Science.gov

Sample records for modeling support contract

  1. Physics modeling support contract: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    This document is the final report for the Physics Modeling Support contract between TRW, Inc. and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fiscal year 1987. It consists of following projects: TIBER physics modeling and systems code development; advanced blanket modeling task; time dependent modeling; and free electron maser for TIBER II.

  2. 76 FR 81807 - Operational Contract Support

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... include: (1) Incorporation of lessons learned from current operations; (2) requirements for the... contract support (OCS). The ability to orchestrate and synchronize the provision of integrated contract..., integrate, and execute acquisition of, contracted support, including synchronizing and...

  3. Improving Army Operational Contract Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Richard M. Meinhart U.S. Army War...Austin Project Adviser Dr. Richard M. Meinhart U.S. Army War College Faculty Mentor This manuscript is submitted in partial...Improving Army Operational Contract Support by Colonel Daryl P. Harger United States Army United

  4. 78 FR 72572 - Operational Contract Support

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 158 RIN 0790-AI48 Operational Contract Support AGENCY: Department of... provides procedures for operational contract support (OCS), including OCS program management, contract... INFORMATION CONTACT: Shanna Poole, Director, Operational Contract Support Policy, Office of the...

  5. Past and ongoing shifts in Joshua tree distribution support future modeled range contraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Kenneth L.; Ironside, Kirsten; Eischeid, Jon K.; Garfin, Gregg; Duffy, Phil; Toney, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The future distribution of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is projected by combining a geostatistical analysis of 20th-century climates over its current range, future modeled climates, and paleoecological data showing its response to a past similar climate change. As climate rapidly warmed ;11 700 years ago, the range of Joshua tree contracted, leaving only the populations near what had been its northernmost limit. Its ability to spread northward into new suitable habitats after this time may have been inhibited by the somewhat earlier extinction of megafaunal dispersers, especially the Shasta ground sloth. We applied a model of climate suitability for Joshua tree, developed from its 20th-century range and climates, to future climates modeled through a set of six individual general circulation models (GCM) and one suite of 22 models for the late 21st century. All distribution data, observed climate data, and future GCM results were scaled to spatial grids of ;1 km and ;4 km in order to facilitate application within this topographically complex region. All of the models project the future elimination of Joshua tree throughout most of the southern portions of its current range. Although estimates of future monthly precipitation differ between the models, these changes are outweighed by large increases in temperature common to all the models. Only a few populations within the current range are predicted to be sustainable. Several models project significant potential future expansion into new areas beyond the current range, but the species' Historical and current rates of dispersal would seem to prevent natural expansion into these new areas. Several areas are predicted to be potential sites for relocation/ assisted migration. This project demonstrates how information from paleoecology and modern ecology can be integrated in order to understand ongoing processes and future distributions.

  6. Model for Contingency Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Dept. of Human Development.

    The Department of Human Development at Prince George's Community College has developed a contingency contracting model for the department's counseling and student services which presents planning and evaluation as interrelated parts of the same process of self-imposed accountability. The implementation of the model consisted of: (1) planning…

  7. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. When Disaster Strikes Is Logistics and Contracting Support Ready?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-27

    When Disaster Strikes Is Logistics and Contracting Support Ready? 27 September 2011 by Dr. Aruna Apte, Assistant Professor, and CDR (Ret...the Authors Dr. Aruna Apte has successfully completed various research projects, involving application of mathematical models and optimization...She has recently published a monograph on Humanitarian Logistics. Aruna received her PhD in Operations Research from Southern Methodist University

  9. Dual Support in Contract Workers' Triangular Employment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buch, Robert; Kuvaas, Bard; Dysvik, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the interplay between perceived investment in contract worker development by the "client" organization and contract workers' perceived organizational support from their temporary employment "agency." A study among 2021 contract workers from three temporary employment agencies in Norway showed that the…

  10. Exchange relationships: examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M; Conway, Neil

    2005-07-01

    The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment.

  11. PHYSICAL MODELING OF CONTRACTED FLOW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Jonathan K.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments on steady flow over uniform grass roughness through centered single-opening contractions were conducted in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility at the U. S. Geological Survey's Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The experimental series was designed to provide data for calibrating and verifying two-dimensional, vertically averaged surface-water flow models used to simulate flow through openings in highway embankments across inundated flood plains. Water-surface elevations, point velocities, and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at selected locations for design discharges ranging from 50 to 210 cfs. Examples of observed water-surface elevations and velocity magnitudes at basin cross-sections are presented.

  12. Insurance Contract Analysis for Company Decision Support in Acquisition Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernovita, H. P.; Manongga, D.; Iriani, A.

    2017-01-01

    One of company activities to retain their business is marketing the products which include in acquisition management to get new customers. Insurance contract analysis using ID3 to produce decision tree and rules to be decision support for the insurance company. The decision tree shows 13 rules that lead to contract termination claim. This could be a guide for the insurance company in acquisition management to prevent contract binding with these contract condition because it has a big chance for the customer to terminate their insurance contract before its expired date. As the result, there are several strong points that could be the determinant of contract termination such as: 1) customer age whether too young or too old, 2) long insurance period (above 10 years), 3) big insurance amount, 4) big amount of premium charges, and 5) payment method.

  13. 48 CFR 222.402-70 - Installation support contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT...) Apply both the Service Contract Labor Standards statute and the Construction Wage Rate Requirements... maintenance and support work. (c) Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute coverage under the...

  14. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  15. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  16. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  17. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  18. A Motivation Contract Model of Employee Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Robert B.

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a process model for identification and assessment of employee job performance, through motivation contracting. The model integrated various components of expectancy theories of motivation and performance contracting and is based on humanistic assumptions about the nature of people. More specifically, the…

  19. Operational Contract Support: Management and Oversight Improvements Needed in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    31The photographs in this report were selected from photographs provided by...identified in the photographs are derived from statements from officials or DOD documentation. has also reported significant construction deficiencies...examined photographs of supplies and services provided to us by the DOD personnel to best illustrate the nature of the contract support issues we

  20. Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Planning Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Contracting Oversight, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning 5a...Support into Contingency Planning Why GAO Did This Study DOD has relied extensively on contractors for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the

  1. An Exposition of Fischer's Model of Overlapping Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, T. Windsor; Hart, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests how the classic model of overlapping contracts can be incorporated into the contract wage model of aggregate supply. Illustrates dynamics of macroeconomic adjustment following a shock to aggregate demand. Concludes that overlapping contracts do not prolong the adjustment process; rather, the longest remaining contract determines the time…

  2. Defense Health Care: Acquisition Process for TRICARE’s Third Generation of Managed Care Support Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Selection Team Roles and Responsibilities for TRICARE’s Contract Award Process 11 Figure 3: Timeline of Bid Protest Events for TRICARE’s North Region...14-195 TRICARE Managed Care Support Contracts Figure 2: Source Selection Team Roles and Responsibilities for TRICARE’s Contract Award Process

  3. Office of Inspector General report on audit of controls over the ADP support services contract

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-15

    In March 1995, the Department awarded a cost-plus-award-fee contract to DynCorp valued at approximately $246 million over 5 years for ADP support services at Headquarters. The performance period for the contract was a 3-year base period with two 1-year options. The contract statement of work identified 24 information management functional areas that required technical support services, including Automated Office Systems Support and Local Area Network support. The purpose of the audit was to evaluate the cost-plus-award-fee contract for ADP support services at Headquarters. The objective was to determine whether the Department`s program offices at Headquarters were managing their ADP support services contract costs.

  4. Incomplete Contract Files for Southwest Asia Task Orders on the Warfighter Field Operations Customer Support Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle ITAM Iraq Training Advisory Mission MRAP Mine Resistant Ambush Protected PARC Principal Assistant Responsible for...million of training services placed on task order 022; and • Iraq Training and Advisory Mission ( ITAM ) training effort, valued at approximately $66.9...MRAP expedient armor program training effort. ITAM Training Effort PEO STRI contracting personnel awarded the ITAM training effort on the

  5. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.J.

    1993-02-01

    Composition and structure of oxide support materials can change the catalytic behavior of metal and oxide catalysts. Model catalysts are being studied in which the active phase is deposited on flat oxide substrates, with emphasis on metals catalysis for automotive emissions control and acidity in supported oxides. Research is reported in the following areas: particle-size effects, support effects on ZnO and zirconia, support effects on ceria, supported oxides, and low energy ion scattering (no results in the latter).

  6. 48 CFR 5152.245-9000 - Government property for installation support services (fixed-price contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government property for installation support services (fixed-price contracts). 5152.245-9000 Section 5152.245-9000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.245-9000...

  7. 48 CFR 5152.245-9000 - Government property for installation support services (fixed-price contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CLAUSES 5152.245-9000 Government property for installation support services (fixed-price contracts). As... Contractor will comply with instructions from the Contracting Officer relative to disposition of the property..., Government Property Furnished “as is”. (End of clause)...

  8. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  9. Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tightening of your uterus muscles at irregular intervals or a squeezing sensation in your lower abdomen ... beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, usually move from the back to the lower ...

  10. Contingency Contracting Officers: Can They Adequately Support the Force?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Conflicts Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, September 1988. 10. Radin, HAJ Sara R ., Contingency Contracting, A Force Multiplier...public release; distribution is unlimited. 4 Performing Organisation Report Number(s) 5 Monitoring organization Report Number(s) a Mass of Performing...7b Address v.t . and Z"co4e1Monery A 13943-50 Monterey CA 934-5000 Monterey CA 40_0 s Naume of Funding/Sponsoring Sb Office Symbol 9 Procurement

  11. 7 CFR 1718.104 - Availability of model loan contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of model loan contract. 1718.104 Section 1718.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Loan Contracts With Distribution Borrowers § 1718.104 Availability...

  12. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  13. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  14. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  15. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  16. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  17. An Analysis of Current Operational Contract Support Planning Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    economy in support of war occurred early in American history. In fact, the modern formalized procurement system traces back to a need for...through the creation of resources spanning doctrine, organization, training, material, leadership, education, personnel, facilities and policy (DOTMLPF...capability. Service components are participating in numerous initiatives to institutionalize this function through the creation of resources

  18. Future Models for Federally Funded Research and Development Center Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-20

    Future Models for Federally Funded Research and Development Center Contracts Approved by the DBB 20 October 2016 Presentation on: Task Group... Development Center (FFRDC) contracts. Specifically, the DBB should;  Review existing governance models, compare management activities to those of the...USAF Establish DBB Task Group to ecommend an appropriate futur model and focus for DoD sponsor d Federally Funded Research and Development

  19. Logistics Support Contracting for the United States Special Operations Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-28

    Development, Test, and Evaluation SOFSA Special Operations Forces Support Activity TAPO Technology Applications Program Office U.S.C United...Violation The Technology Applications Program Office ( TAPO ) did not comply with appropriations laws and regulations when funding task order USZA22-03...C-0056-2237 because TAPO funded $63.6 million of the task order with procurement funds rather than research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT

  20. Operational Contract Support: Actions Needed to Enhance the Collection, Integration, and Sharing of Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Additionally, the Army’s Acquisition, Logistics and Technology-Integration Office has fully integrated with the Combined Arms Support Command’s Reverse ...Acquisition, Technology and Logistics ) Memorandum, Charter for the Department of Defense Operational Contract Support Functional Capabilities Integration...Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics has overall responsibility for establishing and publishing policies and procedures

  1. Base Operation and Support (BOS) Contracts: Their Value to the US Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    include a wide range of non-core, secondary or administrative support services, operation of public facilities and the like.4 NI, Mahon E., Moore , A...nstiute.org html cr 41.h1m 4𔃾 McMahon E., Moore , A., and Segal G. Private Competition for Public Services: Unfinished Agenda in New York State. August 9...contract for facility services through individual service contracts, or (3) a combination of the two previous examples. According to Fellow, Moore , and

  2. Contract Civilian Maintenance Support in U.S. Marine F/A-18 Fleet Squadrons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    augment the constant changeover of military personnel. The civilian maintenance company, PKL Maintenance Inc., provides approximately sixty...Close Air Support (CAS). September 2003 Incorporating Change 1 September 2005. 12 VMFAT-101 Contract with PKL Maintenance, Inc. 13 James Charlton, The...2005. United States Marine Corps Total Force Structure Management System Unit TO&E Report. Accessed 28 November 2008. VMFAT-101 Contract with PKL Maintenance, Inc.

  3. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph Scientific Support Contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1988, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) was selected as the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) Scientific Support Contractor (SSC). This was to have been a few months before the launch of NASA's first Great Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As one of five scientific instruments on HST, the GHRS was designed to obtain spectra in the 1050-3300 A ultraviolet wavelength region with a resolving power, lambda/Delta(lambda) , of up to 100,000 and relative photometric accuracy to 1%. It was built by Ball AeroSpace Systems Group under the guidance of the GHRS Investigation Definition Team (IDT), comprised of 16 scientists from the US and Canada. After launch, the IDT was to perform the initial instrument calibration and execute a broad scientific program during a five-year Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) period. After a year's delay, the launch of HST occurred in April 1990, and CSC participated in the in-orbit calibration and first four years of GTO observations with the IDT. The HST primary mirror suffered from spherical aberration, which reduced the spatial and spectral resolution of Large Science Aperture (LSA) observations and decreased the throughput of the Small Science Aperture (SSA) by a factor of two. Periodic problems with the Side 1 carrousel electronics and anomalies with the low-voltage power supply finally resulted in a suspension of the use of Side 1 less than two years after launch. At the outset, the GHRS SSC task involved work in four areas: 1) to manage and operate the GHRS Data Analysis Facility (DAF); 2) to support the second Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) program, as well as perform system engineering analysis of the GHRS as nesessary; 3) to assist the GHRS IDT with their scientific research programs, particularly the GSFC members of the team, and 4) to provide administrative and logistic support for GHRS public information and educational activities.

  4. 48 CFR 5152.245-9001 - Government property for installation support services (cost-reimbursement contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... normal parts replacement), and repair the property in accordance with sound industrial practice. (2) No... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Government property for... CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.245-9001 Government property for installation support services...

  5. Contracting Janitorial Services. A Training and Production Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.

    This book provides a model to help facilities for training handicapped persons to teach janitorial work and set up a contracting program for janitorial services. The book is organized in three sections. The first section outlines the training production model, including hints on beginning the venture, separation of training and contracting…

  6. Integrative Systems Models of Cardiac Excitation Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Joseph L.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2010-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling in the cardiac myocyte is mediated by a number of highly integrated mechanisms of intracellular Ca2+ transport. The complexity and integrative nature of heart cell electrophysiology and Ca2+-cycling has led to an evolution of computational models that have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of heart function. An important emerging theme in systems biology is that the detailed nature of local signaling events, such as those that occur in the cardiac dyad, have important consequences at higher biological scales. Multi-scale modeling techniques have revealed many mechanistic links between micro-scale events, such as Ca2+ binding to a channel protein, and macro-scale phenomena, such as excitation-contraction coupling gain. Here we review experimentally based multi-scale computational models of excitation-contraction coupling and the insights that have been gained through their application. PMID:21212390

  7. Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: the professional model.

    PubMed

    Van Zyl, Liezl; Walker, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession.

  8. A Manpower Model for U.S. Navy Operational Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Force Spiral 1 Model Report details the new model that is underdevelopment and now on hold due to funding issues. This report stated the human factor...we listed them in bullet format below. 60 • In his report titled Managing Contracts in Turbulent Times, Rendon (2008) describes a model called...CMS) Study. (2011). Spiral 1 Model report. Tinker Air Force Base, OK: Author. Air Force Manpower and Innovation Agency (AFMIA). (2001). Operational

  9. Limiting case of modified electroweak model for contracted gauge group

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, N. A.

    2011-06-15

    The modification of the Electroweak Model with 3-dimensional spherical geometry in the matter fields space is suggested. The Lagrangian of this model is given by the sum of the free (without any potential term) matter fields Lagrangian and the standard gauge fields Lagrangian. The vector boson masses are generated by transformation of this Lagrangian from Cartesian coordinates to coordinates on the sphere S{sup 3}. The limiting case of the bosonic part of the modified model, which corresponds to the contracted gauge group SU(2; j) x U(1) is discussed. Within framework of the limit model Z boson and electromagnetic fields can be regarded as external ones with respect to W-boson fields in the sence that W-boson fields do not effect on these external fields. The masses of all particles of the Electroweak Model remain the same, but field interactions in contracted model are more simple as compared with the standard Electroweak Model.

  10. The Contracting Support Brigade: Is It Capable of Sustaining Tempo and Combat Power in the Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Contracting Support Brigade: Is it capable of Sustaining Tempo and Combat Power in the...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...SUBTITLE The Contracting Support Brigade: Is it Capable of Sustaining Tempo and Combat Power in the Operational Environment? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  11. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.G.

    1991-11-01

    We are studying model catalysts in which the active phase is deposited onto flat oxide substrates in order to understand how a catalyst is affected by its support. We have examined the following growth and stability of titania overlayers which had been vapor deposited onto a Rh foil; the growth of Pt films on ZnO(0001)Zn and O(0001)O and compared the results to those obtained for Pt on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). Samples were prepared by vapor deposition of Pt onto flat substrates in ultra high vacuum, and metal coverages were measured using a quartz-crystal, film thickness monitor; the structure and CO adsorption properties of Pt films vapor deposited onto a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; the deposition of Rh on a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; The absorption of NO on Pt particles supported on CeO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and the Zn- and O-polar surfaces of ZnO(0001). We have investigated supported oxides in order to understand the acidic properties that have been reported for monolayer oxides. Our first studies were of amorphous, silicalumina catalysts. Finally, we have also begun to prepare model supported oxides in order to be able to used spectroscopic methods to characterize the sites formed on these materials. Our first studies were of niobia deposition on oxidized Al films and on an {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) crystal.

  12. 25 CFR 170.607 - Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for... Miscellaneous Provisions § 170.607 Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs? Yes. Contract support costs are an eligible item out of a tribe's IRR Program allocation and...

  13. Student Mental Models Related to Expansion and Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan; Emen, Ayse Yagmur

    2014-01-01

    Following up on the effects of learning environments is essential to learning. The aim of this study was to examine students' mental models related to the concepts of expansion and contraction of materials. The population of the case study consisted of 155 students in a city center in Turkey. The data was gathered using open-ended questions that…

  14. Multiscale forward electromagnetic model of uterine contractions during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analyzing and monitoring uterine contractions during pregnancy is relevant to the field of reproductive health assessment. Its clinical importance is grounded in the need to reliably predict the onset of labor at term and pre-term. Preterm births can cause health problems or even be fatal for the fetus. Currently, there are no objective methods for consistently predicting the onset of labor based on sensing of the mechanical or electrophysiological aspects of uterine contractions. Therefore, modeling uterine contractions could help to better interpret such measurements and to develop more accurate methods for predicting labor. In this work, we develop a multiscale forward electromagnetic model of myometrial contractions during pregnancy. In particular, we introduce a model of myometrial current source densities and compute its magnetic field and action potential at the abdominal surface, using Maxwell’s equations and a four-compartment volume conductor geometry. To model the current source density at the myometrium we use a bidomain approach. We consider a modified version of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) equation for modeling ionic currents in each myocyte, assuming a plateau-type transmembrane potential, and we incorporate the anisotropic nature of the uterus by designing conductivity-tensor fields. Results We illustrate our modeling approach considering a spherical uterus and one pacemaker located in the fundus. We obtained a travelling transmembrane potential depolarizing from −56 mV to −16 mV and an average potential in the plateau area of −25 mV with a duration, before hyperpolarization, of 35 s, which is a good approximation with respect to the average recorded transmembrane potentials at term reported in the technical literature. Similarly, the percentage of myometrial cells contracting as a function of time had the same symmetric properties and duration as the intrauterine pressure waveforms of a pregnant human myometrium at term

  15. Far-field contractional polarity changes in models and nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Ioan; Willingshofer, Ernst; Matenco, Liviu; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-06-01

    A change in contractional polarity occurs when the direction of tectonic transport switches along strike. This switch is conditioned by lateral variations in rheology or inherited asymmetries, such as contrasts in structure or changes in the polarity of subduction zones. The parameters controlling contractional polarity changes are less understood in situations when the strain is transferred at large distances from indenters. Analysing this type of strain transfer is critical for understanding the mechanics of thrusting in fore- or back-arc settings of orogenic areas. Comparison of crustal-scale analogue modelling with the inversion of the Black Sea back-arc and the formation of the New Guinea-New Britain fore-arc suggest that far-field changes in contractional polarity are related to rheological contrasts across inherited normal faults. The initial extension creates rheological weak zones that localize the subsequent far-field contractional deformation along groups of thrusts with opposite vergence along the strike of the system. The largest amount of far-field contractional deformation is recorded in the transfer zone located between the two indenters moving in opposite directions and is particularly high when inverting oblique extensional systems.

  16. In vitro models of tail contraction and cytoplasmic streaming in amoeboid cells.

    PubMed

    Janson, L W; Taylor, D L

    1993-10-01

    We have developed a reconstituted gel-sol and contractile model system that mimics the structure and dynamics found at the ectoplasm/endoplasm interface in the tails of many amoeboid cells. We tested the role of gel-sol transformations of the actin-based cytoskeleton in the regulation of contraction and in the generation of endoplasm from ectoplasm. In a model system with fully phosphorylated myosin II, we demonstrated that either decreasing the actin filament length distribution or decreasing the extent of actin filament cross-linking initiated both a weakening of the gel strength and contraction. However, streaming of the solated gel components occurred only under conditions where the length distribution of actin was decreased, causing a self-destruct process of continued solation and contraction of the gel. These results offer significant support that gel strength plays an important role in the regulation of actin/myosin II-based contractions of the tail cortex in many amoeboid cells as defined by the solation-contraction coupling hypothesis (Taylor, D. L., and M. Fechheimer. 1982. Phil. Trans. Soc. Lond. B. 299:185-197). The competing processes of solation and contraction of the gel would appear to be mutually exclusive. However, it is the temporal-spatial balance of the rate and extent of two stages of solation, coupled to contraction, that can explain the conversion of gelled ectoplasm in the tail to a solated endoplasm within the same small volume, generation of a force for the retraction of tails, maintenance of cell polarity, and creation of a positive hydrostatic pressure to push against the newly formed endoplasm. The mechanism of solation-contraction of cortical cytoplasm may be a general component of the normal movement of a variety of amoeboid cells and may also be a component of other contractile events such as cytokinesis.

  17. Motor unit activity when young and old adults perform steady contractions while supporting an inertial load.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michael A; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ∼120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P < 0.001). Once recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for young adults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than young adults across the two contraction intensities for both load types.

  18. Military Operations: DOD Needs to Address Contract Oversight and Quality Assurance Issues for Contracts Used to Support Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    equipment, changes in host country labor laws , and paying for work to be performed multiple times. For six of the contracts we reviewed, the cost of... labor laws , and (4) having to pay for work to be performed multiple times because it did not meet required standards. First, we found that in three of...associated overhead expenses.22 Third, changes in the host country labor law resulted in additional security services contract costs. According to the

  19. Filial piety by contract? The emergence, implementation, and implications of the "family support agreement" in China.

    PubMed

    Chou, Rita Jing-Ann

    2011-02-01

    China has the largest aging population in the world today. Despite the Chinese tradition of filial piety, economic, social, cultural, and familial changes have made it increasingly difficult for older Chinese to receive support from adult children. To ensure parental support, the Family Support Agreement (FSA) emerged from a local community in the mid-1980s. Since then, the FSA has been promoted and monitored by the government. By the end of 2005, FSAs had been signed by more than 13 million rural families across China and is now finding its way into cities. A voluntary contract between older parents and adult children concerning parental provisions, the FSA represents an innovation to help meet the challenge of providing elder support. Although the FSA's moral persuasion is based on filial piety, violations of the FSA are subject to penalties by law. As the first systematic and comprehensive exploratory study on the FSA, this article examines (a) the FSA's emergence, content, legal foundation, and implementation; (b) the role of the government and the legal system in promoting or monitoring FSAs; (c) the FSA's strengths, limitations, and challenges; (d) the FSA's implications in light of Chinese history, intergenerational contract, filial piety, and intergenerational relations; and (e) the future of the FSA as a social policy.

  20. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  1. Mathematical model of mouse embryonic cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Topi; Rapila, Risto; Tavi, Pasi

    2008-10-01

    Excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling is the mechanism that connects the electrical excitation with cardiomyocyte contraction. Embryonic cardiomyocytes are not only capable of generating action potential (AP)-induced Ca(2+) signals and contractions (E-C coupling), but they also can induce spontaneous pacemaking activity. The spontaneous activity originates from spontaneous Ca(2+) releases from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which trigger APs via the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). In the AP-driven mode, an external stimulus triggers an AP and activates voltage-activated Ca(2+) intrusion to the cell. These complex and unique features of the embryonic cardiomyocyte pacemaking and E-C coupling have never been assessed with mathematical modeling. Here, we suggest a novel mathematical model explaining how both of these mechanisms can coexist in the same embryonic cardiomyocytes. In addition to experimentally characterized ion currents, the model includes novel heterogeneous cytosolic Ca(2+) dynamics and oscillatory SR Ca(2+) handling. The model reproduces faithfully the experimentally observed fundamental features of both E-C coupling and pacemaking. We further validate our model by simulating the effect of genetic modifications on the hyperpolarization-activated current, NCX, and the SR Ca(2+) buffer protein calreticulin. In these simulations, the model produces a similar functional alteration to that observed previously in the genetically engineered mice, and thus provides mechanistic explanations for the cardiac phenotypes of these animals. In general, this study presents the first model explaining the underlying cellular mechanism for the origin and the regulation of the heartbeat in early embryonic cardiomyocytes.

  2. Mathematical Model of Mouse Embryonic Cardiomyocyte Excitation–Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Topi; Rapila, Risto; Tavi, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling is the mechanism that connects the electrical excitation with cardiomyocyte contraction. Embryonic cardiomyocytes are not only capable of generating action potential (AP)-induced Ca2+ signals and contractions (E–C coupling), but they also can induce spontaneous pacemaking activity. The spontaneous activity originates from spontaneous Ca2+ releases from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which trigger APs via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). In the AP-driven mode, an external stimulus triggers an AP and activates voltage-activated Ca2+ intrusion to the cell. These complex and unique features of the embryonic cardiomyocyte pacemaking and E–C coupling have never been assessed with mathematical modeling. Here, we suggest a novel mathematical model explaining how both of these mechanisms can coexist in the same embryonic cardiomyocytes. In addition to experimentally characterized ion currents, the model includes novel heterogeneous cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics and oscillatory SR Ca2+ handling. The model reproduces faithfully the experimentally observed fundamental features of both E–C coupling and pacemaking. We further validate our model by simulating the effect of genetic modifications on the hyperpolarization-activated current, NCX, and the SR Ca2+ buffer protein calreticulin. In these simulations, the model produces a similar functional alteration to that observed previously in the genetically engineered mice, and thus provides mechanistic explanations for the cardiac phenotypes of these animals. In general, this study presents the first model explaining the underlying cellular mechanism for the origin and the regulation of the heartbeat in early embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:18794378

  3. 25 CFR 170.607 - Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads... costs? Yes. Contract support costs are an eligible item out of a tribe's IRR Program allocation and...

  4. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  5. Effective Team Support: From Modeling to Software Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor); John, Bonnie; Sycara, Katia

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to perform multidisciplinary research between CMU psychologists, computer scientists and engineers and NASA researchers to design a next generation collaborative system to support a team of human experts and intelligent agents. To achieve robust performance enhancement of such a system, we had proposed to perform task and cognitive modeling to thoroughly understand the impact technology makes on the organization and on key individual personnel. Guided by cognitively-inspired requirements, we would then develop software agents that support the human team in decision making, information filtering, information distribution and integration to enhance team situational awareness. During the period covered by this final report, we made substantial progress in modeling infrastructure and task infrastructure. Work is continuing under a different contract to complete empirical data collection, cognitive modeling, and the building of software agents to support the teams task.

  6. DoD Needs to Improve Oversight of the Afghan National Police Training/Mentoring and Logistics Support Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-25

    morale, and public perception of the ANP. Specifically, the contractor was required to support the MoI/ANP training program by delivering classroom...Officer ( PCO ) confirmed with the previous ACC-Rl PCO and neither recall ever making this statement. The previous PCO recalls discussing that a QASP...performance surveillance and have access to all contract documents. Adequate contract oversight is always a concern of the PCO , in part due to the

  7. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  8. Modeling the contraction of the pelvic floor muscles.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernanda Sofia Quintela da Silva; Parente, Marco Paulo Lages; Rocha, Paulo Alexandre Gomes Gonçalves; Saraiva, Maria Teresa da Quinta E Costa de Mascarenhas; Ramos, Isabel Maria Amorim Pereira; Natal Jorge, Renato Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles to evaluate the resulting displacements of the organs and muscles. Structures were segmented in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Different material properties and constitutive models were attributed. The Finite Element Method was applied, and displacements were compared with dynamic MRI findings. Numerical simulation showed muscle magnitude displacement ranging from 0 to 7.9 mm, more evident in the posterior area. Accordingly, the anorectum moved more than the uterus and bladder. Dynamic MRI showed less 0.2 mm and 4.1 mm muscle dislocation in the anterior and cranial directions, respectively. Applications of this model include evaluating muscle impairment, subject-specific mesh implant planning, or effectiveness of rehabilitation.

  9. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  10. Theory and Modeling in Support of Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Bergeron, G.; Drobot, A. D.; Papadopoulos, K.; Riyopoulos, S.; Szuszczewicz, E.

