding the mini-CEX satisfaction. Observations had a median duration of 20 minutes (10-60 minutes) and the overall median duration of feedback was 15 minutes (5-60 minutes). Time used for feedback was halved from the first to the following feedback sessions. No significant clinical differences were observed between the scorings performed by the residents themselves and the observers, or the nurses of the outpatient clinic and the observers. In general, the residents were satisfied with the mini-CEX evaluations. The mini-CEX is a promising tool for the evaluation of communicative and cooperative skills.

  10. Design and pilot evaluation of competitive and cooperative exercise games for arm rehabilitation at home.

    PubMed

    Gorsic, Maja; Novak, Domen

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic arm impairment should exercise intensely at home after completing their clinical rehabilitation program, but frequently lack motivation. To address this issue, we present a home rehabilitation system that motivates patients by allowing them to perform arm exercises together with friends or relatives in competitive and cooperative games. Inertial sensors are used to track the patient's arm and control the game. The system was tested with seven adults with arm impairment as well as their friends or spouses. They tested four exercise games (single-player, competitive and two different cooperative games) for 3 minutes each. Of the 7 participants, 4 preferred the competitive game, 2 preferred a cooperative game, and 1 preferred to exercise alone. Competition also increased exercise intensity (measured using inertial sensors) compared to exercising alone. Though preliminary, these results indicate that competitive exercise games could improve arm rehabilitation at home for survivors of neurological and orthopedic injuries.

  11. Effect of exercise on learning and memory in a rat model of developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Grace, Laurian; Hescham, Sarah; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2009-12-01

    Adverse life events occurring in early development can result in long-term effects on behavioural, physiological and cognitive processes. In particular, perinatal stressors impair neurogenesis in the hippocampus which consequently impairs memory formation. Exercise has previously been shown to have antidepressant effects and to increase cognitive functioning by increasing neurogenesis and neurotrophins in the hippocampus. The current study examined the effects of maternal separation, which has been shown to model anxiety in animals, and the effects of exercise on learning and memory. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, maternally separated / non-runners, maternally separated / runners, non-separated / runners and non-separated / non-runners. Maternal separation occurred from postnatal day 2 (P2) to 14 (P14) for 3 h per day. Exercised rats were given voluntary access to individual running wheels attached to their cages from P29 to P49. Behavioural testing (Morris water maze (MWM) and object recognition tests) took place from P49 to P63. Maternally separated rats showed no significant difference in anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze and the open field compared to the normally reared controls. However, rats that were allowed voluntary access to running wheels showed increased levels of anxiety in the elevated plus maze and in the open field. Maternal separation did not have any effect on memory performance in the MWM or the object recognition tasks. Exercise increased spatial learning and memory in the MWM with the exercised rats displaying a decreased latency in locating the hidden platform than the non-exercised rats. The exercised rats spent significantly less time exploring the most recently encountered object in the temporal order task in comparison to the non-exercised controls, therefore showing improved temporal recognition memory. All groups performed the same on the other recognition tasks, with all rats showing intact

  12. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  13. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-03-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  14. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed

  15. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed

  16. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.

  17. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.

  18. Prospective evaluation of a new protocol for the provisional use of perfusion imaging with exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Duvall, W Lane; Savino, John A; Levine, Elliot J; Hermann, Luke K; Croft, Lori B; Henzlova, Milena J

    2015-02-01

    Previous literature suggests that myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) adds little to the prognosis of patients who exercise >10 metabolic equivalents (METs) during stress testing. With this in mind, we prospectively tested a provisional injection protocol in emergency department (ED) patients presenting for the evaluation of chest pain in which a patient would not receive an injection of radioisotope if adequate exercise was achieved without symptoms and a negative ECG response. All patients who presented to the ED over a 5-year period who were referred for stress testing as part of their ED evaluation were included. Patients considered for a provisional protocol were: exercise stress, age <65 years, no known coronary artery disease, and an interpretable rest ECG. Criteria for not injecting included a maximal predicted heart rate ≥85%, ≥10 METs of exercise, no anginal symptoms during stress, and no ECG changes. Groups were compared based on stress test results, all-cause and cardiac mortality, follow-up cardiac testing, subsequent revascularization, and cost. A total of 965 patients were eligible with 192 undergoing exercise-only and 773 having perfusion imaging. After 41.6 ± 19.6 months of follow-up, all-cause mortality was similar in the exercise-only versus the exercise plus imaging group (2.6% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.59). There were no cardiac deaths in the exercise-only group. At 1 year there was no difference in the number of repeat functional stress tests (1.6% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.43), fewer angiograms (0% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.002), and a significantly lower cost ($65 ± $332 vs $506 ± $1,991, p = 0.002; values are in US dollars) in the exercise-only group. The radiation exposure in the exercise plus imaging group was 8.4 ± 2.1 mSv. A provisional injection protocol has a very low mortality, few follow-up diagnostic tests, and lower cost compared to standard imaging protocols. If adopted it would decrease radiation exposure, save time and

  19. Heart disease induced by AAS abuse, using experimental mice/rats models and the role of exercise-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Riezzo, I; De Carlo, D; Neri, M; Nieddu, A; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are all synthetic derivates of testosterone and are commonly used as sport performance enhancers in athletes. The heart is one of the organs most frequently affected by administration of anabolic steroids. A direct myocardial injury caused by AAS is supposed to determine marked hypertrophy in myocardial cells, extensive regional fibrosis and necrosis. A number of excellent studies, using animal models, were performed to evaluate the cardiac effects of AAS. It is known that exogenous administration induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, and when combined with exercise, anabolic steroid use has been shown to change exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy to pathophysiological cardiac hypertrophy. However the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. It's described that sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarct; ventricular remodelling and cardiomyopathy do to AAS is related to apoptosis and oxidative stress when associated with exercise. Mechanical stimuli and circulating humoral factors (TNF-α, HSP-70, IL-1β) released by the heart and peripheral organs are responsible. Testosterone and derivates can work through genomic (activation of specific androgen receptor, interaction with coactivators and co-repressors transcription factors, gene regulation) and non-genomic mechanism (membrane-receptor-second messenger cascades). Chronic AAS abuse results in different patterns of pathologic alterations, which depend on type, dose, frequency, and mode of use. The difficulty in interpreting experimental data on animals (mice and rats) lies in the diversity of experiments (the diversity of substances, which show different properties, different mice / rats by sex and age, duration of treatment with AAS, dosages used, type, scope and exercise duration).

  20. Evaluation of service users' experiences of participating in an exercise programme at the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Omari, Omar; Fulton, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 210 patients are admitted each year to the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Service, and most present with psychotic illness, along with other physical and mental comorbidities. In 2010, a healthy lifestyle programme, which included a formal exercise programme coordinated by an exercise physiologist, was introduced at the service. A self-report questionnaire was developed to obtain feedback on the programme, and 56 patients completed the questionnaire during the 6-month evaluation period. As well as providing patients with access to regular physical activity, the programme also supports the recovery philosophy, where patients work in partnership with forensic mental health staff. Overall, patients reported that the programme assisted them to manage their psychiatric symptoms, as well as improving their level of fitness, confidence, and self-esteem. In addition, patients received education about the importance of regular exercise to their mental health, and the role exercise plays in preventing chronic illness and obesity. While the benefits of exercise on mental health outcomes for people with depression and anxiety are well established, this evaluation adds to the evidence that such programmes provide similar benefits to people who have a psychotic illness and are hospitalized in an acute secure setting.

  1. Non-invasive evaluation by thermistor plethysmography of left ventricular performance during dynamic exercise. Comparison with echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ferro, G; Maione, S; Tari, M G; Giunta, A; Chiariello, M; Condorelli, M

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of two non-invasive techniques (STI and echocardiography) in assessing cardiovascular response during exercise. STI were obtained using a new carotid pulse transducer (thermistor pulse) proved to be reliable in exercise recording. The study population included 12 male rowers (age 15-20 years), who performed supine bicycle exercise; STI and echocardiographic recording of left ventricle were simultaneously obtained at rest and continuously throughout the exercise period. A negative linear correlation (r=-0.782; p less than 0.001) was found between PEP (pre-ejection period) and %LVID (fractional shortening of left ventricle), reliable indexes of cardiac contractility measured by the two techniques. A lower, but significant correlation (r=0.643; p less than 0.001) was present between ETI (left ventricular ejection time corrected by heart rate) and SV (stroke volume) indexes of pump function. The present study shows that STI measured with this new technique, can be employed in evaluating left ventricular function in those patients in whom a good echocardiogram is difficult to record during exercise.

  2. Infrasound Sensor Models and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    KROMER,RICHARD P.; MCDONALD,TIMOTHY S.

    2000-07-31

    Sandia National Laboratories has continued to evaluate the performance of infrasound sensors that are candidates for use by the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. The performance criteria against which these sensors are assessed are specified in ``Operational Manual for Infra-sound Monitoring and the International Exchange of Infrasound Data''. This presentation includes the results of efforts concerning two of these sensors: (1) Chaparral Physics Model 5; and (2) CEA MB2000. Sandia is working with Chaparral Physics in order to improve the capability of the Model 5 (a prototype sensor) to be calibrated and evaluated. With the assistance of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sandia is also conducting tests to evaluate the performance of the CEA MB2000. Sensor models based on theoretical transfer functions and manufacturer specifications for these two devices have been developed. This presentation will feature the results of coherence-based data analysis of signals from a huddle test, utilizing several sensors of both types, in order to verify the sensor performance.

  3. Nursing practice theory of exercise as self-care.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, S L

    1999-01-01

    Exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and promotes health. Most people in the United States do not exercise regularly. Nurses can promote exercise using the proposed theory as a guide. This theory of exercise was developed through triangulation of Orem's self-care deficit theory of nursing, the transtheoretical model of exercise behavior, and characteristics of a population at risk for CVD. Practice theory and use of individual constructs were reviewed, revised, and validated by experts familiar with the organizing constructs. Future testing and evaluation of practice theory as a guide for promoting exercise is planned.

  4. Application of the limited strength model of self-regulation to understanding exercise effort, planning and adherence.

    PubMed

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Bray, Steven R

    2010-12-01

    The limited strength model posits that self-regulatory strength is a finite, renewable resource that is drained when people attempt to regulate their emotions, thoughts or behaviours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-regulatory depletion can explain lapses in exercise effort, planning and adherence. In a lab-based experiment, participants exposed to a self-regulatory depletion manipulation generated lower levels of work during a 10 min bicycling task, and planned to exert less effort during an upcoming exercise bout, compared with control participants. The magnitude of reduction in planned exercise effort predicted exercise adherence over a subsequent 8-week period. Together, these results suggest that self-regulatory depletion can influence exercise effort, planning and decision-making and that the depletion of self-regulatory resources can explain episodes of exercise non-adherence both in the lab and in everyday life.

  5. A Taxonomy of Evaluation Models: Use of Evaluation Models in Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Wayne E.

    In the nine years following the passage of the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA), several models have been developed to attempt to remedy the deficiencies in existing educational evaluation and decision theory noted by Stufflebeam and co-workers. Compilations of evaluation models have been undertaken and listings exist of models available…

  6. Voluntary exercise decreases amyloid load in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Paul A; Perreau, Victoria M; Pop, Viorela; Cotman, Carl W

    2005-04-27

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there are few therapeutics that affect the underlying disease mechanism. Recent epidemiological studies, however, suggest that lifestyle changes may slow the onset/progression of AD. Here we have used TgCRND8 mice to examine directly the interaction between exercise and the AD cascade. Five months of voluntary exercise resulted in a decrease in extracellular amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques in the frontal cortex (38%; p = 0.018), the cortex at the level of the hippocampus (53%; p = 0.0003), and the hippocampus (40%; p = 0.06). This was associated with decreased cortical Abeta1-40 (35%; p = 0.005) and Abeta1-42 (22%; p = 0.04) (ELISA). The mechanism appears to be mediated by a change in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) after short-term exercise, because 1 month of activity decreased the proteolytic fragments of APP [for alpha-C-terminal fragment (alpha-CTF), 54% and p = 0.04; for beta-CTF, 35% and p = 0.03]. This effect was independent of mRNA/protein changes in neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme and, instead, may involve neuronal metabolism changes that are known to affect APP processing and to be regulated by exercise. Long-term exercise also enhanced the rate of learning of TgCRND8 animals in the Morris water maze, with significant (p < 0.02) reductions in escape latencies over the first 3 (of 6) trial days. In support of existing epidemiological studies, this investigation demonstrates that exercise is a simple behavioral intervention sufficient to inhibit the normal progression of AD-like neuropathology in the TgCRND8 mouse model.

  7. [Development and Evaluation of a Motivational Interviewing Program for Exercise Improvement in Persons with Physical Disabilities].

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeong Hee; Jeong, Ihn Sook

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a motivational interviewing program for exercise improvement in persons with physical disabilities and to examine the effect of this motivational interviewing intervention. The study employed a nonequivalent control group pretest and posttest design. A total of 62 persons with physical disabilities (30 in the experimental group, 32 in the control group) were recruited from 2 community rehabilitation centers. The experimental group received 8 sessions of a group motivational interviewing program, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 60 minutes. Test measures were completed before the intervention, immediately after the end of the intervention, 2 weeks later, and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention. Measures included self-efficacy for exercise, decisional balance for exercise, stage of change for exercise, regularity of exercise, exercise maintenance, and independent living ability. Data were analyzed using the χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, Independent samples t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA, conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 18. The experimental group showed a significant increase in self-efficacy for exercise (F=50.98, p<.001), benefit (pros) of exercise (F=24.16, p<.001), and independent living ability (F=50.94, p<.001), and a significant decrease in loss (cons) of exercise (F=26.50, p<.001). There were significant differences between the two groups in stages of change for exercise (p<.001), regularity of exercise (p<.001), and exercise maintenance (χ²=26.61, p<.001). The motivational interviewing program has the potential to improve exercise levels in persons with physical disabilities.

  8. Evaluation of practical exercises using an intravenous simulator incorporating virtual reality and haptics device technologies.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Lee, Young Ho; Jo, Hyun Sook; Lim, Yong Su; Park, Rae Woong

    2012-05-01

    This study confirmed the educational effectiveness of practical exercises (PE) using intravenous (IV) simulators incorporating virtual reality (VR)/haptics (based on the sense of touch) device technologies. First-year nursing students (n=114) were randomly divided into three PE groups: Group A, utilizing a conventional arm model (IV arm); Group B, utilizing a VR/Haptics IV Simulator (IV sim); and Group C, utilizing both the IV arm and IV sim. Group C scored highest on procedures for conducting venipuncture. Group B was more successful in performing injections than Groups A and C. Group C required significantly less time than Group B to complete a venipuncture injection and was faster than Group A, although this difference was not significant. In conclusion, a new paradigm of PE is suggested using both IV sim and IV arm.

  9. Estimation of arterial PCO2 from a lung model during ramp exercise in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vincent; Costes, Frédéric; Busso, Thierry

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to propose a new approach to estimate non-invasively arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(a)CO2) approach was based on the reconstruction of alveolar gas composition over each breath from a tidally ventilated lung model (P(M)(CO2)). Eight healthy young subjects were studied during a ramp exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial samples were drawn at rest and every minute during the exercise test for determination of P(a)CO2 . P(a)CO2 was compared with indirect estimates of P(CO2) : P(M)(CO2), end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET)(CO2)) and an empirical equation involving P(ET)(CO2) and tidal volume (P(J)(CO2)). The difference between estimated and measured P(a)CO2 on the whole ramp exercise was -0.3+/-1.9mmHg for P(M)(CO2), 1.0+/-2.2mmHg for P(ET)(CO2) and -1.7+/-1.7mmHg for P(J)(CO2) . P(ET)(CO2) and P(J)(CO2) were significantly different from actual P(a)CO2 (P<0.001). It is concluded that, on the basis of the bias, the breathing lung model gave better estimates of P(a)CO2 than the two other indirect methods during ramp exercise.

  10. Ants, Tunnels, and Calculus: An Exercise in Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses an activity which models the building of a tunnel by ants using the definitions of derivative and indefinite integral from calculus. Includes a discussion of reasonableness and interpretation of the problem. (MKR)

  11. Evaluation of a Workplace Exercise Program for Control of Shoulder Disorders in Overhead Assembly Work.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Brian D; Shaw, Peter B; Wilson, Sean R; Whitaker, John R; Witherspoon, Greg J; Hudock, Stephen D; Barrero, Marisol; Ray, Tapas K; Wurzelbacher, Steven J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess effects of exercise on shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms among employees with overhead assembly work exposures. A voluntary workplace shoulder exercise program was offered to employees in two automotive assembly departments, while two similar departments served as controls. N = 76 total workers participated. Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and Discomfort of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) symptoms were queried monthly for 7 baseline months, followed by 6 months that included exercise. SRQ scores were higher for exercisers than among controls in the 6 exercising months, but not in the baseline months. Although the group x month interaction was significant (P < 0.05), the temporal trend was inconsistent. Exercise may have temporarily lessened decline in SRQ. It is not clear whether shorter term differences were clinically meaningful or predictive of longer term disability prevention.

  12. A comparison of the Fishbein and Ajzen and the Triandis attitudinal models for the prediction of exercise intention and behavior.

    PubMed

    Valois, P; Desharnais, R; Godin, G

    1988-10-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the efficiency of the Fishbein and Ajzen and the Triandis models to predict (1) the intention to participate regularly in some physical activities during free time within a 3-week period and (2) the exercise behavior within these 3 weeks among a group of 166 subjects, aged 22 to 65 years. Our results show that the Triandis model was as efficient as the Fishbein and Ajzen model in predicting the exercise behavior. However, the results obtained from the Triandis model demonstrate the importance of the habit of exercising in predicting the exercise behavior. Moreover, the Triandis model was superior to the Fishbein and Ajzen model in explaining behavioral intention. Of particular interest was the salience of the affective, social, and personal belief components of the Triandis model. In addition, from a practical perspective, this comparative study showed that (1) to exercise regularly is perceived as hard work, and (2) individuals believe that it is their own responsibility to exercise or not to exercise.

  13. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  14. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.

