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Sample records for modeling mlrs operations

  1. Automated operations planning: Modeling MLRS operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, C.T.

    1992-03-05

    The multiples launch rocket system (MLRS) is a highly survivable and automated complement to conventional cannon artillery. For best survivability against counter-battery fire, MLRS operations rely on rapid shoot-and-scoot'' tactics by widely dispersed launchers. Such tactics may be difficult to include in a battlefield simulation without requiring players for the individual MLRS items: launchers and resupply vehicles. To reduce this demand on player resources, a computer model has been developed to automate the behavior of the items, consistent with the published operations doctrine. A player is required to determine the area of operation and certain key locations for an MLRS firing platoon. Analysis of trafficability in the operations area and direction the movement of the items, as the perform fire missions, resupply, and replenishment of platoon stocks, is completely automated. A finite state machine representation of the items is used. The model is currently implemented on a VAX 6310. It will be integrated with the Janus battlefield trainer.

  2. Automated operations planning: Modeling MLRS operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, C.T.

    1992-03-05

    The multiples launch rocket system (MLRS) is a highly survivable and automated complement to conventional cannon artillery. For best survivability against counter-battery fire, MLRS operations rely on rapid ``shoot-and-scoot`` tactics by widely dispersed launchers. Such tactics may be difficult to include in a battlefield simulation without requiring players for the individual MLRS items: launchers and resupply vehicles. To reduce this demand on player resources, a computer model has been developed to automate the behavior of the items, consistent with the published operations doctrine. A player is required to determine the area of operation and certain key locations for an MLRS firing platoon. Analysis of trafficability in the operations area and direction the movement of the items, as the perform fire missions, resupply, and replenishment of platoon stocks, is completely automated. A finite state machine representation of the items is used. The model is currently implemented on a VAX 6310. It will be integrated with the Janus battlefield trainer.

  3. Trajectory Simulation Model for a Side- Thruster Guided MLRS-Type Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    TNO report Trajectory Simulation Model for a Side- PML 1998-A80 Thruster Guided MLRS- Type Vehicle TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT...MLRS- Type Vehicle TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory Lange Kleiweg 137 Date P.O. Box 45 2280 AA Rijswijk May 1999 The Netherlands Author(s) Phone +31 15 284...TNO) TNO report PML 1998-A80 2 Managementuittreksel Titel Trajectory Simulation Model for a Side-Thruster Guided MLRS- Type Vehicle Auteur(s) Dr. ir

  4. Logistical Support of a Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Battalion During Operations Desert Shield/Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-25

    The stay-behind party did not complete their vehicle clean-up and inovement -to-port missions until around 15 April 1991. The battalion’s vehicles...fully combat operational. At times, especially during early October, the supply system was unable to support our requirements. It took creative leaders to

  5. A computer-controlled x-y offset guiding stage for the MLRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, Peter J.; Whipple, A. L.; Wiant, J. R.; Ricklefs, Randall L.; Melsheimer, Frank M.

    1993-01-01

    The MLRS has experienced excellent success in its lunar and artificial satellite laser ranging operations during its many years of operation, in spite of its relatively small 'receive' aperture. We continue to strive, however, for a greater volume of data, together with better accuracy and precision. We have just now completed the design, construction, and implementation of a computer controlled x-y offset guiding stage for the MLRS, analogous to the manual one that had been a part of the original 2.7-m lunar laser ranging system on Mt. Locke at McDonald Observatory. In the past, we had been hampered by the lack of a satisfactory hardware design which could fit within the very cramped quarters of the MLRS telescope's tail piece. Recently, with funding support from the U.S. Naval Observatory and the design and construction expertise of DFM Engineering, Inc., a satisfactory instrument has been specified, designed, built, and installed. This instrument will greatly expand MLRS observational opportunities by allowing the observing crews to actively guide on visible off axis lunar surface features or background stars while the on-axis lunar surface retroreflector targets are in the dark. This paper describes this instrument and its present implementation at the MLRS.

  6. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  7. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  8. Data Collection Instruments and Database for Assessment of Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Training Strategy: Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    simulations, and training devices do you need? 12. In managing training, A How do you know when the MLRS Battery is up to snuff ? Do you monitor and advise...do you know when the MLRS Bty. is ug to snuff ?’ Through a informal assessment of their proficiency both just from observation during their training...matter of fact I’ve been encouraging them to think about some way we could do it on a Saturday and invite kids out to watch it, because anything you can

  9. Transportation Test of Fast Pallet with Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) and Projectile Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Damage was caused from engagement with a plate on the pallet . Pallet chocks were replaced and spaced to prevent pallet engagement. TEST SEQUENCE STARTED...AD-A236 147 FINAl_ REPORT February 1990 EVT 12-90 Transportation Test of Fast Pallet with Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) and Projectile Loads...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. IACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Oassification) Transportation Test of "Fast Pallet " with Multiple Launch Rocket System

  10. Campaign Planning/Operational Art, Primer AY 07: Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS) Joint Operation Planning Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Counterintelligence; Civilian Internees CIA Central Intelligence Agency CIAP Command Intelligence Architecture Plan CID Criminal Investigation...MILGP Military Group (assigned to American Embassy in host nation) MIO Maritime Intercept Operations MIW Mine Warfare MLRS

  11. Operator spin foam models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kamiński, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  12. Operations and Modeling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) provides NASA the capability to estimate reliability and maintainability (R&M) parameters and operational support requirements for proposed space vehicles based upon relationships established from both aircraft and Shuttle R&M data. RMAT has matured both in its underlying database and in its level of sophistication in extrapolating this historical data to satisfy proposed mission requirements, maintenance concepts and policies, and type of vehicle (i.e. ranging from aircraft like to shuttle like). However, a companion analyses tool, the Logistics Cost Model (LCM) has not reached the same level of maturity as RMAT due, in large part, to nonexistent or outdated cost estimating relationships and underlying cost databases, and it's almost exclusive dependence on Shuttle operations and logistics cost input parameters. As a result, the full capability of the RMAT/LCM suite of analysis tools to take a conceptual vehicle and derive its operations and support requirements along with the resulting operating and support costs has not been realized.

  13. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  14. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Model for refining operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    Program predicts production volumes of petroleum refinery products, with particular emphasis on aircraft-turbine fuel blends and their key properties. It calculates capital and operating costs for refinery and its margin of profitability. Program also includes provisions for processing of synthetic crude oils from oil shale and coal liquefaction processes and contains highly-detailed blending computations for alternative jet-fuel blends of varying endpoint specifications.

  16. Modeling an Operating System Kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börger, Egon; Craig, Iain

    We define a high-level model of an operating system (OS) kernel which can be refined to concrete systems in various ways, reflecting alternative design decisions. We aim at an exposition practitioners and lecturers can use effectively to communicate (document and teach) design ideas for operating system functionality at a conceptual level. The operational and rigorous nature of our definition provides a basis for the practitioner to validate and verify precisely stated system properties of interest, thus helping to make OS code reliable. As a by-product we introduce a novel combination of parallel and interruptable sequential Abstract State Machine steps.

  17. Operations planning simulation: Model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of simulation modeling for the identification of system sensitivities to internal and external forces and variables is discussed. The technique provides a means of exploring alternate system procedures and processes, so that these alternatives may be considered on a mutually comparative basis permitting the selection of a mode or modes of operation which have potential advantages to the system user and the operator. These advantages are measurements is system efficiency are: (1) the ability to meet specific schedules for operations, mission or mission readiness requirements or performance standards and (2) to accomplish the objectives within cost effective limits.

  18. 19308B MLRS, Missile Numbers BC-147, BC-143, BC-135, Round Numbers V-357/PQ-88, V-358/PQ-89, V-359/PQ-90, 2 November 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    D-A123 61 193080 MLRS MISSILE NUMBERS BC-147 BC-143 BC-135 ROUND i/iNUMBERS V-357/PQ-8..( ) A MY ELECTRONICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND WSMR... Electronics Research ’I )evelopnent Grid Aeibr13 Atmospheric Sciences LaboratoryI. dMEROPAS 1.1hite Sands jissil 1 tang. ’Imi 1lncira ui)J2 14. MONITORING...AGENCY NAMIE a ADDMfESS(Il different froem Controlling Office) 1S. SECURITY CLASS. (of thle report) US Amly Electronics qesearch wnid 9evelopirnt Did

  19. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  20. Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M; Williams, W; House, R; Haynam, C

    2004-01-07

    The Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM) has been developed to provide real time predictive capabilities for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. LPOM uses diagnostic feedback from previous NIF shots to maintain accurate energetics models for each of the 192 NIF beamlines (utilizing one CPU per laser beamline). This model is used to determine the system setpoints (initial power, waveplate attenuations, laser diagnostic settings) required for all requested NIF shots. In addition, LPOM employs optical damage models to minimize the probability that a proposed shot may damage the system. LPOM provides post-shot diagnostic reporting to support the NIF community. LPOM was deployed prior to the first main laser shots in NIF, and has since been used to set up every shot in NIF's first quad (four beamlines). Real-time adjustments of the codes energetics parameters allows the LPOM to predict total energies within 5%, and provide energy balance within the four beamlines to within 2% for shots varying from 0.5 to 26 kJ (1.053 {micro}m) per beamline. The LPOM has been a crucial tool in the commissioning of the first quad of NIF.

  1. Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M; Williams, W; House, R; Haynam, C

    2004-06-04

    The Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM) has been developed to provide real time predictive capabilities for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. LPOM uses diagnostic feedback from previous NIF shots to maintain accurate energetics models for each of the 192 NIF beamlines (utilizing one CPU per laser beamline). This model is used to determine the system setpoints (initial power, waveplate attenuations, laser diagnostic settings) required for all requested NIF shots. In addition, LPOM employs optical damage models to minimize the probability that a proposed shot may damage the system. LPOM provides post-shot diagnostic reporting to support the NIF community. LPOM was deployed prior to the first main laser shots in NIF, and has since been used to set up every shot in NIF's first quad (four beamlines). Real-time adjustments of the codes energetics parameters allows the LPOM to predict total energies within 5%, and provide energy balance within the four beamlines to within 2% for shots varying from 0.5 to 26 kJ (1.053 {micro}m) per beamline. The LPOM has been a crucial tool in the commissioning of the first quad of NIF.

  2. Improving Safety of Demil Operations Through Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    M26 MLRS Rocket Motor Cutting and Thermal Treatment  Rocket motor cutting – underwater saws  Conducted unattended in containment cell  Rocket ...Removal of copper cone  Thermal treatment of grenade explosives  Rocket Motor sawing and thermal treatment 24 Addressing Demil Challenges thru...from exhaust gases in APCS 27 Addressing Demil Challenges thru Automation/Unattended Operations Rocket Motor Cutting and Thermal Treatment Building

  3. Reusable Rocket Engine Operability Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Komar, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology, model, input data, and analysis results of a reusable launch vehicle engine operability study conducted with the goal of supporting design from an operations perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the use of metrics in a validated operations model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Operations analysis in this view is one of several design functions. An operations concept was developed given an engine concept and the predicted operations and maintenance processes incorporated into simulation models. Historical operations data at a level of detail suitable to model objectives were collected, analyzed, and formatted for use with the models, the simulations were run, and results collected and presented. The input data used included scheduled and unscheduled timeline and resource information collected into a Space Transportation System (STS) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) historical launch operations database. Results reflect upon the importance not only of reliable hardware but upon operations and corrective maintenance process improvements.

  4. Operational Models of Infrastructure Resilience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    following a catastrophic event.” Reed et al.(67) present resilience scoring met- rics and build on the work of Haimes(58) in using input-output...ties among countermeasures. Military Operations Research, 2002; 7:5–23. 31. Garrick B, Hall J, McDonald JC, OToole T, Probst PS, Parker E, Rosenthal R

  5. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  6. Human Operator Control Strategy Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    control learning control strategy N computer simulation of motor behavior ABSTRACT (Continue on reverese ide If necesery end Identify by block numbe...Frank Vogler has been a continuing resource during testing and analysis phases. Cooperative Plan students Kirk Hoyer , Bob Baltar, and Bob Hummel have...Introduction ....... .................... .. 79 1. Question 1: Do HOPE models match human behavior to an acceptable extent? .... ............ ... 80

  7. UAV Operator Human Performance Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    1988a; 1988b; Bargh & Chartrand , 1999). Our primary concern in the modeling effort was the emulation of the fluid, automatized interleaving of the...implementing new strategies and tactics. 20 6 References Bargh , J. A. & Chartrand , T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American

  8. Background Error Correlation Modeling with Diffusion Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    a general procedure for constructing a BEC model as a rational function of the diffusion operator D is presented and analytic expressions for the...Under the assumption of local homogeneity of D , a heuristic method for computing the diagonal elements of B is proposed. It is shown that the...In this chap- ter, a general procedure for constructing a BEC model as a rational function of the diffusion operator D is presented and analytic

  9. Parametric identification of human operator models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ninz, N. R.

    1982-01-01

    The accurate and efficient identification of the human operator is still a need in human factors engineering especially concerning multivariable control. Control theoretic identification methods need to be tested with human operator models under realistic boundary conditons. The requirements and criteria for the use of parametric methods, selected models as well as the Maximum Likelihood Method and the Extended Kalman Filter are displayed. The experiments and results are comparatively discussed from the point of practical engineering.

  10. Modeling of Transient Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, G. T.; Hartley, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The major goal of this project is to develop mathematical models of heat pipes which can be used to predict transient behavior under normal and adverse conditions. The models and solution techniques are to be formulated so that they can be incorporated into existing NASA structural design codes. The major parameters of interest are heat flux distribution, temperature distribution, working fluid pressure distribution, fluid and containment thermal and mechanical properties and geometry. Normal transient operation is taken to be operating conditions where the capillary structure remains fully wetted. Adverse transient operation occurs when drying, re-wetting, choking, non-continuum flow, thawing, freezing, etc., occur in the internal heat pipe working fluid.

  11. The Launch Systems Operations Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Frank A.; Hamaker, Joseph W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of NASA's primary missions is to reduce the cost of access to space while simultaneously increasing safety. A key component, and one of the least understood, is the recurring operations and support cost for reusable launch systems. In order to predict these costs, NASA, under the leadership of the Independent Program Assessment Office (IPAO), has commissioned the development of a Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (LSOCM). LSOCM is a tool to predict the operations & support (O&S) cost of new and modified reusable (and partially reusable) launch systems. The requirements are to predict the non-recurring cost for the ground infrastructure and the recurring cost of maintaining that infrastructure, performing vehicle logistics, and performing the O&S actions to return the vehicle to flight. In addition, the model must estimate the time required to cycle the vehicle through all of the ground processing activities. The current version of LSOCM is an amalgamation of existing tools, leveraging our understanding of shuttle operations cost with a means of predicting how the maintenance burden will change as the vehicle becomes more aircraft like. The use of the Conceptual Operations Manpower Estimating Tool/Operations Cost Model (COMET/OCM) provides a solid point of departure based on shuttle and expendable launch vehicle (ELV) experience. The incorporation of the Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) as expressed by a set of response surface model equations gives a method for estimating how changing launch system characteristics affects cost and cycle time as compared to today's shuttle system. Plans are being made to improve the model. The development team will be spending the next few months devising a structured methodology that will enable verified and validated algorithms to give accurate cost estimates. To assist in this endeavor the LSOCM team is part of an Agency wide effort to combine resources with other cost and operations professionals to

  12. An Operational Model of Motor Skill Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Victor E. D.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to diagnose motor skills is important for physical educators. The paper discusses processes critical in motor skill diagnosis, proposing an operational model of motor skill development diagnosis for teacher educators and practitioners. The model provides a foundation upon which to build instructional strategies for developing…

  13. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible.

  14. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  15. Control and Operational Models for Vacuum Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubin, P.; Trofimov, N.

    1997-05-01

    Operational models which describe the behaviour and the physical values associated with the vacuum equipment as seen by an operator have been studied for some time at CERN. Recently, they have been completed by control models, which define in a formal way the data structures required to access the physical values described in the operational model. The control models also define the operations that an application program has to send to the vacuum equipment to modify its state. Object Modelling Techniques (OMT) have been used to formalise the description of the models. In order to test the validity of the concepts, we have made a working prototype in the LEP accelerator. This prototype is being built on top of the CERN SL-Equip equipment access package and uses the "cdev" C++ library, developed at TJNAF, for the interface to application programs. SL-Equip is used for data transmission between front-end computers and vacuum equipment. We use the "cdev" networking facilities to communicate between the workstation and the front-end computers, and the "cdev" generic server as the framework for implementing the vacuum controls software. These packages were used in order to minimise the required software investment, but also to prove that these models are hardware and software independent.

  16. Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Operations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.

  17. An operational model for implementing conservation action.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew T; Cowling, Richard M; Campbell, Bruce M

    2006-04-01

    The preoccupation of many conservation planners with the refinement of systematic assessment techniques has manifested an "implementation crisis" in conservation planning. This preoccupation has provided systematic assessments with well-tested tools (e.g., area selection algorithms) and principles (e.g., representation, complementarity), but our understanding of these techniques currently far exceeds our ability to apply them effectively to pragmatic conservation problems. The science is informative about where one needs to do conservation, but silent on how to achieve it. Operational models, defined as simplified conceptualizations of processes for implementing conservation action at priority conservation areas, are essential for guiding conservation planning initiatives because they assist understanding of how these processes function. Operational models developed to date have largely been linear, simplistic, and focused on the systematic assessment of biological entities. Experience in the real world indicates that operational models for conducting conservation planning initiatives should explicitly complement a systematic conservation assessment with activities that empower individuals and institutions (enabling) and explicitly aim to secure conservation action (implementation). Specifically, implementing effective conservation action requires that systematic assessments be integrated functionally with a process for developing an implementation strategy and processes for stakeholder collaboration while maintaining a broad focus on the implementation of conservation action. A suite of hallmarks define effective operational models (e.g., stakeholder collaboration, links with land-use planning, social learning, and action research). Greater development and testing of the practical application of operational models should lead to higher levels of effective implementation and alleviate the implementation crisis. Social learning institutions are essential for

  18. CORSICA modelling of ITER hybrid operation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Bulmer, R. H.; Campbell, D. J.; Casper, T. A.; LoDestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Snipes, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid operating mode observed in several tokamaks is characterized by further enhancement over the high plasma confinement (H-mode) associated with reduced magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) instabilities linked to a stationary flat safety factor (q ) profile in the core region. The proposed ITER hybrid operation is currently aiming at operating for a long burn duration (>1000 s) with a moderate fusion power multiplication factor, Q , of at least 5. This paper presents candidate ITER hybrid operation scenarios developed using a free-boundary transport modelling code, CORSICA, taking all relevant physics and engineering constraints into account. The ITER hybrid operation scenarios have been developed by tailoring the 15 MA baseline ITER inductive H-mode scenario. Accessible operation conditions for ITER hybrid operation and achievable range of plasma parameters have been investigated considering uncertainties on the plasma confinement and transport. ITER operation capability for avoiding the poloidal field coil current, field and force limits has been examined by applying different current ramp rates, flat-top plasma currents and densities, and pre-magnetization of the poloidal field coils. Various combinations of heating and current drive (H&CD) schemes have been applied to study several physics issues, such as the plasma current density profile tailoring, enhancement of the plasma energy confinement and fusion power generation. A parameterized edge pedestal model based on EPED1 added to the CORSICA code has been applied to hybrid operation scenarios. Finally, fully self-consistent free-boundary transport simulations have been performed to provide information on the poloidal field coil voltage demands and to study the controllability with the ITER controllers. Extended from Proc. 24th Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (San Diego, 2012) IT/P1-13.

  19. Modeling of transient heat pipe operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Gene T.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical models and an associated computer program for heat pipe startup from the frozen state have been developed. Finite element formulations of the governing equations are written for each heat pipe region for each operating condition during startup from the frozen state. The various models were checked against analytical and experimental data available in the literature for three specific types of operation. Computations using the methods developed were made for a space shuttle reentry mission where a heat pipe cooled leading edge was used on the wing.

  20. Model Based Autonomy for Robust Mars Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter model-based autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.

  1. Nearshore Operational Model for Rip Current Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembiring, L. E.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Van Ormondt, M.; Winter, G.; Roelvink, J.

    2012-12-01

    A coastal operational model system can serve as a tool in order to monitor and predict coastal hazards, and to acquire up-to-date information on coastal state indicators. The objective of this research is to develop a nearshore operational model system for the Dutch coast focusing on swimmer safety. For that purpose, an operational model system has been built which can predict conditions up to 48 hours ahead. The model system consists of three different nested model domain covering The North Sea, The Dutch coastline, and one local model which is the area of interest. Three different process-based models are used to simulate physical processes within the system: SWAN to simulate wave propagation, Delft3D-Flow for hydraulics flow simulation, and XBeach for the nearshore models. The SWAN model is forced by wind fields from operational HiRLAM, as well as two dimensional wave spectral data from WaveWatch 3 Global as the ocean boundaries. The Delft3D Flow model is forced by assigning the boundaries with tidal constants for several important astronomical components as well as HiRLAM wind fields. For the local XBeach model, up-to-date bathymetry will be obtained by assimilating model computation and Argus video data observation. A hindcast is carried out on the Continental Shelf Model, covering the North Sea and nearby Atlantic Ocean, for the year 2009. Model skills are represented by several statistical measures such as rms error and bias. In general the results show that the model system exhibits a good agreement with field data. For SWAN results, integral significant wave heights are predicted well by the model for all wave buoys considered, with rms errors ranging from 0.16 m for the month of May with observed mean significant wave height of 1.08 m, up to rms error of 0.39 m for the month of November, with observed mean significant wave height of 1.91 m. However, it is found that the wave model slightly underestimates the observation for the period of June, especially

  2. The Cognitive Operations Specified in the Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.

    The Wisconsin model of conceptual learning and development specifies four levels of mastery in the acquisition of a concept. The levels of mastery are defined in terms of performance on tasks designed to measure each level. This paper discusses the internal operations or processes which are inferred as the mechanisms by which each level of…

  3. Business Intelligence Modeling in Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-01-01

    This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation .based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations. process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined enterprise analysis environment. Significant emphasis is being placed on adapting root cause from existing Shuttle operations to exploration. Technical challenges include cost model validation, integration of parametric models with discrete event process and systems simulations. and large-scale simulation integration. The enterprise architecture is required for coherent integration of systems models. It will also require a plan for evolution over the life of the program. The proposed technology will produce

  4. Business intelligence modeling in launch operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-05-01

    The future of business intelligence in space exploration will focus on the intelligent system-of-systems real-time enterprise. In present business intelligence, a number of technologies that are most relevant to space exploration are experiencing the greatest change. Emerging patterns of set of processes rather than organizational units leading to end-to-end automation is becoming a major objective of enterprise information technology. The cost element is a leading factor of future exploration systems. This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations, process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined

  5. Predictive modelling for EAST divertor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, YiPing

    2011-06-01

    The predictive modelling study of the divertor operation in EAST tokamak [B. Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)] with double null (DN) configuration is carried out by using the two-dimensional edge plasma code B2.5-SOLPS5.0 [D. P. Coster, X. Bonnin et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339, 366 (2005)]. The modelling study includes the particle and power balance in the scrape-off-layer (SOL), the operation parameters of plasma density, temperature and plasma heat fluxes at the separatrix, the target plates and the wall, and the effect of the gas puffing, drifts, and vertical target plate on the divertor operation. The fluid model for the edge plasma is applied using the real magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium from the MHD equilibrium code EFIT [L. L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)] and the real divertor geometry in the device. Before EAST tokamak starts its experimental programme of divertor operation, the modelling plays an important role in the design of its experimental programme and the optimization of the divertor operation parameters. Based on the modelling results, EAST divertor can operate over a large wide of plasma parameters with different regimes. For a heating power of 8 MW and an edge density at core-SOL interface Nedge = 0.8 × 10191/m3 and Nedge = 1.3 × 10191/m3, the EAST divertor begins access to the high recycling operation regime at the outer and inner target plates, respectively, where the plasma temperature and the heat fluxes at the target plates decrease. The gas puffing can increase the plasma density at the separatrix and trigger the transition from the high recycling operation into detachment at the target plates. When E × B and B × ▿B drifts are taken into account, the asymmetry of plasma parameters and heat fluxes between up-down SOLs can be found. The vertical target plate in EAST divertor can reduce the peak values of heat fluxes at the target plate and enables detachment at lower plasma density. The divertor with the

  6. Predictive modelling for EAST divertor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yiping

    2011-06-15

    The predictive modelling study of the divertor operation in EAST tokamak [B. Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)] with double null (DN) configuration is carried out by using the two-dimensional edge plasma code B2.5-SOLPS5.0 [D. P. Coster, X. Bonnin et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339, 366 (2005)]. The modelling study includes the particle and power balance in the scrape-off-layer (SOL), the operation parameters of plasma density, temperature and plasma heat fluxes at the separatrix, the target plates and the wall, and the effect of the gas puffing, drifts, and vertical target plate on the divertor operation. The fluid model for the edge plasma is applied using the real magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium from the MHD equilibrium code EFIT [L. L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)] and the real divertor geometry in the device. Before EAST tokamak starts its experimental programme of divertor operation, the modelling plays an important role in the design of its experimental programme and the optimization of the divertor operation parameters. Based on the modelling results, EAST divertor can operate over a large wide of plasma parameters with different regimes. For a heating power of 8 MW and an edge density at core-SOL interface N{sub edge} = 0.8 x 10{sup 19}1/m{sup 3} and N{sub edge} = 1.3 x 10{sup 19}1/m{sup 3}, the EAST divertor begins access to the high recycling operation regime at the outer and inner target plates, respectively, where the plasma temperature and the heat fluxes at the target plates decrease. The gas puffing can increase the plasma density at the separatrix and trigger the transition from the high recycling operation into detachment at the target plates. When E x B and B x {nabla}B drifts are taken into account, the asymmetry of plasma parameters and heat fluxes between up-down SOLs can be found. The vertical target plate in EAST divertor can reduce the peak values of heat fluxes at the target plate and enables detachment at lower

  7. Rapid Fielding: Case Study Concerning the Fielding of the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) M270A1 to 2d Battalion 4th Field Artillery Fort Sill, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    practice rockets (RRPRs). The flight phase at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, consisted of firing many pods of M26 and M26A2 rockets as well as...RAPID FIELDING: CASE STUDY CONCERNING THE FIELDING OF THE MULTIPLE-LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEM M270A1 TO 2D BATTALION, 4TH FIELD ARTILLERY...Fielding: Case Study concerning the fielding of the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) M270A1 to 2d Battalion 4th Field Artillery Fort Sill

  8. Modeling of transient heat pipe operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, G. T.; Hartley, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Mathematical models and associated solution procedures which can be used to design heat pipe cooled structures for use on hypersonic vehicles are being developed. The models should also have the capability to predict off-design performance for a variety of operating conditions. It is expected that the resulting models can be used to predict startup behavior of liquid metal heat pipes to be used in reentry vehicles, hypersonic aircraft, and space nuclear reactors. Work to date related to numerical solutions of governing differential equations for the outer shell and the combination capillary structure and working fluid is summarized. Finite element numerical equations using both implicit, explicit, and combination methods were examined.

  9. The national operational environment model (NOEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, John J.; Romano, Brian; Geiler, Warren

    2011-06-01

    The National Operational Environment Model (NOEM) is a strategic analysis/assessment tool that provides insight into the complex state space (as a system) that is today's modern operational environment. The NOEM supports baseline forecasts by generating plausible futures based on the current state. It supports what-if analysis by forecasting ramifications of potential "Blue" actions on the environment. The NOEM also supports sensitivity analysis by identifying possible pressure (leverage) points in support of the Commander that resolves forecasted instabilities, and by ranking sensitivities in a list for each leverage point and response. The NOEM can be used to assist Decision Makers, Analysts and Researchers with understanding the inter-workings of a region or nation state, the consequences of implementing specific policies, and the ability to plug in new operational environment theories/models as they mature. The NOEM is built upon an open-source, license-free set of capabilities, and aims to provide support for pluggable modules that make up a given model. The NOEM currently has an extensive number of modules (e.g. economic, security & social well-being pieces such as critical infrastructure) completed along with a number of tools to exercise them. The focus this year is on modeling the social and behavioral aspects of a populace within their environment, primarily the formation of various interest groups, their beliefs, their requirements, their grievances, their affinities, and the likelihood of a wide range of their actions, depending on their perceived level of security and happiness. As such, several research efforts are currently underway to model human behavior from a group perspective, in the pursuit of eventual integration and balance of populace needs/demands within their respective operational environment and the capacity to meet those demands. In this paper we will provide an overview of the NOEM, the need for and a description of its main components

  10. Operational Energy Capability Portfolio Analysis for Protection of Maritime Forces Against Small Boat Swarms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    modeling and simulation MANA Map Aware Non-Uniform Automata MBSE Model Based Systems Engineering MLRS multiple launch rocket system MOE measure of...meet mission objectives. The scenario is instantiated using Map Aware Non-Uniform Automata (MANA), an agent-based simulation software platform. Figure 1...shared situation awareness (from none to having inorganic targeting) on defending against three different categories of small boat attackersfrom rocket

  11. Disease prediction models and operational readiness.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Pullum, Laura L; Hartley, David M; Benedum, Corey; Noonan, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Lancaster, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to present a systematic review of biosurveillance models that operate on select agents and can forecast the occurrence of a disease event. We define a disease event to be a biological event with focus on the One Health paradigm. These events are characterized by evidence of infection and or disease condition. We reviewed models that attempted to predict a disease event, not merely its transmission dynamics and we considered models involving pathogens of concern as determined by the US National Select Agent Registry (as of June 2011). We searched commercial and government databases and harvested Google search results for eligible models, using terms and phrases provided by public health analysts relating to biosurveillance, remote sensing, risk assessments, spatial epidemiology, and ecological niche modeling. After removal of duplications and extraneous material, a core collection of 6,524 items was established, and these publications along with their abstracts are presented in a semantic wiki at http://BioCat.pnnl.gov. As a result, we systematically reviewed 44 papers, and the results are presented in this analysis. We identified 44 models, classified as one or more of the following: event prediction (4), spatial (26), ecological niche (28), diagnostic or clinical (6), spread or response (9), and reviews (3). The model parameters (e.g., etiology, climatic, spatial, cultural) and data sources (e.g., remote sensing, non-governmental organizations, expert opinion, epidemiological) were recorded and reviewed. A component of this review is the identification of verification and validation (V&V) methods applied to each model, if any V&V method was reported. All models were classified as either having undergone Some Verification or Validation method, or No Verification or Validation. We close by outlining an initial set of operational readiness level guidelines for disease prediction models based upon established Technology Readiness

  12. Disease Prediction Models and Operational Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Pullum, Laura L.; Hartley, David M.; Benedum, Corey M.; Noonan, Christine F.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Lancaster, Mary J.

    2014-03-19

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this manuscript is to present a systematic review of biosurveillance models that operate on select agents and can forecast the occurrence of a disease event. One of the primary goals of this research was to characterize the viability of biosurveillance models to provide operationally relevant information for decision makers to identify areas for future research. Two critical characteristics differentiate this work from other infectious disease modeling reviews. First, we reviewed models that attempted to predict the disease event, not merely its transmission dynamics. Second, we considered models involving pathogens of concern as determined by the US National Select Agent Registry (as of June 2011). Methods: We searched dozens of commercial and government databases and harvested Google search results for eligible models utilizing terms and phrases provided by public health analysts relating to biosurveillance, remote sensing, risk assessments, spatial epidemiology, and ecological niche-modeling, The publication date of search results returned are bound by the dates of coverage of each database and the date in which the search was performed, however all searching was completed by December 31, 2010. This returned 13,767 webpages and 12,152 citations. After de-duplication and removal of extraneous material, a core collection of 6,503 items was established and these publications along with their abstracts are presented in a semantic wiki at http://BioCat.pnnl.gov. Next, PNNL’s IN-SPIRE visual analytics software was used to cross-correlate these publications with the definition for a biosurveillance model resulting in the selection of 54 documents that matched the criteria resulting Ten of these documents, However, dealt purely with disease spread models, inactivation of bacteria, or the modeling of human immune system responses to pathogens rather than predicting disease events. As a result, we systematically reviewed 44 papers and the

  13. Disease Prediction Models and Operational Readiness

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Courtney D.; Pullum, Laura L.; Hartley, David M.; Benedum, Corey; Noonan, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Lancaster, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to present a systematic review of biosurveillance models that operate on select agents and can forecast the occurrence of a disease event. We define a disease event to be a biological event with focus on the One Health paradigm. These events are characterized by evidence of infection and or disease condition. We reviewed models that attempted to predict a disease event, not merely its transmission dynamics and we considered models involving pathogens of concern as determined by the US National Select Agent Registry (as of June 2011). We searched commercial and government databases and harvested Google search results for eligible models, using terms and phrases provided by public health analysts relating to biosurveillance, remote sensing, risk assessments, spatial epidemiology, and ecological niche modeling. After removal of duplications and extraneous material, a core collection of 6,524 items was established, and these publications along with their abstracts are presented in a semantic wiki at http://BioCat.pnnl.gov. As a result, we systematically reviewed 44 papers, and the results are presented in this analysis. We identified 44 models, classified as one or more of the following: event prediction (4), spatial (26), ecological niche (28), diagnostic or clinical (6), spread or response (9), and reviews (3). The model parameters (e.g., etiology, climatic, spatial, cultural) and data sources (e.g., remote sensing, non-governmental organizations, expert opinion, epidemiological) were recorded and reviewed. A component of this review is the identification of verification and validation (V&V) methods applied to each model, if any V&V method was reported. All models were classified as either having undergone Some Verification or Validation method, or No Verification or Validation. We close by outlining an initial set of operational readiness level guidelines for disease prediction models based upon established Technology Readiness

  14. Operations for Learning with Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a multidisciplinary review of empirical, statistical learning from a graphical model perspective. Well-known examples of graphical models include Bayesian net- works, directed graphs representing a Markov chain, and undirected networks representing a Markov field. These graphical models are extended to model data analysis and empirical learning using the notation of plates. Graphical operations for simplifying and manipulating a problem are provided including decomposition, differentiation, and the manipulation of probability models from the exponential family. These operations adapt existing techniques from statistics and automatic differentiation to graphs. Two standard algorithm schemes for learning are reviewed in a graphical framework: Gibbs sampling and the expectation maximization algorithm. Some algorithms are developed in this graphical framework including a generalized version of linear regression, techniques for feed-forward networks, and learning Gaussian and discrete Bayesian networks from data. The paper concludes by sketching some implications for data analysis and summarizing some popular algorithms that fall within the framework presented. The main original contributions here are the decomposition techniques and the demonstration that graphical models provide a framework for understanding and developing complex learning algorithms.

  15. Operations for Learning with Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a multidisciplinary review of empirical, statistical learning from a graphical model perspective. Well-known examples of graphical models include Bayesian net- works, directed graphs representing a Markov chain, and undirected networks representing a Markov field. These graphical models are extended to model data analysis and empirical learning using the notation of plates. Graphical operations for simplifying and manipulating a problem are provided including decomposition, differentiation, and the manipulation of probability models from the exponential family. These operations adapt existing techniques from statistics and automatic differentiation to graphs. Two standard algorithm schemes for learning are reviewed in a graphical framework: Gibbs sampling and the expectation maximization algorithm. Some algorithms are developed in this graphical framework including a generalized version of linear regression, techniques for feed-forward networks, and learning Gaussian and discrete Bayesian networks from data. The paper concludes by sketching some implications for data analysis and summarizing some popular algorithms that fall within the framework presented. The main original contributions here are the decomposition techniques and the demonstration that graphical models provide a framework for understanding and developing complex learning algorithms.

  16. Modelling approaches for bio-manufacturing operations.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Fast and cost-effective methods are needed to reduce the time and money needed for drug commercialisation and to determine the risks involved in adopting specific manufacturing strategies. Simulations offer one such approach for exploring design spaces before significant process development is carried out and can be used from the very earliest development stages through to scale-up and optimisation of operating conditions and resource deployment patterns both before and after plant start-up. The advantages this brings in terms of financial savings can be considerable, but to achieve these requires a full appreciation of the complexities of processes and how best to represent them mathematically within the context of in silico software. This chapter provides a summary of some of the work that has been carried out in the areas of mathematical modelling and discrete event simulations for production, recovery and purification operations when designing bio-pharmaceutical processes, looking at both financial and technical modelling.

  17. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  18. Human Operator Modeling for Aerial Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    HUMAN OPERATOR MODELING FOR AERIAL TRACKING JONA THAN KORN ARTER. EPHRATH DA VLD L. KLEINMAN DBCXMBt 19MDTICSELECTE APR 3 1981.j B Approwd for pVA& u...8217the "Guid 8en th Cart end Use of laboratory Animals, "Inatitate of Laboratory Animl ReaNuWAes, National Rtesarch CouncL The voluntary Infomed consent...Continue. on reverse aide If necessary and identify hc block numbrh) ._Modern Optimal Control techniques are e:iployed to investigate and model human

  19. Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; Vīgants, Ģirts; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-01-01

    The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

  20. Maximally Expressive Modeling of Operations Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea; Davis, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed, the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema.

  1. Snow model design for operational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2017-04-01

    A parsimonious distributed energy balance snow model intended for operational use is evaluated using discharge, snow covered area and grain size; the latter two as observed from the MODIS sensor. The snow model is an improvement of the existing GamSnow model, which is a part of the Enki modelling framework. Core requirements for the new version have been: 1. Reduction of calibration freedom, motivated by previous experience of non-identifiable parameters in the existing version 2. Improvement of process representation based on recent advances in physically based snow modelling 3. Limiting the sensitivity to forcing data which are poorly known over the spatial domain of interest (often in mountainous areas) 4. Preference for observable states, and the ability to improve from updates. The albedo calculation is completely revised, now based on grain size through an emulation of the SNICAR model (Flanner and Zender, 2006; Gardener and Sharp, 2010). The number of calibration parameters in the albedo model is reduced from 6 to 2. The wind function governing turbulent energy fluxes has been reduced from 2 to 1 parameter. Following Raleigh et al (2011), snow surface radiant temperature is split from the top layer thermodynamic temperature, using bias-corrected wet-bulb temperature to model the former. Analyses are ongoing, and the poster will bring evaluation results from 16 years of MODIS observations and more than 25 catchments in southern Norway.

  2. MODELING OPERANT BEHAVIOR IN THE PARKINSONIAN RAT

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Reilly, Mark P.; Sanabria, Federico; Posadas-Sánchez, Diana; Chavez, Claudia L.; Banerjee, Nikhil; Killeen, Peter; Castañeda, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR; Killeen, 1994) is a quantitative model of operant behavior that contains 3 parameters representing motor capacity (δ), motivation (a), and short term memory (λ). The present study applied MPR to characterize the effects of bilateral infusions of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat, a model of Parkinson’s disease. Rats were trained to lever press under a 5-component fixed ratio (5, 15, 30, 60, and 100) schedule of food reinforcement. Rats were tested for 15 days prior to dopamine lesions and again for 15 days post-lesion. To characterize functional loss relative to lesion size, rats were grouped according to the extent and the degree of lateralization of their dopamine loss. Response rates decreased as a function of dopamine depletion, primarily at intermediate ratios. MPR accounted for 98% of variance in pre- and post-lesion response rates. Consistent with reported disruptions in motor behavior induced by dopaminergic lesions, estimates of δ increased when dopamine was severely depleted. There was no support for different estimates of a based on pre- and post-lesion performance of any lesion group, suggesting that dopamine loss has negligible effects on incentive motivation. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of combining operant techniques with a theoretical model to better understand the effects of a neurochemical manipulation. PMID:19073222

  3. Variable strategy model of the human operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, John Michael

    Human operators often employ discontinuous or "bang-bang" control strategies when performing large-amplitude acquisition tasks. The current study applies Variable Structure Control (VSC) techniques to model human operator behavior during acquisition tasks. The result is a coupled, multi-input model replicating the discontinuous control strategy. In the VSC formulation, a switching surface is the mathematical representation of the operator's control strategy. The performance of the Variable Strategy Model (VSM) is evaluated by considering several examples, including the longitudinal control of an aircraft during the visual landing task. The aircraft landing task becomes an acquisition maneuver whenever large initial offsets occur. Several different strategies are explored in the VSM formulation for the aircraft landing task. First, a switching surface is constructed from literal interpretations of pilot training literature. This approach yields a mathematical representation of how a pilot is trained to fly a generic aircraft. This switching surface is shown to bound the trajectory response of a group of pilots performing an offset landing task in an aircraft simulator study. Next, front-side and back-side landing strategies are compared. A back-side landing strategy is found to be capable of landing an aircraft flying on either the front side or back side of the power curve. However, the front-side landing strategy is found to be insufficient for landing an aircraft flying on the back side. Finally, a more refined landing strategy is developed that takes into the account the specific aircraft's dynamic characteristics. The refined strategy is translated back into terminology similar to the existing pilot training literature.

  4. A space transportation system operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.

  5. Modeling Power System Operation with Intermittent Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Glass, Kevin A.; Carlsen, Leif C.

    2013-02-27

    Electricity generating companies and power system operators face the need to minimize total fuel cost or maximize total profit over a given time period. These issues become optimization problems subject to a large number of constraints that must be satisfied simultaneously. The grid updates due to smart-grid technologies plus the penetration of intermittent re- sources in electrical grid introduce additional complexity to the optimization problem. The Renewable Integration Model (RIM) is a computer model of interconnected power system. It is intended to provide insight and advice on complex power systems management, as well as answers to integration of renewable energy questions. This paper describes RIM basic design concept, solution method, and the initial suite of modules that it supports.

  6. Modeling lift operations with SASmacr Simulation Studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2016-10-01

    Lifts or elevators are an essential part of multistorey buildings which provide vertical transportation for its occupants. In large and high-rise apartment buildings, its occupants are permanent, while in buildings, like hospitals or office blocks, the occupants are temporary or users of the buildings. They come in to work or to visit, and thus, the population of such buildings are much higher than those in residential apartments. It is common these days that large office blocks or hospitals have at least 8 to 10 lifts serving its population. In order to optimize the level of service performance, different transportation schemes are devised to control the lift operations. For example, one lift may be assigned to solely service the even floors and another solely for the odd floors, etc. In this paper, a basic lift system is modelled using SAS Simulation Studio to study the effect of factors such as the number of floors, capacity of the lift car, arrival rate and exit rate of passengers at each floor, peak and off peak periods on the system performance. The simulation is applied to a real lift operation in Sunway College's North Building to validate the model.