    1999-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by SAIC's Applied Physics Operation on the modeling and support of Tethered Satellite System missions (TSS-1 and TSS-1R). The SAIC team, known to be Theory and Modeling in Support of Tether (TMST) investigation, was one of the original twelve teams selected in July, 1985 for the first TSS mission. The accomplishments described in this report cover the period December 19, 1985 to September 31, 1999 and are the result of a continuous effort aimed at supporting the TSS missions in the following major areas. During the contract period, the SAIC's TMST investigation acted to: Participate in the planning and the execution on both of the TSS missions; Provide scientific understanding on the issues involved in the electrodynamic tether system operation prior to the TSS missions; Predict ionospheric conditions encountered during the re-flight mission (TSS-lR) based on realtime global ionosounde data; Perform post mission analyses to enhance our understanding on the TSS results. Specifically, we have 1) constructed and improved current collection models and enhanced our understanding on the current-voltage data; 2) investigated the effects of neutral gas in the current collection processes; 3) conducted laboratory experiments to study the discharge phenomena during and after tether-break; and 4) perform numerical simulations to understand data collected by plasma instruments SPES onboard the TSS satellite; Design and produce multi-media CD that highlights TSS mission achievements and convey the knowledge of the tether technology to the general public. Along with discussions of this work, a list of publications and presentations derived from the TMST investigation spanning the reporting period is compiled.

  11. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.J.

    1993-02-01

    Composition and structure of oxide support materials can change the catalytic behavior of metal and oxide catalysts. Model catalysts are being studied in which the active phase is deposited on flat oxide substrates, with emphasis on metals catalysis for automotive emissions control and acidity in supported oxides. Research is reported in the following areas: particle-size effects, support effects on ZnO and zirconia, support effects on ceria, supported oxides, and low energy ion scattering (no results in the latter).

  12. Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-28

    LOGCAP contract (LOGCAP III) was awarded in 2001 to Halliburton /KBR.32 LOGCAP III, a 10-year contract (one base year followed by nine option years), was...awarded to Halliburton /KBR to perform a variety of tasks. Initial press reports indicated that the 2001 LOGCAP III contract would be for the...billion. According to one press account, Halliburton /KBR reportedly earned a fixed 1% profit above costs on LOGCAP III, with the possibility of an

  13. Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-20

    LOGCAP contract (LOGCAP III) was awarded in 2001 to Halliburton /KBR.32 LOGCAP III, a 10-year contract (one base year followed by nine option years...was awarded to Halliburton /KBR to perform a variety of tasks. Initial press reports indicated that the 2001 LOGCAP III contract would be for the...billion. According to one press account, Halliburton /KBR reportedly earned a fixed 1% profit above costs on LOGCAP III, with the possibility of an

  14. 10 CFR 950.14 - Standby Support Contract: Covered events, exclusions, covered delay and covered cost provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental laws or regulations such as those related to pollution abatement or human health and the... of power or other utility services supplied to the location, or natural events such as severe weather.... (c) Covered delay. Each Standby Support Contract shall include a provision for the payment of...

  15. 10 CFR 950.14 - Standby Support Contract: Covered events, exclusions, covered delay and covered cost provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental laws or regulations such as those related to pollution abatement or human health and the... of power or other utility services supplied to the location, or natural events such as severe weather.... (c) Covered delay. Each Standby Support Contract shall include a provision for the payment of...

  16. 25 CFR 170.608 - Can a tribe pay contract support costs from Department of the Interior or BIA appropriations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe pay contract support costs from Department of the Interior or BIA appropriations? 170.608 Section 170.608 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for...

  17. 25 CFR 170.607 - Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs? 170.607 Section 170.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation...

  18. Contracts and Management Services FY 1996 Site Support Program Plan: WBS 6.10.14. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, J.M. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This is the Contracts and Management Services site support program plan for the US DOE Hanford site. The topics addressed in the program plan include a mission statement, program objectives, planning assumptions, program constraints, work breakdown structure, milestone list, milestone description sheets, and activity detail including cost accounting narrative summary, approved funding budget, and activity detailed description.

  19. 48 CFR 5152.245-9001 - Government property for installation support services (cost-reimbursement contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Contracting Officer determines that it is so permanently attached that removal would cause... normal parts replacement), and repair the property in accordance with sound industrial practice. (2) No... shall notify the Contracting Officer in writing when sound industrial practice requires maintenance...

  20. Injectable polyurethane composite scaffolds delay wound contraction and support cellular infiltration and remodeling in rat excisional wounds.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Elizabeth J; Hafeman, Andrea E; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Nanney, Lillian B; Guelcher, Scott A

    2012-02-01

    Injectable scaffolds present compelling opportunities for wound repair and regeneration because of their ability to fill irregularly shaped defects and deliver biologics such as growth factors. In this study, we investigated the properties of injectable polyurethane (PUR) biocomposite scaffolds and their application in cutaneous wound repair using a rat excisional model. The scaffolds have a minimal reaction exotherm and clinically relevant working and setting times. Moreover, the biocomposites have mechanical and thermal properties consistent with rubbery elastomers. In the rat excisional wound model, injection of settable biocomposite scaffolds stented the wounds at early time points, resulting in a regenerative rather than a scarring phenotype at later time points. Measurements of wound length and thickness revealed that the treated wounds were less contracted at day 7 compared to blank wounds. Analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis showed that the scaffolds were biocompatible and supported tissue ingrowth. Myofibroblast formation and collagen fiber organization provided evidence that the scaffolds have a positive effect on extracellular matrix remodeling by disrupting the formation of an aligned matrix under elevated tension. In summary, we have developed an injectable biodegradable PUR biocomposite scaffold that enhances cutaneous wound healing in a rat model.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General report on audit of Department of Energy support service contracting

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    The purpose of this audit was to review the Department`s acquisition and use of support service contractors and subcontractors. The audit objectives were to determine if the Department (1) paid fees to both support service contractors and subcontractors for services exclusively performed by subcontractors, (2) used support service contractors to perform inherent government functions, and (3) rolled over unearned award fees to subsequent evaluation periods and had adequate management controls to ensure that contractor performance would be evaluated. The Department did not always obtain support services in the most economical and effective manner. The Department negotiated and paid four of six support service contractors an estimated $5.1 million in fees for services exclusively provided by subcontractors because the Department did not have a policy which addressed the inclusion, at the pre-award phase, of subcontract labor in the support service contractors` fee determinations. Furthermore, while the authors found no instances where support service contractors performed inherent government functions, they did note that the Department maintained minimal administration over major portions of contracted-for services on three of six support service contracts. This occurred because contractors subcontracted extensively for support services. Consequently, the Department may have decreased their ability to control cost growth on these three contracts. As discussed in Part 4, the Department`s process was sufficient in five of six cases to evaluate support service contractor performance. However, one of six cost-plus-award-fee contractors received award fees that exceeded its performance ratings by $89,000 because one Departmental office elected to rollover unearned portions of fees from prior evaluation periods and make them available in the next evaluation period.

  2. Hemodynamic effects of pressure-volume relation in the atrial contraction model on the total artificial heart using centrifugal blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takuya; Kuroda, Takehito; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic effects of atrial contraction with centrifugal pump type total artificial heart is unknown. In this study, we simulated an atrial contraction in a mock model. By the driving condition with higher pressure in the mock atrial model, the load during atrial contraction increased. Based on these findings, we examined atrial contraction in the animal using adult goats. Prior to the measurement, we installed a centrifugal-type ventricular assist device (VADs), and then clamped both ventricles. We measured the hemodynamic data without ventricular contractile functions in order to obtain the effect of atrial contraction on hemodynamics under the condition of the total artificial heart (TAH) circulatory support model. We could estimate the heart rate by revolution number and voltage of pumps. There might be a possibility that we could regulate autonomic nervous response with the control of cardiac output.

  3. The phenomenological model of muscle contraction with a controller to simulate the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Youjiro; Saito, Masami; Ito, Akira

    2009-02-09

    We previously proposed a systematic motor model for muscle with two parallel Maxwell elements and a force generator P. The motor model showed the non-linear behavior of a muscle, such as the force-velocity relation and the force depression and enhancement, by using weight functions. Our newly proposed muscle model is based on the molecular mechanism of myosin cross-bridges. We assume that each parallel Maxwell element represents the mechanical properties of weak and strong binding of the myosin head to actin. Furthermore, we introduce a controller to simulate the excitation-contraction coupling of the muscle. The new muscle model satisfies all the properties obtained in our previous model and reduces the wasted energy of the viscous component to less than 5% of the total energy. The controller enables us to simulate contractions of slow and fast twitch muscles, which are driven by an artificial action potential or a processing electromyography signal despite their same mechanical components. The maximum velocities are calculated to be 3.4L(0)m/s for the fast twitch muscle model and 2.5L(0)m/s for the slow twitch muscle model, where L(0) is the initial length of the muscle model.

  4. 48 CFR 5152.245-9001 - Government property for installation support services (cost-reimbursement contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... property; (ii) The time and origin of the loss, destruction, or damage; (iii) All known interests in... the Contracting Officer. (9) The Contractor shall do nothing to prejudice the Government's rights...

  5. U.S. Department of Defense Contract Spending and the Supporting Industrial Base, 2000-2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    2000 –2013 David Berteau, Center for Strategic & International Studies Jesse Ellman, Center for Strategic & International Studies Gregory...Industrial Base, 2000 -2013 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...federal contract dollars throughout the growth and subsequent inflection of defense spending of the 2000 ??? 2013 study period. This data will be analyzed

  6. The Identification of Contracting Terms in Support of the Body of Knowledge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    and 2) Secretary of Defense Cheney’s Defense Management Review. ( Loeb , 1989:2) Among its many recommendations, the Packard Commission stated that, in...individuals assigned to positions in the GS-1102, Contracting series. ( Loeb , 1989:2) The GS-1102, Contracting series referenced in the OFPP memo includes...comprised a work force of 30,263 individuals in 1988 ( Loeb , 1989:1; Report on the Acquisition Work Force, 1989:1). The importance of this series was

  7. Mechano-chemical Interactions in Cardiac Sarcomere Contraction: A Computational Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Lumens, Joost; Arts, Theo; Delhaas, Tammo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a model of cardiac sarcomere contraction to study the calcium-tension relationship in cardiac muscle. Calcium mediates cardiac contraction through its interactions with troponin (Tn) and subsequently tropomyosin molecules. Experimental studies have shown that a slight increase in intracellular calcium concentration leads to a rapid increase in sarcomeric tension. Though it is widely accepted that the rapid increase is not possible without the concept of cooperativity, the mechanism is debated. We use the hypothesis that there exists a base level of cooperativity intrinsic to the thin filament that is boosted by mechanical tension, i.e. a high level of mechanical tension in the thin filament impedes the unbinding of calcium from Tn. To test these hypotheses, we developed a computational model in which a set of three parameters and inputs of calcium concentration and sarcomere length result in output tension. Tension as simulated appeared in good agreement with experimentally measured tension. Our results support the hypothesis that high tension in the thin filament impedes Tn deactivation by increasing the energy required to detach calcium from the Tn. Given this hypothesis, the model predicted that the areas with highest tension, i.e. closest to the Z-disk end of the single overlap region, show the largest concentration of active Tn’s. PMID:27716775

  8. A multi-agent cell-based model for wound contraction.

    PubMed

    Boon, W M; Koppenol, D C; Vermolen, F J

    2016-05-24

    A mathematical model for wound contraction is presented. The model is based on a cell-based formalism where fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and the immune reaction are taken into account. The model is used to simulate contraction of a wound using point forces on the cell boundary and it also determines the orientation of collagen after restoration of the damage. The paper presents the mathematical model in terms of the equations and assumptions, as well as some implications of the modelling. The present model predicts that the amount of final contraction is larger if the migration velocity of the leukocytes is larger and hence it is important that the immune system functions well to prevent contractures. Further, the present model is the first cell-based model that combines the immune system to final contractions.

  9. Alternative Education/Alternative Revenue. A. Contract Training: Public and Private Sector Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestina, Raymond; Curry, Beverly A.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights two models of contract education, using Triton College's (IL) programs as examples. Describes Triton's Employee Development Institute, which contracts to provide specific training to local businesses, and Triton's Continuing Education Center for Health Professionals (CECHP), which co-sponsors programs for the continuing education of…

  10. 76 FR 16349 - Notice of Policy Regarding Civil Aircraft Operators Providing Contract Support to Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... and 49 U.S.C 40125) and considers aircraft ] ownership, operator, the purpose of the flight and the... aircraft status for designated, qualified flights; The contracted operator notifies the FAA Flight... flight(s) in question are determined to be legitimate public aircraft operations under the terms of...

  11. Navy Organic Airborne and Surface Influence Sweep Program Needs Defense Contract Management Agency Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    Requirements International Organization for Standardization ISO 9001 :2008 – Quality Management . Also, the Program Manager worked with Naval Sea Systems...9 • FAR 52.246-11, Higher Level Contract Quality ,” which specifies high-level quality requirements for Quality Management Systems...states that the DCMA program integrator will base the technical assessment on engineering, software acquisition management , and manufacturing and quality

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  13. 48 CFR 5152.245-9001 - Government property for installation support services (cost-reimbursement contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the provisions of FAR subpart 45.5 in effect on the date of this contract. (g) Maintenance. (1) Except... makes no warranty, express or implied, regarding the condition or fitness for use of any property. To... expense, either return such item or otherwise dispose of it or effect repairs or modifications. If...

  14. 48 CFR 5152.245-9001 - Government property for installation support services (cost-reimbursement contracts).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the provisions of FAR subpart 45.5 in effect on the date of this contract. (g) Maintenance. (1) Except... makes no warranty, express or implied, regarding the condition or fitness for use of any property. To... expense, either return such item or otherwise dispose of it or effect repairs or modifications. If...

  15. Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Ronald C.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in support of the Contact Dynamics 6DOF Facility and the Flight Robotics Lab at NASA/ MSFC in the areas of Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support.

  16. Multiscale Interactions in a 3D Model of the Contracting Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Amar, Ani; Zlochiver, Sharon; Barnea, Ofer

    2015-12-01

    A biophysical detailed multiscale model of the myocardium is presented. The model was used to study the contribution of interrelated cellular mechanisms to global myocardial function. The multiscale model integrates cellular electrophysiology, excitation propagation dynamics and force development models into a geometrical fiber based model of the ventricle. The description of the cellular electrophysiology in this study was based on the Ten Tusscher-Noble-Noble-Panfilov heterogeneous model for human ventricular myocytes. A four-state model of the sarcomeric control of contraction developed by Negroni and Lascano was employed to model the intracellular mechanism of force generation. The propagation of electrical excitation was described by a reaction-diffusion equation. The 3D geometrical model of the ventricle, based on single fiber contraction was used as a platform for the evaluation of proposed models. The model represents the myocardium as an anatomically oriented array of contracting fibers with individual fiber parameters such as size, spatial location, orientation and mechanical properties. Moreover, the contracting ventricle model interacts with intraventricular blood elements linking the contractile elements to the heart's preload and afterload, thereby producing the corresponding pressure-volume loop. The results show that the multiscale ventricle model is capable of simulating mechanical contraction, pressure generation and load interactions as well as demonstrating the individual contribution of each ion current.

  17. Analysis of the 918th Contracting Battalion and 410th Contracting Support Brigade Utilizing the Contract Management Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Program Graduate School of Business & Public Policy - iii - Naval Postgraduate School ABOUT THE AUTHORS CPT Gary Croston was born and raised in...management. He was awarded the Combat Action Badge during deployments to both Iraq, and Afghanistan where he was earned the Bronze Star Medal...married to Louise Carolyn Valentine of Valley City, Ohio. They have one son, Wyatt Lee Valentine, who was born on July 4, 2013

  18. Federal Research and Development Contract Trends and the Supporting Industrial Base, 2000-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    seen their shares of the federal R&D contracting market decline precipitously. Introduction As the current budget drawdown, resulting from fiscal...affected by the budget drawdown also appear to be unfounded, and the predicted rise of market share for large prime vendors has not only not occurred...increasing shares of federal R&D during budget drawdowns. csis.org/diig | Largest Prime Vendors See Historically Low Market Share of Defense R&D 17

  19. A continuum model for excitation-contraction of smooth muscle under finite deformations.

    PubMed

    Sharifimajd, Babak; Stålhand, Jonas

    2014-08-21

    The main focus in most of the continuum based muscle models is the mechanics of muscle contraction while other physiological processes governing muscle contraction, e.g., cell membrane excitation and activation, are ignored. These latter processes are essential to initiate contraction and to determine the amount of generated force, and by excluding them, the developed model cannot replicate the true behavior of the muscle in question. The aim of this study is to establish a thermodynamically and physiologically consistent framework which allows us to model smooth muscle contraction by including cell membrane excitability and kinetics of myosin phosphorylation, along with dynamics of smooth muscle contraction. The model accounts for these processes through a set of coupled dissipative constitutive equations derived by applying first principles. To show the performance of the derived model, it is evaluated for two different cases: a chemo-mechanical study of pig taenia coli cells where the excitation process is excluded, and an electro-chemo-mechanical study of rat myometrium. The results show that the model is able to replicate important aspects of the smooth muscle excitation-contraction process.

  20. A novel three-filament model of force generation in eccentric contraction of skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Leonard, Timothy; Desch, Gertrud; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We propose and examine a three filament model of skeletal muscle force generation, thereby extending classical cross-bridge models by involving titin-actin interaction upon active force production. In regions with optimal actin-myosin overlap, the model does not alter energy and force predictions of cross-bridge models for isometric contractions. However, in contrast to cross-bridge models, the three filament model accurately predicts history-dependent force generation in half sarcomeres for eccentric and concentric contractions, and predicts the activation-dependent forces for stretches beyond actin-myosin filament overlap.

  1. Summary Report - Inspections of DoD Facilities and Military Housing and Audits of Base Operations and Support Services Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-14

    Jordan, to ensure facility heating , ventilation, and air conditioning systems were repaired and replaced. Specifically, the contract requirements to...integrity, and efficiency ; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the public. Vision Our vision is to be a model oversight organization...deficiencies in electrical system safety, fire protection systems , and environmental health and safety. During these inspections, the DoD OIG issued 12

  2. Filial Piety by Contract? The Emergence, Implementation, and Implications of the "Family Support Agreement" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Rita Jing-Ann

    2011-01-01

    China has the largest aging population in the world today. Despite the Chinese tradition of filial piety, economic, social, cultural, and familial changes have made it increasingly difficult for older Chinese to receive support from adult children. To ensure parental support, the Family Support Agreement (FSA) emerged from a local community in the…

  3. Q-GERT Model of the Contracting Cycle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    ATT(64). PN.CT(28)9 START9 RATIO REAL BUROA% BURDS INTEGER STEP* PfTYPE. K, M, AS:IGN C TOTX() =CO!APLET!ON TrP FOR CONTRACTS C :T’jf= NLM8BER CF...T BuYE; .4C BUYEFF SERv:CE 7:ME- AT’ (4 2 2.0 ’ TCr C *.*F~M BUYEc T, CLERK ATT (12)=1 C CLERkK SERVICE T’. F A Tr(44) io0* TRp (375) C FR..’FFm CLERK...34 FR’ T’ AFFIC TZ BUYER 272 ATT( 0)=l C B UYE . SERV:CE TIFPE ATT C42 ) 2.’,C* TP(:564) C *’*’ F BQYER TO CLEFK ATT (12)=1 C C L r-NK SCRV’,CE TIM~E A

  4. Logistics Civil Augmentation Program Support Contract Needs to Comply With Acquisition Rules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-07

    The LOGCAP DPD office in Kuwait assumed responsibility for assisting with developing more than $ 1 billion in annual requirements after the operations...The non- LOGCAP requirements were supported by 12 of 13 LOGCAP support contractor employees in the LOGCAP DPD office in Kuwait; only 1 LOGCAP...specialists, 3 cost analysts, and 1 administrative specialist. RICC personnel exercised Option Year 3 in February 2010, and definitized DPD support

  5. Standard Port-Visit Cost Forecasting Model for U.S. Navy Husbanding Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Husbanding Contracts By: Michael Alvin A. Marquez, Richard M. Rayos , and John I. Mercado December 2009 Advisors: Raymond...Forecasting Model for U.S. Navy Husbanding Contracts 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael Alvin A. Marquez, Richard M. Rayos , & John I. Mercado 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...Michael Alvin A. Marquez, Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy Richard M. Rayos , Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy John I. Mercado

  6. Improvements Needed in U.S. Special Operations Command Global Battlestaff and Program Support Contract Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    Acquisition Regulation GBPS Global Battlestaff and Program Support IDIQ Indefinite-Delivery Indefinite-Quantity PMR Procurement Management Review...Procurement Management Review ( PMR ). We requested documentation to support these actions. USSOCOM officials responded and stated they provided... PMRs . However, USSOCOM officials stated no metrics have been established to assess compliance with FAR requirements to perform fair and reasonable

  7. A Simulation Model for Setting Terms for Performance Based Contract Terms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    called performance-based life cycle product support) and the fictional superhero Batman. Like Batman, PBL has received a poor reputation because of...problem with a service constraint. Working Paper. University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX. Fowler, A. (2009). Misunderstood superheroes ... Superheroes , Internet www.dau.mil/pubscats/PubsCats/atl/fow_jf09.pdf, Accessed on March 28, 2010. PBL is Not Contracting Out Logistics via Product Support

  8. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  9. Mechanisms test bed math model modification and simulation support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, Andrea C.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract NAS8-38771 in support of the Marshall Space Flight Center Six Degree of Freedom Motion Facility and Flight Robotics Laboratory. The contract activities included the development of the two flexible body and Remote Manipulator System simulations, Dynamic Overhead Target Simulator control system and operating software, Global Positioning System simulation, and Manipulator Coupled Spacecraft Controls Testbed. Technical support was also provided for the Lightning Imaging Sensor and Solar X-Ray Imaging programs. The cover sheets and introductory sections for the documentation written under this contract are provided as an appendix.

  10. Analysis of Naval Facilities Engineering Command’s (NAVFAC) Contracting Processes Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    influencing contract awards as part of the 2006 scandal involving Representative Randy ‘Duke’ Cunningham and defense contractor, Mitchell Wade. Also...Antecedents and Consequences of Failed Governance: the Enron Example. Corporate Governance, 5: 5. Garrett, G., & Rendon, R. 2005(a). Contract Management

  11. Support of NASA quality requirements by defense contract administration services regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrar, Hiram D.

    1966-01-01

    Defense Contract Administration Services Regions (DCASR) quality assurance personnel performing under NASA Letters of Delegation must work closely with the assigned technical representative of the NASA centers. It is realized that technical personnel from the NASA Centers cannot make on-site visits as frequently as they would like to. However, DCASR quality assurance personnel would know the assigned NASA technical representative and should contact him when problems arise. The technical representative is the expert on the hardware and should be consulted on any problem area. It is important that the DCASR quality assurance personnel recommend to the delegating NASA Center any new or improved methods of which they may be aware which would assist in achieving the desired quality and reliability in NASA hardware. NASA expects assignment of competent personnel in the Quality Assurance functional area and is not only buying the individual's technical skill, but also his experience. Suggestions by field personnel can many times up-grade the quality or the hardware.

  12. Mitochondrial fusion is frequent in skeletal muscle and supports excitation–contraction coupling

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Verónica; Lenaers, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Genetic targeting experiments indicate a fundamental role for mitochondrial fusion proteins in mammalian physiology. However, owing to the multiple functions of fusion proteins, their related phenotypes are not necessarily caused by altered mitochondrial fusion. Perhaps the biggest mystery is presented by skeletal muscle, where mostly globular-shaped mitochondria are densely packed into the narrow intermyofilamental space, limiting the interorganellar interactions. We show here that mitochondria form local networks and regularly undergo fusion events to share matrix content in skeletal muscle fibers. However, fusion events are less frequent and more stable in the fibers than in nondifferentiated myoblasts. Complementation among muscle mitochondria was suppressed by both in vivo genetic perturbations and chronic alcohol consumption that cause myopathy. An Mfn1-dependent pathway is revealed whereby fusion inhibition weakens the metabolic reserve of mitochondria to cause dysregulation of calcium oscillations during prolonged stimulation. Thus, fusion dynamically connects skeletal muscle mitochondria and its prolonged loss jeopardizes bioenergetics and excitation–contraction coupling, providing a potential pathomechanism contributing to myopathies. PMID:24751540

  13. An ionic-chemical-mechanical model for muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Manning, Gerald S

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic process underlying muscle contraction is the parallel sliding of thin actin filaments along an immobile thick myosin fiber powered by oar-like movements of protruding myosin cross bridges (myosin heads). The free energy for functioning of the myosin nanomotor comes from the hydrolysis of ATP bound to the myosin heads. The unit step of translational movement is based on a mechanical-chemical cycle involving ATP binding to myosin, hydrolysis of the bound ATP with ultimate release of the hydrolysis products, stress-generating conformational changes in the myosin cross bridge, and relief of built-up stress in the myosin power stroke. The cycle is regulated by a transition between weak and strong actin-myosin binding affinities. The dissociation of the weakly bound complex by addition of salt indicates the electrostatic basis for the weak affinity, while structural studies demonstrate that electrostatic interactions among negatively charged amino acid residues of actin and positively charged residues of myosin are involved in the strong binding interface. We therefore conjecture that intermediate states of increasing actin-myosin engagement during the weak-to-strong binding transition also involve electrostatic interactions. Methods of polymer solution physics have shown that the thin actin filament can be regarded in some of its aspects as a net negatively charged polyelectrolyte. Here we employ polyelectrolyte theory to suggest how actin-myosin electrostatic interactions might be of significance in the intermediate stages of binding, ensuring an engaged power stroke of the myosin motor that transmits force to the actin filament, and preventing the motor from getting stuck in a metastable pre-power stroke state. We provide electrostatic force estimates that are in the pN range known to operate in the cycle.

  14. The psychological contract: is the UK National Health Service a model employer?

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sandra; Whiting, Fiona

    2007-05-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employment relationship by both parties. The employment relationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high.

  15. Contracted Logistics Support and Technology During Information Age Transformation - The Solution! or the National Strategic Trap?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    international practices, there is the direct legal responsibility of the signatory action by the nation’s representative, along with peer pressure of...signatories. It will depend on the peer pressure for compliance of those that have not signed or ratified and tacit support of that group as well. The...opinion, position • Compliance and enforcement •Challenges and implementation • Opinion - stature - standing - pride • Peer pressure • Willingness

  16. Modeling Magnetomyograms of Uterine Contractions during Pregnancy Using a Multiscale Forward Electromagnetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Patricio S.; Wilson, James D.; Eswaran, Hari; Nehorai, Arye

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of uterine contractions during pregnancy is especially important in predicting the onset of labor and thus in forecasting preterm deliveries. Preterm birth can cause serious health problems in newborns, as well as large financial burdens to society. Various techniques such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetomyography (MMG) have been developed to quantify uterine contractions. However, no widely accepted method to predict labor based on electromagnetic measurement is available. Therefore, developing a biophysical model of EMG and MMG could help better understand uterine contractions, interpret real measurements, and detect labor. In this work, we propose a multiscale realistic model of uterine contractions during pregnancy. At the cellular level, building on bifurcation theory, we apply generalized FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) equations that produces both plateau-type and bursting-type action potentials. At the tissue level, we introduce a random fiber orientation model applicable to an arbitrary uterine shape. We also develop an analytical expression for the propagation speed of transmembrane potential. At the organ level, a realistic volume conductor geometry model is provided based on magnetic resonance images of a pregnant woman. To simulate the measurements from the SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment (SARA) device, we propose a sensor array model. Our model is able to reproduce the characteristics of action potentials. Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of MMG to model configuration aspects such as volume geometry, fiber orientation, and pacemaker location. Our numerical results show that fiber orientation and pacemaker location are the key aspects that greatly affect the MMG as measured by the SARA device. We conclude that sphere is appropriate as an approximation of the volume geometry. The initial step towards validating the model against real MMG measurement is also presented. Our results show that the model is

  17. Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services Contract for Logistics Support of Stryker Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-18

    Report No. DODIG-2012-102 June 18, 2012 Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services...Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services Contract for Logistics Support of Stryker Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY, AND LOGISTICS AUDITOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost

  18. Quantitative model for predicting lymph formation and muscle compressibility in skeletal muscle during contraction and stretch

    PubMed Central

    Causey, Laura; Cowin, Stephen C.; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is widely perceived as nearly incompressible despite the fact that blood and lymphatic vessels within the endomysial and perimysial spaces undergo significant changes in diameter and length during stretch and contraction. These fluid shifts between fascicle and interstitial compartments have proved extremely difficult to measure. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework based on a space-filling hexagonal fascicle array to provide predictions of the displacement of blood and lymph into and out of the muscle’s endomysium and perimysium during stretch and contraction. We also use this model to quantify the distribution of blood and initial lymphatic (IL) vessels within a fascicle and its perimysial space using data for the rat spinotrapezius muscle. On average, there are 11 muscle fibers, 0.4 arteriole/venule pairs, and 0.2 IL vessels per fascicle. The model predicts that the blood volume in the endomysial space increases 24% and decreases 22% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively. However, these significant changes in blood volume in the endomysium produce a change of only ∼2% in fascicle cross-sectional area. In contrast, the entire muscle deviates from isovolumetry by 7% and 6% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively, largely attributable to the significantly larger blood volume changes that occur in the perimysial space. This suggests that arcade blood vessels in the perimysial space provide the primary pumping action required for the filling and emptying of ILs during muscular contraction and stretch. PMID:22615376

  19. Superficial aponeurosis of human gastrocnemius is elongated during contraction: implications for modeling muscle-tendon unit.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Tadashi; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2002-02-01

    Two questions were addressed in this study: (1) how much strain of the superficial aponeurosis of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was obtained during voluntary isometric contractions in vivo, (2) whether there existed inhomogeneity of the strain along the superficial aponeurosis. Seven male subjects, whose knees were extended and ankles were flexed at right angle, performed isometric plantar flexion while elongation of superficial aponeurosis of MG was determined from the movements of the intersections made by the superficial aponeurosis and fascicles using ultrasonography. The strain of the superficial aponeurosis at the maximum voluntary contraction, estimated from the elongation and length data, was 5.6+/-1.2%. There was no significant difference in strain between the proximal and distal parts of the superficial aponeurosis. Based on the present result and that of our previous study for the same subjects (J. Appl. Physiol 90 (2001) 1671), a model was formulated for a contracting uni-pennate muscle-tendon unit. This model, which could be applied to isometric contractions at other angles and therefore of wide use, showed that similar strain between superficial and deep aponeuroses of MG contributed to homogeneous fascicle length change within MG during contractions. These findings would contribute to clarifying the functions of the superficial aponeurosis and the effects of the superficial aponeurosis elongation on the whole muscle behavior.