  15. Development and formative evaluation of a web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program with tailored motivation and action planning for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung

    2013-02-13

    Most dietary and exercise interventions developed to date for cancer survivors have employed intensive clinic-based face-to-face counseling sessions. However, when the clinic-based face-to-face intervention ends, the participants cannot receive feedback from the experts, and the motivation for regular exercise and diet practices decreases. One way to overcome the shortcomings of clinic-based face-to-face intervention is to employ the Internet to this end. To maximize effectiveness when providing Web-based interventions, action planning should be able to start at the right time, education should be tailored to motivational readiness, and self-efficacy should be enhanced at appropriate intervals. The aim of this study was to develop a Web-based self-management diet and exercise intervention program with the aid of the transtheoretical model (TTM) and to conduct formative evaluations. The Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program was developed employing a 5-phase system development life-cycle (SDLC) method. The 5 phases were 1) identification of user requirements, 2) system design, 3) system development, 4) system evaluation, and 5) system application. An expert group composed of 3 content experts, a Web developer, and 2 Web designers, evaluated the usability and accuracy of the content. The program was evaluated by 30 breast cancer survivors for perceived ease of use. The Web-based self-managed exercise and diet intervention program contained 5 components differing in screen layout. These components are introduction, assessment, education (tailored information provision), action planning (goal setting, scheduling, keeping a diary), and automatic feedback. Education, action planning, and automatic feedback were tailored to each participant through the assessment. The processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance, which are the principal strategies encouraging behavioral change according to the TTM theory, were reflected in the

  16. Development and Formative Evaluation of a Web-Based Self-Management Exercise and Diet Intervention Program With Tailored Motivation and Action Planning for Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Chang, Yoon Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background Most dietary and exercise interventions developed to date for cancer survivors have employed intensive clinic-based face-to-face counseling sessions. However, when the clinic-based face-to-face intervention ends, the participants cannot receive feedback from the experts, and the motivation for regular exercise and diet practices decreases. One way to overcome the shortcomings of clinic-based face-to-face intervention is to employ the Internet to this end. To maximize effectiveness when providing Web-based interventions, action planning should be able to start at the right time, education should be tailored to motivational readiness, and self-efficacy should be enhanced at appropriate intervals. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a Web-based self-management diet and exercise intervention program with the aid of the transtheoretical model (TTM) and to conduct formative evaluations. Methods The Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program was developed employing a 5-phase system development life-cycle (SDLC) method. The 5 phases were 1) identification of user requirements, 2) system design, 3) system development, 4) system evaluation, and 5) system application. An expert group composed of 3 content experts, a Web developer, and 2 Web designers, evaluated the usability and accuracy of the content. The program was evaluated by 30 breast cancer survivors for perceived ease of use. Results The Web-based self-managed exercise and diet intervention program contained 5 components differing in screen layout. These components are introduction, assessment, education (tailored information provision), action planning (goal setting, scheduling, keeping a diary), and automatic feedback. Education, action planning, and automatic feedback were tailored to each participant through the assessment. The processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance, which are the principal strategies encouraging behavioral change according to the

  17. A systematic review to evaluate exercise for anterior cruciate ligament injuries: does this approach reduce the incidence of knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Koji J; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Maly, Monica R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Among a variety of conservative and surgical options to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, we do not understand which options could potentially prevent knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence pertaining to exercise treatment of ACL injuries in the context of knee OA. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) databases were systematically searched using keywords encompassed within four primary key terms: knee, osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament, and exercise. Clinical studies evaluating the effect of an exercise treatment for ACL injuries on the development of knee OA in adult humans were included. The PEDro scale was used to critically assess the studies included in the review. Results Eighteen studies were included in this review, with a median PEDro score of 6/11 (range, 2/11–9/11). Three studies provided statistical evidence that exercise following ACL injury lowered the risk for knee OA development. Nine studies demonstrated no benefit of exercise in preventing knee OA incidence relative to either operative treatment or the contralateral, unaffected knee. However, exercise resulted in higher knee instability. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in subjective or objective knee outcomes for early versus late ACL reconstruction. Limitations This review was not registered through PROSPERO. Conclusion The relationship between a rehabilitative exercise for ACL injuries and long-term knee OA prevalence is inconclusive. However, research suggests initial conservative treatment with optional late ACL reconstruction because this treatment strategy may reduce the risk of knee OA. More research, ideally randomized controlled trials or comparable designs, is required prior to establishing clinical guidelines for ACL injury management. PMID:27843365

  18. Preclinical mouse models for assessing axial compression of long bones during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Brun, Julia; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory method is to describe two approaches for the investigation of bone responses to mechanical loading in mice in vivo. The first is running exercise, because it is easily translatable clinically, and the second is axial compression of the tibia, because it is precisely controllable. The effects of running exercise, and in general physical activity, on bone tissue have been shown to be both direct through mechanical loading (ground impact and muscle tension) and indirect through metabolic changes. Therefore, running exercise has been considered the most convenient preclinical model for demonstrating the general idea that exercise is good for bone health, either early in age for increasing peak bone mass or later in age by slowing down bone loss. However, numerous combinations of protocols have been reported, which makes it difficult to formulate a simple take-home message. This laboratory method also provides a detailed description of in vivo direct mechanical axial compression of the mouse tibia. The effects of mechanical loading depend on the force (strain), frequency, waveform and duration of application, and they range from bone anabolism with low bone remodeling, inducing lamellar bone accumulation, to bone catabolism with high bone remodeling, leading to microdamage, woven bone formation and bone loss. Direct in vivo loading models are extensively used to study mechanotransduction pathways, and contribute by this way to the development of new bone anabolism treatments. Although it is particularly difficult to assemble an internationally adopted protocol description, which would give reproducible bone responses, here we have attempted to provide a comprehensive guide for best practice in performing running exercise and direct in vivo mechanical loading in the laboratory. PMID:26788286

  19. Preclinical mouse models for assessing axial compression of long bones during exercise.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Brun, Julia; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory method is to describe two approaches for the investigation of bone responses to mechanical loading in mice in vivo. The first is running exercise, because it is easily translatable clinically, and the second is axial compression of the tibia, because it is precisely controllable. The effects of running exercise, and in general physical activity, on bone tissue have been shown to be both direct through mechanical loading (ground impact and muscle tension) and indirect through metabolic changes. Therefore, running exercise has been considered the most convenient preclinical model for demonstrating the general idea that exercise is good for bone health, either early in age for increasing peak bone mass or later in age by slowing down bone loss. However, numerous combinations of protocols have been reported, which makes it difficult to formulate a simple take-home message. This laboratory method also provides a detailed description of in vivo direct mechanical axial compression of the mouse tibia. The effects of mechanical loading depend on the force (strain), frequency, waveform and duration of application, and they range from bone anabolism with low bone remodeling, inducing lamellar bone accumulation, to bone catabolism with high bone remodeling, leading to microdamage, woven bone formation and bone loss. Direct in vivo loading models are extensively used to study mechanotransduction pathways, and contribute by this way to the development of new bone anabolism treatments. Although it is particularly difficult to assemble an internationally adopted protocol description, which would give reproducible bone responses, here we have attempted to provide a comprehensive guide for best practice in performing running exercise and direct in vivo mechanical loading in the laboratory.

  20. Cardiovascular Benefits of Moderate Exercise Training in Marfan Syndrome: Insights From an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Batlle, Monsterrat; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Meirelles, Thayna; Rubies, Cira; Bonorino, Fabio; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Bijnens, Bart; Baudin, Julio; Sitges, Marta; Mont, Lluís; Guasch, Eduard; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-09-25

    Marfan syndrome (MF) leads to aortic root dilatation and a predisposition to aortic dissection, mitral valve prolapse, and primary and secondary cardiomyopathy. Overall, regular physical exercise is recommended for a healthy lifestyle, but dynamic sports are strongly discouraged in MF patients. Nonetheless, evidence supporting this recommendation is lacking. Therefore, we studied the role of long-term dynamic exercise of moderate intensity on the MF cardiovascular phenotype. In a transgenic mouse model of MF (Fbn1(C1039G/+)), 4-month-old wild-type and MF mice were subjected to training on a treadmill for 5 months; sedentary littermates served as controls for each group. Aortic and cardiac remodeling was assessed by echocardiography and histology. The 4-month-old MF mice showed aortic root dilatation, elastic lamina rupture, and tunica media fibrosis, as well as cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular fibrosis, and intramyocardial vessel remodeling. Over the 5-month experimental period, aortic root dilation rate was significantly greater in the sedentary MF group, compared with the wild-type group (∆mm, 0.27±0.07 versus 0.13±0.02, respectively). Exercise significantly blunted the aortic root dilation rate in MF mice compared with sedentary MF littermates (∆mm, 0.10±0.04 versus 0.27±0.07, respectively). However, these 2 groups were indistinguishable by aortic root stiffness, tunica media fibrosis, and elastic lamina ruptures. In MF mice, exercise also produced cardiac hypertrophy regression without changes in left ventricular fibrosis. Our results in a transgenic mouse model of MF indicate that moderate dynamic exercise mitigates the progression of the MF cardiovascular phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  1. Gender Differences in Exercise Dependence and Eating Disorders in Young Adults: A Path Analysis of a Conceptual Model

    PubMed Central

    Meulemans, Shelli; Pribis, Peter; Grajales, Tevni; Krivak, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to study the prevalence of exercise dependence (EXD) among college students and to investigate the role of EXD and gender on exercise behavior and eating disorders. Excessive exercise can become an addiction known as exercise dependence. In our population of 517 college students, 3.3% were at risk for EXD and 8% were at risk for an eating disorder. We used Path analysis the simplest case of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate the role of EXD and exercise behavior on eating disorders. We observed a small direct effect from gender to eating disorders. In females we observed significant direct effect between exercise behavior (r = −0.17, p = 0.009) and EXD (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed an indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.16) through EXD (r = 0.48, r2 = 0.23, p < 0.001). In females the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 9%. In males we observed a direct effect between EXD (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.11) through EXD (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24, p < 0.001). In males the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 5%. PMID:25379689

  2. Gender differences in exercise dependence and eating disorders in young adults: a path analysis of a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, Shelli; Pribis, Peter; Grajales, Tevni; Krivak, Gretchen

    2014-11-05

    The purpose of our study was to study the prevalence of exercise dependence (EXD) among college students and to investigate the role of EXD and gender on exercise behavior and eating disorders. Excessive exercise can become an addiction known as exercise dependence. In our population of 517 college students, 3.3% were at risk for EXD and 8% were at risk for an eating disorder. We used Path analysis the simplest case of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate the role of EXD and exercise behavior on eating disorders. We observed a small direct effect from gender to eating disorders. In females we observed significant direct effect between exercise behavior (r = -0.17, p = 0.009) and EXD (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed an indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.16) through EXD (r = 0.48, r2 = 0.23, p < 0.001). In females the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 9%. In males we observed a direct effect between EXD (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.11) through EXD (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24, p < 0.001). In males the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 5%.

  3. A Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Series of Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises for Biopsychology Courses.

    PubMed

    Kehrberg, Ana M H; Parrish, Jenna N; Eby, Sasha A

    2017-01-01

    Many undergraduate students are aware that consuming alcohol during pregnancy can result in many serious physical and behavioral deficits. Student interest in this clinical syndrome allows instructors to provide engaging laboratory exercises that relate topics covered in most biopsychology courses to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Through this series of experiments, students will use rodents to study the behavioral deficits that can be caused by developmental alcohol exposure, including impaired ultrasonic vocalizations, hyperactivity, balance, and spatial learning. Other possible exercises include analyzing blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), completing histological studies of anatomical effects, and/or discussing the societal implications of developmental alcohol exposure. The instructor has the flexibility to determine which of the exercises fit into the class schedule and budget since he or she may choose to complete all of the behavioral tests or only one of them. Students will also learn about the benefits and drawbacks of animal models for human disorders, important considerations in research design such as reliability and validity, while also gaining experience in statistical analyses and writing empirical research papers. The application of these important concepts to a human syndrome and the use of small, easy-to-handle rodent pups make these exercises an accessible, stimulating introduction to animal research for most undergraduate students.

  4. Evaluation strategies for CNSs: application of an evaluation model.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Malone, L M

    1996-07-01

    Program development has become an essential role function for today's CNS, who must be able to evaluate programs to determine their efficacy. A useful evaluation guide is Stufflebeam's CIPP (context, input, process, and product) model, which includes a framework to evaluate indirect care measures directly affecting cost-effectiveness and accountability. The model's core consists of (1) context evaluation leading to informed, contemplated decisions; (2) input evaluation directing structured decisions; (3) process evaluation guiding implemented decisions; and (4) product evaluation serving to recycle decisions. Strategies for using Stufflebeam's CIPP model are described.

  5. Evaluation of T-Rations and the Mobile Food Service Unit in a Field Exercise at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EVALUATION OF T-RATIONS AND THE MOBILE NATICK/TR-83/012 FOOD SERVICE UNIT IN A FIELD EXERCISE AT...Advanced Concepts for Combat Food Service Systems; Appendix 1, Evaluation of The Army Combat Field Feeding System * 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side...it necessary and Identify by block nugnber) COMBAT FOOD SERVICE MILITARY RATIONS FIELD FEEDING MOBILE FOOD SERVICE UNIT FOOD SERVICE MILITARY

  6. Evaluation of the Washington State National Pharmaceutical Stockpile dispensing exercise, part II--dispensary site worker findings.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Randal D; Stevermer, Andrew; Wicklund, Julie; Owens, David; Boase, Janice; Oberle, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    On January 24, 2002, the Washington State Department of Health, in collaboration with local and federal agencies, conducted an exercise of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Pharmaceutical Stockpile dispensing portion of the Washington State plan. This exercise included predrill planning, training, and the orchestration of services of more than 40 dispensary site workers. These workers provided education and post-exposure prophylaxis for over 230 patient volunteers in the aftermath of a simulated exposure to B. anthracis. This article discusses findings of a postdrill questionnaire completed by 90% of these dispensary site workers who provided triage, education, dispensary, security and other services during this exercise. In general, this dispensing drill promoted confidence in the worker participants and provided an opportunity for these participants to coordinate their activities. This mock bioterrorist preparedness exercise allowed worker participants and observers to review and evaluate the Washington State plan for dispensing the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile. This article is apparently the first published account of dispensary site workers' subjective impressions and quantitative analysis of their postdrill opinions following a simulated bioterrorist post-exposure chemoprophylaxis dispensing exercise.

  7. Commitment to Sport and Exercise: Re-examining the Literature for a Practical and Parsimonious Model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A commitment to physical activity is necessary for personal health, and is a primary goal of physical activity practitioners. Effective practitioners rely on theory and research as a guide to best practices. Thus, sound theory, which is both practical and parsimonious, is a key to effective practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in search of such a theory - one that applies to and explains commitment to physical activity in the form of sport and exercise for youths and adults. The Sport Commitment Model has been commonly used to study commitment to sport and has more recently been applied to the exercise context. In this paper, research using the Sport Commitment Model is reviewed relative to its utility in both the sport and exercise contexts. Through this process, the relevance of the Investment Model for study of physical activity commitment emerged, and a more parsimonious framework for studying of commitment to physical activity is suggested. Lastly, links between the models of commitment and individuals' participation motives in physical activity are suggested and practical implications forwarded. PMID:23412904

  8. Commitment to sport and exercise: re-examining the literature for a practical and parsimonious model.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lavon

    2013-01-01

    A commitment to physical activity is necessary for personal health, and is a primary goal of physical activity practitioners. Effective practitioners rely on theory and research as a guide to best practices. Thus, sound theory, which is both practical and parsimonious, is a key to effective practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in search of such a theory - one that applies to and explains commitment to physical activity in the form of sport and exercise for youths and adults. The Sport Commitment Model has been commonly used to study commitment to sport and has more recently been applied to the exercise context. In this paper, research using the Sport Commitment Model is reviewed relative to its utility in both the sport and exercise contexts. Through this process, the relevance of the Investment Model for study of physical activity commitment emerged, and a more parsimonious framework for studying of commitment to physical activity is suggested. Lastly, links between the models of commitment and individuals' participation motives in physical activity are suggested and practical implications forwarded.

  9. Exercise improves cardiovascular control in a model of dislipidemia and menopause.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Marcelo Velloso; De Sousa, Leandro Eziquiel; Mostarda, Cristiano; Moreira, Edson; Machert, Henrique; Rigatto, Katya Vianna; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Irigoyen, M C; De Angelis, Kátia

    2009-02-20

    The present study investigated the effects of exercise training on arterial pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic control and metabolic parameters on female LDL-receptor knockout ovariectomized mice. Mice were divided into two groups: sedentary and trained. Trained group was submitted to an exercise training protocol. Blood cholesterol was measured. Arterial pressure (AP) signals were directly recorded in conscious mice. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by tachycardic and bradycardic responses to AP changes. Cardiovascular autonomic modulation was measured in frequency (FFT) and time domains. Maximal exercise capacity was increased in trained as compared to sedentary group. Blood cholesterol was diminished in trained mice (191+/-8mg/dL) when compared to sedentary mice (250+/-9mg/dL, p<0.05). Mean AP and HR were reduced in trained group (101+/-3mmHg and 535+/-14bpm, p<0.05) when compared with sedentary group (125+/-3mmHg and 600+/-12bpm). Exercise training induced improvement in bradycardic reflex response in trained animals (-4.24+/-0.62bpm/mmHg) in relation to sedentary animals (-1.49+/-0.15bpm/mmHg, p<0.01); tachycardic reflex responses were similar between studied groups. Exercise training increased the variance (34+/-8 vs. 6.6+/-1.5ms(2) in sedentary, p<0.005) and the high-frequency band (HF) of the pulse interval (IP) (53+/-7% vs. 26+/-6% in sedentary, p<0.01). It is tempting to speculate that results of this experimental study might represent a rationale for this non-pharmacological intervention in the management of cardiovascular risk factors in dyslipidemic post-menopause women.