  7. Modelling of the spent fuel oxidation: Toward the operational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouyer, J.; Poulesquen, A.; Desgranges, L.; Ferry, C.

    2009-12-01

    As part of a long-lasting dry storage, the oxidation of the spent fuel linked to an accidental supply of oxygen into the spent fuel rod, may have consequences that must be assessed. Indeed, the oxidation of the UO 2 fuel up to U 3O 8 phase brings about a volume swelling of about 31% together with a bulking which may increase the initial defect of the cladding and thus lead to the release of fission products which remains embedded in nanometric gains or fine particles. From the oxidation model first developed (grain model), a new model has been proposed to describe the oxidation of spent fuel. The latter is based on a transposition of the graded grain model for unirradiated powders to irradiated grains. The modification of the grain model concerns the structural evolutions and the stoichiometric ranges during the oxidation. The convolution between the irradiated grain model and the propagation of the oxidation front along the grain boundaries allow to describe the oxidation kinetics of a spent fuel fragment. A criterion of grain breaking, based on experimental observations, has been proposed. The model has been parametrized from the experimental data of the literature and obtained as part of the French PRECCI's program. The harmony between the model and the experimental data either in terms of mass gain curves or of the oxygen diffusion coefficients in the UO 2 matrix is satisfactory. From this mechanistic model, an operational model for dry storage is proposed. On one hand, a simplified model (qualitative one) allowing to link the operational parameters (irradiation history) such as the burn up, the linear power or else the released gas fraction to a time for cracks to appear in the grains has been proposed. This model allows to display the time for the fractures in the fuel to appear (or a time before fracturing) according to the review of the treated fuels. On the other hand, a predictive operational model taking only the temperature into account is proposed.

  8. Implementation of Mexico's Health Promotion Operational Model.

    PubMed

    Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Lucero; Rivero, Lilia; Ochoa, Jorge; Stanford, Adriana; Latinovic, Ljubica; Rueda, Gretel

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing profound health reform, extending health insurance to previously uninsured populations and changing the way health care services are delivered. Legislation enacted in 2003 and implemented in 2004 mandated funding and infrastructure that will allow 52% of Mexico's population to access medical care at no cost by 2010. This ambitious social reform has not been without challenges, particularly financial sustainability. Health promotion, because of its potential to prevent or delay chronic diseases and injuries and their associated costs, is a key component of health care reform. In 2006, the Ministry of Health's General Directorate of Health Promotion developed the Health Promotion Operational Model. Based on Ottawa Charter functions, the model integrates health promotion activities within the overall health care system. The main goal of this model is to build strong human capital and to improve organizational capacity for health promotion starting at the local level by training health care personnel to implement health promotion activities. Organizational development workshops started in 2006, and implementation plans in all 32 Mexican states were in place by end of 2008.

  9. A secure operational model for mobile payments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tao-Ku

    2014-01-01

    Instead of paying by cash, check, or credit cards, customers can now also use their mobile devices to pay for a wide range of services and both digital and physical goods. However, customers' security concerns are a major barrier to the broad adoption and use of mobile payments. In this paper we present the design of a secure operational model for mobile payments in which access control is based on a service-oriented architecture. A customer uses his/her mobile device to get authorization from a remote server and generate a two-dimensional barcode as the payment certificate. This payment certificate has a time limit and can be used once only. The system also provides the ability to remotely lock and disable the mobile payment service.

  10. A Secure Operational Model for Mobile Payments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Instead of paying by cash, check, or credit cards, customers can now also use their mobile devices to pay for a wide range of services and both digital and physical goods. However, customers' security concerns are a major barrier to the broad adoption and use of mobile payments. In this paper we present the design of a secure operational model for mobile payments in which access control is based on a service-oriented architecture. A customer uses his/her mobile device to get authorization from a remote server and generate a two-dimensional barcode as the payment certificate. This payment certificate has a time limit and can be used once only. The system also provides the ability to remotely lock and disable the mobile payment service. PMID:25386607

  11. Towards operational permafrost modeling for Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, S.; Lilleøren, K. S.; Schuler, T. V.; Gisnâs, K.; Etzelmüller, B.

    2012-04-01

    In the course of the 21st century, thawing of permafrost is expected to occur in large areas as a consequence of climate change, which could trigger a number of climatic feedback mechanisms on the local to global scale. As the vast and remote permafrost areas cannot be sufficiently covered by ground-based monitoring of soil temperatures in boreholes alone, it is desirable to exploit the wealth of multi-sensor-multi-source data to assess the thermal ground conditions on large scales. In Norway, permafrost conditions range from mountain permafrost over organic-rich wetlands to high-arctic permafrost in Svalbard. Furthermore, the availability of gridded data sets from various sources makes it a well-suited test region to evaluate the performance of soil thermal models run with different input data, which facilitates comparing and benchmarking requirements on data quality. Soil temperatures can be modeled using Fourier's law of heat conduction, so that the key challenge is to supply accurate time series of three key input variables at suitable spatial and temporal resolutions: 1. land surface temperature, 2. snow depth, and 3. soil and snow thermal properties. We developed a framework for transient and distributed modeling the ground thermal regime in Norway, CryoGRID 2.0. In the model, the subsurface heat flow is treated in terms of 1D heat conduction using the land or snow surface temperature as upper boundary condition. The model features a dynamical representation of the snow cover and explicitly accounts for the heat flux through the snow pack. The spatio-temporal distribution of ground temperatures is calculated for a spatial resolution of 1 km for mainland Norway. The model is driven by operationally gridded data of daily air temperature and snow depth available at http://senorge.no. These datasets are available for the period 1957 to date having a spatial resolution of 1 km2. Spatial distributions of the ground thermal properties (e.g. heat conductivity

  12. The mathematical modelling of arc welding operation

    SciTech Connect

    Szekely, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report described the progress that was made during the grant period which examined the mathematical modeling of arc welding operations with emphasis on the transport phenomena occurring at the interface between the welding arc and weld pool. Work that has been carried out during the last three years of this specific project broke entirely new ground by quantifying the importance of free surface phenomena in arc welding systems. the most critical finding of this work was to emphasize the importance of the two way coupling between weld pool behavior and that of the energy source. More specifically, we have been able to model the interaction of a welding arc with a significantly deformed weld pool surface and we have shown that the deformed weld pool shape may have a very marked effect on the heat flux falling on the weld pool. This work is to be contrasted with most previous studies which model the weld pool independently of the welding arc and vice-versa. We have also been able to model the collapse of strongly deformed weld pools and the resultant gas occlusions. Furthermore, we have begun examination of the nature of the stability of the free surface using classical mathematics (Kelvin-Helmholtz instability). The importance in specifying the free surface lies in its effects on the arc behavior (nature of the heat and current flux). This in turn affects the surface temperature distribution on the weld pool which controls (a) the strength of Marangoni flows, and (b) the vaporization rates of volatile species. The former controls the type of pool shape that can be obtained due to convective flows while the latter controls, in part, the net heat input into the workpiece and limits the peak surface temperature. As a result of these understandings, heavy emphases are placed on quantifying the free surface. 49 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Robust Models for Operator Workload Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    research attempts to infer operator workload from operator physiological data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG). An......of the operators using two monitoring systems; the CleveMed BioRadio 150 and the Smart Eye Pro. The BioRadio received electroencephalography (EEG

  14. MOPADS (Models of Operator Performance in Air Defense Systems). Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    documentation, and they are, in effect , check lists which the operators memorize. Operator tasks (or simply "tasks") involve-skill based actions (task...S. Air Force to model human performance ý-n man-machine systeam and has had numerous applications including modeling of operators of remotely piloted...by average operators. In order to systematic.ly estimate the effect on operator perforrance of environmental and scenario specific conditions, the

  15. Modeling of transient heat pipe operation

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, G.T.; Hartley, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    The overall goal is to gain a better understanding of the transient behavior of heat pipes operating under both normal and adverse conditions. Normal operation refers to cases where the capillary structure remains fully wetted. Adverse operation occurs when drying, re-wetting, choking, noncontinuum flow, freezing, thawing etc., occur within the heat pipe. The work was redirected towards developing the capability to predict operational behavior of liquid metal heat pipes used for cooling aerodynamic structures. Of particular interest is the startup of such heat pipes from an initially frozen state such as might occur during re-entry of a space vehicle into the Earth's atmosphere or during flight of hypersonic aircraft.

  16. Modeling of transient heat pipe operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, G. T.; Hartley, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The overall goal is to gain a better understanding of the transient behavior of heat pipes operating under both normal and adverse conditions. Normal operation refers to cases where the capillary structure remains fully wetted. Adverse operation occurs when drying, re-wetting, choking, noncontinuum flow, freezing, thawing etc., occur within the heat pipe. The work was redirected towards developing the capability to predict operational behavior of liquid metal heat pipes used for cooling aerodynamic structures. Of particular interest is the startup of such heat pipes from an initially frozen state such as might occur during re-entry of a space vehicle into the Earth's atmosphere or during flight of hypersonic aircraft.

  17. Operative mortality and complication risk model for all major cardiovascular operations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Motomura, Noboru; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    The Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD) is a nationwide benchmarking project to improve the quality of cardiovascular surgery in Japan. This study aimed to develop new JACVD risk models not only for operative mortality but also for each postoperative complication for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations, valve operations, and thoracic aortic operations. We analyzed 24,704 isolated CABG operations, 26,137 valve operations, and 18,228 thoracic aortic operations. Risk models were developed for each operation for operative death, permanent stroke, renal failure, prolonged ventilation (>24 hours), deep sternal wound infection, and reoperation for bleeding. The population was divided into an 80% development sample and a 20% validation sample. The statistical model was constructed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Model discrimination was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (C index). The 30-day mortality rates for isolated CABG, valve, and thoracic aortic operations were 1.5%, 2.5%, and 6.0%, respectively, and operative mortality rates were 2.4%, 3.8%, and 8.4%, respectively. The C indices for the end points of isolated CABG, valve, and aortic thoracic operations were 0.6358 for (deep sternal infection) to 0.8655 (operative mortality), 0.6114 (reoperation for bleeding) to 0.8319 (operative death), and 0.6311 (gastrointestinal complication) to 0.7591 (operative death), respectively. These risk models increased the discriminatory power of former models. Thus, our models can be said to reflect the current state of Japan. With respect to major complications, useful feedback can now be provided through the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database Web-based system. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling Human Performance in Maritime Interdiction Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Interdiction Operations P1 - 4 RTO-MP-HFM-202 2.1.2 Physiological Factors 2.1.2.1 Nutrition & Hydration In high-tempo operations where MI teams...games e.g., soccer, football, rugby ) a typical example of the exercise intensities, and their distribution during the on-target phase, can be used to...well with playing high intensity sports such as rugby , America football and Australian Rules football as they would suffer high levels of pain and

  19. A posteriori operation detection in evolving software models

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Philip; Wimmer, Manuel; Brosch, Petra; Herrmannsdörfer, Markus; Seidl, Martina; Wieland, Konrad; Kappel, Gerti

    2013-01-01

    As every software artifact, also software models are subject to continuous evolution. The operations applied between two successive versions of a model are crucial for understanding its evolution. Generic approaches for detecting operations a posteriori identify atomic operations, but neglect composite operations, such as refactorings, which leads to cluttered difference reports. To tackle this limitation, we present an orthogonal extension of existing atomic operation detection approaches for detecting also composite operations. Our approach searches for occurrences of composite operations within a set of detected atomic operations in a post-processing manner. One major benefit is the reuse of specifications available for executing composite operations also for detecting applications of them. We evaluate the accuracy of the approach in a real-world case study and investigate the scalability of our implementation in an experiment. PMID:23471366

  20. Supersymmetric models with higher dimensional operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Dudas, E.; Ghilencea, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    In 4D renormalisable theories, integrating out massive states generates in the low energy effective action higher dimensional operators (derivative or otherwise). Using a superfield language it is shown that a 4D N=1 supersymmetric theory with higher derivative operators in either the Kahler or the superpotential part of the Lagrangian and with an otherwise arbitrary superpotential, is equivalent to a 4D N=1 theory of second order (i.e. without higher derivatives) with additional superfields and renormalised interactions. We provide examples where a free theory with trivial supersymmetry breaking provided by a linear superpotential becomes, in the presence of higher derivatives terms and in the second order version, a non-trivial interactive one with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The couplings of the equivalent theory acquire a threshold correction through their dependence on the scale of the higher dimensional operator(s). The scalar potential in the second order theory is not necessarily positive definite, and one can in principle have a vanishing potential with broken supersymmetry. We provide an application to MSSM and argue that at tree-level and for a mass scale associated to a higher derivative term in the TeV range, the Higgs mass can be lifted above the current experimental limits.

  1. Modelling Operational Command Structures Using ORGAHEAD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    unnecessary details ( Kaposi and Myers 1994). Models are used to alleviate unnecessary complexity, but during the process of creating a model (in particular...Defence. DEFGRAM NO 136/2004. Kaposi , A. and M. Myers (1994). Systems, Models and Measures, Springer-Verlag. Kirkpatrick, S., C. D. Gelatt, et al

  2. Operational Effectiveness Modeling of Intelligent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: * Significant work remains to properly model intelligent systems in a constructive simulation model like CASTFOREM. * Obtaining adequate...a major commitment of resources to obtain the model changes and the detailed data required. * TTPs for intelligent systems are still in the infant stages.

  3. Coalition Modeling in Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Generally, the high cost of military operations, reduced military budgets after the cold war, global economies, and the need for international legitimacy...addition, there has been a global increase in civil/ethnic strife which cause complex emergency (Lynch: 4). Furthermore, since these emergencies generally...notional scenario has been scaled back for demonstration purposes. These scenarios are solved using Xpress by Dash Optimization which is a commercial

  4. Intent inferencing with a model-based operator's associate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Rubin, Kenneth S.

    1989-01-01

    A portion of the Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert) research project is described. OFMspert is an architecture for an intelligent operator's associate or assistant that can aid the human operator of a complex, dynamic system. Intelligent aiding requires both understanding and control. The understanding (i.e., intent inferencing) ability of the operator's associate is discussed. Understanding or intent inferencing requires a model of the human operator; the usefulness of an intelligent aid depends directly on the fidelity and completeness of its underlying model. The model chosen for this research is the operator function model (OFM). The OFM represents operator functions, subfunctions, tasks, and actions as a heterarchic-hierarchic network of finite state automata, where the arcs in the network are system triggering events. The OFM provides the structure for intent inferencing in that operator functions and subfunctions correspond to likely operator goals and plans. A blackboard system similar to that of Human Associative Processor (HASP) is proposed as the implementation of intent inferencing function. This system postulates operator intentions based on current system state and attempts to interpret observed operator actions in light of these hypothesized intentions.

  5. Integration of Dynamic Models in Range Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    This work addresses the various model interactions in real-time to make an efficient internet based decision making tool for Shuttle launch. The decision making tool depends on the launch commit criteria coupled with physical models. Dynamic interaction between a wide variety of simulation applications and techniques, embedded algorithms, and data visualizations are needed to exploit the full potential of modeling and simulation. This paper also discusses in depth details of web based 3-D graphics and applications to range safety. The advantages of this dynamic model integration are secure accessibility and distribution of real time information to other NASA centers.

  6. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

  7. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

  8. Superstring vertex operators in type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2008-06-15

    We clarify the relation between the vertex operators in type IIB matrix model and superstring. Green-Schwarz light-cone closed superstring theory is obtained from IIB matrix model on two-dimensional noncommutative backgrounds. Superstring vertex operators should be reproduced from those of IIB matrix model through this connection. Indeed, we confirm that supergravity vertex operators in IIB matrix model on the two-dimensional backgrounds reduce to those in superstring theory. Noncommutativity plays an important role in our identification. Through this correspondence, we can reproduce superstring scattering amplitudes from IIB matrix model.

  9. Quantum morphology operations based on quantum representation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Suzhen; Mao, Xia; Li, Tian; Xue, Yuli; Chen, Lijiang; Xiong, Qingxu

    2015-05-01

    Quantum morphology operations are proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation model. Two kinds of quantum morphology operations are included: quantum binary and grayscale morphology operations. Dilation and erosion operations are fundamental to morphological operations. Consequently, we focus on quantum binary and flat grayscale dilation and erosion operations and their corresponding circuits. As the basis of designing of binary morphology operations, three basic quantum logic operations AND, OR, and NOT involving two binary images are presented. Thus, quantum binary dilation and erosion operations can be realized based on these logic operations supplemented by quantum measurement operations. As to the design of flat grayscale dilation and erosion operations, the searching for maxima or minima in a certain space is involved; here, we use Grover's search algorithm to get these maxima and minima. With respect that the grayscale is represented by quantum bit string, the quantum bit string comparator is used as an oracle in Grover's search algorithm. In these quantum morphology operations, quantum parallelism is well utilized. The time complexity analysis shows that quantum morphology operations' time complexity is much lower or equal to the classical morphology operations.

  10. Reusable Space Vehicle Ground Operations Baseline Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND OPERATIONS BASELINE CONCEPTUAL MODEL THESIS DENNIS R...United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GLM/ENS/04-12 REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND...for the next launch. v AFIT/GLM/ENS/04-12 REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE GROUND OPERATIONS BASELINE CONCEPTUAL MODEL DENNIS R. MAYNARD

  11. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  12. Micromechanical Modeling of Metal Forming Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Tung Phan; Jöchen, Katja; Böhlke, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    In this work, a ferritic stainless steel (DC04) is investigated in the following three steps. First, we use micropillar compression test data for the identification of a large strain single crystal plasticity model. In the second step the model is verified based on Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) measurements in a small specimen subjected to a large strain uniaxial tensile test. The two-dimensional EBSD data have been discretized by finite elements and subjected to homogeneous displacement boundary conditions for the second step. Finally, we apply a two-scale Taylor type model at the integration points of the finite elements to simulate the deep drawing process based on initial texture data. The texture data required for the specification of the two-scale model is determined based on the aforementioned EBSD data and by using a texture component method simultaneously to improve the computation time. The finite element simulations were performed with differently textured sheet metals and compared with experiment.

  13. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER MODEL FOR SRS WASTE TANK OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-03-27

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation. The analysis model took a parametric approach. A series of the modeling analyses was performed to examine how submersible mixer pumps affect tank temperature during waste removal operation in the Type-I tank. The model domain included radioactive decay heat load, two SMP's, and one Submersible Transfer Pump (STP) as heat source terms. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%. Transient modeling calculations for two potential scenarios of sludge mixing and removal operations have been made to estimate transient waste temperatures within a Type-I waste tank. When two 200-HP submersible mixers and 12 active cooling coils are continuously operated in 100-in tank level and 40 C initial temperature for 40 days since the initiation of mixing operation, waste temperature rises about 9 C in 48 hours at a maximum. Sensitivity studies for the key operating variables were performed. The sensitivity results showed that the chromate cooling coil system provided the primary cooling mechanism to remove process

  14. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  15. Transportation Telematics Systems Operation Efficiency Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław

    2012-03-01

    In the paper is presented a method of assessing of the exploitation efficiency of transport telematics systems. In order to obtain as an overall assessment of transport telematics systems, as the method for evaluating was accepted the multi-state analysis of the exploitation process. Then was elaborated the model of exploitation process of the telematics system. The problem of fundamental importance in the study of efficiency is to determine the partial measures of effectiveness. Using the characteristics of the exploitation process, a model of exploitation efficiency of telematics system was elaborated and the measures of its evaluation are presented.

  16. An operational GLS model for hydrologic regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Stedinger, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent Monte Carlo studies have documented the value of generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to estimate empirical relationships between streamflow statistics and physiographic basin characteristics. This paper presents a number of extensions of the GLS method that deal with realities and complexities of regional hydrologic data sets that were not addressed in the simulation studies. These extensions include: (1) a more realistic model of the underlying model errors; (2) smoothed estimates of cross correlation of flows; (3) procedures for including historical flow data; (4) diagnostic statistics describing leverage and influence for GLS regression; and (5) the formulation of a mathematical program for evaluating future gaging activities. ?? 1989.

  17. Galileo spacecraft modeling for orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, Bruce A.; Nilsen, Erik N.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Jupiter orbital mission using the Low Gain Antenna (LGA) requires a higher degree of spacecraft state knowledge than was originally anticipated. Key elements of the revised design include onboard buffering of science and engineering data and extensive processing of data prior to downlink. In order to prevent loss of data resulting from overflow of the buffers and to allow efficient use of the spacecraft resources, ground based models of the spacecraft processes will be implemented. These models will be integral tools in the development of satellite encounter sequences and the cruise/playback sequences where recorded data is retrieved.

  18. Models of unit operations used for solid-waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, G.M.; Glaub, J.C.; Diaz, L.F.

    1984-09-01

    This report documents the unit operations models that have been developed for typical refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) processing systems. These models, which represent the mass balances, energy requirements, and economics of the unit operations, are derived, where possible, from basic principles. Empiricism has been invoked where a governing theory has yet to be developed. Field test data and manufacturers' information, where available, supplement the analytical development of the models. A literature review has also been included for the purpose of compiling and discussing in one document the available information pertaining to the modeling of front-end unit operations. Separate analytics have been done for each task.

  19. Shuttle operations simulation model programmers'/users' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The prospective user of the shuttle operations simulation (SOS) model is given sufficient information to enable him to perform simulation studies of the space shuttle launch-to-launch operations cycle. The procedures used for modifying the SOS model to meet user requirements are described. The various control card sequences required to execute the SOS model are given. The report is written for users with varying computer simulation experience. A description of the components of the SOS model is included that presents both an explanation of the logic involved in the simulation of the shuttle operations cycle and a description of the routines used to support the actual simulation.

  20. The Application of Architecture Frameworks to Modelling Exploration Operations Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Developments in architectural frameworks and system-of-systems thinking have provided useful constructs for systems engineering. DoDAF concepts, language, and formalisms, in particular, provide a natural way of conceptualizing an operations cost model applicable to NASA's space exploration vision. Not all DoDAF products have meaning or apply to a DoDAF inspired operations cost model, but this paper describes how such DoDAF concepts as nodes, systems, and operational activities relate to the development of a model to estimate exploration operations costs. The paper discusses the specific implementation to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) operational functions/activities currently being developed and presents an overview of how this powerful representation can apply to robotic space missions as well.

  1. Operational Plan Ontology Model for Interconnection and Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, F.; Sun, Y. K.; Shi, H. Q.

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the assistant decision-making system’s bottleneck of processing the operational plan data and information, this paper starts from the analysis of the problem of traditional expression and the technical advantage of ontology, and then it defines the elements of the operational plan ontology model and determines the basis of construction. Later, it builds up a semi-knowledge-level operational plan ontology model. Finally, it probes into the operational plan expression based on the operational plan ontology model and the usage of the application software. Thus, this paper has the theoretical significance and application value in the improvement of interconnection and interoperability of the operational plan among assistant decision-making systems.

  2. The Application of Architecture Frameworks to Modelling Exploration Operations Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Developments in architectural frameworks and system-of-systems thinking have provided useful constructs for systems engineering. DoDAF concepts, language, and formalisms, in particular, provide a natural way of conceptualizing an operations cost model applicable to NASA's space exploration vision. Not all DoDAF products have meaning or apply to a DoDAF inspired operations cost model, but this paper describes how such DoDAF concepts as nodes, systems, and operational activities relate to the development of a model to estimate exploration operations costs. The paper discusses the specific implementation to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) operational functions/activities currently being developed and presents an overview of how this powerful representation can apply to robotic space missions as well.

  3. Modelling Team Adversarial Actions in UAV Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Petri - nets to this formalism. In [10], extending the HD- automata as supporting model, the authors define a logic for dynamic creation and...modular mix of capabilities into basic units (e.g. Platoons , regiments, etc…); 2) modular and nested composition of groups of units; 3) patterns of command

  4. Model Identification and Optimization for Operational Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    location with known Latitude and Longitude. For the case of Red, one “ dummy instance” of each Force type (unique name) has been created to provide...a UML specification (Booch, et al., 1999) for the domain objects implemented in MATLAB. The domain objects contain all of the problem domain...model shown below is an image of the UML specification in the software design tool, Enterprise Architect (filename af.eap). A free, read-only

  5. Adapting Modeling & SImulation for Network Enabled Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    here. The first of these is essentially a single decision game in which an NBC commander chooses (or not) to raise an alarm based on accumulating...55, 58, 60–61 cybernetics 13–16, 38, 39, 79 D decentralised control 25 decision games 100–101 card- based 101 multiple 111–122 single 98–100, 102...95 Figure 4.9: Initial statistical model for the single decision game. ............................106 Figure 4.10: The probability

  6. Nonlinear Model Identification from Operating Records.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    1) output tracking, and (2) parametric identification . Output tracking iden- tification develops models for systems which for a given, fixed input...significance for identification. Parametric identification is of greater importance since it yields the parameters of the plant. Thus, output tracking occurs...sense of hypersta- bility. Thus, the parametric identification of linear dynamic systems un- der the hyperstability conditions is assured; a very

  7. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Jain, A.; Kreutz-Delgado, K.

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling, control, and trajectory design is discussed. The elements of this algebra are linear operators whose domain and range spaces consist of forces, moments, velocities, and accelerations. The effect of these operators is equivalent to a spatial recursion along the span of a manipulator. Inversion of operators can be efficiently obtained via techniques of recursive filtering and smoothing. The operator algebra provides a high-level framework for describing the dynamic and kinematic behavior of a manipulator and for control and trajectory design algorithms. The interpretation of expressions within the algebraic framework leads to enhanced conceptual and physical understanding of manipulator dynamics and kinematics.

  8. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations (LLEGO) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    LLEGO is a model for understanding recurring launch and landing operations costs at Kennedy Space Center for human space flight. Launch and landing operations are often referred to as ground processing, or ground operations. Currently, this function is specific to the ground operations for the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System within the Space Shuttle Program. The Constellation system to follow the Space Shuttle consists of the crewed Orion spacecraft atop an Ares I launch vehicle and the uncrewed Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation flight and ground systems build upon many elements of the existing Shuttle flight and ground hardware, as well as upon existing organizations and processes. In turn, the LLEGO model builds upon past ground operations research, modeling, data, and experience in estimating for future programs. Rather than to simply provide estimates, the LLEGO model s main purpose is to improve expenses by relating complex relationships among functions (ground operations contractor, subcontractors, civil service technical, center management, operations, etc.) to tangible drivers. Drivers include flight system complexity and reliability, as well as operations and supply chain management processes and technology. Together these factors define the operability and potential improvements for any future system, from the most direct to the least direct expenses.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Shuttle Launch and Range Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    The simulation and modeling test bed is based on a mockup of a space flight operations control suitable to experiment physical, procedural, software, hardware and psychological aspects of space flight operations. The test bed consists of a weather expert system to advise on the effect of weather to the launch operations. It also simulates toxic gas dispersion model, impact of human health risk, debris dispersion model in 3D visualization. Since all modeling and simulation is based on the internet, it could reduce the cost of operations of launch and range safety by conducting extensive research before a particular launch. Each model has an independent decision making module to derive the best decision for launch.

  11. Intercomparison of prediction skills of ensemble methods using monthly mean temperature simulated by CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Min-Gyu; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kim, Chansoo

    2017-08-01

    This study focuses on an objective comparison of eight ensemble methods using the same data, training period, training method, and validation period. The eight ensemble methods are: BMA (Bayesian Model Averaging), HMR (Homogeneous Multiple Regression), EMOS (Ensemble Model Output Statistics), HMR+ with positive coefficients, EMOS+ with positive coefficients, PEA_ROC (Performance-based Ensemble Averaging using ROot mean square error and temporal Correlation coefficient), WEA_Tay (Weighted Ensemble Averaging based on Taylor's skill score), and MME (Multi-Model Ensemble). Forty-five years (1961-2005) of data from 14 CMIP5 models and APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation- Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources) data were used to compare the performance of the eight ensemble methods. Although some models underestimated the variability of monthly mean temperature (MMT), most of the models effectively simulated the spatial distribution of MMT. Regardless of training periods and the number of ensemble members, the prediction skills of BMA and the four multiple linear regressions (MLR) were superior to the other ensemble methods (PEA_ROC, WEA_Tay, MME) in terms of deterministic prediction. In terms of probabilistic prediction, the four MLRs showed better prediction skills than BMA. However, the differences among the four MLRs and BMA were not significant. This resulted from the similarity of BMA weights and regression coefficients. Furthermore, prediction skills of the four MLRs were very similar. Overall, the four MLRs showed the best prediction skills among the eight ensemble methods. However, more comprehensive work is needed to select the best ensemble method among the numerous ensemble methods.

  12. Retrospective tests of hybrid operational earthquake forecasting models for Canterbury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, D. A.; Liukis, M.; Christophersen, A.; Gerstenberger, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquake sequence, which began in September 2010, occurred in a region of low crustal deformation and previously low seismicity. Because, the ensuing seismicity in the region is likely to remain above previous levels for many years, a hybrid operational earthquake forecasting model for Canterbury was developed to inform decisions on building standards and urban planning for the rebuilding of Christchurch. The model estimates occurrence probabilities for magnitudes M ≥ 5.0 in the Canterbury region for each of the next 50 yr. It combines two short-term, two medium-term and four long-term forecasting models. The weight accorded to each individual model in the operational hybrid was determined by an expert elicitation process. A retrospective test of the operational hybrid model and of an earlier informally developed hybrid model in the whole New Zealand region has been carried out. The individual and hybrid models were installed in the New Zealand Earthquake Forecast Testing Centre and used to make retrospective annual forecasts of earthquakes with magnitude M > 4.95 from 1986 on, for time-lags up to 25 yr. All models underpredict the number of earthquakes due to an abnormally large number of earthquakes in the testing period since 2008 compared to those in the learning period. However, the operational hybrid model is more informative than any of the individual time-varying models for nearly all time-lags. Its information gain relative to a reference model of least information decreases as the time-lag increases to become zero at a time-lag of about 20 yr. An optimal hybrid model with the same mathematical form as the operational hybrid model was computed for each time-lag from the 26-yr test period. The time-varying component of the optimal hybrid is dominated by the medium-term models for time-lags up to 12 yr and has hardly any impact on the optimal hybrid model for greater time-lags. The optimal hybrid model is considerably more

  13. Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen (Technical Monitor); Andersson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.

  14. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays and the user`s prospective model of a system. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming and its use in expanding design choices from the operator`s perspective image. The contents of this paper focuses on the studies and how they are applicable to the safety of operating reactors.

  15. A toy model for higher spin Dirac operators

    SciTech Connect

    Eelbode, D. Van de Voorde, L.

    2010-02-15

    This paper deals with the higher spin Dirac operator Q{sub 2,1} acting on functions taking values in an irreducible representation space for so(m) with highest weight (5/2, 3/2, 1/2,..., 1/2). . This operator acts as a toy model for generalizations of the classical Rarita-Schwinger equations in Clifford analysis. Polynomial null solutions for this operator are studied in particular.

  16. A Pre-operative Risk Model for Post-operative Pneumonia following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Raymond J.; Liang, Qixing; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoting; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Theurer, Patricia F.; Fishstrom, Astrid B.; Harrington, Steven D.; DeLucia, Alphonse; Paone, Gaetano; Patel, Himanshu J.; Prager, Richard L.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-operative pneumonia is the most prevalent of all hospital-acquired infections following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CAB). Accurate prediction of a patient’s risk of this morbid complication is hindered by its low relative incidence. In an effort to support clinical decision-making and quality improvement, we developed a pre-operative prediction model for post-operative pneumonia following CAB. Methods We undertook an observational study of 16,084 patients undergoing CAB between Q3 2011 – Q2 2014 across 33 institutions participating in the Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons – Quality Collaborative. Variables related to patient demographics, medical history, admission status, comorbid disease, cardiac anatomy and the institution performing the procedure were investigated. Logistic regression via forwards stepwise selection (p < 0.05 threshold) was utilized to develop a risk prediction model for estimating the occurrence of pneumonia. Traditional methods were employed to assess the model’s performance. Results Post-operative pneumonia occurred in 3.30% of patients. Multivariable analysis identified 17 pre-operative factors, including: demographics, laboratory values, comorbid disease, pulmonary and cardiac function, and operative status. The final model significantly predicted the occurrence of pneumonia, and performed well (C-statistic: 0.74). These findings were confirmed via sensitivity analyses by center and clinically important sub-groups. Conclusions We identified 17 readily obtainable pre-operative variables associated with post-operative pneumonia. This model may be used to provide individualized risk estimation and to identify opportunities to reduce a patient’s pre-operative risk of pneumonia through pre-habilitation. PMID:27261082

  17. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  18. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  19. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  20. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  1. Fuzzy Logic Model for Multi-Reservoir Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S.; Prasad, M. Anjaneya

    Reservoirs are built usually to serve multiple purposes, viz. irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, hydro-power and flood control. Because of high variability of annual rainfall and conflicting demands on scarce water resources, the study and operation of reservoir systems has assumed great significance to meet the short and long-term requirements. The reservoir managers do not find previous techniques of complex optimization models are difficult to adopt practically. New methods have to be developed, which are simple to understand and can be effectively adopted for the existing systems. Artificial intelligent tools like Genetic programming, Neural Networks and fuzzy logic methods are increasingly becoming popular in Water resources applications. The fuzzy-rule-based systems are very much suitable for inferring developed operating policies. In the present work a rule-based Fuzzy model is attempted for long-term operation a multi-reservoir system. The model was developed on monthly basis for operation and the model was demonstrated with a case of two serial reservoirs on River Godavari sub-system located in South India. The uniqueness of the present paper is that the model was developed based on the historical operation so that the model may be acceptable to reservoir managers, since the departmental expertise was the basis for the model development. The performance of the model was tested with both calibrated and validation periods. The performance of model during two crop seasons of year was reported.

  2. Models for estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurenkov, Vladimir I.; Kucherov, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency. Appropriate mathematical models have been developed. Some results obtained with the help of the software worked out in Delphi programming support environment are presented.

  3. View southwest of model board and operator's station #2; cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of model board and operator's station #2; cabinet in foreground houses at supervisory board and control switches for circuit breakers - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. The design and implementation of an operational model evaluation system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.T.

    1995-06-01

    An evaluation of an atmospheric transport and diffusion model`s operational performance typically involves the comparison of the model`s calculations with measurements of an atmospheric pollutant`s temporal and spatial distribution. These evaluations however often use data from a small number of experiments and may be limited to producing some of the commonly quoted statistics based on the differences between model calculations and the measurements. This paper presents efforts to develop a model evaluation system geared for both the objective statistical analysis and the more subjective visualization of the inter-relationships between a model`s calculations and the appropriate field measurement data.

  5. Characteristics of Operational Space Weather Forecasting: Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Viereck, Rodney; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terry; Biesecker, Doug; Rutledge, Robert; Hill, Steven; Akmaev, Rashid; Milward, George; Fuller-Rowell, Tim

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to research observations, models and ground support systems, operational systems are characterized by real-time data streams and run schedules, with redundant backup systems for most elements of the system. We review the characteristics of operational space weather forecasting, concentrating on the key aspects of ground- and space-based observations that feed models of the coupled Sun-Earth system at the NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Building on the infrastructure of the National Weather Service, SWPC is working toward a fully operational system based on the GOES weather satellite system (constant real-time operation with back-up satellites), the newly launched DSCOVR satellite at L1 (constant real-time data network with AFSCN backup), and operational models of the heliosphere, magnetosphere, and ionosphere/thermosphere/mesophere systems run on the Weather and Climate Operational Super-computing System (WCOSS), one of the worlds largest and fastest operational computer systems that will be upgraded to a dual 2.5 Pflop system in 2016. We review plans for further operational space weather observing platforms being developed in the context of the Space Weather Operations Research and Mitigation (SWORM) task force in the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) at the White House. We also review the current operational model developments at SWPC, concentrating on the differences between the research codes and the modified real-time versions that must run with zero fault tolerance on the WCOSS systems. Understanding the characteristics and needs of the operational forecasting community is key to producing research into the coupled Sun-Earth system with maximal societal benefit.

  6. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  7. Development of operational models for space weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqing; Gong, Jiancun

    Since space weather prediction is currently at the stage of transition from human experience to objective forecasting methods, developing operational forecasting models becomes an important way to improve the capabilities of space weather service. As the existing theoretical models are not fully operational when it comes to space weather prediction, we carried out researches on developing operational models, considering the user needs for prediction of key elements in space environment, which have vital impacts on space assets security. We focused on solar activities, geomagnetic activities, high-energy particles, atmospheric density, plasma environment and so forth. Great progresses have been made in developing 3D dynamic asymmetric magnetopause model, plasma sheet energetic electron flux forecasting model and 400km-atmospheric density forecasting model, and also in the prediction of high-speed solar-wind streams from coronal holes and geomagnetic AE indices. Some of these models have already been running in the operational system of Space Environment Prediction Center, National Space Science Center (SEPC/NSSC). This presentation will introduce the research plans for space weather prediction in China, and current progresses of developing operational models and their applications in daily space weather services in SEPC/NSSC.

  8. Some new control theoretic models for human operator display monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinman, D. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are applied to develop two new models for predicting human operator performance when monitoring an automatically controlled system. In one case it is assumed that the human monitors the instruments in order to rapidly detect failures. A second approach assumes that the instruments are sampled to best reconstruct the system status information. The relation of these models to existing prediction schemes, e.g., equal attention and the Senders model is explored. It is concluded that a combination of failure detection and status estimation models offers the best potential for human operator application.

  9. Some new control theoretic models for human operator display monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinman, D. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are applied to develop two new models for predicting human operator performance when monitoring an automatically controlled system. In one case it is assumed that the human monitors the instruments in order to rapidly detect failures. The second approach assumes that the instruments are sampled to best reconstruct the system status information. The relation of these models to existing prediction schemes, e.g., equal attention and the Sender's (1964) model is explored. It is concluded that a combination of failure detection and status estimation models offers the best potential for human operator application.

  10. THE HANFORD WASTE FEED DELIVERY OPERATIONS RESEARCH MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    BERRY J; GALLAHER BN

    2011-01-13

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), the Hanford tank farm contractor, is tasked with the long term planning of the cleanup mission. Cleanup plans do not explicitly reflect the mission effects associated with tank farm operating equipment failures. EnergySolutions, a subcontractor to WRPS has developed, in conjunction with WRPS tank farms staff, an Operations Research (OR) model to assess and identify areas to improve the performance of the Waste Feed Delivery Systems. This paper provides an example of how OR modeling can be used to help identify and mitigate operational risks at the Hanford tank farms.

  11. Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Seah, Chin; Trimble, Jay P.; Sims, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Work System analysis and design is complex and non-deterministic. In this paper we describe Brahms, a multiagent modeling and simulation environment for designing complex interactions in human-machine systems. Brahms was originally conceived as a business process design tool that simulates work practices, including social systems of work. We describe our modeling and simulation method for mission operations work systems design, based on a research case study in which we used Brahms to design mission operations for a proposed discovery mission to the Moon. We then describe the results of an actual method application project-the Brahms Mars Exploration Rover. Space mission operations are similar to operations of traditional organizations; we show that the application of Brahms for space mission operations design is relevant and transferable to other types of business processes in organizations.

  12. OFMTutor: An operator function model intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1989-01-01

    The design, implementation, and evaluation of an Operator Function Model intelligent tutoring system (OFMTutor) is presented. OFMTutor is intended to provide intelligent tutoring in the context of complex dynamic systems for which an operator function model (OFM) can be constructed. The human operator's role in such complex, dynamic, and highly automated systems is that of a supervisory controller whose primary responsibilities are routine monitoring and fine-tuning of system parameters and occasional compensation for system abnormalities. The automated systems must support the human operator. One potentially useful form of support is the use of intelligent tutoring systems to teach the operator about the system and how to function within that system. Previous research on intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) is considered. The proposed design for OFMTutor is presented, and an experimental evaluation is described.

  13. Modeling and simulation of longwall scraper conveyor considering operational faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenacewicz, Krzysztof; Katunin, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The paper provides a description of analytical model of a longwall scraper conveyor, including its electrical, mechanical, measurement and control actuating systems, as well as presentation of its implementation in the form of computer simulator in the Matlab®/Simulink® environment. Using this simulator eight scenarios typical of usual operational conditions of an underground scraper conveyor can be generated. Moreover, the simulator provides a possibility of modeling various operational faults and taking into consideration a measurement noise generated by transducers. The analysis of various combinations of scenarios of operation and faults with description is presented. The simulator developed may find potential application in benchmarking of diagnostic systems, testing of algorithms of operational control or can be used for supporting the modeling of real processes occurring in similar systems.

  14. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  15. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  16. Operation of the World Master in the World Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    This research note describes the operation of the World Master process of the World Modeling System. It is intended to be an aid to maintainers of ... the World Master, and implementors of additional simulated physical properties of the world . The World Master is the core of the World Modeling System

  17. A Model for Resource Allocation Using Operational Knowledge Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Andreas N.; Bontis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to develop a business model that shows the impact of operational knowledge assets on intellectual capital (IC) components and business performance and use the model to show how knowledge assets can be prioritized in driving resource allocation decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected from 84…

  18. A Model for Resource Allocation Using Operational Knowledge Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Andreas N.; Bontis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to develop a business model that shows the impact of operational knowledge assets on intellectual capital (IC) components and business performance and use the model to show how knowledge assets can be prioritized in driving resource allocation decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected from 84…

  19. Ergonomics applications of a mechanical model of the human operator in power hand tool operation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert; Nembhard, David

    2005-02-01

    Applications of a new model for predicting power threaded-fastener-driving tool operator response and capacity to react against impulsive torque reaction forces are explored for use in tool selection and ergonomic workplace design. The model is based on a mechanical analog of the human operator, with parameters dependent on work location (horizontal and vertical distances); work orientation (horizontal and vertical); and tool shape (in-line, pistol grip, and right angle); and is stratified by gender. This model enables prediction of group means and variances of handle displacement and force for a given tool configuration. Response percentiles can be ascertained for specific tool operations. For example, a sample pistol grip nutrunner used on a horizontal surface at 30 cm in front of the ankles and 140 cm above the floor results in a predicted mean handle reaction displacement of 39.0 (SD=28.1) mm for males. Consequently 63%of the male users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement limit. When a right angle tool of similar torque output is used instead, the model predicted that only 4.6%of the male tool users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement. A method is described for interpolating individual subject model parameters at any given work location using linear combinations in relation to the range of modeled factors. Additional examples pertinent to ergonomic workstation design and tool selection are provided to demonstrate how the model can be used to aid tool selection and workstation design.