  20. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  1. Modeling force-velocity relation in skeletal muscle isotonic contraction using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Dariani, Sharareh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Parviz, Mohsen; Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design an artificial neural network (ANN) to model force-velocity relation in skeletal muscle isotonic contraction. We obtained the data set, including physiological and morphometric parameters, by myography and morphometric measurements on frog gastrocnemius muscle. Then, we designed a multilayer perceptron ANN, the inputs of which are muscle volume, muscle optimum length, tendon length, preload, and afterload. The output of the ANN is contraction velocity. The experimental data were divided randomly into two parts. The first part was used to train the ANN. In order to validate the model, the second part of experimental data, which was not used in training, was employed to the ANN and then, its output was compared with Hill model and the experimental data. The behavior of ANN in high forces was more similar to experimental data, but in low forces the Hill model had better results. Furthermore, extrapolation of ANN performance showed that our model is more or less able to simulate eccentric contraction. Our results indicate that ANNs represent a powerful tool to capture some essential features of muscle isotonic contraction.

  2. The generalized Hill model: A kinematic approach towards active muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göktepe, Serdar; Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion.

  3. Another Look at Helmholtz's Model for the Gravitational Contraction of the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tort, A. C.; Nogarol, F.

    2011-01-01

    We take another look at the Helmholtz model for the gravitational contraction of the Sun. We show that there are two other pedagogically useful ways of rederiving Helmholtz's main results that make use of Gauss's law, the concept of gravitational field energy and the work-kinetic energy theorem. An account of the energy balance involved in the…

  4. A model of muscle contraction based on the Langevin equation with actomyosin potentials.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Youjiro; Ito, Akira; Saito, Masami

    2017-02-01

    We propose a muscle contraction model that is essentially a model of the motion of myosin motors as described by a Langevin equation. This model involves one-dimensional numerical calculations wherein the total force is the sum of a viscous force proportional to the myosin head velocity, a white Gaussian noise produced by random forces and other potential forces originating from the actomyosin structure and intra-molecular charges. We calculate the velocity of a single myosin on an actin filament to be 4.9-49 μm/s, depending on the viscosity between the actomyosin molecules. A myosin filament with a hundred myosin heads is used to simulate the contractions of a half-sarcomere within the skeletal muscle. The force response due to a quick release in the isometric contraction is simulated using a process wherein crossbridges are changed forcibly from one state to another. In contrast, the force response to a quick stretch is simulated using purely mechanical characteristics. We simulate the force-velocity relation and energy efficiency in the isotonic contraction and adenosine triphosphate consumption. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. We show that the Langevin equation for the actomyosin potentials can be modified statistically to become an existing muscle model that uses Maxwell elements.

  5. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  6. Model for PCP contracts offers right incentives for Medicare, Medicaid providers.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    Consider this model for PCP contracting. Provider organizations in Medicare and Medicaid often structure arrangements with their primary care providers that set up the organizations--and the doctors--to fail. An actuary from Milliman & Robertson in Seattle illustrates how to establish the right kinds of incentives for PCPs.

  7. [A simple kinetic model of myocardium contraction: calcium-mechanics coupling].

    PubMed

    Semin, F A

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic model of cardiac muscle contraction is suggested. It is based on our earlier simplified model of the kinetics of the actin-myosin interaction. We examined the kinetics of formation of calcium-troponin complexes that open the binding sites-on actin for myosin heads. The model also takes into account the cooperativity of this process and the influence of myosin heads on it. It was shown that with proper choice of its parameters the model appropriately describes the dependence of myocardium activation.on sarcomeres length that underlies the Frank-Starling law of the heart. The model fits both steady state experiments on myocardial specimens with permeable membrane and twitch contractions of intact cardiac muscle. It also describes well the myocardium load-dependent relaxation.

  8. Maintenance service contract model for heavy equipment in mining industry using principal agent theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakpahan, Eka K. A.; Iskandar, Bermawi P.

    2015-12-01

    Mining industry is characterized by a high operational revenue, and hence high availability of heavy equipment used in mining industry is a critical factor to ensure the revenue target. To maintain high avaliability of the heavy equipment, the equipment's owner hires an agent to perform maintenance action. Contract is then used to control the relationship between the two parties involved. The traditional contracts such as fixed price, cost plus or penalty based contract studied is unable to push agent's performance to exceed target, and this in turn would lead to a sub-optimal result (revenue). This research deals with designing maintenance contract compensation schemes. The scheme should induce agent to select the highest possible maintenance effort level, thereby pushing agent's performance and achieve maximum utility for both parties involved. Principal agent theory is used as a modeling approach due to its ability to simultaneously modeled owner and agent decision making process. Compensation schemes considered in this research includes fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing. The optimal decision is obtained using a numerical method. The results show that if both parties are risk neutral, then there are infinite combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing produced the same optimal solution. The combination of fixed price and cost sharing contract results in the optimal solution when the agent is risk averse, while the optimal combination of fixed price and revenue sharing contract is obtained when agent is risk averse. When both parties are risk averse, the optimal compensation scheme is a combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing.

  9. Contraction behaviors of Vorticella sp. stalk investigated using high-speed video camera. I: Nucleation and growth model

    PubMed Central

    Kamiguri, Junko; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Hidema, Ruri; Tachibana, Masatoshi; Yatabe, Zenji; Shoji, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Pansu, Robert Bernard; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2012-01-01

    The contraction process of living Vorticella sp. has been investigated by image processing using a high-speed video camera. In order to express the temporal change in the stalk length resulting from the contraction, a damped spring model and a nucleation and growth model are applied. A double exponential is deduced from a conventional damped spring model, while a stretched exponential is newly proposed from a nucleation and growth model. The stretched exponential function is more suitable for the curve fitting and suggests a more particular contraction mechanism in which the contraction of the stalk begins near the cell body and spreads downwards along the stalk. The index value of the stretched exponential is evaluated in the range from 1 to 2 in accordance with the model in which the contraction undergoes through nucleation and growth in a one-dimensional space. PMID:27857602

  10. Contraction behaviors of Vorticella sp. stalk investigated using high-speed video camera. I: Nucleation and growth model.

    PubMed

    Kamiguri, Junko; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Hidema, Ruri; Tachibana, Masatoshi; Yatabe, Zenji; Shoji, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Pansu, Robert Bernard; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2012-01-01

    The contraction process of living Vorticella sp. has been investigated by image processing using a high-speed video camera. In order to express the temporal change in the stalk length resulting from the contraction, a damped spring model and a nucleation and growth model are applied. A double exponential is deduced from a conventional damped spring model, while a stretched exponential is newly proposed from a nucleation and growth model. The stretched exponential function is more suitable for the curve fitting and suggests a more particular contraction mechanism in which the contraction of the stalk begins near the cell body and spreads downwards along the stalk. The index value of the stretched exponential is evaluated in the range from 1 to 2 in accordance with the model in which the contraction undergoes through nucleation and growth in a one-dimensional space.

  11. A mathematical model of the coupled mechanisms of cell adhesion, contraction and spreading

    PubMed Central

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Farsad, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cell spreading is highly dependent on the contractililty of its cytoskeleton and the mechanical properties of the environment it is located in. The dynamics of such process is critical for the development of tissue engineering strategy but is also a key player in wound contraction, tissue maintenance and angiogenesis. To better understand the underlying physics of such phenomena, the paper describes a mathematical formulation of cell spreading and contraction that couples the processes of stress fiber formation, protrusion growth through actin polymerization at the cell edge and dynamics of cross-membrane protein (integrins) enabling cell-substrate attachment. The evolving cell’s cytoskeleton is modeled as a mixture of fluid, proteins and filaments that can exchange mass and generate contraction. In particular, besides self-assembling into stress fibers, actin monomers able to polymerize into an actin meshwork at the cell’s boundary in order to push the membrane forward and generate protrusion. These processes are possible via the development of cell-substrate attachment complexes that arise from the mechano-sensitive equilibrium of membrane proteins, known as integrins. After deriving the governing equation driving the dynamics of cell evolution and spreading, we introduce a numerical solution based on the extended finite element method, combined with a level set formulation. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model is able to capture the dependency of cell spreading and contraction on substrate stiffness and chemistry. The very good agreement between model predictions and experimental observations suggests that mechanics plays a strong role into the coupled mechanisms of contraction, adhesion and spreading of adherent cells. PMID:23463540

  12. A comprehensive mathematical framework for modeling intestinal smooth muscle cell contraction with applications to intestinal edema.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer; Ozisik, Sevtap; Riviere, Beatrice; Shamim, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    The contraction of intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMCs) involves many coordinated biochemical and mechanical processes. In this work, we present a framework for modeling ISMC contractility that begins with chemical models of calcium dynamics, continues with myosin light chain phosphorylation and force generation, and ends with a cell model of the ISMC undergoing contraction-relaxation. The motivation for developing this comprehensive framework is to study the effects of edema (excess fluid build-up in the muscle tissue) on ISMC contractility. The hypothesis is that more fluid equates to dilution of an external stimulis, eventually leading to reduced contractility. We compare our results to experimental data collected from normal versus edematous intestinal muscle tissue.

  13. Examination of Ventricular Contraction Function Using Electrical Lumped Circuit Model of Circulation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mitsuyo; Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao

    Presently, many of the already proposed blood circulation models are mainly partial models although they are precise models. A complete model that is a combination of these partial models are difficult to analyze because it is complicated to consider both the viscosity of blood and circulatory details at the same time. So, it is difficult to control the model parameters in order to adapt to various cases of circulatory diseases. This paper proposes a complete circulation model as a lumped electrical circuit, which is comparatively simple. In the circuit model, total blood is modeled as seven lumped capacitors, representing the functions of atriums, ventricles, arteries, veins and lungs. We regard the variation of the ventricle capacitance as the driving force of the complete circulation model. In our model, we considered only the variation of pressure between each part and the blood capacity of each part. In particular, the contraction function of the left ventricle is examined under the consideration of whole blood circulation.

  14. Which Process Model Practices Support Project Success?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepmets, Marion

    In this research the relevance of the guidance of software process models to industry was studied - more precisely, how relevant are the basic project management practices to the industry projects and to the success of these projects. The focus of the research is on project management and its related practices - the processes that support the achievement of capability levels 1 and 2 in CMMI and ISO/IEC 15504. These project management practices can also be viewed as best practices, the application of which can lead to project success. We aimed to discover whether the implementation of basic project management practices supports project success. There is evidence that higher process capability supports increased project performance. The question remains about the significance of basic project management practices to project performance.

  15. Transonic Cascade Measurements to Support Analytical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RECEIVED JUL 0 12005 FINAL REPORT FOR: AFOSR GRANT F49260-02-1-0284 TRANSONIC CASCADE MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT ANALYTICAL MODELING Paul A. Durbin ...PAD); 650-723-1971 (JKE) durbin @vk.stanford.edu; eaton@vk.stanford.edu submitted to: Attn: Dr. John Schmisseur Air Force Office of Scientific Research...both spline and control points for subsequent wall shape definitions. An algebraic grid generator was used to generate the grid for the blade-wall

  16. Personnel Service Support (PSS) in Army Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-20

    UNCLASSIFIED N ACN 73765 PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT (PSS) IN ARMY MODELS FINAL REPORT DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMY TRAINING...Analysis 4-7 A-6 10 Theater Strategic Operational (TSO) Depths B-3 11 Constructing Interval Scales from Ordinal Data E-4 vii GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS ACN Army...Control Number AI Artificial Intelligence AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ALB Airland Battle AMSAA Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency ANSI

  17. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 1718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Loan Contracts With...

  18. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 1718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Loan Contracts With...

  19. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 1718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Loan Contracts With...

  20. In vitro models to study mechanisms involved in cyclosporine A-mediated glomerular contraction.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, B; Medina, J; Frieauff, W; Cordier, A; Cambar, J; Wolf, A

    1999-08-01

    The immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporin A (CsA), which is successfully used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, induces renal side-effects as shown by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and ultrafiltration coefficient regulated by the tone of mesangial cells.The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CsA on isolated glomeruli and mesangial cells, which constitute appropriate in vitro models for renal vasoreactivity studies. The roles of different intracellular and extracellular mediators such as calcium, endothelin-1 (ET-1), prostaglandins (TXA(2 )and PGI(2)) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were analysed. CsA caused a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the planar cross-sectional areas of isolated glomeruli and mesangial cells as determined by image analysis. Intracytosolic free calcium concentration determined by fluorimetric analysis was significantly increased after 30 min CsA (10 microM) incubation. In the contraction experiment, the calcium antagonist verapamil inhibited the CsA response. ET-1, TXB(2) and keto-PGF(1alpha) were determined directly, however no changes were found statistically significantly different from respective controls. In contrast to these results, the ET-1 specific antibody was able to reduce CsA-mediated cell contraction. In the presence of a prostacyclin agonist iloprost, CsA-induced contraction was also modified. The role of ROIs using a 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFdAc) fluorimetric method was directly determined by observing, with 10 microM CsA, a significant production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), which was able alone to induce mesangial cell contraction. Coincubation with the antioxidants led to a significant inhibition of mesangial cell contraction. These results suggest that CsA caused an imbalance in the normal level of all investigated vasoconstrictive and vasodilator mediators, which shifted towards the advantage of vasoconstrictive action.

  1. Simulating the activation, contraction and movement of skeletal muscles using the bidomain model.

    PubMed

    Lopez Rincon, A; Cantu, C; Soto, R; Shimoda, S

    2016-08-01

    A simulation of the muscle activation, contraction and movement is here presented. This system was developed based on the Bidomain mathematical model of the electrical propagation in muscles. This study shows an electrical stimuli input to a muscle and how this behave. The comparison between healthy subject and patient with muscle activation impairment is depicted, depending on whether the signal reaches a threshold. A 3D model of a bicep muscle and a forearm bone connected was constructed using OpenGL. This platform could be used for development of controllers for biomechatronic systems in future works. This kind of bioinspired model could be used for a better understanding of the neuromotor system.

  2. A continuum model of contraction waves and protoplasm streaming in strands of Physarum plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Teplov, V A; Romanovsky YuM; Latushkin, O A

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for continuously distributed mechanochemical autooscillations (autowaves) in a protoplasmic strand of Physarum polycephalum. The model is based on a hypothesis of local positive feedback between deformation and contraction of the contractile apparatus. This feedback is mediated through a cell regulatory system whose kinetics involves coupling to mechanical strain. Mathematical analysis and computer simulations have demonstrated that the solutions of the model agree quantitatively with the available experimental data. In particular, hydrodynamic interaction alone, between different sections of the strand via the streaming endoplasm, is capable of inducing the characteristic contractile behavior.

  3. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Jorge A.; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C.; Gomes, Aldrin V.; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca2+ transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling, Ca2+, K+ and Cl− currents, and Na+/K+-ATPase properties were included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca2+, release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca2+ channels or phospholamban limited Ca2+ transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K+ channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca2+ and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca2+ (due to greater Ca2+ buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca2+ transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa vs. XBcy have greater impact on isometric

  4. β-adrenergic effects on cardiac myofilaments and contraction in an integrated rabbit ventricular myocyte model.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Jorge A; Morotti, Stefano; Lascano, Elena C; Gomes, Aldrin V; Grandi, Eleonora; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    A five-state model of myofilament contraction was integrated into a well-established rabbit ventricular myocyte model of ion channels, Ca(2+) transporters and kinase signaling to analyze the relative contribution of different phosphorylation targets to the overall mechanical response driven by β-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS). β-AS effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling, Ca(2+), K(+) and Cl(-) currents, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase properties was included based on experimental data. The inotropic effect on the myofilaments was represented as reduced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity (XBCa) and titin stiffness, and increased cross-bridge (XB) cycling rate (XBcy). Assuming independent roles of XBCa and XBcy, the model reproduced experimental β-AS responses on action potentials and Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics. It also replicated the behavior of force-Ca(2+), release-restretch, length-step, stiffness-frequency and force-velocity relationships, and increased force and shortening in isometric and isotonic twitch contractions. The β-AS effect was then switched off from individual targets to analyze their relative impact on contractility. Preventing β-AS effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels or phospholamban limited Ca(2+) transients and contractile responses in parallel, while blocking phospholemman and K(+) channel (IKs) effects enhanced Ca(2+) and inotropy. Removal of β-AS effects from XBCa enhanced contractile force while decreasing peak Ca(2+) (due to greater Ca(2+) buffering), but had less effect on shortening. Conversely, preventing β-AS effects on XBcy preserved Ca(2+) transient effects, but blunted inotropy (both isometric force and especially shortening). Removal of titin effects had little impact on contraction. Finally, exclusion of β-AS from XBCa and XBcy while preserving effects on other targets resulted in preserved peak isometric force response (with slower kinetics) but nearly abolished enhanced shortening. β-AS effects on XBCa and XBcy

  5. A model of membrane contraction predicting initiation and completion of bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Dow, Claire E; Rodger, Alison; Roper, David I; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial cell division involves a complex and dynamic sequence of events whereby polymers of the protein FtsZ assemble at the division plane and rearrange to achieve the goal of contracting the cell membrane at the site of cell division, thus dividing the parent cell into two daughter cells. We present a mathematical model (which we refer to as CAM-FF: Critical Accumulation of Membrane-bound FtsZ Fibres) of the assembly of the contractile ring in terms of the accumulation of short linear polymers of FtsZ that associate and dissociate from the cell membrane. In prokaryotes, the biochemical function of FtsZ is thought to underpin the assembly and at least the initial kinetic force of ring contraction. Our model extends earlier work of Surovtsev et al. [PLoS Comput. Biol., 2008, 4, e1000102] by adding (i) the kinetics of FtsZ accumulation on cell membrane anchor proteins and (ii) the physical forces required to deform the cell against its surface tension. Moreover, we provide a more rigorous treatment of intracellular diffusion and we revise some of the model parameter values in light of the experimental evidence now available. We derive a critical contraction parameter which links the chemical population dynamics of membrane-bound FtsZ molecules to the force of contraction. Using this parameter as a tool to predict the ability of the cell to initiate division, we are able to predict the division outcome in cells depleted of key FtsZ-binding proteins.

  6. Life cycle cost-based risk model for energy performance contracting retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghorn, George H.

    Buildings account for 41% of the primary energy consumption in the United States, nearly half of which is accounted for by commercial buildings. Among the greatest energy users are those in the municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals (MUSH) market. Correctional facilities are in the upper half of all commercial building types for energy intensity. Public agencies have experienced reduced capital budgets to fund retrofits; this has led to the increased use of energy performance contracts (EPC), which are implemented by energy services companies (ESCOs). These companies guarantee a minimum amount of energy savings resulting from the retrofit activities, which in essence transfers performance risk from the owner to the contractor. Building retrofits in the MUSH market, especially correctional facilities, are well-suited to EPC, yet despite this potential and their high energy intensities, efficiency improvements lag behind that of other public building types. Complexities in project execution, lack of support for data requests and sub-metering, and conflicting project objectives have been cited as reasons for this lag effect. As a result, project-level risks must be understood in order to support wider adoption of retrofits in the public market, in particular the correctional facility sub-market. The goal of this research is to understand risks related to the execution of energy efficiency retrofits delivered via EPC in the MUSH market. To achieve this goal, in-depth analysis and improved understanding was sought with regard to ESCO risks that are unique to EPC in this market. The proposed work contributes to this understanding by developing a life cycle cost-based risk model to improve project decision making with regard to risk control and reduction. The specific objectives of the research are: (1) to perform an exploratory analysis of the EPC retrofit process and identify key areas of performance risk requiring in-depth analysis; (2) to construct a

  7. Normality index of ventricular contraction based on a statistical model from FADS.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ángeles, Luis; Valdés-Cristerna, Raquel; Vallejo, Enrique; Bialostozky, David; Medina-Bañuelos, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide-based imaging is an alternative to evaluate ventricular function and synchrony and may be used as a tool for the identification of patients that could benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In a previous work, we used Factor Analysis of Dynamic Structures (FADS) to analyze the contribution and spatial distribution of the 3 most significant factors (3-MSF) present in a dynamic series of equilibrium radionuclide angiography images. In this work, a probability density function model of the 3-MSF extracted from FADS for a control group is presented; also an index, based on the likelihood between the control group's contraction model and a sample of normal subjects is proposed. This normality index was compared with those computed for two cardiopathic populations, satisfying the clinical criteria to be considered as candidates for a CRT. The proposed normality index provides a measure, consistent with the phase analysis currently used in clinical environment, sensitive enough to show contraction differences between normal and abnormal groups, which suggests that it can be related to the degree of severity in the ventricular contraction dyssynchrony, and therefore shows promise as a follow-up procedure for patients under CRT.

  8. Normality Index of Ventricular Contraction Based on a Statistical Model from FADS

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Ángeles, Luis; Valdés-Cristerna, Raquel; Vallejo, Enrique; Bialostozky, David; Medina-Bañuelos, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide-based imaging is an alternative to evaluate ventricular function and synchrony and may be used as a tool for the identification of patients that could benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In a previous work, we used Factor Analysis of Dynamic Structures (FADS) to analyze the contribution and spatial distribution of the 3 most significant factors (3-MSF) present in a dynamic series of equilibrium radionuclide angiography images. In this work, a probability density function model of the 3-MSF extracted from FADS for a control group is presented; also an index, based on the likelihood between the control group's contraction model and a sample of normal subjects is proposed. This normality index was compared with those computed for two cardiopathic populations, satisfying the clinical criteria to be considered as candidates for a CRT. The proposed normality index provides a measure, consistent with the phase analysis currently used in clinical environment, sensitive enough to show contraction differences between normal and abnormal groups, which suggests that it can be related to the degree of severity in the ventricular contraction dyssynchrony, and therefore shows promise as a follow-up procedure for patients under CRT. PMID:23634177

  9. Finite element modeling reveals complex strain mechanics in the aponeuroses of contracting skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sheng-Wei; Hodgson, John; Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Reggie Edgerton, V; Shin, David D; Roiz, Ronald A; Sinha, Shantanu

    2010-05-07

    A finite element model was used to investigate the counter-intuitive experimental observation that some regions of the aponeuroses of a loaded and contracting muscle may shorten rather than undergo an expected lengthening. The model confirms the experimental findings and suggests that pennation angle plays a significant role in determining whether regions of the aponeuroses stretch or shorten. A smaller pennation angles (25 degrees ) was accompanied by aponeurosis lengthening whereas a larger pennation angle (47 degrees ) was accompanied by mixed strain effects depending upon location along the length of the aponeurosis. This can be explained by the Poisson effect during muscle contraction and a Mohr's circle analogy. Constant volume constraint requires that fiber cross sectional dimensions increase when a fiber shortens. The opposing influences of these two strains upon the aponeurosis combine in proportion to the pennation angle. Lower pennation angles emphasize the influence of fiber shortening upon the aponeurosis and thus favor aponeurosis compression, whereas higher pennation angles increase the influence of cross sectional changes and therefore favor aponeurosis stretch. The distance separating the aponeuroses was also found to depend upon pennation angle during simulated contractions. Smaller pennation angles favored increased aponeurosis separation larger pennation angles favored decreased separation. These findings caution that measures of the mechanical properties of aponeuroses in intact muscle may be affected by contributions from adjacent muscle fibers and that the influence of muscle fibers on aponeurosis strain will depend upon the fiber pennation angle.

  10. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 78, quarter ending March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report presents descriptions of various research projects and field projects concerned with the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Contract numbers, principal investigators, company names, and project management information is included.

  11. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information... information technology services or support services....

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  13. National Transonic Facility model and model support vibration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Gloss, Blair B.

    1990-01-01

    Vibrations of models and model support system were encountered during testing in the National Transonic Facility. Model support system yaw plane vibrations have resulted in model strain gage balance design load limits being reached. These high levels of vibrations resulted in limited aerodynamic testing for several wind tunnel models. The yaw vibration problem was the subject of an intensive experimental and analytical investigation which identified the primary source of the yaw excitation and resulted in attenuation of the yaw oscillations to acceptable levels. This paper presents the principal results of analyses and experimental investigation of the yaw plane vibration problems. Also, an overview of plans for development and installation of a permanent model system dynamic and aeroelastic response measurement and monitoring system for the National Transonic Facility is presented.

  14. A continuum theory of Allen's frontal contraction model of amoeboid pseudopodium extension.

    PubMed

    Odell, G M

    1977-03-01

    A continuum theory is proposed for the chemically controlled cytoplasmic streaming observed in pseudopodium extension in Chaos Carolinensis. Amoeboid cytoplasm is assumed to consist of submicroscopic contractile fibers bathed by viscous fluid. The fiber constituent models the actin-like and myosin-like contractile machinery known to be present in Chaos Carolinensis cytoplasm. A "trigger chemical", produced at the pseudopodium tip, moves by diffusion in, and convection by, the viscous fluid, and causes the contractile fibers to contract in their own length. The contracting fibers, attached at the tip and running continuously back toward the amoeba cell body, pull the fluid constituent of the cytoplasm forward and ultimately crosslink to form the outer gel tube of the advancing pseudopodium. That is, streaming cytoplasm is modeled as a two constituent porous medium, with the fluid constituent free to flow through a porous matrix of oriented (contractile fiber) rods, while the matrix of rods itself moves as the fibers contract, with fiber contraction controlled by a trigger chemical born by the fluid constituent. According to this theory, in the region behind the advancing pseudopodium tip, the contractile fiber rods move forward toward the tip faster than the fluid constituent. The hydrostatic pressure in the fluid therefore increases from the cell body toward the tip (Just the opposite from flow driven by pressure excess generated in the cell body). The excess of hydrostatic pressure above ambient built up at the tip provides the force to roll out the advancing pseudopodium tip. The cell membrane plays no active mechanical role. The mathematical transcription makes a precise theory of R. D. Allen's "frontal (or fountain zone) contraction model". The general system of coupled, non-linear, partial differential equations is solved for its simplest non-trivial special case, that of a steady-state motion, as seen from a coordinate system attached to the advancing tip

  15. Finite element model of intramuscular pressure during isometric contraction of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jenkyn, Thomas R; Koopman, Bart; Huijing, Peter; Lieber, Richard L; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2002-11-21

    The measurement of in vivo intramuscular pressure (IMP) has recently become practical and IMP appears well correlated with muscle tension. A numerical model of skeletal muscle was developed to examine the mechanisms producing IMP. Unipennate muscle is modelled as a two-dimensional material continuum that is incompressible and nonlinearly anisotropic. The finite element technique is used to calculate IMP and muscle stress during passive stretch and during isometric contraction. A novel element models the contractile portion of muscle, incorporating sarcomere length-force and velocity-force relations. A range of unipennate muscle geometries can be modelled. The model was configured to simulate the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle over a range of lengths. Simulated IMP and stress results were validated against animal experimentation data. The simulation agreed well with the experimental data over the range of 0.8-1.1 of the optimal length. Severe pressure gradients were produced near the musculo-tendinous junctions while IMP was more uniform in the central muscle belly. IMP and muscle stress in relaxed (unstimulated) muscle increased nonlinearly with muscle length. IMP and stress in isometrically contracting muscle showed a local maximum at optimal length and were reduced at shorter lengths. At muscle lengths longer than optimal, stress and IMP increased predominately due to tension in the passive elastic structures.

  16. Response of Dark Matter Halos to Condensation of Baryons: Cosmological Simulations and Improved Adiabatic Contraction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2004-11-01

    The cooling of gas in the centers of dark matter halos is expected to lead to a more concentrated dark matter distribution. The response of dark matter to the condensation of baryons is usually calculated using the model of adiabatic contraction, which assumes spherical symmetry and circular orbits. In contrast, halos in the hierarchical structure formation scenarios grow via multiple violent mergers and accretion along filaments, and particle orbits in the halos are highly eccentric. We study the effects of the cooling of gas in the inner regions of halos using high-resolution cosmological simulations that include gas dynamics, radiative cooling, and star formation. We find that the dissipation of gas indeed increases the density of dark matter and steepens its radial profile in the inner regions of halos compared to the case without cooling. For the first time, we test the adiabatic contraction model in cosmological simulations and find that the standard model systematically overpredicts the increase of dark matter density in the inner 5% of the virial radius. We show that the model can be improved by a simple modification of the assumed invariant from M(r)r to M(r)r, where r and r are the current and orbit-averaged particle positions. This modification approximately accounts for orbital eccentricities of particles and reproduces simulation profiles to within 10%-20%. We present analytical fitting functions that accurately describe the transformation of the dark matter profile in the modified model and can be used for interpretation of observations.