  10. State Space Modelling and Data Analysis Exercises in LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofrarias, M.; Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Congedo, G.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martin, V.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Nicolodi, D.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Schleicher, A.; Shaul, D.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2013-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission planned by the European Space Agency (ESA) to test the key technologies that will allow the detection of gravitational waves in space. The instrument on-board, the LISA Technology package, will undergo an exhaustive campaign of calibrations and noise characterisation campaigns in order to fully describe the noise model. Data analysis plays an important role in the mission and for that reason the data analysis team has been developing a toolbox which contains all the functionality required during operations. In this contribution we give an overview of recent activities, focusing on the improvements in the modelling of the instrument and in the data analysis campaigns performed both with real and simulated data.

  11. Aerobic exercise training and low-level laser therapy modulate inflammatory response and degenerative process in an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Assis, L; Milares, L P; Almeida, T; Tim, C; Magri, A; Fernandes, K R; Medalha, C; Renno, A C Muniz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aerobic exercise training and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators on the articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (CG); knee OA control group (OAC); OA plus exercise training group (OAT); OA plus LLLT group (OAL); OA plus exercise training associated with LLLT group (OATL). The exercise training (treadmill; 16 m/min; 50 min/day) and the laser irradiation (two points-medial and lateral side of the left joint; 24 sessions) started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results showed that all treated groups showed (irradiated or not) a better pattern of tissue organization, with less fibrillation and irregularities along the articular surface and chondrocytes organization, a lower degenerative process measured by OARSI score and higher thickness values. Additionally, all treated group showed a reduced expression in IL-1β, caspase-3 and MMP-13 compared to OAC. Moreover, a lower caspase-3 expression was observed in OATL compared to OAL and OAT. These results suggest that exercise training and LLLT were effective in preventing cartilage degeneration and modulating inflammatory process induced by knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Swimming Exercise on Learning and Memory in the Kainate-Lesion Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Bond, Vernon; Meyers, Dewey G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An aerobic exercise (Ex) augments neurogenesis and may ameliorate learning and memory deficits in the rat Kainic Acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy in the short-term but whether it reverses learning and memory deficits after a substantial period of delay remains unclear. Aim This study tests the hypothesis that aerobic Ex attenuates the learning and memory deficits associated with kainate seizures in the long-term. Materials and Methods A total of 60 rats were subjected to chemical lesioning using KA and to an Ex intervention consisting of a 30 days period of daily swimming for 15 min, immediately after KA lesioning (immediate exposure) or after a 60 days period of normal activity (delayed exposure). We evaluated spatial learning on a T-maze test, expressed as percentage of correct responses. We evaluated memory on a passive-avoidance test, expressed as time spent in a compartment in which the rats were previously exposed to an aversive stimulus. Results Ex increases the percentage of correct responses, percentage bias, and number of alternations, associated with the T-maze testing for the normal control, sham-operated control and kainate-lesioned animals after both immediate and delayed exposures to Ex. Ex decreased the time exposed to the aversive stimulus in the smaller compartment of the two-compartment passive-avoidance test, also for the normal control, sham-operated control and kainate-lesioned animals after both immediate and delayed exposures to Ex. Conclusion These findings suggest that, after temporal lobe epileptic seizures in rats, swimming exercise may attenuate the learning and memory deficits, even if the exercise treatment is delayed. PMID:28050361

  13. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (P<0.01). Energy restriction induced an increase in exercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of

  14. Evaluating a College-Prep Laboratory Exercise for Teenaged Homeschool Students in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercules, Daniel A.; Parrish, Cameron A.; Whitehead, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    We devised a half-day laboratory exercise for a group of 10th grade homeschooled students enrolled in an honors-level high school general chemistry course organized by a collective of homeschooling families associated with local Christian churches. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the students met the learning objectives of the exercise. The…

  15. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  16. Human subject evaluation of the controlled resistance exercise device (C-red) for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Paulus, David C; DeWitt, John

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise is an effective countermeasure to the muscle and bone atrophy associated with the unloading experienced during spaceflight. Long duration spaceflight will require compact exercise devices that are capable of delivering sufficient loading to prevent physiological losses while meeting strict mass and volume requirements. Accordingly, a controlled resistance exercise device (C-RED), developed as an advanced exercise concept for NASA, uses an electric motor for resistance and is programmed to simulate inertial loading based on barbell acceleration and desired resistance mass. The barbell acts as a movable pulley increasing efficiency by doubling the created load. Human subject testing of the functionality of the device was conducted in a laboratory at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Subjects performed ten resistance exercises typically used by astronauts at three freely chosen load levels. The results indicate that subjects were able to perform all exercises with resistance loads that were typical to those used in the gymnasium with loads ranges of 4-1600 N, and bilateral symmetry of ground reaction force was quantified for the deadlift. A survey also was given to each subject to allow the users to express their opinions regarding the device. The subject questionnaire showed that the dumbbell attachment exercises were preferred to the barbell exercises. The positive preliminary results indicate promise for the device.

  17. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  18. Evaluating a College-Prep Laboratory Exercise for Teenaged Homeschool Students in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercules, Daniel A.; Parrish, Cameron A.; Whitehead, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    We devised a half-day laboratory exercise for a group of 10th grade homeschooled students enrolled in an honors-level high school general chemistry course organized by a collective of homeschooling families associated with local Christian churches. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the students met the learning objectives of the exercise. The…

  19. Anti-fatigue effect of Myelophil in a chronic forced exercise mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil. ICR male mice (10 weeks old) were forced to run for 1 hour, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Each running session was followed by administration of distilled water, Myelophil (50 or 100 mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) 1h later. Equal proportions of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix were extracted using 30% ethanol, and formulated into Myelophil. To evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil, exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests were conducted. Underlying mechanisms, including oxidant-antioxidant balance, inflammatory response, and energy metabolism, were investigated by analyzing skeletal muscle tissues and/or sera. Myelophil significantly increased exercise ability and latency times, and decreased the number of electric shocks and immobility time on exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests compared with control group. Myelophil also significantly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations in oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by multiple assays, including enzyme activity assays and western blotting, as well as alterations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Myelophil normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers in sera. These findings suggest that Myelophil reduces the effects of chronic fatigue, likely by attenuating oxidative and inflammatory responses and normalizing energy metabolism. Consequently, this study provides evidence for the clinical relevance of Myelophil.

  20. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  1. Evaluation of the Next-Gen Exercise Software Interface in the NEEMO Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrea; Kalogera, Kent; Sandor, Aniko; Hardy, Marc; Frank, Andrew; English, Kirk; Williams, Thomas; Perera, Jeevan; Amonette, William

    2017-01-01

    NSBRI (National Space Biomedical Research Institute) funded research grant to develop the 'NextGen' exercise software for the NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) analog. Develop a software architecture to integrate instructional, motivational and socialization techniques into a common portal to enhance exercise countermeasures in remote environments. Increase user efficiency and satisfaction, and institute commonality across multiple exercise systems. Utilized GUI (Graphical User Interface) design principals focused on intuitive ease of use to minimize training time and realize early user efficiency. Project requirement to test the software in an analog environment. Top Level Project Aims: 1) Improve the usability of crew interface software to exercise CMS (Crew Management System) through common app-like interfaces. 2) Introduce virtual instructional motion training. 3) Use virtual environment to provide remote socialization with family and friends, improve exercise technique, adherence, motivation and ultimately performance outcomes.

  2. Evaluation of an alternating-calorie diet with and without exercise in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hill, J O; Schlundt, D G; Sbrocco, T; Sharp, T; Pope-Cordle, J; Stetson, B; Kaler, M; Heim, C

    1989-08-01

    This study examined the effects of calorie alternation and exercise on weight loss. Moderately obese women (130-160% of ideal body weight) were randomly assigned to an alternating- or constant-calorie diet with or without aerobic exercise. Both diets provided an average of 1200 kcal/d over a 12-wk period; daily intake of subjects in the alternating-diet condition varied in a prescribed pattern from 600 to 1800 kcal/d. Exercising subjects walked 5 d/wk. All subjects participated in an intensive outpatient behavior-modification program. At the end of the study, exercised subjects had greater reductions in body weight and body fat percentage than did nonexercised subjects. The type of caloric restriction did not affect weight or fat loss. Changes in resting metabolic rate did not differ among groups. Alternating calories was neither beneficial nor detrimental as a weight-loss strategy whereas exercise was clearly beneficial in weight-loss therapy.

  3. Evaluation of relapse prevention and reinforcement interventions to promote exercise adherence in sedentary females.

    PubMed

    Marcus, B H; Stanton, A L

    1993-12-01

    An experimental design was employed to assess the effectiveness of a relapse prevention program, a reinforcement program, and an exercise-only control group in increasing exercise program adherence and short-term maintenance in 120 previously sedentary female university employees. The subjects participated in an 18-week exercise program composed of stretching, calisthenics, and aerobic dance. Attendance during the first half of the program was significantly higher for subjects in the relapse prevention group than for those in the control group. A nonsignificant trend in this direction emerged during the second half of the program and at 2-month follow-up. For all treatment groups, attrition (attendance at less than two thirds of the exercise sessions) was substantial, averaging 72% at the end of the 18-week program. These findings indicate that relapse prevention and reinforcement programs may not assist previously sedentary females in long-term adherence to an exercise program.

  4. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wogensen, Elise; Malá, Hana; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used were: exercise (and) animal model (or) rodent (or) rat (and) traumatic brain injury (or) cerebral ischemia (or) brain irradiation. Studies were selected if they were (1) in English, (2) used adult animals subjected to acquired brain injury, (3) used exercise as an intervention tool after inflicted injury, (4) used exercise paradigms demanding movement of all extremities, (5) had exercise intervention effects that could be distinguished from other potential intervention effects, and (6) contained at least one measure of cognitive and/or emotional function. Out of 2308 hits, 22 publications fulfilled the criteria. The studies were examined relative to cognitive effects associated with three themes: exercise type (forced or voluntary), timing of exercise (early or late), and dose-related factors (intensity, duration, etc.). The studies indicate that exercise in many cases can promote cognitive recovery after brain injury. However, the optimal parameters to ensure cognitive rehabilitation efficacy still elude us, due to considerable methodological variations between studies. PMID:26509085

  5. Exercise Activates p53 and Negatively Regulates IGF-1 Pathway in Epidermis within a Skin Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; King, Brenee; Ewert, Emily; Su, Xiaoyu; Mardiyati, Nur; Zhao, Zhihui; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been previously reported to lower cancer risk through reducing circulating IGF-1 and IGF-1-dependent signaling in a mouse skin cancer model. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which exercise may down-regulate the IGF-1 pathway via p53 and p53-related regulators in the skin epidermis. Female SENCAR mice were pair-fed an AIN-93 diet with or without 10-week treadmill exercise at 20 m/min, 60 min/day and 5 days/week. Animals were topically treated with TPA 2 hours before sacrifice and the target proteins in the epidermis were analyzed by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Under TPA or vehicle treatment, MDM2 expression was significantly reduced in exercised mice when compared with sedentary control. Meanwhile, p53 was significantly elevated. In addition, p53-transcriptioned proteins, i.e., p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN, increased in response to exercise. There was a synergy effect between exercise and TPA on the decreased MDM2 and increased p53, but not p53-transcripted proteins. Taken together, exercise appeared to activate p53, resulting in enhanced expression of p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN that might induce a negative regulation of IGF-1 pathway and thus contribute to the observed cancer prevention by exercise in this skin cancer model.

  6. Exercise Activates p53 and Negatively Regulates IGF-1 Pathway in Epidermis within a Skin Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Miao; King, Brenee; Ewert, Emily; Su, Xiaoyu; Mardiyati, Nur; Zhao, Zhihui; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been previously reported to lower cancer risk through reducing circulating IGF-1 and IGF-1-dependent signaling in a mouse skin cancer model. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which exercise may down-regulate the IGF-1 pathway via p53 and p53-related regulators in the skin epidermis. Female SENCAR mice were pair-fed an AIN-93 diet with or without 10-week treadmill exercise at 20 m/min, 60 min/day and 5 days/week. Animals were topically treated with TPA 2 hours before sacrifice and the target proteins in the epidermis were analyzed by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Under TPA or vehicle treatment, MDM2 expression was significantly reduced in exercised mice when compared with sedentary control. Meanwhile, p53 was significantly elevated. In addition, p53-transcriptioned proteins, i.e., p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN, increased in response to exercise. There was a synergy effect between exercise and TPA on the decreased MDM2 and increased p53, but not p53-transcripted proteins. Taken together, exercise appeared to activate p53, resulting in enhanced expression of p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN that might induce a negative regulation of IGF-1 pathway and thus contribute to the observed cancer prevention by exercise in this skin cancer model. PMID:27509024

  7. Homeostasis of Exercise Hyperpnea and Optimal Sensorimotor Integration: The Internal Model Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Tin, Chung; Yu, Yunguo

    2007-01-01

    Homeostasis is a basic tenet of biomedicine and an open problem for many physiological control systems. Among them, none has been more extensively studied and intensely debated than the dilemma of exercise hyperpnea – a paradoxical homeostatic increase of respiratory ventilation that is geared to metabolic demands instead of the normal chemoreflex mechanism. Classical control theory has led to a plethora of “feedback/feedforward control” or “set point” hypotheses for homeostatic regulation, yet so far none of them has proved satisfactory in explaining exercise hyperpnea and its interactions with other respiratory inputs. Instead, the available evidence points to a far more sophisticated respiratory controller capable of integrating multiple afferent and efferent signals in adapting the ventilatory pattern toward optimality relative to conflicting homeostatic, energetic and other objectives. This optimality principle parsimoniously mimics exercise hyperpnea, chemoreflex and a host of characteristic respiratory responses to abnormal gas exchange or mechanical loading/unloading in health and in cardiopulmonary diseases – all without resorting to a feedforward “exercise stimulus”. Rather, an emergent controller signal encoding the projected metabolic level is predicted by the principle as an exercise-induced ‘mental percept’ or ‘internal model’, presumably engendered by associative learning (operant conditioning or classical conditioning) which achieves optimality through continuous identification of, and adaptation to, the causal relationship between respiratory motor output and resultant chemical-mechanical afferent feedbacks. This internal model self-tuning adaptive control paradigm opens a new challenge and exciting opportunity for experimental and theoretical elucidations of the mechanisms of respiratory control – and of homeostatic regulation and sensorimotor integration in general. PMID:17416554

  8. Cardiac Function at Rest and During Exercise in Normals and in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: Evaluation by Radionuclide Angiocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Rerych, Stephen K.; Scholz, Peter M.; Newman, Glenn E.; Sabiston, David C.; Jones, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    This study demonstrates that radionuclide angiocardiography provides a simple and noninvasive approach for evaluation of myocardial function. Previous work concerning myocardial performance has been generally conducted with the patient in the supine position. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in the present study at rest and during exercise in 30 normal subjects and in 30 patients with ischemic coronary artery disease. There were 30 normal controls (Group I), ten with single coronary artery disease (Group II), and 20 patients with multiple vessel coronary disease (Group III). All subjects were studied in the erect posture on a bicycle ergometer. In the normal controls, the mean heart rate doubled and the cardiac output tripled during exercise. Intensive training can lead to extraordinary levels of cardiac performance as shown in a world-class athlete who during peak exercise attained a heart rate of 210, an ejection fraction of 97%, and a cardiac output of 56 litres per minute. In the patients with coronary artery disease, both groups, were able to increase cardiac output to approximately twice the resting value. The magnitude of increase in blood pressure during exercise was not significantly different in the three groups. However, definite changes were present in the end-diastolic volume at rest was 116 and rose to 128 ml in Group I, 93 rising to 132 ml in Group II, and 138 increasing to 216 ml in Group III. The stroke volume increased comparably in all three groups, but the ejection fraction from rest to exercise showed a marked contrast in the controls compared to those with multivessel coronary disease. The ejection fraction rose in Group I from 66 to 80% during exercise, while in Group II it fell from 69 to 67%, and in Group III from 60 to 46%. These findings indicate that patients with ischemic myocardial disease respond to the stress of exercise by cardiac dilatation to maintain of increase stroke volume at increased heart rates. Moreover, the

  9. Managing anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris spp.: A modelling exercise.

    PubMed

    Leathwick, Dave M; Sauermann, Christian W; Geurden, Thomas; Nielsen, Martin K

    2017-06-15

    A previously described model for the dynamics of the parasitic stages of Parascaris spp. was modified to include eggs outside the host and the genetics of anthelmintic resistance before being used to address questions regarding the development of resistance. Three broad questions were addressed; i) How sustainable is the current common practice of treating foals monthly for their first year of life (i.e. 12 treatments/year)? ii) Does the timing of treatments have an effect on resistance development? (i.e. do certain treatments select for resistance more strongly than others?), and iii) How sustainable is the currently recommended strategy of targeting ascarid infections in foals with two treatments applied during the first five months of life? A range of variations within these broad questions were considered, such as the value in rotational deworming, whether larvicidal treatments are more selective for resistance, and whether combination anthelmintics should be introduced. Twelve anthelmintic treatments at monthly intervals resulted in the development of resistance to all the anthelmintics used, regardless of how they were used, indicating that such intensive treatment frequency is unlikely to be sustainable. The timing of a single annual treatment influenced resistance development with treatments at 3 and 4 months of age being more selective than treatments at other times. Treatments administered to foals older than 6 months of age did not select for resistance within the timeframe of these simulations. Treatments with activity against migrating third stage larvae (ivermectin and a programme of 5 daily treatments with fenbendazole) were more selective for resistance than those which only killed worms in the intestine. Restricting the number of treatments to young foals to two, administered at 2 and 5 months of age slowed the development of resistance by allowing a small contribution from susceptible genotype worms to subsequent generations. If the interval