  20. Progress in space weather modeling in an operational environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagouri, Ioanna; Belehaki, Anna; Bergeot, Nicolas; Cid, Consuelo; Delouille, Véronique; Egorova, Tatiana; Jakowski, Norbert; Kutiev, Ivan; Mikhailov, Andrei; Núñez, Marlon; Pietrella, Marco; Potapov, Alexander; Qahwaji, Rami; Tulunay, Yurdanur; Velinov, Peter; Viljanen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of latest advances in space weather modeling in an operational environment in Europe, including both the introduction of new models and improvements to existing codes and algorithms that address the broad range of space weather's prediction requirements from the Sun to the Earth. For each case, we consider the model's input data, the output parameters, products or services, its operational status, and whether it is supported by validation results, in order to build a solid basis for future developments. This work is the output of the Sub Group 1.3 "Improvement of operational models" of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0803 "Developing Space Weather Products and services in Europe" and therefore this review focuses on the progress achieved by European research teams involved in the action.

  1. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, K.; Jain, A.

    1989-01-01

    A spatial operator algebra for modeling the control and trajectory design of manipulation is discussed, with emphasis on its analytical formulation and implementation in the Ada programming language. The elements of this algebra are linear operators whose domain and range spaces consist of forces, moments, velocities, and accelerations. The effect of these operators is equivalent to a spatial recursion along the span of the manipulator. Inversion is obtained using techniques of recursive filtering and smoothing. The operator alegbra provides a high-level framework for describing the dynamic and kinematic behavior of a manipulator and control and trajectory design algorithms. Implementable recursive algorithms can be immediately derived from the abstract operator expressions by inspection, thus greatly simplifying the transition from an abstract problem formulation and solution to the detailed mechanization of a specific algorithm.

  2. Operations and support cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this annual report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center which documents the development of an operations and support (O&S) cost model as part of a larger life cycle cost (LCC) structure. It is intended for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of an operations and support life cycle cost model. Cost categories were initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. A revised cost element structure (CES), which is currently under study by NASA, was used to established the basic cost elements used in the model. While the focus of the effort was on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs, the computerized model allowed for other cost categories such as RDT&E and production costs to be addressed. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the costing model included support and upgrades to the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model. The primary result of the current research has been a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely operations and support cost analysis during the conceptual design activities.

  3. Current status of GFZ's operational Earth System model GFZESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Robert; Dobslaw, Henryk; Thomas, Maik

    2017-04-01

    GFZ revised his operational Earth system model GFZESM to provide in quasi-real-time a consistent product data-set of gravity variations, Earth rotation excitation, and surface load deformations related to modeled atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrological mass re-distributions. ECMWFs ERA Interim and operational atmospheric data is reduced to a fixed defined high-resolution reference topography in order to avoid inconsistencies between different ECMWF model setups and due to routinely updated orography background models in the operational atmospheric data. Consistently with the new GRACE de-aliasing product AOD1B release 06 the modeled mass re-distributions from atmospheric surface pressure (ECMWF)and oceanic bottom pressure (calculated by the oceanic model MPIOM) are corrected for tidal signals and the inverse barometric effect over the ocean. In combination with the hydrological model LSDM, the following consistent set of operational products is provided daily: GRACE AOD1B release 06 spherical harmonic coefficients (d/o 180, 3h); Earth rotation excitation AAM (3h), OAM (3h), and HAM (24); non-tidal Loading Surface Deformations NTAL (0.5°, 3h), NTOL (0.5°, 3h), and HYDL(0.5°, 24h). In addition, 6-day forecasts for all the products are available.

  4. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the Analytic Process Model Demonstration Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Research Note 86-06 THE COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL : OPERATIONS HANDBOOK FOR THE ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL DE ONSTRATION PACKAGE Ronald G...ic Process Model ; Operations Handbook; Tutorial; Apple; Systems Taxonomy Mod--l; Training System; Bradl1ey infantry Fighting * Vehicle; BIFV...8217. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - ~ . - - * m- .. . . . . . . item 20. Abstract -continued companion volume-- "The Analytic Process Model for

  5. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    PubMed

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling safety of gantry crane operations using Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmveer; Raj, Navneet; Sahu, S K; Behera, R K; Sarkar, Sobhan; Maiti, J

    2017-03-01

    Being a powerful tool in modelling industrial and service operations, Petri net (PN) has been extremely used in different domains, but its application in safety study is limited. In this study, we model the gantry crane operations used for industrial activities using generalized stochastic PNs. The complete cycle of operations of the gantry crane is split into three parts namely inspection and loading, movement of load, and unloading of load. PN models are developed for all three parts and the whole system as well. The developed PN models have captured the safety issues through reachability tree. The hazardous states are identified and how they ultimately lead to some unwanted accidents is demonstrated. The possibility of falling of load and failure of hook, sling, attachment and hoist rope are identified. Possible suggestions based on the study are presented for redesign of the system. For example, mechanical stoppage of operations in case of loosely connected load, and warning system for use of wrong buttons is tested using modified models.

  7. Neural Networks for Hydrological Modeling Tool for Operational Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Divya; Jain, Ashu

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological models are useful in many water resources applications such as flood control, irrigation and drainage, hydro power generation, water supply, erosion and sediment control, etc. Estimates of runoff are needed in many water resources planning, design development, operation and maintenance activities. Runoff is generally computed using rainfall-runoff models. Computer based hydrologic models have become popular for obtaining hydrological forecasts and for managing water systems. Rainfall-runoff library (RRL) is computer software developed by Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology (CRCCH), Australia consisting of five different conceptual rainfall-runoff models, and has been in operation in many water resources applications in Australia. Recently, soft artificial intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have become popular for research purposes but have not been adopted in operational hydrological forecasts. There is a strong need to develop ANN models based on real catchment data and compare them with the conceptual models actually in use in real catchments. In this paper, the results from an investigation on the use of RRL and ANNs are presented. Out of the five conceptual models in the RRL toolkit, SimHyd model has been used. Genetic Algorithm has been used as an optimizer in the RRL to calibrate the SimHyd model. Trial and error procedures were employed to arrive at the best values of various parameters involved in the GA optimizer to develop the SimHyd model. The results obtained from the best configuration of the SimHyd model are presented here. Feed-forward neural network model structure trained by back-propagation training algorithm has been adopted here to develop the ANN models. The daily rainfall and runoff data derived from Bird Creek Basin, Oklahoma, USA have been employed to develop all the models included here. A wide range of error statistics have been used to evaluate the performance of all the models

  8. Dynamic and adaptive policy models for coalition operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Dinesh; Calo, Seraphin; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Bertino, Elisa; Williams, Chris; Tucker, Jeremy; Rivera, Brian; de Mel, Geeth R.

    2017-05-01

    It is envisioned that the success of future military operations depends on the better integration, organizationally and operationally, among allies, coalition members, inter-agency partners, and so forth. However, this leads to a challenging and complex environment where the heterogeneity and dynamism in the operating environment intertwines with the evolving situational factors that affect the decision-making life cycle of the war fighter. Therefore, the users in such environments need secure, accessible, and resilient information infrastructures where policy-based mechanisms adopt the behaviours of the systems to meet end user goals. By specifying and enforcing a policy based model and framework for operations and security which accommodates heterogeneous coalitions, high levels of agility can be enabled to allow rapid assembly and restructuring of system and information resources. However, current prevalent policy models (e.g., rule based event-condition-action model and its variants) are not sufficient to deal with the highly dynamic and plausibly non-deterministic nature of these environments. Therefore, to address the above challenges, in this paper, we present a new approach for policies which enables managed systems to take more autonomic decisions regarding their operations.

  9. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, Kenneth; Jain, Abhinandan

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed spatial operator algebra, useful for modeling, control, and trajectory design of manipulators is discussed. The elements of this algebra are linear operators whose domain and range spaces consist of forces, moments, velocities, and accelerations. The effect of these operators is equivalent to a spatial recursion along the span of a manipulator. Inversion of operators can be efficiently obtained via techniques of recursive filtering and smoothing. The operator algebra provides a high level framework for describing the dynamic and kinematic behavior of a manipulator and control and trajectory design algorithms. The interpretation of expressions within the algebraic framework leads to enhanced conceptual and physical understanding of manipulator dynamics and kinematics. Furthermore, implementable recursive algorithms can be immediately derived from the abstract operator expressions by inspection. Thus, the transition from an abstract problem formulation and solution to the detailed mechanizaton of specific algorithms is greatly simplified. The analytical formulation of the operator algebra, as well as its implementation in the Ada programming language are discussed.

  10. Human operator identification model and related computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, K. M.; Mohr, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Four computer programs which provide computational assistance in the analysis of man/machine systems are reported. The programs are: (1) Modified Transfer Function Program (TF); (2) Time Varying Response Program (TVSR); (3) Optimal Simulation Program (TVOPT); and (4) Linear Identification Program (SCIDNT). The TV program converts the time domain state variable system representative to frequency domain transfer function system representation. The TVSR program computes time histories of the input/output responses of the human operator model. The TVOPT program is an optimal simulation program and is similar to TVSR in that it produces time histories of system states associated with an operator in the loop system. The differences between the two programs are presented. The SCIDNT program is an open loop identification code which operates on the simulated data from TVOPT (or TVSR) or real operator data from motion simulators.

  11. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, K.; Milman, M.

    1988-01-01

    A powerful new spatial operator algebra for modeling, control, and trajectory design of manipulators is discussed along with its implementation in the Ada programming language. Applications of this algebra to robotics include an operator representation of the manipulator Jacobian matrix; the robot dynamical equations formulated in terms of the spatial algebra, showing the complete equivalence between the recursive Newton-Euler formulations to robot dynamics; the operator factorization and inversion of the manipulator mass matrix which immediately results in O(N) recursive forward dynamics algorithms; the joint accelerations of a manipulator due to a tip contact force; the recursive computation of the equivalent mass matrix as seen at the tip of a manipulator; and recursive forward dynamics of a closed chain system. Finally, additional applications and current research involving the use of the spatial operator algebra are discussed in general terms.

  12. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  13. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  14. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  15. Modeling of Multi-Tube Pulse Detonation Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Houshang B.; Mohanraj, Rajendran; Merkle, Charles L.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper explores some preliminary issues concerning the operational characteristics of multiple-tube pulsed detonation engines (PDEs). The study is based on a two-dimensional analysis of the first-pulse operation of two detonation tubes exhausting through a common nozzle. Computations are first performed to assess isolated tube behavior followed by results for multi-tube flow phenomena. The computations are based on an eight-species, finite-rate transient flow-field model. The results serve as an important precursor to understanding appropriate propellant fill procedures and shock wave propagation in multi-tube, multi-dimensional simulations. Differences in behavior between single and multi-tube PDE models are discussed, The influence of multi-tube geometry and the preferred times for injecting the fresh propellant mixture during multi-tube PDE operation are studied.

  16. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  17. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  18. Visual performance modeling in the human operator simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strieb, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the history of the development of the human operator simulator (HOS) model is presented. Features of the HOS micromodels that impact on the obtainment of visual performance data are discussed along with preliminary details on a HOS pilot model designed to predict the results of visual performance workload data obtained through oculometer studies on pilots in real and simulated approaches and landings.

  19. National Plan to Expand NOS' Operational Modeling Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Burke, P.

    2016-02-01

    Real-time marine forecast products based on numerical ocean models are a powerful tool serving a variety of uses, such as marine navigation planning for commercial port operations, harmful algal bloom formation and tracking, hazard response, and emergency search and rescue. Advances in data acquisition technology, ocean dynamics, numerical schemes and visualization tools have made marine forecasting products more accurate and reliable, and the dissemination of operational model products more timely and user friendly. NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) has been developing and maintaining a national network of hydrodynamic operational oceanographic nowcast and forecast modeling systems to support navigational and environmental applications in U.S. coastal and estuarine waters, and the Great Lakes. These operational forecast systems (OFS) provide the maritime community with nowcast and forecast guidance of water levels, currents, water temperature, and salinity for 48 to 120 hours. NOS has collaborated with the National Weather Service (NWS) and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and extramural partners from academia and the local maritime community to develop and implement the current suite of NOS OFS. NOS currently operates and maintains 15 OFS for the U.S. East and West coasts, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes, to cover approximately 35% of the CONUS coast. Over the next 8 to 10 years, NOS intends to provide complete coverage of the continental U.S and establish the necessary national infrastructure to enable other types of forecasts. This presentation will provide an overview of NOS' new regional approach to expand its OFS capabilities and services nationally, a pathway to transition research models and applications to operations, and anticipated challenges to implement this plan.

  20. American Association of University Women: Branch Operations Data Modeling Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ranida B.; Wedel, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    A nationally prominent woman's advocacy organization is featured in this case study. The scenario may be used as a teaching case, an assignment, or a project in systems analysis and design as well as database design classes. Students are required to document the system operations and requirements, apply logical data modeling concepts, and design…

  1. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  2. A Systems Model for Operating an Adult Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, William; Dimitrick, Adam

    1977-01-01

    A description of the uses and application of a model for designing a machine operator adult training program based on Silvern's systems approach (anasynthesis). The DACUM (Developing A Curriculum) process was used in developing the curriculum. The DACUM chart showing the terminal objectives is included. (EM)

  3. American Association of University Women: Branch Operations Data Modeling Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ranida B.; Wedel, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    A nationally prominent woman's advocacy organization is featured in this case study. The scenario may be used as a teaching case, an assignment, or a project in systems analysis and design as well as database design classes. Students are required to document the system operations and requirements, apply logical data modeling concepts, and design…

  4. Modeling of reservoir operation in UNH global hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander; Prusevich, Alexander; Frolking, Steve; Glidden, Stanley; Lammers, Richard; Wisser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Climate is changing and river flow is an integrated characteristic reflecting numerous environmental processes and their changes aggregated over large areas. Anthropogenic impacts on the river flow, however, can significantly exceed the changes associated with climate variability. Besides of irrigation, reservoirs and dams are one of major anthropogenic factor affecting streamflow. They distort hydrological regime of many rivers by trapping of freshwater runoff, modifying timing of river discharge and increasing the evaporation rate. Thus, reservoirs is an integral part of the global hydrological system and their impacts on rivers have to be taken into account for better quantification and understanding of hydrological changes. We developed a new technique, which was incorporated into WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) to simulate river routing through large reservoirs and natural lakes based on information available from freely accessible databases such as GRanD (the Global Reservoir and Dam database) or NID (National Inventory of Dams for US). Different formulations were applied for unregulated spillway dams and lakes, and for 4 types of regulated reservoirs, which were subdivided based on main purpose including generic (multipurpose), hydropower generation, irrigation and water supply, and flood control. We also incorporated rules for reservoir fill up and draining at the times of construction and decommission based on available data. The model were tested for many reservoirs of different size and types located in various climatic conditions using several gridded meteorological data sets as model input and observed daily and monthly discharge data from GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center), USGS Water Data (US Geological Survey), and UNH archives. The best results with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient in the range of 0.5-0.9 were obtained for temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere where most of large

  5. Transition to Operations Support at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. This paper will focus on a status report on CCMC activities in support of model transition to operations at US space weather forecasting centers. In particular, an update will be given on past and present transition activities, on developments that address operational needs, and on future opportunities for transition-to-operations support.

  6. Dynamic modeling of temperature change in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2017-04-06

    In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values. The heat transferred to the reactor was mainly through radiation: the radiative heat absorbed by the reactor medium, ground radiation, air radiation, and solar (direct and diffuse) radiation, while heat loss was mainly through the heat transfer to the cooling water and forced convection. The amount of heat transferred by reflected radiation and metabolic activities of the bacteria and pump work was negligible. Counter-current cooling was more effective in controlling reactor temperature than co-current cooling. The model developed identifies major heat transfer mechanisms in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors, and accurately predicts temperature changes in these systems. This is useful in determining cooling duty under transient conditions and scaling up photobioreactors. The photobioreactor design and the thermal modeling were carried out and experimental results obtained for the case study of photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus, but the approach is applicable to photobiological systems that are to be operated under outdoor conditions with significant cooling demands.

  7. Transitioning Space Weather Models Into Operations: The Basic Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.

    2009-10-01

    New and improved space weather models that provide real-time or near-real time operational awareness to the long list of customers that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) serves are critically needed. Recognizing this, SWPC recently established a Developmental Testbed Center (DTC [see Kumar, 2009]) at which models will be vetted for operational use. What characteristics should models have if they are to survive this transition? The difficulties around the implementation of real-time models are many. From the stability of the data input (frequently coming from third parties) to the elevated information technology (IT) security atmosphere present everywhere, scientists and developers are confronting a series of challenges in the implementation of their models. Quinn et al. [2009] noted that “the transition challenges are numerous and require ongoing interaction between model developers and users.” However, the 2006 Report of the Assessment Committee for the National Space Weather Program (NSWP; see http://www.nswp.gov/nswp_acreport0706.pdf) found that “there is an absence of suitable connection[s] for ‘academia-to-operations’ knowledge transfer and for the transition of research to operations in general.”

  8. EnergySolution's Clive Disposal Facility Operational Research Model - 13475

    SciTech Connect

    Nissley, Paul; Berry, Joanne

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions owns and operates a licensed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Clive, Utah. The Clive site receives low-level radioactive waste from various locations within the United States via bulk truck, containerised truck, enclosed truck, bulk rail-cars, rail boxcars, and rail inter-modals. Waste packages are unloaded, characterized, processed, and disposed of at the Clive site. Examples of low-level radioactive waste arriving at Clive include, but are not limited to, contaminated soil/debris, spent nuclear power plant components, and medical waste. Generators of low-level radioactive waste typically include nuclear power plants, hospitals, national laboratories, and various United States government operated waste sites. Over the past few years, poor economic conditions have significantly reduced the number of shipments to Clive. With less revenue coming in from processing shipments, Clive needed to keep its expenses down if it was going to maintain past levels of profitability. The Operational Research group of EnergySolutions were asked to develop a simulation model to help identify any improvement opportunities that would increase overall operating efficiency and reduce costs at the Clive Facility. The Clive operations research model simulates the receipt, movement, and processing requirements of shipments arriving at the facility. The model includes shipment schedules, processing times of various waste types, labor requirements, shift schedules, and site equipment availability. The Clive operations research model has been developed using the WITNESS{sup TM} process simulation software, which is developed by the Lanner Group. The major goals of this project were to: - identify processing bottlenecks that could reduce the turnaround time from shipment arrival to disposal; - evaluate the use (or idle time) of labor and equipment; - project future operational requirements under different forecasted scenarios. By identifying

  9. The NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, G. K.; Toth, Z.

    2007-05-01

    To address a growing need for retrospective Global Climate Model (GCM) and NWP input and output data, the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) initiated the highly collaborative NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). NOMADS (http:nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov) provides real-time and retrospective access to model and observational data by a wide variety of users using the Internet. The NOMADS system is one of the first operational systems of its kind and filled a gap in the geosciences community for retrospective model data access. Low bandwidth users will discover the NOMADS sub-setting capability for high volume datasets particularly useful. NOMADS provides model input and output data and products and other associated data and is an inter-operable network architecture with fully integrated data access and manipulation tools using a distributed, Web-services based format independent methodology. NOMADS allows temporal, spatial, and variable sub-setting to address the ever increasing spatial resolution of models and therefore volume and varied formats of data presented for archive and access at NCDC. This paper will describe the benefits of using NOMADS, and its most recent advances including a new Ensemble probabilities interface, the Live Access Server implementation across two NOAA Line Offices (NESDIS and NMFS); the model forecast aggregation capability being developed at Unidata and now installed on the NCDC NOMADS THREDDS Data Server; and other new services and products available on the NOMADS server at NCDC. Finally, this paper will describe the new operational National Weather Service (NWS) NOMADS capability currently being developed for deployment across the U.S.

  10. Quantum dimensions from local operator excitations in the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Paweł; Rams, Marek M.

    2017-02-01

    We compare the time evolution of entanglement measures after local operator excitation in the critical Ising model with predictions from conformal field theory. For the spin operator and its descendants we find that Rényi entropies of a block of spins increase by a constant that matches the logarithm of the quantum dimension of the conformal family. However, for the energy operator we find a small constant contribution that differs from the conformal field theory answer equal to zero. We argue that the mismatch is caused by the subtleties in the identification between the local operators in conformal field theory and their lattice counterpart. Our results indicate that evolution of entanglement measures in locally excited states not only constraints this identification, but also can be used to extract non-trivial data about the conformal field theory that governs the critical point. We generalize our analysis to the Ising model away from the critical point, states with multiple local excitations, as well as the evolution of the relative entropy after local operator excitation and discuss universal features that emerge from numerics.

  11. Optimal Reservoir Operation using Stochastic Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, R.; McLaughlin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Hydropower operations are typically designed to fulfill contracts negotiated with consumers who need reliable energy supplies, despite uncertainties in reservoir inflows. In addition to providing reliable power the reservoir operator needs to take into account environmental factors such as downstream flooding or compliance with minimum flow requirements. From a dynamical systems perspective, the reservoir operating strategy must cope with conflicting objectives in the presence of random disturbances. In order to achieve optimal performance, the reservoir system needs to continually adapt to disturbances in real time. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a real-time control technique that adapts by deriving the reservoir release at each decision time from the current state of the system. Here an ensemble-based version of MPC (SMPC) is applied to a generic reservoir to determine both the optimal power contract, considering future inflow uncertainty, and a real-time operating strategy that attempts to satisfy the contract. Contract selection and real-time operation are coupled in an optimization framework that also defines a Pareto trade off between the revenue generated from energy production and the environmental damage resulting from uncontrolled reservoir spills. Further insight is provided by a sensitivity analysis of key parameters specified in the SMPC technique. The results demonstrate that SMPC is suitable for multi-objective planning and associated real-time operation of a wide range of hydropower reservoir systems.

  12. A consistent collinear triad approximation for operational wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. E.; Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Holthuijsen, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    In shallow water, the spectral evolution associated with energy transfers due to three-wave (or triad) interactions is important for the prediction of nearshore wave propagation and wave-driven dynamics. The numerical evaluation of these nonlinear interactions involves the evaluation of a weighted convolution integral in both frequency and directional space for each frequency-direction component in the wave field. For reasons of efficiency, operational wave models often rely on a so-called collinear approximation that assumes that energy is only exchanged between wave components travelling in the same direction (collinear propagation) to eliminate the directional convolution. In this work, we show that the collinear approximation as presently implemented in operational models is inconsistent. This causes energy transfers to become unbounded in the limit of unidirectional waves (narrow aperture), and results in the underestimation of energy transfers in short-crested wave conditions. We propose a modification to the collinear approximation to remove this inconsistency and to make it physically more realistic. Through comparison with laboratory observations and results from Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed modified collinear model is consistent, remains bounded, smoothly converges to the unidirectional limit, and is numerically more robust. Our results show that the modifications proposed here result in a consistent collinear approximation, which remains bounded and can provide an efficient approximation to model nonlinear triad effects in operational wave models.

  13. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  14. Operant model of frustrated expected reward in mice.

    PubMed

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael

    2012-07-01

    One aspect of the addictive process that has not been thoroughly investigated is the consequence of the frustrated state occurring when the drug is not available. The present study aimed to validate a novel operant model of frustrated expected reward in mice. C57BL/6J mice were trained in operant conditioning maintained by chocolate-flavoured pellets or cocaine. After the completion of high rates of responding on a progressive ratio schedule, the reward was unexpectedly withheld. The consequences of this frustrated behaviour on anxiety, aggressiveness, perseveration, extinction and reinstatement were investigated. Mice exposed to the frustrated event perseverated in the operant responses and showed increased aggressiveness in the resident-intruder test. These animals also showed higher rates of cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. The present study provides a reliable operant model in mice to evaluate a frustrated state following reward unavailability. This animal model could be useful to study the behavioural and neurochemical consequences related to the emotional states generated during the omission of a highly expected reward.

  15. eWaterCycle: A global operational hydrological forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Donchyts, Gennadii; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Development of an operational hyper-resolution hydrological global model is a central goal of the eWaterCycle project (www.ewatercycle.org). This operational model includes ensemble forecasts (14 days) to predict water related stress around the globe. Assimilation of near-real time satellite data is part of the intended product that will be launched at EGU 2015. The challenges come from several directions. First, there are challenges that are mainly computer science oriented but have direct practical hydrological implications. For example, we aim to make use as much as possible of existing standards and open-source software. For example, different parts of our system are coupled through the Basic Model Interface (BMI) developed in the framework of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS). The PCR-GLOBWB model, built by Utrecht University, is the basic hydrological model that is the engine of the eWaterCycle project. Re-engineering of parts of the software was needed for it to run efficiently in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment, and to be able to interface using BMI, and run on multiple compute nodes in parallel. The final aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km, which is currently 10 x 10km. This high resolution is computationally not too demanding but very memory intensive. The memory bottleneck becomes especially apparent for data assimilation, for which we use OpenDA. OpenDa allows for different data assimilation techniques without the need to build these from scratch. We have developed a BMI adaptor for OpenDA, allowing OpenDA to use any BMI compatible model. To circumvent memory shortages which would result from standard applications of the Ensemble Kalman Filter, we have developed a variant that does not need to keep all ensemble members in working memory. At EGU, we will present this variant and how it fits well in HPC environments. An important step in the eWaterCycle project was the coupling between the hydrological and

  16. Quantum hidden Markov models based on transition operation matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholewa, Michał; Gawron, Piotr; Głomb, Przemysław; Kurzyk, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we extend the idea of quantum Markov chains (Gudder in J Math Phys 49(7):072105 [3]) in order to propose quantum hidden Markov models (QHMMs). For that, we use the notions of transition operation matrices and vector states, which are an extension of classical stochastic matrices and probability distributions. Our main result is the Mealy QHMM formulation and proofs of algorithms needed for application of this model: Forward for general case and Vitterbi for a restricted class of QHMMs. We show the relations of the proposed model to other quantum HMM propositions and present an example of application.

  17. Operational ocean models in the Adriatic Sea: a skill assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiggiato, J.; Oddo, P.

    2006-12-01

    In the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System project (MFS) sub-regional and regional numerical ocean forecasting systems performance are assessed by mean of model-model and model-data comparison. Three different operational systems have been considered in this study: the Adriatic REGional Model (AREG); the AdriaROMS and the Mediterranean Forecasting System general circulation model (MFS model). AREG and AdriaROMS are regional implementations (with some dedicated variations) of POM (Blumberg and Mellor, 1987) and ROMS (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) respectively, while MFS model is based on OPA (Madec et al., 1998) code. The assessment has been done by means of standard scores. The data used for operational systems assessment derive from in-situ and remote sensing measurements. In particular a set of CTDs covering the whole western Adriatic, collected in January 2006, one year of SST from space born sensors and six months of buoy data. This allowed to have a full three-dimensional picture of the operational forecasting systems quality during January 2006 and some preliminary considerations on the temporal fluctuation of scores estimated on surface (or near surface) quantities between summer 2005 and summer 2006. In general, the regional models are found to be colder and fresher than observations. They eventually outperform the large scale model in the shallowest locations, as expected. Results on amplitude and phase errors are also much better in locations shallower than 50 m, while degraded in deeper locations, where the models tend to have a higher homogeneity along the vertical column compared to observations. In a basin-wide overview, the two regional models show some dissimilarities in the local displacement of errors, something suggested by the full three-dimensional picture depicted using CTDs, but also confirmed by the comparison with SSTs. In locations where the regional models are mutually correlated, the aggregated mean-square-error has

  18. Verification of a model for foam flotation column operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, J.E.; Rodriguez, J.; McIntyre, G.; Thackston, E.L.; Wilson, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    We report experimental data testing the validity of a mathematical model for the time-dependent operation of a continuous-flow foam floating column.Sodium lauryl sulfate was the surfactant being removed. The responses of the column in steady-state operation and under the influence of rectangular pulses in sodium lauryl sulfates concentration and in hydraulic loading rate were investigated and compared with the results of computer simulation.Effluent surfactant concentrations were well simulated under all conditions. It was found that the fraction of liquid in the Plateau borders varies somewhat with the hydraulic loading rate, which causes some discrepancy between calculated and observed collapsed foamate flow rates.

  19. Operational forecasting for the Rhine-Meuse Estuary - Modelling and Operating Storm Surge Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, Tom; van Dam, Theo; Twigt, Daniel; de Goederen, Sacha

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the Netherlands are very vulnerable to extreme storm surges, due to its low lying, highly populated and economically valuable coastal areas. In this project the focus is on the low-lying Rhine-Meuse estuary in the south-western part of the Netherlands. The area is protected by a complex defence system, including dunes, dikes, large barriers and a retention basin. Hydrodynamics in this complex delta area are influenced by tide, storm surge, discharges of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and the operation of barriers. A forecasting system based on the generic operational platform software Delft-FEWS has been developed in order to produce timely and accurate water level forecasts for the Rhine-Meuse estuary. Barriers as well as their complex closing procedures are included in this operational system. A high resolution 1D hydrodynamic model, forced by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) product from the Dutch national weather service (KNMI) and hydrodynamic conditions from the Dutch Water Authority (Rijkswaterstaat), runs every six-hours with a forecast horizon of seven days. The system is operated at Rijkswaterstaat, who is responsible for hydrodynamic forecasting and the operation of the main storm surge barriers of the Netherlands. By running the hydrodynamic model in an automated way the system is able to provide accurate forecasts at all times: during calm weather conditions or when severe storm situations might require closing of the barriers. Especially when storm and peak discharge events coincide, careful operation of the barriers is required. Within the Delft-FEWS platform tools have been developed to test different closing procedures instantly, in case of an event. Expert forecasters will be able to examine effects of multiple closing procedures as well as (partial) failure of the barriers on water levels in the estuary. Apart from forecasting, the system can be used offline to mimic storm events for training purposes. Forecasters at Dutch Water

  20. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

  1. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

  2. operational modelling and forecasting of the Iberian shelves ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marta-Almeida, M.; Reboreda, R.; Rocha, C.; Dubert, J.; Nolasco, R.; Cordeiro, N.; Luna, T.; Rocha, A.; Silva, J. Lencart e.; Queiroga, H.; Peliz, A.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing interest on physical and biogeochemical oceanic hindcasts and forecasts from a wide range of users and businesses. In this contribution we present an operational biogeochemical forecast system for the Portuguese and Galician oceanographic regions, where atmospheric, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical variables are integrated. The ocean model ROMS, with a horizontal resolution of 3 km, is forced by the atmospheric model WRF and includes a NPZD biogeochemical module. In addition to oceanographic variables, the system predicts the concentration of nitrate, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus (mmolN m-3). Model results are compared against radar currents and remote sensed SST and chlorophyll. Quantitative skill assessment during a summer upwelling period shows that our modelling system adequately represents the surface circulation over the shelf including the observed spatial variability and trends of temperature and chlorophyll concentration. Additionally, the skill assessment also shows some deficiencies like the overestimation of upwelling circulation and consequently, of the duration and intensity of the phytoplankton blooms. These and other departures from the observations are discussed, their origins identified and future improvements suggested. The forecast system is the first of its kind in the region and provides free online distribution of model input and output, as well as comparisons of model results with satellite imagery for qualitative operational assessment of model skill.

  3. Towards operational modeling and forecasting of the Iberian shelves ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Reboreda, Rosa; Rocha, Carlos; Dubert, Jesus; Nolasco, Rita; Cordeiro, Nuno; Luna, Tiago; Rocha, Alfredo; Lencart E Silva, João D; Queiroga, Henrique; Peliz, Alvaro; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest on physical and biogeochemical oceanic hindcasts and forecasts from a wide range of users and businesses. In this contribution we present an operational biogeochemical forecast system for the Portuguese and Galician oceanographic regions, where atmospheric, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical variables are integrated. The ocean model ROMS, with a horizontal resolution of 3 km, is forced by the atmospheric model WRF and includes a Nutrients-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus biogeochemical module (NPZD). In addition to oceanographic variables, the system predicts the concentration of nitrate, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus (mmol N m(-3)). Model results are compared against radar currents and remote sensed SST and chlorophyll. Quantitative skill assessment during a summer upwelling period shows that our modelling system adequately represents the surface circulation over the shelf including the observed spatial variability and trends of temperature and chlorophyll concentration. Additionally, the skill assessment also shows some deficiencies like the overestimation of upwelling circulation and consequently, of the duration and intensity of the phytoplankton blooms. These and other departures from the observations are discussed, their origins identified and future improvements suggested. The forecast system is the first of its kind in the region and provides free online distribution of model input and output, as well as comparisons of model results with satellite imagery for qualitative operational assessment of model skill.

  4. Towards Operational Modeling and Forecasting of the Iberian Shelves Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Reboreda, Rosa; Rocha, Carlos; Dubert, Jesus; Nolasco, Rita; Cordeiro, Nuno; Luna, Tiago; Rocha, Alfredo; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Queiroga, Henrique; Peliz, Alvaro; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest on physical and biogeochemical oceanic hindcasts and forecasts from a wide range of users and businesses. In this contribution we present an operational biogeochemical forecast system for the Portuguese and Galician oceanographic regions, where atmospheric, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical variables are integrated. The ocean model ROMS, with a horizontal resolution of 3 km, is forced by the atmospheric model WRF and includes a Nutrients-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus biogeochemical module (NPZD). In addition to oceanographic variables, the system predicts the concentration of nitrate, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus (mmol N m−3). Model results are compared against radar currents and remote sensed SST and chlorophyll. Quantitative skill assessment during a summer upwelling period shows that our modelling system adequately represents the surface circulation over the shelf including the observed spatial variability and trends of temperature and chlorophyll concentration. Additionally, the skill assessment also shows some deficiencies like the overestimation of upwelling circulation and consequently, of the duration and intensity of the phytoplankton blooms. These and other departures from the observations are discussed, their origins identified and future improvements suggested. The forecast system is the first of its kind in the region and provides free online distribution of model input and output, as well as comparisons of model results with satellite imagery for qualitative operational assessment of model skill. PMID:22666349

  5. Sol-Terra - AN Operational Space Weather Forecasting Model Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Lawrence, G.; Pidgeon, A.; Reid, S.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bogdanova, Y.; Byrne, J.; Marsh, M. S.; Jackson, D.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    The SOL-TERRA project is a collaboration between RHEA Tech, the Met Office, and RAL Space funded by the UK Space Agency. The goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to produce a Roadmap for a future coupled Sun-to-Earth operational space weather forecasting system covering domains from the Sun down to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere and neutral atmosphere. The first stage of SOL-TERRA is underway and involves reviewing current models that could potentially contribute to such a system. Within a given domain, the various space weather models will be assessed how they could contribute to such a coupled system. This will be done both by reviewing peer reviewed papers, and via direct input from the model developers to provide further insight. Once the models have been reviewed then the optimal set of models for use in support of forecast-based SWE modelling will be selected, and a Roadmap for the implementation of an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework will be prepared. The Roadmap will address the current modelling capability, knowledge gaps and further work required, and also the implementation and maintenance of the overall architecture and environment that the models will operate within. The SOL-TERRA project will engage with external stakeholders in order to ensure independently that the project remains on track to meet its original objectives. A group of key external stakeholders have been invited to provide their domain-specific expertise in reviewing the SOL-TERRA project at critical stages of Roadmap preparation; namely at the Mid-Term Review, and prior to submission of the Final Report. This stakeholder input will ensure that the SOL-TERRA Roadmap will be enhanced directly through the input of modellers and end-users. The overall goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to develop a Roadmap for an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework with can be implemented within a larger subsequent activity. The SOL-TERRA project is supported within

  6. Ethical issues in engineering models: an operations researcher's reflections.

    PubMed

    Kleijnen, J

    2011-09-01

    This article starts with an overview of the author's personal involvement--as an Operations Research consultant--in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers, the clients, and the public at large. The article further presents an overview of codes of ethics in a variety of disciples. It discusses the role of mathematical models, focusing on the validation of these models' assumptions. Documentation of these model assumptions needs special attention. Some ethical norms and values may be quantified through the model's multiple performance measures, which might be optimized. The uncertainty about the validity of the model leads to risk or uncertainty analysis and to a search for robust models. Ethical questions may be pressing in military models, including war games. However, computer games and the related experimental economics may also provide a special tool to study ethical issues. Finally, the article briefly discusses whistleblowing. Its many references to publications and websites enable further study of ethical issues in modeling.

  7. Applying Contamination Modelling to Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Designs and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Thomson, Shaun; Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants generated from the operations of a propulsion system may impinge on spacecraft critical surfaces. Plume depositions or clouds may hinder the spacecraft and instruments from performing normal operations. Firing thrusters will generate both molecular and particulate contaminants. How to minimize the contamination impact from the plume becomes very critical for a successful mission. The resulting effect from either molecular or particulate contamination of the thruster firing is very distinct. This paper will discuss the interconnection between the functions of spacecraft contamination modeling and propulsion system implementation. The paper will address an innovative contamination engineering approach implemented from the spacecraft concept design, manufacturing, integration and test (I&T), launch, to on- orbit operations. This paper will also summarize the implementation on several successful missions. Despite other contamination sources, only molecular contamination will be considered here.

  8. Operational Space Weather Models: Trials, Tribulations and Rewards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Thompson, D. C.; Zhu, L.

    2009-12-01

    There are many empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models that can probably be used for space weather applications and the models cover the entire domain from the surface of the Sun to the Earth’s surface. At Utah State University we developed two physics-based data assimilation models of the terrestrial ionosphere as part of a program called Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM). One of the data assimilation models is now in operational use at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) in Omaha, Nebraska. This model is a Gauss-Markov Kalman Filter (GAIM-GM) model, and it uses a physics-based model of the ionosphere and a Kalman filter as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real-time (or near real-time) measurements. The physics-based model is the Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM), which is global and covers the E-region, F-region, and topside ionosphere from 90 to 1400 km. It takes account of five ion species (NO+, O2+, N2+, O+, H+), but the main output of the model is a 3-dimensional electron density distribution at user specified times. The second data assimilation model uses a physics-based Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Model (IPM) and an ensemble Kalman filter technique as a basis for assimilating a diverse set of real-time (or near real-time) measurements. This Full Physics model (GAIM-FP) is global, covers the altitude range from 90 to 30,000 km, includes six ions (NO+, O2+, N2+, O+, H+, He+), and calculates the self-consistent ionospheric drivers (electric fields and neutral winds). The GAIM-FP model is scheduled for delivery in 2012. Both of these GAIM models assimilate bottom-side Ne profiles from a variable number of ionosondes, slant TEC from a variable number of ground GPS/TEC stations, in situ Ne from four DMSP satellites, line-of-sight UV emissions measured by satellites, and occultation data. Quality control algorithms for all of the data types are provided as an integral part of the GAIM models and these models take account of

  9. Operations and support cost modeling using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1989-01-01

    Systems for future missions will be selected with life cycle costs (LCC) as a primary evaluation criterion. This reflects the current realization that only systems which are considered affordable will be built in the future due to the national budget constaints. Such an environment calls for innovative cost modeling techniques which address all of the phases a space system goes through during its life cycle, namely: design and development, fabrication, operations and support; and retirement. A significant portion of the LCC for reusable systems are generated during the operations and support phase (OS). Typically, OS costs can account for 60 to 80 percent of the total LCC. Clearly, OS costs are wholly determined or at least strongly influenced by decisions made during the design and development phases of the project. As a result OS costs need to be considered and estimated early in the conceptual phase. To be effective, an OS cost estimating model needs to account for actual instead of ideal processes by associating cost elements with probabilities. One approach that may be suitable for OS cost modeling is the use of the Markov Chain Process. Markov chains are an important method of probabilistic analysis for operations research analysts but they are rarely used for life cycle cost analysis. This research effort evaluates the use of Markov Chains in LCC analysis by developing OS cost model for a hypothetical reusable space transportation vehicle (HSTV) and suggests further uses of the Markov Chain process as a design-aid tool.

  10. Preliminary Exploration of Adaptive State Predictor Based Human Operator Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of the human operator dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long and rich history. In the last two decades, there has been a renewed interest in modeling the human operator. There has also been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. The purpose of this research is to attempt to go beyond pilot identification based on collected experimental data and to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of changing aircraft dynamics on an operator s ability to track a signal in order to eventually model a pilot adapting to changing aircraft dynamics. A gradient descent estimator and a least squares estimator with exponential forgetting used these data to predict pilot stick input. The results indicate that individual pilot characteristics and vehicle dynamics did not affect the accuracy of either estimator method to estimate pilot stick input. These methods also were able to predict pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and they may have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot.

  11. Toward Improved Simulation of Operations in Integrated Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morway, E. D.; Niswonger, R. G.; Triana, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) resources has received increased attention as the gap between freshwater supply and demand widens in arid and semi-arid regions. The modeling tools used by water managers and government agencies, among others, for distributing the available freshwater supply among a complex set of competing demands in a 'prior appropriation' context, rely on loosely-coupled (or 'feed-forward') model applications that fail to achieve true convergence among values common to both codes. Commonly, models used for quantifying supply, that is, watershed and groundwater models, are run separately from river operations models that specialize in distributing a finite supply among a wide range of demands. As a result, it may be difficult to achieve a proper water balance among the respective codes, especially during drought conditions. Taking a step closer to a truly integrated environmental modeling framework for conjunctive management of GW-SW resources, the river operations model MODSIM has been integrated with the hydrologic model MODFLOW. MODSIM is a river basin management decision support system that simulates administration of water rights and (or) operational rules within river basins. MODFLOW is a physically-based distributed-parameter finite-difference model historically used for simulating groundwater systems, though the streamflow routing (SFR2) and lake (LAK) packages are capable of simulating surface water systems in hydraulic connection with the underlying alluvial aquifer. On their own, these two packages cannot simulate diversions and (or) releases from reservoirs, instead requiring users to specify these quantities prior to model execution. Through the MODSIM-MODFLOW integration, however, hydrologic processes are simulated simultaneously with dynamic river operations. In this way, solutions are synchronized before moving to the next time step. The newly developed code provides water planners and managers with a

  12. Globally nilpotent differential operators and the square Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostan, A.; Boukraa, S.; Hassani, S.; Maillard, J.-M.; Weil, J.-A.; Zenine, N.