  17. Adaptations to exercise training and contraction-induced muscle injury in animal models of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Abresch, R Ted; Fowler, William M

    2002-11-01

    This article reviews the current status of exercise training and contraction-induced muscle-injury investigations in animal models of muscular dystrophy. Most exercise-training studies have compared the adaptations of normal and dystrophic muscles with exercise. Adaptation of diseased muscle to exercise occurs at many levels, starting with the extracellular matrix, but also involves cytoskeletal architecture, muscle contractility, repair mechanisms, and gene regulation. The majority of exercise-injury investigations have attempted to determine the susceptibility of dystrophin-deficient muscles to contraction-induced injury. There is some evidence in animal models that diseased muscle can adapt and respond to mechanical stress. However, exercise-injury studies show that dystrophic muscles have an increased susceptibility to high mechanical forces. Most of the studies involving exercise training have shown that muscle adaptations in dystrophic animals were qualitatively similar to the adaptations observed in control muscle. Deleterious effects of the dystrophy usually occur only in older animals with advanced muscle fiber degeneration or after high-resistive eccentric training. The main limitations in applying these conclusions to humans are the differences in phenotypic expression between humans and genetically homologous animal models and in the significant biomechanical differences between humans and these animal models.

  18. A Tired Light/Contracting Universe Model from the Union2.1 Supernovae Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, John

    A tired light/contracting universe (TLCU) model is shown to be an excellent fit to the redshift/distance modulus data for the 580 supernovae 1a in the Union2.1 compilation. The data reveal that the Milky Way is in a static region with a radius of about 450Mpc. Beyond the static region the universe is contracting with a space velocity which is linearly proportional to distance over the whole range of the data (k = -7.6 ± 2.3 km s-1 Mpc-1). The other constant of the model is the Hubble constant for which a value of H = 69.51 ± 0.86 km s-1 Mpc-1 is obtained. The fit of the TLCU model to the Union2.1 data is at least as good as the fit of the two constant ΛCDM model to the same data. A formula for photon travel distance is derived and an experiment for the possible detection of the tired light process is proposed.

  19. Characteristics of Hydraulic Shock Waves in an Inclined Chute Contraction by Using Three Dimensional Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Su, Yu-Wen

    2016-04-01

    The inclined rectangular chute construction is a common structure used in hydraulic engineering for typical reasons such as the increase of bottom slope, the transition from side channel intakes to tunnel spillways, the drainage construction, and the reduction of chute width due to bridges, flood diversion structures or irrigation systems. The converging vertical sidewalls of a chute contraction deflect the supercritical flow to form hydraulic shock waves. Hydraulic shock waves have narrow and locally extreme wavy surfaces, which commonly results in the requirement of higher height of sidewalls. Therefore, predicting the possible height and position of maximum hydraulic shock wave are necessary to design the required height of sidewalls to prevent flow overtopping. In this study, we used a three-dimensional computation fluid dynamics model (i.e., FLOW-3D) to simulate the characteristics of hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction. For this purpose, the parameters of simulated hydraulic shock wave, such as the shock angle, maximum shock wave height and maximum shock wave position in various conditions are compared with those calculated by the empirical relations obtained from literatures. We showed that the simulated results are extremely close to the experimental results. The numerical results validated the applicability of these empirical relations and extend their applicability to higher approach Froude numbers from 3.51 to 7.27. Furthermore, we also applied the Yuan-Shan-Tsu flood diversion channel under 200-year peak flow condition to FLOW-3D model to simulate the hydraulic shock waves and validate the effect of the installation of a diversion pier in the channel on promoting the stability of flow fluid. The results revealed that a diversion pier installed in the Yuan-Shan-Tsu flood diversion channel is helpful for improving the stability of flow field. In summary, this study demonstrates that FLOW-3D model can be used to simulate the

  20. A three-dimensional chemo-mechanical continuum model for smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Böl, Markus; Schmitz, André; Nowak, Götz; Siebert, Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Based on two fields, namely the placement and the calcium concentration, a chemo-mechanically coupled three-dimensional model, describing the contractile behaviour of smooth muscles, is presented by means of a strain energy function. The strain energy function (Schmitz and Böl, 2011) is additively decomposed into a passive part, relating to elastin and collagen, and an active calcium-driven part related to the chemical contraction of the smooth muscle cells. For the description of the calcium phase the four state cross-bridge model of Hai and Murphy (Hai and Murphy, 1988) has been implemented into the finite element method. Beside three-dimensional illustrative boundary-value problems demonstrating the features of the presented modelling concept, simulations on an idealised artery document the applicability of the model to more realistic geometries.

  1. Modelling of thermal contraction of emplaced lava flows at Hekla volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Werner; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Dumont, Stéphanie; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.

    2014-05-01

    During and after the emplacement of magma the flow cools down and undergoes thermal contraction. This latter process leads to subsidence of the emplaced lava relative to its surrounding area, and thus masking the overall current crustal movement due to magma pressure changes in the volcanic system. Other effects such as void space compaction and the bending of the underlying elastic crust due to the weight of the lava accompany the emplacement and lead to further complications regarding the studies of thermal contraction. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides good possibilities for the detection and resolution of vertical movements around a volcano because of high spatial resolution and good accuracy during favorable conditions. Comparisons of the interferograms with the outline of lava flows at e.g. Hekla volcano or Mount Etna agree well with areas of higher subsidence or minor uplift, respectively, being taken as an eclipsing of the above-mentioned effects. Interferograms from 1993 to 2012 give evidence that the lava fields of the Hekla eruptions in 1991 and 2000 are continuously subsiding. Even there are several publications dealing with such observations, models taking into account a physical basis for thermal contraction are currently spare. Nevertheless, several theoretical approaches state the time-dependent temperature distribution within a lava flow taking into account heat-flow processes. On the basis of these calculations, we have developed a one-dimensional numerical model that shows the subsidence and subsidence rate after a certain time after emplacement. The model takes into account the conduction of heat away from the fluid magma towards the magma-air interface and the magma-rock interface. Furthermore, contraction at the transition boundary between the liquid phase of magma and the solidified gabbro are considered to be in the range of volume change of 9% according to density measurements. After full solidification the

  2. The early universe history from contraction-deformation of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    The elementary particles evolution in the early Universe from Plank time up to several milliseconds is presented. The developed theory is based on the high-temperature (high-energy) limit of the Standard Model which is generated by the contractions of its gauge groups. At the infinite temperature all particles lose masses. Only massless neutral -bosons, massless Z-quarks, neutrinos and photons are survived in this limit. The weak interactions become long-range and are mediated by neutral currents, quarks have only one color degree of freedom.

  3. PV System 'Availability' as a Reliability Metric -- Improving Standards, Contract Language and Performance Models

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey T.; Hill, Roger; Walker, Andy; Dobos, Aron; Freeman, Janine

    2016-11-21

    The use of the term 'availability' to describe a photovoltaic (PV) system and power plant has been fraught with confusion for many years. A term that is meant to describe equipment operational status is often omitted, misapplied or inaccurately combined with PV performance metrics due to attempts to measure performance and reliability through the lens of traditional power plant language. This paper discusses three areas where current research in standards, contract language and performance modeling is improving the way availability is used with regards to photovoltaic systems and power plants.

  4. Microscopic model of the actin-myosin interaction in muscular contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, B.; Moreau, M.; Schuman, B.

    2004-01-01

    We define and study a detailed many body model for the muscular contraction taking into account the various myosin heads. The state of the system is defined by the position of the actin and by an internal coordinate of rotation for each myosin head. We write a system of Fokker-Planck equations and calculate the average for the position, the number of attached myosin heads, and the total force exerted on the actin. We also study the correlation between these quantities, in particular between the number of attached myosin heads and the force on the actin.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Models in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate analysis, ALS systems are often assumed to be linear and time invariant, but they usually have important nonlinear and dynamic aspects. Nonlinear dynamic behavior can be caused by time varying inputs, changes in system parameters, nonlinear system functions, closed loop feedback delays, and limits on buffer storage or processing rates. Dynamic models are usually cataloged according to the number of state variables. The simplest dynamic models are linear, using only integration, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of the state variables. A general linear model with only two state variables can produce all the possible dynamic behavior of linear systems with many state variables, including stability, oscillation, or exponential growth and decay. Linear systems can be described using mathematical analysis. Nonlinear dynamics can be fully explored only by computer simulations of models. Unexpected behavior is produced by simple models having only two or three state variables with simple mathematical relations between them. Closed loop feedback delays are a major source of system instability. Exceeding limits on buffer storage or processing rates forces systems to change operating mode. Different equilibrium points may be reached from different initial conditions. Instead of one stable equilibrium point, the system may have several equilibrium points, oscillate at different frequencies, or even behave chaotically, depending on the system inputs and initial conditions. The frequency spectrum of an output oscillation may contain harmonics and the sums and differences of input frequencies, but it may also contain a stable limit cycle oscillation not related to input frequencies. We must investigate the nonlinear dynamic aspects of advanced life support systems to understand and counter undesirable behavior.

  6. Global Urbanization Modeling Supported by Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Smith, S.; Zhao, K.; Imhoff, M. L.; Thomson, A. M.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Elvidge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, one of the major human induced land cover and land use change, has profound impacts on the Earth system, and plays important roles in a variety of processes such as biodiversity loss, water and carbon cycle, and climate change. Accurate information on urban areas and their spatial distribution at the regional and global scales is important in both scientific and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the robustness of the derived optimal thresholds and the reliability of the cluster-based method. Compared to existing threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issue, when mapping urban extent over a large area. Using this cluster-based method, we built new global maps of 1-km urban extent from the NTL data (Figure 1) and evaluated its temporal dynamics from 1992 to 2013. Supported by the derived global urban maps and socio-economic drivers, we developed an integrated modeling framework by integrating a top-down macro-scale statistical model with a bottom-up urban growth model and projected future urban expansion.

  7. A Three-Dimensional Simulation Model of Cardiomyocyte Integrating Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Asuka; Okada, Jun-ichi; Washio, Takumi; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that Ca2+ not only regulates the contraction of cardiomyocytes, but can also function as a signaling agent to stimulate ATP production by the mitochondria. However, the spatiotemporal resolution of current experimental techniques limits our investigative capacity to understand this phenomenon. Here, we created a detailed three-dimensional (3D) cardiomyocyte model to study the subcellular regulatory mechanisms of myocardial energetics. The 3D cardiomyocyte model was based on the finite-element method, with detailed subcellular structures reproduced, and it included all elementary processes involved in cardiomyocyte electrophysiology, contraction, and ATP metabolism localized to specific loci. The simulation results were found to be reproducible and consistent with experimental data regarding the spatiotemporal pattern of cytosolic, intrasarcoplasmic-reticulum, and mitochondrial changes in Ca2+; as well as changes in metabolite levels. Detailed analysis suggested that although the observed large cytosolic Ca2+ gradient facilitated uptake by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter to produce cyclic changes in mitochondrial Ca2+ near the Z-line region, the average mitochondrial Ca2+ changes slowly. We also confirmed the importance of the creatine phosphate shuttle in cardiac energy regulation. In summary, our 3D model provides a powerful tool for the study of cardiac function by overcoming some of the spatiotemporal limitations of current experimental approaches. PMID:22261047

  8. Critical State Finite Element Models of Contractional Fault-Related Folding: Structural and Mechanical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertz, M.; Lingrey, S.; Sanz, P. F.

    2011-12-01

    Geometric/kinematic models of the common fault-related fold types (fault-bend, fault-propagation, detachment folding) typically assume a simplified flexural-slip based bed-parallel simple shear mechanism. The magnitude of local strain is a function of layer dip change irrespective of material properties. Line-lengths parallel to and layer thicknesses orthogonal to the flexural-slip surface remain constant. This study reports on a range of more complicated kinematic and mechanical responses observed in fourteen idealized forward numerical models of contractional fault-related folding. The models test the effects of material properties, initial fault dip, and the presence of weak inter-layer detachment horizons. We employ a Lagrangian finite element method with adaptive remeshing and a constitutive model that is based on critical state mechanics. This approach allows for large, volumetric deformation and realistic evolution of the failure envelope during progressive deformation. We demonstrate that material properties affect the way faults propagate and thus exert a significant control on resultant fold layer geometry. In most cases, these geometries differ from the flexural-slip based kinematic idealizations. For instance, models of uniform sandstone properties exhibit efficient strain localization and clear patterns of fault tip propagation. Uniform shale properties tends to inhibit fault propagation due to distributed plastic deformation. Models with mixed inter-layered sandstone and shale deform in a disharmonic manner, resembling lobate-cuspate arrangements that are common to many outcrop-scale folds. Inter-layer detachments accommodate shortening by bed-parallel slip, resulting in fault-bend fold kinematics, imbrication of sand layers, and a general absence of fault propagation across layers. Constant area based plane strain restoration of the deformed models recovers the first-order contractional deformation (80-90% of true contractional strain). Constant line

  9. On Using Model Populations to Determine Mechanical Properties of Skeletal Muscle. Application to Concentric Contraction Simulation.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B; Muñoz, M J; Rodríguez, J F; Grasa, J

    2015-10-01

    In the field of computational biomechanics, the experimental evaluation of the material properties is crucial for the development of computational models that closely reproduce real organ systems. When simulations of muscle tissue are concerned, stress/strain relations for both passive and active behavior are required. These experimental relations usually exhibit certain variability. In this study, a set of material parameters involved in a 3D skeletal muscle model are determined by using a system biology approach in which the parameters are randomly varied leading to a population of models. Using a set of experimental results from an animal model, a subset of the entire population of models was selected. This reduced population predicted the mechanical response within the window of experimental observations. Hence, a range of model parameters, instead of a single set of them, was determined. Rat Tibialis Anterior muscle was selected for this study. Muscles ([Formula: see text]) were activated through the sciatic nerve and during contraction the tissue pulled a weight fixed to the distal tendon (concentric contraction). Three different weights 1, 2 and 3 N were used and the time course of muscle stretch was analyzed obtaining values of (mean [Formula: see text] standard deviation): [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. A paired two-sided sign rank test showed significant differences between the muscle response for the three weights ([Formula: see text]). This study shows that the Monte Carlo method could be used for determine muscle characteristic parameters considering the variability of the experimental population.

  10. Cross-scale Efficient Tensor Contractions for Coupled Cluster Computations Through Multiple Programming Model Backends

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Williams, Samuel W.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2016-07-26

    Coupled-cluster methods provide highly accurate models of molecular structure by explicit numerical calculation of tensors representing the correlation between electrons. These calculations are dominated by a sequence of tensor contractions, motivating the development of numerical libraries for such operations. While based on matrix-matrix multiplication, these libraries are specialized to exploit symmetries in the molecular structure and in electronic interactions, and thus reduce the size of the tensor representation and the complexity of contractions. The resulting algorithms are irregular and their parallelization has been previously achieved via the use of dynamic scheduling or specialized data decompositions. We introduce our efforts to extend the Libtensor framework to work in the distributed memory environment in a scalable and energy efficient manner. We achieve up to 240 speedup compared with the best optimized shared memory implementation. We attain scalability to hundreds of thousands of compute cores on three distributed-memory architectures, (Cray XC30&XC40, BlueGene/Q), and on a heterogeneous GPU-CPU system (Cray XK7). As the bottlenecks shift from being compute-bound DGEMM's to communication-bound collectives as the size of the molecular system scales, we adopt two radically different parallelization approaches for handling load-imbalance. Nevertheless, we preserve a uni ed interface to both programming models to maintain the productivity of computational quantum chemists.

  11. Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

  12. Muscle activity and co-contraction of musculoskeletal model during steering maneuver.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen-hai; Fan, Da; Wang, Deping; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Kaishu; Chen, Chaoyang

    2014-01-01

    In this study a musculoskeletal model of driver steering maneuver was established. The model was driven by the steering angle and steering torque when performing typical steering test. The simulation was calculated using inverse dynamics. Maximum muscle activity and the muscle activity of each muscle were studied afterwards. The key muscles that generated steering torque were scapular portion of deltoid, infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, triceps long head and triceps lateral head. Muscle co-contraction was analyzed quantitatively and was significantly different from muscle activity. This paper presents a preliminary research on the mechanical properties of upper limb muscles during steering maneuver. The results can serve as references for vehicle design and performance evaluation using the physiological characteristics of drivers.

  13. Paleoclimatic modeling and phylogeography of least killifish, Heterandria formosa: insights into Pleistocene expansion-contraction dynamics and evolutionary history of North American Coastal Plain freshwater biota

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Climatic and sea-level fluctuations throughout the last Pleistocene glacial cycle (~130-0 ka) profoundly influenced present-day distributions and genetic diversity of Northern Hemisphere biotas by forcing range contractions in many species during the glacial advance and allowing expansion following glacial retreat ('expansion-contraction’ model). Evidence for such range dynamics and refugia in the unglaciated Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain stems largely from terrestrial species, and aquatic species Pleistocene responses remain relatively uninvestigated. Heterandria formosa, a wide-ranging regional endemic, presents an ideal system to test the expansion-contraction model within this biota. By integrating ecological niche modeling and phylogeography, we infer the Pleistocene history of this livebearing fish (Poeciliidae) and test for several predicted distributional and genetic effects of the last glaciation. Results Paleoclimatic models predicted range contraction to a single southwest Florida peninsula refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by northward expansion. We inferred spatial-population subdivision into four groups that reflect genetic barriers outside this refuge. Several other features of the genetic data were consistent with predictions derived from an expansion-contraction model: limited intraspecific divergence (e.g. mean mtDNA p-distance = 0.66%); a pattern of mtDNA diversity (mean Hd = 0.934; mean π = 0.007) consistent with rapid, recent population expansion; a lack of mtDNA isolation-by-distance; and clinal variation in allozyme diversity with higher diversity at lower latitudes near the predicted refugium. Statistical tests of mismatch distributions and coalescent simulations of the gene tree lent greater support to a scenario of post-glacial expansion and diversification from a single refugium than to any other model examined (e.g. multiple-refugia scenarios). Conclusions Congruent results from diverse data

  14. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  15. Empirical Performance Model-Driven Data Layout Optimization and Library Call Selection for Tensor Contraction Expressions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Qingda; Gao, Xiaoyang; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Baumgartner, Gerald; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2012-03-01

    Empirical optimizers like ATLAS have been very effective in optimizing computational kernels in libraries. The best choice of parameters such as tile size and degree of loop unrolling is determined by executing different versions of the computation. In contrast, optimizing compilers use a model-driven approach to program transformation. While the model-driven approach of optimizing compilers is generally orders of magnitude faster than ATLAS-like library generators, its effectiveness can be limited by the accuracy of the performance models used. In this paper, we describe an approach where a class of computations is modeled in terms of constituent operations that are empirically measured, thereby allowing modeling of the overall execution time. The performance model with empirically determined cost components is used to perform data layout optimization together with the selection of library calls and layout transformations in the context of the Tensor Contraction Engine, a compiler for a high-level domain-specific language for expressing computational models in quantum chemistry. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through experimental measurements on representative computations from quantum chemistry.

  16. Eccentric Contraction-Induced Muscle Injury: Reproducible, Quantitative, Physiological Models to Impair Skeletal Muscle's Capacity to Generate Force.

    PubMed

    Call, Jarrod A; Lowe, Dawn A

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of muscle regeneration an experimental injury model is required. Advantages of eccentric contraction-induced injury are that it is a controllable, reproducible, and physiologically relevant model to cause muscle injury, with injury being defined as a loss of force generating capacity. While eccentric contractions can be incorporated into conscious animal study designs such as downhill treadmill running, electrophysiological approaches to elicit eccentric contractions and examine muscle contractility, for example before and after the injurious eccentric contractions, allows researchers to circumvent common issues in determining muscle function in a conscious animal (e.g., unwillingness to participate). Herein, we describe in vitro and in vivo methods that are reliable, repeatable, and truly maximal because the muscle contractions are evoked in a controlled, quantifiable manner independent of subject motivation. Both methods can be used to initiate eccentric contraction-induced injury and are suitable for monitoring functional muscle regeneration hours to days to weeks post-injury.

  17. A Computational Model Integrating Electrophysiology, Contraction, and Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in the Ventricular Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A.; O'Rourke, Brian; Jacques, Robert; Tseng, Hsiang-Jer; Marbán, Eduardo; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2006-01-01

    An intricate network of reactions is involved in matching energy supply with demand in the heart. This complexity arises because energy production both modulates and is modulated by the electrophysiological and contractile activity of the cardiac myocyte. Here, we present an integrated mathematical model of the cardiac cell that links excitation-contraction coupling with mitochondrial energy generation. The dynamics of the model are described by a system of 50 ordinary differential equations. The formulation explicitly incorporates cytoplasmic ATP-consuming processes associated with force generation and ion transport, as well as the creatine kinase reaction. Changes in the electrical and contractile activity of the myocyte are coupled to mitochondrial energetics through the ATP, Ca2+, and Na+ concentrations in the myoplasmic and mitochondrial matrix compartments. The pseudo steady-state relationship between force and oxygen consumption at various stimulus frequencies and external Ca2+ concentrations is reproduced in both model simulations and direct experiments in cardiac trabeculae under normoxic conditions, recapitulating the linearity between cardiac work and respiration in the heart. Importantly, the model can also reproduce the rapid time-dependent changes in mitochondrial NADH and Ca2+ in response to abrupt changes in workload. The steady-state and dynamic responses of the model were conferred by ADP-dependent stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and Ca2+-dependent regulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases, illustrating how the model can be used as a tool for investigating mechanisms underlying metabolic control in the heart. PMID:16679365

  18. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery: Progress review No. 74, Quarter ending March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  19. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review quarter ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. A list of available publications is also included.

  20. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 71, quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  1. Influence of joint angle on EMG-torque model during constant-posture, quasi-constant-torque contractions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Martel, Francois; Rancourt, Denis; Clancy, Edward A

    2013-10-01

    Electromyogram (EMG)-torque modeling is of value to many different application areas, including ergonomics, clinical biomechanics and prosthesis control. One important aspect of EMG-torque modeling is the ability to account for the joint angle influence. This manuscript describes an experimental study which relates the biceps/triceps surface EMG of 12 subjects to elbow torque at seven joint angles (spanning 45-135°) during constant-posture, quasi-constant-torque contractions. Advanced EMG amplitude (EMGσ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) were investigated and three non-linear EMGσ-torque models were evaluated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the seven distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.23±2.2% MVCF90 resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so (i.e., parameterized the angle dependence), achieved an error of 4.17±1.7% MVCF90. Results demonstrated that advanced EMGσ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation. We also contrasted models that did vs. did not account for antagonist muscle co-contraction. Models that accounted for co-contraction estimated individual flexion muscle torques that were ∼29% higher and individual extension muscle torques that were ∼68% higher.

  2. Simulation of dilute polymeric fluids in a three-dimensional contraction using a multiscale FENE model

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, M. E-mail: ruettgers@ins.uni-bonn.de; Rüttgers, A. E-mail: ruettgers@ins.uni-bonn.de

    2014-05-15

    The multiscale FENE model is applied to a 3D square-square contraction flow problem. For this purpose, the stochastic Brownian configuration field method (BCF) has been coupled with our fully parallelized three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver NaSt3DGPF. The robustness of the BCF method enables the numerical simulation of high Deborah number flows for which most macroscopic methods suffer from stability issues. The results of our simulations are compared with that of experimental measurements from literature and show a very good agreement. In particular, flow phenomena such as a strong vortex enhancement, streamline divergence and a flow inversion for highly elastic flows are reproduced. Due to their computational complexity, our simulations require massively parallel computations. Using a domain decomposition approach with MPI, the implementation achieves excellent scale-up results for up to 128 processors.

  3. Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle.

  4. A Human Ventricular Myocyte Model with a Refined Representation of Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Himeno, Yukiko; Asakura, Keiichi; Cha, Chae Young; Memida, Hiraku; Powell, Trevor; Amano, Akira; Noma, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) occurs by a regenerative activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) within each Ca2+-releasing unit, triggered by the activation of L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs). CICR is then terminated, most probably by depletion of Ca2+ in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Hinch et al. previously developed a tightly coupled LCC-RyR mathematical model, known as the Hinch model, that enables simulations to deal with a variety of functional states of whole-cell populations of a Ca2+-releasing unit using a personal computer. In this study, we developed a membrane excitation-contraction model of the human ventricular myocyte, which we call the human ventricular cell (HuVEC) model. This model is a hybrid of the most recent HuVEC models and the Hinch model. We modified the Hinch model to reproduce the regenerative activation and termination of CICR. In particular, we removed the inactivated RyR state and separated the single step of RyR activation by LCCs into triggering and regenerative steps. More importantly, we included the experimental measurement of a transient rise in Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+], 10–15 μM) during CICR in the vicinity of Ca2+-releasing sites, and thereby calculated the effects of the local Ca2+ gradient on CICR as well as membrane excitation. This HuVEC model successfully reconstructed both membrane excitation and key properties of CICR. The time course of CICR evoked by an action potential was accounted for by autonomous changes in an instantaneous equilibrium open probability of couplons. This autonomous time course was driven by a core feedback loop including the pivotal local [Ca2+], influenced by a time-dependent decay in the SR Ca2+ content during CICR. PMID:26200878

  5. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C; Lam, Simon S K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relationships among psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors (generating, spreading, implementing innovative ideas at work) over a 6-month period. Results indicate that the effects of psychological contract breaches on employees are not static. Specifically, perceptions of psychological contract breaches strengthened over time and were associated with decreased levels of affective commitment over time. Further, increased perceptions of psychological contract breaches were associated with decreases in innovation-related behaviors. We also found evidence that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between psychological contract breaches and innovation-related behaviors. These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective.

  6. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    PubMed

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  7. Support Center for Regulatory Atmospheric Modeling (SCRAM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical site provides access to air quality models (including computer code, input data, and model processors) and other mathematical simulation techniques used in assessing air emissions control strategies and source impacts.

  8. Supporting Students' Knowledge Transfer in Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piksööt, Jaanika; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates ways to enhance secondary school students' knowledge transfer in complex science domains by implementing question prompts. Two samples of students applied two web-based models to study molecular genetics--the model of genetic code (n = 258) and translation (n = 245). For each model, the samples were randomly divided into…

  9. Modeling uncertainty in requirements engineering decision support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Maynard-Zhang, Pedrito; Kiper, James D.

    2005-01-01

    One inherent characteristic of requrements engineering is a lack of certainty during this early phase of a project. Nevertheless, decisions about requirements must be made in spite of this uncertainty. Here we describe the context in which we are exploring this, and some initial work to support elicitation of uncertain requirements, and to deal with the combination of such information from multiple stakeholders.

  10. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Teacher. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching and learning. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Teacher Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all teachers improve. Through the Model, the goal is to help create a…

  11. Modelled present and future thaw lake area expansion/contraction trends throughout the continuous permafrost zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Y.; van Huissteden, J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Thaw lakes and drained lake basins are a dominant feature of Arctic lowlands. Thaw lakes are a source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), which is produced under anaerobic conditions, while drained lake basins are carbon sinks due to sedimentation. Besides feedbacks on climate, the development of thaw lakes due to the melt-out of ground ice and subsequent ground subsidence, can have significant impacts on the regional morphology, hydrology, geophysics and biogehemistry. Permafrost degradation as a result of climate warming, which is proceeding considerably faster in high latitude regions than the global average, could lead to either an increases in lake area due to lake expansion, or decrease due to lake drainage. However, which process will dominate is elusive. Therefore understanding thaw lake dynamics and quantifying the feedbacks related to thaw lake expansion and contraction are urgent questions to solve. We apply a stochastic model, THAWLAKE, on four representative Arctic sites, to reproduce recent lake dynamics (1963-2012) and predict for the future changes under various anticipated climate scenarios. The model simulations of current thaw lake cycles and expansion rates are comparable with data. Future lake expansions are limited by lake drainage. We suggest further improvements in the area of enhancing the hydrology component, and operation on larger scales to gauge the impacts on lacustrine morphology and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Business models for health care decision support.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Phil

    2003-01-01

    CareScience, Inc. is a public company (NASDAQ: CARE) that originated ten years ago to commercialize risk adjustment and complication predictions developed by the Wharton School of Business and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Over the past decade, the company has grown to approximately 200 clients and 150 employees. Among the "firsts" recorded by the company, CareScience was the first to offer a clinical decision support system as an Application Service Provider (ASP), the first to offer peer-to-peer clinical data sharing among health care provider organizations and practitioners (Santa Barbara Care Data Exchange), and the first to provide a care management outsourcing arrangement.

  13. Predictive analytics can support the ACO model.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Predictive analytics can be used to rapidly spot hard-to-identify opportunities to better manage care--a key tool in accountable care. When considering analytics models, healthcare providers should: Make value-based care a priority and act on information from analytics models. Create a road map that includes achievable steps, rather than major endeavors. Set long-term expectations and recognize that the effectiveness of an analytics program takes time, unlike revenue cycle initiatives that may show a quick return.

  14. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  15. Airborne SAR imagery to support hydraulic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglioni, S.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite images and airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are increasingly widespread and they are effective tools for measuring the size of flood events and for assessment of damage. The Hurricane Katrina disaster and the tsunami catastrophe in Indian Ocean countries are two recent and sadly famous examples. Moreover, as well known, the inundation maps can be used as tools to calibrate and validate hydraulic model (e.g. Horritt et al., Hydrological Processes, 2007). We carry out an application of a 1D hydraulic model coupled with a high resolution DTM for predicting the flood inundation processes. The study area is a 16 km reach of the River Severn, in west-central England, for which, four maps of inundated areas, obtained through airborne SAR images, and hydrometric data are available. The inundation maps are used for the calibration/validation of a 1D hydraulic model through a comparison between airborne SAR images and the results of hydraulic simulations. The results confirm the usefulness of inundation maps as hydraulic modelling tools and, moreover, show that 1D hydraulic model can be effectively used when coupled with high resolution topographic information.