  10. A Hydrologic Model Calibration Exercise for Regional Climate Change Impact Assessment of the Conterminous U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubeidillah, A. A.; Kao, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the hydrological impacts of climate change in the U.S. using projections from multiple general circulation models downscaled by means of regional climate models, statistical methods, and hydrologic models. Most of these studies focused on a small number of local watersheds without consideration to larger-scale regional climate change impacts, or utilized macro-scale hydrologic models with coarser spatial resolution that are insufficient to characterize the delicate surface hydrology. To improve the results of regional hydro-climate impact assessment, there is a need for better spatial coverage as well as resolution of hydrologic models. The main challenge has been the availability of a comprehensive set of higher resolution calibrated physical parameters. Focusing on the need of regional hydro-climate impact assessment, a data-intensive hydrologic model calibration exercise is performed for over 2000 USGS hydrologic Subbasins (HUC8) in the conterminous U.S. at the resolution of 1/24th degree (~4km). Both USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff and NWIS daily gage observation are used to calibrate the baseline variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. Several statistical matrices are used to evaluate the model performance at each HUC8, including the Pearson correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSEC), bias (B) and the percent bias (PB). The overall results show that the physical models simulate closely the observed values with about sixty four percent of the HUC8s having an average NSEC of 0.95 The model performance was vastly better in wet region basins than they were in arid region. The current baseline VIC model can hardly be improved in arid and desert regions (covering about twenty percent of the HUC8s) where the NSEC values are below zero. Overall, the new 4-km model implementation for the conterminous U.S. shows promising improvement over the ones

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Voluntary Exercise in an Inherited Retinal Degeneration Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Adam M.; Lawson, Eric C.; Prunty, Megan; Gogniat, Marissa; Aung, Moe H.; Chakraborty, Ranjay; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our previous investigations showed that involuntary treadmill exercise is neuroprotective in a light-induced retinal degeneration mouse model, and it may act through activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptors. This study investigated whether voluntary running wheel exercise can be neuroprotective in an inheritable model of the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP), rd10 mice. Methods Breeding pairs of rd10 and C57BL/6J mice were given free-spinning (active) or locked (inactive) running wheels. Pups were weaned into separate cages with their parents' respective wheel types, and visual function was tested with ERG and a virtual optokinetic system at 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age. Offspring were killed at 6 weeks of age and retinal cross-sections were prepared for photoreceptor nuclei counting. Additionally, separate cohorts of active and inactive rd10 pups were injected daily for 14 days after eye opening with a selective TrkB receptor antagonist (ANA-12) or vehicle solution and assessed as described above. Results Mice in the rd10 active group exhibited significant preservation of visual acuity, cone nuclei, and total photoreceptor nuclei number. Injection with ANA-12 precluded the preservation of visual acuity and photoreceptor nuclei number in rd10 mice. Conclusions Voluntary running partially protected against the retinal degeneration and vision loss that otherwise occurs in the rd10 mouse model of RP. This protection was prevented by injection of ANA-12, suggesting that TrkB activation mediates exercise's preservation of the retina. Exercise may serve as an effective, clinically translational intervention against retinal degeneration. PMID:26567796

  12. Evaluating models of vowel perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molis, Michelle R.

    2005-08-01

    There is a long-standing debate concerning the efficacy of formant-based versus whole spectrum models of vowel perception. Categorization data for a set of synthetic steady-state vowels were used to evaluate both types of models. The models tested included various combinations of formant frequencies and amplitudes, principal components derived from excitation patterns, and perceptually scaled LPC cepstral coefficients. The stimuli were 54 five-formant synthesized vowels that had a common F1 frequency and varied orthogonally in F2 and F3 frequency. Twelve speakers of American English categorized the stimuli as the vowels /smcapi/, /capomega/, or /hkbkeh/. Results indicate that formant frequencies provided the best account of the data only if nonlinear terms, in the form of squares and cross products of the formant values, were also included in the analysis. The excitation pattern principal components also produced reasonably accurate fits to the data. Although a wish to use the lowest-dimensional representation would dictate that formant frequencies are the most appropriate vowel description, the relative success of richer, more flexible, and more neurophysiologically plausible whole spectrum representations suggests that they may be preferred for understanding human vowel perception.

  13. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Baty, Florent; Ritz, Christian; van Gestel, Arnoldus; Brutsche, Martin; Gerhard, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is commonly used to quantify exercise capacity in patients with several cardio-pulmonary diseases. Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) kinetics during 6MWT typically follow 3 distinct phases (rest, exercise, recovery) that can be modeled by nonlinear regression. Simultaneous modeling of multiple kinetics requires nonlinear mixed models methodology. To the best of our knowledge, no such curve-fitting approach has been used to analyze multiple [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics in both research and clinical practice so far. In the present study, we describe functionality of the R package medrc that extends the framework of the commonly used packages drc and nlme and allows fitting nonlinear mixed effects models for automated nonlinear regression modeling. The methodology was applied to a data set including 6MWT [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics from 61 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (disease severity stage II to IV). The mixed effects approach was compared to a traditional curve-by-curve approach. A six-parameter nonlinear regression model was jointly fitted to the set of [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics. Significant differences between disease stages were found regarding steady state [Formula: see text]O2 during exercise, [Formula: see text]O2 level after recovery and [Formula: see text]O2 inflection point in the recovery phase. Estimates obtained by the mixed effects approach showed standard errors that were consistently lower as compared to the curve-by-curve approach. Hereby we demonstrate the novelty and usefulness of this methodology in the context of physiological exercise testing.

  14. Personalized mechanistic models for exercise, meal and insulin interventions in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Naviyn Prabhu; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Rangaiah, Gade Pandu

    2014-09-21

    Personalized mechanistic models involving exercise, meal and insulin interventions for type 1 diabetic children and adolescents are not commonly seen in the literature. Patient specific variations in blood glucose homeostasis and adverse effects of exercise-induced hypoglycemia emphasize the need for personalized models. Hence, a modified mechanistic model for exercise, meal and insulin interventions is proposed and tailored as personalized models for 34 type 1 diabetic children and adolescents. This is achieved via a 3-stage methodology comprising of modification, a priori identifiability analysis, and personalized parameter estimation and validation using the clinical data. Rate of perceived exertion is introduced as a marker quantifying exercise intensity. Six out of 16 parameters in the modified model are identified to be estimable and are estimated for each subject as personalized parameters. The R(2) values for both fitness and validation vary between 0.7 and 0.96 in 97% of the patients, indicating the goodness of the proposed model in explaining the glucose dynamics. For most of the estimated parameters, values of personalized point estimates and their confidence intervals are found to be within physiological ranges reported in the modeling literature. Personalized values of appearance rate of exercise effect on glucose uptake in 34 subjects are 54-250% higher than the nominal values of adults. This is expected for children and adolescents as the literature shows that they exhibit higher fat and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise when compared to adults.

  15. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications.

    PubMed

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Tonolo, Fabio Giulio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author's group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications.

  16. Evaluation of medical and veterinary students' attitudes toward a one health interprofessional curricular exercise.

    PubMed

    Winer, Jenna Nicole; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Conrad, Patricia A; Brown, Lauren; Wilkes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates whether medical and veterinary students' attitudes toward "One Health" and interprofessional education changed after participating in a joint small group learning exercise focused on risk factors associated with zoonotic disease. A survey was distributed to third-year medical students (n = 98) and second-year veterinary students (n = 140), each with a 95% response rate. Overall, 92% of veterinary students and 73% of medical students agreed or strongly agreed that "One Health" was relevant to their desired specialty. Students from both schools largely agreed that interprofessional education should be a goal of the curriculum for their school, and that interprofessional approaches strengthen their overall education. Students reported increased confidence in their communication skills and improved ability to contribute to One Health collaborative teams. This educational intervention, built around a patient case, focused on a variety of learning objectives including skills (such as communication), knowledge (of zoonotic toxoplasmosis) and attitudes (toward collaborative learning and practice). By sparking an interest in One Health during their early professional education, we sought to encourage a new generation of physicians and veterinarians to adopt a more collaborative spirit to their clinical practice, which will ultimately benefit human, animal and environmental health.

  17. Incremental exercise test for the evaluation of peak oxygen consumption in paralympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Helton; DA Silva Alves, Eduardo; Ortega, Luciana; Silva, Andressa; Esteves, Andrea M; Schwingel, Paulo A; Vital, Roberto; DA Rocha, Edilson A; Rodrigues, Bruno; Lira, Fabio S; Tufik, Sergio; DE Mello, Marco T

    2016-04-01

    Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is a fundamental parameter used to evaluate physical capacity. The objective of this study was to explore two types of incremental exercise tests used to determine VO2peak in four Paralympic swimmers: arm ergometer testing in the laboratory and testing in the swimming pool. On two different days, the VO2peak values of the four athletes were measured in a swimming pool and by a cycle ergometer. The protocols identified the VO2peak by progressive loading until the volitional exhaustion maximum was reached. The results were analyzed using the paired Student's t-test, Cohen's d effect sizes and a linear regression. The results showed that the VO2peak values obtained using the swimming pool protocol were higher (P=0.02) than those obtained by the arm ergometer (45.8±19.2 vs. 30.4±15.5; P=0.02), with a large effect size (d=3.20). When analyzing swimmers 1, 2, 3 and 4 individually, differences of 22.4%, 33.8%, 60.1% and 27.1% were observed, respectively. Field tests similar to the competitive setting are a more accurate way to determine the aerobic capacity of Paralympic swimmers. This approach provides more sensitive data that enable better direction of training, consequently facilitating improved performance.

  18. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications

    PubMed Central

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author’s group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications. PMID:26147728

  19. Evaluation of exercise capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and type B natriuretic peptide concentrations in adult patients with patent atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Trojnarska, Olga; Szyszka, Andrzej; Gwizdala, Adrian; Oko-Sarnowska, Zofia; Katarzynski, Slawomir; Siniawski, Andrzej; Chmara, Ewa; Cieslinski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Adults with patent atrial septal defect (ASD) usually find their exercise capacity satisfactory, and therefore hesitate to accept proposed surgical treatment of the heart disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate both the exercise capacity, using the cardio-pulmonary stress test, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in asymptomatic adults with ASD. Thirty-six patients with patent secundum type ASD (aged mean 44.7 +/- 8.2 years) were studied. The control group consisted of 25 healthy subjects at the mean age of 45.6 +/- 6.1 years. Echocardiography and CPST were performed and BNP levels measured in all subjects. Oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was lower in ASD patients than in controls (22.1 +/- 5.6 vs. 30.0 +/- 6.8 ml/kg/min, p = 0.00001); the VE/VO2 slope was elevated in ASD patients compared with healthy subjects (31.3 +/- 6.6 vs. 26.9 +/- 3.3, p = 0.001), and exceeded 34 in 5 patients. VO2 max showed a negative correlation with the pulmonary to systemic flow ratio Qp:Qs (r = -0.46, p = 0.004), and a positive correlation was found between the VE/VO2 slope and Qp:Qs (r = 0.32, p = 0.05). BNP levels were higher in the ASD group than in the controls (60.6 +/- 49.9 vs. 32.6 +/- 24.5 pg/ml, p = 0.02). BNP correlated positively with RV diameter and Qp:Qs (r = 0.38 and 0.39 respectively, p = 0.03) and negatively with maximum VO2 (r = -0.5, p = 0.004) and VO2% (r = -0.32, p = 0.07). Although most adult patients with ASD perceive their exercise capacity as satisfactory, objective assessment reveals that in fact it is significantly decreased. BNP levels are increased comparing to healthy individuals. Decreased exercise capacity and increased BNP levels seem to result from right ventricular volume overload. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Maternal prolactin inhibition during lactation affects physical performance evaluated by acute exhaustive swimming exercise in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Lopes, G; Lisboa, P C; Koury, J C; Boaventura, G; Passos, M C F; Moura, E G

    2012-02-01

    Maternal prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring, which could negatively affect exercise performance. We evaluated the effects of maternal hypoprolactinemia in late lactation on physical performance in adult progeny. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (BRO, 1 mg per day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation and offspring were followed until 180 days old. Physical performance was recorded in untrained rats at 90 and 180 days by an acute exhaustive swimming test (exercise group-Ex). At day 90, BRO offspring showed higher visceral fat mass, higher plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lower total antioxidant capacity, higher liver glycogen, lower glycemia, and normal insulinemia. Although thyroid hormones (TH) levels were unchanged, mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) activity was lower in muscle and in brown adipose tissue (BAT). At this age, BRO-Ex offspring showed higher exercise capacity, lower blood lactate, higher serum T3, and higher muscle and BAT mGPD activities. At day 180, BRO offspring showed central obesity, hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, and lower EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscle glycogen with unaltered plasma oxidative stress markers. This group showed no alteration of exercise capacity or blood lactate. After exercise, EDL and liver glycogen were lower, while T3 levels, BAT and muscle mGPD activities were normalized. Liver glycogen seem to be related with higher exercise capacity in younger BRO offspring, while the loss of this temporary advantage maybe related to the hypothyroidism and insulin resistance developed with age.

  1. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on

  2. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in evaluation of patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ganju, A A; Fuladi, A B; Tayade, B O; Ganju, N A

    2011-01-01

    Objective assessment of severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is mainly limited to pulmonary function testing performed at rest. But, accurate assessment of exercise capacity in patients with COPD may be possible with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Forty-three patients with stable COPD were included and were divided into three groups based upon the spirometry data as per the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines as follows: Group A: mild COPD, Group B: moderately severe COPD and Group C: severe COPD. Symptom-limited CPET was performed using treadmill on incremental continuous ramp protocol in all of them. Five patients (11.6%) had mild COPD; 16 (37.2%) had moderately severe COPD and the remaining 22 (51.6%) patients had severe COPD. Anaerobic threshold was attained in all the 43 patients. The dominant symptom at peak exercise were dyspnoea (n = 19) and both dyspnoea and leg fatigue (n = 7). The other causes of exercise limitation included dyspnoea with significant oxygen desaturation (n = 6); and dyspnoea with severe oxygen desaturation (n = 2). Six patients complained only of leg fatigue at peak exercise. A significant correlation between forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) percent predicted and the predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max % predicted) was observed in all the three groups (r = 0.39, p = 0.011) but with marked variability of peak VO2 for a given degree of airflow obstruction. Twenty-three (53.5%) patients with low anaerobic threshold (< 30%) were identified as potential group likely to benefit from exercise training for pulmonary rehabilitation. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is useful to determine the causes of exercise limitation and to assess the maximal exercise capacity of patients with COPD.

  3. The Idiographic Evaluation Model in Crime Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Jacob I.

    1984-01-01

    Presents some recent developments in the evaluation of crime prevention and control programs, including the increased use of process evaluation models. Describes the nature, methods, and advantages of the idiographic (or single subject) model as used in social work. (JAC)

  4. Antidepressant and anticonvulsant effects of exercise in a rat model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Epps, S. Alisha; Kahn, Alexa B.; Holmes, Philip V.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Weinshenker, David

    2013-01-01

    The bi-directional comorbidity between epilepsy and depression is associated with severe challenges for treatment efficacy and safety, often resulting in poor prognosis and outcome for the patient. We showed previously that rats selectively bred for depression-like behaviors (SwLo rats) also have increased limbic seizure susceptibility compared with their depression-resistant counterparts (SwHi rats). In this study, we examined the therapeutic efficacy of voluntary exercise in our animal model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity. We found that chronic wheel running significantly increased both struggling duration in the forced swim test and latency to pilocarpine-induced limbic motor seizure in SwLo rats, but not SwHi rats. The antidepressant and anticonvulsant effects of exercise were associated with an increase in galanin mRNA specifically in the locus coeruleus of SwLo rats. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise in a rodent model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity and suggest a potential role for galanin. PMID:23933912

  5. Prefrontal oxygenation and the acoustic startle eyeblink response during exercise: A test of the dual-mode model.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Gavin D; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2017-03-30

    The interplay between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala is proposed to explain the regulation of affective responses (pleasure/displeasure) during exercise as outlined in the dual-mode model. However, due to methodological limitations the dual-mode model has not been fully tested. In this study, prefrontal oxygenation (using near-infrared spectroscopy) and amygdala activity (reflected by eyeblink amplitude using acoustic startle methodology) were recorded during exercise standardized to metabolic processes: 80% of ventilatory threshold (below VT), at the VT, and at the respiratory compensation point (RCP). Self-reported tolerance of the intensity of exercise was assessed prior to, and affective responses recorded during exercise. The results revealed that, as the intensity of exercise became more challenging (from below VT to RCP), prefrontal oxygenation was larger and eyeblink amplitude and affective responses were reduced. Below VT and at VT, larger prefrontal oxygenation was associated with larger eyeblink amplitude. At the RCP, prefrontal oxygenation was greater in the left than right hemisphere, and eyeblink amplitude explained significant variance in affective responses (with prefrontal oxygenation) and self-reported tolerance. These findings highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex and potentially the amygdala in the regulation of affective (particularly negative) responses during exercise at physiologically challenging intensities (above VT). In addition, a psychophysiological basis of self-reported tolerance is indicated. This study provides some support of the dual-mode model and insight into the neural basis of affective responses during exercise.

  6. Endurance exercise promotes cardiorespiratory rehabilitation without neurorestoration in the chronic mouse model of parkinsonism with severe neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarrah, M; Pothakos, K; Novikova, L; Smirnova, I V; Kurz, M J; Stehno-Bittel, L; Lau, Y-S

    2007-10-12

    Physical rehabilitation with endurance exercise for patients with Parkinson's disease has not been well established, although some clinical and laboratory reports suggest that exercise may produce a neuroprotective effect and restore dopaminergic and motor functions. In this study, we used a chronic mouse model of Parkinsonism, which was induced by injecting male C57BL/6 mice with 10 doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (25 mg/kg) and probenecid (250 mg/kg) over 5 weeks. This chronic parkinsonian model displays a severe and persistent loss of nigrostriatal neurons, resulting in robust dopamine depletion and locomotor impairment in mice. Following the induction of Parkinsonism, these mice were able to sustain an exercise training program on a motorized rodent treadmill at a speed of 18 m/min, 0 degrees of inclination, 40 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. At the end of exercise training, we examined and compared their cardiorespiratory capacity, behavior, and neurochemical changes with that of the probenecid-treated control and sedentary parkinsonian mice. The resting heart rate after 4 weeks of exercise in the chronic parkinsonian mice was significantly lower than the rate before exercise, whereas the resting heart rate at the beginning and 4 weeks afterward in the control or sedentary parkinsonian mice was unchanged. Exercised parkinsonian mice also recovered from elevated electrocardiogram R-wave amplitude that was detected in the parkinsonian mice without exercise for 4 weeks. The values of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and body heat generation in the exercised parkinsonian mice before and during the Bruce maximal exercise challenge test were all significantly lower than that of their sedentary counterparts. Furthermore, the exercised parkinsonian mice demonstrated a greater mass in the left ventricle of the heart and an increased level of citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscles. The amphetamine-induced, dopamine

  7. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  8. Stochastic optimization for modeling physiological time series: application to the heart rate response to exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Stirling, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic optimization is applied to the problem of optimizing the fit of a model to the time series of raw physiological (heart rate) data. The physiological response to exercise has been recently modeled as a dynamical system. Fitting the model to a set of raw physiological time series data is, however, not a trivial task. For this reason and in order to calculate the optimal values of the parameters of the model, the present study implements the powerful stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV, an algorithm that has been proven to be fast, effective and easy to implement. The optimal parameters of the model, calculated by the optimization method for the particular athlete, are very important as they characterize the athlete's current condition. The present study applies the ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization to the modeling of a set of heart rate time series data corresponding to different exercises of constant intensity. An analysis of the optimization algorithm, together with an analytic proof of its convergence (in the absence of noise), is also presented.