    2009-03-01

    We recall various multiple integrals with one parameter, related to the isotropic square Ising model, and corresponding, respectively, to the n-particle contributions of the magnetic susceptibility, to the (lattice) form factors, to the two-point correlation functions and to their λ-extensions. The univariate analytic functions defined by these integrals are holonomic and even G-functions: they satisfy Fuchsian linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients and have some arithmetic properties. We recall the explicit forms, found in previous work, of these Fuchsian equations, as well as their Russian-doll and direct sum structures. These differential operators are selected Fuchsian linear differential operators, and their remarkable properties have a deep geometrical origin: they are all globally nilpotent, or, sometimes, even have zero p-curvature. We also display miscellaneous examples of globally nilpotent operators emerging from enumerative combinatorics problems for which no integral representation is yet known. Focusing on the factorized parts of all these operators, we find out that the global nilpotence of the factors (resp. p-curvature nullity) corresponds to a set of selected structures of algebraic geometry: elliptic curves, modular curves, curves of genus five, six,..., and even a remarkable weight-1 modular form emerging in the three-particle contribution χ(3) of the magnetic susceptibility of the square Ising model. Noticeably, this associated weight-1 modular form is also seen in the factors of the differential operator for another n-fold integral of the Ising class, Φ(3)H, for the staircase polygons counting, and in Apéry's study of ζ(3). G-functions naturally occur as solutions of globally nilpotent operators. In the case where we do not have G-functions, but Hamburger functions (one irregular singularity at 0 or ∞) that correspond to the confluence of singularities in the scaling limit, the p-curvature is also found to verify new

  13. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  14. Predictive models of carpal tunnel syndrome causation among VDT operators.

    PubMed

    Matias, A C; Salvendy, G; Kuczek, T

    1998-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a cumulative trauma disorder of the hand and wrist, is one of the most common disabling injuries experienced by video-display terminal (VDT) operators. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically based operational quantitative predictive model of the risk of work-related CTS among VDT operators. A total of 100 female VDT operators, who performed a variety of office functions, were studied at a major midwestern university. Data were collected on job exposure, anthropometry and posture factors using questionnaires, direct observation and video-recording. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression were performed to develop the operational models. The results of the study indicated the following: (1) percentage of workday working with a VDT was the most significant factor and accounted for 60% of the variance explaining the causation of musculoskeletal discomforts associated with CTS; (2) discriminant function with six variables (i.e. work duration, trunk incline, wrist extension, wrist ulnar deviation, overall anthropometric measure, weighted anthropometric measure) correctly classified 73% of the CTS group and 72% of the non-CTS group; (3) using the logistic regression model, the probabilities associated with changes in the predictive variables as affecting CTS risk are presented such that increasing the daily work duration from 1 h to 4 h increases the probability of CTS risk from 0.45 to 0.92. The results of the study suggest that the main causation of CTS is job design, the secondary (and lesser cause) is posture associated with the workplace design and the least contributing factor to CTS causation is the individual's anthropometric make-up.

  15. Assessment of Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts from Operational NWP Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiano, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Previous work has shown that satellite and numerical model estimates of precipitation have complimentary strengths, with satellites having greater skill at detecting convective precipitation events and model estimates having greater skill at detecting stratiform precipitation. This is due in part to the challenges associated with retrieving stratiform precipitation from satellites and the difficulty in resolving sub-grid scale processes in models. These complimentary strengths can be exploited to obtain new merged satellite/model datasets, and several such datasets have been constructed using reanalysis data. Whilst reanalysis data are stable in a climate sense, they also have relatively coarse resolution compared to the satellite estimates (many of which are now commonly available at quarter degree resolution) and they necessarily use fixed forecast systems that are not state-of-the-art. An alternative to reanalysis data is to use Operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model estimates, which routinely produce precipitation with higher resolution and using the most modern techniques. Such estimates have not been combined with satellite precipitation and their relative skill has not been sufficiently assessed beyond model validation. The aim of this work is to assess the information content of the models relative to satellite estimates with the goal of improving techniques for merging these data types. To that end, several operational NWP precipitation forecasts have been compared to satellite and in situ data and their relative skill in forecasting precipitation has been assessed. In particular, the relationship between precipitation forecast skill and other model variables will be explored to see if these other model variables can be used to estimate the skill of the model at a particular time. Such relationships would be provide a basis for determining weights and errors of any merged products.

  16. Development of an inpatient operational pharmacy productivity model.

    PubMed

    Naseman, Ryan W; Lopez, Ben R; Forrey, Ryan A; Weber, Robert J; Kipp, Kris M

    2015-02-01

    An innovative model for measuring the operational productivity of medication order management in inpatient settings is described. Order verification within a computerized prescriber order-entry system was chosen as the pharmacy workload driver. To account for inherent variability in the tasks involved in processing different types of orders, pharmaceutical products were grouped by class, and each class was assigned a time standard, or "medication complexity weight" reflecting the intensity of pharmacist and technician activities (verification of drug indication, verification of appropriate dosing, adverse-event prevention and monitoring, medication preparation, product checking, product delivery, returns processing, nurse/provider education, and problem-order resolution). The resulting "weighted verifications" (WV) model allows productivity monitoring by job function (pharmacist versus technician) to guide hiring and staffing decisions. A 9-month historical sample of verified medication orders was analyzed using the WV model, and the calculations were compared with values derived from two established models—one based on the Case Mix Index (CMI) and the other based on the proprietary Pharmacy Intensity Score (PIS). Evaluation of Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that values calculated using the WV model were highly correlated with those derived from the CMI-and PIS-based models (r = 0.845 and 0.886, respectively). Relative to the comparator models, the WV model offered the advantage of less period-to-period variability. The WV model yielded productivity data that correlated closely with values calculated using two validated workload management models. The model may be used as an alternative measure of pharmacy operational productivity. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of operating principles with S-system models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun; Chen, Po-Wei; Voit, Eberhard O

    2011-05-01

    Operating principles address general questions regarding the response dynamics of biological systems as we observe or hypothesize them, in comparison to a priori equally valid alternatives. In analogy to design principles, the question arises: Why are some operating strategies encountered more frequently than others and in what sense might they be superior? It is at this point impossible to study operation principles in complete generality, but the work here discusses the important situation where a biological system must shift operation from its normal steady state to a new steady state. This situation is quite common and includes many stress responses. We present two distinct methods for determining different solutions to this task of achieving a new target steady state. Both methods utilize the property of S-system models within Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) that steady states can be explicitly represented as systems of linear algebraic equations. The first method uses matrix inversion, a pseudo-inverse, or regression to characterize the entire admissible solution space. Operations on the basis of the solution space permit modest alterations of the transients toward the target steady state. The second method uses standard or mixed integer linear programming to determine admissible solutions that satisfy criteria of functional effectiveness, which are specified beforehand. As an illustration, we use both methods to characterize alternative response patterns of yeast subjected to heat stress, and compare them with observations from the literature.

  18. APL experience with space weather modeling and transition to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Wing, S.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the growing space weather needs, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) developed and delivered twenty two state of the art space weather products under the auspice of the University Partnering in Operational Support program, initiated in 1998. These products offer nowcasts and forecasts for the region spanning from the Sun to the Earth. Some of these products have been transitioned to the Air Force Weather Agency and other space weather centers. The transition process is quite different from research modeling, requiring additional staff with different sets of expertise. Recently, APL has developed a space weather web page to serve these products to the research and user community. For the initial stage, we have chosen ten of these products to be served from our website, which is presently still under construction. APL’s experience, lessons learned, and successes from developing space weather models, the transition to operations process and the webpage access will be shared and discussed

  19. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Dianliang; Zhu Hongmin

    2010-05-21

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  20. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2010-05-01

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  1. Optimization of Operations Resources via Discrete Event Simulation Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, B.; Morris, D.; White, N.; Unal, R.

    1996-01-01

    The resource levels required for operation and support of reusable launch vehicles are typically defined through discrete event simulation modeling. Minimizing these resources constitutes an optimization problem involving discrete variables and simulation. Conventional approaches to solve such optimization problems involving integer valued decision variables are the pattern search and statistical methods. However, in a simulation environment that is characterized by search spaces of unknown topology and stochastic measures, these optimization approaches often prove inadequate. In this paper, we have explored the applicability of genetic algorithms to the simulation domain. Genetic algorithms provide a robust search strategy that does not require continuity and differentiability of the problem domain. The genetic algorithm successfully minimized the operation and support activities for a space vehicle, through a discrete event simulation model. The practical issues associated with simulation optimization, such as stochastic variables and constraints, were also taken into consideration.

  2. Modeling of Complex Adaptive Systems in Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    control of C3 in an increasingly complex military environment. Control theory is a multidisciplinary science associated with dynamic systems and, while...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2006-282 In- House Final Technical Report September 2006 MODELING OF COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS IN AIR OPERATIONS...NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government

  3. Using Modeling to Predict Medical Requirements for Special Operations Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    military force. Information operations involve adversely affecting the information systems of an adversary.1 Many of these missions are joint...Medical System . In 2007, the Air Force asked NHRC to conduct another proof-of-concept study to demonstrate the benefits of modeling medical supply...are used for this purpose. (NHRC is currently in the process of matching these patient conditions to International Classification of Diseases codes

  4. Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, <0,1>, was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.

  5. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  6. High energy pulsed inductive thruster modeling operating with ammonia propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Mikellides, Pavlos G.; Villarreal, James K.

    2007-11-15

    Numerical modeling of the pulsed inductive thruster operating with ammonia propellant at high energy levels, utilized a time-dependent, two-dimensional, and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics code to provide bilateral validation of experiment and theory and offer performance insights for improved designs. The power circuit model was augmented by a plasma voltage algorithm that accounts for the propellant's time-dependent resistance and inductance to properly account for plasma dynamics and was verified using available analytic solutions of two idealized plasma problems. Comparisons of the predicted current waveforms to experimental data exhibited excellent agreement for the initial half-period, essentially capturing the dominant acceleration phase. Further validation proceeded by comparisons of the impulse for three different energy levels, 2592, 4050, and 4608 J and a wide range of propellant mass values. Predicted impulse captured both trends and magnitudes measured experimentally for nominal operation. Interpretation of the modeling results in conjunction to experimental observations further confirm the critical mass phenomenon beyond which efficiency degrades due to elevated internal energy mode deposition and anomalous operation.

  7. Operational dynamic modeling transcending quantum and classical mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Denys I; Cabrera, Renan; Lompay, Robert R; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Rabitz, Herschel A

    2012-11-09

    We introduce a general and systematic theoretical framework for operational dynamic modeling (ODM) by combining a kinematic description of a model with the evolution of the dynamical average values. The kinematics includes the algebra of the observables and their defined averages. The evolution of the average values is drawn in the form of Ehrenfest-like theorems. We show that ODM is capable of encompassing wide-ranging dynamics from classical non-relativistic mechanics to quantum field theory. The generality of ODM should provide a basis for formulating novel theories.

  8. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

    2010-06-29

    A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

  9. Operational Dynamic Modeling Transcending Quantum and Classical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, Denys I.; Cabrera, Renan; Lompay, Robert R.; Ivanov, Misha Yu.; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a general and systematic theoretical framework for operational dynamic modeling (ODM) by combining a kinematic description of a model with the evolution of the dynamical average values. The kinematics includes the algebra of the observables and their defined averages. The evolution of the average values is drawn in the form of Ehrenfest-like theorems. We show that ODM is capable of encompassing wide-ranging dynamics from classical non-relativistic mechanics to quantum field theory. The generality of ODM should provide a basis for formulating novel theories.

  10. Model validity and frequency band selection in operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui

    2016-12-01

    Experimental modal analysis aims at identifying the modal properties (e.g., natural frequencies, damping ratios, mode shapes) of a structure using vibration measurements. Two basic questions are encountered when operating in the frequency domain: Is there a mode near a particular frequency? If so, how much spectral data near the frequency can be included for modal identification without incurring significant modeling error? For data with high signal-to-noise (s/n) ratios these questions can be addressed using empirical tools such as singular value spectrum. Otherwise they are generally open and can be challenging, e.g., for modes with low s/n ratios or close modes. In this work these questions are addressed using a Bayesian approach. The focus is on operational modal analysis, i.e., with 'output-only' ambient data, where identification uncertainty and modeling error can be significant and their control is most demanding. The approach leads to 'evidence ratios' quantifying the relative plausibility of competing sets of modeling assumptions. The latter involves modeling the 'what-if-not' situation, which is non-trivial but is resolved by systematic consideration of alternative models and using maximum entropy principle. Synthetic and field data are considered to investigate the behavior of evidence ratios and how they should be interpreted in practical applications.

  11. Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Steve

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).

  12. Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Steve

    1992-01-01

    This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).

  13. Transitioning Models and Model Output to Space Weather Operations: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Berrios, David; Chulaki, Anna; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; MacNeice, Peter J.; Maddox, Mario; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre

    2009-01-01

    The transition of space weather models or of information derived from space weather models to space weather forecasting is the last step of the chain from model development to model deployment in forecasting operations. As such, it is an extremely important element of the quest to increase our national capability to forecast and mitigate space weather hazards. It involves establishing customer requirements, and analyses of available models, which are, in principle, capable of delivering the required product. Models will have to be verified and validated prior to a selection of the best performing model. Further considerations include operational hardware, and the availability of data streams to drive the model. The final steps include the education of forecasters, and the implementation on gateway hardware prior to operational use. This presentation will provide a discussion of opportunities for rapid progress from the viewpoint of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center.

  14. Comparison of semiparametric receiver operating characteristic models on observer data

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Frank W.; He, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The evaluation of medical imaging devices often involves studies that measure the ability of observers to perform a signal detection task on images obtained from those devices. Data from such studies are frequently regressed ordinally using two-sample receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models. We applied some of these models to a number of randomly chosen data sets from medical imaging and evaluated how well they fit using the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria and cross-validation. We find that for many observer data sets, a single-parameter model is sufficient and that only some studies exhibit evidence for the use of models with more than a single parameter. In particular, the single-parameter power-law model frequently well describes observer data. The power-law model has an asymmetric ROC curve and a constant mean-to-sigma ratio seen in studies analyzed with the bi-normal model. It is identical or very similar to special cases of other two-parameter models. PMID:26158046

  15. Comparison of semiparametric receiver operating characteristic models on observer data.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Frank W; He, Xin

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of medical imaging devices often involves studies that measure the ability of observers to perform a signal detection task on images obtained from those devices. Data from such studies are frequently regressed ordinally using two-sample receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models. We applied some of these models to a number of randomly chosen data sets from medical imaging and evaluated how well they fit using the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria and cross-validation. We find that for many observer data sets, a single-parameter model is sufficient and that only some studies exhibit evidence for the use of models with more than a single parameter. In particular, the single-parameter power-law model frequently well describes observer data. The power-law model has an asymmetric ROC curve and a constant mean-to-sigma ratio seen in studies analyzed with the bi-normal model. It is identical or very similar to special cases of other two-parameter models.

  16. MPS Solidification Model. Volume 2: Operating guide and software documentation for the unsteady model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    The operation of solidification Model 2 is described and documentation of the software associated with the model is provided. Model 2 calculates the macrosegregation in a rectangular ingot of a binary alloy as a result of unsteady horizontal axisymmetric bidirectional solidification. The solidification program allows interactive modification of calculation parameters as well as selection of graphical and tabular output. In batch mode, parameter values are input in card image form and output consists of printed tables of solidification functions. The operational aspects of Model 2 that differ substantially from Model 1 are described. The global flow diagrams and data structures of Model 2 are included. The primary program documentation is the code itself.

  17. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  18. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  19. Physical and mathematical modelling of ladle metallurgy operations. [steelmaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported, on the velocity fields and turbulence parameters on a water model of an argon stirred ladle. These velocity measurements are complemented by direct heat transfer measurements, obtained by studying the rate at which ice rods immersed into the system melt, at various locations. The theoretical work undertaken involved the use of the turbulence Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the kappa-epsilon model to predict the local velocity fields and the maps of the turbulence parameters. Theoretical predictions were in reasonably good agreement with the experimentally measured velocity fields; the agreement between the predicted and the measured turbulence parameters was less perfect, but still satisfactory. The implications of these findings to the modelling of ladle metallurgical operations are discussed.

  20. Operation and calibration of the Wincharger 450 model SWECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, P. J.; Boeh, M.

    This paper presents an analysis of the operation of the new 450 model Wincharger. Assembly, testing, output power calibrations and other operational parameters are presented. Techniques of testing are described, including the use of a pickup truck for Controlled Velocity Tests (CVT). The measured output power was just above the rated values when only 12 volts was applied to the generator field. When a separate and constant 15 volt field was applied the output ranged from 46 watts for a 10 mi/h wind speed to 1146 watts for 35 mi/h. At the rated 25 mi/h speed an output of 774 watts was obtained by tuning a resistive load. These values are much greater than the ratings for this unit. However, it is being tested here with a separate field supply and without a voltage regulator.

  1. Philae Cometary Permittivity Probe model and operations with a reduced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, M.; Simoes, F.; Schmidt, W.

    2009-04-01

    The Permittivity Probe (PP) is a subsystem of the SESAME instrument on the Philae lander of the Rosetta mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The probe consists of a system of 2 receiving and 3 transmitting electrodes which can be operated in different quadrupolar probe configurations, involving only two receivers and two transmitters at any given time. However, the system of electrodes is strongly influenced by the vicinity of the lander body and other grounded elements that work as additional electrodes. During the operational phases of the mission only one of the transmitter electrodes will always be available, as the two others depend on the deployment status of the host instruments they are attached to. We have built an electrical model of Philae to study non conventional ways for measuring the cometary permittivity with a reduced set of electrodes and the distorting influence of the various lander structure elements.

  2. An operational phenological model for numerical pollen prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheifinger, Helfried

    2010-05-01

    The general prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis is estimated to be about 15% in Europe, and still increasing. Pre-emptive measures require both the reliable assessment of production and release of various pollen species and the forecasting of their atmospheric dispersion. For this purpose numerical pollen prediction schemes are being developed by a number of European weather services in order to supplement and improve the qualitative pollen prediction systems by state of the art instruments. Pollen emission is spatially and temporally highly variable throughout the vegetation period and not directly observed, which precludes a straightforward application of dispersion models to simulate pollen transport. Even the beginning and end of flowering, which indicates the time period of potential pollen emission, is not (yet) available in real time. One way to create a proxy for the beginning, the course and the end of the pollen emission is its simulation as function of real time temperature observations. In this work the European phenological data set of the COST725 initiative forms the basis of modelling the beginning of flowering of 15 species, some of which emit allergic pollen. In order to keep the problem as simple as possible for the sake of spatial interpolation, a 3 parameter temperature sum model was implemented in a real time operational procedure, which calculates the spatial distribution of the entry dates for the current day and 24, 48 and 72 hours in advance. As stand alone phenological model and combined with back trajectories it is thought to support the qualitative pollen prediction scheme at the Austrian national weather service. Apart from that it is planned to incorporate it in a numerical pollen dispersion model. More details, open questions and first results of the operation phenological model will be discussed and presented.

  3. Assimilating glider data operationally in the CYCOFOS Levantine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Daniel; Dobricic, Srdjan; Zodiatis, George; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2013-04-01

    Assimilating observed ocean state variables improves the forecast skill of oceanic flow models. Many forecast centers and institutions assimilate remotely-sensed observations such as sea level anomaly, sea surface temperature, and surface currents. For further improvement, in situ data from the ocean depths are assimilated, typically temperature and salinity profiles, as they are often available in near real time. In many regions, there are few available in situ observations, because of gaps in the observational system (most often ARGO profiling floats and expendable bathythermographs from ships of opportunity). If resources allow, it is preferable to use an autonomous, steerable platform, the ocean glider, to collect observations of specific processes and/or wide areas and long times in near real time for data assimilation. In this study, we illustrate the construction and operation of such an observing and data assimilating system in the Eastern Levantine basin of the Mediterranean. The existing POM-based model of the CYCOFOS-Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System is nested within a regional model of the Eastern Mediterranean (ALERMO), which is in turn nested within the operational MyOcean regional model of the Mediterranean (MFS). Each model is run daily, with assimilation of various data products. In this study, glider data were assimilated in the CYCOFOS model only, without influencing the coarser resolution models that provide the initial and boundary conditions. Every day, the model was run in hindcast mode for 1.5 days, during which innovations were computed based on available glider data. At the end of the hindcast, the data assimilation tool OceanVar (based on 3DVAR) calculated corrections to the temperature and salinity fields, which were introduced into the initial time steps of the forecast run of the current day. The forecast run continued for 4.5 days. The run was carried out from 1 December 2011 until 15 April 2012, during which time

  4. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    3D-CEMBS is a fully coupled model adopted for the Baltic Sea and have been developed within the grant, wchich is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Reasearch. The model is based on CESM1.0 (Community Earth System Model), in our configuration it consists of two active components (ocean and ice) driven by central coupler (CPL7). Ocean (POP version 2.1) and ice models (CICE model, version 4.0) are forced by atmospheric and land data models. Atmospheric data sets are provided by ICM-UM model from University of Warsaw. Additionally land model provides runoff of the Baltic Sea (currently 78 rivers). Ecosystem model is based on an intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain (J.K. Moore et. al., 2002) and consists of 11 main components: zooplankton, small phytoplankton, diatoms, cyanobacteria, two detrital classes, dissolved oxygen and the nutrients nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. The model is configured at two horizontal resolutions, approximately 9km and 2km (1/12° and 1/48° respectively). The model bathymetry is represented as 21 vertical levels and the thickness of the first four layers were chosen to be five metres. 3D-CEMBS model grid is based on stereographic coordinates, but equator of these coordinates is in the centre of the Baltic Sea (rotated stereographic coordinates) and we can assume that shape of the cells are square and they are identical. Currently model works in a operational state. The model creates 48-hour forecasts every 6 hours (or when new atmospheric dataset is available). Prognostic variables such as temperature, salinity, ice cover, currents, sea surface height and phytoplankton concentration are presented online on a the website and are available for registered users. Also time series for any location are accessible. This work was carried out in support of grant No NN305 111636 and No NN306 353239 - the Polish state Committee of Scientific Research. The partial support for this study was

  5. Transitioning Empirical Dynamical Models from Research to Operational Subseasonal Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M.; Gottschalk, J.; Zhang, Q.; Penland, C.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    CLIVAR support has been essential in the development of the Linear Inverse Model (LIM), an empirical dynamical model that can be used to both diagnose and predict climate variability on time scales as short as a week and as long as a decade. The LIM is an approximation of chaotic weather and climate variability that assumes that, under certain conditions, predictability within the system reduces to multivariate linear dynamics forced by unpredictable noise. This assumption is testable, and for those systems where it is demonstrated to be appropriate, LIM forecasts are competitive with state-of-the-art numerical forecast models. Over the course of more than twenty years of research, LIM has been developed as a forecast tool in parallel with its development for basic research in climate diagnosis, and has now reached the point where it is being transitioned to the Climate Predictions Center (CPC) as a part of their new Weeks 3 and 4 operational forecasting effort. In this presentation, we will discuss the development of the LIM as a CLIVAR-funded research effort, how it is being transitioned to CPC operations, and its part in the larger CPC subseasonal forecasting effort.

  6. A Final Approach Trajectory Model for Current Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Chester; Sadovsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Predicting accurate trajectories with limited intent information is a challenge faced by air traffic management decision support tools in operation today. One such tool is the FAA's Terminal Proximity Alert system which is intended to assist controllers in maintaining safe separation of arrival aircraft during final approach. In an effort to improve the performance of such tools, two final approach trajectory models are proposed; one based on polynomial interpolation, the other on the Fourier transform. These models were tested against actual traffic data and used to study effects of the key final approach trajectory modeling parameters of wind, aircraft type, and weight class, on trajectory prediction accuracy. Using only the limited intent data available to today's ATM system, both the polynomial interpolation and Fourier transform models showed improved trajectory prediction accuracy over a baseline dead reckoning model. Analysis of actual arrival traffic showed that this improved trajectory prediction accuracy leads to improved inter-arrival separation prediction accuracy for longer look ahead times. The difference in mean inter-arrival separation prediction error between the Fourier transform and dead reckoning models was 0.2 nmi for a look ahead time of 120 sec, a 33 percent improvement, with a corresponding 32 percent improvement in standard deviation.

  7. Object-oriented process dose modeling for glovebox operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1999-06-01

    The Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory supports several defense and nondefense-related missions for the country by performing fabrication, surveillance, and research and development for materials and components that contain plutonium. Most operations occur in rooms with one or more arrays of gloveboxes connected to each other via trolley gloveboxes. Minimizing the effective dose equivalent (EDE) is a growing concern as a result of steadily declining allowable dose limits being imposed and a growing general awareness of safety in the workplace. In general, the authors discriminate three components of a worker`s total EDE: the primary EDE, the secondary EDE, and background EDE. A particular background source of interest is the nuclear materials vault. The distinction between sources inside and outside of a particular room is arbitrary with the underlying assumption that building walls and floors provide significant shielding to justify including sources in other rooms in the background category. Los Alamos has developed the Process Modeling System (ProMoS) primarily for performing process analyses of nuclear operations. ProMoS is an object-oriented, discrete-event simulation package that has been used to analyze operations at Los Alamos and proposed facilities such as the new fabrication facilities for the Complex-21 effort. In the past, crude estimates of the process dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred), room dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred in a given room), and facility dose (the EDE received when a particular process occurred in the facility) were used to obtain an integrated EDE for a given process. Modifications to the ProMoS package were made to utilize secondary dose information to use dose modeling to enhance the process modeling efforts.

  8. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mike; Rilee, M.; Truszkowski, W.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    of environmental hazards, frame the problem of constructing autonomous science instruments. we are developing a model of the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) that is currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. LENA is a particle detector that uses high voltage electrostatic optics and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to image neutral atom emissions from the denser regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. As with most spacecraft borne science instruments, phenomena in addition to neutral atoms are detected by LENA. Solar radiation and energetic particles from Earth's radiation belts are of particular concern because they may help generate currents that may compromise LENA's long term performance. An explicit model of the instrument response has been constructed and is currently in use on board IMAGE to dynamically adapt LENA to the presence or absence of energetic background radiations. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modelling this system may be applied to other instruments. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. Our future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  9. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mike; Rilee, M.; Truszkowski, W.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    of environmental hazards, frame the problem of constructing autonomous science instruments. we are developing a model of the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) that is currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. LENA is a particle detector that uses high voltage electrostatic optics and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to image neutral atom emissions from the denser regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. As with most spacecraft borne science instruments, phenomena in addition to neutral atoms are detected by LENA. Solar radiation and energetic particles from Earth's radiation belts are of particular concern because they may help generate currents that may compromise LENA's long term performance. An explicit model of the instrument response has been constructed and is currently in use on board IMAGE to dynamically adapt LENA to the presence or absence of energetic background radiations. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modelling this system may be applied to other instruments. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. Our future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  10. Creating operations research models to guide RHIO decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Michael; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Tang, Lisa; Marquard, Jenna; Robinson, Stephen; Wright, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Eight years of progress towards the creation of a national health information network has resulted in a plethora of health data exchange relationships, most commonly called regional health information organizations (RHIOs). Various network types reflect both governance decisions and practical aspects, such as the need for a variety of information sharing pathways between and among organizations. Applying systematic business planning approaches will help ensure that decisions about structure, governance, pricing and incentives lead to RHIO arrangements that meet both the RHIOs’ and the participants’ business goals. This paper describes the model formulation stage of an ongoing project that applies operations research methods to RHIO participation decisions. PMID:18693834

  11. Creating operations research models to guide RHIO decision making.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Michael; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Tang, Lisa; Marquard, Jenna; Robinson, Stephen; Wright, Stephen

    2007-10-11

    Eight years of progress towards the creation of a national health information network has resulted in a plethora of health data exchange relationships, most commonly called regional health information organizations (RHIOs). Various network types reflect both governance decisions and practical aspects, such as the need for a variety of information sharing pathways between and among organizations. Applying systematic business planning approaches will help ensure that decisions about structure, governance, pricing and incentive lead to RHIO arrangements that meet both the RHIOs' and the participants' business goals. This paper describes the model formulation stage of an ongoing project that applies operations research methods to RHIO participation decisions.

  12. A model Monte Carlo collision operator for toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtar, Q.; Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.

    2013-10-01

    In order to simulate radio refquency (RF)-heating in toroidal plasmas in the banana regime a model collision operator has been developed, which relaxes the distribution function towards a prescribed local Maxwellian either determined by experiments or transport codes. The pitch angle scattering by Coulomb collisions gives rise to spatial diffusion in toroidal plasmas because of the coupling between spatial and velocity coordinates. The coupling between the spatial and velocity components results in drift terms in the Monte Carlo formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation due to spatial derivatives of the Jacobian, the fraction of the trapped particles, the density and the temperature profiles. A simple RF operator is used to test the collision operator in conjunction with RF heating. The formation of a high-energy tail on the distribution function during RF heating leads to reduction of the density of the thermal ions as the tail builds up. For central heating this reduction can lead to hollow density profiles of thermal ions. The spatial diffusion caused by the relaxation of the thermal ions towards a prescribed density profile then gives rise to an increase of the density of resonant ions in regions with strong heating where the thermal ions diffuse towards higher energies.

  13. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  14. A Simple Protein Synthesis Model for the PURE System Operation.

    PubMed

    Mavelli, Fabio; Marangoni, Roberto; Stano, Pasquale

    2015-06-01

    The encapsulation of transcription-translation (TX-TL) cell-free machinery inside lipid vesicles (liposomes) is a key element in synthetic cell technology. The PURE system is a TX-TL kit composed of well-characterized parts, whose concentrations are fine tunable, which works according to a modular architecture. For these reasons, the PURE system perfectly fulfils the requirements of synthetic biology and is widely used for constructing synthetic cells. In this work, we present a simplified mathematical model to simulate the PURE system operations. Based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics and differential equations, the model describes protein synthesis dynamics by using 9 chemical species, 6 reactions and 16 kinetic parameters. The model correctly predicts the time course for messenger RNA and protein production and allows quantitative predictions. By means of this model, it is possible to foresee how the PURE system species affect the mechanism of proteins synthesis and therefore help in understanding scenarios where the concentration of the PURE system components has been modified purposely or as a result of stochastic fluctuations (for example after random encapsulation inside vesicles). The model also makes the determination of response coefficients for all species involved in the TX-TL mechanism possible and allows for scrutiny on how chemical energy is consumed by the three PURE system modules (transcription, translation and aminoacylation).

  15. Behavior modeling through CHAOS for simulation of dismounted soldier operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubink, Emiel; Aldershoff, Frank; Lotens, Wouter; Woering, Arend

    2008-04-01

    One of the major challenges in human behavior modeling for military applications is dealing with all factors that can influence behavior and performance. In a military context, behavior and performance are influenced by the task at hand, the internal (cognitive and physiological) and external (climate, terrain, threat, equipment, etc.) state. Modeling the behavioral effects of all these factors in a centralized manner would lead to a complex rule-base that is difficult to maintain or expand. To better cope with this complexity we have developed the Capability-based Human-performance Architecture for Operational Simulation (CHAOS). CHAOS is a multi-agent system for human behavior modeling that is based on pandemonium theory. Every agent in CHAOS represents a specific part of behavior, such as 'reaction to threat' or 'performing a patrol task'. These agents are competing over a limited set of resources that represent human capabilities. By combining the element of competition with multiple limited resources, CHAOS allows us to model stress, strain and multi-tasking in an intuitive manner. The CHAOS architecture is currently used in firefighter and dismounted soldier simulations and has shown itself to be suitable for human behavior and performance modeling.

  16. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Gyro Temperature Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. N.; Noonan, C. H.; Garrick, J.

    1996-01-01

    The geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 1/M series of spacecraft are geostationary weather satellites that use the latest in weather imaging technology. The inertial reference unit package onboard consists of three gyroscopes measuring angular velocity along each of the spacecraft's body axes. This digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) is calibrated and used to maintain spacecraft attitude during orbital delta-V maneuvers. During the early orbit support of GOES-8 (April 1994), the gyro drift rate biases exhibited a large dependency on gyro temperature. This complicated the calibration and introduced errors into the attitude during delta-V maneuvers. Following GOES-8, a model of the DIRA temperature and drift rate bias variation was developed for GOES-9 (May 1995). This model was used to project a value of the DIRA bias to use during the orbital delta-V maneuvers based on the bias change observed as the DIRA warmed up during the calibration. The model also optimizes the yaw reorientation necessary to achieve the correct delta-V pointing attitude. As a result, a higher accuracy was achieved on GOES-9 leading to more efficient delta-V maneuvers and a propellant savings. This paper summarizes the: Data observed on GOES-8 and the complications it caused in calibration; DIRA temperature/drift rate model; Application and results of the model on GOES-9 support.

  17. Evaluation of the Medium Range Forecast from an Operational Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Rha, D. K.; Son, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    The correct forecast on the medium range scale has been fascinated by both meteorologists and climatologists, because such time scale is located at the boundary between the weather and climate. The question raised in this paper is how we evaluate an operational model for the medium range forecast. The answer to this question is important to understand where error sources of a model come from. We use the Unified Model (UM) to evaluate its performance with the mean squared skill score (MSSS). Unlike the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) which only focuses on the spatial similarity of a model simulation to an observation, MSSS adds their conditional bias to the ACC. At the same time, it is able to explain the errors from both zonal mean and eddy fields. We analyze characteristics of various meteorological quantities globally and regionally. We compare the high resolution version (N768) with the low resolution version (N512). We explore the MSSS from the stratosphere to troposphere, and find that the MSSS exhibits the largest value in the lower stratosphere. It implies that the predictability limit is longest in the stratosphere. In the troposphere, most errors come from eddy fields. The UM model might have a trouble at resolving the eddy dynamics. The spatial separation hints at the occurrence of most errors at synoptic scales. Overall, the MSSS give some credits for the evaluation of medium range forecast.

  18. Assessing skill of operational forest fire emissions model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Across the continental United States, the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework provides hourly forest fire emissions forecasts and calculates the concentrations of hazardous compounds 72 hours in advance. Though a traditional computational model itself, the BlueSky Framework pulls together the results from a number of different independent models for fire and fuel information, combustion of fuel, and speciated emissions calculations to produce its operational forecasts of fire-related emissions and smoke dispersals. One aspect of forest fire emissions that is of particular concern is small particulate matter, particularly microscopic particles with diameters less than 2.5 micrometers. These particles, known as PM2.5, are small enough to penetrate lung tissue and cause serious health problems in high concentrations. To assess the skill of the BlueSky Gateway, a system that uses the BlueSky Framework and the Community MultiScale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to forecast PM2.5 surface concentrations, Strand et al. compared the modeled estimates for two Californian forest wildfire events against observations.

  19. Operational Testing of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Srishti; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghavendra P.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of the concept of transposability in model testing is one of the prominent ways to check the credibility of a hydrological model. Successful testing ensures ability of hydrological models to deal with changing conditions, along with its extrapolation capacity. For a newly developed model, a number of contradictions arises regarding its applicability, therefore testing of credibility of model is essential to proficiently assess its strength and limitations. This concept emphasizes to perform 'Hierarchical Operational Testing' of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), a newly developed surface water-groundwater coupled model, under PRACRITI-2 program initiated by Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad. SHM aims at sustainable water resources management using remote sensing data from Indian satellites. It consists of grid cells of 5km x 5km resolution and comprises of five modules namely: Surface Water (SW), Forest (F), Snow (S), Groundwater (GW) and Routing (ROU). SW module (functions in the grid cells with land cover other than forest and snow) deals with estimation of surface runoff, soil moisture and evapotranspiration by using NRCS-CN method, water balance and Hragreaves method, respectively. The hydrology of F module is dependent entirely on sub-surface processes and water balance is calculated based on it. GW module generates baseflow (depending on water table variation with the level of water in streams) using Boussinesq equation. ROU module is grounded on a cell-to-cell routing technique based on the principle of Time Variant Spatially Distributed Direct Runoff Hydrograph (SDDH) to route the generated runoff and baseflow by different modules up to the outlet. For this study Subarnarekha river basin, flood prone zone of eastern India, has been chosen for hierarchical operational testing scheme which includes tests under stationary as well as transitory conditions. For this the basin has been divided into three sub-basins using three flow

  20. Modeling and simulation for space medicine operations: preliminary requirements considered.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D L; Billica, R D; McDonald, P V

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Space Medicine program is now developing plans for more extensive use of high-fidelity medical simulation systems. The use of simulation is seen as means to more effectively use the limited time available for astronaut medical training. Training systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of training environments, including classrooms or laboratories, space vehicle mockups, analog environments, and in microgravity. Modeling and simulation can also provide the space medicine development program a mechanism for evaluation of other medical technologies under operationally realistic conditions. Systems and procedures need preflight verification with ground-based testing. Traditionally, component testing has been accomplished, but practical means for "human in the loop" verification of patient care systems have been lacking. Medical modeling and simulation technology offer potential means to accomplish such validation work. Initial considerations in the development of functional requirements and design standards for simulation systems for space medicine are discussed.

  1. Modeling and simulation for space medicine operations: preliminary requirements considered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; McDonald, P. V.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Space Medicine program is now developing plans for more extensive use of high-fidelity medical simulation systems. The use of simulation is seen as means to more effectively use the limited time available for astronaut medical training. Training systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of training environments, including classrooms or laboratories, space vehicle mockups, analog environments, and in microgravity. Modeling and simulation can also provide the space medicine development program a mechanism for evaluation of other medical technologies under operationally realistic conditions. Systems and procedures need preflight verification with ground-based testing. Traditionally, component testing has been accomplished, but practical means for "human in the loop" verification of patient care systems have been lacking. Medical modeling and simulation technology offer potential means to accomplish such validation work. Initial considerations in the development of functional requirements and design standards for simulation systems for space medicine are discussed.

  2. Hysteresis Modeling in Magnetostrictive Materials Via Preisach Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological characterization of hysteresis in magnetostrictive materials is presented. Such hysteresis is due to both the driving magnetic fields and stress relations within the material and is significant throughout, most of the drive range of magnetostrictive transducers. An accurate characterization of the hysteresis and material nonlinearities is necessary, to fully utilize the actuator/sensor capabilities of the magnetostrictive materials. Such a characterization is made here in the context of generalized Preisach operators. This yields a framework amenable to proving the well-posedness of structural models that incorporate the magnetostrictive transducers. It also provides a natural setting in which to develop practical approximation techniques. An example illustrating this framework in the context of a Timoshenko beam model is presented.

  3. Linked space physics models for operational ionospheric forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Forbes, J.; Frahm, R.; Fry, C.; Hagan, M.; Hajj, G.; Hsu, T.; Knipp, D.; Mannucci, A.; Papitashvili, V.; Pi, X.; Sharber, J.; Storz, M.; Wang, C.; Wilson, B.

    2003-12-01

    The shorter-term variable impact of the Sun's photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth's environment that can adversely affect technological systems is colloquially known as space weather. It includes, for example, the effects of solar coronal mass ejections, solar flares and irradiances, solar and galactic energetic particles, as well as the solar wind, all of which affect Earth's magnetospheric particles and fields, geomagnetic and electrodynamical conditions, radiation belts, aurorae, ionosphere, and the neutral thermosphere and mesosphere. These combined effects create risks to space and ground systems from electric field disturbances, irregularities, and scintillation, for example, where these ionospheric perturbations are a direct result of space weather. A major challenge exists to improve our understanding of ionospheric space weather processes and then translate that knowledge into operational systems. Ionospheric perturbed conditions can be recognized and specified in real-time or predicted through linkages of models and data streams. Linked systems must be based upon multi-spectral observations of the Sun, solar wind measurements by satellites between the Earth and Sun, as well as by measurements from radar and GPS/TEC networks. Models of the solar wind, solar irradiances, the neutral thermosphere, thermospheric winds, joule heating, particle precipitation, substorms, the electric field, and the ionosphere provide climatological best estimates of non-measured current and forecast parameters. We report on a team effort that is developing a prototype operational ionospheric forecast system to detect and predict the conditions leading to dynamic ionospheric changes. The system will provide global-to-local specifications of recent history, current epoch, and 72-hour forecast ionospheric and neutral density profiles, TEC, plasma drifts, neutral winds, and temperatures. Geophysical changes will be captured and

  4. Modelling oxidation behaviour in operating defective nuclear reactor fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgs, Jamie D.