  16. Implementation of Contraction to Electrophysiological Ventricular Myocyte Models, and Their Quantitative Characterization via Post-Extrasystolic Potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanyan Claire; Gray, Richard A.; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects over 5 million Americans and is characterized by impairment of cellular cardiac contractile function resulting in reduced ejection fraction in patients. Electrical stimulation such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) have shown some success in treating patients with HF. Computer simulations have the potential to help improve such therapy (e.g. suggest optimal lead placement) as well as provide insight into the underlying mechanisms which could be beneficial. However, these myocyte models require a quantitatively accurate excitation-contraction coupling such that the electrical and contraction predictions are correct. While currently there are close to a hundred models describing the detailed electrophysiology of cardiac cells, the majority of cell models do not include the equations to reproduce contractile force or they have been added ad hoc. Here we present a systematic methodology to couple first generation contraction models into electrophysiological models via intracellular calcium and then compare the resulting model predictions to experimental data. This is done by using a post-extrasystolic pacing protocol, which captures essential dynamics of contractile forces. We found that modeling the dynamic intracellular calcium buffers is necessary in order to reproduce the experimental data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in models the mechanism of the post-extrasystolic potentiation is highly dependent on the calcium released from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. Overall this study provides new insights into both specific and general determinants of cellular contractile force and provides a framework for incorporating contraction into electrophysiological models, both of which will be necessary to develop reliable simulations to optimize electrical therapies for HF. PMID:26317204

  17. Implementation of Contraction to Electrophysiological Ventricular Myocyte Models, and Their Quantitative Characterization via Post-Extrasystolic Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanyan Claire; Gray, Richard A; Fenton, Flavio H

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects over 5 million Americans and is characterized by impairment of cellular cardiac contractile function resulting in reduced ejection fraction in patients. Electrical stimulation such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) have shown some success in treating patients with HF. Computer simulations have the potential to help improve such therapy (e.g. suggest optimal lead placement) as well as provide insight into the underlying mechanisms which could be beneficial. However, these myocyte models require a quantitatively accurate excitation-contraction coupling such that the electrical and contraction predictions are correct. While currently there are close to a hundred models describing the detailed electrophysiology of cardiac cells, the majority of cell models do not include the equations to reproduce contractile force or they have been added ad hoc. Here we present a systematic methodology to couple first generation contraction models into electrophysiological models via intracellular calcium and then compare the resulting model predictions to experimental data. This is done by using a post-extrasystolic pacing protocol, which captures essential dynamics of contractile forces. We found that modeling the dynamic intracellular calcium buffers is necessary in order to reproduce the experimental data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in models the mechanism of the post-extrasystolic potentiation is highly dependent on the calcium released from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. Overall this study provides new insights into both specific and general determinants of cellular contractile force and provides a framework for incorporating contraction into electrophysiological models, both of which will be necessary to develop reliable simulations to optimize electrical therapies for HF.

  18. Three-dimensional model for aerosol transport and deposition in expanding and contracting alveoli.

    PubMed

    Balásházy, Imre; Hofmann, Werner; Farkas, Arpád; Madas, Balázs G

    2008-04-01

    Particle transport and deposition within a model alveolus, represented by a rhythmically expanding and contracting hemisphere, was modeled by a three-dimensional analytical model for the time-dependent air velocity field as a superposition of uniform and radial flow components, satisfying both the mass and momentum conservation equations. Trajectories of particles entrained in the airflow were calculated by a numerical particle trajectory code to compute simultaneously deposition by inertial impaction, gravitational sedimentation, Brownian diffusion, and interception. Five different orientations of the orifice of the alveolus relative to the direction of gravity were selected. Deposition was calculated for particles from 1 nm to 10 microm, for 3 breathing conditions, and for 5 different entrance times relative to the onset of inspiration. For the analyzed cases, the spatial orientation of the orifice of an alveolus has practically no effect on deposition for particles below about 0.1 microm, where deposition is dominated by Brownian motion. Above about 1 microm, where deposition is governed primarily by gravitational settling, deposition can vary from 0 to 100%, depending on the spatial orientation, while deposition of particles 0.1-1 microm falls between these two extreme cases. Due to the isotropic nature of Brownian motion, deposition of the 10-nm particles is practically uniform for all spatial orientations. However, for larger particles, deposition can be quite inhomogeneous, consistent with the direction of gravity. While nearly all particles are exhaled during the successive expiration phase, there are a few cases where particles still leave the alveolus even after many breathing cycles.

  19. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

  20. Key Elements of the Tutorial Support Management Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Grace; Paasuke, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In response to an exponential growth in enrolments the "Tutorial Support Management" (TSM) model has been adopted by Open Universities Australia (OUA) after a two-year project on the provision of online tutor support in first year, online undergraduate units. The essential focus of the TSM model was the development of a systemic approach…

  1. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  2. Influence of Joint Angle on EMG-Torque Model During Constant-Posture, Torque-Varying Contractions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Clancy, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Relating the electromyogram (EMG) to joint torque is useful in various application areas, including prosthesis control, ergonomics and clinical biomechanics. Limited study has related EMG to torque across varied joint angles, particularly when subjects performed force-varying contractions or when optimized modeling methods were utilized. We related the biceps-triceps surface EMG of 22 subjects to elbow torque at six joint angles (spanning 60° to 135°) during constant-posture, torque-varying contractions. Three nonlinear EMG σ -torque models, advanced EMG amplitude (EMG σ ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) and the duration of data used to train models were investigated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the six distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.01±1.2% MVC(F90) resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so achieved a statistically equivalent error of 4.06±1.2% MVC(F90). Results demonstrated that advanced EMG σ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation as do longer model training durations.

  3. Strategies to Support Students' Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunyi

    2015-01-01

    An important question for mathematics teachers is this: "How can we help students learn mathematics to solve everyday problems, rather than teaching them only to memorize rules and practice mathematical procedures?" Teaching students using modeling activities can help them learn mathematics in real-world problem-solving situations that…

  4. Using Covariation Reasoning to Support Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    For many students, making connections between mathematical ideas and the real world is one of the most intriguing and rewarding aspects of the study of mathematics. In the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010), mathematical modeling is highlighted as a mathematical practice standard for all grades. To engage in mathematical…

  5. Decision Support System for Resource Allocation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    by Presutti and Trepp in their paper "Much Ado about EOQ." [2) The constraints used in the stock fund model are total stock fund dollars and limits on...Jersey, 1963. 2. Presutti, Victor J., Jr. and Trepp , Richard C., More Ado About Economic Order Ouantities (EOO), Operations Analysis Office

  6. Integration/coordination contractor support to Environmental Restoration Program and Program Support Office. Contract status report, September 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This status report updates activities on the following tasks: Environmental restoration task planning; Waste management task planning; Waste management project support; CPP stakeholder involvement; EM site specific advisory board - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; and, Hypermedia document. A summary status assessment and forecast of all tasks is provided and A cost management report is included.

  7. Consequences of intravascular lymphatic valve properties: a study of contraction timing in a multi-lymphangion model.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Christopher D; Macaskill, Charlie; Davis, Michael J; Moore, James E

    2016-04-01

    The observed properties of valves in collecting lymphatic vessels include transmural pressure-dependent bias to the open state and hysteresis. The bias may reduce resistance to flow when the vessel is functioning as a conduit. However, lymphatic pumping implies a streamwise increase in mean pressure across each valve, suggesting that the bias is then potentially unhelpful. Lymph pumping by a model of several collecting lymphatic vessel segments (lymphangions) in series, which incorporated these properties, was investigated under conditions of adverse pressure difference while varying the refractory period between active muscular contractions and the inter-lymphangion contraction delay. It was found that many combinations of the timing parameters and the adverse pressure difference led to one or more intermediate valves remaining open instead of switching between open and closed states during repetitive contraction cycles. Cyclic valve switching was reliably indicated if the mean pressure in a lymphangion over a cycle was higher than that in the lymphangion upstream, but either lack of or very brief valve closure could cause mean pressure to be lower downstream. Widely separated combinations of refractory period and delay time were found to produce the greatest flow-rate for a given pressure difference. The efficiency of pumping was always maximized by a long refractory period and lymphangion contraction starting when the contraction of the lymphangion immediately upstream was peaking. By means of an ex vivo experiment, it was verified that intermediate valves in a chain of pumping lymphangions can remain open, while the lymphangions on either side of the open valve continue to execute contractions.

  8. U.S. Department of Defense Services Contract Spending and the Supporting Industrial Base, 2000-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    provided in the FPDS data). The CSIS also researched all the mergers and acquisitions by defense contractors, as well as joint ventures among DoD service...Health Net. The impact of mergers and acquisitions is also evident, as three of the top 20 contractors in 2000 were later acquired by Northrop...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The research presented at the symposium was supported by the acquisition chair of the Graduate School of Business

  9. Georeferenced model simulations efficiently support targeted monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlekamp, Jürgen; Klasmeier, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands the good ecological and chemical status of surface waters. To meet the definition of good chemical status of the WFD surface water concentrations of priority pollutants must not exceed established environmental quality standards (EQS). Surveillance of the concentrations of numerous chemical pollutants in whole river basins by monitoring is laborious and time-consuming. Moreover, measured data do often not allow for immediate source apportionment which is a prerequisite for defining promising reduction strategies to be implemented within the programme of measures. In this context, spatially explicit model approaches are highly advantageous because they provide a direct link between local point emissions (e.g. treated wastewater) or diffuse non-point emissions (e.g. agricultural runoff) and resulting surface water concentrations. Scenario analyses with such models allow for a priori investigation of potential positive effects of reduction measures such as optimization of wastewater treatment. The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) has been designed to calculate spatially resolved averaged concentrations for different flow conditions (e.g. mean or low flow) based on emission estimations for local point source emissions such as treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The methodology was applied to selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, sotalol, metoprolol, carbamazepin) in the Main river basin in Germany (approx. 27,290 km²). Average concentrations of the compounds were calculated for each river reach in the whole catchment. Simulation results were evaluated by comparison with available data from orienting monitoring and used to develop an optimal monitoring strategy for the assessment of water quality regarding micropollutants at the catchment scale.

  10. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, A.; Rahimi, S.; Talebi, A.; Soleimani, A.; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Materials and Methods Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. Results The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions. PMID:26396969

  11. Knowledge Modelling to Support Inquiry Learning Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Annika; Mulholland, Paul; Zdrahal, Zdenek; Blasko, Miroslav

    In this paper we describe the SILVER toolkit, which is designed for tasks in which a user learns by analysing and interpreting a set of resources. The user categorises each resource according to the set of properties that they identify as being applicable to it. Due to the large amount of data generated by this type of task, the user may find it hard to identify patterns in their classification and tagging, to recognise their own inconsistencies or make comparisons between themselves and others. In the first SILVER task described, the ID3 decision tree algorithm is applied to the user's data to identify patterns and generate different types of feedback. Principles of spatial hypertext are used to produce an interactive visualization of the summarized data. As the user interacts with the resources, they can see their progress and changing perspective on the task. In the second SILVER task described, a conceptual model is used to provide explanations of the model underlying the user's classification of resources.

  12. A model for effective planning of SME support services.

    PubMed

    Rakićević, Zoran; Omerbegović-Bijelović, Jasmina; Lečić-Cvetković, Danica

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a model for effective planning of support services for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The idea is to scrutinize and measure the suitability of support services in order to give recommendations for the improvement of a support planning process. We examined the applied support services and matched them with the problems and needs of SMEs, based on the survey conducted in 2013 on a sample of 336 SMEs in Serbia. We defined and analysed the five research questions that refer to support services, their consistency with the SMEs' problems and needs, and the relation between the given support and SMEs' success. The survey results have shown a statistically significant connection between them. Based on this result, we proposed an eight-phase model as a method for the improvement of support service planning for SMEs. This model helps SMEs to plan better their requirements in terms of support; government and administration bodies at all levels and organizations that provide support services to understand better SMEs' problems and needs for support.

  13. DOD Oversight Improvements are Needed on the Contractor Accounting System for the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Stryker Logistics Support Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-16

    Policy FAR Federal Acquisition Regulation GDLS General Dynamics Land System PCO Procuring Contracting Officer PEO Program Executive Officer...our March 2012 preliminary briefing of the accounting system deficiencies, PMO Stryker issued a procuring contracting officer ( PCO ) letter that...and such a billing practice must be corrected. Specifically, the PCO letter, dated March 7, 2012, stated: This PCO [procuring contracting officer

  14. Issues in physician contracting.

    PubMed

    Fanburg, John D; Leone, Alyson M

    2005-09-01

    Dermatologists will enter into a number of different contracts during their professional careers. It is important that in each agreement they enter, dermatologists reap the benefits that they aspire for and understand the consequences of each provision. This article addresses just a few of the different issues that arise in physician contracting, such as choosing the appropriate form of business entity; the importance of a writing; term and termination of the contract; compensation models; benefits, vacation and other time off included in the contract; malpractice insurance; and restrictive covenants. Each provision should be carefully analyzed to ensure that it will protect the best interests of the dermatologist in that situation.

  15. Decision-Support Quantitative Models for Valuing Incentives in Performance Based Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    arresting hook captures one of the cables and the arresting gear caliper brakes decelerate the AV to a stop within 15m...arresting hook mounted on the underside of the AV and ground-based pendant cables attached to an arresting brake at each end. After landing, the

  16. Kinetic modeling of the assembly, dynamic steady state, and contraction of the FtsZ ring in prokaryotic cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Surovtsev, Ivan V; Morgan, Jeffrey J; Lindahl, Paul A

    2008-07-04

    Cytokinesis in prokaryotes involves the assembly of a polymeric ring composed of FtsZ protein monomeric units. The Z ring forms at the division plane and is attached to the membrane. After assembly, it maintains a stable yet dynamic steady state. Once induced, the ring contracts and the membrane constricts. In this work, we present a computational deterministic biochemical model exhibiting this behavior. The model is based on biochemical features of FtsZ known from in vitro studies, and it quantitatively reproduces relevant in vitro data. An essential part of the model is a consideration of interfacial reactions involving the cytosol volume, where monomeric FtsZ is dispersed, and the membrane surface in the cell's mid-zone where the ring is assembled. This approach allows the same chemical model to simulate either in vitro or in vivo conditions by adjusting only two geometrical parameters. The model includes minimal reactions, components, and assumptions, yet is able to reproduce sought-after in vivo behavior, including the rapid assembly of the ring via FtsZ-polymerization, the formation of a dynamic steady state in which GTP hydrolysis leads to the exchange of monomeric subunits between cytoplasm and the ring, and finally the induced contraction of the ring. The model gives a quantitative estimate for coupling between the rate of GTP hydrolysis and of FtsZ subunit turnover between the assembled ring and the cytoplasmic pool as observed. Membrane constriction is chemically driven by the strong tendency of GTP-bound FtsZ to self-assembly. The model suggests a possible mechanism of membrane contraction without a motor protein. The portion of the free energy of GTP hydrolysis released in cyclization is indirectly used in this energetically unfavorable process. The model provides a limit to the mechanistic complexity required to mimic ring behavior, and it highlights the importance of parallel in vitro and in vivo modeling.

  17. State Assessment Program Item Banks: Model Language for Request for Proposals (RFP) and Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    This document provides recommendations for request for proposal (RFP) and contract language that state education agencies can use to specify their requirements for access to test item banks. An item bank is a repository for test items and data about those items. Item banks are used by state agency staff to view items and associated data; to…

  18. A Simple, Inexpensive Model to Demonstrate How Contraction of GI Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Promotes Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Peristalis is a propulsive activity that involves both circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the esophagus, distal stomach, and small and large intestines. During peristalsis, the circular smooth muscle contracts behind (on the orad side) the bolus and relaxes in front (on the aborad side) of the bolus. At the same time, the longitudinal…

  19. What Model Should Be Used to Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Field Contracting Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1...CONTRACT MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2003 Author: Daniel O’Sullivan Approved by: Jeffrey R. Cuskey Thesis...9 B. LITERATURE REVIEW ON EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT ...................11 C. ORGANIZATIONAL

  20. A Framework and Model for Evaluating Clinical Decision Support Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a four-phase model for evaluating architectures for clinical decision support that focuses on: defining a set of desirable features for a decision support architecture; building a proof-of-concept prototype; demonstrating that the architecture is useful by showing that it can be integrated with existing decision support systems and comparing its coverage to that of other architectures. We apply this framework to several well-known decision support architectures, including Arden Syntax, GLIF, SEBASTIAN and SAGE PMID:18462999

  1. Strong Metal-Support Interactions (smsi) in Model Titania-Supported Rhodium Catalysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Hassan Roger

    Model catalysts consisting of rhodium particles supported on well characterized, single crystal rutile substrates were used to study the nature of strong metal -support interactions (SMSI) in supported catalyst systems. The use of single crystal supports eliminates many of the complications inherent with powder supported catalysts and greatly simplifies the interpretation of experimental data. A variety of surface sensitive electron spectroscopic techniques, including ultraviolet and x-ray photoemission (UPS and XPS), electron energy loss (ELS) and Auger spectroscopies, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), combined with chemisorption measurements were applied to rhodium on titania model catalysts in order to separate the various phenomena that contribute to SMSI. The properties of the clean titania supports have been determined, including the dynamics of oxidation of reduced surfaces. Model catalysts were then prepared by thermal evaporation of rhodium onto these supports. The high temperature reduction procedures that produce the SMSI state on powder supported catalysts have been used on the model catalysts, and Auger sputter profiles indicate that during high temperature reduction (HTR) a suboxide of titanium migrates onto the rhodium particles, thus blocking carbon monoxide chemisorption. Removal of the suboxide layer by ion bombardment restores the normal chemisorption properties of the catalyst. Model rhodium on titania catalysts fabricated on both fully oxidized and on partially reduced single crystal supports have also been used. In this way it is possible to observe support-to-metal charge transfer in the absence of the encapsulation that accompanies HTR. The experimental results show that reduced titania species and rhodium interact with each other through a partially ionic bond, with electronic charge transferred from the reduced titanium cations to the rhodium. This bonding interaction is part of the driving force that leads to encapsulation of the

  2. Application of a Process Model to a Management Support System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The concept of a process model is developed and used as a basis for data organization for use in a Management Support System (MSS). The data...organization is proposed as being useful for historical records that constitute the bulk of the information stored in an MSS. The concept of a process model , and...manager. Other uses of the proposed data organization are also considered. Extensions of the process model are considered by combining the model with

  3. Support System Effects on the NASA Common Research Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the NASA Common Research Model was conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from the experimental investigations was collected, a large difference in moment values was seen between the experimental and the computational data from the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This difference led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the Common Research Model. The configurations computed during this investigation were the wing/body/tail=0deg without the support system and the wing/body/tail=0deg with the support system. The results from this investigation confirm that the addition of the support system to the computational cases does shift the pitching moment in the direction of the experimental results.

  4. An Experimental Model Using Cultured Cardiac Myocytes for a Study of the Generation of Premature Ventricular Contractions Under Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    It is known that use of a contrast agents in echocardiography increases the probability of generation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). As a basic study to elucidate the mechanisms and to reduce adverse effects, the generation of PVCs was investigated using cultured cardiac myocytes instead of the intact heart in vivo. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured on a cover slip. The myocyte sample was exposed to pulsed ultrasound with microbubbles adjacent to the myocytes, and generation of PVCs was examined with ultrasound exposure at various delay times after onset of myocyte contraction. The experimental results showed that generation of PVCs had a stable threshold delay time and that PVCs were generated only when myocytes were exposed to ultrasound with delay times longer than the threshold. The results indicate that the model used in this study is useful for revealing the mechanisms by which PVCs are induced by ultrasound exposure.

  5. Human Exposure Modeling - Databases to Support Exposure Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human exposure modeling relates pollutant concentrations in the larger environmental media to pollutant concentrations in the immediate exposure media. The models described here are available on other EPA websites.

  6. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    PubMed

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated.

  7. Interrogative Model of Inquiry and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Kai; Sintonen, Matti

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the Interrogative Model of Inquiry (I-Model), developed for the purposes of epistemology and philosophy of science, could be applied to analyze elementary school students' process of inquiry in computer-supported learning. Suggests that the interrogative approach to inquiry can be productively applied for conceptualizing inquiry in…

  8. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 80. Quarterly report, July--September, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report contains information on petroleum enhanced recovery projects. In addition to project descriptions, contract numbers, principal investigators and project management information is included.

  9. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  10. Architect's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    An actual contract form used for architectural services is presented. Fees, duties, and services are included. Services are listed in the following phases--(1) schematic design, (2) design development, (3) contract document, and (4) construction. Extra services are listed, and owner's responsibility with regard to cost estimates is given.…

  11. 48 CFR 842.101 - Contract audit responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract audit... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Audit Services 842.101 Contract audit responsibilities. (a) Contracting officers may use the support services of other agencies to...

  12. Prioritization of engineering support requests and advanced technology projects using decision support and industrial engineering models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavana, Madjid

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation and prioritization of Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) is a particularly difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) -- Shuttle Project Engineering Office. This difficulty is due to the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The evaluation process must consider a multitude of relevant pieces of information concerning Safety, Supportability, O&M Cost Savings, Process Enhancement, Reliability, and Implementation. Various analytical and normative models developed over the past have helped decision makers at KSC utilize large volumes of information in the evaluation of ESR's. The purpose of this project is to build on the existing methodologies and develop a multiple criteria decision support system that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. The model utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), subjective probabilities, the entropy concept, and Maximize Agreement Heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluating a set of ESR's.

  13. Operations and support cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this annual report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center which documents the development of an operations and support (O&S) cost model as part of a larger life cycle cost (LCC) structure. It is intended for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of an operations and support life cycle cost model. Cost categories were initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. A revised cost element structure (CES), which is currently under study by NASA, was used to established the basic cost elements used in the model. While the focus of the effort was on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs, the computerized model allowed for other cost categories such as RDT&E and production costs to be addressed. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the costing model included support and upgrades to the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model. The primary result of the current research has been a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely operations and support cost analysis during the conceptual design activities.

  14. Choice of contracts in the British National Health Service: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Martin; McVicar, Duncan

    2008-09-01

    Following major reforms of the British National Health Service (NHS) in 1990, the roles of purchasing and providing health services were separated, with the relationship between purchasers and providers governed by contracts. Using a mixed multinomial logit analysis, we show how this policy shift led to a selection of contracts that is consistent with the predictions of a simple model, based on contract theory, in which the characteristics of the health services being purchased and of the contracting parties influence the choice of contract form. The paper thus provides evidence in support of the practical relevance of theory in understanding health care market reform.

  15. Competing for Contract Support Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    integrity, fairness, objectivity, and absence of bias or favoritism in the procurement process. Zemansky is a strong advocate of competition for...architectural, engineering and consulting firms that render professional services. In discussing the pro’s and cons of comnetitive procurement, Zemansky developed...contractors, overpayment for shoddy products or "kick backs" (,1 :5]. Zemansky concludes that, without delving into a detailed analysis of numerous

  16. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  17. Final Report DOE Supported Activities through the Utility/DOE Matching Grant Program Contract Number DE FG02-95NE38111 For the Period 30 September 1995 through 30 September 2002 Extended until 30 March 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James F.

    2003-08-15

    This report covers activities in the Univesity of Illinois Department of Nulcear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering Matching Grant Program for the period form 30 September 1995 to 30 March 2003. The funds for this program include industrial partner funds which were matched, or nearly matched by DOE-NE. The industrial partner was Commonwealth Edison, which changed its corporate structure and name to Exelon during the course of the contract. The funds from the contract were used to support nuclear engineering educational needs, including undergraduate and graduate students support, purchase of laboratory equipment, support for seminar speakers and conferences, and support for new faculty members. The funds were instrumental in maintaining a first quality nuclear engineering educational program at the University of Illinois.

  18. How does Vorticella utilize its stalk contraction-relaxation cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiazhong; Admiraal, David; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-03-01

    Vorticella is a sessile ciliate living in water, and it coils its slender stalk to pull the cell body (zooid) towards the substrate at a maximum speed of ~ 1 cm/s. After stalk contraction is completed, the stalk slowly relaxes to its extended state. Although this ultrafast stalk contraction has been studied in terms of cell motility, it is poorly understood how Vorticella utilizes its stalk contraction. Here we propose a hypothesis that Vorticella can augment transport of particles near the substrate relying on water flow induced by the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle. We investigated our hypothesis using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which models Vorticella as a solid sphere moving normal to a solid surface in water. Having simulated water flow caused by Vorticella, we calculated motions of particles near Vorticella, and then quantified the transport effect of Vorticella's stalk contraction using microfluidic mixing indices. Supported by Laymann Seed grant from UNL.

  19. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

  20. Organizational analysis of three community support program models.

    PubMed

    Reinke, B; Greenley, J R

    1986-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the organizational and administrative characteristics of effective community support programs for the chronic mentally ill. The authors analyzed three successful support programs in Wisconsin that employ three different models of service delivery: one provides services through caseworkers who carry specialized caseloads, another through local nonprofessionals who work with a centrally located program coordinator, and the third through a team of various mental health workers. Each program has tailored its organizational process to suit the types of clients it sees, the size of its catchment area, and the availability of other professional resources. The interrelated strengths and weaknesses of each model are discussed.

  1. Where neuroscience and dynamic system theory meet autonomous robotics: a contracting basal ganglia model for action selection.

    PubMed

    Girard, B; Tabareau, N; Pham, Q C; Berthoz, A; Slotine, J-J

    2008-05-01

    Action selection, the problem of choosing what to do next, is central to any autonomous agent architecture. We use here a multi-disciplinary approach at the convergence of neuroscience, dynamical system theory and autonomous robotics, in order to propose an efficient action selection mechanism based on a new model of the basal ganglia. We first describe new developments of contraction theory regarding locally projected dynamical systems. We exploit these results to design a stable computational model of the cortico-baso-thalamo-cortical loops. Based on recent anatomical data, we include usually neglected neural projections, which participate in performing accurate selection. Finally, the efficiency of this model as an autonomous robot action selection mechanism is assessed in a standard survival task. The model exhibits valuable dithering avoidance and energy-saving properties, when compared with a simple if-then-else decision rule.

  2. A numerical cloud model for the support of laboratory experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical cloud model is presented which can describe the evolution of a cloud starting from moist aerosol-laden air through the diffusional growth regime. The model is designed for the direct support of cloud chamber laboratory experimentation, i.e., experiment preparation, real-time control and data analysis. In the model the thermodynamics is uncoupled from the droplet growth processes. Analytic solutions for the cloud droplet growth equations are developed which can be applied in most laboratory situations. The model is applied to a variety of representative experiments.

  3. Effective Team Support: From Task and Cognitive Modeling to Software Agents for Time-Critical Complex Work Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor); John, Bonnie E.; Sycara, Katia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to perform multidisciplinary research between CMU psychologists, computer scientists and NASA researchers to design a next generation collaborative system to support a team of human experts and intelligent agents. To achieve robust performance enhancement of such a system, we had proposed to perform task and cognitive modeling to thoroughly understand the impact technology makes on the organization and on key individual personnel. Guided by cognitively-inspired requirements, we would then develop software agents that support the human team in decision making, information filtering, information distribution and integration to enhance team situational awareness. During the period covered by this final report, we made substantial progress in completing a system for empirical data collection, cognitive modeling, and the building of software agents to support a team's tasks, and in running experiments for the collection of baseline data.

  4. Three-dimensional surface geometries of the rabbit soleus muscle during contraction: input for biomechanical modelling and its validation.

    PubMed

    Böl, Markus; Leichsenring, Kay; Weichert, Christine; Sturmat, Maike; Schenk, Philipp; Blickhan, Reinhard; Siebert, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    There exists several numerical approaches to describe the active contractile behaviour of skeletal muscles. These models range from simple one-dimensional to more advanced three-dimensional ones; especially, three-dimensional models take up the cause of describing complex contraction modes in a realistic way. However, the validation of such concepts is challenging, as the combination of geometry, material and force characteristics is so far not available from the same muscle. To this end, we present in this study a comprehensive data set of the rabbit soleus muscle consisting of the muscles' characteristic force responses (active and passive), its three-dimensional shape during isometric, isotonic and isokinetic contraction experiments including the spatial arrangement of muscle tissue and aponeurosis-tendon complex, and the fascicle orientation throughout the whole muscle at its optimal length. In this way, an extensive data set is available giving insight into the three-dimensional geometry of the rabbit soleus muscle and, further, allowing to validate three-dimensional numerical models.

  5. Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawer, Giselle; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models," (ED495138) and is an added resource for further information. This support document is divided into the following sections: (1) The Retail Industry--A Snapshot; (2) Case Studies--Hardware, Retail…

  6. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  7. Rectangular Array Model Supporting Students' Spatial Structuring in Learning Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Wijaya, Surya

    2012-01-01

    We examine how rectangular array model can support students' spatial structuring in learning multiplication. To begin, we define what we mean by spatial structuring as the mental operation of constructing an organization or form for an object or set of objects. For that reason, the eggs problem was chosen as the starting point in which the…

  8. Educating All Learners: Refocusing the Comprehensive Support Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Grant, Patrick A., Ed.; Dooley, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses the importance of maximizing the fullest potential of all students and leaving no child behind. The 14 papers are: (1) "The Comprehensive Support Model for All Learners: Conceptualization and Meaning" (Festus E. Obiakor, Pauline Harris-Obiakor, and Ramel L. Smith); (2) "The Power of the `Self' in Education"…

  9. MSW Time to Tumor Model and Supporting Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multistage Weibull (MSW) time-to-tumor model and related documentation were developed principally (but not exclusively) for conducting time-to-tumor analyses to support risk assessments under the IRIS program. These programs and related docum...

  10. A Formal Model for the Study of Communication Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsapple, Clyde W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Documents the lack of conceptual frameworks for integrating research on organizational computer-based communications technologies. Formalizes an integrated model for studying computer communication support phenomena in organizations using a knowledge management perspective and set-theoretic notation. Defines two types of communications support…

  11. Transition to Operations Support at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. This paper will focus on a status report on CCMC activities in support of model transition to operations at US space weather forecasting centers. In particular, an update will be given on past and present transition activities, on developments that address operational needs, and on future opportunities for transition-to-operations support.