  9. Synergistic effects of nitric oxide and exercise on revascularisation in the infarcted ventricle in a murine model of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Nazem, Farzad; Nazari, Afshin; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Nezami, Ali Reza; Ardakanizade, Malihe; Sohrabi, Maryam; Ahmadvand, Hasan; Mottaghi, Mohammad; Azizi, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that density of microvessels decreases in the left ventricular after myocardial infarction (MI). The change of angiogenic and angiostatic factors as the main factors in revascularisation after exercise training in area at risk is not determined yet in MI. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the effect of exercise training and L-arginine supplementation on area at risk angiogenesis in myocardial infarction rat. Four weeks after surgery (Left Anterior Descending Coronary artery Ligation), myocardial infarction rats were divided into 4 groups: Sedentary rats (Sed-MI); L-arginine supplementation (La-MI); Exercise training (Ex-MI) and Exercise + L-arginine (Ex+La). Exercise training (ET) lasted for 10 weeks at 17 m/min for 10-50 min day−1. Rats in the L-arginine-treated groups drank water containing 4 % L-arginine. After ET and L-arginine supplementation, ventricular function was evaluated and angiogenic and angiostatic indices were measured at ~1 mm from the edge of scar tissue (area at risk). Statistical analysis revealed that gene expression of VEGF as an angiogenic factor, angiostatin as an angiostatic factor and caspase-3 at area at risk decrease significantly in response to exercise training compared to the sedentary group. The capillary and arteriolar density in the Ex groups were significantly higher than those of the Sed groups. Compared to the Ex-MI group, the Ex+La group showed a markedly increase in capillary to fiber ratio. No significant differences were found in infarct size among the four groups, but cardiac function increased in response to exercise. Exercise training increases revascularization at area at risk by reduction of angiostatin. L-arginine supplementation causes additional effects on exercise-induced angiogenesis by preventing more reduction of VEGF gene expression in response to exercise. These improvements, in turn, increase left ventricular systolic function and decrease mortality in myocardial infarction rats

  10. The interplay of elicitation and evaluation of trait-expressive behavior: Evidence in assessment center exercises.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Filip; Schollaert, Eveline; Keen, Gert

    2015-07-01

    In assessment centers (ACs), research on eliciting candidate behavior and evaluating candidate behavior have largely followed independent paths. This study integrates trait activation and trait rating models to posit hypotheses about the effects of behavior elicitation via situational cues on key assessor observation and rating variables. To test the hypotheses, a series of experimental and field studies are conducted. Only when trait-expressive behavior activation and evaluation models work in conjunction, increases in observability are coupled with increases in the interrater reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and accuracy of AC ratings. Implications of these findings for AC theory and practice are formulated.

  11. Evaluation of the anatomic effect of physical therapy exercises for mobilization of lumbar spinal nerves and the dura mater in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gruenenfelder, Fredrik I; Boos, Alois; Mouwen, Marco; Steffen, Frank

    2006-10-01

    To adapt and standardize neural tissue mobilization exercises, quantify nerve root movement, and assess the anatomic effects of lumbar spinal nerve and dural mobilization in dogs. 15 canine cadavers. 5 cadavers were used in the preliminary part of the study to adapt 3 neural tissue mobilization physical therapy exercises to canine anatomy. In the other 10 cadavers, the L4 to L7 nerve roots and the dura at the level of T13 and L1 were isolated and marked. Movements during the physical therapy exercises were standardized by means of goniometric control. Movement of the nerve roots in response to each exercise was digitally measured. The effects of body weight and crownrump length on the distance of nerve root movement achieved during each exercise were also assessed. Each exercise was divided into 4 steps, and the overall distance of neural movement achieved was compared with distances achieved between steps. Neural tissue mobilization exercises elicited visible and measurable movement of nerve roots L4 to L7 and of the dura at T13 and L1 in all cadavers. The physical therapy exercises evaluated had measurable effects on nerve roots L4 to L7 and the dura mater in the T13 and L1 segments. These exercises should be evaluated in clinical trials to validate their efficacy as primary treatments or ancillary postsurgical therapy in dogs with disorders of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral segments of the vertebral column.

  12. Pharmacological and other nonexercise alternatives to exercise testing to evaluate myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    DePuey, E.G.; Rozanski, A. )

    1991-04-01

    Pharmacological vasodilatation with either dipyridamole or adenosine is a safe and accurate alternative to exercise testing to diagnose coronary artery disease with thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging. The technique also provides important prognostic information with regard to future cardiac events in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, in those evaluated preoperatively, and in those with recent myocardial infarctions. Multigated equilibrium and first-pass radionuclide ventriculography also are well suited to evaluate the effects of interventional procedures. Success has been achieved using this methodology in a variety of interventions including conventional exercise testing, pharmacological stress testing, atrial pacing, assessment of myocardial viability with nitroglycerin, mental stress testing, and ambulatory monitoring of left ventricular ejection fraction. 67 references.

  13. Vasospastic exercise-associated unilateral leg ischemia: evaluation with thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.; Williams, R.D.; Bauman, J.M.; Cawthon, M.A.; Timmons, J.

    1987-01-01

    Thallium 201 (Tl-201) as a marker of regional tissue perfusion is described as a diagnostic aid in a case of exercise-induced vasospastic disease affecting the lower leg of a physically active young adult male who had no evidence of atherosclerotic disease. The success and failure of various therapeutic attempts made in behalf of this patient have been monitored by repeated Tl-201 administrations. Exercise-associated ischemia in tissues other than the myocardium can be investigated with Tl-201.

  14. Skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in obese patients: functional evaluation by knee-extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Salvadego, Desy; Porcelli, Simone; Rejc, Enrico; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro; Grassi, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized, in a group of obese women (OB), a more significant impairment of aerobic metabolism during knee extension (KE) exercise vs. that described during cycle ergometer exercise, lending support to the role of skeletal muscles in limiting exercise tolerance in OB. Eleven OB (age 29.5 ± 5.5 years, body mass index 43.2 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) and 10 non-obese controls (CTRL) women were tested. Fat-free mass of a lower-limb (FFMLL) was assessed by a densitometer. Heart rate (HR) and pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) were determined during incremental exercise tests to voluntary exhaustion carried out on a custom-built KE ergometer and on a cycle ergometer (CE). FFMLL and maximal isometric force of KE muscles were higher in OB vs. CTRL (+42.4 and +46.2 %, respectively). Peak work rate was significantly lower in OB (-18.4 %) vs. CTRL in CE, but not in KE. Expressed in mL min(-1), peak VO2 was not different in OB vs. CTRL in CE and in KE. After it was divided per unit of FFM involved in the exercises, peak VO2 was significantly lower in OB vs. CTRL, both for CE (-19 %) and KE (-33 %). Expressed per unit of exercising muscle mass, peak oxidative function is impaired in OB. The impairment is more pronounced after limitations related to cardiovascular O2 delivery are reduced. In OB muscle hypertrophy and the increased muscle force allow to preserve exercise tolerance during aerobic exercises carried out by relatively small muscle masses.

  15. The use of MRI to evaluate posterior thigh muscle activity and damage during nordic hamstring exercise.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Arcos, Asier L; Garrues, Mirian A; Myer, Gregory D; Yanci, Javier; Idoate, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the biceps femoris long head (BFlh), biceps femoris short head (BFsh), semitendinosus (SMT), and semimembranosus (SMM) muscles. The Nordic hamstring strengthening exercise has been widely used in injury prevention, yet not much is known about the site-specific activation of this exercise on different muscles of the thigh. Eight male national-level referees were assigned to a Nordic hamstring exercise protocol (5 sets of 8 repetitions). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the subjects' thighs was performed before, within 3 minutes after, and repeated again 72 hours after the exercise intervention. Fifteen axial scans of the thigh interspaced by a distance of 1 of 15 right femur length were obtained from the level of 1 of 15 Lf to 15 of 15 Lf. The MRI data were analyzed for signal intensity changes. After 72 hours, significant changes in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity and cross-sectional area were maintained distally at BFsh cranial portion and concretely at the nondominant limb, whereas no significant changes were observed in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity at BFlh, SMM, or SMT. This study demonstrated that the Nordic hamstring exercise did not result in a uniform response (training stimulus) neither interhamstring (dominant vs. nondominant) nor intrahamstring muscles (same leg) and was better suited for loading proximal BFsh.

  16. Physiology and pathophysiology of splanchnic hypoperfusion and intestinal injury during exercise: strategies for evaluation and prevention.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Kim; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Grootjans, Joep; Wijnands, Karolina A P; Poeze, Martijn; van Loon, Luc J C; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Buurman, Wim A

    2012-07-15

    Physical exercise places high demands on the adaptive capacity of the human body. Strenuous physical performance increases the blood supply to active muscles, cardiopulmonary system, and skin to meet the altered demands for oxygen and nutrients. The redistribution of blood flow, necessary for such an increased blood supply to the periphery, significantly reduces blood flow to the gut, leading to hypoperfusion and gastrointestinal (GI) compromise. A compromised GI system can have a negative impact on exercise performance and subsequent postexercise recovery due to abdominal distress and impairments in the uptake of fluid, electrolytes, and nutrients. In addition, strenuous physical exercise leads to loss of epithelial integrity, which may give rise to increased intestinal permeability with bacterial translocation and inflammation. Ultimately, these effects can deteriorate postexercise recovery and disrupt exercise training routine. This review provides an overview on the recent advances in our understanding of GI physiology and pathophysiology in relation to strenuous exercise. Various approaches to determine the impact of exercise on the individual athlete's GI tract are discussed. In addition, we elaborate on several promising components that could be exploited for preventive interventions.

  17. Process evaluation of a multicomponent dyadic intervention study with exercise and support for people with dementia and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Prick, Anna-Eva; de Lange, Jacomine; van 't Leven, Netta; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2014-10-22

    A randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent dyadic intervention (a translated and adapted version of an intervention that has been shown to be effective for people with dementia in the USA) was performed. The exercise and support intervention was intended to reduce depressive symptoms of people with dementia and their caregivers. The purpose of this process evaluation is to create in-depth insight into the delivery of the intervention and the effect analysis, to prevent drawing inappropriate conclusions on the efficacy or effectiveness of the intervention, and to formulate recommendations for future studies on complex geriatric interventions. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The process evaluation was performed according to the model presented by Reelick and colleagues, which encompasses the following three process components: (1) success rate of recruitment and quality of the study population; (2) the quality of execution of the complex intervention; and (3) the process of acquisition of the data. The study design met high research standards and the intervention was carefully delivered. Evaluation of the study population quality revealed a profound recruitment process resulting in a reasonable sample size. Attrition rate during follow-up was acceptable. With regard to the evaluation of the intervention quality, most interviewed participants experienced benefits of the intervention. Attendance at the home visits was high and attrition to homework was moderate. Evaluation of the data acquisition showed the positive value of the use of a mixed design; qualitative analysis of the intervention revealed outcomes not measured in the quantitative analysis. The process evaluation revealed a carefully and soundly performed study. The mixed design contributed to valuable insights. However, there were some restrictions worth considering. The intervention components may have a different feasibility by moderate attrition to homework and some negative

  18. Exercise for health: a randomized, controlled trial evaluating the impact of a pragmatic, translational exercise intervention on the quality of life, function and treatment-related side effects following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sandra C; Rye, Sheree; Disipio, Tracey; Yates, Patsy; Bashford, John; Pyke, Chris; Saunders, Christobel; Battistutta, Diana; Eakin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Exercise for Health was a randomized, controlled trial designed to evaluate two modes of delivering (face-to-face [FtF] and over-the-telephone [Tel]) an 8-month translational exercise intervention, commencing 6-weeks post-breast cancer surgery (PS). Outcomes included quality of life (QoL), function (fitness and upper body) and treatment-related side effects (fatigue, lymphoedema, body mass index, menopausal symptoms, anxiety, depression and pain). Generalised estimating equation modelling determined time (baseline [5 weeks PS], mid-intervention [6 months PS], post-intervention [12 months PS]), group (FtF, Tel, Usual Care [UC]) and time-by-group effects. 194 women representative of the breast cancer population were randomised to the FtF (n = 67), Tel (n = 67) and UC (n = 60) groups. There were significant (p < 0.05) interaction effects on QoL, fitness and fatigue with differences being observed between the treatment groups and the UC group. Trends observed for the treatment groups were similar. The treatment groups reported improved QoL, fitness and fatigue over time and changes observed between baseline and post-intervention were clinically relevant. In contrast, the UC group experienced no change, or worsening QoL, fitness and fatigue, mid-intervention. Although improvements in the UC group occurred by 12-months post-surgery, the change did not meet the clinically relevant threshold. There were no differences in other treatment-related side effects between groups. This translational intervention trial, delivered either FtF or Tel, supports exercise as a form of adjuvant breast cancer therapy that can prevent declines in fitness and function during treatment and optimise recovery post-treatment.

  19. Exercise might be good for me, but I don't feel good about it: do automatic associations predict exercise behavior?

    PubMed

    Bluemke, Matthias; Brand, Ralf; Schweizer, Geoffrey; Kahlert, Daniela

    2010-04-01

    Models employed in exercise psychology highlight the role of reflective processes for explaining behavior change. However, as discussed in social cognition literature, information-processing models also consider automatic processes (dual-process models). To examine the relevance of automatic processing in exercise psychology, we used a priming task to assess the automatic evaluations of exercise stimuli in physically active sport and exercise majors (n = 32), physically active nonsport majors (n = 31), and inactive students (n = 31). Results showed that physically active students responded faster to positive words after exercise primes, whereas inactive students responded more rapidly to negative words. Priming task reaction times were successfully used to predict reported amounts of exercise in an ordinal regression model. Findings were obtained only with experiential items reflecting negative and positive consequences of exercise. The results illustrate the potential importance of dual-process models in exercise psychology.

  20. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary vessel muscularization and right ventricular function in an animal model of COPD.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Erlend; Berre, Anne Marie; Skjulsvik, Anne Jarstein; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2014-09-28

    Right ventricular dysfunction in COPD is common, even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on right ventricular (RV) function, as well as pulmonary blood vessel remodeling in a mouse model of COPD. 42 female A/JOlaHsd mice were randomized to exposure to either cigarette smoke or air for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks. Mice from both groups were further randomized to sedentariness or HIIT for 4 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and muscularization of pulmonary vessel walls by immunohistochemistry. Smoke exposure induced RV systolic dysfunction demonstrated by reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. HIIT in smoke-exposed mice reversed RV dysfunction. There were no significant effects on the left ventricle of neither smoke exposure nor HIIT. Muscularization of the pulmonary vessels was reduced after exercise intervention, but no significant effects on muscularization were observed from smoke exposure. RV function was reduced in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. No Increase in pulmonary vessel muscularization was observed in these mice, implying that other mechanisms caused the RV dysfunction. HIIT attenuated the RV dysfunction in the smoke exposed mice. Reduced muscularization of the pulmonary vessels due to HIIT suggests that exercise training not only affects the heart muscle, but also has important effects on the pulmonary vasculature.

  1. Effects of swimming exercise on nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chien-Fu; Yang, Tse-Yen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Way, Tzong-Der; Chen, Yueh-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Swimming is commonly considered to be an efficient rehabilitation exercise to treat peripheral nerve injury. However, the most effective resistance level and exercise duration is still unclear. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of swimming at various exertion levels in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Methods: Sciatic nerve transection rats were randomized into the following four groups based on swimming duration (from the 7th day to the 28th day post-surgery): sedentary control group (SC), S10 group (10 min/3 times/week), S20 group (20 min/3 times/week), and S30 group (30 min/3 times/week) (n = 10 each). Axon regeneration, electrophysiological properties, muscular weights, macrophage infiltration, and nerve repair associated maker, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), were measured. Results: Dramatic higher successful percentages of nerve regeneration across the 10-mm gaps in swimming groups compared to the SC group. Total area of nerve regeneration significantly improved in the S10 group; however, electrophysiological properties, muscular weights, and macrophage infiltration in the regenerated nerves of rats did not differ significantly between the various exercise groups. CGRP expression was significantly increased in the spinal cord of rats in the S20 group. Conclusions: Our data indicated that CGRP-related axonal regeneration improved significantly with moderate swimming. These results should inspire new studies in physiotherapeutic practice for related human treatment. PMID:28474579

  2. Running exercise protects the capillaries in white matter in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Mu; Zhang, Ai-Pin; Wang, Fei-Fei; Tan, Chuan-Xue; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Chao, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Running has been shown to improve depressive symptoms when used as an adjunct to medication. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of running are not fully understood. Changes of capillaries in white matter have been discovered in clinical patients and depression model rats. Considering the important part of white matter in depression, running may cause capillary structural changes in white matter. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rats were provided with a 4-week running exercise (from the fifth week to the eighth week) for 20 minutes each day for 5 consecutive days each week. Anhedonia was measured by a behavior test. Furthermore, capillary changes were investigated in the control group, the CUS/Standard group, and the CUS/Running group using stereological methods. The 4-week running increased sucrose consumption significantly in the CUS/Running group and had significant effects on the total volume, total length, and total surface area of the capillaries in the white matter of depression rats. These results demonstrated that exercise-induced protection of the capillaries in white matter might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced treatment of depression. It might provide important parameters for further study of the vascular mechanisms of depression and a new research direction for the development of clinical antidepressant means. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3577-3586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The economics of intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, David O; Jena, Anupam B

    2010-05-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercise constant. Our empirical results identify an association between income and exercise intensity that is consistent with the hypothesis that people respond to increased time costs of exercise by increasing intensity. More generally, our results suggest that time costs may be an important determinant of exercise patterns and that factors that can influence the time costs of exercise, such as intensity, may be important concerns in designing interventions to promote exercise.