    CANDU nuclear reactors are powered by ceramic uranium dioxide (UO 2) fuel pellets encased in a zirconium-alloy sheath. Occasionally, holes develop in the sheath, allowing steam ingress into the fuel-to-sheath gap, thus exposing the fuel to an oxidizing environment. Oxidation of UO2 fuel may lead to a reduction of fuel thermal conductivity and melting point, both reducing the margin to prevent fuel centre-line melting during transient or even normal operating conditions. Along with increasing fuel temperature, fuel oxidation also enhances the release of radioactive fission products into the reactor coolant. For the first time, a mechanistic treatment has been considered to predict fuel oxidation behaviour in operating defective fuel elements by coupling fuel oxidation kinetics, interstitial oxygen diffusion and heat transfer with sheath oxidation and hydriding rates and gas phase transport in both the fuel-to-sheath gap and within the fuel cracks. The three highly non-linear phenomena (solid-state oxygen diffusion, gas-phase transport and heat transfer) coupled in this treatment were modelled using a finite element technique. The result is a numerical tool that can provide predictions of both the temperature and oxygen-to-uranium (O/U) ratio profile both radially and axially along the fuel element length. The two-dimensional (azimuthally-symmetric) model has been compared to oxygen profile measurements from commercial reactor defective fuel with operating linear power ratings ranging from 26 to 51 kW m-1. Model predictions agree well with experimental observations. Defect size, linear power rating and post-defect residence time (PDRT) appear to be the factors that most influence the extent and rate of fuel oxidation. Thermodynamic modelling of hyperstoichiometric fuel provided the boundary conditions for the fuel oxidation kinetics model. A refined thermodynamic treatment for hyperstoichiometric UO2 has been established. Neutron diffraction experiments at Los Alamos

  5. Modeling of crushed ore agglomeration for heap leach operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Nikhil

    agglomeration, specifically crushed ore agglomeration. The experimental difficulties and how to overcome them are described. An empirical model that is readily useful for plant heap leach operations is shown in detail. The analysis of constituent particles within agglomerate size class is done with a partition model. The guest and host nature of particles, thus delineated, helps one to anticipate the nature of agglomerates that would be formed with a given ore size distribution. Thus, all aspects of batch agglomeration are addressed in this work.

  6. Full Wave Modeling of Helicon Operation in Proto-MPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowicz, Pawel; Caneses, Juan; David, Green; Lau, Cornwall; Caughman, John; Goulding, Richard; Ruzic, David; Proto-MPEX Team

    2016-10-01

    An improved ``high density mode'' of operation of the helicon plasma source on Proto-MPEX has been observed recently. The high density mode is characterized by an increase in on-axis electron density (>5e19 m-3) and a flat electron temperature (2 - 3 eV) profile during a helicon pulse. Presently, this transition has only been observed when deuterium gas is puffed downstream of the helicon antenna and the delivered RF power exceeds 110 kW. Establishing plasma densities and magnetic field strengths under the antenna that support a stable resonant helicon mode are believed to be the reason for the improved mode of operation. A full wave model of the helicon antenna has been made using finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics. This model is used to investigate the wave fields produced by the helicon antenna before and after the high density transition occurs. The investigation of the wave fields will be used in identifying the experimental conditions that are necessary for the high density mode transition and the resonant helicon mode responsible for the transition. Simulation results will be compared to radial B-dot probe measurements at multiple axial locations. U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  7. Verification of the NWP models operated at ICM, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melonek, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw (ICM) started its activity in the field of NWP in May 1997. Since this time the numerical weather forecasts covering Central Europe have been routinely published on our publicly available website. First NWP model used in ICM was hydrostatic Unified Model developed by the UK Meteorological Office. It was a mesoscale version with horizontal resolution of 17 km and 31 levels in vertical. At present two NWP non-hydrostatic models are running in quasi-operational regime. The main new UM model with 4 km horizontal resolution, 38 levels in vertical and forecats range of 48 hours is running four times a day. Second, the COAMPS model (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory, configured with the three nested grids (with coresponding resolutions of 39km, 13km and 4.3km, 30 vertical levels) are running twice a day (for 00 and 12 UTC). The second grid covers Central Europe and has forecast range of 84 hours. Results of the both NWP models, ie. COAMPS computed on 13km mesh resolution and UM, are verified against observations from the Polish synoptic stations. Verification uses surface observations and nearest grid point forcasts. Following meteorological elements are verified: air temperature at 2m, mean sea level pressure, wind speed and wind direction at 10 m and 12 hours accumulated precipitation. There are presented different statistical indices. For continous variables Mean Error(ME), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) in 6 hours intervals are computed. In case of precipitation the contingency tables for different thresholds are computed and some of the verification scores such as FBI, ETS, POD, FAR are graphically presented. The verification sample covers nearly one year.

  8. Wild Fire Emissions for the NOAA Operational HYSPLIT Smoke Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. C.; ONeill, S. M.; Ruminski, M.; Shafran, P.; McQueen, J.; DiMego, G.; Kondragunta, S.; Gorline, J.; Huang, J. P.; Stunder, B.; Stein, A. F.; Stajner, I.; Upadhayay, S.; Larkin, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate Matter (PM) generated from forest fires often lead to degraded visibility and unhealthy air quality in nearby and downstream areas. To provide near-real time PM information to the state and local agencies, the NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) operational HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) smoke modeling system (NWS/HYSPLIT smoke) provides the forecast of smoke concentration resulting from fire emissions driven by the NWS North American Model 12 km weather predictions. The NWS/HYSPLIT smoke incorporates the U.S. Forest Service BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework (BlueSky) to provide smoke fire emissions along with the input fire locations from the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)'s Hazard Mapping System fire and smoke detection system. Experienced analysts inspect satellite imagery from multiple sensors onboard geostationary and orbital satellites to identify the location, size and duration of smoke emissions for the model. NWS/HYSPLIT smoke is being updated to use a newer version of USFS BlueSky. The updated BlueSky incorporates the Fuel Characteristic Classification System version 2 (FCCS2) over the continental U.S. and Alaska. FCCS2 includes a more detailed description of fuel loadings with additional plant type categories. The updated BlueSky also utilizes an improved fuel consumption model and fire emission production system. For the period of August 2014 and June 2015, NWS/HYSPLIT smoke simulations show that fire smoke emissions with updated BlueSky are stronger than the current operational BlueSky in the Northwest U.S. For the same comparisons, weaker fire smoke emissions from the updated BlueSky were observed over the middle and eastern part of the U.S. A statistical evaluation of NWS/HYSPLIT smoke predicted total column concentration compared to NOAA NESDIS GOES EAST Aerosol Smoke Product retrievals is underway. Preliminary results show that using the newer version

  9. BepiColombo/MMO model payload and its operation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Kasaba, Y.; Yamakawa, H.; Ogawa, H.; Mukai, T.

    We introduce the outline and current investigations of the model payloads and its operation plan for BepiColombo/MMO(Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter). Main targets of MMO are 1) Structure and origin of Herman magnetic field, 2) Structure, dynamics, and physical processes of Herman magnetosphere, 3) Structure, variation, and origin of Herman atmosphere, 4) Macroscopic structure of Herman crust, and 5) Physical environment of inner solar system. For these targets, MMO has 10 Smodel payloadsT: Electron Spectrum Analyzer (ESA), Mass Spectrum Analyzer (MSA), Solar Wind Analyzer (SWA), High Energy Particle (HEP), Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA), Magnetic Field sensor (MGF), Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI), Mercury Dust Monitor (MDM), Mercury Imaging Camera for Atmosphere (MIC-A), Mercury Imaging Camera for Surface (MIC-S). These are operated by 3 common systems, which have Data Processing Unit (DPU) and Power Conversion Unit (PCU) with standard I/O to each instrument. The former provides command/telemetry functions and integrated operations. The latter provides power supply and control. MGF might be separated and installed into both PCS and FCS, for the redundancy of the magnetic field measurement. MMO will be at polar orbit with the period of 9.2hour, the periherm of 400km and the apoherm of 12,000km (~6RM). It is selected for the observations of large regions in the Herman magnetosphere, mappings of magnetic field and surface, and macroscopic imaging of the Na atmosphere. The telemetry ability will be 20~160Mbytes/day (~40Mbytes/day [ave]). Data production rate will show large seasonal variation, because the data rate of in-situ plasma instruments is correlated to the duration staying in the magnetosphere and varies in 20~75MB/day. So basic policy of the operation is Sstoring in the high-production term and reproduction in the low-production termT. This policy requires large DR capacity, above 4GB. In the actual operation, we will take data depending on the telemetry rate

  10. An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Richard M.; Egoh, Benis; Knight, Andrew T.; O'Farrell, Patrick J.; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Roux, Dirk J.; Welz, Adam; Wilhelm-Rechman, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services has grown markedly in recent years. However, few studies are embedded in a social process designed to ensure effective management of ecosystem services. Most research has focused only on biophysical and valuation assessments of putative services. As a mission-oriented discipline, ecosystem service research should be user-inspired and user-useful, which will require that researchers respond to stakeholder needs from the outset and collaborate with them in strategy development and implementation. Here we provide a pragmatic operational model for achieving the safeguarding of ecosystem services. The model comprises three phases: assessment, planning, and management. Outcomes of social, biophysical, and valuation assessments are used to identify opportunities and constraints for implementation. The latter then are transformed into user-friendly products to identify, with stakeholders, strategic objectives for implementation (the planning phase). The management phase undertakes and coordinates actions that achieve the protection of ecosystem services and ensure the flow of these services to beneficiaries. This outcome is achieved via mainstreaming, or incorporating the safeguarding of ecosystem services into the policies and practices of sectors that deal with land- and water-use planning. Management needs to be adaptive and should be institutionalized in a suite of learning organizations that are representative of the sectors that are concerned with decision-making and planning. By following the phases of our operational model, projects for safeguarding ecosystem services are likely to empower stakeholders to implement effective on-the-ground management that will achieve resilience of the corresponding social-ecological systems. PMID:18621695

  11. Modeling and simulation of the USAVRE network and radiology operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Bradford, Daniel Q.; Hatch, Jay; Sochan, John; Chimiak, William J.

    1998-07-01

    . There are three levels to the model: (1) Network model of the Cable Bundling Initiative (CBI) network and base networks (CUITIN), (2) Protocol model, including network, transport, and middleware protocols, such TCP/IP and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) protocols, and (3) USAVRE Application layer model, including database archive systems, acquisition equipment, viewing workstations, and operations and management. The Network layer of the model contains the ATM-based backbone network provided by the CBI, interfaces into the RMC regional networks and the PACS networks at the medical centers and RMC sites. The CBI network currently is a DS-3 (45 Mbps) backbone consisting of three major hubs, at Ft. Leavenworth, KS, Ft. Belvoir, VA, and Ft. McPherson, GA. The medical center PACS networks are 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps networks. The RMC site networks are 100 Mbps speeds. The model is very beneficial in studying the multimedia transfer and operations characteristics of the USAVRE before it is completely built and deployed.

  12. Operational modeling system with dynamic-wave routing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishii, A.L.; Charlton, T.J.; Ortel, T.W.; Vonnahme, C.C.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A near real-time streamflow-simulation system utilizing continuous-simulation rainfall-runoff generation with dynamic-wave routing is being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Du Page County Department of Environmental Concerns for a 24-kilometer reach of Salt Creek in Du Page County, Illinois. This system is needed in order to more effectively manage the Elmhurst Quarry Flood Control Facility, an off-line stormwater diversion reservoir located along Salt Creek. Near real time simulation capabilities will enable the testing and evaluation of potential rainfall, diversion, and return-flow scenarios on water-surface elevations along Salt Creek before implementing diversions or return-flows. The climatological inputs for the continuous-simulation rainfall-runoff model, Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) are obtained by Internet access and from a network of radio-telemetered precipitation gages reporting to a base-station computer. The unit area runoff time series generated from HSPF are the input for the dynamic-wave routing model. Full Equations (FEQ). The Generation and Analysis of Model Simulation Scenarios (GENSCN) interface is used as a pre- and post-processor for managing input data and displaying and managing simulation results. The GENSCN interface includes a variety of graphical and analytical tools for evaluation and quick visualization of the results of operational scenario simulations and thereby makes it possible to obtain the full benefit of the fully distributed dynamic routing results.

  13. Modeling the ecological impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.; Cho, H.E.

    1996-05-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah, US, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage during a day. These changes can, in turn, affect ecological resources below the dam, including riparian vegetation, trout, and endangered fish. Four hydropower operational scenarios featuring varying degrees of hydropower-induced flow fluctuation were evaluated with hydrologic models and multispectral aerial videography of the river. Year-round high fluctuations would support the least amount of stable spawning habitat for trout and nursery habitat for endangered fish, and would have the greatest potential for reducing growth and over winter survival of fish. Seasonally, adjusted moderate fluctuation and seasonally adjusted steady flow scenarios could increase food production and over winter survival and would provide the greatest amount of spawning and nursery habitat for fish. The year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation scenarios would result in a 5% decrease in upper riparian zone habitat. the seasonally adjusted steady flow scenario would result in an 8% increase in upper riparian zone habitat. Lower riparian zone habitat would increase by about 17% for year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenarios but decrease by about 24% and 69% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating and steady flow scenarios, respectively.

  14. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Coles, Garill A.; Shoemaker, Steven V.

    2012-06-12

    Modernization of nuclear power operations control systems, in particular the move to digital control systems, creates an opportunity to modernize existing legacy infrastructure and extend plant life. We describe here decision support tools that allow the assessment of different facets of risk and support the optimization of available resources to reduce risk as plants are upgraded and maintained. This methodology could become an integrated part of the design review process and a part of the operations management systems. The methodology can be applied to the design of new reactors such as small nuclear reactors (SMR), and be helpful in assessing the risks of different configurations of the reactors. Our tool provides a low cost evaluation of alternative configurations and provides an expanded safety analysis by considering scenarios while early in the implementation cycle where cost impacts can be minimized. The effects of failures can be modeled and thoroughly vetted to understand their potential impact on risk. The process and tools presented here allow for an integrated assessment of risk by supporting traditional defense in depth approaches while taking into consideration the insertion of new digital instrument and control systems.

  15. Analytic Thermoelectric Couple Modeling: Variable Material Properties and Transient Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jonathan A.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2015-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the operation of a thermoelectric couple a set of analytic solutions have been derived for a variable material property couple and a transient couple. Using an analytic approach, as opposed to commonly used numerical techniques, results in a set of useful design guidelines. These guidelines can serve as useful starting conditions for further numerical studies, or can serve as design rules for lab built couples. The analytic modeling considers two cases and accounts for 1) material properties which vary with temperature and 2) transient operation of a couple. The variable material property case was handled by means of an asymptotic expansion, which allows for insight into the influence of temperature dependence on different material properties. The variable property work demonstrated the important fact that materials with identical average Figure of Merits can lead to different conversion efficiencies due to temperature dependence of the properties. The transient couple was investigated through a Greens function approach; several transient boundary conditions were investigated. The transient work introduces several new design considerations which are not captured by the classic steady state analysis. The work helps to assist in designing couples for optimal performance, and also helps assist in material selection.

  16. Operation and modeling of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The fast on-orbit recording of transient events satellite (FORTE) will carry a multiple-narrow-band trigger designed to detect impulsive VHF signals embedded in a high-noise background. The FORTE trigger boxes consist of eight VHF channels spaced across twenty MHz of bandwidth. A trigger is generated when a sufficiently bright signal is seen in a user-defined number of these channels within a specified coincidence window. In addition, the trigger circuitry incorporates a feature to reject events caused by the actuation of narrow-band carriers. This report describes the trigger`s operating principles and their implementation in the satellite hardware. We then discuss a computer model which can be used to simulate the performance of the trigger circuit.

  17. AMFESYS: Modelling and diagnosis functions for operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheadon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Packetized telemetry, combined with low station coverage for close-earth satellites, may introduce new problems in presenting to the operator a clear picture of what the spacecraft is doing. A recent ESOC study has gone some way to show, by means of a practical demonstration, how the use of subsystem models combined with artificial intelligence techniques, within a real-time spacecraft control system (SCS), can help to overcome these problems. A spin-off from using these techniques can be an improvement in the reliability of the telemetry (TM) limit-checking function, as well as the telecommand verification function, of the Spacecraft Control systems (SCS). The problem and how it was addressed, including an overview of the 'AMF Expert System' prototype are described, and proposes further work which needs to be done to prove the concept. The Automatic Mirror Furnace is part of the payload of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) spacecraft, which was launched in July 1992.

  18. Operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy: A novel learning model combining new animal models and virtual reality simulation.

    PubMed

    Bassil, Alfred; Rubod, Chrystèle; Borghesi, Yves; Kerbage, Yohan; Schreiber, Elie Servan; Azaïs, Henri; Garabedian, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is one of the most common gynaecological procedure. Training for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy can be achieved through numerous previously described models like animal models or virtual reality simulation. We present our novel combined model associating virtual reality and bovine uteruses and bladders. End year residents in obstetrics and gynaecology attended a full day workshop. The workshop was divided in theoretical courses from senior surgeons and hands-on training in operative hysteroscopy and virtual reality Essure(®) procedures using the EssureSim™ and Pelvicsim™ simulators with multiple scenarios. Theoretical and operative knowledge was evaluated before and after the workshop and General Points Averages (GPAs) were calculated and compared using a Student's T test. GPAs were significantly higher after the workshop was completed. The biggest difference was observed in operative knowledge (0,28 GPA before workshop versus 0,55 after workshop, p<0,05). All of the 25 residents having completed the workshop applauded the realism an efficiency of this type of training. The force feedback allowed by the cattle uteruses gives the residents the possibility to manage thickness of resection as in real time surgery. Furthermore, the two-horned bovine uteruses allowed to reproduce septa resection in conditions close to human surgery CONCLUSION: Teaching operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy is essential. Managing this training through a full day workshop using a combined animal model and virtual reality simulation is an efficient model not described before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Executable Architecture Tool for the Modeling and Simulation of Operational Process Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-16

    Massachusetts: Gensym Corporation, 2007. [9] Simul8 Simulation Software. Boston, Massachusetts: Simul8 Corpora- tion, 2013. [10] COREsim. Blacksburg...An Executable Architecture Tool for the Modeling and Simulation of Operational Process Models Natalie M. Nakhla Member, IEEE Canadian Forces Warfare...Department of National Defence E-mail:Kendall.Wheaton@forces.gc.ca Abstract—This paper presents an executable architecture tool for the modeling and simulation

  20. Operational Assimilation of GOES Data into a Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC) within the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) since 1 November 1998. We performed the assimilation on a model grid centered over the Southeastern US. In addition, a control run without assimilation was performed to provide insight into the performance of the assimilation technique. Bulk verification statistics (BIAS and RMSE) of surface air temperature and relative humidity of more than 250 case days has been performed to date. Results show that assimilation of the satellite data results reduces both the bias and RMSE for simulations of surface air temperature and relative humidity. We are working with forecasters at the National Weather Service Forecast Office located in Birmingham, AL to evaluate the impact of the assimilation on precipitation forecasts. In addition

  1. Operational Assimilation of GOES Data into a Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC) within the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) since 1 November 1998. We performed the assimilation on a model grid centered over the Southeastern US. In addition, a control run without assimilation was performed to provide insight into the performance of the assimilation technique. Bulk verification statistics (BIAS and RMSE) of surface air temperature and relative humidity of more than 250 case days has been performed to date. Results show that assimilation of the satellite data results reduces both the bias and RMSE for simulations of surface air temperature and relative humidity. We are working with forecasters at the National Weather Service Forecast Office located in Birmingham, AL to evaluate the impact of the assimilation on precipitation forecasts. In addition

  2. OFMspert - Inference of operator intentions in supervisory control using a blackboard architecture. [operator function model expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia S.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Rubin, Kenneth S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors proposes an architecture for an expert system that can function as an operator's associate in the supervisory control of a complex dynamic system. Called OFMspert (operator function model (OFM) expert system), the architecture uses the operator function modeling methodology as the basis for the design. The authors put emphasis on the understanding capabilities, i.e., the intent referencing property, of an operator's associate. The authors define the generic structure of OFMspert, particularly those features that support intent inferencing. They also describe the implementation and validation of OFMspert in GT-MSOCC (Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center), a laboratory domain designed to support research in human-computer interaction and decision aiding in complex, dynamic systems.

  3. New operant model of nicotine-seeking behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Elena; Barbano, Maria Flavia; Galeote, Lola; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-04-01

    Nicotine addiction represents a major health problem in the world with dramatic socio-economic consequences. Recent studies using genetically modified mice have provided a better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine responses. However, the study of nicotine addiction requires sophisticated behavioural models that are still not fully developed in mice. Here, we report the validation of a new reliable operant model of nicotine-seeking behaviour in mice. C57BL/6 mice were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg per infusion) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement for 10 d. A light cue was contingently associated with the nicotine infusion. After reaching the acquisition criteria of nicotine self-administration, mice were exposed to extinction sessions similar to the self-administration training except that nicotine was not available and the associated cues were not presented. Nicotine-seeking behaviour was then reinstated by exposure to nicotine-associated environment cues, a priming injection of nicotine or stress, the three main conditions leading to nicotine relapse in humans. The exposure to the cues associated with nicotine infusion was the most effective stimulus reinstating nicotine-seeking behaviour in 90% of mice. A priming injection of nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) produced nicotine reinstatement in 30% of the animals, whereas stress exposure (0.22 mA footshock) reinstated nicotine-seeking behaviour in 50% of mice. The validation of this new model of nicotine-seeking behaviour and reinstatement in mice provides an important tool to help clarify the genetic and neurochemical bases of nicotine addiction.

  4. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  5. Intelligent control for modeling of real-time reservoir operation, part II: artificial neural network with operating rule curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2005-04-01

    To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.

  6. Operational model updating of spinning finite element models for HAWT blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew; Loh, Kenneth J.; Zhao, Yingjun; La Saponara, Valeria; Kamisky, Robert J.; van Dam, Cornelis P.

    2014-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) relies on collection and interrogation of operational data from the monitored structure. To make this data meaningful, a means of understanding how damage sensitive data features relate to the physical condition of the structure is required. Model-driven SHM applications achieve this goal through model updating. This study proposed a novel approach for updating of aero-elastic turbine blade vibrational models for operational horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The proposed approach updates estimates of modal properties for spinning HAWT blades intended for use in SHM and load estimation of these structures. Spinning structures present additional challenges for model updating due to spinning effects, dependence of modal properties on rotational velocity, and gyroscopic effects that lead to complex mode shapes. A cyclo-stationary stochastic-based eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) is applied to operational turbine data to identify data-driven modal properties including frequencies and mode shapes. Model-driven modal properties are derived through modal condensation of spinning finite element models with variable physical parameters. Complex modes are converted into equivalent real modes through reduction transformation. Model updating is achieved through use of an adaptive simulated annealing search process, via Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) with complex-conjugate modes, to find the physical parameters that best match the experimentally derived data.

  7. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  8. Performance and Operational Modeling of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M; Williams, W; Jancaitis, K; Widmayer, C; House, R

    2003-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 Megajoule, 500-Terrawatt, 351-nm laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Administration and when completed will be the world's largest laser experimental system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's 192 energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reaction. The first four beamlines (a quad) are currently being commissioned, with increasingly energetic laser pulses being propagated throughout the laser system. Success on many of the NIF laser's missions depends on obtaining precisely specified energy waveforms from each of the 192 beams over a wide variety of pulse lengths and temporal shapes. A computational system, the Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM) has been developed and deployed during NIF commissioning to automate the laser setup process, and accurately predict laser energetics. For each shot on NIF, the LPOM determines the characteristics of the injection laser system required to achieve the desired main laser output, provides parameter checking for equipment protection, determines the required diagnostic setup, and supplies post-shot data analysis and reporting.

  9. JELO: A Model of Joint Expeditionary Logistics Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    copy Office of the Chief of Naval Operations N42 2000 Navy Pentagon Washington, D.C. 20350-2000 12. Captain James Stewart ............................................................................ electronic

  10. From pre-operative cardiac modeling to intra-operative virtual environments for surgical guidance: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Wierzbicki, Marcin; Moore, John; Wedlake, Christopher; Wiles, Andrew D.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry M.

    2008-03-01

    As part of an ongoing theme in our laboratory on reducing morbidity during minimally-invasive intracardiac procedures, we developed a computer-assisted intervention system that provides safe access inside the beating heart and sufficient visualization to deliver therapy to intracardiac targets while maintaining the efficacy of the procedure. Integrating pre-operative information, 2D trans-esophageal ultrasound for real-time intra-operative imaging, and surgical tool tracking using the NDI Aurora magnetic tracking system in an augmented virtual environment, our system allows the surgeons to navigate instruments inside the heart in spite of the lack of direct target visualization. This work focuses on further enhancing intracardiac visualization and navigation by supplying the surgeons with detailed 3D dynamic cardiac models constructed from high-resolution pre-operative MR data and overlaid onto the intra-operative imaging environment. Here we report our experience during an in vivo porcine study. A feature-based registration technique previously explored and validated in our laboratory was employed for the pre-operative to intra-operative mapping. This registration method is suitable for in vivo interventional applications as it involves the selection of easily identifiable landmarks, while ensuring a good alignment of the pre-operative and intra-operative surgical targets. The resulting augmented reality environment fuses the pre-operative cardiac model with the intra-operative real-time US images with approximately 5 mm accuracy for structures located in the vicinity of the valvular region. Therefore, we strongly believe that our augmented virtual environment significantly enhances intracardiac navigation of surgical instruments, while on-target detailed manipulations are performed under real-time US guidance.

  11. Building Restoration Operations Optimization Model Beta Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2007-05-31

    The Building Restoration Operations Optimization Model (BROOM), developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is a software product designed to aid in the restoration of large facilities contaminated by a biological material. BROOM’s integrated data collection, data management, and visualization software improves the efficiency of cleanup operations, minimizes facility downtime, and provides a transparent basis for reopening the facility. Secure remote access to building floor plans Floor plan drawings and knowledge of the HVAC system are critical to the design and implementation of effective sampling plans. In large facilities, access to these data may be complicated by the sheer abundance and disorganized state they are often stored in. BROOM avoids potentially costly delays by providing a means of organizing and storing mechanical and floor plan drawings in a secure remote database that is easily accessed. Sampling design tools BROOM provides an array of tools to answer the question of where to sample and how many samples to take. In addition to simple judgmental and random sampling plans, the software includes two sophisticated methods of adaptively developing a sampling strategy. Both tools strive to choose sampling locations that best satisfy a specified objective (i.e. minimizing kriging variance) but use numerically different strategies to do so. Surface samples are collected early in the restoration process to characterize the extent of contamination and then again later to verify that the facility is safe to reenter. BROOM supports sample collection using a ruggedized PDA equipped with a barcode scanner and laser range finder. The PDA displays building floor drawings, sampling plans, and electronic forms for data entry. Barcodes are placed on sample containers for the purpose of tracking the specimen and linking acquisition data (i.e. location, surface type, texture) to laboratory results. Sample location is determined by activating the integrated laser

  12. Operator function modeling: An approach to cognitive task analysis in supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    In a study of models of operators in complex, automated space systems, an operator function model (OFM) methodology was extended to represent cognitive as well as manual operator activities. Development continued on a software tool called OFMdraw, which facilitates construction of an OFM by permitting construction of a heterarchic network of nodes and arcs. Emphasis was placed on development of OFMspert, an expert system designed both to model human operation and to assist real human operators. The system uses a blackboard method of problem solving to make an on-line representation of operator intentions, called ACTIN (actions interpreter).

  13. Comparison of Temperature-Index Snowmelt Models for Use within an Operational Water Quality Model.

    PubMed

    Watson, Brett M; Putz, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The accurate prediction of snowmelt runoff is a critical component of integrated hydrological and water quality models in regions where snowfall constitutes a significant portion of the annual precipitation. In cold regions, the accumulation of a snowpack and the subsequent spring snowmelt generally constitutes a major proportion of the annual water yield. Furthermore, the snowmelt runoff transports significant quantities of sediment and nutrients to receiving streams and strongly influences downstream water quality. Temperature-index models are commonly used in operational hydrological and water quality models to predict snowmelt runoff. Due to their simplicity, computational efficiency, low data requirements, and ability to consistently achieve good results, numerous temperature-index models of varying complexity have been developed in the past few decades. The objective of this study was to determine how temperature-index models of varying complexity would affect the performance of the water quality model SWAT (a modified version of SWAT that was developed for watersheds dominated by boreal forest) for predicting runoff. Temperature-index models used by several operational hydrological models were incorporated into SWAT. Model performance was tested on five watersheds on the Canadian Boreal Plain whose hydrologic response is dominated by snowmelt runoff. The results of this study indicate that simpler temperature-index models can perform as well as more complex temperature-index models for predicting runoff from the study watersheds. The outcome of this study has important implications because the incorporation of simpler temperature-index snowmelt models into hydrological and water quality models can lead to a reduction in the number of parameters that need to be optimized without sacrificing predictive accuracy.

  14. Critical Function Models for Operation of the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William Roy; Bagian, T. M.

    2000-11-01

    Long duration and exploration class space missions will place new requirements on human performance when compared to current space shuttle missions. Specifically, assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will place significant new demands on the crew. For example, maintenance of systems that provide habitability will become an ongoing activity for the international flight crews. Tasks for maintaining space station habitability will need to be integrated with tasks associated with scientific research. In addition, tasks and resources will need to be prioritized and allocated dynamically in response to changing operational conditions and unplanned system breakdowns. This paper describes an ongoing program to develop a habitability index (HI) for space operations based on the critical function approach. This pilot project focuses on adaptation of the critical function approach to develop a habitability index specifically tailored for space operations. Further work will then be needed to expand and validate the habitability index for application in the ISS operational environment.

  15. Improved NSGA model for multi objective operation scheduling and its evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weining; Wang, Fuyu

    2017-09-01

    Reasonable operation can increase the income of the hospital and improve the patient’s satisfactory level. In this paper, by using multi object operation scheduling method with improved NSGA algorithm, it shortens the operation time, reduces the operation costand lowers the operation risk, the multi-objective optimization model is established for flexible operation scheduling, through the MATLAB simulation method, the Pareto solution is obtained, the standardization of data processing. The optimal scheduling scheme is selected by using entropy weight -Topsis combination method. The results show that the algorithm is feasible to solve the multi-objective operation scheduling problem, and provide a reference for hospital operation scheduling.

  16. Proton Therapy Facility Planning From a Clinical and Operational Model.

    PubMed

    Das, Indra J; Moskvin, Vadim P; Zhao, Qingya; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Johnstone, Peter A

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a model for planning a new proton therapy center based on clinical data, referral pattern, beam utilization and technical considerations. The patient-specific data for the depth of targets from skin in each beam angle were reviewed at our center providing megavoltage photon external beam and proton beam therapy respectively. Further, data on insurance providers, disease sites, treatment depths, snout size and the beam angle utilization from the patients treated at our proton facility were collected and analyzed for their utilization and their impact on the facility cost. The most common disease sites treated at our center are head and neck, brain, sarcoma and pediatric malignancies. From this analysis, it is shown that the tumor depth from skin surface has a bimodal distribution (peak at 12 and 26 cm) that has significant impact on the maximum proton energy, requiring the energy in the range of 130-230 MeV. The choice of beam angles also showed a distinct pattern: mainly at 90° and 270°; this indicates that the number of gantries may be minimized. Snout usage data showed that 70% of the patients are treated with 10 cm snouts. The cost of proton beam therapy depends largely on the type of machine, maximum beam energy and the choice of gantry versus fixed beam line. Our study indicates that for a 4-room center, only two gantry rooms could be needed at the present pattern of the patient cohorts, thus significantly reducing the initial capital cost. In the USA, 95% and 100% of patients can be treated with 200 and 230 MeV proton beam respectively. Use of multi-leaf collimators and pencil beam scanning may further reduce the operational cost of the facility.

  17. An Effect of the Co-Operative Network Model for Students' Quality in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Operating Limits for Wet Scrubbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Operating Limits for Wet Scrubbers 3 Table 3 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...—Model Rule—Operating Limits for Wet Scrubbers For these operating parameters You must establish these...

  19. MOPADS (Models of Operator Performance in Air Defense Systems)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    selects the next Operator Task which an FUNCTION operator will perform. The selection is based upon operator goal seeking character - .- istics. 1-8 󈨑...BACKGROUND CHARACTERS 21 MESSAGE BACKLOG 22 SIGNALS PER MINUTE 23 HOURS WORKED PER WEEK 24 DAYS WITHOUT SLEEP 25 DAYS OF NIGHT DUTY 26 SIMULTANEOUS...up. 111-20 N1 -LJI L6 La I =1 0 () , co a E- a A E" a- ,2 = I- ( Drx 0 00 0 a. coCIc uI.1 L) 4.3a x -P~ 00 IH 000 0 ;. .a = ’) (U (CJ a d a) 01 k -- 4 a

  20. Collective operations in a file system based execution model

    DOEpatents

    Shinde, Pravin; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2013-02-12

    A mechanism is provided for group communications using a MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system. A master application creates a multi-pipe synthetic file in the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system, the master application indicating a multi-pipe operation to be performed. The master application then writes a header-control block of the multi-pipe synthetic file specifying at least one of a multi-pipe synthetic file system name, a message type, a message size, a specific destination, or a specification of the multi-pipe operation. Any other application participating in the group communications then opens the same multi-pipe synthetic file. A MULTI-PIPE file system module then implements the multi-pipe operation as identified by the master application. The master application and the other applications then either read or write operation messages to the multi-pipe synthetic file and the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system module performs appropriate actions.

  1. Collective operations in a file system based execution model

    SciTech Connect

    Shinde, Pravin; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2013-02-19

    A mechanism is provided for group communications using a MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system. A master application creates a multi-pipe synthetic file in the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system, the master application indicating a multi-pipe operation to be performed. The master application then writes a header-control block of the multi-pipe synthetic file specifying at least one of a multi-pipe synthetic file system name, a message type, a message size, a specific destination, or a specification of the multi-pipe operation. Any other application participating in the group communications then opens the same multi-pipe synthetic file. A MULTI-PIPE file system module then implements the multi-pipe operation as identified by the master application. The master application and the other applications then either read or write operation messages to the multi-pipe synthetic file and the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system module performs appropriate actions.

  2. The UNIX Operating System: A Model for Software Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernighan, Brian W.; Morgan, Samuel P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes UNIX time-sharing operating system, including the program environment, software development tools, flexibility and ease of change, portability and other advantages, and five applications and three nonapplications of the system. (JN)

  3. Methodology to evaluate the performance of simulation models for alternative compiler and operating system configurations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Simulation modelers increasingly require greater flexibility for model implementation on diverse operating systems, and they demand high computational speed for efficient iterative simulations. Additionally, model users may differ in preference for proprietary versus open-source software environment...

  4. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The UNIX Operating System: A Model for Software Design.

    PubMed

    Kernighan, B W; Morgan, S P

    1982-02-12

    The UNIX operating system, a general-purpose time-sharng system, has, without marketing, advertising, or technical support, become widely used by universities and scientific research establishments. It is the de facto standard of comparison for such systems and has spawned a small industry of suppliers of UNIX variants and look-alikes. This article attempts to uncover the reasons for its success and to draw some lessons for the future of operating systems.

  6. A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-11

    This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

  7. Abstract Model of the SATS Concept of Operations: Initial Results and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    An abstract mathematical model of the concept of operations for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is presented. The Concept of Operations consist of several procedures that describe nominal operations for SATS, Several safety properties of the system are proven using formal techniques. The final goal of the verification effort is to show that under nominal operations, aircraft are safely separated. The abstract model was written and formally verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  8. Does model structure limit the use of satellite data as hydrologic forcing for distributed operational models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, A. L.; Franz, K.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    We are investigating the implications for use of satellite data in operational streamflow prediction. Specifically, the consequence of potential hydrologic model structure deficiencies on the ability to achieve improved forecast accuracy through the use of satellite data. We want to understand why advanced data do not lead to improved streamflow simulations by exploring how various fluxes and states differ among models of increasing complexity. In a series of prior studies, we investigated the use of a daily satellite-derived potential evapotranspiration (PET) estimate as input to the National Weather Service (NWS) streamflow forecast models for watersheds in the Upper Mississippi and Red river basins. Although the spatial PET product appears to represent the day-to-day variability in PET more realistically than current climatological methods used by the NWS, the impact of the satellite data on streamflow simulations results in slightly poorer model efficiency overall. Analysis of the model states indicates the model progresses differently between simulations with baseline PET and the satellite-derived PET input, though variation in streamflow simulations overall is negligible. For instance, the upper zone states, responsible for the high flows of a hydrograph, show a profound difference, while simulation of the peak flows tend to show little variation in the timing and magnitude. Using the spatial PET input, the lower zone states show improvement with simulating the recession limb and baseflow portion of the hydrograph. We anticipate that through a better understanding of the relationship between model structure, model states, and simulated streamflow we will be able to diagnose why simulations of discharge from the forecast model have failed to improve when provided seemingly more representative input data. Identifying model limitations are critical to demonstrating the full benefit of a satellite data for operational use.

  9. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  10. The Use of Behavior Models for Predicting Complex Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and simulation (M&S) plays an important role when complex human-system notions are being proposed, developed and tested within the system design process. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as an agency uses many different types of M&S approaches for predicting human-system interactions, especially when it is early in the development phase of a conceptual design. NASA Ames Research Center possesses a number of M&S capabilities ranging from airflow, flight path models, aircraft models, scheduling models, human performance models (HPMs), and bioinformatics models among a host of other kinds of M&S capabilities that are used for predicting whether the proposed designs will benefit the specific mission criteria. The Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is a NASA ARC HPM software tool that integrates many models of human behavior with environment models, equipment models, and procedural / task models. The challenge to model comprehensibility is heightened as the number of models that are integrated and the requisite fidelity of the procedural sets are increased. Model transparency is needed for some of the more complex HPMs to maintain comprehensibility of the integrated model performance. This will be exemplified in a recent MIDAS v5 application model and plans for future model refinements will be presented.

  11. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  12. High Altitude Venus Operations Concept Trajectory Design, Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Van Norman, John W.; Arney, Dale C.; Dec, John A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.

    2015-01-01

    A trajectory design and analysis that describes aerocapture, entry, descent, and inflation of manned and unmanned High Altitude Venus Operation Concept (HAVOC) lighter-than-air missions is presented. Mission motivation, concept of operations, and notional entry vehicle designs are presented. The initial trajectory design space is analyzed and discussed before investigating specific trajectories that are deemed representative of a feasible Venus mission. Under the project assumptions, while the high-mass crewed mission will require further research into aerodynamic decelerator technology, it was determined that the unmanned robotic mission is feasible using current technology.

  13. Enhancing the Analytic Utility of the Synthetic Theater Operations Research Model (STORM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Operations Research Model ( STORM ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...SYNTHETIC THEATER OPERATIONS RESEARCH MODEL ( STORM ) Mary L. McDonald Stephen C. Upton Christian N. Seymour Thomas W. Lucas Susan M. Sanchez...Force and Marine Corps, use the Synthetic Theater Operations Research Model ( STORM ) to assess risk in an integrated, campaign setting. Ultimately

  14. Interagency Cooperation: A Regional Model for Overseas Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    for Kurd refugees during Operation Provide Comfort. 2. Major Miguel I. Becerril , USA, Manager, Theater Deployment Program, "FACT SI-I~.P.T...Statement before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Washington, 2 March 1994, 14. 5. Becerril . 6. Colonel Norman R. Flemens, USA, Force, Deputy Director

  15. Modeling of operating history of the research nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naymushin, A.; Chertkov, Yu; Shchurovskaya, M.; Anikin, M.; Lebedev, I.

    2016-06-01

    The results of simulation of the IRT-T reactor operation history from 2012 to 2014 are presented. Calculations are performed using continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCU-PTR. Comparison is made between calculation and experimental data for the critical reactor.

  16. Instructional Developer as Content Specialist: Three Case Studies Utilizing the Instructional Development-Operations Research Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Stephen M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a 3-phase model (content research, specification, delivery) for instructional development-operations research and describes its application in developing courses in zoology, geology, and paleontology. (MER)

  17. Instructional Developer as Content Specialist: Three Case Studies Utilizing the Instructional Development-Operations Research Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Stephen M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a 3-phase model (content research, specification, delivery) for instructional development-operations research and describes its application in developing courses in zoology, geology, and paleontology. (MER)

  18. Extending the standard model effective field theory with the complete set of dimension-7 operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Landon

    2014-12-01

    We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the standard model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the standard model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators, far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the standard model effective field theory and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the standard model Lagrangian.

  19. An Empirical Model for Formulating Operational Missions for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; Doucette, Donald S.

    A research project was conducted to develop and implement a model for community college missions. The new model would depart from existing models, which utilize a hierarchy of decreasing levels of generality beginning with institutional missions and culminating in objectives. In contrast, this research defined institutional mission in terms of…

  20. Quantitative, steady-state properties of Catania's computational model of the operant reserve.

    PubMed

    Berg, John P; McDowell, J J

    2011-05-01

    Catania (2005) found that a computational model of the operant reserve (Skinner, 1938) produced realistic behavior in initial, exploratory analyses. Although Catania's operant reserve computational model demonstrated potential to simulate varied behavioral phenomena, the model was not systematically tested. The current project replicated and extended the Catania model, clarified its capabilities through systematic testing, and determined the extent to which it produces behavior corresponding to matching theory. Significant departures from both classic and modern matching theory were found in behavior generated by the model across all conditions. The results suggest that a simple, dynamic operant model of the reflex reserve does not simulate realistic steady state behavior.

  1. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  2. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  3. Development of Dam Operation Scheme in a Hydrology Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Liang, X.

    2013-12-01

    A novel scheme for dam operation has been developed based on the artificial neural network approach to predict the reservoir management and hydrologic effects in response to climate variation and change. The scheme is built upon the historic management information of operating each dam, including climate, ecology properties and attributes (e.g., storage, surface area) for all relevant reservoirs. The scheme implicitly introduces the relationship between water demand and supply for downstream fluvial ecosystem, agriculture irrigation, and hydropower. This study will first present the fundamental formulation of the predictive scheme along with detailed analysis of the historical management data, and then evaluate the performance for its application in the Colorado River basin. Caveats and merits will also be discussed.

  4. A Computer Model for Determining Operational Centers of Gravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    rest of joint and service doctrine by equating centers of gravity with critical vulnerabilities. Despite this convergence, the preconception persists...Leyte, Malaya, Okinawa, Panama, Philippines, Sicily, and Somalia . Among these USAWC studies, the US invasion of Okinawa (1945) and Operation Just...leaving only “conclusions” that represent the end points of the various lines of reasoning. A graphical notation was used to record the task reduction

  5. Modelling of flushing waves for optimising cleaning operations.

    PubMed

    Dettmar, J; Staufer, P

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of a German field and numerical study the possibilities of an optimal cleaning by flushing of a combined sewer with storage capacity and bottom-end overflow were investigated. The objective of this combined investigation was to find out the boundaries for the flushing operation to prevent wave reflections and impoundages at the throttle by guaranteeing the necessary shear stress for remobilization.