  12. Lengthening-contractions in isolated myocardium impact force development and worsen cardiac contractile function in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Delfín, Dawn A; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A; Janssen, Paul M L

    2011-02-01

    Lengthening-contractions exert eccentric stress on myofibers in normal myocardium. In congestive heart failure caused by a variety of diseases, the impact of lengthening-contractions of myocardium likely becomes more prevalent and severe. The present study introduces a method to investigate the role of stretching imposed by repetitive lengthening-contractions in myocardium under near-physiological conditions. By exerting various stretch-release ramps while the muscle is contracting, consecutive lengthening-contractions and their potential detrimental effect on cardiac function can be studied. We tested our model and hypothesis in age-matched (young and adult) mdx and wild-type mouse right ventricular trabeculae. These linear and ultrathin muscles possess all major cardiac cell types, and their contractile behavior very closely mimics that of the whole myocardium. In the first group of experiments, 10 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes of stretch were performed in trabeculae from 10-wk-old mdx and wild-type mice. In the second group, 100 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes were conducted in trabeculae from 10- and 20-wk-old mice. The peak isometric active developed tension (F(dev), in mN/mm(2)) and kinetic parameters time to peak tension (TTP, in ms) and time from peak tension to half-relaxation (RT50, in ms) were measured. Our results indicate lengthening-contractions significantly impact contractile behavior, and that dystrophin-deficient myocardium in mdx mice is significantly more susceptible to these damaging lengthening-contractions. The results indicate that lengthening-contractions in intact myocardium can be used in vitro to study this emerging contributor to cardiomyopathy.

  13. Mechanics of Vorticella Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin. PMID:20550905

  14. Mechanics of Vorticella contraction.

    PubMed

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C

    2010-06-16

    Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin.

  15. Local Control Model of Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Michael D.; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Ríos, Eduardo

    1997-01-01

    This is a quantitative model of control of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle, based on dual control of release channels (ryanodine receptors), primarily by voltage, secondarily by Ca2+ (Ríos, E., and G. Pizarro. 1988. NIPS. 3:223–227). Channels are positioned in a double row array of between 10 and 60 channels, where exactly half face voltage sensors (dihydropyridine receptors) in the transverse (t) tubule membrane (Block, B.A., T. Imagawa, K.P. Campbell, and C. Franzini-Armstrong. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:2587–2600). We calculate the flux of Ca2+ release upon different patterns of pulsed t-tubule depolarization by explicit stochastic simulation of the states of all channels in the array. Channels are initially opened by voltage sensors, according to an allosteric prescription (Ríos, E., M. Karhanek, J. Ma, A. González. 1993. J. Gen. Physiol. 102:449–482). Ca2+ permeating the open channels, diffusing in the junctional gap space, and interacting with fixed and mobile buffers produces defined and changing distributions of Ca2+ concentration. These concentrations interact with activating and inactivating channel sites to determine the propagation of activation and inactivation within the array. The model satisfactorily simulates several whole-cell observations, including kinetics and voltage dependence of release flux, the “paradox of control,” whereby Ca2+-activated release remains under voltage control, and, most surprisingly, the “quantal” aspects of activation and inactivation (Pizarro, G., N. Shirokova, A. Tsugorka, and E. Ríos. 1997. J. Physiol. 501:289–303). Additionally, the model produces discrete events of activation that resemble Ca2+ sparks (Cheng, H., M.B. Cannell, and W.J. Lederer. 1993. Science (Wash. DC). 262:740–744). All these properties result from the intersection of stochastic channel properties, control by local Ca2+, and, most importantly, the one dimensional geometry of the array and its

  16. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed.

  17. 48 CFR 1552.209-74 - Limitation of future contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FUTURE CONTRACTING, ALTERNATE IV (ESS) (SEP 2013) (a) The parties to this contract agree that the...), Superfund Technical Assistance and Removal Team (START), and Enforcement Support Services (ESS)...

  18. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  19. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students’ emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter, Snyder, & Artman, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter & Van Norman, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al., 2005; Stormont, Reinke, Newcomer, Darney, & Lewis, 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker, Bradshaw, Domitrovich, & Ialongo, 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS® curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs. PMID:23660973

  20. Educational Support for Low-Performing Students in Mathematics: The Three-Tier Support Model in Finnish Lower Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstam, Ulrika; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, there was a legislative reform regarding educational support in Finland, with a focus on early identification, differentiation and flexible arrangement of support using a multi-professional approach, the three-tier support model. The main aim of this study was to investigate what educational support practices are used with low-performing…

  1. Process Evaluation of a Participatory Supportive Return to Work Program for Workers Without a Permanent Employment Contract, Sick-Listed Due to a Common Mental Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-01-25

    Purpose This study aimed to perform a process evaluation of a participatory supportive return to work program for workers without a (permanent) employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder. The program consisted of a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job. Our main questions were: were these components realized in practice and in accordance with the protocol? The evaluation took place alongside a randomized controlled trial. Methods The study population consisted of workers who filed a sickness benefit claim at the Dutch Social Security Agency, professionals of this agency and of vocational rehabilitation agencies. We focused on sick-listed workers and professionals who had actually participated in the intervention. Data was collected mainly by questionnaires. Results Only 36 out of 94 intervention group participants started with the program. In half of these cases application of integrated care was reported. Most other steps in the program were completed. However, fidelity to the protocol was low to reasonable. Much delay was observed in the execution of the program and only two sick-listed workers were placed in a competitive job. Still, satisfaction with the participatory approach was good. Conclusions Despite the positive evaluation of the participatory approach, the full program was executed less successfully compared to similar programs evaluated in earlier studies. This will probably affect the outcomes of our trial. Findings from this study will help to interpret these outcomes. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed about experiences of stakeholders who participated in the program. Trial Registration NTR3563.

  2. Bridging the financial gap through providing contract services: a model for publicly funded clinical biobanks.

    PubMed

    Kozlakidis, Zisis; Mant, Christine; Cason, John

    2012-08-01

    Biobanks offer translational researchers a novel method of obtaining clinical research materials, patient data, and relevant ethical and legal permissions. However, such tissue collections are expensive to establish and maintain. Current opinion is that such initiatives can only survive with core funding from Government or major funding bodies. Given the present climate of financial austerity, funding agencies may be tempted to invest in fast-return research projects rather than in maintaining tissue collections, whose benefits will only become apparent in much longer timescales. Thus, securing additional funding for biobanks could provide a valuable boost enabling an extension of core services. Here we suggest that using biobank expertise to offer contract services to clinicians and industry may be an alternative approach to obtaining such extra funding.

  3. 48 CFR 19.812 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration Services Components (available via the Internet at http://www.dcma.mil/casbook/casbook.htm)). (b... proposed transfer and its effect on contract performance and mission support. If the contracting...

  4. 48 CFR 1022.7000 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Fair inclusion of minorities and women 1022.7000 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 1052.222-70, Minority and Women Inclusion, in all solicitations and contracts in support...

  5. National Environmenal Policy Act Contracting Reform Guidance: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The NEPA Contracting Quality Improvement Team identified several contracting improvements to reduce the cost and time for the NEPA process. The team`s February 1995 report recommended a series of steps to achieve the improvements, including issuance of contracting guidance. The guidance will be issued in three phases. This Phase I guidance implements the team`s short-term recommendations. It provides model statements of work and a sample schedule of contractor deliverables, establishes a pilot program for evaluating performance of NEPA support contractors, and describes information resources available on the DOE NEPA Web.

  6. Data and Models Needed to Support Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, Terrance; Biesecker, D. A.; Berger, Thomas; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The effective utilization of existing data and models is an important element in advancing the goals of the COSPAR/ILWS space weather roadmap. This is recommended to be done through innovative approaches to data utilization, including data driving, data assimilation, and ensemble modeling. This presentation will focus on observations and models needed to support space weather services for civil aviation and commercial space transportation. The service needs for aviation will be discussed, and an overview will be given of some of the existing data and models that can provide these services. Efforts underway to define the requirements for real-time data and to assess current modeling capabilities will be described. Recommendations will be offered for internationally coordinated activities that could identify priorities and further the roadmap goals.

  7. Support for an expanded tripartite influence model with gay men.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Andorka, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether an expanded tripartite influence model would represent gay men's experiences. This model was extended by adding partners and gay community involvement as sources of social influence and considering dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to muscularity enhancement and disordered eating behaviors. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses upheld this model for 346 gay men. Dual body image pathways to body change behaviors were supported, although three unanticipated interrelationships emerged, suggesting that muscularity and body fat concerns and behaviors may be more integrated for gay men. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, appearance comparison, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction were key mediators in the model. Of the sources of social influence, friend and media pressure to be lean, gay community involvement, and partner, friend, media, and family pressures to be muscular made incremental contributions. Unexpectedly, certain sources were directly connected to body change behaviors.

  8. A recurrent support vector regression model in rainfall forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Ping-Feng; Hong, Wei-Chiang

    2007-03-01

    To minimize potential loss of life and property caused by rainfall during typhoon seasons, precise rainfall forecasts have been one of the key subjects in hydrological research. However, rainfall forecast is made difficult by some very complicated and unforeseen physical factors associated with rainfall. Recently, support vector regression (SVR) models and recurrent SVR (RSVR) models have been successfully employed to solve time-series problems in some fields. Nevertheless, the use of RSVR models in rainfall forecasting has not been investigated widely. This study attempts to improve the forecasting accuracy of rainfall by taking advantage of the unique strength of the SVR model, genetic algorithms, and the recurrent network architecture. The performance of genetic algorithms with different mutation rates and crossover rates in SVR parameter selection is examined. Simulation results identify the RSVR with genetic algorithms model as being an effective means of forecasting rainfall amount. Copyright

  9. Managing Higher Education in a Climate of Contraction: A Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Five categories of opportunity for managing institutions successfully in no-growth periods include: producing new or different products, improving productivity with new production methods, opening new markets, locating new sources of support, and restructuring activities. (MSE)

  10. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts. Progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.G.

    1991-11-01

    We are studying model catalysts in which the active phase is deposited onto flat oxide substrates in order to understand how a catalyst is affected by its support. We have examined the following growth and stability of titania overlayers which had been vapor deposited onto a Rh foil; the growth of Pt films on ZnO(0001)Zn and O(0001)O and compared the results to those obtained for Pt on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). Samples were prepared by vapor deposition of Pt onto flat substrates in ultra high vacuum, and metal coverages were measured using a quartz-crystal, film thickness monitor; the structure and CO adsorption properties of Pt films vapor deposited onto a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; the deposition of Rh on a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; The absorption of NO on Pt particles supported on CeO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and the Zn- and O-polar surfaces of ZnO(0001). We have investigated supported oxides in order to understand the acidic properties that have been reported for monolayer oxides. Our first studies were of amorphous, silicalumina catalysts. Finally, we have also begun to prepare model supported oxides in order to be able to used spectroscopic methods to characterize the sites formed on these materials. Our first studies were of niobia deposition on oxidized Al films and on an {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) crystal.

  11. Porflow modeling supporting the FY14 salstone special analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.; Taylor, G.

    2014-04-01

    PORFLOW related analyses supporting the Saltstone FY14 Special Analysis (SA) described herein are based on prior modeling supporting the Saltstone FY13 SA. Notable changes to the previous round of simulations include: a) consideration of Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) design type 6 under “Nominal” and “Margin” conditions, b) omission of the clean cap fill from the nominal SDU 2 and 6 modeling cases as a reasonable approximation of greater waste grout fill heights, c) minor updates to the cementitious materials degradation analysis, d) use of updated I-129 sorption coefficient (Kd) values in soils, e) assignment of the pH/Eh environment of saltstone to the underlying floor concrete, considering down flow through an SDU, and f) implementation of an improved sub-model for Tc release in an oxidizing environment. These new model developments are discussed and followed by a cursory presentation of simulation results. The new Tc release sub-model produced significantly improved (smoother) flux results compared to the FY13 SA. Further discussion of PORFLOW model setup and simulation results will be presented in the FY14 SA, including dose results.

  12. A modular BLSS simulation model. [Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The coordination of material flows in earth's biosphere is largely made possible by the buffering effect of huge material reservoirs. Without similarly-sized buffers, a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life-support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processor or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations of this sort will help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version of this model could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  13. Support Resources Demand Parameters - Aircraft. Revision A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-15

    DOCUMENT SHALL BE APPROVED BY THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION PRIOR TO RELEASE. PREPARED UNDER - CONTRACT NO.I R&D JE E~ C OTHER DOCUT TNO. D14- MODEL...Experience Analysis Center and it was.scheduled for acquisition in support of a contract study effort. 4.3.2 Identify Aircraft Subsystem equipment...and approved on-site visits in conjunction with various Boeing in-house contracted activities, andwas made available in the Experience Analysis Center

  14. 48 CFR 242.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of, or installation of equipment at, radar or communication network sites; (H) Communications... sealift contracts); (O) Subsistence supplies; (P) Ballistic missile sites (contract administration offices may perform supporting administration of these contracts at missile activation sites during...

  15. 48 CFR 242.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of, or installation of equipment at, radar or communication network sites; (H) Communications... sealift contracts); (O) Subsistence supplies; (P) Ballistic missile sites (contract administration offices may perform supporting administration of these contracts at missile activation sites during...

  16. 48 CFR 242.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of, or installation of equipment at, radar or communication network sites; (H) Communications... sealift contracts); (O) Subsistence supplies; (P) Ballistic missile sites (contract administration offices may perform supporting administration of these contracts at missile activation sites during...

  17. 48 CFR 242.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of, or installation of equipment at, radar or communication network sites; (H) Communications... sealift contracts); (O) Subsistence supplies; (P) Ballistic missile sites (contract administration offices may perform supporting administration of these contracts at missile activation sites during...

  18. 48 CFR 242.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of, or installation of equipment at, radar or communication network sites; (H) Communications... sealift contracts); (O) Subsistence supplies; (P) Ballistic missile sites (contract administration offices may perform supporting administration of these contracts at missile activation sites during...

  19. Information Model Translation to Support a Wider Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Ritschel, Bernd; Hardman, Sean; Joyner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's long-term archive for solar system exploration data, has just released PDS4, a modernization of the PDS architecture, data standards, and technical infrastructure. This next generation system positions the PDS to meet the demands of the coming decade, including big data, international cooperation, distributed nodes, and multiple ways of analysing and interpreting data. It also addresses three fundamental project goals: providing more efficient data delivery by data providers to the PDS, enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive, and enabling services for the data consumer to find, access, and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. The PDS4 information architecture is used to describe all PDS data using a common model. Captured in an ontology modeling tool it supports a hierarchy of data dictionaries built to the ISO/IEC 11179 standard and is designed to increase flexibility, enable complex searches at the product level, and to promote interoperability that facilitates data sharing both nationally and internationally. A PDS4 information architecture design requirement stipulates that the content of the information model must be translatable to external data definition languages such as XML Schema, XMI/XML, and RDF/XML. To support the semantic Web standards we are now in the process of mapping the contents into RDF/XML to support SPARQL capable databases. We are also building a terminological ontology to support virtually unified data retrieval and access. This paper will provide an overview of the PDS4 information architecture focusing on its domain information model and how the translation and mapping are being accomplished.

  20. Psychological contract breach and outcomes: Combining meta-analysis and structural equation models.

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco; Depolo, Marco

    2008-08-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between psychological contract perceived breach and certain outcome variables, such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB). Our review of the literature generated 41 independent samples in which perceived breach was used as a predictor of these personal and organizational outcomes. A medium effect size (ES) for desirable outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust, OCB and performance) was obtained (r=-.35). For undesirable outcomes (neglect in role duties and intention to leave), ES were also medium (r=.31). When comparing attitudinal (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust) and behavioural outcomes (OCB, neglect in role duties and performance), a stronger ES was found for attitudinal (r=-.24) than for behavioural outcomes (r=-.11). Potential moderator variables were examined, and it was found that they explained only a percentage of variability of primary studies. Structural equation analysis of the pooled meta-analytical correlation matrix indicated that the relationships of perceived breach with satisfaction, OCB, intention to leave and performance are fully mediated by organizational trust and commitment. Results are discussed in order to suggest theoretical and empirical implications.

  1. Experimental support for KrF laser modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-19

    This paper is the final report for a project to do characterization studies on the KrF laser system. The project did experimental work on KrF lasers in support of modeling studies, with the objective being to see if this technology could be competitive for use in the ICF program. This program has provided LANL with data critical for their model development. Section 2 describes the laser extraction experiments together with the calibration of the diagnostics and the re-examination of the analysis procedure. Section 3 discusses the gain and transient absorption measurements, and Section 4 gives the conclusion for this program.

  2. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-08-31

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator.

  3. Experimental-based modeling of a support structure as part of a full system model

    SciTech Connect

    CARNE,THOMAS G.; DOHRMANN,CLARK R.

    2000-02-29

    Structural dynamic systems are often attached to a support structure to simulate proper boundary conditions during testing. In some cases the support structure is fairly simple and can be modeled by discrete springs and dampers. In other cases the desired test conditions necessitate the use of a support structural that introduces dynamics of its own. For such cases a more complex structural dynamic model is required to simulate the response of the full combined system. In this paper experimental frequency response functions, admittance function modeling concepts, and least squares reductions are used to develop a support structure model including both translational and rotational degrees of freedom at an attachment location. Subsequently, the modes of the support structure are estimated, and a NASTRAN model is created for attachment to the tested system.

  4. A Model of the Effects of Perceived Parent and Peer Support on Adolescent False Self Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Hypothesized a model linking three perceived support variables--level of support, quality of support, and hope about future support--to false self-behaviors (not the "real me"). The best fitting model for the parent and peer data revealed that perceived quality and level of parental support predicted hope about future parental support,…

  5. Dynamical mass modeling of dispersion-supported dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joseph

    The currently favored cold dark matter cosmology (LCDM) has had much success in reproducing the large scale structure of the universe. However, on smaller scales there are some possible discrepancies when attempting to match galactic observations with properties of halos in dissipationless LCDM simulations. One advantageous method to test small scale simulations with observations is through dynamical mass modeling of nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). The stellar tracers of dSphs are dispersion-supported, which poses a significant challenge in accurately deriving mass profiles. Unlike rotationally-supported galaxies, the dynamics of which can be well-approximated by one-dimensional physics, modeling dispersion-supported systems given only line-of-sight data results in a well-known degeneracy between the mass profile and the velocity dispersion anisotropy. The core of this dissertation is rooted in a new advancement which we have discovered: the range of solutions allowed by the mass-anisotropy degeneracy varies as a function of radius, with a considerable minimal near the deprojected half-light radius of almost all observed dispersion-supported galaxies. This finding allows for a wide range of applications in galaxy formation scenarios to be explored in an attempt to address, amongst other hypotheses, whether the LCDM framework needs to be modified in order to reproduce observations on the small scale. This thesis is comprised of both the derivation of this finding, and its applicability to all dispersion-supported systems, ranging from dwarfs galaxies consisting of a few hundred stars to systems of 'intracluster light', containing over a trillion stars. Rarely does one have the privilege of working with systems that span such a large range in luminosity (or any intrinsic property) in a short graduate career. Although the large applicability of this scale-free finding allows for discussion in many subfields, this thesis will mainly focus on one topic: dwarf

  6. Integrated models to support multiobjective ecological restoration decisions.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Hannah; Rumpff, Libby; Yen, Jian D L; Robinson, Doug; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-03-24

    Many objectives motivate ecological restoration including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving aggregate measures of biodiversity such as richness and diversity. While ecological models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, there are few attempts to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We develop the first predictive model that integrates a vegetation-focused state-and-transition model with species distribution models for birds. We demonstrate how this integrated model can be used to identify effective restoration options for vegetation and bird species under a constrained budget. For example, using a typical agricultural land management scenario from south-eastern Australia, we demonstrate how the optimal management actions for promoting the occurrence of the Brown Treecreeper, an iconic threatened species, may be suboptimal for meeting vegetation condition objectives. This highlights that any 'preferred' management decision depends on the value assigned to the different objectives. An exploration of sensitivity to value weightings highlighted that 'no management' or 'weed control' were most likely to be the best management options to meet multiple objectives in the scenario we explored. We thus illustrate an approach to using the model outputs to explore trade-offs between bird and vegetation objectives. Our approach to exploring management outcomes and trade-offs using integrated modelling and structured decision support approaches has wide application for conservation management problems in which trade-offs exist between competing objectives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Operations and support cost modeling using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1989-01-01

    Systems for future missions will be selected with life cycle costs (LCC) as a primary evaluation criterion. This reflects the current realization that only systems which are considered affordable will be built in the future due to the national budget constaints. Such an environment calls for innovative cost modeling techniques which address all of the phases a space system goes through during its life cycle, namely: design and development, fabrication, operations and support; and retirement. A significant portion of the LCC for reusable systems are generated during the operations and support phase (OS). Typically, OS costs can account for 60 to 80 percent of the total LCC. Clearly, OS costs are wholly determined or at least strongly influenced by decisions made during the design and development phases of the project. As a result OS costs need to be considered and estimated early in the conceptual phase. To be effective, an OS cost estimating model needs to account for actual instead of ideal processes by associating cost elements with probabilities. One approach that may be suitable for OS cost modeling is the use of the Markov Chain Process. Markov chains are an important method of probabilistic analysis for operations research analysts but they are rarely used for life cycle cost analysis. This research effort evaluates the use of Markov Chains in LCC analysis by developing OS cost model for a hypothetical reusable space transportation vehicle (HSTV) and suggests further uses of the Markov Chain process as a design-aid tool.

  8. Job Demands-Control-Support model and employee safety performance.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nick; Stride, Chris B; Carter, Angela J; McCaughey, Deirdre; Carroll, Anthony E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether work characteristics (job demands, job control, social support) comprising Karasek and Theorell's (1990) Job Demands-Control-Support framework predict employee safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation; Neal and Griffin, 2006). We used cross-sectional data of self-reported work characteristics and employee safety performance from 280 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, and administrative staff) from Emergency Departments of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. We analyzed these data using a structural equation model that simultaneously regressed safety compliance and safety participation on the main effects of each of the aforementioned work characteristics, their two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction among them, while controlling for demographic, occupational, and organizational characteristics. Social support was positively related to safety compliance, and both job control and the two-way interaction between job control and social support were positively related to safety participation. How work design is related to employee safety performance remains an important area for research and provides insight into how organizations can improve workplace safety. The current findings emphasize the importance of the co-worker in promoting both safety compliance and safety participation.

  9. Intrinsic bioremediation modeling to support Superfund site closure

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, A.H.; Day, M.J.; Johnson, R.H.; Ritter, K.J.; Stancel, S.G.; Thomson, J.A.M.

    1997-09-01

    Closure of the groundwater component of a major Superfund site has been accomplished by a combination of source control, engineered in-situ bioremediation, and subsequent long-term intrinsic bioremediation. Engineered bioremediation outside the source control area resulted in very significant contaminant mass removal. This allowed intrinsic bioremediation to be considered as a passive remedial management method of achieving cleanup objectives after active remediation needed. Modeling demonstrated that intrinsic bioremediation would achieve cleanup objectives (for this site, Federal drinking water standards) within ten years of shutdown of the active bioremediation system. Modeling showed that residual electron acceptors and nutrients distributed in the aquifer during engineered bioremediation greatly enhance the intrinsic bioremediation process. The results of the modeling effort led to the active system being shut down a year ahead of schedule, allowing the project to move into a low-maintenance intrinsic bioremediation and long-term monitoring phase. The modeling demonstration coupled Visual MODFLOW{copyright} and BioTrans{copyright} to simulate groundwater flow, solute transport, and oxygen-limited, multi-species biodegradation. Regional flow evaluation, detailed model sensitivity analyses, and subarea modeling were employed to provide support to model predictions. Predictions will be tested by subsequent progress and compliance monitoring. Site closure began in early 1996.

  10. Bridging groundwater models and decision support with a Bayesian network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Masterson, John P.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers need to make decisions to plan for future environmental conditions, particularly sea level rise, in the face of substantial uncertainty. Many interacting processes factor in to the decisions they face. Advances in process models and the quantification of uncertainty have made models a valuable tool for this purpose. Long-simulation runtimes and, often, numerical instability make linking process models impractical in many cases. A method for emulating the important connections between model input and forecasts, while propagating uncertainty, has the potential to provide a bridge between complicated numerical process models and the efficiency and stability needed for decision making. We explore this using a Bayesian network (BN) to emulate a groundwater flow model. We expand on previous approaches to validating a BN by calculating forecasting skill using cross validation of a groundwater model of Assateague Island in Virginia and Maryland, USA. This BN emulation was shown to capture the important groundwater-flow characteristics and uncertainty of the groundwater system because of its connection to island morphology and sea level. Forecast power metrics associated with the validation of multiple alternative BN designs guided the selection of an optimal level of BN complexity. Assateague island is an ideal test case for exploring a forecasting tool based on current conditions because the unique hydrogeomorphological variability of the island includes a range of settings indicative of past, current, and future conditions. The resulting BN is a valuable tool for exploring the response of groundwater conditions to sea level rise in decision support.

  11. A prototype computer-aided modelling tool for life-support system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisig, H. A.; Lee, Tae-Yeong; Little, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Based on the canonical decomposition of physical-chemical-biological systems, a prototype kernel has been developed to efficiently model alternative life-support systems. It supports (1) the work in an interdisciplinary group through an easy-to-use mostly graphical interface, (2) modularized object-oriented model representation, (3) reuse of models, (4) inheritance of structures from model object to model object, and (5) model data base. The kernel is implemented in Modula-II and presently operates on an IBM PC.

  12. A coupled electromechanical model for the excitation-dependent contraction of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Böl, Markus; Weikert, Roman; Weichert, Christine

    2011-10-01

    This work deals with the development and implementation of an electromechanical skeletal muscle model. To this end, a recently published hyperelastic constitutive muscle model with transversely isotropic characteristics, see Ehret et al. (2011), has been weakly coupled with Ohm's law describing the electric current. In contrast to the traditional way of active muscle modelling, this model is rooted on a non-additive decomposition of the active and passive components. The performance of the proposed modelling approach is demonstrated by the use of three-dimensional illustrative boundary-value problems that include electromechanical analysis on tissue strips. Further, simulations on the biceps brachii muscle document the applicability of the model to realistic muscle geometries.

  13. The Coastal Modeling System: A System of Numerical Models and Support Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    via the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ). The CMS is a software package aimed at organizing CERC’s larger numerical models and their supporting software...reduced because of user familiarity with the system structure. COMPONENTS: The CMS is a supercomputer-based system of models and supporting software...elevations from tidal constituent input. Generally, CMS users are not required to learn the JCL of the host computer system . Most of the job’control commands

  14. T:XML: A Tool Supporting User Interface Model Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Jaquero, Víctor; Montero, Francisco; González, Pascual

    Model driven development of user interfaces is based on the transformation of an abstract specification into the final user interface the user will interact with. The design of transformation rules to carry out this transformation process is a key issue in any model-driven user interface development approach. In this paper, we introduce T:XML, an integrated development environment for managing, creating and previewing transformation rules. The tool supports the specification of transformation rules by using a graphical notation that works on the basis of the transformation of the input model into a graph-based representation. T:XML allows the design and execution of transformation rules in an integrated development environment. Furthermore, the designer can also preview how the generated user interface looks like after the transformations have been applied. These previewing capabilities can be used to quickly create prototypes to discuss with the users in user-centered design methods.

  15. General KBE model with inheritance and multi CAD support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiuca, T. L.; Rusu, C.; Noveanu, S.; Mandru, D.

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) is a research field that studies methodologies and technologies for capture and re-use engineering knowledge. The primary objective of KBE is to reduce time and cost of product research processes and/or product development, which is primarily achieved through automation of repetitive design tasks while capturing, retaining and re-using engineering knowledge. Every CAD System includes KBE Tools. The power of these tools is incremented by the use of external high level programming language. The model presented in this paper has the aim to reduce times and costs of particular KBE Models development, by programming inheritance concepts and also the multi CAD Support. The model is implemented through a C# application that is also presented.

  16. Land Surface Emission Modeling to Support Physical Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christina D.; Harrison, Kenneth; Kumar, Sujay; Ferraro, Ralph; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Land surface modeling and data assimilation can provide dynamic land surface state variables necessary to support physical precipitation retrieval algorithms over land. It is well-known that surface emission, particularly over the range of frequencies to be included in the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM), is sensitive to land surface states, including soil properties, vegetation type and greenness, soil moisture, surface temperature, and snow cover, density, and grain size. In order to investigate the robustness of both the land surface model states and the microwave emissivity and forward radiative transfer models, we have undertaken a multi-site investigation as part of the NASA Precipitation Measurement Missions (PMM) Land Surface Characterization. Working Group.

  17. Structural finite-element modeling strategies for conformal load-bearing antenna structure (CLAS) (Air Force contract F33615-C-93-3200)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockyer, Allen J.; Alt, Kevin H.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Kinslow, Robert W.; Goetz, Allan C.

    1997-06-01

    As the Wright Lab Air Force military contrast `Smart Skin Structures Technology Demonstration' (S3TD) Contract No. F33615-C-93-3200 draws toward conclusion, pertinent features of the program finite element modeling are presented. Analysis was performed to predict the structural performance of a complex multilayered composite panel that will be tested structurally (and electrically) for the final program deliverable. Application of finite element modeling to predict component load path and strain distribution in sandwich panel construction has been reported elsewhere in the literature for more standard applications. However, the unauthordox sandwich configuration lay-up posed by the quite revolutionary S3TD CLAS aircraft fuselage panel demonstration article merits further discussion. Difficulties with material selection, the stumbling block for many programs, are further exacerbated by conflicting material properties required to support simultaneous electrical and structural performance roles. The structural analysis challenge derives from S3TD's unique program goal, namely, to investigate load bearing antennas structural configurations, rather than conventional structurally inefficient `bolt in' installations, that have been the modus operandi for tactical aircraft antenna installations to date. Discussed below is a cost saving strategy where use of linear finite element analysis has been employed in the prediction of key structural parameters, and validated with risk reduction sub panel measurements, before proceeding to the final fabrication of a full scale 36 by 36 inch CLAS panel demonstration article.