  4. Effectiveness of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Milares, Luiz Paulo; Assis, Lívia; Siqueira, Amanda; Claudino, Vitoria; Domingos, Heloisa; Almeida, Thais; Tim, Carla; Renno, Ana Claudia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators on the articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: knee OA - without treatment (OA); OA plus exercise program group (OAE); OA plus LLLT (OAL); OA plus exercise program associated with LLLT (OAEL). Trained rats performed a water-jumping program carrying a load equivalent to 50-80 % of their body mass strapped to their chest. The laser irradiation was used either as the only method or after the exercise training had been performed, at 2 points contact mode (medial and lateral side of the left joint). The treatments started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results revealed that all treated groups (irradiated or not) exhibited a better pattern of tissue organization, with less fibrillation and irregularities along the articular surface and improved chondrocytes organization. Also, a lower cellular density and structural damage (OARSI score) and higher thickness values were observed in all treated groups. Additionally, OAE and OAEL showed a reduced expression in IL-1β and caspase-3 as compared with OA. Furthermore, a statistically lower MMP-13 expression was only observed in OAEL as compared with OA. These results suggest that aquatic exercise program and LLLT were effective in preventing cartilage degeneration. Also, physical exercise program presented anti-inflammatory effects in the knees in OA rats.

  5. Can a first-order exponential decay model fit heart rate recovery after resistance exercise?

    PubMed

    Bartels-Ferreira, Rhenan; de Sousa, Élder D; Trevizani, Gabriela A; Silva, Lilian P; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Lima, Jorge Roberto P; Peçanha, Tiago

    2015-03-01

    The time-constant of postexercise heart rate recovery (HRRτ ) obtained by fitting heart rate decay curve by a first-order exponential fitting has being used to assess cardiac autonomic recovery after endurance exercise. The feasibility of this model was not tested after resistance exercise (RE). The aim of this study was to test the goodness of fit of the first-order exponential decay model to fit heart rate recovery (HRR) after RE. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. The experimental sessions occurred in two separated days and consisted of performance of 1 set of 10 repetitions at 50% or 80% of the load achieved on the one-repetition maximum test [low-intensity (LI) and high-intensity (HI) sessions, respectively]. Heart rate (HR) was continuously registered before and during exercise and also for 10 min of recovery. A monoexponential equation was used to fit the HRR curve during the postexercise period using different time windows (i.e. 30, 60, 90, … 600 s). For each time window, (i) HRRτ was calculated and (ii) variation of HR explained by the model (R(2) goodness of fit index) was assessed. The HRRτ showed stabilization from 360 and 420 s on LI and HI, respectively. Acceptable R(2) values were observed from the 360 s on LI (R(2) > 0.65) and at all tested time windows on HI (R(2) > 0.75). In conclusion, this study showed that using a minimum length of monitoring (~420 s) HRR after RE can be adequately modelled by a first-order exponential fitting. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) assesses the performance with which models predict time series data. The tool was developed Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of compression garments on autonomic nervous system recovery following exercise.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandro; Gatta, Giorgio

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the recovery pattern of a whole body compression garment on hemodynamic parameters and on ANS activity following a swimming performance. Ten young male athletes were recruited and tested in two different days, with and without wearing the garment during the recovery phase. After a warm-up of 15 minutes, athletes were instructed to perform a maximal 400m freestyle swimming event, and then time series of beat-to-beat intervals for heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and hemodynamic parameters were recorded for 90 minutes of recovery. The vagally mediated HF power of R-R intervals, NN50, and pNN50 showed a faster recovery due to the costume, meanwhile, the LFRR index of sympathetic modulation of the heart, as well as LF:HF ratio and BRS alpha index (αLF) were augmented in control than in garment condition. When athletes wore the swimsuit, cardiac output was increased and the returning of the blood to the heart, investigated as stroke volume, was kept constant due to the reduction of the total peripheral resistances. During control condition, HR was restored back to baseline value 20 minutes later with respect to garment condition, confirming that the swimsuit recover faster. The effectiveness of the swimsuit on ANS activity after a maximal aerobic performance has been shown with a greater recovery in terms of HRV and hemodynamic parameters. BRS was reduced in both conditions, maybe due to prolonged vasodilatation that may have also influenced the post-exercise hypotension.

  8. Technology evaluation, assessment, modeling, and simulation: the TEAMS capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Orgal T.; Stiegler, Robert L.

    1998-08-01

    The United States Marine Corps' Technology Evaluation, Assessment, Modeling and Simulation (TEAMS) capability, located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Dahlgren Virginia, provides an environment for detailed test, evaluation, and assessment of live and simulated sensor and sensor-to-shooter systems for the joint warfare community. Frequent use of modeling and simulation allows for cost effective testing, bench-marking, and evaluation of various levels of sensors and sensor-to-shooter engagements. Interconnectivity to live, instrumented equipment operating in real battle space environments and to remote modeling and simulation facilities participating in advanced distributed simulations (ADS) exercises is available to support a wide- range of situational assessment requirements. TEAMS provides a valuable resource for a variety of users. Engineers, analysts, and other technology developers can use TEAMS to evaluate, assess and analyze tactical relevant phenomenological data on tactical situations. Expeditionary warfare and USMC concept developers can use the facility to support and execute advanced warfighting experiments (AWE) to better assess operational maneuver from the sea (OMFTS) concepts, doctrines, and technology developments. Developers can use the facility to support sensor system hardware, software and algorithm development as well as combat development, acquisition, and engineering processes. Test and evaluation specialists can use the facility to plan, assess, and augment their processes. This paper presents an overview of the TEAMS capability and focuses specifically on the technical challenges associated with the integration of live sensor hardware into a synthetic environment and how those challenges are being met. Existing sensors, recent experiments and facility specifications are featured.

  9. Exercise echocardiography and multidetector computed tomography for the evaluation of acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Miró, Oscar; Sitges, Marta; de Caralt, Teresa M; Perea, Rosario J; López, Beatriz; Sánchez, Miquel; Paré, Carles; Bosch, Xavier; Ortiz-Pérez, José T

    2015-01-01

    Up to 4% of patients with acute chest pain, normal electrocardiogram, and negative troponins present major adverse cardiac events as a result of undiagnosed acute coronary syndrome. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography and exercise echocardiography in patients with a low-to-intermediate probability of coronary artery disease. We prospectively included 69 patients with acute chest pain, normal electrocardiogram, and negative troponins who underwent coronary tomography angiography and exercise echocardiography. Patients with coronary stenosis ≥ 50% or Agatston calcium score ≥ 400 on coronary tomography angiography or positive exercise echocardiography, or with inconclusive results, were admitted to rule out acute coronary syndrome. An acute coronary syndrome was confirmed in 17 patients (24.6%). This was lower than the suspected 42% based on coronary tomography angiography (P<.05) and not significantly different than the suspected 29% based on the results of exercise echocardiography (P=.56). Exercise echocardiography was normal in up to 37% of patients with pathological findings on coronary tomography angiography. The latter technique provided a higher sensitivity (100% vs 82.3%; P=.21) but lower specificity (76.9% vs 88.4%; P=.12) than exercise echocardiography for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, although without reaching statistical significance. Increasing the stenosis cutoff point to 70% increased the specificity of coronary tomography angiography to 88.4%, while maintaining high sensitivity. Coronary tomography angiography offers a valid alternative to exercise echocardiography for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome among patients with low-to-intermediate probability of coronary artery disease. A combination of both techniques could improve the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional reorganization of motor and limbic circuits after exercise training in a rat model of bilateral parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Myers, Kalisa G; Guo, Yumei; Ocampo, Marco A; Pang, Raina D; Jakowec, Michael W; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is widely used for neurorehabilitation of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the functional reorganization of the injured brain after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation (bilateral, dorsal striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions). One week after training, cerebral perfusion was mapped during treadmill walking or at rest using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF) was analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. In non-exercised rats, lesions resulted in persistent motor deficits. Compared to sham-lesioned rats, lesioned rats showed altered functional brain activation during walking, including: 1. hypoactivation of the striatum and motor cortex; 2. hyperactivation of non-lesioned areas in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; 3. functional recruitment of the red nucleus, superior colliculus and somatosensory cortex; 4. hyperactivation of the ventrolateral thalamus, cerebellar vermis and deep nuclei, suggesting recruitment of the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit; 5. hyperactivation of limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, septum, raphe, insula). These findings show remarkable similarities to imaging findings reported in PD patients. Exercise progressively improved motor deficits in lesioned rats, while increasing activation in dorsal striatum and rostral secondary motor cortex, attenuating a hyperemia of the zona incerta and eliciting a functional reorganization of regions participating in the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit. Both lesions and exercise increased activation in mesolimbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, laterodorsal tegmental n., ventral pallidum), as well as in related paralimbic regions (septum, raphe, insula). Exercise, but not lesioning, resulted in decreases

  11. Functional Reorganization of Motor and Limbic Circuits after Exercise Training in a Rat Model of Bilateral Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Myers, Kalisa G.; Guo, Yumei; Ocampo, Marco A.; Pang, Raina D.; Jakowec, Michael W.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is widely used for neurorehabilitation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, little is known about the functional reorganization of the injured brain after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation (bilateral, dorsal striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions). One week after training, cerebral perfusion was mapped during treadmill walking or at rest using [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF) was analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. In non-exercised rats, lesions resulted in persistent motor deficits. Compared to sham-lesioned rats, lesioned rats showed altered functional brain activation during walking, including: 1. hypoactivation of the striatum and motor cortex; 2. hyperactivation of non-lesioned areas in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; 3. functional recruitment of the red nucleus, superior colliculus and somatosensory cortex; 4. hyperactivation of the ventrolateral thalamus, cerebellar vermis and deep nuclei, suggesting recruitment of the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit; 5. hyperactivation of limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, septum, raphe, insula). These findings show remarkable similarities to imaging findings reported in PD patients. Exercise progressively improved motor deficits in lesioned rats, while increasing activation in dorsal striatum and rostral secondary motor cortex, attenuating a hyperemia of the zona incerta and eliciting a functional reorganization of regions participating in the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit. Both lesions and exercise increased activation in mesolimbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, laterodorsal tegmental n., ventral pallidum), as well as in related paralimbic regions (septum, raphe, insula). Exercise, but not lesioning, resulted in decreases

  12. Beyond Evaluation: A Model for Cooperative Evaluation of Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Hal P., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a status report on Web site evaluation efforts, listing dead, merged, new review, Yahoo! wannabes, subject-specific review, former librarian-managed, and librarian-managed review sites; discusses how sites are evaluated; describes and demonstrates (reviewing company directories) the Marr/Kirkwood evaluation model; and provides an…

  13. The Strength Model of Self-Control in Sport and Exercise Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The strength model of self-control assumes that all acts of self-control (e.g., emotion regulation, persistence) are empowered by a single global metaphorical strength that has limited capacity. This strength can become temporarily depleted after a primary self-control act, which, in turn, can impair performance in subsequent acts of self-control. Recently, the assumptions of the strength model of self-control also have been adopted and tested in the field of sport and exercise psychology. The present review paper aims to give an overview of recent developments in self-control research based on the strength model of self-control. Furthermore, recent research on interventions on how to improve and revitalize self-control strength will be presented. Finally, the strength model of self-control has been criticized lately, as well as expanded in scope, so the present paper will also discuss alternative explanations of why previous acts of self-control can lead to impaired performance in sport and exercise. PMID:26973590

  14. Enhancing Patient Understanding of Medical Procedures: Evaluation of an Interactive Multimedia Program with In-line Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Alan R.; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Chetcuti, Stanley J.; Brennan-Martinez, Colleen; Levine, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Standard print and verbal information provided to patients undergoing treatments is often difficult to understand and may impair their ability to be truly informed. This study examined the effect of an interactive multimedia informational program with in-line exercises and corrected feedback on patients’ real-time understanding of their cardiac catheterization procedure. Methods 151 adult patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization were randomized to receive information about their procedure using either the standard institutional verbal and written information (SI) or an interactive iPad-based informational program (IPI). Subject understanding was evaluated using semi-structured interviews at baseline, immediately following catheterization, and 2 weeks after the procedure. In addition, for those randomized to the IPI, the ability to respond correctly to several in-line exercises was recorded. Subjects’ perceptions of, and preferences for the information delivery were also elicited. Results Subjects randomized to the IPI program had significantly better understanding following the intervention compared with those randomized to the SI group (8.3 ± 2.4 vs 7.4 ± 2.5, respectively, 0–12 scale where 12 = complete understanding, P<0.05). First-time correct responses to the in-line exercises ranged from 24.3% – 100%. Subjects reported that the in-line exercises were very helpful (9.1 ± 1.7, 0–10 scale, where 10 = extremely helpful) and the iPad program very easy to use (9.0 ± 1.6, 0–10 scale, where 10 = extremely easy) suggesting good clinical utility. Discussion Results demonstrated the ability of an interactive multimedia program to enhance patients’ understanding of their medical procedure. Importantly, the incorporation of in-line exercises permitted identification of knowledge deficits, provided corrected feedback, and confirmed the patients’ understanding of treatment information in real-time when consent was sought

  15. Jumping into the deep-end: results from a pilot impact evaluation of a community-based aquatic exercise program.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Morello, Renata T; Nolan, Genevieve A; De Silva, Renee D; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    This multi-center quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to evaluate changes in pain, joint stiffness, physical function, and quality of life over 12 weeks in adults with musculoskeletal conditions attending 'Waves' aquatic exercise classes. A total of 109 adults (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 24-93 years) with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited across 18 Australian community aquatic centers. The intervention is a peer-led, 45 min, weekly aquatic exercise class including aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises (n = 67). The study also included a control group of people not participating in Waves or other formal exercise (n = 42). Outcomes were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQoL five dimensions survey (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12 weeks. Satisfaction with Waves classes was also measured at 12 weeks. Eighty two participants (43 Waves and 39 control) completed the study protocol and were included in the analysis. High levels of satisfaction with classes were reported by Waves participants. Over 90 % of participants reported Waves classes were enjoyable and would recommend classes to others. Waves participants demonstrated improvements in WOMAC and EQ-5D scores however between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. Peer-led aquatic exercise classes appear to improve pain, joint stiffness, physical function and quality of life for people with musculoskeletal conditions. The diverse study sample is likely to have limited the power to detect significant changes in outcomes. Larger studies with an adequate follow-up period are needed to confirm effects.

  16. Model Evaluation of Continuous Data Pharmacometric Models: Metrics and Graphics

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, THT; Mouksassi, M‐S; Holford, N; Al‐Huniti, N; Freedman, I; Hooker, AC; John, J; Karlsson, MO; Mould, DR; Pérez Ruixo, JJ; Plan, EL; Savic, R; van Hasselt, JGC; Weber, B; Zhou, C; Comets, E

    2017-01-01

    This article represents the first in a series of tutorials on model evaluation in nonlinear mixed effect models (NLMEMs), from the International Society of Pharmacometrics (ISoP) Model Evaluation Group. Numerous tools are available for evaluation of NLMEM, with a particular emphasis on visual assessment. This first basic tutorial focuses on presenting graphical evaluation tools of NLMEM for continuous data. It illustrates graphs for correct or misspecified models, discusses their pros and cons, and recalls the definition of metrics used. PMID:27884052

  17. Model Evaluation of Continuous Data Pharmacometric Models: Metrics and Graphics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tht; Mouksassi, M-S; Holford, N; Al-Huniti, N; Freedman, I; Hooker, A C; John, J; Karlsson, M O; Mould, D R; Pérez Ruixo, J J; Plan, E L; Savic, R; van Hasselt, Jgc; Weber, B; Zhou, C; Comets, E; Mentré, F

    2017-02-01

    This article represents the first in a series of tutorials on model evaluation in nonlinear mixed effect models (NLMEMs), from the International Society of Pharmacometrics (ISoP) Model Evaluation Group. Numerous tools are available for evaluation of NLMEM, with a particular emphasis on visual assessment. This first basic tutorial focuses on presenting graphical evaluation tools of NLMEM for continuous data. It illustrates graphs for correct or misspecified models, discusses their pros and cons, and recalls the definition of metrics used.

  18. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bulińska, Katarzyna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Ochmann, Bartosz; Pawlaczyk, Weronika; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2 ± 8.6 years). A 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m), rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7), and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min). Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it. PMID:27547228

  19. An evaluation of exercise pen use by circus tigers (Pathera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Nevill, Christian H; Friend, Ted H; Windom, Amy G

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the behavior of 11 tigers during periodic access to an exercise pen throughout the day and night. The study determined the amount of time spent in the pen and the percentage of time spent performing stereotypic pacing, normal locomotor behavior, and lying down while in the pen. Average access to the exercise pen was 10 hr 49 min overnight and 5 hr 30 min during the day. At night, the tigers spent 29.1% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 19.6% and performed normal locomotor behavior for 23.1% of that time. By day, they spent 40.4% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 10.0% and performed normal locomotor behavior 35.7% of that time. The tigers spent the rest of the time in the pen lying down. Overall, tigers will utilize an exercise pen, spending a greater percentage of time in the pen during the day than at night and also performing less stereotyped pacing than at night.