  6. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  7. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency. PMID:26448740

  8. Modeling the operational risk in Iranian commercial banks: case study of a private bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Omid; Kimiagari, Alimohammad; Noorbakhsh, Eaman

    2012-08-01

    The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision from the Bank for International Settlement classifies banking risks into three main categories including credit risk, market risk, and operational risk. The focus of this study is on the operational risk measurement in Iranian banks. Therefore, issues arising when trying to implement operational risk models in Iran are discussed, and then, some solutions are recommended. Moreover, all steps of operational risk measurement based on Loss Distribution Approach with Iran's specific modifications are presented. We employed the approach of this study to model the operational risk of an Iranian private bank. The results are quite reasonable, comparing the scale of bank and other risk categories.

  9. Overall Features of EAST Operation Space by Using Simple Core-SOL-Divertor Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Hatayama, A.; Zhu, Sizheng; Takizuka, T.; Tomita, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A simple Core-SOL-Divertor (C-S-D) model has been developed to investigate qualitatively the overall features of the operational space for the integrated core and edge plasma. To construct the simple C-S-D model, a simple core plasma model of ITER physics guidelines and a two-point SOL-divertor model are used. The simple C-S-D model is applied to the study of the EAST operational space with lower hybrid current drive experiments under various kinds of trade-off for the basic plasma parameters. Effective methods for extending the operational space are also presented. From this study for the EAST operational space, it is evident that the C-S-D model is a useful tool for understanding qualitatively the overall features of the plasma operational space.

  10. The Main Issues to Address in Modeling Plasma Spray Torch Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazelas, C.; Trelles, J. P.; Vardelle, A.

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of plasma torch operation has advanced greatly in the last 15 years due to a better understanding of the underlying physics, development of commercial, open-source computational fluid dynamics softwares, and access to high performance and cloud computing. However, the operation mode of the electric arc in plasma torches is controlled by dynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, acoustic and chemical phenomena that take place at different scales and whose interactions are not completely understood yet. Even though no single model of plasma torch operation fully addresses these phenomena, most of these models are useful tools for parametric studies, if their use is reinforced by knowledge of torch operation and the model predictions are validated against experimental data. To increase the level of predictability of the current models, several further steps are needed. This study examines the issues remaining to be addressed in the modeling of plasma spray torch operation and the current critical aspects of these.

  11. The PRISM data/model co-operative: current modelling activities, future plans and data requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Here we review current activities and future model and data requirements associated with the palaeoclimate modelling arm of the PRISM data/model co-operative. The talk will begin with a description of modelling focussed on understanding the behaviour of climate phenomena that are responsible for generating significant regional decadal and sub-decadal climate variability (ENSO and NAO), and the challenges associated with linking such predictions to mid-Piacenzian palaeoenvironmental data. Secondly, we will examine current efforts to understand the role of changing sea-surface temperatures, in relation to other important boundary conditions, in driving global and regional climate/environmental shifts recognised in the proxy data. Thirdly, we will examine initial results from coupled climate and ice sheet modelling examining the response of the Greenland and East Antarctic Ice Sheets to orbital variations and how these predicted changes relate to current estimates of mid-Piacenzian mean sea level and sea level variability. Our future plans centre on (a) the development of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project, (b) understanding uncertainty in climate model predictions of mid-Piacenzian climates and (c) moving towards an Earth System Modelling framework for the PRISM interval. With the 4th iteration of the PRISM palaeoenvironmental data set under construction we briefly outline how the demands of modern climate and earth system models will partly shape PRISM4, as well as the new scientific opportunities that will stem from it (e.g. the advent of isotope enabled models, higher resolution boundary conditions, river routing schemes and palaeobathymetry).

  12. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment solar exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. R.; Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironmental solar exposure was developed to predict solar exposure to satellite surfaces which may shadow or reflect on one another. This document describes the technical features of the model as well as instructions for the installation and use of the program.

  13. Wilson, fixed point and Neuberger's lattice Dirac operator for the Schwinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farchioni, F.; Hip, I.; Lang, C. B.

    1998-12-01

    We perform a comparison between different lattice regularizations of the Dirac operator for massless fermions in the framework of the single and two flavor Schwinger model. We consider a) the Wilson-Dirac operator at the critical value of the hopping parameter; b) Neuberger's overlap operator; c) the fixed point operator. We test chiral properties of the spectrum, dispersion relations and rotational invariance of the mesonic bound state propagators.

  14. Linking Geomechanical Models with Observations of Microseismicity during CCS Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdon, J.; Kendall, J.; White, D.

    2012-12-01

    During CO2 injection for the purposes of carbon capture and storage (CCS), injection-induced fracturing of the overburden represents a key risk to storage integrity. Fractures in a caprock provide a pathway along which buoyant CO2 can rise and escape the storage zone. Therefore the ability to link field-scale geomechanical models with field geophysical observations is of paramount importance to guarantee secure CO2 storage. Accurate location of microseismic events identifies where brittle failure has occurred on fracture planes. This is a manifestation of the deformation induced by CO2 injection. As the pore pressure is increased during injection, effective stress is decreased, leading to inflation of the reservoir and deformation of surrounding rocks, which creates microseismicity. The deformation induced by injection can be simulated using finite-element mechanical models. Such a model can be used to predict when and where microseismicity is expected to occur. However, typical elements in a field scale mechanical models have decameter scales, while the rupture size for microseismic events are typically of the order of 1 square meter. This means that mapping modeled stress changes to predictions of microseismic activity can be challenging. Where larger scale faults have been identified, they can be included explicitly in the geomechanical model. Where movement is simulated along these discrete features, it can be assumed that microseismicity will occur. However, microseismic events typically occur on fracture networks that are too small to be simulated explicitly in a field-scale model. Therefore, the likelihood of microseismicity occurring must be estimated within a finite element that does not contain explicitly modeled discontinuities. This can be done in a number of ways, including the utilization of measures such as closeness on the stress state to predetermined failure criteria, either for planes with a defined orientation (the Mohr-Coulomb criteria) for

  15. Toward an operant model of power in organizations

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, Sonia M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that behavior analysis can help to explain social power. In this approach, an individual's potential for influence is thought to be partially a function of his or her access to stimuli that can be used as consequences. This access can occur either through direct authority or indirectly through social networks and exchanges. Social power is also thought to be a function of an individual's skill in delivering the stimuli in ways that will have the most impact on behavior. A number of predictions about power based on an operant approach are offered. PMID:22478398

  16. Modeling, Simulation, and Operations Analysis in Afghanistan and Iraq: Operational Vignettes, Lessons Learned, and a Survey of Selected Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Permission is given to duplicate this document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Permission is required from RAND to...their operations or, at the very least, will not undermine their long -term objectives. Between 2001 and 2013 it became increasingly common to find...rapidly decreased. Similarly, reachback teams of modelers and ORSAs—often one and the same—grew or were created to provide both long -distance support to

  17. Constraints from unrealistic vacua in the supersymmetric standard model with neutrino mass operators

    SciTech Connect

    Kanehata, Yoshimi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Konishi, Yasufumi; Shimomura, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    We analyze a scalar potential of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with neutrino mass operators along unbounded-from-below and color and/or charged breaking directions. We show necessary conditions to avoid the potential minima which can be deeper than the realistic vacuum. These conditions would constrain more strongly than conditions in the MSSM without taking into account neutrino mass operators and can improve the predictive power of supersymmetric models with neutrino mass operators.

  18. Upper Rio Grande water operations model: A tool for enhanced system management

    Treesearch

    Gail Stockton; D. Michael Roark

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model (URGWOM) under development through a multi-agency effort has demonstrated capability to represent the physical river/reservoir system, to track and account for Rio Grande flows and imported San Juan flows, and to forecast flows at various points in the system. Testing of the Rio Chama portion of the water operations model was...

  19. 76 FR 13069 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model ATP Airplanes; BAE Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... (Operations) Limited Model ATP Airplanes; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model HS 748 Airplanes AGENCY... specified products. The MCAI states: Early in the life of the ATP (circa 1989), a report was received that a... by issuing SB ATP- 27-11, describing a one-time inspection of the hinge pins, which was...

  20. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Stereotypy: Integrating Operant and Neurobiological Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanovaz, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    The predominant models on the emergence and maintenance of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities are based on operant and neurobiological interpretations of the behavior. Although the proponents of the two models maintain largely independent lines of research, operant and neurobiological interpretations of stereotypy are not…

  1. Modeling and validating the grabbing forces of hydraulic log grapples used in forest operations

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Lihai Wang

    2003-01-01

    The grabbing forces of log grapples were modeled and analyzed mathematically under operating conditions when grabbing logs from compact log piles and from bunch-like log piles. The grabbing forces are closely related to the structural parameters of the grapple, the weight of the grapple, and the weight of the log grabbed. An operational model grapple was designed and...

  2. Alternative Models of Service, Centralized Machine Operations. Phase II Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Management Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was conducted to determine if the centralization of playback machine operations for the national free library program would be feasible, economical, and desirable. An alternative model of playback machine services was constructed and compared with existing network operations considering both cost and service. The alternative model was…

  3. Investigating the Relationship between Customer Wait Time and Operational Availability through Simulation Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Investigating the Relationship between Customer Wait Time...Investigating the Relationship between Customer Wait Time and Operational Availability through Simulation Modeling 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S... RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CUSTOMER WAIT TIME AND OPERATIONAL AVAILABILITY THROUGH SIMULATION MODELING Dustin Thorn, Major, United States Marine Corps Matt

  4. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Stereotypy: Integrating Operant and Neurobiological Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanovaz, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    The predominant models on the emergence and maintenance of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities are based on operant and neurobiological interpretations of the behavior. Although the proponents of the two models maintain largely independent lines of research, operant and neurobiological interpretations of stereotypy are not…

  5. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  6. A Student Operated Animated Infrared Spectroscopy Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Karel

    1976-01-01

    Describes a teaching model that consists of a plywood box containing mechanisms that instruct the student about the technical aspects of an infrared spectrophotometer and how a spectrum is generated. (MLH)

  7. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.

    2017-07-01

    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  8. An Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    necessary and identify by block number) Life Cycle Cost Management Reliability Life Cycle Cost Model Maintainability Availability Supportability...availability and the relative cost for those levels. 2 The analytical models must go beyond individual parameters of reliability and maintainability (R&M...availability is a function of reliability and maintainability (R&M) (3:20). The two terms that comprise the function are defined here. Reliability : The

  9. Development of the Smart Weapons Operability Enhancement Interim Thermal Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-11

    able to model the thermal structure of the natural background. The physical processes controlling this thermal structure are three-dimensional in nature...so a full three dimensional treatment of the physics is necessary in order to properly describe the radiant field. The development of a three...goal, one must be able to model the thermal structure of the natural background. The physical processes controlling this ther- mal structure are three

  10. Running scenarios using the Waste Tank Safety and Operations Hanford Site model

    SciTech Connect

    Stahlman, E.J.

    1995-11-01

    Management of the Waste Tank Safety and Operations (WTS&O) at Hanford is a large and complex task encompassing 177 tanks and having a budget of over $500 million per year. To assist managers in this task, a model based on system dynamics was developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The model simulates the WTS&O at the Hanford Tank Farms by modeling the planning, control, and flow of work conducted by Managers, Engineers, and Crafts. The model is described in Policy Analysis of Hanford Tank Farm Operations with System Dynamics Approach (Kwak 1995b) and Management Simulator for Hanford Tank Farm Operations (Kwak 1995a). This document provides guidance for users of the model in developing, running, and analyzing results of management scenarios. The reader is assumed to have an understanding of the model and its operation. Important parameters and variables in the model are described, and two scenarios are formulated as examples.

  11. Progress in integrated modeling of JT-60SA plasma operation scenarios with model validation and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Garcia, Jeronimo; Honda, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hoshino, Kazuo; Ide, Shunsuke; Giruzzi, Gerardo; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Urano, Hajime; JT-60 Team; JET EFDA Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    Development of plasma operation scenarios in JT-60SA has been progressing by using integrated modeling codes. In order to obtain an optimum set of models for the prediction, models are validated by using JT-60U and JET experimental data, and verified by integrated codes such as TOPICS and CRONOS. Predictive simulations are performed to assess the performance of each scenario and to develop optimum scenarios. In the scenario development, various physics aspects are studied by using various types of integrated modeling. The integrated divertor code SONIC showed that Ar seeding can reduce the heat flux on divertor plates below the preferable level (10 MW/m2) with keeping low separatrix density in the full non-inductive current drive scenario, however, there are some amounts of Ar influx to core region. We integrate TOPICS with a core impurity transport code IMPACT and study the Ar accumulation in the core and its effect on the performance. Other studies with integrated modeling will be also presented.

  12. Operational advances in ring current modeling using RAM-SCB

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T; Jordanova, Vania K; Zaharia, Sorin G; Morley, Steven K

    2010-12-03

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determining the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. 'Virtual Satellite' capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code's outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.

  13. New Model of a Solar Wind Airplane for Geomatic Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achachi, A.; Benatia, D.

    2015-08-01

    The ability for an aircraft to fly during a much extended period of time has become a key issue and a target of research, both in the domain of civilian aviation and unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper describes a new design and evaluating of solar wind aircraft with the objective to assess the impact of a new system design on overall flight crew performance. The required endurance is in the range of some hours in the case of law enforcement, border surveillance, forest fire fighting or power line inspection. However, other applications at high altitudes, such as geomatic operations for delivering geographic information, weather research and forecast, environmental monitoring, would require remaining airborne during days, weeks or even months. The design of GNSS non precision approach procedure for different airports is based on geomatic data.

  14. Modeling unsteady reacting flow with operator splitting and ISAT

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Michael A.; Pope, Stephen B.; Najm, Habib N.

    2006-10-15

    We examine the utility of in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for the simulation of two-dimensional unsteady laminar reacting flow. The numerical scheme used to solve the low-Mach-number reacting flow equations is an operator-split projection scheme which incorporates ISAT by a Strang subsplitting procedure. The scheme is parallelized using a combination of OpenMP and MPI. ISAT is used for the pure reaction substeps, while convection and diffusion are treated explicitly by a stabilized Runge-Kutta method. We apply the scheme to a two-dimensional problem involving a laminar premixed methane-air flame interacting with a counterrotating vortex pair using detailed GRIMech3.0 chemical kinetics. Computational performance is examined; we observe an overall speed-up factor due to ISAT of approximately 2.5-3. (author)

  15. Modelling and optimisation of the operation of a radiant warmer.

    PubMed

    Fic, Anna M; Ingham, Derek B; Ginalski, Maciej K; Nowak, Andrzej J; Wrobel, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents numerical calculations of the temperature field obtained for the case of a neonate placed under a radiant warmer. The results of the simulations show a very non-uniform temperature distribution on the skin of the neonate, which may cause increased evaporation leading to severe dehydration. For this reason, we propose some modifications on the geometry and operation of the radiant warmer, in order to make the temperature distribution more uniform and prevent the high temperature gradients observed on the surface of the neonate. It is concluded that placing a high conductivity blanket over the neonate and introducing additional screens along the side of the mattress, thus recovering the radiation heat escaping through the side boundaries, helped providing more uniform temperature fields.

  16. Model Reduction of Kinetic Equations by Operator Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yuwei; Koellermeier, Julian; Li, Jun; Li, Ruo; Torrilhon, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    By a further study of the mechanism of the hyperbolic regularization of the moment system for the Boltzmann equation proposed in Cai et al. (Commun Math Sci 11(2):547-571, 2013), we point out that the key point is treating the time and space derivative in the same way. Based on this understanding, a uniform framework to derive globally hyperbolic moment systems from kinetic equations using an operator projection method is proposed. The framework is so concise and clear that it can be treated as an algorithm with four inputs to derive hyperbolic moment systems by routine calculations. Almost all existing globally hyperbolic moment systems can be included in the framework, as well as some new moment systems including globally hyperbolic regularized versions of Grad's ordered moment systems and a multi-dimensional extension of the quadrature-based moment system.

  17. Effective Operators Within the Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P

    2004-11-30

    We implement an effective operator formalism for general one- and two-body operators, obtaining results consistent with the no-core shell model (NCSM) wave functions. The Argonne V8' nucleon-nucleon potential was used in order to obtain realistic wave functions for {sup 4}He, {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C. In the NCSM formalism, we compute electromagnetic properties using the two-body cluster approximation for the effective operators and obtain results which are sensitive to the range of the bare operator. To illuminate the dependence on the range, we employ a Gaussian two-body operator of variable range, finding weak renormalization of long range operators (e.g., quadrupole) in a fixed model space. This is understood in terms of the two-body cluster approximation which accounts mainly for short-range correlations. Consequently, short range operators, such as the relative kinetic energy, will be well renormalized in the two-body cluster approximation.

  18. New techniques for the analysis of manual control systems. [mathematical models of human operator behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies are summarized on the application of advanced analytical and computational methods to the development of mathematical models of human controllers in multiaxis manual control systems. Specific accomplishments include the following: (1) The development of analytical and computer methods for the measurement of random parameters in linear models of human operators. (2) Discrete models of human operator behavior in a multiple display situation were developed. (3) Sensitivity techniques were developed which make possible the identification of unknown sampling intervals in linear systems. (4) The adaptive behavior of human operators following particular classes of vehicle failures was studied and a model structure proposed.

  19. Operational Model for Career Development and Vocational Preparation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, Anne L.; Barrett, Samuel L.

    Three California State Department units (vocational education, pupil personnel services, and career education) and two school districts (Fremont Unified and Huntington Beach Union High) established a consortium to develop demonstration sites for model career development and vocational preparation systems and staff development programs. The…

  20. Molecular Modeling of Estrogen Receptor Using Molecular Operating Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Urmi; Luck, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular modeling is pervasive in the pharmaceutical industry that employs many of our students from Biology, Chemistry and the interdisciplinary majors. To expose our students to this important aspect of their education we have incorporated a set of tutorials in our Biochemistry class. The present article describes one of our tutorials where…

  1. Molecular Modeling of Estrogen Receptor Using Molecular Operating Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Urmi; Luck, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular modeling is pervasive in the pharmaceutical industry that employs many of our students from Biology, Chemistry and the interdisciplinary majors. To expose our students to this important aspect of their education we have incorporated a set of tutorials in our Biochemistry class. The present article describes one of our tutorials where…

  2. Radio Interference Modeling and Prediction for Satellite Operation Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-25

    effects on bit error rate performance including detailed models for the space shuttle and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) links...Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR...Advisor, Space Based Advanced Sensing and Protection //SIGNED// JOHN BEAUCHEMIN Chief Engineer, Spacecraft Technology Division Space Vehicles

  3. Validation of Operational Multiscale Environment Model With Grid Adaptivity (OMEGA).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    Center for the period of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The physics of the model is tested using National Weather Service Medium Range Forecast data by...Climatology Center for the first three days following the release at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant. A user-defined source term was developed to simulate

  4. Application of First Principles Model to Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul; Bugga, Ratnakumar; DiStefano, Salvidor

    1996-01-01

    Previous models use a single phase reaction; cycled cell predicts cannot be met with a single phase; interphase conversion provides means for film aging; aging cells predictions display typical behaviors: pressure changes in NiH² cells; voltage fading upon cycling; second plateau on discharge of cycled cells; negative limited behavior for Ni-Cds.

  5. Vehicular pollution modeling using the operational street pollution model (OSPM) for Chembur, Mumbai (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awkash; Ketzel, Matthias; Patil, Rashmi S; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Hertel, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Megacities in India such as Mumbai and Delhi are among the most polluted places in the world. In the present study, the widely used operational street pollution model (OSPM) is applied for assessing pollutant loads in the street canyons of Chembur, a suburban area just outside Mumbai city. Chembur is both industrialized and highly congested with vehicles. There are six major street canyons in this area, for which modeling has been carried out for NOx and particulate matter (PM). The vehicle emission factors for Indian cities have been developed by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) for PM, not specifically for PM10 or PM2.5. The model has been applied for 4 days of winter season and for the whole year to see the difference of effect of meteorology. The urban background concentrations have been obtained from an air quality monitoring station. Results have been compared with measured concentrations from the routine monitoring performed in Mumbai. NOx emissions originate mainly from vehicles which are ground-level sources and are emitting close to where people live. Therefore, those emissions are highly relevant. The modeled NOx concentration compared satisfactorily with observed data. However, this was not the case for PM, most likely because the emission inventory did not contain emission terms due to resuspended particulate matter.

  6. Modeling of the Human - Operator in a Complex System Functioning Under Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzov, Peter; Hubenova, Zoia; Yordanov, Dimitar; Popov, Wiliam

    2013-12-01

    Problems, related to the explication of sophisticated control systems of objects, operating under extreme conditions, have been examined and the impact of the effectiveness of the operator's activity on the systems as a whole. The necessity of creation of complex simulation models, reflecting operator's activity, is discussed. Organizational and technical system of an unmanned aviation complex is described as a sophisticated ergatic system. Computer realization of main subsystems of algorithmic system of the man as a controlling system is implemented and specialized software for data processing and analysis is developed. An original computer model of a Man as a tracking system has been implemented. Model of unmanned complex for operators training and formation of a mental model in emergency situation, implemented in "matlab-simulink" environment, has been synthesized. As a unit of the control loop, the pilot (operator) is simplified viewed as an autocontrol system consisting of three main interconnected subsystems: sensitive organs (perception sensors); central nervous system; executive organs (muscles of the arms, legs, back). Theoretical-data model of prediction the level of operator's information load in ergatic systems is proposed. It allows the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of a real working operator. Simulation model of operator's activity in takeoff based on the Petri nets has been synthesized.

  7. Operational cooling tower model (CTTOOL V1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.; LocalDomainServers, L.; Garrett, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT’s) are widely used to remove waste heat from industrial processes, including suspected proliferators of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The temperature of the air being exhausted from the MDCT is proportional to the amount of thermal energy being removed from the process cooling water, although ambient weather conditions and cooling water flow rate must be known or estimated to calculate the rate of thermal energy dissipation (Q). It is theoretically possible to derive MDCT air exhaust temperatures from thermal images taken from a remote sensor. A numerical model of a MDCT is required to translate the air exhaust temperature to a Q. This report describes the MDCT model developed by the Problem Centered Integrated Analysis (PCIA) program that was designed to perform those computational tasks. The PCIA program is a collaborative effort between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Northrop-Grumman Corporation (NG) and the Aerospace Corporation (AERO).

  8. A Pragmatic LDI Operational Network Model for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Roshan; Mirza, Zahir Abbas

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes some common components of contemporary designs for the Long Distance & International (LDI) License in Pakistan and identifies critical aspects needed to implement a commercial LDI network in any developing country like Pakistan. An extensive study is carried out to evaluate various methods through which a carrier can receive and transmit voice traffic and identify their respective merits and demerits. Deficiencies which can harm the growth of telecom market in Pakistan and which require redress by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) are highlighted. A pragmatic model is proposed which takes into consideration, the constraints of Pakistan Telecommunication market. The paper concludes that the proposed model be incorporated with specific suggestions and economic justifications.

  9. Applications of algebraic image operators to model-based vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Bao-Ting; Morelli, Michael V.; Thomas, Hans J.

    1989-01-01

    A highly structured and compact algebraic representation of grey-level images is expanded. Addition and multiplication are defined for the set of all grey-level images, which can then be described as polynomials of two variables. Utilizing this new algebraic structure, an innovative, efficient edge-detection scheme is devised. A robust method for linear feature extraction is developed by combining the techniques of a Hough transform and a line follower with this new edge detection scheme. The major advantage of this feature extractor is its general, object-independent nature. Target attributes, such as line segment lengths, intersections, angles of intersection, and endpoints are derived by the feature extraction algorithm and employed during model matching. The feature extractor and model matcher are being incorporated into a distributed robot-control system.

  10. Have many estimates of efficacy and affinity been misled? Revisiting the operational model of agonism.

    PubMed

    Roche, David; van der Graaf, Piet H; Giraldo, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The operational model of agonism offers a general equation to account for steep or flat functional curves by including a slope parameter different from 1. However, because this equation is not a Hill equation, those steep or flat experimental curves that follow the Hill model are excluded from the operational framework. This conceptual omission could have significant consequences in the estimation of affinity and efficacy - the operational model tends to overestimate agonist-receptor dissociation constants and operational efficacy parameters to accommodate the shape of theoretical curves to steep or flat experimental Hill curves. To avoid misled parameter estimates for an ample space of pharmacological data a new version of the operational model has been developed.

  11. Modeling to Evaluate Coordination and Flexibility in Aluminum Recycling Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, Tracey; Olivetti, Elsa; Fjeldbo, Snorre; Kirchain, Randolph

    Reprocessing of aluminum production byproducts or dross for use in secondary production presents a particular challenge to the aluminum industry. While use of these non-traditional secondary materials is of interest due to their reduced energy and economic burden over virgin counterparts, these materials necessitate the use of particular furnaces, specialized handling and processing conditions. Therefore, to make use of them firms may pursue use of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product. After reprocessing downstream aluminum remelters could incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges result because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the need to establish long term recycling production plans in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses?

  12. Mathematical Modeling in Support of Military Operational Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Small plate Left Lung Liver Spleen Diaphragm Kidneys Bone Structure Heart Right Lung Guts K1 C1 M1 M2 M27 K27 K28 C27 C28 M28 Contact...finite element models for simulation analyses. Left Lung Liver Spleen Diaphragm Kidneys Bone Structure Heart Right Lung Guts Large...responses, such as rib maximum normal stress, normalized lung and heart energy density, liver normal stress, skin energy density and some other

  13. Modelling and Resource Allocation of Linearly Restricted Operating Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    services thus rendered are the products . Clearly, in a limited resource situation, how best to dispense the available resources to achieve some...Preliminary Although a linear programming model for an economic problem had been developed as early as 1939 by the Russian mathematician L. Kantorovich...individual user programs) to achieve productions (computations). The purpose is then to devise a way (A plan) to allocate those available memory spaces

  14. A Prototype Windflow Modeling System for Tactical Weather Support Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-07

    Geophysics (if applicable) Laboratory LYA 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) Hanscom AFB Massachusetts...from the U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL) at White Sands, New Mexico in 1984. The version of the model described in this report has...Physical Science Laboratory , (Mr. Byers) William Ohmstede - Las Cruces, NM Defense Mapping Agency Gordon Schacher - Naval Postgraduate HQ AFSC, Andrews AFB

  15. Modeling the Effects of Cyber Operations on Kinetic Battles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    arrows , and the flow in dt is represented near arrows . 33 In the two-sided Cyber Epidemic Combat model, although attrition rates associated with...expression for worm -scanning strategies. International Journal of Security and Networks, 4(3), 135–144. Cigital. 2013. President Obama Acknowledges Cyber...R. Kooij. 2009. Virus spread in networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 17(1), 1‒14. Vojnovic, M., A. J. Ganesh. 2008. On the race of worms

  16. A statistical model of operational impacts on the framework of the bridge crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsev, V. Yu; Tolokonnikov, A. S.; Gorynin, A. D.; Reutov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The technical regulations of the Customs Union demands implementation of the risk analysis of the bridge cranes operation at their design stage. The statistical model has been developed for performance of random calculations of risks, allowing us to model possible operational influences on the bridge crane metal structure in their various combination. The statistical model is practically actualized in the software product automated calculation of risks of failure occurrence of bridge cranes.

  17. Development of a Generalized Explanatory Base Operating Support (GEBOS) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    included by a module that specified the order in which unit capabilities would be decremented. The model would reduce mission capabilities in order of the...6 62559. -O 81949. -;i0 1062509. 4 �. z i, 167011. -:80 3554. 500 41727.50 36798. 7!171. 6 ’C P ADM?1 59. 37 0. :8 ADMIIISTPATION 600 " FPSO ...output of.the linear program module is stored in the data set "BOSLST." The linear programming problem as described in "BOSTMP" has the following

  18. Theoretical models and operational frameworks in public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided.

  19. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441

  20. Measurement and modeling of pulsed microchannel plate operation (invited).

    PubMed

    Rochau, G A; Wu, M; Kruschwitz, C; Joseph, N; Moy, K; Bailey, J; Krane, M; Thomas, R; Nielsen, D; Tibbitts, A

    2008-10-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are a standard detector for fast-framing x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of high-temperature plasmas. The MCP is coated with conductive striplines that carry short duration voltage pulses to control the timing and amplitude of the signal gain. This gain depends on the voltage to a large exponent so that small reflections or impedance losses along the striplines can have a significant impact on the position-dependent amplitude and pulse width of the gain. Understanding the pulsed gain response therefore requires careful measurements of the position- and time-dependent surface voltage coupled with detailed modeling of the resulting electron cascade. We present measurements and modeling of the time- and space-dependent gain response of MCP detectors designed for use at Sandia National Laboratories' Z facility. The pulsed gain response is understood through measurements using a high impedence probe to determine the voltage pulse propagating along the stripline surface. Coupling the surface voltage measurements with Monte Carlo calculations of the electron cascade in the MCP provides a prediction of the time- and position-dependent gain that agrees with measurements made on a subpicosecond UV laser source to within the 25% uncertainty in the simulations.

  1. Operational Loopwheel Suspension System for Mars Rover Demonstration Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.; Robinson, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    The loopwheel (or elastic loop) mobility concept, appears to be uniquely qualified to provide a high degree of mobility at low weight and stowage requirements for the next Mars mission now in the early planning stage. Traction elements compatible with sterilization and Mars surface environmental constraints were designed and are compatible with the rover mass, range and stowage requirements of JPL's point design Mars rover. In order to save cost, the loopwheel suspensions for the demonstration model were made of S-glass/epoxy instead of titanium, alloy specified for flight units. The load carrying fiberglass loop core is covered by a rubber tread on the outside. Reinforced rubber gear belts bonded along the inside edges provide positive engagement and transmission drive torques. A 12 Vdc drive motor with a 167:1 gear head is installed in the payload section of the hull. A chain drive transmits the motor power to the rear sprocket in the demonstration model, whereas future flight units would be directly driven by brushless hub motors within each sprocket and independent four-leg height control.

  2. A human operator simulator model of the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, F. A., III; Doane, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A generic operator model called HOS was used to simulate the behavior and performance of a pilot flying a transport airplane during instrument approach and landing operations in order to demonstrate the applicability of the model to problems associated with interfacing a crew with a flight system. The model which was installed and operated on NASA Langley's central computing system is described. Preliminary results of its application to an investigation of an innovative display system under development in Langley's terminal configured vehicle program are considered.

  3. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

  4. Water Quantity and Quality Joint-Operation Modeling in Three Gorges, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Xiao, Ge; Yang, Guolu; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Yuhua; Chen, Zhongxian; Bao, Zhengfeng; Xu, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates is a cost-effective way to improve the water environment of a river at present. The Three Gorges is facing potential threatening of water pollution problems because accidental water pollution events have occurred sometimes. Taking a river containing the Three Gorges Reservoir and the Gezhouba Reservoir, which is one of the most attentive river sections in the Yangtze River basin, as the study area, this paper considers objectives of flood control, pollution prevention, and a water quantity and quality joint-operation model of dams and floodgates was established. By analyzing the operation rules of various composed scenarios, a three-stage operation method (TSOM) of water quantity and quality was proposed based on the model. Several typical operation scenarios were selected to be simulated. The joint operation of dams and floodgates will play a positive role in improving the current water quality of the main stream in the Yangtze River.

  5. Development of the Brazilian Operational Ocean Forecast System with the OOFɛ Python engine for model ROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Cirano, Mauro; Pereira, Janini; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The first implementation of an automatic operational ocean modeling system of the brazilian oceanic region was created and is under continuous development. The operational system is a joint effort between a group of institutions in a research and development consortium called Oceanographic Modelling and Research Network (with Portuguese acronym REMO). Among the objectives of this network is the contribution for a better understanding of the ocean, including mesoscale, shelf and tidal circulation, and to provide oceanographic forecasts for the Brazilian shelf/slope as support of the activities of the oil industry. The model underwent through a 9.5 years spinup being forced at the boundaries with climatological data from global simulations of the model OCCAM1-4, and at surface with data from NCEP (first 9 years) and GFS 1°. The operational stage started at the 1st of July 2009 and is producing daily analysis and 5 days forecasts. Currently the model uses OCCAM1-12 boundary climatologies and GFS 0.5° surface forcings. The ocean model being used is the Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS, an advanced and robust rapidly evolving comunity-code model. ROMS has been applied in deterministic simulations in a wide range of space and time scales and oceanic systems types. In terms of technical operations, the task needed for the operational ocean model to run, like the creation of inputs files, extraction of atmospheric data, as well as the control of the successfulness of the simulations and all the operational flow, is done with OOFɛ (Operational Ocean Forecast Engine), a collection of Python modules prepared to perform all the work required for the operational modeling system, including data visualisation. Due to its design, OOFɛ requires almost no human intervention, and except for some initial refinements and performance issues, OOFɛ is now working in a totally automatic manner.

  6. Driver Model of a Powered Wheelchair Operation as a Tool of Theoretical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takuma; Inoue, Takenobu; Shino, Motoki; Kamata, Minoru

    This paper describes the construction of a driver model of a powered wheelchair operation for the understanding of the characteristics of the driver. The main targets of existing researches about driver models are the operation of the automobiles and motorcycles, not a low-speed vehicle such as powered wheelchairs. Therefore, we started by verifying the possibility of modeling the turning operation at a corner of a corridor. At first, we conducted an experiment on a daily powered wheelchair user by using his vehicle. High reproducibility of driving and the driving characteristics for the construction of a driver model were both confirmed from the result of the experiment. Next, experiments with driving simulators were conducted for the collection of quantitative driving data. The parameters of the proposed driver model were identified from experimental results. From the simulations with the proposed driver model and identified parameters, the characteristics of the proposed driver model were analyzed.

  7. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  8. Classification of effective operators for interactions between the Standard Model and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duch, M.; Grzadkowski, B.; Wudka, J.

    2015-05-01

    We construct a basis for effective operators responsible for interactions between the Standard Model and a dark sector composed of particles with spin ≤ 1. Redundant operators are eliminated using dim-4 equations of motion. We consider simple scenarios where the dark matter components are stabilized against decay by ℤ2 symmetries. We determine operators which are loop-generated within an underlying theory and those that are potentially tree-level generated.

  9. Operator-sum models of quantum decoherence in molecular quantum-dot cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Jackson S.; Blair, Enrique P.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata is a paradigm for classical computing which departs from the transistor paradigm and provides a system in which quantum phenomena may be studied. Here, the elementary computing device is a cell, a structure having multiple quantum dots and a few mobile charges. A specific operator-sum representation is developed for an exactly modeled double-dot, molecular cell within an environment of N similar neighboring molecules. While an operator-sum representation is not unique, a specific model can be determined by selecting a particular environmental basis. We select the environment's computational basis and calculate the specific and full set of 2N Kraus operators, which match exactly previous models of quantum decoherence in this system. Finally, the timescale for environmental interaction is characterized, enabling the reduction of the large set of Kraus operators to an approximate pair of Kraus operators, exact in the limit of large N.

  10. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  11. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  12. DNA for crime investigation: European co-operation model.

    PubMed

    Fiodorova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The article presents DNA related data exchange mechanism established within the framework of the European Union for the transnational crime investigation. First of all, it provides with the comprehensive overview of legal and practical state of play, pointing out that approved legal basis seeks to ensure legality and reliability in this area by establishing information exchange purposes and competent authorities involved, setting up technical requirements for the DNA analysis and DNA data bases, laying down provisions on accreditation of forensic service providers, foreseeing at least minimum common data protection requirements. Secondly, it reveals that despite being the most exhaustive international regulation on DNA related data exchange among law enforcement and judicial authorities it misses effective data protection mechanism, does not harmonize neither backgrounds for DNA collection in criminal process in general nor storage requirements and that results the variation in categories of subjects related to the crime investigation and included in data bases of different Member States. These gaps make the use of data collected and stored in another Member State vulnerable from the perspective of different rules on evidences' legality within the criminal process. The article also reveals the model's weakness in terms of assessment of its efficiency as statistics gathered for the time being show only number of coincidences (hits) of searched DNA profiles, but not the impact on crime investigation and its results.

  13. Analysis and calculation of macrosegregation in a casting ingot. MPS solidification model. Volume 3: Operating manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of solidification model 1 is described. Model 1 calculates the macrosegregation in a rectangular ingot of a binary alloy as a result of horizontal axisymmetric bidirectional solidification. The calculation is restricted to steady-state solidification; there is no variation in final local average composition in the direction of isotherm movement. The physics of the model are given.

  14. A new harvest operation cost model to evaluate forest harvest layout alternatives

    Treesearch

    Mark M. Clark; Russell D. Meller; Timothy P. McDonald; Chao Chi Ting

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a new model for harvest operation costs that can be used to evaluate stands for potential harvest. The model is based on felling, extraction, and access costs, and is unique in its consideration of the interaction between harvest area shapes and access roads. The scientists illustrate the model and evaluate the impact of stand size, volume, and road...

  15. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  16. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  17. TeleOperator/telePresence System (TOPS) Concept Verification Model (CVM) development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimamoto, Mike S.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an anthropomorphic, undersea manipulator system, the TeleOperator/telePresence System (TOPS) Concept Verification Model (CVM) is described. The TOPS system's design philosophy, which results from NRaD's experience in undersea vehicles and manipulator systems development and operations, is presented. The TOPS design approach, task teams, manipulator, and vision system development and results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented.

  18. Defining the Community-Based Education Alliance: Outcomes, Values, Purposes, and Operating Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fina, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the stakeholder values, desired student outcomes, organizational purposes, and operating model of the Community-based Education Alliance (CBEA), a transition program operated by a partnership between the Center for Disabilities Studies of the University of Delaware, and two school districts in New Castle County, Delaware. The…

  19. Description of the Steady-State Operation of a Biochemical Reactor Using a Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshinskii, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Consideration has been given to nonlinear boundary-value problems of steady-state operation of a biochemical reactor. Nontrivial solutions of these problems have been found using equations of a diffusion model with homogeneous boundary conditions. A study has been made of the operating regimes of the reactor under different conditions of biomass transfer in it.

  20. Defining the Community-Based Education Alliance: Outcomes, Values, Purposes, and Operating Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fina, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the stakeholder values, desired student outcomes, organizational purposes, and operating model of the Community-based Education Alliance (CBEA), a transition program operated by a partnership between the Center for Disabilities Studies of the University of Delaware, and two school districts in New Castle County, Delaware. The…

  1. A molecular collision operator of adjustable direction for the discrete velocity direction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Jianzhong

    2017-10-01

    The discrete velocity direction model is an approximate method to the Boltzmann equation. A developed molecular collision operator for the model is presented in this paper. Under the new operator, the discrete directions of molecules are adjustable, namely, both the number and the angles of discrete directions can be changed as needed in the discrete velocity direction model. At the same time, the governing equations will keep unchanged when the number of discrete directions changes. In fact, with the continuous molecular speed, the discrete velocity direction model has been able to employ any discrete velocities in numerical calculations. The discrete velocity direction model under the new collision operator was applied into some benchmark flows in micro scales in this paper, and the influence of the number of discrete velocities on the computational accuracy was analyzed. The numerical results show that the accuracy of the discrete velocity direction model can be improved significantly by employing more discrete directions, especially for the gas flows at large Knudsen number. With appropriate discrete velocities, this model has been able to give accurate numerical results in all flow regimes. In addition, it is proved that the discrete velocity direction model under the new collision operator satisfies a global H theorem unconditionally, which means that the new operator further improves the intrinsic stability of the discrete velocity direction model.

  2. Flexible Power System Operations Simulation Model for Assessing Wind Integration: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper a model was developed to mimic operator behavior using a combination of security-constrained unit commitment, security-constrained economic dispatch, and automatic generation control programs.

  3. Development and optimization of a nonlinear multiparameter model for the human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic method is proposed for the development, optimization, and comparison of controller-models for the human operator. This is suitable for any designed model, even multiparameter systems. A random search technique is chosen for the parameter optimization. As valuation criteria for the quality of the model development the criterion function - the comparison between the input and output functions of the human operator and those of the model - and the most important characteristic values and functions of the statistical signal theory are used. A nonlinear multiparameter model for the human operator is being designed which considers the complex input information rate per time in a single display. The nonlinear features of the model are effected by a modified threshold element and a decision algorithm. Different display-configurations as well as various transfer functions of the controlled element are explained by different optimized parameter-combinations.

  4. Participatory operations model for cost-efficient monitoring and modeling of river basins--A systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Malve, Olli; Hjerppe, Turo; Tattari, Sirkka; Väisänen, Sari; Huttunen, Inese; Kotamäki, Niina; Kallio, Kari; Taskinen, Antti; Kauppila, Pirkko

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide economic downturn and the climate change in the beginning of 21st century have stressed the need for cost efficient and systematic operations model for the monitoring and management of surface waters. However, these processes are still all too fragmented and incapable to respond these challenges. For example in Finland, the estimation of the costs and benefits of planned management measures is insufficient. On this account, we present a new operations model to streamline these processes and to ensure the lucid decision making and the coherent implementation which facilitate the participation of public and all the involved stakeholders. The model was demonstrated in the real world management of a lake. The benefits, pitfalls and development needs were identified. After the demonstration, the operations model was put into operation and has been actively used in several other management projects throughout Finland.

  5. MLS and DME/P Multipath Simulation Model User’s Manual. Volume 1. Operating Instructions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    parameters and creation of the input file; instructions for operating each program of the model; discussion of the various options available for a given...simulation; and descriptions of the output tables, plots, and files produced by each program. A sample input file and a set of the resulting output plots...the input file; instructions for operating each program of the model; discussion of the various options available for a given simulation; and

  6. OPSMODEL, an or-orbit operations simulation modeling tool for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William T.; Wright, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The 'OPSMODEL' operations-analysis and planning tool simulates on-orbit crew operations for the NASA Space Station, furnishing a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of crew activities in various alternative Station configurations while supporting engineering and cost analyses. OPSMODEL is entirely data-driven; the top-down modeling structure of the software allows the user to control both the content and the complexity level of model definition during data base population. Illustrative simulation samples are given.