  18. Emulation Modeling with Bayesian Networks for Efficient Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienen, M. N.; Masterson, J.; Plant, N. G.; Gutierrez, B. T.; Thieler, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Bayesian decision networks (BDN) have long been used to provide decision support in systems that require explicit consideration of uncertainty; applications range from ecology to medical diagnostics and terrorism threat assessments. Until recently, however, few studies have applied BDNs to the study of groundwater systems. BDNs are particularly useful for representing real-world system variability by synthesizing a range of hydrogeologic situations within a single simulation. Because BDN output is cast in terms of probability—an output desired by decision makers—they explicitly incorporate the uncertainty of a system. BDNs can thus serve as a more efficient alternative to other uncertainty characterization methods such as computationally demanding Monte Carlo analyses and others methods restricted to linear model analyses. We present a unique application of a BDN to a groundwater modeling analysis of the hydrologic response of Assateague Island, Maryland to sea-level rise. Using both input and output variables of the modeled groundwater response to different sea-level (SLR) rise scenarios, the BDN predicts the probability of changes in the depth to fresh water, which exerts an important influence on physical and biological island evolution. Input variables included barrier-island width, maximum island elevation, and aquifer recharge. The variability of these inputs and their corresponding outputs are sampled along cross sections in a single model run to form an ensemble of input/output pairs. The BDN outputs, which are the posterior distributions of water table conditions for the sea-level rise scenarios, are evaluated through error analysis and cross-validation to assess both fit to training data and predictive power. The key benefit for using BDNs in groundwater modeling analyses is that they provide a method for distilling complex model results into predictions with associated uncertainty, which is useful to decision makers. Future efforts incorporate

  19. Experimental Permeability Measurements on a Strut-Supported Transpiration-Cooled Turbine Blade with Stainless-Steel Shell made by the Federal-Mogul Corporation under Bureau of Aeronautics Contract N0as 51613-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Hadley T.

    1954-01-01

    A turbine blade with a porous stainless-steel shell sintered to a supporting steel strut has been fabricated for tests at the NACA by Federal-Mogul Corporation under contract from the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The apparent permeability of this blade, on the average, more nearly approaches the values specified by the NAGA than did two strut-supported bronze blades in a previous investigation. Random variations of permeability in the present blade are substantialy greater than those of the bronze blades, but projected improvements in certain phases of the fabrication process are expected to reduce these variations.

  20. A New Availability-Payment Model for Pricing Performance-Based Logistics Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-17

    Petri net ) that produces availability and cost measures. The model is used to explore the optimum availability assessment window (length of time...model developed in this report uses an affine controller to drive a discrete event simulator ( Petri net ) that produces availability and cost measures...Integration Architecture ......................................................... 6 Figure 2. Petri Net Representation of the System

  1. Distributed Hydrologic Modeling Apps for Decision Support in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, N. R.; Latu, K.; Christiensen, S.; Jones, N.; Nelson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in computation resources and greater availability of water resources data represent an untapped resource for addressing hydrologic uncertainties in water resources decision-making. The current practice of water authorities relies on empirical, lumped hydrologic models to estimate watershed response. These models are not capable of taking advantage of many of the spatial datasets that are now available. Physically-based, distributed hydrologic models are capable of using these data resources and providing better predictions through stochastic analysis. However, there exists a digital divide that discourages many science-minded decision makers from using distributed models. This divide can be spanned using a combination of existing web technologies. The purpose of this presentation is to present a cloud-based environment that will offer hydrologic modeling tools or 'apps' for decision support and the web technologies that have been selected to aid in its implementation. Compared to the more commonly used lumped-parameter models, distributed models, while being more intuitive, are still data intensive, computationally expensive, and difficult to modify for scenario exploration. However, web technologies such as web GIS, web services, and cloud computing have made the data more accessible, provided an inexpensive means of high-performance computing, and created an environment for developing user-friendly apps for distributed modeling. Since many water authorities are primarily interested in the scenario exploration exercises with hydrologic models, we are creating a toolkit that facilitates the development of a series of apps for manipulating existing distributed models. There are a number of hurdles that cloud-based hydrologic modeling developers face. One of these is how to work with the geospatial data inherent with this class of models in a web environment. Supporting geospatial data in a website is beyond the capabilities of standard web frameworks and it

  2. Inverse Modeling of Experiments to Support More Realistic Simulations of Sorbing Radionuclide Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; James, S. C.; Reimus, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    A series of adsorption, desorption, and column transport experiments were conducted to evaluate the transport of uranium (U) and neptunium (Np) through saturated volcanic tuffs. For potential high-level radioactive waste sites, these experiments demonstrate that slow radionuclide desorption processes, which are typically not accounted for in transport models implementing simple partition coefficients (Kd values), may dominate field-scale transport. A complimentary interpretive numerical model couples a simplified geochemical description of the system with transport calculations where heterogeneities are represented as an ensemble of sorption sites with characteristic adsorption and desorption rate constants that have widely varying values. Adsorption and desorption rate constants were estimated through inverse modeling such that reliable upscaled predictions of reactive transport in field settings could be simulated. The inverse modeling software, PEST, was also used to perform advanced uncertainty quantification. The multicomponent model/parameters matching the combined data sets suggest that over much longer time and distance scales the transport of U and Np under the experimental conditions would result in very little transport over field scales because even a small number of strong sorption sites will have an exaggerated retarding influence on the transport of a radionuclide plume. Modeling of combined sorption/desorption experiments and column transport experiments that involve both the measurement of column effluent breakthrough curves and the distribution of radionuclides remaining in the column at the conclusion of the experiments holds significant promise for supporting an improved approach to properly account for mineralogical heterogeneity over long time and distance scales in reactive radionuclide transport models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed

  3. Simulation of steady state and transient cardiac muscle response experiments with a Huxley-based contraction model.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Jorge A; Lascano, Elena C

    2008-08-01

    A cardiac muscle model is presented with the purpose of representing a wide range of mechanical experiments at constant and transient Ca(2+) concentration. Modifications of a previous model were: weak and power attached crossbridge states, a troponin system involving three consecutive regulatory troponin-tropomyosin units acting together in Ca(2+) kinetics and detachment constants depending on crossbridge length. This model improved cooperativity (Hill coefficient close to 4) and the force-velocity relationship, and incorporated the representation of the four phases of muscle response to length and force steps, isotonic shortening and isosarcometric contractions, preserving previous satisfactory results. Moreover, experimentally reported effects, such as length dependence on Ca(2+) affinity, the decreased cooperativity at higher Ca(2+) concentrations, temperature effects on the stiffness-frequency relationship and the isometric internal shortening due to series elasticity, were obtained. In conclusion, the model is more comprehensive than a previous version because it is able to represent a wider variety of steady state experiments, the mechanical variables in twitches can be adequately related to intracellular Ca(2+), and all the simulations were performed with the same set of parameters.

  4. A Navigation Safety Support Model for the Strait of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, M. Anil; Otay, Emre N.

    In this study, a real time maritime traffic support model is developed for safe navigation in the Strait of Istanbul, also known as the Bosporus. The present model simulates vessel trajectories corresponding to possible headings, using channel geometry, counter traffic, and surface currents as input. A new MATLAB code is developed for the simulation and the Marine GNC Toolbox (Fossen and Perez, 2004) is used for the vessel hydrodynamics and the auto-pilot model. After computing the trajectory tree of the vessel by forward-mapping its position distribution with respect to the initial position vector, the casualty probabilities of each trajectory are found. Within certain restrictions on vessel geometry, the proposed model predicts the safest possible intended course for the transit vessels based on the navigational parameters including position, speed, and course of the vessel. The model is tested for the Strait of Istanbul for validation. Without loss of generality, the model can be used for any narrow channel with a vessel traffic system providing the necessary input.

  5. Survey of the Effects of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone on the Pattern of Muscle Contractions in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Rahimi, S.; Talebi, A.; Soleimani, A.; Rafati, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. Materials and Methods: In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz), pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Results: Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions. PMID:26396968

  6. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rumel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space-based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. Here the biochemical stoichiometry is developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady-state system with wheat as the sole food source.

  7. Computational Science Research in Support of Petascale Electromagnetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.-Q.; Akcelik, V; Ge, L; Chen, S; Schussman, G; Candel, A; Li, Z; Xiao, L; Kabel, A; Uplenchwar, R; Ng, C; Ko, K; /SLAC

    2008-06-20

    Computational science research components were vital parts of the SciDAC-1 accelerator project and are continuing to play a critical role in newly-funded SciDAC-2 accelerator project, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS). Recent advances and achievements in the area of computational science research in support of petascale electromagnetic modeling for accelerator design analysis are presented, which include shape determination of superconducting RF cavities, mesh-based multilevel preconditioner in solving highly-indefinite linear systems, moving window using h- or p- refinement for time-domain short-range wakefield calculations, and improved scalable application I/O.

  8. Advancing LGBT Elder Policy and Support Services: The Massachusetts Model.

    PubMed

    Krinsky, Lisa; Cahill, Sean

    2017-04-04

    The Massachusetts-based LGBT Aging Project has trained elder service providers in affirming and culturally competent care for LGBT older adults, supported development of LGBT-friendly meal programs, and advanced LGBT equality under aging policy. Working across sectors, this innovative model launched the country's first statewide Legislative Commission on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Aging. Advocates are working with policymakers to implement key recommendations, including cultural competency training and data collection in statewide networks of elder services. The LGBT Aging Project's success provides a template for improving services and policy for LGBT older adults throughout the country.

  9. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF AGRICULTURAL YIELD DATA WITH AN APPLICATION TO PRICING CROP INSURANCE CONTRACTS

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Vitor A.; Ghosh, Sujit K.; Goodwin, Barry K.; Shirota, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a statistical model of agricultural yield data based on a set of hierarchical Bayesian models that allows joint modeling of temporal and spatial autocorrelation. This method captures a comprehensive range of the various uncertainties involved in predicting crop insurance premium rates as opposed to the more traditional ad hoc, two-stage methods that are typically based on independent estimation and prediction. A panel data set of county-average yield data was analyzed for 290 counties in the State of Paraná (Brazil) for the period of 1990 through 2002. Posterior predictive criteria are used to evaluate different model specifications. This article provides substantial improvements in the statistical and actuarial methods often applied to the calculation of insurance premium rates. These improvements are especially relevant to situations where data are limited. PMID:19890450

  10. Models for Deploying Open Source and Commercial Software to Support Earth Science Data Processing and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetman, G.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Software deployment is needed to process and distribute scientific data throughout the data lifecycle. Developing software in-house can take software development teams away from other software development projects and can require efforts to maintain the software over time. Adopting and reusing software and system modules that have been previously developed by others can reduce in-house software development and maintenance costs and can contribute to the quality of the system being developed. A variety of models are available for reusing and deploying software and systems that have been developed by others. These deployment models include open source software, vendor-supported open source software, commercial software, and combinations of these approaches. Deployment in Earth science data processing and distribution has demonstrated the advantages and drawbacks of each model. Deploying open source software offers advantages for developing and maintaining scientific data processing systems and applications. By joining an open source community that is developing a particular system module or application, a scientific data processing team can contribute to aspects of the software development without having to commit to developing the software alone. Communities of interested developers can share the work while focusing on activities that utilize in-house expertise and addresses internal requirements. Maintenance is also shared by members of the community. Deploying vendor-supported open source software offers similar advantages to open source software. However, by procuring the services of a vendor, the in-house team can rely on the vendor to provide, install, and maintain the software over time. Vendor-supported open source software may be ideal for teams that recognize the value of an open source software component or application and would like to contribute to the effort, but do not have the time or expertise to contribute extensively. Vendor-supported software may

  11. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Coles, Garill A.; Shoemaker, Steven V.

    2012-06-12

    Modernization of nuclear power operations control systems, in particular the move to digital control systems, creates an opportunity to modernize existing legacy infrastructure and extend plant life. We describe here decision support tools that allow the assessment of different facets of risk and support the optimization of available resources to reduce risk as plants are upgraded and maintained. This methodology could become an integrated part of the design review process and a part of the operations management systems. The methodology can be applied to the design of new reactors such as small nuclear reactors (SMR), and be helpful in assessing the risks of different configurations of the reactors. Our tool provides a low cost evaluation of alternative configurations and provides an expanded safety analysis by considering scenarios while early in the implementation cycle where cost impacts can be minimized. The effects of failures can be modeled and thoroughly vetted to understand their potential impact on risk. The process and tools presented here allow for an integrated assessment of risk by supporting traditional defense in depth approaches while taking into consideration the insertion of new digital instrument and control systems.

  12. Modelling and control of a rotor supported by magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurumoorthy, R.; Pradeep, A. K.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we develop a dynamical model of a rotor and the active magnetic bearings used to support the rotor. We use this model to develop a stable state feedback control of the magnetic bearing system. We present the development of a rigid body model of the rotor, utilizing both Rotation Matrices (Euler Angles) and Euler Parameters (Quaternions). In the latter half of the paper we develop a stable state feedback control of the actively controlled magnetic bearing to control the rotor position under inbalances. The control law developed takes into account the variation of the model with rotational speed. We show stability over the whole operating range of speeds for the magnetic bearing system. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the closed loop system performance. We develop the model of the magnetic bearing, and present two schemes for the excitation of the poles of the actively controlled magnetic bearing. We also present a scheme for averaging multiple sensor measurements and splitting the actuation forces amongst redundant actuators.

  13. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  14. Mathematical modelling to support traceable dynamic calibration of pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, C.; Pennecchi, F.; Eichstädt, S.; Malengo, A.; Esward, T.; Smith, I.; Elster, C.; Knott, A.; Arrhén, F.; Lakka, A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper focuses on the mathematical modelling required to support the development of new primary standard systems for traceable calibration of dynamic pressure sensors. We address two fundamentally different approaches to realizing primary standards, specifically the shock tube method and the drop-weight method. Focusing on the shock tube method, the paper presents first results of system identification and discusses future experimental work that is required to improve the mathematical and statistical models. We use simulations to identify differences between the shock tube and drop-weight methods, to investigate sources of uncertainty in the system identification process and to assist experimentalists in designing the required measuring systems. We demonstrate the identification method on experimental results and draw conclusions.

  15. Evaluation of an Individual Placement and Support model (IPS) program.

    PubMed

    Lucca, Anna M; Henry, Alexis D; Banks, Steven; Simon, Lorna; Page, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    While randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have helped to establish Individual Placement and Support (IPS) programs as an evidence-based practice, it is important to evaluate whether "real world" IPS programs can be implemented with fidelity and achieve outcomes comparable to programs evaluated in RCTs. The current evaluation examined retrospectively employment outcomes for go participants from an IPS-model Services for Employment and Education (SEE) program in Massachusetts over a 4.5-year period. Evaluators accessed demographic, functioning, and employment data from three sources--SEE program records/database, clinical records, and the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health Client Tracking system. Results indicate that the SEE program maintained high IPS fidelity and achieved employment outcomes comparable or superior to other SE and IPS model programs described in the literature.

  16. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. The biochemistry stoichiometry was developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady state system with wheat as the sole food source. The large scale dynamics of a materially closed (BLSS) computer model is described in a companion paper. An extension of this methodology can explore multifood systems and more complex biochemical dynamics while maintaining whole system closure as a focus.

  17. Combining decision support and image processing: a PROforma model.

    PubMed

    Sordo, M; Fox, J; Blum, C; Taylor, P; Lee, R; Alberdi, E

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses two important problems in medical image interpretation:(1) integration of numeric and symbolic information, (2) access to external sources of medical knowledge. We have developed a prototype in which image processing algorithms are combined with symbolic representations for reasoning, decision making and task management in an integrated, platform-independent system for the differential diagnosis of abnormalities in mammograms. The prototype is based on PROforma, a generic technology for building decision support systems based on clinical guidelines. The PROforma language defines a set of tasks, one of which, the enquiry, is used as means of interaction with the outside world. However, the current enquiry model has proved to be too limited for our purposes. In this paper we outline a more general model, which can be used as an interface between symbolic functions and image or other signal data.

  18. Advanced development of atmospheric models. [SEASAT Program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesel, P. G.; Langland, R. A.; Stephens, P. L.; Welleck, R. E.; Wolff, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    A set of atmospheric analysis and prediction models was developed in support of the SEASAT Program existing objective analysis models which utilize a 125x125 polar stereographic grid of the Northern Hemisphere, which were modified in order to incorporate and assess the impact of (real or simulated) satellite data in the analysis of a two-day meteorological scenario in January 1979. Program/procedural changes included: (1) a provision to utilize winds in the sea level pressure and multi-level height analyses (1000-100 MBS); (2) The capability to perform a pre-analysis at two control levels (1000 MBS and 250 MBS); (3) a greater degree of wind- and mass-field coupling, especially at these controls levels; (4) an improved facility to bogus the analyses based on results of the preanalysis; and (5) a provision to utilize (SIRS) satellite thickness values and cloud motion vectors in the multi-level height analysis.

  19. Generation of isogenic D4Z4 contracted and noncontracted immortal muscle cell clones from a mosaic patient: a cellular model for FSHD.

    PubMed

    Krom, Yvonne D; Dumonceaux, Julie; Mamchaoui, Kamel; den Hamer, Bianca; Mariot, Virginie; Negroni, Elisa; Geng, Linda N; Martin, Nicolas; Tawil, Rabi; Tapscott, Stephen J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Mouly, Vincent; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2012-10-01

    In most cases facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat in the 4q subtelomere. This contraction is associated with local chromatin decondensation and derepression of the DUX4 retrogene. Its complex genetic and epigenetic cause and high clinical variability in disease severity complicate investigations on the pathogenic mechanism underlying FSHD. A validated cellular model bypassing the considerable heterogeneity would facilitate mechanistic and therapeutic studies of FSHD. Taking advantage of the high incidence of somatic mosaicism for D4Z4 repeat contraction in de novo FSHD, we have established a clonal myogenic cell model from a mosaic patient. Individual clones are genetically identical except for the size of the D4Z4 repeat array, being either normal or FSHD sized. These clones retain their myogenic characteristics, and D4Z4 contracted clones differ from the noncontracted clones by the bursts of expression of DUX4 in sporadic nuclei, showing that this burst-like phenomenon is a locus-intrinsic feature. Consequently, downstream effects of DUX4 expression can be observed in D4Z4 contracted clones, like differential expression of DUX4 target genes. We also show their participation to in vivo regeneration with immunodeficient mice, further expanding the potential of these clones for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. These cell lines will facilitate pairwise comparisons to identify FSHD-specific differences and are expected to create new opportunities for high-throughput drug screens.

  20. Concepts to Support HRP Integration Using Publications and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.; Shelhamer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Initial efforts are underway to enhance the Human Research Program (HRP)'s identification and support of potential cross-disciplinary scientific collaborations. To increase the emphasis on integration in HRP's science portfolio management, concepts are being explored through the development of a set of tools. These tools are intended to enable modeling, analysis, and visualization of the state of the human system in the spaceflight environment; HRP's current understanding of that state with an indication of uncertainties; and how that state changes due to HRP programmatic progress and design reference mission definitions. In this talk, we will discuss proof-of-concept work performed using a subset of publications captured in the HRP publications database. The publications were tagged in the database with words representing factors influencing health and performance in spaceflight, as well as with words representing the risks HRP research is reducing. Analysis was performed on the publication tag data to identify relationships between factors and between risks. Network representations were then created as one type of visualization of these relationships. This enables future analyses of the structure of the networks based on results from network theory. Such analyses can provide insights into HRP's current human system knowledge state as informed by the publication data. The network structure analyses can also elucidate potential improvements by identifying network connections to establish or strengthen for maximized information flow. The relationships identified in the publication data were subsequently used as inputs to a model captured in the Systems Modeling Language (SysML), which functions as a repository for relationship information to be gleaned from multiple sources. Example network visualization outputs from a simple SysML model were then also created to compare to the visualizations based on the publication data only. We will also discuss ideas for

  1. Ecological footprint model using the support vector machine technique.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance.

  2. Ecological Footprint Model Using the Support Vector Machine Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance. PMID:22291949

  3. Modelling Vague Knowledge for Decision Support in Planning Archaeological Prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, S.; Hornung, S.; Müller, H.

    2012-07-01

    Most archaeological predictive models lack significance because fuzziness of data and uncertainty in knowledge about human behaviour and natural processes are hardly ever considered. One possibility to cope with such uncertainties is utilization of probability based approaches like Bayes Theorem or Dempster-Shafer-Theory. We analyzed an area of 50 km2 in Rhineland Palatinate (Germany) near a Celtic oppidum by use of Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence for predicting spatial probability distribution of archaeological sites. This technique incorporates uncertainty by assigning various weights of evidence to defined variables, in that way estimating the probability for supporting a specific hypothesis (in our case the hypothesis presence or absence of a site). Selection of variables for our model relied both on assumptions about settlement patterns and on statistically tested relationships between known archaeological sites and environmental factors. The modelling process was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by generating raster-based likelihood surfaces. The corresponding likelihood surfaces were aggregated to a final weight of evidence surface, which resulted in a likelihood value for every single cell of being a site or a non-site. Finally the result was tested against a database of known archaeological sites for evaluating the gain of the model. For the purpose of enhancing the gain of our model and sharpening our criteria we used a two-step approach to improve the modelling of former settlement strategies in our study area. Applying the developed model finally yielded a 100 percent success rate of known archaeological sites located in predicted high potential areas.

  4. Small and Large Animal Models in Cardiac Contraction Research: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart is responsible for not only pumping blood throughout the body but also adjusting this pumping activity quickly depending upon sudden changes in the metabolic demands of the body. For the most part, the human heart is capable of performing its duties without complications; however, throughout many decades of use, at some point this system encounters problems. Research into the heart’s activities during healthy states and during adverse impacts that occur in disease states is necessary in order to strategize novel treatment options to ultimately prolong and improve patients’ lives. Animal models are an important aspect of cardiac research where a variety of cardiac processes and therapeutic targets can be studied. However, there are differences between the heart of a human being and an animal and depending on the specific animal, these differences can become more pronounced and in certain cases limiting. There is no ideal animal model available for cardiac research, the use of each animal model is accompanied with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we will discuss these advantages and disadvantages of commonly used laboratory animals including mouse, rat, rabbit, canine, swine, and sheep. Since the goal of cardiac research is to enhance our understanding of human health and disease and help improve clinical outcomes, we will also discuss the role of human cardiac tissue in cardiac research. This review will focus on the cardiac ventricular contractile and relaxation kinetics of humans and animal models in order to illustrate these differences. PMID:24140081

  5. Modeling active muscle contraction in mitral valve leaflets during systole: a first approach.

    PubMed

    Skallerud, B; Prot, V; Nordrum, I S

    2011-02-01

    The present study addresses the effect of muscle activation contributions to mitral valve leaflet response during systole. State-of-art passive hyperelastic material modeling is employed in combination with a simple active stress part. Fiber families are assumed in the leaflets: one defined by the collagen and one defined by muscle activation. The active part is either assumed to be orthogonal to the collagen fibers or both orthogonal to and parallel with the collagen fibers (i.e. an orthotropic muscle fiber model). Based on data published in the literature and information herein on morphology, the size of the leaflet parts that contain muscle fibers is estimated. These parts have both active and passive materials, the remaining parts consist of passive material only. Several solid finite element analyses with different maximum activation levels are run. The simulation results are compared to corresponding echocardiography at peak systole for a porcine model. The physiologically correct flat shape of the closed valve is approached as the activation levels increase. The non-physiological bulging of the leaflet into the left atrium when using passive material models is reduced significantly. These results contribute to improved understanding of the physiology of the native mitral valve, and add evidence to the hypothesis that the mitral valve leaflets not are just passive elements moving as a result of hemodynamic pressure gradients in the left part of the heart.

  6. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  7. Small and large animal models in cardiac contraction research: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Janssen, Paul M L

    2014-03-01

    The mammalian heart is responsible for not only pumping blood throughout the body but also adjusting this pumping activity quickly depending upon sudden changes in the metabolic demands of the body. For the most part, the human heart is capable of performing its duties without complications; however, throughout many decades of use, at some point this system encounters problems. Research into the heart's activities during healthy states and during adverse impacts that occur in disease states is necessary in order to strategize novel treatment options to ultimately prolong and improve patients' lives. Animal models are an important aspect of cardiac research where a variety of cardiac processes and therapeutic targets can be studied. However, there are differences between the heart of a human being and an animal and depending on the specific animal, these differences can become more pronounced and in certain cases limiting. There is no ideal animal model available for cardiac research, the use of each animal model is accompanied with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we will discuss these advantages and disadvantages of commonly used laboratory animals including mouse, rat, rabbit, canine, swine, and sheep. Since the goal of cardiac research is to enhance our understanding of human health and disease and help improve clinical outcomes, we will also discuss the role of human cardiac tissue in cardiac research. This review will focus on the cardiac ventricular contractile and relaxation kinetics of humans and animal models in order to illustrate these differences.

  8. Predicting Effects of Tropomyosin Mutations on Cardiac Muscle Contraction through Myofilament Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Sewanan, Lorenzo R.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Lehman, William; Campbell, Stuart G.

    2016-01-01

    Point mutations to the human gene TPM1 have been implicated in the development of both hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Such observations have led to studies investigating the link between single residue changes and the biophysical behavior of the tropomyosin molecule. However, the degree to which these molecular perturbations explain the performance of intact sarcomeres containing mutant tropomyosin remains uncertain. Here, we present a modeling approach that integrates various aspects of tropomyosin's molecular properties into a cohesive paradigm representing their impact on muscle function. In particular, we considered the effects of tropomyosin mutations on (1) persistence length, (2) equilibrium between thin filament blocked and closed regulatory states, and (3) the crossbridge duty cycle. After demonstrating the ability of the new model to capture Ca-dependent myofilament responses during both dynamic and steady-state activation, we used it to capture the effects of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) related E180G and D175N mutations on skinned myofiber mechanics. Our analysis indicates that the fiber-level effects of the two mutations can be accurately described by a combination of changes to the three tropomyosin properties represented in the model. Subsequently, we used the model to predict mutation effects on muscle twitch. Both mutations led to increased twitch contractility as a consequence of diminished cooperative inhibition between thin filament regulatory units. Overall, simulations suggest that a common twitch phenotype for HCM-linked tropomyosin mutations includes both increased contractility and elevated diastolic tension. PMID:27833562

  9. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... business. (m) Survival. All representations and warranties made by the Borrower herein or made in any... the Flood Insurance Act and any Rules. (m) Compliance With Loan Contract and Mortgage. That the...) years if the kWh sales or kW demand for any year covered by such contract shall exceed 25 percent of...

  10. Modeling decision support rule interactions in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Margarita; Rocha, Beatriz H; Morales, Alfredo A; Maviglia, Saverio M; Oglio, Elisa Dell'Oglio; Fairbanks, Amanda; Aroy, Teal; Dubois, David; Bouyer-Ferullo, Sharon; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, rule interactions are handled at implementation time through rule task properties that control the order in which rules are executed. By doing so, knowledge about the behavior and interactions of decision rules is not captured at modeling time. We argue that this is important knowledge that should be integrated in the modeling phase. In this project, we build upon current work on a conceptual schema to represent clinical knowledge for decision support in the form of if then rules. This schema currently captures provenance of the clinical content, context where such content is actionable (i.e. constraints) and the logic of the rule itself. For this project, we borrowed concepts from both the Semantic Web (i.e., Ontologies) and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), to explore a conceptual approach for modeling rule interactions in an enterprise-wide clinical setting. We expect that a more comprehensive modeling will facilitate knowledge authoring, editing and update; foster consistency in rules implementation and maintenance; and develop authoritative knowledge repositories to promote quality, safety and efficacy of healthcare.

  11. Modeling Global Urbanization Supported by Nighttime Light Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization, a major driver of global change, profoundly impacts our physical and social world, for example, altering carbon cycling and climate. Understanding these consequences for better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably requires accurate information on urban extent and its spatial distributions. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the nighttime light remote sensing data, extended this method to the global domain by developing a computational method (parameterization) to estimate the key parameters in the cluster-based method, and built a consistent 20-year global urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization (e.g. 2000 in Fig. 1). Supported by urban maps derived from nightlights remote sensing data and socio-economic drivers, we developed an integrated modeling framework to project future urban expansion by integrating a top-down macro-scale statistical model with a bottom-up urban growth model. With the models calibrated and validated using historical data, we explored urban growth at the grid level (1-km) over the next two decades under a number of socio-economic scenarios. The derived spatiotemporal information of historical and potential future urbanization will be of great value with practical implications for developing adaptation and risk management measures for urban infrastructure, transportation, energy, and water systems when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change, and high impact weather events.

  12. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  13. Agricultural Model for the Nile Basin Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bolt, Frank; Seid, Abdulkarim

    2014-05-01

    To analyze options for increasing food supply in the Nile basin the Nile Agricultural Model (AM) was developed. The AM includes state-of-the-art descriptions of biophysical, hydrological and economic processes and realizes a coherent and consistent integration of hydrology, agronomy and economics. The AM covers both the agro-ecological domain (water, crop productivity) and the economic domain (food supply, demand, and trade) and allows to evaluate the macro-economic and hydrological impacts of scenarios for agricultural development. Starting with the hydrological information from the NileBasin-DSS the AM calculates the available water for agriculture, the crop production and irrigation requirements with the FAO-model AquaCrop. With the global commodity trade model MAGNET scenarios for land development and conversion are evaluated. The AM predicts consequences for trade, food security and development based on soil and water availability, crop allocation, food demand and food policy. The model will be used as a decision support tool to contribute to more productive and sustainable agriculture in individual Nile countries and the whole region.