  20. Using network science to evaluate exercise-associated brain changes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J; Espeland, Mark A; Morgan, Ashley; Telesford, Qawi; Vechlekar, Crystal D; Hayasaka, Satoru; Jennings, Janine M; Katula, Jeffrey A; Kraft, Robert A; Rejeski, W Jack

    2010-01-01

    Literature has shown that exercise is beneficial for cognitive function in older adults and that aerobic fitness is associated with increased hippocampal tissue and blood volumes. The current study used novel network science methods to shed light on the neurophysiological implications of exercise-induced changes in the hippocampus of older adults. Participants represented a volunteer subgroup of older adults that were part of either the exercise training (ET) or healthy aging educational control (HAC) treatment arms from the Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P) trial. Following the 4-month interventions, MRI measures of resting brain blood flow and connectivity were performed. The ET group's hippocampal cerebral blood flow (CBF) exhibited statistically significant increases compared to the HAC group. Novel whole-brain network connectivity analyses showed greater connectivity in the hippocampi of the ET participants compared to HAC. Furthermore, the hippocampus was consistently shown to be within the same network neighborhood (module) as the anterior cingulate cortex only within the ET group. Thus, within the ET group, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate were highly interconnected and localized to the same network neighborhood. This project shows the power of network science to investigate potential mechanisms for exercise-induced benefits to the brain in older adults. We show a link between neurological network features and CBF, and it is possible that this alteration of functional brain networks may lead to the known improvement in cognitive function among older adults following exercise.

  1. The Rat Model in Microsurgery Education: Classical Exercises and New Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Shurey, Sandra; Akelina, Yelena; Legagneux, Josette; Malzone, Gerardo; Jiga, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgery is a precise surgical skill that requires an extensive training period and the supervision of expert instructors. The classical training schemes in microsurgery have started with multiday experimental courses on the rat model. These courses have offered a low threat supervised high fidelity laboratory setting in which students can steadily and rapidly progress. This simulated environment allows students to make and recognise mistakes in microsurgery techniques and thus shifts any related risks of the early training period from the operating room to the lab. To achieve a high level of skill acquisition before beginning clinical practice, students are trained on a comprehensive set of exercises the rat model can uniquely provide, with progressive complexity as competency improves. This paper presents the utility of the classical rat model in three of the earliest microsurgery training centres and the new prospects that this versatile and expansive training model offers. PMID:24883268

  2. Evaluating Interactive Instructional Technologies: A Cognitive Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Susan A.

    Strengths and weaknesses of prevailing evaluation models are analyzed, with attention to the role of feedback in each paradigm. A framework is then presented for analyzing issues faced by evaluators of interactive instructional technologies. The current practice of evaluation relies heavily on 3 models developed over 20 years ago: (1) the…

  3. Treadmill Exercise Prevents Increase of Neuroinflammation Markers Involved in the Dopaminergic Damage of the 6-OHDA Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Real, Caroline Cristiano; Garcia, Priscila Crespo; Britto, Luiz R G

    2017-08-11

    Parkinson's disease (PD) involves loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), which can be correlated to neuroinflammatory changes with the aging of the nervous system. On the other hand, exercise can reduce the deleterious effects promoted by age, but the mechanism involved is still unclear. This study investigated the preventive exercise-induced changes on neuroinflammatory processes in a rat model of PD induced by unilateral striatal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) sedentary (SED) or (2) exercised (EX), animals that did treadmill exercise three times per week, every other day, for 4 weeks prior to 6-OHDA or saline injection. The rats were then divided into four sub-groups: (1) sedentary saline (SED), (2) sedentary 6-OHDA (SED + 6-OHDA), (3) exercised saline (EX), and (4) exercised 6-OHDA (EX + 6-OHDA). Seven and 30 days after surgery, brains were collected for immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting for dopaminergic and neuroinflammatory markers into SN and striatum. The SED + 6-OHDA animals presented an increase in the astrocyte, microglial, and oxidative species activation. On the other hand, EX + 6-OHDA animals did not present neuroinflammatory responses and performed better apormorphine test. Our data suggest that treadmill exercise throughout life can markedly reduce the chances of dopamine decrease, reinforcing studies that showed a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in patients who were active during life.

  4. RU486 blocks the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pastva, Amy; Estell, Kim; Schoeb, Trenton R; Schwiebert, Lisa M

    2005-09-01

    In an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven murine model of allergic pulmonary inflammation, we have shown previously that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates inflammatory responses, disease progression, and NF-kappaB activation within the sensitized lung. Glucocorticoids (GCs), potent anti-inflammatory agents, have been shown to alter transcriptional events that are important in asthmatic pathogenesis, such as NF-kappaB activation. Notably, exercise training can alter the production and signaling capacity of endogenous GCs. Because GCs exert their anti-inflammatory effects through binding to intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), we examined the role of the GR in facilitating the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Results show that, in exercised OVA-sensitized mice, treatment with the GR antagonist RU486 blocked the exercise-induced reductions in cellular infiltration of the airways (p < .05), KC and soluble VCAM-1 protein levels in the bronchoalveloar lavage fluid (p < .05), and NF-kappaB translocation and DNA binding within the lung to levels similar to those observed in sedentary OVA-sensitized mice. Importantly, RU486 treatment also blocked exercise-induced increases in GR nuclear translocation to the levels seen in sensitized control mice. Together, these results suggest that GR nuclear translocation and NF-kappaB activation play roles in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in allergen-mediated lung pathology.

  5. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for the study of aging and exercise: physical ability and trainability decrease with age.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew J H; Zerulla, Tanja C; Tierney, Keith B

    2014-02-01

    A rapidly aging global population has motivated the development and use of models for human aging. Studies on aging have shown parallels between zebrafish and humans at the internal organization level; however, few parallels have been studied at the whole-organism level. Furthermore, the effectiveness of exercise as a method to mitigate the effects of aging has not been studied in zebrafish. We investigated the effects of aging and intermittent exercise on swimming performance, kinematics and behavior. Young, middle-aged and old zebrafish (20-29, 36-48 and 60-71% of average lifespan, respectively) were exercised to exhaustion in endurance and sprint swimming tests once a week for four weeks. Both endurance and sprint performance decreased with increased age. Swimming performance improved with exercise training in young and middle-aged zebrafish, but not in old zebrafish. Tail-beat amplitude, which is akin to stride length in humans, increased for all age groups with training. Zebrafish turning frequency, which is an indicator of routine activity, decreased with age but showed no change with exercise. In sum, our results show that zebrafish exhibit a decline in whole-organism performance and trainability with age. These findings closely resemble the senescence-related declines in physical ability experienced by humans and mammalian aging models and therefore support the use of zebrafish as a model for human exercise and aging.

  6. Standardization of work intensity for evaluation of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B A; Evans, J N

    1981-01-01

    Reactivity of airways to 6 min of graded intensity treadmill work was studied in nine asthmatic and 15 non-asthmatic subjects. After performing a progressive VO2 max treadmill test, each subject completed five 6-min exercise tests at selected intensities: 40, 60, 80, and 100% VO2 max; and at 80% of VO2 max predicted from heartrate. Pulmonary function measures recorded after exercise demonstrated a direct relationship between work intensity and exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) for both groups, with the asthmatics showing their lowest values at 80% VO2 max. Heartrate-set work intensities produced a wide range of aerobic demand, thus significantly increasing the variability of the EIB response recorded.

  7. The effects of cocoa supplementation, caloric restriction, and regular exercise, on oxidative stress markers of brain and memory in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Radák, Zsolt; Silye, Gabriella; Bartha, Csaba; Jakus, Judit; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Atalay, Mustafa; Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika

    2013-11-01

    The effects of treadmill running (8 weeks, 5 times/week, 1h/day at 27 m/min), caloric restriction, and cocoa supplementation on brain function and oxidative stress markers were tested. The Morris maze test was used to appraise rat memory. Regular exercise significantly improved spatial learning performance. The level of oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of carbonylated proteins. The free radical concentration increased in brain of the training groups but not the controls. The content of reactive carbonyl derivates did not change with exercise, suggesting that the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were well tolerated in this experimental model. Caloric restriction (CR) decreased the accumulation of free radicals in the frontal lobe. The protein content of brain-derived neutrophic factors (BDNFs) was evaluated and changes did not occur either with exercise or cocoa supplementation treatments. These data did not show significant effects of the administration of cocoa (2% w/w) on the concentration of ROS, BDNF or on spatial memory. Conversely, exercise and CR can play a role in ROS generation and brain function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermography for skin temperature evaluation during dynamic exercise: a case study on an incremental maximal test in elite male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Nicola; Trecroci, Athos; Gargano, Marco; Formenti, Damiano; Bosio, Andrea; Rampinini, Ermanno; Alberti, Giampietro

    2016-12-01

    The use of thermal imaging in monitoring the dynamic of skin temperature during prolonged physical exercise is central to assess athletes' ability to dissipate heat from the skin surface to the environment. In this study, seven elite cyclists completed an incremental maximal cycling test to evaluate their skin temperature response under controlled-environment conditions. Thermal images have been analyzed using a method based on maxima detection (Tmax). Data confirmed a reduction in skin temperature due to vasoconstriction during the exercise, followed by a temperature increment after exhaustion. A characteristic hot-spotted thermal pattern was found over the skin surface in all subjects. This research confirmed also the notable ability by highly trained cyclists to modify skin temperature during an incremental muscular effort. This study gives additional contributions for understanding the capability of the Tmax method applied to the thermoregulatory physiological processes.

  9. Multi-Scale Modeling of Respiration: Linking External to Cellular Respiration during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haiying; Lai, Nicola; Saidel, Gerald M.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2014-01-01

    In human studies investigating factors that control cellular respiration in working skeletal muscle, pulmonary VO2 dynamics (VO2p) measured at the mouth by indirect calorimetry is typically used to represent muscle O2 consumption (UO2m). Furthermore, measurement of muscle oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy has provided information on the dynamic balance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption at the microvascular level. To relate these measurements and gain quantitative understanding of the regulation of VO2 at the cellular, tissue and whole-body level, a multiscale computational model of oxygen transport and metabolism during exercise was developed. The model incorporates mechanisms of oxygen transport from the airway opening to working muscle and other-organs cells, as well as the phosphagenic and oxidative pathways of ATP synthesis in these tissue cells. Model simulations of external (VO2p) and cellular (UO2m) respiration show that, during moderate exercise, their characteristic mean response times are similar even when a transit delay exists between tissue cells and the external environment for normal subjects. PMID:19457732

  10. Exercise intolerance and systemic manifestations of pulmonary emphysema in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lüthje, Lars; Raupach, Tobias; Michels, Hellmuth; Unsöld, Bernhard; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Kögler, Harald; Andreas, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly contribute to severity and mortality of the disease. We aimed to develop a COPD/emphysema model exhibiting systemic manifestations of the disease. Methods Female NMRI mice were treated 5 times intratracheally with porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema) or phosphate-buffered saline (control). Emphysema severity was quantified histologically by mean linear intercept, exercise tolerance by treadmill running distance, diaphragm dysfunction using isolated muscle strips, pulmonary hypertension by measuring right ventricular pressure, and neurohumoral activation by determining urinary norepinephrine concentration. Results Mean linear intercept was higher in emphysema (260.7 ± 26.8 μm) than in control lungs (24.7 ± 1.7 μm). Emphysema mice lost body weight, controls gained weight. Running distance was shorter in emphysema than in controls. Diaphragm muscle length was shorter in controls compared to emphysema. Fatigue tests of muscle strips revealed impaired relaxation in emphysema diaphragms. Maximum right ventricular pressure and norepinephrine were elevated in emphysema compared to controls. Linear correlations were observed between running distance changes and intercept, right ventricular weight, norepinephrine, and diaphragm length. Conclusion The elastase mouse model exhibited severe emphysema with consecutive exercise limitation, and neurohumoral activation. The model may deepen our understanding of systemic aspects of COPD. PMID:19175913

  11. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential program evaluation model in child protection.

    PubMed

    Lalayants, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly attention has been focused to the degree to which social programs have effectively and efficiently delivered services. Using the differential program evaluation model by Tripodi, Fellin, and Epstein (1978) and by Bielawski and Epstein (1984), this paper described the application of this model to evaluating a multidisciplinary clinical consultation practice in child protection. This paper discussed the uses of the model by demonstrating them through the four stages of program initiation, contact, implementation, and stabilization. This organizational case study made a contribution to the model by introducing essential and interrelated elements of a "practical evaluation" methodology in evaluating social programs, such as a participatory evaluation approach; learning, empowerment and sustainability; and a flexible individualized approach to evaluation. The study results demonstrated that by applying the program development model, child-protective administrators and practitioners were able to evaluate the existing practices and recognize areas for program improvement.

  13. Increased expression of fibroblast growth factors in a rabbit skeletal muscle model of exercise conditioning.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, N G; Kraus, W E; Moore, J W; Williams, R S; Swain, J L

    1990-01-01

    Increased tonic contractile activity from exercise or electrical stimulation induces a variety of changes in skeletal muscle, including vascular growth, myoblast proliferation, and fast to slow fiber type conversion. Little is known about the cellular control of such changes, but pleiotropic biochemical modulators such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) may be involved in this response and thus may be regulated in response to such stimuli. We examined the regulation of FGF expression in an in vivo model of exercise conditioning previously shown to exhibit vascular growth and fast to slow fiber conversion. FGFs were extracted by heparin-affinity chromatography from extensor digitorum longus muscles of adult rabbits subjected to chronic motor nerve stimulation at 10 Hz. Growth factor activity (expressed in growth factor units [GFUs]) of muscle stimulated for 3 and 21 d was assayed by [3H]thymidine incorporation in 3T3 fibroblasts and compared with that present in the contralateral unstimulated muscle. A small increase in heparin-binding mitogenic activity was observed as early as 3 d of stimulation, and by 21 d mitogenic activity increased significantly when normalized to either wet weight (stimulated, 287 +/- 61 GFU/g; unstimulated, 145 +/- 39 GFU/g) or to protein (stimulated, 5.3 +/- 1.1 GFU/mg; unstimulated, 2.2 +/- 0.6 GFU/mg) (+/- SE, P less than 0.05). Western analysis demonstrated increased amounts of peptides with immunological identity to acidic and basic FGFs in stimulated muscle. The increase in FGF content observed in this study is synchronous with neovascularization, myoblast proliferation, and fast to slow fiber type conversion previously shown in this model. These results demonstrate that increased expression of FGFs is associated with motor nerve stimulation and increased tonic contractile activity of skeletal muscle, and suggests that these proteins may play a regulatory role in the cellular changes that occur during exercise conditioning. Images

  14. EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model provides companies with a transparent and publicly available benchmarking resource to help evaluate and establish new or existing GHG goals that go beyond business as usual for their individual sectors.

  15. Toward an Ecological Evaluation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jackson; Patterson, Jerry L.

    1979-01-01

    The authors suggest that the aura of authority traditionally placed on educational research and evaluation has been based on an outdated understanding of the scientific enterprise. They outline an alternative view of science which is more ecological and provides more scope and power for evaluating educational programs. They propose a new framework…

  16. Toward an Ecological Evaluation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jackson; Patterson, Jerry L.

    1979-01-01

    The authors suggest that the aura of authority traditionally placed on educational research and evaluation has been based on an outdated understanding of the scientific enterprise. They outline an alternative view of science which is more ecological and provides more scope and power for evaluating educational programs. They propose a new framework…

  17. Mild aerobic exercise blocks elastin fiber fragmentation and aortic dilatation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Christine; Nielsen, Cory; Alex, Ramona; Cooper, Kimbal; Farney, Michael; Gaufin, Douglas; Cui, Jason Z; van Breemen, Cornelis; Broderick, Tom L; Vallejo-Elias, Johana; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2017-07-01

    Regular low-impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (cage-wheel) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Four-week-old Marfan and wild-type mice were subjected to voluntary and forced exercise regimens or sedentary lifestyle for 5 mo. Thoracic aortic tissue was isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies. Our data showed that exercise improved aortic wall structure and function in Marfan mice and that the beneficial effect was biphasic, with an optimum at low intensity exercise (55-65% V̇o2max) and tapering off at a higher intensity of exercise (85% V̇o2max). The mechanism underlying the reduced elastin fragmentation in Marfan mice involved reduction of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 within the aortic wall. These findings present the first evidence of potential beneficial effects of mild exercise on the structural integrity of the aortic wall in Marfan syndrome associated aneurysm. Our finding that moderate, but not strenuous, exercise protects aortic structure and function in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome could have important implications for the medical care of young Marfan patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study provides conclusive scientific evidence that daily exercise can improve aortic health in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm, and it establishes the threshold for the exercise intensity beyond which exercise may not be as protective. These findings establish a platform for

  18. Best practice: E-Model--prescribing physical activity and exercise for individuals with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Angela J; Thille, Patty; Barber, Karen A R; Schachter, Candice L; Bidonde, Julia; Collacott, Brenda K

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a serious and debilitating condition, encompassing a wide range of symptoms. Physical therapists often advocate the incorporation of leisure time physical activity (exercise training or recreational physical activity) as an important management strategy for individuals with FM. Decisions about physical activity prescription in clinical practice are informed by a variety of sources. This topical review considers physical activity prescription using the E-Model as a framework for best practice decision making. We examine findings from randomized trials, published experts, and qualitative studies through the lens of the model's five Es: 1) evidence, 2) expectations, 3) environment, 4) ethics, and 5) experience. This approach provides a robust foundation from which to make best practice decisions. Application of this model also facilitates the identification of gaps and discrepancies in the literature, future opportunities for knowledge exchange and translation, and future research.