  7. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation Approach for Design and Analysis of MER Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seah, Chin; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A space mission operations system is a complex network of human organizations, information and deep-space network systems and spacecraft hardware. As in other organizations, one of the problems in mission operations is managing the relationship of the mission information systems related to how people actually work (practices). Brahms, a multi-agent modeling and simulation tool, was used to model and simulate NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission work practice. The objective was to investigate the value of work practice modeling for mission operations design. From spring 2002 until winter 2003, a Brahms modeler participated in mission systems design sessions and operations testing for the MER mission held at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He observed how designers interacted with the Brahms tool. This paper discussed mission system designers' reactions to the simulation output during model validation and the presentation of generated work procedures. This project spurred JPL's interest in the Brahms model, but it was never included as part of the formal mission design process. We discuss why this occurred. Subsequently, we used the MER model to develop a future mission operations concept. Team members were reluctant to use the MER model, even though it appeared to be highly relevant to their effort. We describe some of the tool issues we encountered.

  8. A Rapidly Deployable Operational Mesoscale Modeling System for Emergency-Response Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Bowers, James F.; Swerdlin, Scott P.; Beitler, Brian A.

    2004-05-01

    An operational mesoscale model based forecasting system has been developed for use by U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command meteorologists in their support of test-range operations. This paper reports on the adaptation of this system to permit its rapid deployment in support of a variety of civilian and military emergency-response applications. The innovation that allows for this rapid deployment is an intuitive graphical user interface that permits a non-expert to quickly configure the model for a new application, and launch the forecast system to produce operational products without further intervention. The graphical interface is Web based and can be run on a wireless laptop or a personal digital assistant in the field. The instructions for configuring the modeling system are transmitted to a compute engine [generally a personal computer (PC) cluster], and forecast products are placed on a Web site that can be accessed by emergency responders or other forecast users. This system has been used operationally for predicting the potential transport and dispersion of hazardous material during the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and during military operations in Afghanistan. It has also been used operationally to satisfy the rapidly evolving needs of wildfire managers. Continued use of the modeling system by nonexperts will allow developers to refine the graphical interface and make the model and the interface more fault tolerant with respect to the decisions of model users.(The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  9. Operator training in recombinant protein production using a structured simulator model.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Inga; Brüning, Simone; Gustavsson, Robert; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Hass, Volker C

    2014-05-10

    Model-based operator training simulators (OTS) could be powerful tools for virtual training of operational procedures and skills of production personnel in recombinant protein processes. The applied model should describe critical events in the bioprocess so accurately that the operators' ability to observe and alertly act upon these events is trained with a high degree of efficiency. In this work is shown how this is accomplished in a structured multi-compartment model for the production of a recombinant protein in an Escherichia coli fed-batch process where in particular the induction procedure, the stress effects and overflow metabolism were highlighted. The structured model was applied on the OTS platform that virtually simulated the operational bioreactor procedures in real or accelerated time. Evaluation of training using the model-based OTS showed that trained groups of operators exhibited improved capability compared with the untrained groups when subsequently performing real laboratory scale cultivations. The results suggest that this model-based OTS may provide a valuable resource for enhancing operator skills in large scale recombinant protein manufacturing.

  10. A Proposed Model for Teaching and Learning Common Fractions, and the Operations of Multiplication and Division of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    A model for fractions derived by an operation of "scattering into subunits" is hypothesized. Five stages in the model are discussed. Assumptions underlying the development of the model, features of the model, and disadvantages of the model are listed. (DT)

  11. Nonbacktracking operator for the Ising model and its applications in systems with multiple states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan

    2015-04-01

    The nonbacktracking operator for a graph is the adjacency matrix defined on directed edges of the graph. The operator was recently shown to perform optimally in spectral clustering in sparse synthetic graphs and have a deep connection to belief propagation algorithm. In this paper we consider nonbacktracking operator for Ising model on a general graph with a general coupling distribution and study the spectrum of this operator analytically. We show that spectral algorithms based on this operator is equivalent to belief propagation algorithm linearized at the paramagnetic fixed point and recovers replica-symmetry results on phase boundaries obtained by replica methods. This operator can be applied directly to systems with multiple states like Hopfield model. We show that spectrum of the operator can be used to determine number of patterns that stored successfully in the network, and the associated eigenvectors can be used to retrieve all the patterns simultaneously. We also give an example on how to control the Hopfield model, i.e., making network more sparse while keeping patterns stable, using the nonbacktracking operator and matrix perturbation theory.

  12. Modelling and operation strategies of DLR's large scale thermocline test facility (TESIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenthal, Christian; Breidenbach, Nils; Bauer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    In this work an overview of the TESIS:store thermocline test facility and its current construction status will be given. Based on this, the TESIS:store facility using sensible solid filler material is modelled with a fully transient model, implemented in MATLAB®. Results in terms of the impact of filler site and operation strategies will be presented. While low porosity and small particle diameters for the filler material are beneficial, operation strategy is one key element with potential for optimization. It is shown that plant operators have to ponder between utilization and exergetic efficiency. Different durations of the charging and discharging period enable further potential for optimizations.

  13. The effects of multiplicative motor noise on the optimal human operator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Levison, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of a multiplicative motor noise model on the optimal-control human operator model were analyzed. A study of the interaction between multiplicative motor noise variance, plant dynamics, and predicted operator response behavior shows that, in general, an increase in motor noise variance produces a decrease in operator gain and a decrease in high-frequency remnant. An increase in multiplicative motor noise variance is also reflected by an increase in the effective motor time constant; in the absence of a cost penalty on commanded control, the motor time constant equals the motor noise variance.

  14. Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) multicomputer operating system functional specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, R.; Stoughton, J.; Som, S.; Obando, R.; Malekpour, M.; Mandala, B.

    1990-01-01

    A functional description of the ATAMM Multicomputer Operating System is presented. ATAMM (Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model) is a marked graph model which describes the implementation of large grained, decomposed algorithms on data flow architectures. AMOS, the ATAMM Multicomputer Operating System, is an operating system which implements the ATAMM rules. A first generation version of AMOS which was developed for the Advanced Development Module (ADM) is described. A second generation version of AMOS being developed for the Generic VHSIC Spaceborne Computer (GVSC) is also presented.

  15. Trajectory-based morphological operators: a model for efficient image processing.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-Morenilla, Antonio; Pujol, Francisco A; Molina-Carmona, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, José L; Pujol, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has been an area of intensive research over the last few years. Although many remarkable advances have been achieved throughout these years, there is still a great interest in accelerating morphological operations in order for them to be implemented in real-time systems. In this work, we present a new model for computing mathematical morphology operations, the so-called morphological trajectory model (MTM), in which a morphological filter will be divided into a sequence of basic operations. Then, a trajectory-based morphological operation (such as dilation, and erosion) is defined as the set of points resulting from the ordered application of the instant basic operations. The MTM approach allows working with different structuring elements, such as disks, and from the experiments, it can be extracted that our method is independent of the structuring element size and can be easily applied to industrial systems and high-resolution images.

  16. Trajectory-Based Morphological Operators: A Model for Efficient Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-Morenilla, Antonio; Pujol, Francisco A.; Molina-Carmona, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, José L.; Pujol, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has been an area of intensive research over the last few years. Although many remarkable advances have been achieved throughout these years, there is still a great interest in accelerating morphological operations in order for them to be implemented in real-time systems. In this work, we present a new model for computing mathematical morphology operations, the so-called morphological trajectory model (MTM), in which a morphological filter will be divided into a sequence of basic operations. Then, a trajectory-based morphological operation (such as dilation, and erosion) is defined as the set of points resulting from the ordered application of the instant basic operations. The MTM approach allows working with different structuring elements, such as disks, and from the experiments, it can be extracted that our method is independent of the structuring element size and can be easily applied to industrial systems and high-resolution images. PMID:24892091

  17. Score-based SAR ATR performance model with operating condition dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Vladimir I.; Ross, Timothy D.; Lavely, Eugene M.; Blasch, Erik P.

    2007-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) performance models are needed for online adaptation and for effective use (e.g., in fusion) of ATR products. We present empirical models focused on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ATR algorithms. These models are not ATR algorithms in themselves; rather they are models of ATRs developed with the intention of capturing the behavior, at least on a statistical basis, of a reference ATR algorithm. The model covariates (or inputs) might include the ATR operating conditions (sensor, target, and environment), ATR training parameters, etc. The model might produce performance metrics (Pid, Pd, Pfa, etc.) or individual ATR decisions. "Scores" are an intermediate product of many ATRs, which then go through a relatively simple decision rule. Our model has a parallel structure, first modeling the score production and then mapping scores to model outputs. From a regression perspective, it is impossible to predict individual ATR outcomes for all possible values of this covariate space since samples are only available for small subsets of the total space. Given this limitation, and absent a purely theoretical model meaningfully matched to the true complexity of this problem, our approach is to examine the empirical behavior of scores across various operating conditions, and identify trends and characteristics of the scores that are apparently predictable. Many of the scores available for training are in so-called standard operating conditions (SOC), and a far smaller number are in so-called extended operating conditions (EOCs). The influence of the EOCs on scores and ATR decisions are examined in detail.

  18. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  19. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  20. Using model based systems engineering for the development of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's operational plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Willman, Beth; Petravick, Don; Johnson, Margaret; Reil, Kevin; Marshall, Stuart; Thomas, Sandrine; Lotz, Paul; Schumacher, German; Lim, Kian-Tat; Jenness, Tim; Jacoby, Suzanne; Emmons, Ben; Axelrod, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We† provide an overview of the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) language, tool, and methodology being used in our development of the Operational Plan for Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) operations. LSST's Systems Engineering (SE) team is using a model-based approach to operational plan development to: 1) capture the topdown stakeholders' needs and functional allocations defining the scope, required tasks, and personnel needed for operations, and 2) capture the bottom-up operations and maintenance activities required to conduct the LSST survey across its distributed operations sites for the full ten year survey duration. To accomplish these complimentary goals and ensure that they result in self-consistent results, we have developed a holistic approach using the Sparx Enterprise Architect modeling tool and Systems Modeling Language (SysML). This approach utilizes SysML Use Cases, Actors, associated relationships, and Activity Diagrams to document and refine all of the major operations and maintenance activities that will be required to successfully operate the observatory and meet stakeholder expectations. We have developed several customized extensions of the SysML language including the creation of a custom stereotyped Use Case element with unique tagged values, as well as unique association connectors and Actor stereotypes. We demonstrate this customized MBSE methodology enables us to define: 1) the rolls each human Actor must take on to successfully carry out the activities associated with the Use Cases; 2) the skills each Actor must possess; 3) the functional allocation of all required stakeholder activities and Use Cases to organizational entities tasked with carrying them out; and 4) the organization structure required to successfully execute the operational survey. Our approach allows for continual refinement utilizing the systems engineering spiral method to expose finer levels of detail as necessary. For example, the bottom-up, Use Case

  1. Fuzzy State Reservoir Operation Model for Irrigation with Gridded Rainfall Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, S.; Mujumdar, P. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents development and application of a fuzzy state dynamic programming model for irrigation of multiple crops. A fuzzy stochastic dynamic programming (FSDP) model is developed in which the reservoir storage and soil moisture of the crops are considered as fuzzy numbers, and the reservoir inflow is considered as a stochastic variable. The reservoir operation model is integrated with a daily water allocation model which results in daily variations of allocated water, soil moisture, and crop evapotranspiration (ET) deficits. A short term real time operation model is also developed for irrigation of multiple crops with the following distinguishing features with respect to the FSDP model: a) Apart from inclusion of fuzziness in reservoir storage and in soil moisture of crops, spatial variations in rainfall and soil moisture of crops are included in the model by considering gridded command area with a grid size of 0.5 degree latitude by 0.5 degree longitude, b) The water allocation model and soil moisture balance equations are integrated with the real time operation model with consideration of ponding water depth for Paddy crop, and c) The release policy is developed using forecasted daily rainfall data of each grid and is implemented for the current time period using actual 10-day inflow and actual daily rainfall of each grid. A case study of an existing Bhadra Reservoir in Karnataka, India is chosen for the model application. The results are found to be more acceptable for the case study than those of the classical stochastic dynamic model and the standard operating policy model, in terms of ten-day releases from the reservoir and evapotranspiration deficit. Consideration of irrigation decisions on a daily basis and the gridded command area are shown to result in a better performance of the reservoir operation models.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Storm surges/Wave using KMA Operational Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, S.; Park, S.; Seo, J.; Cho, J.

    2007-05-01

    The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has operated numerical ocean wave prediction system since 1992. Prior June 1999, the 1st generation wave model (DSA-5) was operated twice in daily over the Northeast Asia region. With introduction of NEC SX5 supercomputer in 1999, the 3rd generation wave model (WAM) was implemented with two wave prediction systems ?V the ReWAM (Regional WAve Model) and the GoWAM (Global WAve Model). At present, KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) has operated the wave model and storm surge model based on CRAY X1E system. The study shows development and verification of operational ocean model and future plan of KMA. The operational storm surge model (STOM : Storm surge/Tide Operational Model) area covers 115°-150°E, 20°-52°N based on POM (Princeton Ocean Model) (Blumberg and Mellor, 1987) with 1/12° horizontal resolutions including the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and the East Sea, marginal seas around Korea. From July, 2006 the STOM have been applied to formal forecasting model in KMA. Sea surface wind and pressure from the Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System (RDAPS) is used for forcing input of storm surge model. In this model, the level of storm surge calculated by the difference between tide level and sea level change caused by meteorological effects. The newly developed operational wave model is WAVEWATCH III which is a third generation wave model developed by Tolman (1989). The Regional WAVEWATCH III (RWW3) covers the northwestern Pacific Ocean from 115°E to 150°E and from 20°N to 50°N similar to STOM. The horizontal grid intervals are 1/12° in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions. The RWW3 is integrated from a state of rest and forced by the RDAPS wind stress produced by KMA. From 2007, the RWW3 will be applied to formal forecasting model in KMA. The Coastal WAVEWATCH III (CWW3) covers 6 coastal areas around Korea peninsular. The horizontal grid intervals are 1/120° for each area. Under the

  3. The operable modeling of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ethanol production from cellulose.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiacheng; Agblevor, Foster A

    2010-03-01

    An operable batch model of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production from cellulose has been developed. The model includes four ordinary differential equations that describe the changes of cellobiose, glucose, yeast, and ethanol concentrations with respect to time. These equations were used to simulate the experimental data of the four main components in the SSF process of ethanol production from microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101). The model parameters at 95% confidence intervals were determined by a MATLAB program based on the batch experimental data of the SSF. Both experimental data and model simulations showed that the cell growth was the rate-controlling step at the initial period in a series of reactions of cellulose to ethanol, and later, the conversion of cellulose to cellobiose controlled the process. The batch model was extended to the continuous and fed-batch operating models. For the continuous operation in the SSF, the ethanol productivities increased with increasing dilution rate, until a maximum value was attained, and rapidly decreased as the dilution rate approached the washout point. The model also predicted a relatively high ethanol mass for the fed-batch operation than the batch operation.

  4. Development of a subway operation incident delay model using accelerated failure time approaches.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Xuedong; Meng, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to develop a subway operational incident delay model using the parametric accelerated time failure (AFT) approach. Six parametric AFT models including the log-logistic, lognormal and Weibull models, with fixed and random parameters are built based on the Hong Kong subway operation incident data from 2005 to 2012, respectively. In addition, the Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity is also considered to compare the model performance. The goodness-of-fit test results show that the log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is most suitable for estimating the subway incident delay. First, the results show that a longer subway operation incident delay is highly correlated with the following factors: power cable failure, signal cable failure, turnout communication disruption and crashes involving a casualty. Vehicle failure makes the least impact on the increment of subway operation incident delay. According to these results, several possible measures, such as the use of short-distance and wireless communication technology (e.g., Wifi and Zigbee) are suggested to shorten the delay caused by subway operation incidents. Finally, the temporal transferability test results show that the developed log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is stable over time.

  5. Model-Based Systems Engineering in the Execution of Search and Rescue Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    development of a design reference mission, this thesis illustrates how a search and rescue architecture can undergo multiple levels of model-based analysis...domain. Then, other modelers can build upon the work presented here in order to assess any architecture aspect from different operating procedures to... architecture but also any system today and in the future. 14. SUBJECT TERMS model-based systems engineering, search and rescue, modeling

  6. Upper and Middle Atmospheric Density Modeling Requirements for Spacecraft Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. H. (Editor); Smith, R. E. (Editor); Johnson, D. L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Presented and discussed are concerns with applications of neutral atmospheric density models to space vehicle engineering design and operational problems. The area of concern which the atmospheric model developers and the model users considered, involved middle atmosphere (50 to 90 km altitude) and thermospheric (above 90 km) models and their engineering application. Engineering emphasis involved areas such as orbital decay and lifetime prediction along with attitude and control studies for different types of space and reentry vehicles.

  7. Operator functional state estimation based on EEG-data-driven fuzzy model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Yang, Shaozeng; Wang, Rubin

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposed a max-min-entropy-based fuzzy partition method for fuzzy model based estimation of human operator functional state (OFS). The optimal number of fuzzy partitions for each I/O variable of fuzzy model is determined by using the entropy criterion. The fuzzy models were constructed by using Wang-Mendel method. The OFS estimation results showed the practical usefulness of the proposed fuzzy modeling approach.

  8. Modeling of human operator dynamics in simple manual control utilizing time series analysis. [tracking (position)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, G. C.; Osafo-Charles, F.; Oneill, W. D.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Time series analysis is applied to model human operator dynamics in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. The normalized residual criterion is used as a one-step analytical tool to encompass the processes of identification, estimation, and diagnostic checking. A parameter constraining technique is introduced to develop more reliable models of human operator dynamics. The human operator is adequately modeled by a second order dynamic system both in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. In comparing the data sampling rates, 100 msec between samples is adequate and is shown to provide better results than 200 msec sampling. The residual power spectrum and eigenvalue analysis show that the human operator is not a generator of periodic characteristics.

  9. Combined monitoring, decision and control model for the human operator in a command and control desk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muralidharan, R.; Baron, S.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on the ongoing efforts to mode the human operator in the context of the task during the enroute/return phases in the ground based control of multiple flights of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV). The approach employed here uses models that have their analytical bases in control theory and in statistical estimation and decision theory. In particular, it draws heavily on the modes and the concepts of the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator. The OCM is being extended into a combined monitoring, decision, and control model (DEMON) of the human operator by infusing decision theoretic notions that make it suitable for application to problems in which human control actions are infrequent and in which monitoring and decision-making are the operator's main activities. Some results obtained with a specialized version of DEMON for the RPV control problem are included.

  10. Modelling complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of particle-size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, Sam; Weltje, Gert Jan

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of particle-size made by operators in the field and laboratory represent a vast and relatively untapped data archive. The wide spatial distribution of particle-size estimates makes them ideal for constructing geological models and soil maps. This study uses a large data set from the Netherlands (n = 4837) containing both operator estimates of particle size and complete particle-size distributions measured by laser granulometry. This study introduces a logit-based constrained-cubic-spline (CCS) algorithm to interpolate complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates. The CCS model is compared to four other models: (i) a linear interpolation; (ii) a log-hyperbolic interpolation; (iii) an empirical logistic function; and (iv) an empirical arctan function. Operator estimates were found to be both inaccurate and imprecise; only 14% of samples were successfully classified using the Dutch classification scheme for fine sediment. Operator estimates of sediment particle-size encompass the same range of values as particle-size distributions measured by laser analysis. However, the distributions measured by laser analysis show that most of the sand percentage values lie between zero and one, so the majority of the variability in the data is lost because operator estimates are made to the nearest 1% at best, and more frequently to the nearest 5%. A method for constructing complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of sediment texture using a logit constrained cubit spline (CCS) interpolation algorithm is presented. This model and four other previously published methods are compared to establish the best approach to modelling particle-size distributions. The logit-CCS model is the most accurate method, although both logit-linear and log-linear interpolation models provide reasonable alternatives. Models based on empirical distribution functions are less accurate than interpolation algorithms for modelling particle-size distributions in

  11. Operators up to dimension seven in standard model effective field theory extended with sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the effective field theory of the standard model that is extended with sterile neutrinos, N . We examine the basis of complete and independent effective operators involving N up to mass dimension seven (dim-7). By employing equations of motion, integration by parts, and Fierz and group identities, we construct relations among operators that were considered independent in the previous literature, and we find 7 redundant operators at dim-6, as well as 16 redundant operators and two new operators at dim-7. The correct numbers of operators involving N are, without counting Hermitian conjugates, 16 (L ∩B )+1 (L ∩B )+2 (L ∩ B) at dim-6 and 47 (L ∩B )+5 (L ∩ B) at dim-7. Here L /B (L/B) stands for lepton/baryon number conservation (violation). We verify our counting by the Hilbert series approach for nf generations of the standard model fermions and sterile neutrinos. When operators involving different flavors of fermions are counted separately and their Hermitian conjugates are included, we find there are 29 (1614) and 80 (4206) operators involving sterile neutrinos at dim-6 and dim-7, respectively, for nf=1 (3).

  12. PIV study of the wake of a model wind turbine transitioning between operating set points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Dan; Cowen, Edwin (Todd)

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines are ideally operated at their most efficient tip speed ratio for a given wind speed. There is increasing interest, however, in operating turbines at other set points to increase the overall power production of a wind farm. Specifically, Goit and Meyers (2015) used LES to examine a wind farm optimized by unsteady operation of its turbines. In this study, the wake of a model wind turbine is measured in a water channel using PIV. We measure the wake response to a change in operational set point of the model turbine, e.g., from low to high tip speed ratio or vice versa, to examine how it might influence a downwind turbine. A modified torque transducer after Kang et al. (2010) is used to calibrate in situ voltage measurements of the model turbine's generator operating across a resistance to the torque on the generator. Changes in operational set point are made by changing the resistance or the flow speed, which change the rotation rate measured by an encoder. Single camera PIV on vertical planes reveals statistics of the wake at various distances downstream as the turbine transitions from one set point to another. From these measurements, we infer how the unsteady operation of a turbine may affect the performance of a downwind turbine as its incoming flow. National Science Foundation and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future.

  13. A Conceptual Operational Model for Command and Control of International Missions in the Canadian Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Description Capture Method Larry Cochran and Kendall Wheaton 4 IDEF3 is an appropriate method for use in the COP21 operational model because it captures the...with each element (Arrow entities and Box activities) is information that describes the entity or activity. The Modeling Process The COP21 Conceptual

  14. SMOKE TOOL FOR MODELS-3 VERSION 4.1 STRUCTURE AND OPERATION DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SMOKE Tool is a part of the Models-3 system, a flexible software system designed to simplify the development and use of air quality models and other environmental decision support tools. The SMOKE Tool is an input processor for SMOKE, (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissio...

  15. Giant Atomic and Molecular Models and Other Lecture Demonstration Devices Designed for Concrete Operational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1983-01-01

    Describes the design, construction, and use of oversize lecture-demonstration atomic/molecular models. These models appeal to both concrete and formal operational students. Also describes construction and use of an "spdf" sandwich board and an experiment using attribute blocks. (JN)

  16. Giant Atomic and Molecular Models and Other Lecture Demonstration Devices Designed for Concrete Operational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1983-01-01

    Describes the design, construction, and use of oversize lecture-demonstration atomic/molecular models. These models appeal to both concrete and formal operational students. Also describes construction and use of an "spdf" sandwich board and an experiment using attribute blocks. (JN)

  17. SMOKE TOOL FOR MODELS-3 VERSION 4.1 STRUCTURE AND OPERATION DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SMOKE Tool is a part of the Models-3 system, a flexible software system designed to simplify the development and use of air quality models and other environmental decision support tools. The SMOKE Tool is an input processor for SMOKE, (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissio...

  18. Modeling and control of a LN2-GN2 operated closed circuit cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Thibodeaux, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    An explicit but simple lumped parameter nonlinear multivariable model of a LN2-GN2-operated closed circuit cryogenic wind tunnel has been developed and its basic features have been experimentally validated. The model describes the mass-energy interaction involved in the cryogenic tunnel process and includes the real gas properties of nitrogen gas.

  19. Comparing Models for the Restoration of Essential Services during Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Model within 10th Mountain Division’s operational framework in Kandahar, Afghanistan (2010). The Afghanistan illustrative example shows the flexibility...31 Case Evaluation Framework and...monograph applies a case study framework that assesses both models in terms of five evaluation criteria

  20. Exploring the Effectiveness of Attention Manipulations on Operator Performance in C2 Task: Computational Modeling Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    cyberoperations. Cyberoperation agents with good user models can be deployed to simultaneously monitor the effects of cyberoperations on several users...goal of the project was to develop computational models that helped assess operator performance during cyberoperations. Cyberoperation agents with...representing unit connections in Hopfield [9] neural networks , for example, correspond to patterns stored by those networks . Thus, the function of storing

  1. An Operations Concept for Integrated Model-Centric Engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Cooney, Lauren A.; Delp, Christopher L.; Dutenhoffer, Chelsea A.; Gostelow, Roli D.; Ingham, Michel D.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Smith, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    As JPL's missions grow more complex, the need for improved systems engineering processes is becoming clear. Of significant promise in this regard is the move toward a more integrated and model-centric approach to mission conception, design, implementation and operations. The Integrated Model-Centric Engineering (IMCE) Initiative, now underway at JPL, seeks to lay the groundwork for these improvements. This paper will report progress on three fronts: articulating JPL's need for IMCE; characterizing the enterprise into which IMCE capabilities will be deployed; and constructing an operations concept for a flight project development in an integrated model-centric environment.

  2. A MILP-Based Distribution Optimal Power Flow Model for Microgrid Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Starke, Michael R; Zhang, Xiaohu; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distribution optimal power flow (D-OPF) model for the operation of microgrids. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost, purchasing cost and demand charge, but also several performance indices, including voltage deviation, network power loss and power factor. It co-optimizes the real and reactive power form distributed generators (DGs) and batteries considering their capacity and power factor limits. The D-OPF is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). Numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  3. An Operations Concept for Integrated Model-Centric Engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Cooney, Lauren A.; Delp, Christopher L.; Dutenhoffer, Chelsea A.; Gostelow, Roli D.; Ingham, Michel D.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Smith, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    As JPL's missions grow more complex, the need for improved systems engineering processes is becoming clear. Of significant promise in this regard is the move toward a more integrated and model-centric approach to mission conception, design, implementation and operations. The Integrated Model-Centric Engineering (IMCE) Initiative, now underway at JPL, seeks to lay the groundwork for these improvements. This paper will report progress on three fronts: articulating JPL's need for IMCE; characterizing the enterprise into which IMCE capabilities will be deployed; and constructing an operations concept for a flight project development in an integrated model-centric environment.

  4. A survey of Applied Psychological Services' models of the human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, A. I.; Wolf, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    A historical perspective is presented in terms of the major features and status of two families of computer simulation models in which the human operator plays the primary role. Both task oriented and message oriented models are included. Two other recent efforts are summarized which deal with visual information processing. They involve not whole model development but a family of subroutines customized to add the human aspects to existing models. A global diagram of the generalized model development/validation process is presented and related to 15 criteria for model evaluation.

  5. User modeling techniques for enhanced usability of OPSMODEL operations simulation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William T.

    1991-01-01

    The PC based OPSMODEL operations software for modeling and simulation of space station crew activities supports engineering and cost analyses and operations planning. Using top-down modeling, the level of detail required in the data base can be limited to being commensurate with the results required of any particular analysis. To perform a simulation, a resource environment consisting of locations, crew definition, equipment, and consumables is first defined. Activities to be simulated are then defined as operations and scheduled as desired. These operations are defined within a 1000 level priority structure. The simulation on OPSMODEL, then, consists of the following: user defined, user scheduled operations executing within an environment of user defined resource and priority constraints. Techniques for prioritizing operations to realistically model a representative daily scenario of on-orbit space station crew activities are discussed. The large number of priority levels allows priorities to be assigned commensurate with the detail necessary for a given simulation. Several techniques for realistic modeling of day-to-day work carryover are also addressed.

  6. Verbally reinforcing pain reports: an experimental test of the operant model of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, Christopher D; Nicholas, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    Effective treatments for chronic pain have been based on the operant model for chronic pain, which holds that pain behaviours can be operantly controlled by various reinforcers. Support for the operant model comes primarily from treatment/outcome studies which report significant reductions in pain behaviours in chronic pain patients, but fail to demonstrate the underlying operant thesis that various reinforcers play a significant role in the establishment and maintenance of pain behaviours. In an experimental test of this hypothesis, the pain reports of forty-six healthy undergraduate students were measured over two sets of fifteen trials, in which the pressure from a blood-pressure cuff applied to their arm either remained stable or decreased over time. Half of the subjects received positive verbal reinforcement from the experimenter after each trial if their report of pain intensity exceeded that of the previous trial. Overall, the mean pain reports of reinforced subjects were significantly greater than those of the non-reinforced subjects both when the intensity of the cuff was stable over trials, and when it decreased, as expected. These results provide support for the operant model of chronic pain. The clinical and theoretical implications of these results for the operant model of chronic pain are discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.

  7. Standardization of Operational Solar Wind Model Inputs, Products and Verification Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, C. D.; Dryer, M.; Smith, Z.; Deehr, C. S.; Sun, W.; Detman, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Version 2 (HAFv2) solar wind model was implemented at Air Force Weather Agency on 29 August 2006 after extensive development, validation and verification. AFWA is now using HAFv2 to provide operational real-time forecast products to DOD customers. Other solar wind models, (e.g., 3D-MHD) are being evaluated for implementation in the near future. As the number of operational solar wind models increases and as ensemble forecast systems are developed, the need will increase for standardized model inputs, products and metrics for assessing forecast skill. The international cooperation and collaboration fostered by the IHY (International Heliophysical Year) offers a unique opportunity to develop such standards. This talk will present the case for standardization to improve operational space weather forecasting, a methodology for determining these standards, and a list of recommended standards for consideration.

  8. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the APM (Analytic Process Model) Demonstration Package. Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    The Analytic Process Model for System Design and Measurement: A Computer-Aided Tool for Analyzing Training Systems and Other Human-Machine Systems. A...separate companion volume--The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model : Operations Handbook for the APM Demonstration Package is also available under

  9. Community Coordinated Modeling Center Support of Operations: Real-Time Simulations and V & V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Maddox, M.; Macneice, P.; Chulaki, A.; Berrios, D.

    2007-01-01

    In support of Operations Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) performing validation and verification of space weather models. To identify suitable metrics the CCMC focus on parameters most useful to operations that CCMC resident models can provide. The real time simulations carried out at CCMC are an essential tool to test model performance and stability by using input conditions that may occur in nature at any time. Since 2001, the magnetospheric MHD model BATSRUS has been run in real time using ACE real time data. CCMC staff developed an experimental real-time system that controls uploading of the real-time ACE data, monitors continuous model execution, initiates automatic recovery procedure in case of data gaps or hardware failures, synchronizes BATSRUS and FRC runs, and periodically runs IDL based visualization software.

  10. Modeling of purification operations in biotechnology: enabling process development, optimization, and scale-up.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, Ajoy; Menon, Manoj K

    2007-01-01

    Process modeling involves the use of a set of mathematical equations to represent key physical phenomena involved in the process. An appropriately validated model can be used to predict process behavior with limited experimental data, identify critical ranges for process variables, and guide further process development. Although process modeling is extensively used in the chemical process industries, it has not been widely used in purification unit operations in biotechnology. Recent FDA guidelines encourage the use of process modeling during process development, along with multivariate statistical methods, detailed risk assessment, and other quantifiers of uncertainty. This paper will review recent advances in the modeling of key downstream unit operations: chromatography, filtration, and centrifugation. The focus will be on the application of modeling for industrial applications. Relevant papers presented at a session on this topic at the recent American Chemical Society National Meeting in San Francisco will also be reviewed.

  11. Hypovigilance Detection for UCAV Operators Based on a Hidden Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Namyeon; Shin, Yongwook; Ryo, Chuh Yeop; Park, Jonghun

    2014-01-01

    With the advance of military technology, the number of unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) has rapidly increased. However, it has been reported that the accident rate of UCAVs is much higher than that of manned combat aerial vehicles. One of the main reasons for the high accident rate of UCAVs is the hypovigilance problem which refers to the decrease in vigilance levels of UCAV operators while maneuvering. In this paper, we propose hypovigilance detection models for UCAV operators based on EEG signal to minimize the number of occurrences of hypovigilance. To enable detection, we have applied hidden Markov models (HMMs), two of which are used to indicate the operators' dual states, normal vigilance and hypovigilance, and, for each operator, the HMMs are trained as a detection model. To evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed models, we conducted two experiments on the real-world data obtained by using EEG-signal acquisition devices, and they yielded satisfactory results. By utilizing the proposed detection models, the problem of hypovigilance of UCAV operators and the problem of high accident rate of UCAVs can be addressed. PMID:24963338

  12. Use of Dynamic Models and Operational Architecture to Solve Complex Navy Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, Darby; Black, J. Todd; Freeman, Jared; Sorber, TIm; Serfaty, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The United States Navy established 8 Maritime Operations Centers (MOC) to enhance the command and control of forces at the operational level of warfare. Each MOC is a headquarters manned by qualified joint operational-level staffs, and enabled by globally interoperable C41 systems. To assess and refine MOC staffing, equipment, and schedules, a dynamic software model was developed. The model leverages pre-existing operational process architecture, joint military task lists that define activities and their precedence relations, as well as Navy documents that specify manning and roles per activity. The software model serves as a "computational wind-tunnel" in which to test a MOC on a mission, and to refine its structure, staffing, processes, and schedules. More generally, the model supports resource allocation decisions concerning Doctrine, Organization, Training, Material, Leadership, Personnel and Facilities (DOTMLPF) at MOCs around the world. A rapid prototype effort efficiently produced this software in less than five months, using an integrated process team consisting of MOC military and civilian staff, modeling experts, and software developers. The work reported here was conducted for Commander, United States Fleet Forces Command in Norfolk, Virginia, code N5-0LW (Operational Level of War) that facilitates the identification, consolidation, and prioritization of MOC capabilities requirements, and implementation and delivery of MOC solutions.

  13. Optimization of Multiple-Purpose Reservoir Systems Operations: A Review of Modeling and Analysis Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    The model determines on a weekly basis the supply of water available to each of the three jurisdictions resulting from previous decisions made in...Chow), Academic Press, New York, N.Y., 1981. Kuczera, G., and G. Diment, "General Water Supply System Simulation Model : WASP," Journal of Water Resources...Unlimited. ....----- 91 5 10 031 Optimization of Multiple-Purpose Reservoir System Operations: A Review of Modeling and Analysis Approaches Accession For

  14. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent repeatable flight data.

  15. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent and repeatable flight data.

  16. Intensive Care Unit Admission Parameters Improve the Accuracy of Operative Mortality Predictive Models in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, Marco; Ballotta, Andrea; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Brozzi, Simonetta; Boncilli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background Operative mortality risk in cardiac surgery is usually assessed using preoperative risk models. However, intraoperative factors may change the risk profile of the patients, and parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit may be relevant in determining the operative mortality. This study investigates the association between a number of parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit and the operative mortality, and verifies the hypothesis that including these parameters into the preoperative risk models may increase the accuracy of prediction of the operative mortality. Methodology 929 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery were admitted to the study. The preoperative risk profile was assessed using the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score. A number of parameters recorded at the admission in the intensive care unit were explored for univariate and multivariable association with the operative mortality. Principal Findings A heart rate higher than 120 beats per minute and a blood lactate value higher than 4 mmol/L at the admission in the intensive care unit were independent predictors of operative mortality, with odds ratio of 6.7 and 13.4 respectively. Including these parameters into the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score increased their accuracy (area under the curve 0.85 to 0.88 for the logistic EuroSCORE and 0.81 to 0.86 for the ACEF score). Conclusions A double-stage assessment of operative mortality risk provides a higher accuracy of the prediction. Elevated blood lactates and tachycardia reflect a condition of inadequate cardiac output. Their inclusion in the assessment of the severity of the clinical conditions after cardiac surgery may offer a useful tool to introduce more sophisticated hemodynamic monitoring techniques. Comparison between the predicted operative mortality risk before and after the operation may offer an assessment of the operative performance. PMID:21042411

  17. Improving the Analysis Capabilities of the Synthetic Theater Operations Research Model (STORM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the Chief of Naval Operations, Capability Analysis and Assessment Division (OPNAV N81), along with other DOD organizations, utilizes the Synthetic...Capability Analysis and Assessment Division (OPNAV N81), along with other DOD organizations, utilizes the Synthetic Theater Operations Research Model...Navy’s Assessment Division, adopted STORM as its primary campaign analysis tool due to its stochastic nature, which provides analysts the ability to

  18. Life Modeling for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries in Geosynchronous Satellite Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ing temperature is expected to be an important variable affecting wear rates,just as it is in LEO applications. The greatest uncertainty in the...and evaluation of materials at cryogenic and elevated temperatures ; launch vehicle fluid mechanics, heat transfer and flight dynamics...particularly at high operating DOD levels), amount of overcharge, trickle-charge rate, and operating temperature . In addition, the model finds a strong

  19. A Coupled Snow Operations-Skier Demand Model for the Ontario (Canada) Ski Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Marc; Scott, Daniel; Steiger, Robert; Rutty, Michelle; Johnson, Peter; Vilella, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar global ski industry is one of the tourism subsectors most directly impacted by climate variability and change. In the decades ahead, the scholarly literature consistently projects decreased reliability of natural snow cover, shortened and more variable ski seasons, as well as increased reliance on snowmaking with associated increases in operational costs. In order to develop the coupled snow, ski operations and demand model for the Ontario ski region (which represents approximately 18% of Canada's ski market), the research utilized multiple methods, including: a in situ survey of over 2400 skiers, daily operations data from ski resorts over the last 10 years, climate station data (1981-2013), climate change scenario ensemble (AR5 - RCP 8.5), an updated SkiSim model (building on Scott et al. 2003; Steiger 2010), and an agent-based model (building on Pons et al. 2014). Daily snow and ski operations for all ski areas in southern Ontario were modeled with the updated SkiSim model, which utilized current differential snowmaking capacity of individual resorts, as determined from daily ski area operations data. Snowmaking capacities and decision rules were informed by interviews with ski area managers and daily operations data. Model outputs were validated with local climate station and ski operations data. The coupled SkiSim-ABM model was run with historical weather data for seasons representative of an average winter for the 1981-2010 period, as well as an anomalously cold winter (2012-13) and the record warm winter in the region (2011-12). The impact on total skier visits and revenues, and the geographic and temporal distribution of skier visits were compared. The implications of further climate adaptation (i.e., improving the snowmaking capacity of all ski areas to the level of leading resorts in the region) were also explored. This research advances system modelling, especially improving the integration of snow and ski operations models with

  20. Handbook of operation and maintenance instructions for Model 5208A bit synchronizer unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Electrical/mechanical characteristics, operation, theory of operation, parts list, and electrical diagrams for the model 5208A bit synchronizer unit are provided. The unit is capable of performing the functions of bit synchronization and signal conditioning on demodulated wave trains containing amplitude, frequency, and phase distortions, as well as additive noise. Operating frequencies in the 1 to 27 MHz bit rate range are accommodated through the use of discrete frequency plug-in subunits. The unit provides 0 and 180 degree clocks and either a single signal hard decision, or a three bit quantized soft decision data output.

  1. Dynamic modeling and evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell - combined heat and power system operating strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanaeda, Kimihiro; Mueller, Fabian; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott

    Operating strategies of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are developed and evaluated from a utility, and end-user perspective using a fully integrated SOFC-CHP system dynamic model that resolves the physical states, thermal integration and overall efficiency of the system. The model can be modified for any SOFC-CHP system, but the present analysis is applied to a hotel in southern California based on measured electric and heating loads. Analysis indicates that combined heat and power systems can be operated to benefit both the end-users and the utility, providing more efficient electric generation as well as grid ancillary services, namely dispatchable urban power. Design and operating strategies considered in the paper include optimal sizing of the fuel cell, thermal energy storage to dispatch heat, and operating the fuel cell to provide flexible grid power. Analysis results indicate that with a 13.1% average increase in price-of-electricity (POE), the system can provide the grid with a 50% operating range of dispatchable urban power at an overall thermal efficiency of 80%. This grid-support operating mode increases the operational flexibility of the SOFC-CHP system, which may make the technology an important utility asset for accommodating the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power.

  2. Pre-operative simulation of periacetabular osteotomy via a three-dimensional model constructed from salt

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kensuke; Takahira, Naonobu; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an effective joint-preserving procedure for young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Although PAO provides excellent radiographic and clinical results, it is a technically demanding procedure with a distinct learning curve that requires careful 3D planning and, above all, has a number of potential complications. We therefore developed a pre-operative simulation method for PAO via creation of a new full-scale model. Methods: The model was prepared from the patient’s Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) formatted data from computed tomography (CT), for construction and assembly using 3D printing technology. A major feature of our model is that it is constructed from salt. In contrast to conventional models, our model provides a more accurate representation, at a lower manufacturing cost, and requires a shorter production time. Furthermore, our model realized simulated operation normally with using a chisel and drill without easy breakage or fissure. We were able to easily simulate the line of osteotomy and confirm acetabular version and coverage after moving to the osteotomized fragment. Additionally, this model allowed a dynamic assessment that avoided anterior impingement following the osteotomy. Results: Our models clearly reflected the anatomical shape of the patient’s hip. Our models allowed for surgical simulation, making realistic use of the chisel and drill. Our method of pre-operative simulation for PAO allowed for the assessment of accurate osteotomy line, determination of the position of the osteotomized fragment, and prevented anterior impingement after the operation. Conclusion: Our method of pre-operative simulation might improve the safety, accuracy, and results of PAO. PMID:28186873

  3. Harnessing a community for sustainable disaster response and recovery: an operational model for integrating nongovernmental organizations.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Joie; Chandra, Anita

    2013-08-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are important to a community during times of disaster and routine operations. However, their effectiveness is reduced without an operational framework that integrates response and recovery efforts. Without integration, coordination among NGOs is challenging and use of government resources is inefficient. We developed an operational model to specify NGO roles and responsibilities before, during, and after a disaster. We conducted an analysis of peer-reviewed literature, relevant policy, and federal guidance to characterize the capabilities of NGOs, contextual factors that determine their involvement in disaster operations, and key services they provide during disaster response and recovery. We also identified research questions that should be prioritized to improve coordination and communication between NGOs and government. Our review showed that federal policy stresses the importance of partnerships between NGOs and government agencies and among other NGOs. Such partnerships can build deep local networks and broad systems that reach from local communities to the federal government. Understanding what capacities NGOs need and what factors influence their ability to perform during a disaster informs an operational model that could optimize NGO performance. Although the operational model needs to be applied and tested in community planning and disaster response, it holds promise as a unifying framework across new national preparedness and recovery policy, and provides structure to community planning, resource allocation, and metrics on which to evaluate NGO disaster involvement.

  4. Closed loop models for analyzing the effects of simulator characteristics. [digital simulation of human operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Muralidharan, R.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The optimal control model of the human operator is used to develop closed loop models for analyzing the effects of (digital) simulator characteristics on predicted performance and/or workload. Two approaches are considered: the first utilizes a continuous approximation to the discrete simulation in conjunction with the standard optimal control model; the second involves a more exact discrete description of the simulator in a closed loop multirate simulation in which the optimal control model simulates the pilot. Both models predict that simulator characteristics can have significant effects on performance and workload.

  5. Surrogate runner model for draft tube losses computation within a wide range of operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, R.; Muntean, S.; Ciocan, T.; de Colombel, T.; Leroy, P.

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a quasi two-dimensional (Q2D) methodology for assessing the swirling flow exiting the runner of hydraulic turbines at arbitrary operating points, within a wide operating range. The Q2D model does not need actual runner computations, and as a result it represents a surrogate runner model for a-priori assessment of the swirling flow ingested by the draft tube. The axial, radial and circumferential velocity components are computed on a conical section located immediately downstream the runner blades trailing edge, then used as inlet conditions for regular draft tube computations. The main advantage of our model is that it allows the determination of the draft tube losses within the intended turbine operating range in the early design stages of a new or refurbished runner, thus providing a robust and systematic methodology to meet the optimal requirements for the flow at the runner outlet.

  6. Operant-based instrumental learning for analysis of genetically modified models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Trueman, R C; Dunnett, S B; Brooks, S P

    2012-06-01

    Huntington's disease is the result of an expanded CAG repeat in the gene that codes for the protein huntingtin and results in a progressive sequelae of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The development of genetically modified rodent models of Huntington's disease has led to the need for sensitive behavioural phenotyping. Operant tests for rodents have been developed that can determine the functional deficits in these genetically modified models, from motor, cognitive and emotional domains. The current review discusses tests that employ operant equipment, an automated and highly flexible method for testing rodents. Different operant paradigms are examined in relation to their relevance to Huntington's disease symptomology, as well as summarising research to date on genetic models with these tests.

  7. Users guide: The LaRC human-operator-simulator-based pilot model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, E. H.; Waller, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A Human Operator Simulator (HOS) based pilot model has been developed for use at NASA LaRC for analysis of flight management problems. The model is currently configured to simulate piloted flight of an advanced transport airplane. The generic HOS operator and machine model was originally developed under U.S. Navy sponsorship by Analytics, Inc. and through a contract with LaRC was configured to represent a pilot flying a transport airplane. A version of the HOS program runs in batch mode on LaRC's (60-bit-word) central computer system. This document provides a guide for using the program and describes in some detail the assortment of files used during its operation.

  8. A dynamic programming model for optimal planning of aquifer storage and recovery facility operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddameri, V.

    2007-01-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) is an innovative technology with the potential to augment dwindling water resources in regions experiencing rapid growth and development. Planning and design of ASR systems requires quantifying how much water should be stored and appropriate times for storage and withdrawals within a planning period. A monthly scale planning model has been developed in this study to derive optimal (least cost) long-term policies for operating ASR systems and is solved using a recursive deterministic dynamic programming approach. The outputs of the model include annual costs of operation, the amount of water to be imported each month as well as the schedule for storage and extraction. A case study modeled after a proposed ASR system for Mustang Island and Padre Island service areas of the city of Corpus Christi is used to illustrate the utility of the developed model. The results indicate that for the assumed baseline demands, the ASR system is to be kept operational for a period of 4 months starting from May through August. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that increased seasonal shortages can be met using ASR with little additional costs. For the assumed cost structure, a 16% shortage increased the costs by 1.6%. However, the operation time of ASR increased from 4 to 8 months. The developed dynamic programming model is a useful tool to assess the feasibility of evaluating the use of ASR systems during regional-scale water resources planning endeavors.

  9. The Value of SysML Modeling During System Operations: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutenhoffer, Chelsea; Tirona, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    System models are often touted as engineering tools that promote better understanding of systems, but these models are typically created during system design. The Ground Data System (GDS) team for the Dawn spacecraft took on a case study to see if benefits could be achieved by starting a model of a system already in operations. This paper focuses on the four steps the team undertook in modeling the Dawn GDS: defining a model structure, populating model elements, verifying that the model represented reality, and using the model to answer system-level questions and simplify day-to-day tasks. Throughout this paper the team outlines our thought processes and the system insights the model provided.

  10. The design and implementation of an operational model evaluation system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.T.

    1995-06-01

    The complete evaluation of an atmospheric transport and diffusion model typically includes a study of the model`s operational performance. Such a study very often attempts to compare the model`s calculations of an atmospheric pollutant`s temporal and spatial distribution with field experiment measurements. However, these comparisons tend to use data from a small number of experiments and are very often limited to producing the commonly quoted statistics based on the differences between model calculations and the experimental measurements (fractional bias, fractional scatter, etc.). This paper presents initial efforts to develop a model evaluation system geared for both the objective statistical analysis and the subjective visualization of the interrelationships between a model`s calculations and the appropriate field measurement data.

  11. The Value of SysML Modeling During System Operations: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutenhoffer, Chelsea; Tirona, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    System models are often touted as engineering tools that promote better understanding of systems, but these models are typically created during system design. The Ground Data System (GDS) team for the Dawn spacecraft took on a case study to see if benefits could be achieved by starting a model of a system already in operations. This paper focuses on the four steps the team undertook in modeling the Dawn GDS: defining a model structure, populating model elements, verifying that the model represented reality, and using the model to answer system-level questions and simplify day-to-day tasks. Throughout this paper the team outlines our thought processes and the system insights the model provided.

  12. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  13. Characteristic operator functions for quantum input-plant-output models and coherent control

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, John E.

    2015-01-15

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense, the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification definition by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb [Commun. Math. Phys. 283, 491-505 (2008)]. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones and eliminated.

  14. Comparing complementary NWP model performance for hydrologic forecasting for the river Rhine in an operational setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davids, Femke; den Toom, Matthijs

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the performance of complementary NWP models for hydrologic forecasting for the river Rhine, a large river catchment in Central Europe. An operational forecasting system, RWsOS-Rivieren, produces daily forecasts of discharges and water levels at the Water Management Centre Netherlands. A combination of HBV (rainfall-runoff) and SOBEK (hydrodynamic routing) models is used to produce simulations and forecasts for the catchment. Data assimilation is applied both to the model state of SOBEK and to model outputs. The primary function of the operational forecasting system is to provide reliable and accurate forecasts during periods of high water. The secondary main function is producing daily predictions for water management and water transport in The Netherlands. In addition, predicting water levels during drought periods is becoming increasingly important as well. At this moment several complementary deterministic and ensemble NWP models are used to provide the forecasters with predictions with varied initial conditions, such as ICON, ICON-EU Nest, ECMWF-DET, ECMWF-EPS, HiRLAM, COSMO-LEPS and GLAMEPS. ICON and ICON-EU have recently replaced DWD-GME and DWD COSMO-EU. These models provide weather forecasts with different lengths of lead times and also different periods of operational usage. A direct and quantitative comparison is therefore challenging. Nevertheless, it is important to investigate the suitability of the different NWP models for certain lead times and certain weather situations to help support the hydrological forecasters make an informed forecast during an operational crisis. A hindcast study will investigate the performance of these models in the operational system for different lead times and focusing on periods of both high and low water for Lobith, the location of entry of the river Rhine into The Netherlands.

  15. A Global Hydrological Model with Reservoir Operation Scheme: Global and Regional Applications (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Masaki, Y.; Mateo, C.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2013-12-01

    More than 45000 large dams have been constructed all over the world, and their total storage capacity exceeds 7000 km3 which corresponds to approximately 20% of the total annual global river discharge. Explicit incorporation of reservoir operation is indispensable for global-/macro-scale hydrological models, since their storage capacity and potential of altering flow regime are too large to neglect. Our presentation consists of three parts. In the first part, the H08 model, a global hydrological model with reservoir operation scheme is introduced. The H08 model includes an algorithm to estimate reservoir operating rules of individual reservoirs. This enables us to apply the model to the regions and periods with no recorded reservoir operation. The key concepts and challenges of the model are discussed. In the second part, the role of reservoirs in water scarcity is globally assessed. In many parts of the world, local people are suffered from temporal variability in precipitation and river flow. The contribution of reservoirs to water scarcity alleviation is quantitatively and globally assessed. The assessment is extended to the future periods utilizing the latest climate and socio-economic scenarios. In the last part, a regional model application is introduced. The Chao Phraya River in Thailand was suffered from a severe flood in 2011. Vast area was inundated for months and the economic damages reached 40 billion USD. The Chao Phraya River has two major reservoirs and their role is crucial for both water use and flood control. The H08 model is substantially enhanced and applied to the basin to reproduce the 2011 floods. The tradeoff between water use and flood control was investigated by changing reservoir operation options.

  16. Evaluation of sleeve-pile set models used in docking jacket operation simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cyranka, C.; Mourelle, M.M.; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the behavior of sleeve-pile set models used in the simulation of docking jacket operations. The adopted strategy involves the comparison of three-dimensional dynamic analysis with complete models, where docking pile and marine soil are considered. This dynamic analysis is performed in the time domain, including all the environmental loads and ship motions, using a substructure technique. The main discussion is focused in appropriate modeling the sleeve-pile set. Two propositions were examined: in the first one, the nonlinear docking spring takes into account the sleeve, pile and nonlinear soil contributions; in the second, the docking sleeve characteristics were added to the jacket model. To reach the objectives a real docking operation case was selected. A typical Campos Basin jacket was modeled with fine discretization of all details to access precisely the sleeve-pile set interaction. The obtained results can establish practical conclusions to docking jacket analysis.

  17. Enhancing the quality of hydrologic model calibrations and their transfer to operational flood forecasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggett, Graeme; Spies, Ryan; Szfranski, Bill; Hahn, Claudia; Weil, Page

    2016-04-01

    An adequate forecasting model may not perform well if it is inadequately calibrated. Model calibration is often constrained by the lack of adequate calibration data, especially for small river basins with high spatial rainfall variability. Rainfall/snow station networks may not be dense enough to accurately estimate the catchment rainfall/SWE. High discharges during flood events are subject to significant error due to flow gauging difficulty. Dynamic changes in catchment conditions (e.g., urbanization; losses in karstic systems) invariably introduce non-homogeneity in the water level and flow data. This presentation will highlight some of the challenges in reliable calibration of National Weather Service (i.e. US) operational flood forecast models, emphasizing the various challenges in different physiographic/climatic domains. It will also highlight the benefit of using various data visualization techniques to transfer information about model calibration to operational forecasters so they may understand the influence of the calibration on model performance under various conditions.

  18. Operations and maintenance manual for a scale-model lunar roving vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessem, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    A one-sixth scale model of the lunar roving vehicle used in the Apollo 15 mission was built and instrumented to conduct model studies of vehicle mobility. The model was free running under radio control and was equipped with a lightweight telemetry transmitter that allowed 16 channels of data to be gathered simultaneously. String payout and fifth-wheel devices were developed to measure vehicle velocity. Other real-time measurements included wheel torque, wheel speed, center-of-gravity accelerations, and steering forces. Calibration, operations, and maintenance procedures were worked out. Details of the development of the instrumentation, its maintenance, and some of the problems encountered, are recorded serve as a preliminary operations and maintenance manual for this specific model. In addition, information regarding soil processing and testing that may be useful to NASA personnel planning mobility research with the model in soil is furnished.

  19. Predictive modeling of human operator cognitive state via sparse and robust support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Qin, Pan-Pan; Raisch, Jörg; Wang, Ru-Bin

    2013-10-01

    The accurate prediction of the temporal variations in human operator cognitive state (HCS) is of great practical importance in many real-world safety-critical situations. However, since the relationship between the HCS and electrophysiological responses of the operator is basically unknown, complicated and uncertain, only data-based modeling method can be employed. This paper is aimed at constructing a data-driven computationally intelligent model, based on multiple psychophysiological and performance measures, to accurately estimate the HCS in the context of a safety-critical human-machine system. The advanced least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), whose parameters are optimized by grid search and cross-validation techniques, are adopted for the purpose of predictive modeling of the HCS. The sparse and weighted LS-SVM (WLS-SVM) were proposed by Suykens et al. to overcome the deficiency of the standard LS-SVM in lacking sparseness and robustness. This paper adopted those two improved LS-SVM algorithms to model the HCS based solely on a set of physiological and operator performance data. The results showed that the sparse LS-SVM can obtain HCS models with sparseness with almost no loss of modeling accuracy, while the WLS-SVM leads to models which are robust in case of noisy training data. Both intelligent system modeling approaches are shown to be capable of capturing the temporal fluctuation trends of the HCS because of their superior generalization performance.

  20. Evaluating Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts with Validated Human Performance Models: Flight Deck Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Gore, Brian Francis; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current research were to develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and land operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and draw conclusions regarding flight deck display design and pilot-ATC roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSPO concepts. This document presents guidelines and implications for flight deck display designs and candidate roles and responsibilities. A companion document (Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, & Foyle, 2013) provides complete scenario descriptions and results including predictions of pilot workload, visual attention and time to detect off-nominal events.

  1. Effect of the river discharge implementation in an operational model for the West Iberia coastal area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campuzano, Francisco; Brito, David; Juliano, Manuela; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, most of the largest rivers discharge on the Atlantic coast draining almost two thirds of the territory. It is an important source of nutrients and sediments to these coastal areas. Rivers discharges in the Atlantic area when compared with the ones in the Mediterranean side present the particularity that their water before is released into the ocean is previously mixed in their estuaries in a different ratio depending of the estuarine residence time and the discharged flow. In order to evaluate the relative importance of the inland waters in the circulation patterns of Western Iberia, the rivers discharges were implemented in the PCOMS model application (Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System). To reproduce the water continuum including the different spatial and temporal scales, a methodology consisting in a system of integrated models using the Mohid model was designed. At the watershed level, the Mohid Land model calculated operationally water flow and properties, including nutrients, for the main river catchments of Western Iberian with a 2 km horizontal resolution. Downstream, several operational hydrodynamic and biological estuarine applications used those outcomes as model inputs, filling the gaps in the observation network. From the estuarine models, the tidally modulated water and properties fluxes to the coast were obtained. These fluxes were finally imposed in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS), a fully 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and ecological regional model that covers the Iberian Atlantic front. The fate of the rivers discharges were analysed by integrating model results in boxes, comparing the climatologies obtained with and without rivers and the rivers area of influence was obtained by lagrangian tracers simulations.

  2. Using GOMS and Bayesian plan recognition to develop recognition models of operator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaientz, Jack D.; DeKoven, Elyon; Piegdon, Nicholas; Wood, Scott D.; Huber, Marcus J.

    2006-05-01

    Trends in combat technology research point to an increasing role for uninhabited vehicles in modern warfare tactics. To support increased span of control over these vehicles human responsibilities need to be transformed from tedious, error-prone and cognition intensive operations into tasks that are more supervisory and manageable, even under intensely stressful conditions. The goal is to move away from only supporting human command of low-level system functions to intention-level human-system dialogue about the operator's tasks and situation. A critical element of this process is developing the means to identify when human operators need automated assistance and to identify what assistance they need. Toward this goal, we are developing an unmanned vehicle operator task recognition system that combines work in human behavior modeling and Bayesian plan recognition. Traditionally, human behavior models have been considered generative, meaning they describe all possible valid behaviors. Basing behavior recognition on models designed for behavior generation can offers advantages in improved model fidelity and reuse. It is not clear, however, how to reconcile the structural differences between behavior recognition and behavior modeling approaches. Our current work demonstrates that by pairing a cognitive psychology derived human behavior modeling approach, GOMS, with a Bayesian plan recognition engine, ASPRN, we can translate a behavior generation model into a recognition model. We will discuss the implications for using human performance models in this manner as well as suggest how this kind of modeling may be used to support the real-time control of multiple, uninhabited battlefield vehicles and other semi-autonomous systems.

  3. Operational Snow Modeling: A Look at the Current State and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, A. H.; Jonas, T.; Marks, D. G.; Painter, T. H.; Bormann, K.; Deems, J. S.; Havens, S.; Hedrick, A. R.; Helbig, N.; Magnusson, J.; McGurk, B. J.; Skiles, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in distributed physically-based snow (and hydrological) models have moved these modeling tools into the operational arena. High resolution operational products that can account for the hydrologically-relevant heterogeneities in snow accumulation and melt (ca. 100m grid scale) are now being delivered to water managers in two select river basins of the American West. This comes at a time when simpler solutions based on historic trends are struggling to cope with modern-day weather scenarios that are quite different from those previously encountered. This marks a significant advancement in modeling capabilities and provides water managers with tools robust to climate and landscape changes. However, these models have higher data requirements, tend to be more sensitive to input data errors, and remain computationally intensive compared to simpler, parametrized approaches. In operational settings, where time is limited, the number of possible model runs is necessarily constrained. Data assimilation techniques and probabilistic forecasts though require numerous model realizations to establish the sound statistical foundations they are based upon. Whereas simpler solutions (e.g. conceptual, lumped, degree-day) are compatible with these latter ensemble procedures, the physically-based solutions currently are not. Recent work has modernized and enhanced the parameterized approaches as well and these are no longer the basic tools they once were. This research looks at the advantages and limitations of the most modern operational tools in use, and the research challenges that lie ahead. Operational models developed and applied by the WSL/SLF in Switzerland and the USDA-ARS NWRC in the western U.S. will be highlighted in this presentation.

  4. Modeling battery behavior on sensory operations for context-aware smartphone sensing.

    PubMed

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-05-26

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services.

  5. Modeling Battery Behavior on Sensory Operations for Context-Aware Smartphone Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services. PMID:26016916

  6. A water budget model for operating landfills: an application in Greece.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Athiniotou, Angeliki

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the work was to develop and verify a one-dimensional monthly water budget model (MWBM) to predict leachate generation rates from operating landfills. Although there has been a considerable modelling work on the hydraulic behaviour of landfills after they reach closure, less attention has been given on such modelling for operating landfills that have a continuously changing geometry. A MWBM was developed here that accounted for landfill cell development, precipitation and evaporation, the change of the water holding capacity of a waste cell and waste decomposition. The MWBM was verified using a two-year leachate generation rate database from a new operating sanitary landfill in Greece. The MWBM results showed a very good agreement with field data whilst it was observed that peak precipitation rates followed a parallel trend with peak leachate generation rates. A distinct two-month lag phase between the model results and actual values was observed during a certain period, which is a likely indication of the presence of channelling within the waste mass. A sensitivity analysis performed in the MWBM showed that the leachate is affected by the initial municipal solid waste moisture content as well as by the precipitation rates. A linear regression empirical model showed that precipitation can still be an adequate predictor of leachate generation rates in operating landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Community-wide validation of geospace model local K-index predictions to support model transition to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Singer, H. J.; Balch, C.; Weimer, D.; Welling, D.; Wiltberger, M.; Raeder, J.; Weigel, R. S.; McCollough, J.; Wing, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the latest result of a community-wide space weather model validation effort coordinated among the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), model developers, and the broader science community. Validation of geospace models is a critical activity for both building confidence in the science results produced by the models and in assessing the suitability of the models for transition to operations. Indeed, a primary motivation of this work is supporting NOAA/SWPC's effort to select a model or models to be transitioned into operations. Our validation efforts focus on the ability of the models to reproduce a regional index of geomagnetic disturbance, the local K-index. Our analysis includes six events representing a range of geomagnetic activity conditions and six geomagnetic observatories representing midlatitude and high-latitude locations. Contingency tables, skill scores, and distribution metrics are used for the quantitative analysis of model performance. We consider model performance on an event-by-event basis, aggregated over events, at specific station locations, and separated into high-latitude and midlatitude domains. A summary of results is presented in this report, and an online tool for detailed analysis is available at the CCMC.

  8. Community-Wide Validation of Geospace Model Local K-Index Predictions to Support Model Transition to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Singer, H. J.; Balch, C.; Weimer, D.; Welling, D.; Wiltberger, M.; Raeder, J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the latest result of a community-wide space weather model validation effort coordinated among the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), model developers, and the broader science community. Validation of geospace models is a critical activity for both building confidence in the science results produced by the models and in assessing the suitability of the models for transition to operations. Indeed, a primary motivation of this work is supporting NOAA/SWPCs effort to select a model or models to be transitioned into operations. Our validation efforts focus on the ability of the models to reproduce a regional index of geomagnetic disturbance, the local K-index. Our analysis includes six events representing a range of geomagnetic activity conditions and six geomagnetic observatories representing midlatitude and high-latitude locations. Contingency tables, skill scores, and distribution metrics are used for the quantitative analysis of model performance. We consider model performance on an event-by-event basis, aggregated over events, at specific station locations, and separated into high-latitude and midlatitude domains. A summary of results is presented in this report, and an online tool for detailed analysis is available at the CCMC.

  9. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment.

  10. Testing and Implementation of the Navy's Operational Circulation Model for the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, P. D.; Mask, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The US Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) has the responsibility for running ocean models in support of Navy operations. NAVOCEANO delivers Navy-relevant global, regional, and coastal ocean forecast products on a 24 hour/7 day a week schedule. In 2011, NAVOCEANO implemented an operational version of the RNCOM (Regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model) for the Mediterranean Sea (MedSea), replacing an older variation of the Princeton Ocean Model originally set up for this area back in the mid-1990's. RNCOM is a gridded model that assimilates both satellite data and in situ profile data in near real time. This 3km MedSea RNCOM is nested within a lower resolution global NCOM in the Atlantic at the 12.5 degree West longitude. Before being accepted as a source of operational products, a Navy ocean model must pass a series of validation tests and then once in service, its skill is monitored by software and regional specialists. This presentation will provide a brief summary of the initial evaluation results. Because of the oceanographic peculiarities of this basin, the MedSea implementation posed a set of new problems for an RNCOM operation. One problem was the present Navy satellite altimetry model assimilation techniques do not improve Mediterranean NCOM forecasts, so it has been turned off, pending improvements. Another problem was that since most in-situ observations were profiling floats with short five-day profiling intervals, there was a problem with temporal aliasing when comparing these observations to the NCOM predictions. Because of the time and spatial correlations in the MedSea and in the model, the observation/model comparisons would give an unrealistically optimistic estimate of model accuracy of the Mediterranean's temperature/salinity structure. Careful pre-selection of profiles for comparison during the evaluation stage, based on spatial distribution and novelty, was used to minimize this effect. NAVOCEANO's operational customers are interested primarily in

  11. The master T-operator for the Gaudin model and the KP hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Alexander; Leurent, Sebastien; Tsuboi, Zengo; Zabrodin, Anton

    2014-06-01

    Following the approach of [1], we construct the master T-operator for the quantum Gaudin model with twisted boundary conditions and show that it satisfies the bilinear identity and Hirota equations for the classical KP hierarchy. We also characterize the class of solutions to the KP hierarchy that correspond to eigenvalues of the master T-operator and study dynamics of their zeros as functions of the spectral parameter. This implies a remarkable connection between the quantum Gaudin model and the classical Calogero-Moser system of particles. The quantum Gaudin model, The classical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy, The classical Calogero-Moser (CM) system of particles. The link (i)-(ii) is a limiting case of the correspondence between quantum spin chains with the Yangian Y(gl(N))-invariant rational R-matrices and the classical modified KP hierarchy based on the construction of the master T-operator [1,2]. The link (ii)-(iii) is a well-known story about dynamics of poles of rational solutions to soliton equations started by Airault, McKean and Moser [3] for the KdV equation, developed by Krichever [4] for the KP equation and extended to the whole KP hierarchy by Shiota [5]. The composition of (i)-(ii) and (ii)-(iii) implies the connection between the quantum Gaudin model and the classical CM model which is a limiting case of the connection between quantum spin chains and classical Ruijsenaars systems found in [1]. The link (i)-(iii) was also earlier established in [6] from a different reasoning.The master T-operator was introduced in [1]. We construct commuting integrals of motion for the gl(N) Gaudin model, with twisted boundary conditions and vector representations at the marked points in the quantum space, corresponding to arbitrary representations in the auxiliary space. They are presented in an explicit form using the matrix derivative operation. We also find functional relations satisfied by them. The master T-operator for the gl(N) Gaudin model is the

  12. Incorporating teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating

  13. Toward improved simulation of river operations through integration with a hydrologic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morway, Eric; Niswonger, Richard; Triana, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Advanced modeling tools are needed for informed water resources planning and management. Two classes of modeling tools are often used to this end–(1) distributed-parameter hydrologic models for quantifying supply and (2) river-operation models for sorting out demands under rule-based systems such as the prior-appropriation doctrine. Within each of these two broad classes of models, there are many software tools that excel at simulating the processes specific to each discipline, but have historically over-simplified, or at worse completely neglected, aspects of the other. As a result, water managers reliant on river-operation models for administering water resources need improved tools for representing spatially and temporally varying groundwater resources in conjunctive-use systems. A new tool is described that improves the representation of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction within a river-operations modeling context and, in so doing, advances evaluation of system-wide hydrologic consequences of new or altered management regimes.

  14. Great Lakes water quality scenario models: Operational feasibility -Lake Michigan Mass Balance models

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance models were provided (eutrophication/nutrients, atrazine, mercury, and PCBs) with emphasis on the PCB model post-audit and forecast for Lake Trout. Provided were modeling construct, model description, and primary results. An assessm...

  15. Great Lakes water quality scenario models: Operational feasibility -Lake Michigan Mass Balance models

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance models were provided (eutrophication/nutrients, atrazine, mercury, and PCBs) with emphasis on the PCB model post-audit and forecast for Lake Trout. Provided were modeling construct, model description, and primary results. An assessm...

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Off-Nominal Operation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    System failures, off-nominal operation, or unexpected interruptions in processing capability can cause unanticipated instabilities in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, even long after they are repaired. Much current modeling assumes ALS systems are static and linear, but ALS systems are actually dynamic and nonlinear, especially when failures and off nominal operation are considered. Modeling and simulation provide a way to study the stability and time behavior of nonlinear dynamic ALS systems under changed system configurations or operational scenarios. The dynamic behavior of a nonlinear system can be fully explored only by computer simulation over the full range of inputs and initial conditions. Previous simulations of BIO-Plex in SIMULINK, a toolbox of Matlab, were extended to model the off-nominal operation and long-term dynamics of partially closed physical/chemical and bioregenerative life support systems. System nonlinearity has many interesting potential consequences. Different equilibrium points may be reached for different initial conditions. The system stability can depend on the exact system inputs and initial conditions. The system may oscillate or even in rare cases behave chaotically. Temporary internal hardware failures or external perturbations in ALS systems can lead to dynamic instability and total ALS system failure. Appropriate control techniques can restore reliable operation and minimize the effects of dynamic instabilities due to anomalies or perturbations in a life support system.

  17. Filter accuracy for the Lorenz 96 model: Fixed versus adaptive observation operators

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, Andrew M.; Shukla, Abhishek; Sanz-Alonso, Daniel; Law, K. J. H.

    2016-02-23

    In the context of filtering chaotic dynamical systems it is well-known that partial observations, if sufficiently informative, can be used to control the inherent uncertainty due to chaos. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, both theoretically and numerically, conditions on the observations of chaotic systems under which they can be accurately filtered. In particular, we highlight the advantage of adaptive observation operators over fixed ones. The Lorenz ’96 model is used to exemplify our findings. Here, we consider discrete-time and continuous-time observations in our theoretical developments. We prove that, for fixed observation operator, the 3DVAR filter can recover the system state within a neighbourhood determined by the size of the observational noise. It is required that a sufficiently large proportion of the state vector is observed, and an explicit form for such sufficient fixed observation operator is given. Numerical experiments, where the data is incorporated by use of the 3DVAR and extended Kalman filters, suggest that less informative fixed operators than given by our theory can still lead to accurate signal reconstruction. Adaptive observation operators are then studied numerically; we show that, for carefully chosen adaptive observation operators, the proportion of the state vector that needs to be observed is drastically smaller than with a fixed observation operator. Indeed, we show that the number of state coordinates that need to be observed may even be significantly smaller than the total number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the underlying system.

  18. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  19. Low-derivative operators of the Standard Model effective field theory via Hilbert series methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we explore an extension of Hilbert series techniques to count operators that include derivatives. For sufficiently low-derivative operators, we conjecture an algorithm that gives the number of invariant operators, properly accounting for redundancies due to the equations of motion and integration by parts. Specifically, the conjectured technique can be applied whenever there is only one Lorentz invariant for a given partitioning of derivatives among the fields. At higher numbers of derivatives, equation of motion redundancies can be removed, but the increased number of Lorentz contractions spoils the subtraction of integration by parts redundancies. While restricted, this technique is sufficient to automatically recreate the complete set of invariant operators of the Standard Model effective field theory for dimensions 6 and 7 (for arbitrary numbers of flavors). At dimension 8, the algorithm does not automatically generate the complete operator set; however, it suffices for all but five classes of operators. For these remaining classes, there is a well defined procedure to manually determine the number of invariants. Assuming our method is correct, we derive a set of 535 dimension-8 N f = 1 operators.

  20. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40,000) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  1. An Efficient Operator for the Change Point Estimation in Partial Spline Model.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Won; Zhong, Hua; Putt, Mary

    2015-05-01

    In bio-informatics application, the estimation of the starting and ending points of drop-down in the longitudinal data is important. One possible approach to estimate such change times is to use the partial spline model with change points. In order to use estimate change time, the minimum operator in terms of a smoothing parameter has been widely used, but we showed that the minimum operator causes large MSE of change point estimates. In this paper, we proposed the summation operator in terms of a smoothing parameter, and our simulation study showed that the summation operator gives smaller MSE for estimated change points than the minimum one. We also applied the proposed approach to the experiment data, blood flow during photodynamic cancer therapy.

  2. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  3. Multiagent Modeling and Simulation in Human-Robot Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Sims, Michael H.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing work systems. The Brahms environment is used to model mission operations for a semi-autonomous robot mission to the Moon at the work practice level. It shows the impact of human-decision making on the activities and energy consumption of a robot. A collaborative work systems design methodology is described that allows informal models, created with users and stakeholders, to be used as input to the development of formal computational models.

  4. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation - Lessons Learned From IMAGE/LENA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael A.; Rilee, Michael L.; Truszkowski, Walt; Bailin, Sidney C.

    2001-01-01

    Model-based reasoning has been applied as an autonomous control strategy on the Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) instrument currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. Explicit models of instrument subsystem responses have been constructed and are used to dynamically adapt the instrument to the spacecraft's environment. These functions are cast as part of a Virtual Principal Investigator (VPI) that autonomously monitors and controls the instrument. In the VPI's current implementation, LENA's command uplink volume has been decreased significantly from its previous volume; typically, no uplinks are required for operations. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modeling this system may be applied to other instruments. Future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  5. Thermal modeling of nickel-hydrogen battery cells operating under transient orbital conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical study of the thermal operating characteristics of nickel-hydrogen battery cells is presented. Combined finite-element and finite-difference techniques are employed to arrive at a computationally efficient composite thermal model representing a series-cell arrangement operating in conjunction with a radiately coupled baseplate and coldplate thermal bus. An aggressive, low-mass design approach indicates that thermal considerations can and should direct the design of the thermal bus arrangement. Special consideration is given to the potential for mixed conductive and convective processes across the hydrogen gap. Results of a compressible flow model are presented and indicate the transfer process is suitably represented by molecular conduction. A high-fidelity thermal model of the cell stack (and related components) indicates the presence of axial and radial temperature gradients. A detailed model of the thermal bus reveals the thermal interaction of individual cells and is imperative for assessing the intercell temperature gradients.

  6. Simplified analytical model for open-phase operating mode of thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an approach to the development of a simplified analytical model for the analysis of electromagnetic processes of a thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator with an individual phase-controlled thyristor switch is considered. The analytical expressions for the calculation of electrical parameters in symmetrical and open-phase operating mode are obtained. With a concrete example, the verification of the developed analytical model is carried out. It is accomplished by means of comparison between current and voltage calculation results when the thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator is in an open-phase operating mode with the simulation results in the MatLab software environment. Adequacy check of the obtained analytical model is carried out by comparison between the analytical calculation and experimental data received from the actual physical model.

  7. Operational oil spill trajectory modelling using HF radar currents: A northwest European continental shelf case study.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Ana J; Sanchez, Jorge; Chiri, Helios; Ferrer, María I; Cárdenas, Mar; Gallego, Alejandro; Castanedo, Sonia; Medina, Raúl; Alonso-Martirena, Andrés; Berx, Barbara; Turrell, William R; Hughes, Sarah L

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a novel operational oil spill modelling system based on HF radar currents, implemented in a northwest European shelf sea. The system integrates Open Modal Analysis (OMA), Short Term Prediction algorithms (STPS) and an oil spill model to simulate oil spill trajectories. A set of 18 buoys was used to assess the accuracy of the system for trajectory forecast and to evaluate the benefits of HF radar data compared to the use of currents from a hydrodynamic model (HDM). The results showed that simulated trajectories using OMA currents were more accurate than those obtained using a HDM. After 48h the mean error was reduced by 40%. The forecast skill of the STPS method was valid up to 6h ahead. The analysis performed shows the benefits of HF radar data for operational oil spill modelling, which could be easily implemented in other regions with HF radar coverage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MAESTRO — A model and expert system tuning resource for operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lager, Darrel L.; Brand, Hal R.; Maurer, William J.; Coffield, Fred; Chambers, Frank

    1990-08-01

    We have developed MAESTRO, a model and expert system tuning resource for operators. It provides a unified software environment for optimizing the performance of large, complex machines, in particular the Advanced Test Accelerator and Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system incorporates three approaches to tuning: - a mouse-based manual interface to select and control magnets and to view displays of machine performance; - an automation based on "cloning the operator" by implementing the strategies and reasoning used by the operator; and - an automation based on a simulator model which, when accurately matched to the machine, allows downloading of optimal sets of parameters and permits diagnosing errors in the beam line. The latter two approaches are based on the artificial-intelligence technique known as Expert Systems.

  9. A method motion simulator design based on modeling characteristics of the human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repperger, D. W.; Junker, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    A design criteria is obtained to compare two simulators and evaluate their equivalence or credibility. In the subsequent analysis the comparison of two simulators can be considered as the same problem as the comparison of a real world situation and a simulation's representation of this real world situation. The design criteria developed involves modeling of the human operator and defining simple parameters to describe his behavior in the simulator and in the real world situation. In the process of obtaining human operator parameters to define characteristics to evaluate simulators, measures are also obtained on these human operator characteristics which can be used to describe the human as an information processor and controller. First, a study is conducted on the simulator design problem in such a manner that this modeling approach can be used to develop a criteria for the comparison of two simulators.

  10. Community Coordinated Modeling Center: Addressing Needs of Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M.; Maddox, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Hesse, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Macneice, P.; Taktakishvili, A.; Berrios, D.; Chulaki, A.; Zheng, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Models are key elements of space weather forecasting. The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC, http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) hosts a broad range of state-of-the-art space weather models and enables access to complex models through an unmatched automated web-based runs-on-request system. Model output comparisons with observational data carried out by a large number of CCMC users open an unprecedented mechanism for extensive model testing and broad community feedback on model performance. The CCMC also evaluates model's prediction ability as an unbiased broker and supports operational model selections. The CCMC is organizing and leading a series of community-wide projects aiming to evaluate the current state of space weather modeling, to address challenges of model-data comparisons, and to define metrics for various user s needs and requirements. Many of CCMC models are continuously running in real-time. Over the years the CCMC acquired the unique experience in developing and maintaining real-time systems. CCMC staff expertise and trusted relations with model owners enable to keep up to date with rapid advances in model development. The information gleaned from the real-time calculations is tailored to specific mission needs. Model forecasts combined with data streams from NASA and other missions are integrated into an innovative configurable data analysis and dissemination system (http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov) that is accessible world-wide. The talk will review the latest progress and discuss opportunities for addressing operational space weather needs in innovative and collaborative ways.

  11. Petri nets as a modeling tool for discrete concurrent tasks of the human operator. [describing sequential and parallel demands on human operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, W.; Geiser, G.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concepts of Petri nets are reviewed as well as their application as the fundamental model of technical systems with concurrent discrete events such as hardware systems and software models of computers. The use of Petri nets is proposed for modeling the human operator dealing with concurrent discrete tasks. Their properties useful in modeling the human operator are discussed and practical examples are given. By means of and experimental investigation of binary concurrent tasks which are presented in a serial manner, the representation of human behavior by Petri nets is demonstrated.

  12. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.; Amidon, M.

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  13. Leveraging an existing data warehouse to annotate workflow models for operations research and optimization.

    PubMed

    Borlawsky, Tara; LaFountain, Jeanne; Petty, Lynda; Saltz, Joel H; Payne, Philip R O

    2008-11-06

    Workflow analysis is frequently performed in the context of operations research and process optimization. In order to develop a data-driven workflow model that can be employed to assess opportunities to improve the efficiency of perioperative care teams at The Ohio State University Medical Center (OSUMC), we have developed a method for integrating standard workflow modeling formalisms, such as UML activity diagrams with data-centric annotations derived from our existing data warehouse.

  14. A Comparative Verification of Forecasts from Two Operational Solar Wind Models (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-08

    lers who may use the forecast output as input to drive their numerical simulations. In the operational commu- nity, forecasters gain by knowing how...conditions. Thus in this study we use the daily updated photospheric magnetic field maps as the initial conditions to drive the forecasts of the two...motion, and does not contain full phys- ical representations as does a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. It runs much more quickly than an MHD model (about

  15. A Comparative Verification of Forecasts from Two Operational Solar Wind Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-16

    mode- lers who may use the forecast output as input to drive their numerical simulations. In the operational commu- nity, forecasters gain by...conditions to drive the forecasts of the two opera- tional models. As in the previously cited studies, we compared the forecasts of solar wind and IMF...SOLAR WIND FORECAST MODELS S12005 of plasma parcel motion, and does not contain full phys- ical representations as does a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  16. Modeling operator actions during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a Babcock and Wilcox nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, L.S.; Ortiz, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A small break loss-of-accident (SBLOCA) in a typical Babcock and Wilcox (B W) nuclear power plant was modeled using RELAP5/MOD3. This work was performed as part of the United States Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Code, Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) study. The break was initiated by severing one high pressure injection (HPI) line at the cold leg. Thus, the small break was further aggravated by reduced HPI flow. Comparisons between scoping runs with minimal operator action, and full operator action, clearly showed that the operator plays a key role in recovering the plant. Operator actions were modeled based on the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the Technical Bases Document for the EOPs. The sequence of operator actions modeled here is only one of several possibilities. Different sequences of operator actions are possible for a given accident because of the subjective decisions the operator must make when determining the status of the plant, hence, which branch of the EOP to follow. To assess the credibility of the modeled operator actions, these actions and results of the simulated accident scenario were presented to operator examiners who are familiar with B W nuclear power plants. They agreed that, in general, the modeled operator actions conform to the requirements set forth in the EOPs and are therefore plausible. This paper presents the method for modeling the operator actions and discusses the simulated accident scenario from the viewpoint of operator actions.

  17. Modeling operator actions during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a Babcock and Wilcox nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, L.S.; Ortiz, M.G.

    1991-12-31

    A small break loss-of-accident (SBLOCA) in a typical Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) nuclear power plant was modeled using RELAP5/MOD3. This work was performed as part of the United States Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Code, Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) study. The break was initiated by severing one high pressure injection (HPI) line at the cold leg. Thus, the small break was further aggravated by reduced HPI flow. Comparisons between scoping runs with minimal operator action, and full operator action, clearly showed that the operator plays a key role in recovering the plant. Operator actions were modeled based on the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the Technical Bases Document for the EOPs. The sequence of operator actions modeled here is only one of several possibilities. Different sequences of operator actions are possible for a given accident because of the subjective decisions the operator must make when determining the status of the plant, hence, which branch of the EOP to follow. To assess the credibility of the modeled operator actions, these actions and results of the simulated accident scenario were presented to operator examiners who are familiar with B&W nuclear power plants. They agreed that, in general, the modeled operator actions conform to the requirements set forth in the EOPs and are therefore plausible. This paper presents the method for modeling the operator actions and discusses the simulated accident scenario from the viewpoint of operator actions.

  18. A Predictive Task Network Model for Estimating the Effectiveness of Decision Aids for Sonar Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    METHOD 2.1 Building the model Using existing task analyses of navy sonar systems (Matthews, Greenley and Webb, 1991) and with the assistance of...Critical Operator Tasks. DRDC Toronto Report # CR-2003-131 Matthews, M.L., Greenley , M. and Webb, R.D.G (1991). Presentation of Information from Towed

  19. An enhanced Oct-tree data structure and operations for solid modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimura, K.; Toriya, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kunii, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Oct-trees are enhanced to increase the processing efficiency of geometric operations for interactive CAD use. Further enhancement is made to combine them with surface models for more precise boundary specification as needed by tool path generation in CAM applications.

  20. Applying Bayesian Modeling and Receiver Operating Characteristic Methodologies for Test Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiu; Diemer, Matthew A.; Maier, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated Bayesian hierarchical modeling and receiver operating characteristic analysis (BROCA) to evaluate how interest strength (IS) and interest differentiation (ID) predicted low–socioeconomic status (SES) youth's interest-major congruence (IMC). Using large-scale Kuder Career Search online-assessment data, this study fit three…