  19. Effects of Physical Exercise on Neuroinflammation, Neuroplasticity, Neurodegeneration, and Behavior: What We Can Learn From Animal Models in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Martina; Lexell, Jan; Deierborg, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    Physical exercise is a cornerstone in the management of many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dementia, and stroke. However, much of its beneficial effects on improving motor functions and cognition as well as decreasing neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are not yet well understood. The obvious limitations of studying the protective mechanisms behind exercise, for example, brain plasticity and neurodegeneration, could be overcome by generating novel animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In this narrative review, we discuss the beneficial effects of exercise performed in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders and how the results from animal studies can be used in clinical settings. From preclinical studies, the positive effects of exercise have been related to increased levels of neurotrophic factors, elevated expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activated microglia. It is clear that parameters influencing the effect of exercise, such as intensity, still remain to be investigated in animal studies in order to find the optimal program that can be translated into exercise interventions for patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Exercise and disease progression in multiple sclerosis: can exercise slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Stenager, Egon

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that exercise (or physical activity) might have the potential to have an impact on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and thereby slow down the disease process in MS patients. The objective of this literature review was to identify the literature linking physical exercise (or activity) and MS disease progression. A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, SweMed+, Embase, Cochrane Library, PEDro, SPORTDiscus and ISI Web of Science. Different methodological approaches to the problem have been applied including (1) longitudinal exercise studies evaluating the effects on clinical outcome measures, (2) cross-sectional studies evaluating the relationship between fitness status and MRI findings, (3) cross-sectional and longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between exercise/physical activity and disability/relapse rate and, finally, (4) longitudinal exercise studies applying the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of MS. Data from intervention studies evaluating disease progression by clinical measures (1) do not support a disease-modifying effect of exercise; however, MRI data (2), patient-reported data (3) and data from the EAE model (4) indicate a possible disease-modifying effect of exercise, but the strength of the evidence limits definite conclusions. It was concluded that some evidence supports the possibility of a disease-modifying potential of exercise (or physical activity) in MS patients, but future studies using better methodologies are needed to confirm this. PMID:22435073

  1. Exercise and disease progression in multiple sclerosis: can exercise slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Dalgas, Ulrik; Stenager, Egon

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that exercise (or physical activity) might have the potential to have an impact on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and thereby slow down the disease process in MS patients. The objective of this literature review was to identify the literature linking physical exercise (or activity) and MS disease progression. A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, SweMed+, Embase, Cochrane Library, PEDro, SPORTDiscus and ISI Web of Science. Different methodological approaches to the problem have been applied including (1) longitudinal exercise studies evaluating the effects on clinical outcome measures, (2) cross-sectional studies evaluating the relationship between fitness status and MRI findings, (3) cross-sectional and longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between exercise/physical activity and disability/relapse rate and, finally, (4) longitudinal exercise studies applying the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of MS. Data from intervention studies evaluating disease progression by clinical measures (1) do not support a disease-modifying effect of exercise; however, MRI data (2), patient-reported data (3) and data from the EAE model (4) indicate a possible disease-modifying effect of exercise, but the strength of the evidence limits definite conclusions. It was concluded that some evidence supports the possibility of a disease-modifying potential of exercise (or physical activity) in MS patients, but future studies using better methodologies are needed to confirm this.

  2. Evaluating the Importance of the Carotid Chemoreceptors in Controlling Breathing during Exercise in Man

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Only the carotid chemoreceptors stimulate breathing during hypoxia in Man. They are also ideally located to warn if the brain's oxygen supply falls, or if hypercapnia occurs. Since their discovery ~80 years ago stimulation, ablation, and recording experiments still leave 3 substantial difficulties in establishing how important the carotid chemoreceptors are in controlling breathing during exercise in Man: (i) they are in the wrong location to measure metabolic rate (but are ideally located to measure any mismatch), (ii) they receive no known signal during exercise linking them with metabolic rate and no overt mismatch signals occur and (iii) their denervation in Man fails to prevent breathing matching metabolic rate in exercise. New research is needed to enable recording from carotid chemoreceptors in Man to establish whether there is any factor that rises with metabolic rate and greatly increases carotid chemoreceptor activity during exercise. Available evidence so far in Man indicates that carotid chemoreceptors are either one of two mechanisms that explain breathing matching metabolic rate or have no importance. We still lack key experimental evidence to distinguish between these two possibilities. PMID:24236297

  3. The Design and Evaluation of Class Exercises as Active Learning Tools in Software Verification and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Peter Y.; Manohar, Priyadarshan A.; Acharya, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that interesting questions can stimulate thinking and invite participation. Class exercises are designed to make use of questions to engage students in active learning. In a project toward building a community skilled in software verification and validation (SV&V), we critically review and further develop course materials in…

  4. An Evaluation of a Worksite Exercise Intervention Using the Social Cognitive Theory: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Megan; Petosa, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To increase exercise adherence among insufficiently active adult employees. Design: A quasi-experimental separate samples pre-test-post-test group design was used to compare treatment and comparison group. Setting: The worksite. Subjects: Employees (n = 127) who did not meet current American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)…

  5. Usefulness of transesophageal pacing during exercise for evaluating palpitations in top-level athletes.

    PubMed

    Biffi, A; Ammirati, F; Caselli, G; Fernando, F; Cardinale, M; Faletra, E; Mazzuca, V; Verdile, L; Santini, M

    1993-10-15

    The aim of this study was to verify the use of transesophageal atrial pacing in reproducing tachyarrhythmias in 22 top-level athletes symptomatic for palpitations, with no evidence of arrhythmias or cardiac anomalies by the standard noninvasive diagnostic techniques. The transesophageal stimulation protocol was divided in 2 sections: at rest and during exercise on the bicycle ergometer in the upright position. Although transesophageal pacing at rest did not induce any arrhythmias in 18 of 22 athletes, during exercise it induced tachyarrhythmias. This occurred in all 16 athletes who had palpitations during physical activity. Electrophysiologic characteristics of induced atrial tachyarrhythmia suggested reentry within the atrioventricular node in 9 of 18 athletes: atrial fibrillation in 5, atrial flutter in 2, orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia due to concealed anomalous pathway in 1, and automatic atrial tachycardia in 1. This study stresses the clinical importance of palpitations during physical exercise and shows that transesophageal pacing performed during exercise is an important diagnostic tool in reproducing the previously described symptoms and in detecting the underlying tachyarrhythmias.

  6. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  7. Validation of the Balance Board for Clinical Evaluation of Balance During Serious Gaming Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Sholukha, Victor; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Balance and posture can be affected in various conditions or become decreased with aging. A diminution of balance control induces an increase of fall's risk. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board™ (WBB) is used in rehabilitation to perform balance exercises (using commercial video games). The WBB has also been validated to assess balance and posture in static conditions. However, there is currently no study investigating the use of WBB to assess balance during the realization of balance exercises using this device. The aim of this study was to validate the use of WBB, coupled with specially developed serious games, to assess dynamic balance during rehabilitation exercises. Thirty five subjects participated in this study. Subjects were asked to play two specially developed serious games. Center of pressure (CP) displacements were simultaneously recorded with a WBB and a gold standard force plate (FP). Nine parameters were derived from CP displacement. Bland and Altman plots, paired-sample t tests, intraclass correlation coefficient's, and Pearson's coefficient correlations were computed. Excellent correlation between both devices was found for each parameter for the two games (R = 0.95 and 0.96). Unlike previous work on the WBB, these excellent results were obtained without using any calibration procedure. Despite this, results were highly correlated between the WBB and the FP. The WBB could be used in clinics to assess balance during rehabilitation exercises and, thus, allows a more regular patient follow-up.

  8. Critically Evaluating Competing Theories: An Exercise Based on the Kitty Genovese Murder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarin, Brad J.; Lawler-Sagarin, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe an exercise based on the 1964 murder of Catherine Genovese--a murder observed by 38 witnesses, none of whom called the police. Students read a summary of the murder and worked in small groups to design an experiment to test the competing theories for the inaction of the witnesses (Americans' selfishness and insensitivity vs. diffusion…

  9. An Evaluation of a Worksite Exercise Intervention Using the Social Cognitive Theory: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Megan; Petosa, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To increase exercise adherence among insufficiently active adult employees. Design: A quasi-experimental separate samples pre-test-post-test group design was used to compare treatment and comparison group. Setting: The worksite. Subjects: Employees (n = 127) who did not meet current American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)…

  10. Exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia: Evaluation by thallium-201 emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kurata, C.; Sakata, K.; Taguchi, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N. )

    1990-03-01

    Factors associated with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) during exercise testing were studied by means of thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT) in 471 patients. Coronary angiography was done in 290, of whom 167 were found to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise-induced ischemia and its severity were defined with ECT. During exercise 108 (62%) of 173 patients with ischemia and 57 (50%) of 115 with ischemia and angiographically documented CAD had no chest pain. One third of the patients showed an inconsistency between scintigraphic ischemia and ischemia ST depression. Age, sex, prior myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus were not related to SMI. Patients with SMI had less severe ischemia despite a higher peak double product compared to those with painful ischemia. Among 91 with prior myocardial infarction and exercise-induced ischemia, 51 with periinfarction ischemia had a higher frequency of SMI than did 14 with ischemia remote from the prior infarct zone despite similarities in the severity of ischemia. In conclusion, factors localized within ischemic myocardium such as less severe ischemia or adjacency to a prior infarct made SMI more prevalent.

  11. Critically Evaluating Competing Theories: An Exercise Based on the Kitty Genovese Murder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarin, Brad J.; Lawler-Sagarin, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe an exercise based on the 1964 murder of Catherine Genovese--a murder observed by 38 witnesses, none of whom called the police. Students read a summary of the murder and worked in small groups to design an experiment to test the competing theories for the inaction of the witnesses (Americans' selfishness and insensitivity vs. diffusion…

  12. Utilisation, Reliability and Validity of Clinical Evaluation Exercise in Otolaryngology Training.

    PubMed

    Awad, Z; Hayden, L; Muthuswamy, K; Tolley, N S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the utilisation, reliability and validity of clinical evaluation exercise (CEX) in otolaryngology training. Retrospective database analysis. Online assessment database. We analysed all CEXs submitted by north London core (CT) and speciality trainees (ST) in otolaryngology from 2010 to 2013. Internal consistency of the 7 CEX items rated as either O: outstanding, S: satisfactory or D: development required. Overall performance rating (pS) of 1-4 assessed against completion of training level. Receiver operating characteristic was used to describe CEX sensitivity and specificity. Overall score (cS), pS and the number of 'D'-rated items were used to investigate construct validity. One thousand one hundred and sixty CEXs from 45 trainees were included. CEX showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha= 0.85). CEX was highly sensitive (99%), yet not specific (6%). cS and pS for ST was higher than CT (99.1% ± 0.4 versus 96.6% ± 0.8 and 3.06 ± 0.05 versus 1.92 ± 0.04, respectively P < 0.001). pS showed a significant stepwise increase from CT1 to ST6 (P < 0.001). In contrast, cS only showed improvement up to ST4 (P = 0.025). The most frequently utilised item 'management and follow-up planning' was found to be the best predictor of cS and pS (rs  = +0.69 and +0.21, respectively). CEX is reliable in assessing early years otolaryngology trainees in clinical examination, but not at higher level. It has the potential to be used in a summative capacity in selecting trainees for ST positions. This would also encourage trainees to master all domains of otolaryngology clinical examination by end of CT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Communication Model for Evaluation and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, J. Clinton

    1972-01-01

    The communication model, described within the framework of channels, levels, and processes, is intended to clarify evaluative, prescriptive, and instructional practices for exceptional children. (Author/KW)

  14. Evaluation of left ventricular function by radionuclide angiography during exercise in normal subjects and in patients with chronic coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; DePace, N L; Manno, B; Segal, B L

    1983-06-01

    Radionuclide angiography permits evaluation of left ventricular performance during exercise. There are several factors that may affect the results in normal subjects and in patients with chronic coronary heart disease. Important among these are the selection criteria: age, sex, level of exercise, exercise end points, ejection fraction at rest and effects of pharmacologic agents. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise is not a specific marker for coronary heart disease but may be encountered in other cardiac diseases. In addition to the diagnostic considerations, important prognostic data can be obtained. Further studies are needed to determine the prognostic implications of anatomic findings versus the functional abnormalities induced by exercise in patients with coronary artery disease.

  15. Endurance exercise training normalizes repolarization and calcium-handling abnormalities, preventing ventricular fibrillation in a model of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ingrid M; Belevych, Andriy E; Sridhar, Arun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; He, Quanhua; Kukielka, Monica; Terentyev, Dmitry; Terentyeva, Radmila; Liu, Bin; Long, Victor P; Györke, Sandor; Carnes, Cynthia A; Billman, George E

    2012-12-01

    The risk of sudden cardiac death is increased following myocardial infarction. Exercise training reduces arrhythmia susceptibility, but the mechanism is unknown. We used a canine model of sudden cardiac death (healed infarction, with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by an exercise plus ischemia test, VF+); we previously reported that endurance exercise training was antiarrhythmic in this model (Billman GE. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297: H1171-H1193, 2009). A total of 41 VF+ animals were studied, after random assignment to 10 wk of endurance exercise training (EET; n = 21) or a matched sedentary period (n = 20). Following (>1 wk) the final attempted arrhythmia induction, isolated myocytes were used to test the hypotheses that the endurance exercise-induced antiarrhythmic effects resulted from normalization of cellular electrophysiology and/or normalization of calcium handling. EET prevented VF and shortened in vivo repolarization (P < 0.05). EET normalized action potential duration and variability compared with the sedentary group. EET resulted in a further decrement in transient outward current compared with the sedentary VF+ group (P < 0.05). Sedentary VF+ dogs had a significant reduction in repolarizing K(+) current, which was restored by exercise training (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, myocytes from the sedentary VF+ group displayed calcium alternans, increased calcium spark frequency, and increased phosphorylation of S2814 on ryanodine receptor 2. These abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling were attenuated by exercise training (P < 0.05). Exercise training prevented ischemically induced VF, in association with a combination of beneficial effects on cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling.

  16. Endurance exercise training normalizes repolarization and calcium-handling abnormalities, preventing ventricular fibrillation in a model of sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Belevych, Andriy E.; Sridhar, Arun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; He, Quanhua; Kukielka, Monica; Terentyev, Dmitry; Terentyeva, Radmila; Liu, Bin; Long, Victor P.; Györke, Sandor; Billman, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sudden cardiac death is increased following myocardial infarction. Exercise training reduces arrhythmia susceptibility, but the mechanism is unknown. We used a canine model of sudden cardiac death (healed infarction, with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by an exercise plus ischemia test, VF+); we previously reported that endurance exercise training was antiarrhythmic in this model (Billman GE. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297: H1171–H1193, 2009). A total of 41 VF+ animals were studied, after random assignment to 10 wk of endurance exercise training (EET; n = 21) or a matched sedentary period (n = 20). Following (>1 wk) the final attempted arrhythmia induction, isolated myocytes were used to test the hypotheses that the endurance exercise-induced antiarrhythmic effects resulted from normalization of cellular electrophysiology and/or normalization of calcium handling. EET prevented VF and shortened in vivo repolarization (P < 0.05). EET normalized action potential duration and variability compared with the sedentary group. EET resulted in a further decrement in transient outward current compared with the sedentary VF+ group (P < 0.05). Sedentary VF+ dogs had a significant reduction in repolarizing K+ current, which was restored by exercise training (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, myocytes from the sedentary VF+ group displayed calcium alternans, increased calcium spark frequency, and increased phosphorylation of S2814 on ryanodine receptor 2. These abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling were attenuated by exercise training (P < 0.05). Exercise training prevented ischemically induced VF, in association with a combination of beneficial effects on cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling. PMID:23042911

  17. Intervention with exercise restores motor deficits but not nigrostriatal loss in a progressive MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sconce, M D; Churchill, M J; Greene, R E; Meshul, C K

    2015-07-23

    Many studies have investigated exercise therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have shown benefits in improving motor deficits. However, exercise does not slow down the progression of the disease or induce the revival of lost nigrostriatal neurons. To examine the dichotomy of behavioral improvement without the slowing or recovery of dopaminergic cell or terminal loss, we tested exercise therapy in an intervention paradigm where voluntary running wheels were installed half-way through our progressive PD mouse model. In our model, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is administered over 4 weeks with increased doses each week (8, 16, 24, 32-kg/mg). We found that after 4 weeks of MPTP treatment, mice that volunteered to exercise had behavioral recovery in several measures despite the loss of 73% and 53% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) within the dorsolateral (DL) striatum and the substantia nigra (SN), respectively which was equivalent to the loss seen in the mice that did not exercise but were also administered MPTP for 4 weeks. Mice treated with 4 weeks of MPTP showed a 41% loss of vesicular monoamine transporter II (VMAT2), a 71% increase in the ratio of glycosylated/non-glycosylated dopamine transporter (DAT), and significant increases in glutamate transporters including VGLUT1, GLT-1, and excitatory amino acid carrier 1. MPTP mice that exercised showed recovery of all these biomarkers back to the levels seen in the vehicle group and showed less inflammation compared to the mice treated with MPTP for 4 weeks. Even though we did not measure tissue dopamine (DA) concentration, our data suggest that exercise does not alleviate motor deficits by sparing nigrostriatal neurons, but perhaps by stabilizing the extraneuronal neurotransmitters, as evident by a recovery of DA and glutamate transporters. However, suppressing inflammation could be another mechanism of this locomotor recovery. Although exercise will not be a successful treatment alone, it could

  18. Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during exercise assisted by noninvasive ventilation with plateau exhalation valve

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yong-er; Lin, Zhi-min; Hua, Dong-ming; Jiang, Ying; Huo, Ya-ting; Luo, Qun; Chen, Rong-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation with a plateau exhalation valve (PEV) is often used as an adjunct to exercise to achieve a physiologic training effect in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, during exercise, with the increase of exhalation flow and respiratory rate and limited capability of PEV to exhale gases out of the circuit, it is still unknown whether CO2 rebreathing occurs in COPD patients ventilated during exercise assisted by single-limb circuit with a PEV. A maximal symptom-limited cycle exercise test was performed while ventilated on pressure support (inspiratory:expiratory pressure 14:4 cmH2O) in 18 male patients with stable severe COPD (mean ± standard deviation, forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 29.5%±6.9% predicted). At rest and during exercise, breathing pattern, mean expiratory flow, mean expiratory flow of PEV, and the mean inspiratory fraction of CO2 (tidal fractional concentration of inspired CO2 [FiCO2]) reinsufflated from the circuit was measured for each breath. In comparison with rest, with the significant increase of mean expiratory flow (0.39±0.15 vs 0.82±0.27 L/s), fractional concentration of end-tidal CO2 (2.6%±0.7% vs 5.5%±0.6%), and the significant decrease of mean expiratory flow of PEV (0.41±0.02 vs 0.39±0.03 L/s), tidal FiCO2 significantly increased at peak exercise (0.48%±0.19% vs 1.8%±0.6%) in patients with stable severe COPD. The inflection point of obvious CO2 rebreathing was 0.67±0.09 L/s (95% confidence interval 0.60–0.73 L/s). Ventilated by a single-limb tubing with PEV caused CO2 rebreathing to COPD patients during exercise. Patients with mean expiratory flow >0.60–0.73 L/s may be predisposed to a higher risk of CO2 rebreathing. PMID:28144134