  14. Supporting user-defined granularities in a spatiotemporal conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatri, V.; Ram, S.; Snodgrass, R.T.; O'Brien, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Granularities are integral to spatial and temporal data. A large number of applications require storage of facts along with their temporal and spatial context, which needs to be expressed in terms of appropriate granularities. For many real-world applications, a single granularity in the database is insufficient. In order to support any type of spatial or temporal reasoning, the semantics related to granularities needs to be embedded in the database. Specifying granularities related to facts is an important part of conceptual database design because under-specifying the granularity can restrict an application, affect the relative ordering of events and impact the topological relationships. Closely related to granularities is indeterminacy, i.e., an occurrence time or location associated with a fact that is not known exactly. In this paper, we present an ontology for spatial granularities that is a natural analog of temporal granularities. We propose an upward-compatible, annotation-based spatiotemporal conceptual model that can comprehensively capture the semantics related to spatial and temporal granularities, and indeterminacy without requiring new spatiotemporal constructs. We specify the formal semantics of this spatiotemporal conceptual model via translation to a conventional conceptual model. To underscore the practical focus of our approach, we describe an on-going case study. We apply our approach to a hydrogeologic application at the United States Geologic Survey and demonstrate that our proposed granularity-based spatiotemporal conceptual model is straightforward to use and is comprehensive.

  15. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  16. Army Vessels Maintenance Contracts in Southwest Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    J&A Justification and Approval LSV Logistics Support Vessel-4 MARAV Master Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels MICC-EU Mission and...Master Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels ( MARAV ). Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations Supplement (DFARS) Subpart 217.71, “Master...that contains elements of a contract, but is not a contract. DFARS states that when soliciting for contracts issued under a MARAV , the contracting

  17. The Psychological Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    employee commitment • Freedom to sign new contracts • Little learning • Low integration/identification Transitional • Ambiguity/uncertainty • High...turnover • Instability T im ef ra m e Lo ng T er m Balanced • High employee commitment • High integration/identification • Mutual employee...organization support • Dynamic Relational • High employee commitment • High affective commitment • High integration/identification • Stability 14

  18. Urban modeling over Houston in support of SIMMER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlage, M. J.; Monaghan, A. J.; Feddema, J. J.; Oleson, K. W.; Brunsell, N. A.; Wilhelmi, O.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme heat is a leading cause of weather-related human mortality in the United States. As global warming patterns continue, researchers anticipate increases in the severity, frequency and duration of extreme heat events, especially in the southern and western U.S. Many cities in these regions may have amplified vulnerability due to their rapidly evolving socioeconomic fabric (for example, growing elderly populations). This raises a series of questions about the increased health risks of urban residents to extreme heat, and about effective means of mitigation and adaptation in present and future climates. We will introduce a NASA-funded project aimed at addressing these questions via the System for Integrated Modeling of Metropolitan Extreme Heat Risk (SIMMER). Through SIMMER, we hope to advance methodology for assessing current and future urban vulnerabilities from the heat waves through the refinement and integration of physical and social science models, and to build local capacity for heat hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation in the public health sector. We will also present results from a series of sensitivity studies over Houston and surrounding area employing a recently-implemented multi-layer urban canopy model (UCM) within the Noah Land Surface Model. The UCM has multiple layers in the atmosphere to explicitly resolve the effects of buildings, and has an indoor-outdoor exchange model that directly interacts with the atmospheric boundary layer. The goal of this work, which supports the physical science component of SIMMER, is to characterize the ill-defined and uncertain parameter space, including building characteristics and spatial organization, in the new multi-layer UCM for Houston, and to assess whether and how this parameter space is sensitive to the choice of urban morphology datasets. Results focus on the seasonal and inter-annual range of both the modeled urban heat island effect and the magnitude of surface energy components and

  19. Geobrowser based simulation models for land degradation policy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nature is complex and is complicated further by the gaps in our knowledge of it. Whereas scientists often quote lack of data and the need for more research from our seat on the fence, those making policy and attempting to manage nature and our interactions with it need to make decisions on what to do and how to do it. Increasingly reductionist science has led to deeper understanding of isolated process but only recently have advances in systems analysis, environmental modelling and computing enabled the construction of integrated models from these slices of science. Such integrated (assessment) models (IAMs) attempt to simulate landscapes and the biophysical and socio-economic processes occurring within them over space and time. IAMs provide a testbed in which policy can be tested in silico before being implemented in vivo. They are often used to assess the potential implications of implementing particular policy options in the face of background scenarios of change such as population growth and climate variability or change. In this paper I will show an example of an IAM for fine scale land degradation processes in the Mediterranean. The model, which incorporates many of the hydrological, plant growth and soil degradation processes acting in these environments, was developed as part of the EC funded DESURVEY project. It is fundamentally built on data, process knowledge and training developed within the MEDALUS series of projects, led by John Thornes. The DESURVEY fine scale model is implemented as a web-service and integrated with geobrowsers like Google Earth and Google Maps whilst drawing on terabytes of environmental data hosted at www.kcl.ac.uk/geodata and grid based dynamic models for surface and subsurface processes. This IAM is aimed at quantifying and visualising interactively the interaction between climate, land cover and land degradation, for policy support.

  20. Towards computational modeling of excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac myocytes: reconstruction of structures and proteins from confocal imaging.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Frank B; Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Goldhaber, Joshua I; Bridge, John H B

    2009-01-01

    Computational models of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in myocytes are valuable tools for studying the signaling cascade that transduces transmembrane voltage into mechanical responses. A key component of these models is the appropriate description of structures involved in EC coupling, such as the sarcolemma and ion channels. This study aims at developing an approach for spatial reconstruction of these structures. We exemplified our approach by reconstructing clusters of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) together with the sarcolemma of rabbit ventricular myocytes. The reconstructions were based on dual labeling and three-dimensional (3D) confocal imaging of segments of fixed and permeabilized myocytes lying flat or on end. The imaging led to 3D stacks of cross-sections through myocytes. Methods of digital image processing were applied to deconvolve, filter and segment these stacks. Finally, we created point meshes representing RyR distributions together with volume and surface meshes of the sarcolemma. We suggest that these meshes are suitable for computational studies of structure-function relationships in EC coupling. We propose that this approach can be extended to reconstruct other structures and proteins involved in EC coupling.

  1. Scour around Support Structures of Scaled Model Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. A.; Beninati, M. L.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments are presented to explore scour due to flows around support structures of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Three related studies were performed to understand how submergence, scour condition, and the presence of an MHK device impact scour around the support structure (cylinder). The first study focuses on clear-water scour conditions for a cylinder of varying submergence: surface-piercing and fully submerged. The second study centers on three separate scour conditions (clear-water, transitional and live-bed) around the fully submerged cylinder. Lastly, the third study emphasizes the impact of an MHK turbine on scour around the support structure, in live-bed conditions. Small-scale laboratory testing of model devices can be used to help predict the behavior of MHK devices at full-scale. Extensive studies have been performed on single cylinders, modeling bridge piers, though few have focused on fully submerged structures. Many of the devices being used to harness marine hydrokinetic energy are fully submerged in the flow. Additionally, scour hole dimensions and scour rates have not been addressed. Thus, these three studies address the effect of structure blockage/drag, and the ambient scour conditions on scour around the support structure. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. The support structure diameter (D = 2.54 cm) was held constant for all tests. The submerged cylinder (l/D = 5) and sediment size (d50 = 790 microns) were held constant for all three studies. The MHK device (Dturbine = 10.2 cm) is a two-bladed horizontal axis turbine and the rotating shaft is friction-loaded using a metal brush motor. For each study, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiments, scour hole depth measurements at the front face of the support structure

  2. Modeling of chemisorption on copper oxide supported on alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. G.; Cooper, B. R.

    1994-06-01

    Transition metals supported on alumina are widely used as catalysts, and over the last few decades a large amount of experimental work has been done to characterize such systems. While it is generally believed that the catalytic reactions occur on and near the surface, knowledge of the reactions and the adsorption sites on the surface and related energetics is seriously lacking, especially at the atomic structure level. We have used a combination of the film linearized muffin-tin orbital (FLMTO) method and an ab initio molecular quantum cluster method to model the use of the system of CuO/-γ-Al 2O 3 as a regenerable adsorbent of SO 2 (of interest for flue-gas cleanup). The modeling and calculations with the FLMTO method show that the copper atoms are adsorbed at the surface octahedral vacant sites of the alumina. The modeling and calculations with the ab initio cluster method rule out the adsorption of the SO 2 molecule with sulfur-copper bonding and indicate that the SO 2 molecule is adsorbed via oxygen-copper bonding; and accordingly we investigate some pertinent geometrical configurations including "bridge" arrangements providing bonding between the oxygen atoms of the SO 2 molecule and the surface copper or aluminum atoms.

  3. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Services--Non-Published Rates 4 model contract. This notice informs the public of the filing, ] invites...-Published Rates (GEPS-NPR) 4 model contract.\\1\\ This Order provides public notice of the Postal...

  4. Information Integration to Support Model-Based Policy Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pan, Zhengzheng; Swarup, Samarth

    2011-01-01

    The complexities of social and technological policy domains, such as the economy, the environment, and public health present challenges that require a new approach to modeling and decision making. The information required for effective policy and decision making in these complex domains is massive in scale, fine-grained in resolution, and distributed over many data sources. Thus, one of the key challenges in building systems to support policy informatics is information integration. We describe our approach to this problem, and how we are building a multi-theory, multi-actor, multi-perspective system that supports continual data uptake, state assessment, decision analysis, and action assignment based on large-scale high-performance computing infrastructures. Our simulation-based approach allows rapid course-of-action analysis to bound variances in outcomes of policy interventions, which in turn allows the short time-scale planning required in response to emergencies such as epidemic outbreaks. We present the rationale and design of our methodology and discuss several areas of actual and potential application. PMID:22337756

  5. Progressor: social navigation support through open social student modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, I.-Han; Bakalov, Fedor; Brusilovsky, Peter; König-Ries, Birgitta

    2013-06-01

    The increased volumes of online learning content have produced two problems: how to help students to find the most appropriate resources and how to engage them in using these resources. Personalized and social learning have been suggested as potential ways to address these problems. Our work presented in this paper combines the ideas of personalized and social learning in the context of educational hypermedia. We introduce Progressor, an innovative Web-based tool based on the concepts of social navigation and open student modeling that helps students to find the most relevant resources in a large collection of parameterized self-assessment questions on Java programming. We have evaluated Progressor in a semester-long classroom study, the results of which are presented in this paper. The study confirmed the impact of personalized social navigation support provided by the system in the target context. The interface encouraged students to explore more topics attempting more questions and achieving higher success rates in answering them. A deeper analysis of the social navigation support mechanism revealed that the top students successfully led the way to discovering most relevant resources by creating clear pathways for weaker students.

  6. Aggregation of Environmental Model Data for Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    model output offering access to probability and calibrating information for real time decision making. The aggregation content server reports over ensemble component and forecast time in addition to the other data dimensions of vertical layer and position for each variable. The unpacking, organization and reading of many binary packed files is accomplished most efficiently on the server while weather element event probability calculations, the thresholds for more accurate decision support, or display remain for the client. Our goal is to reduce uncertainty for variables of interest, e.g, agricultural importance. The weather service operational GFS model ensemble and short range ensemble forecasts can make skillful probability forecasts to alert users if and when their selected weather events will occur. A description of how this framework operates and how it can be implemented using existing NOMADS content services and applications is described.

  7. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments performed at room temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-placed calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  8. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  9. Improved techniques for thermomechanical testing in support of deformation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.; Ellis, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of generating precise thermomechanical deformation data to support constitutive model development was investigated. Here, the requirement is for experimental data that is free from anomalies caused by less than ideal equipment and procedures. A series of exploratory tests conducted on Hastelloy X showed that generally accepted techniques for strain controlled tests were lacking in at least three areas. Specifically, problems were encountered with specimen stability, thermal strain compensation, and temperature/mechanical strain phasing. The source of these difficulties was identified and improved thermomechanical testing techniques to correct them were developed. These goals were achieved by developing improved procedures for measuring and controlling thermal gradients and by designing a specimen specifically for thermomechanical testing. In addition, innovative control strategies were developed to correctly proportion and phase the thermal and mechanical components of strain. Subsequently, the improved techniques were used to generate deformation data for Hastelloy X over the temperature range, 200 to 1000 C.

  10. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    PubMed

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  11. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, October--December 1992. Progress review No. 73, quarter ending December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Accomplishments for this quarter ending December 31, 1992 are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; reservoir classes; and novel technology.

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1992. Progress review No. 72, quarter ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following tasks: Chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  13. Flow caused by the stalk contraction of Vorticella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sangjin; Chung, Eun-Gul; Admiraal, David

    2016-11-01

    Vorticella is a stalked protozoan, and its ultrafast stalk contraction moves the spherically-shrunken cell body (zooid) and thus causes surrounding water to flow. Because the fluid dynamics of this water flow is important for understanding the motility of Vorticella, we investigated the flow based on various fluid dynamics approaches. To find why Vorticella contracts its stalk, we propose a hypothesis that the protist utilizes the contraction-induced water flow to augment transport of food particles. This hypothesis was investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, which was validated with an experimental scale model of Vorticella. The CFD model enabled calculating the motion of particles around Vorticella and thus quantifying the transport effect of the stalk contraction. Also, we have developed a hydrodynamic drag model for easier estimation of Vorticella's contractility without using the CFD model. Because the contractile force of the stalk equals the drag on the moving zooid, the model enabled evaluating the contractile force and energetics of Vorticella based on its contraction speed. Analyses using the drag model show that the stalk contractility of Vorticella depends on the stalk length. This study was supported by UNL Layman Seed Grant and Nebraska EPSCoR First Award Grant.

  14. The Adventure Model: A Replication Study To Determine if Different Adventure Skills Support the Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Ken; Ewert, Alan

    First developed and tested in 1989, the Adventure Model suggests that as adventure participants become more skilled and specialized, they experience predictable changes in several participation behaviors. While previous studies supported the model, they were carried out with college students having similar skill and motivational characteristics.…

  15. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models requires a lot data, such as the chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data. Previously-developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be great resource for supporting the constr...

  16. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    PubMed

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses) and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements), whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  17. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses) and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements), whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages. PMID:26136734

  18. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  19. Integrating Cache Performance Modeling and Tuning Support in Parallelization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    With the resurgence of distributed shared memory (DSM) systems based on cache-coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (ccNUMA) architectures and increasing disparity between memory and processors speeds, data locality overheads are becoming the greatest bottlenecks in the way of realizing potential high performance of these systems. While parallelization tools and compilers facilitate the users in porting their sequential applications to a DSM system, a lot of time and effort is needed to tune the memory performance of these applications to achieve reasonable speedup. In this paper, we show that integrating cache performance modeling and tuning support within a parallelization environment can alleviate this problem. The Cache Performance Modeling and Prediction Tool (CPMP), employs trace-driven simulation techniques without the overhead of generating and managing detailed address traces. CPMP predicts the cache performance impact of source code level "what-if" modifications in a program to assist a user in the tuning process. CPMP is built on top of a customized version of the Computer Aided Parallelization Tools (CAPTools) environment. Finally, we demonstrate how CPMP can be applied to tune a real Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application.

  20. Increased angiotensin II contraction of the uterine artery at early gestation in a transgenic model of hypertensive pregnancy is reduced by inhibition of endocannabinoid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Victor M; Yamaleyeva, Liliya M; Varagic, Jasmina; McGee, Carolynne M; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Howlett, Allyn C; Brosnihan, K Bridget

    2014-09-01

    Increased vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II (Ang II) is a marker of a hypertensive human pregnancy. Recent evidence of interactions between the renin-angiotensin system and the endocannabinoid system suggests that anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol may modulate Ang II contraction. We hypothesized that these interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular responses in hypertensive pregnancy. We studied Ang II contraction in isolated uterine artery (UA) at early gestation in a rat model that mimics many features of preeclampsia, the transgenic human angiotensinogen×human renin (TgA), and control Sprague-Dawley rats. We determined the role of the cannabinoid receptor 1 by blockade with SR171416A, and the contribution of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol degradation to Ang II contraction by inhibiting their hydrolyzing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (with URB597) or monoacylglycerol lipase (with JZL184), respectively. TgA UA showed increased maximal contraction and sensitivity to Ang II that was inhibited by indomethacin. Fatty acid amide hydrolase blockade decreased Ang IIMAX in Sprague-Dawley UA, and decreased both Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. Monoacylglycerol lipase blockade had no effect on Sprague-Dawley UA and decreased Ang IIMAX and sensitivity in TgA UA. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 in TgA UA had no effect. Immunolocalization of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase showed a similar pattern between groups; fatty acid amide hydrolase predominantly localized in endothelium and monoacylglycerol lipase in smooth muscle cells. We demonstrated an increased Ang II contraction in TgA UA before initiation of the hypertensive phenotype. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol reduced Ang II contraction in a cannabinoid receptor 1-independent manner. These renin-angiotensin system-endocannabinoid system interactions may contribute to the enhanced vascular reactivity in early stages of hypertensive pregnancy.

  1. SDU 6 MODELING STUDY TO SUPPORT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2012-05-02

    In response to Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0017 (1), SRNL performed modeling studies to evaluate alternative design features for the 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) referred to as SDU 6. This initial modeling study was intended to assess the performance of major components of the structure that are most significant to the PA. Information provided by the modeling will support the development of a SDU 6 Preliminary Design Model and Recommendation Report to be written by SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority. Key inputs and assumptions for the modeling were provided to SRNL in SRR-SPT-2011-00113 (2). A table reiterates the base case and four sensitivity case studies requested in this reference. In general, as shown in Table 4, when compared to Vault 2 Case A, the Base Case SDU 6 design produced higher peak fluxes to the water table during the 10,000 year period of analysis but lower peak fluxes within a 15,000 to 20,000 time frame. SDU 6 will contain approximately ten times the inventory of a single Vault 2 and the SDU 6 footprint is comparable to that of a group of four Vault 2 disposal units. Therefore, the radionuclide flux from SDU 6 and that from a single Vault 2 are not directly comparable. A more direct comparison would be to compare the maximum dose obtained at the 100 m boundary from the seven SDU's that will replace the 64 FDC's analyzed in the 2009 PA. This analysis will be performed in the next set of calculations planned for SDU design evaluation. Aquifer transport and dose calculations were not intended to be part of this initial scoping study. However, results from this study do indicate that replacement of the FDC design with SDU would not yield significantly higher peak doses. If the thickness of the SDU 6 floor is increased, peak doses would not occur during the 10,000 year period of analysis.

  2. Supporting Technology Integration in Adult Education: Critical Issues and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishnan, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    What types of personal support are critical in helping teachers to integrate technology? How can adult education programs provide this support and who is best equipped to provide it? What organizational implications should program administrators consider when institutionalizing this personal support infrastructure? The experiences of eight adult…

  3. Developing an Information Technology Support Model for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    Babson College (Massachusetts) responded to expanded campus computer use and resulting demand for support services by developing service delivery tailored to user groups' needs. Resources devoted to this effort have grown dramatically, and include help desk and dispatch support, program of technology specialists, evening support to residence…

  4. Modelling evolution on design-by-contract predicts an origin of Life through an abiotic double-stranded RNA world

    PubMed Central

    de Roos, Albert DG

    2007-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that life first evolved from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) that both stored genetic information and catalyzed the reactions required for self-replication. Presentation of the hypothesis By modeling early genome evolution on the engineering paradigm design-by-contract, an alternative scenario is presented in which life started with the appearance of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as an informational storage molecule while catalytic single-stranded RNA was derived from this dsRNA template later in evolution. Testing the hypothesis It was investigated whether this scenario could be implemented mechanistically by starting with abiotic processes. Double-stranded RNA could be formed abiotically by hybridization of oligoribonucleotides that are subsequently non-enzymatically ligated into a double-stranded chain. Thermal cycling driven by the diurnal temperature cycles could then replicate this dsRNA when strands of dsRNA separate and later rehybridize and ligate to reform dsRNA. A temperature-dependent partial replication of specific regions of dsRNA could produce the first template-based generation of catalytic ssRNA, similar to the developmental gene transcription process. Replacement of these abiotic processes by enzymatic processes would guarantee functional continuity. Further transition from a dsRNA to a dsDNA world could be based on minor mutations in template and substrate recognition sites of an RNA polymerase and would leave all existing processes intact. Implications of the hypothesis Modeling evolution on a design pattern, the 'dsRNA first' hypothesis can provide an alternative mechanistic evolutionary scenario for the origin of our genome that preserves functional continuity. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Poole, Eugene Koonin and Eugene Shakhnovich PMID:17466073

  5. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  6. Is there a need for hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies.

    PubMed

    Raskob, W; Heling, R; Zheleznyak, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies. In particular, most recent developments such as, the radionuclide transport models integrated in to the decision support system RODOS will be explored. Recent progress in the implementation of physically-based distributed hydrological models for operational forecasting in national and supranational centres, may support a closer cooperation between national hydrological services and therefore, strengthen the use of hydrological and radiological models implemented in decision support systems.

  7. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  8. SVAT modelling in support to flood risk assessment in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanova, Julia S.; Georgiev, Christo G.

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the benefit that can be drawn from incorporating the diagnosis of initial soil moisture of the top vegetation/soil layer and its anomalies as parameters in support of operational weather forecasting. For that purpose, a 1D vertical numerical land surface scheme, referred to as Soil Vegetation Transfer Model (‘SVAT_bg’) has been developed to simulate the soil-vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy transfer, accounting for local soil/climate features. The model is run daily for estimating soil moisture content and on this basis, a biogeophysical index designating Soil Moisture Availability Index (SMAI) to vegetation land cover is derived. SMAI is introduced as a measure of the proportion between the energy and water balances and their anomalies at different weather/climate conditions through a 6-level threshold scheme of land surface moistening. To facilitate the use of SMAI as a diagnostic tool for operational forecasting purposes, it is generated on a daily basis and visualised by colour-coded maps, covering the main administrative regions of Bulgaria in combination with a numerical part, which indicates the required flood-producing rainfall quantities (specific for each region). In case of overmoistening conditions, the numerical part denotes the rainfall excess above the soil saturation moisture content. The utility of this approach is illustrated in two case studies of severe weather produced by deep convection and a rapid cyclogenesis developed at initial ‘dry’/‘wet’ soil moisture anomalies, respectively. The thermodynamic conditions and space-time structure of the rainfall are analysed by NWP output fields and satellite information. The study contributes to a better definition of the role of vegetation-soil moistening in flood risk forecasting within strong synoptic scale forcing regimes. The utility of the results comes also from the recognition of soil moisture as a meteorological forcing factor, which may affect both severity

  9. Integrated developmental model of life-support capabilities in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. L.; Obrien, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a model for CO2, O2, H2O, and nitrogen use during the life cycle of wheat. Spreadsheets and accompanying graphs were developed to illustrate plant population reactions to environmental parameters established in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program at Kennedy Space Center, Fl. The spreadsheets and graphs were produced using validated biomass production chamber (BPC) data from BWT931. Conditions of the BPC during the 83 day plant growth period were as follows: The BPC area is 27.8 m(exp 2), volume is 113 m(exp 3). Temperatures during the 83 day plant growth period ranged from 16.3 to 24.8 C during the light cycle (except for day 69, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 7.7 C and 7.9 C, respectively) and 14.5 C and 23.6 C during the dark cycle (except for day 49, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 11.1 C and 11.3 C, respectively). Relative humidity was 85 percent for the first seven days of plant growth, and 70 percent thereafter. The plant leaf canopy area was 10 m(exp 2). Presented is a list and explanation of each spreadsheet and accompanying graph(s), conditions under which the data were collected, and formulas used to obtain each result.

  10. Support for an Evolutionary Model of AGN Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dultzin, D.

    2015-09-01

    I will present our recent results (2013-2015) on the role of the environment in the nuclear activity of interacting Galaxies, all of which support an evolutionary sequence in the nuclear activity. We studied close galactic pairs of similar mass in the local Universe. We analyzed 385 spectra of S S, E E, and E S pairs, and try to disentangle the role of morphology on induced activity . We compare with our own sample of bona fide isolated galaxies containing a statistically significant number of all morphological types. Our main results are in conflict with the simplest version of the so called Unified Model (UM), and suggest that high accretion rates are essential to form the Broad Line Region in active galaxies. We also investigated the structure of the dusty torus surrounding Syfert 1 and 2 nuclei, both in pairs and isolated. The results also lead to a disagreement with the UM. Finally, we present our results on the Nuclear Activity in the context of the evolution of Compact Groups of galaxies over the past 3 Gyrs. Our analysis is based on the largest multiwavelength compact group sample to-date, and the results are also in conflict with an orientation obscuration effect alone.

  11. Assessment of Navy Contract Management Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-22

    PROGRAM SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Assessment of Navy Contract Management Processes 22 February 2016 Dr. Rene G. Rendon, Associate Professor Graduate...builds upon the emerging body of knowledge on contract management workforce competence and organizational process capability. In 2003, the Contract... Management Maturity Model (CMMM) was first developed for the purpose of assessing Department of Defense (DoD) and defense contractor organizational

  12. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  13. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation. PMID:27790232

  14. Cause and Event: Supporting Causal Claims through Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Ann A.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to identify and support credible causal claims have received intense interest in the research community, particularly over the past few decades. In this paper, we focus on the use of statistical procedures designed to support causal claims for a treatment or intervention when the response variable of interest is dichotomous. We identify…

  15. A Conceptual Model of Structured Support in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.; Rudisill, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Schools implement Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) as a way of meeting students' needs in classrooms. PBIS focuses on tiered instruction. Tiered instruction is a teaching strategy in which the educator implements incremental changes that increase supports based on students' needs--academic or behavioral. Yet, tiered instruction…

  16. The Relationship between Social Anxiety and Social Support in Adolescents: A Test of Competing Causal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calsyn, Robert J.; Winter, Joel P.; Burger, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the strength of competing causal models in explaining the relationship between perceived support, enacted support, and social anxiety in adolescents. The social causation hypothesis postulates that social support causes social anxiety, whereas the social selection hypothesis postulates that social anxiety causes social support.…

  17. The Effects of the Coordination Support on Shared Mental Models and Coordinated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunsong; Kim, Dongsik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination support (tool support and tutor support) on the development of shared mental models (SMMs) and coordinated action in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Eighteen students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, including the tool condition, the…

  18. Empirical modelling of the dynamic response of fatigue during intermittent submaximal contractions of human forearm and calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Green, Simon; Stefanovic, Brad; Warman, Joel; Askew, Christopher D

    2015-02-01

    Maximum force (Fmax) declines during intermittent submaximal contractions, but the linearity of this fatigue response and number of underlying phases is not clear. Healthy men were studied during two experiments (n=10 each). Experiment 1 involved single bouts of intermittent forearm contractions (50% Fmax) to failure using both limbs assigned as Armcontrol or Armtraining. Experiment 2 involved five bouts of intermittent calf contractions (60% Fmax) to failure using the same limb where data from the longest single trial (Calfsingle) or averaged across five bouts (Calfaveraged) were analysed. Fmax was assessed at 25-30s intervals during exercise and fitted to ten mono- and biphasic functions consisting of linear and/or nonlinear terms. For each fatigue response, the function which provided the best fit was determined on statistical grounds. Biphasic functions provided the majority of best fits during Armcontrol (9/10), Armtraining (10/10), Calfsingle (7/10) and Calfaveraged (9/10). For each condition, linear functions provided the best fit in 4-5 out of 10 responses. Two biphasic functions differentiated only by their first term (linear versus exponential) provided the best fit for 29/40 fatigue responses. These outcomes suggest that fatigue during intermittent contractions exhibits a biphasic response characterised by nonlinear and linear behaviour.

  19. Logic Models as a Way to Support Online Students and Their Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    As online enrollment continues to grow, students may need additional pedagogical supports to increase their likelihood of success in online environments that don't offer the same supports as those found in face to face classrooms. Logic models are a way to provide such support to students by helping to model project expectations, allowing students…

  20. Processing experiments on non-Czochralski silicon sheet (MEPSDU support contract). Quarterly technical report No. 1, 14 October 1980-31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.

    1980-01-01

    A program of six months duration has been initiated to support and promote the further development of processing techniques which may be successfully and cost-effectively applied to low-cost non-Czochralski silicon sheet for solar cell fabrication. Work is proceeding and results are reported in the areas of process technology, cell design, cell metallization, and production cost simulation.

  1. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 82, quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This document consists of a list of projects supporting work on oil recovery programs. A publications list and index of companies and institutions is provided. The remaining portion of the document provides brief descriptions on projects in chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, resource assessment, and reservoir class field demonstrations.

  2. The effect of temperature on basal tension and thyroarytenoid muscle contraction in an isolated rat glottis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2014-10-01

    The pitch of voice is closely related to the vocal fold tension, which is the end result of coordinated movement of the intralaryngeal muscles, and especially the thyroarytenoid muscle. It is known that vocal quality may be affected by surrounding temperature; however, the effect of temperature on vocal fold tension is mostly unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature on isolated rat glottis and thyroarytenoid muscle contraction induced by electrical field stimulation. In vitro isometric tension of the glottis ring from 30 Sprague-Dawley rats was continuously recorded by the tissue bath method. Electrical field stimulation was applied to the glottis ring with two wire electrodes placed parallel to the glottis and connected to a direct-current stimulator. The tension changes of the rat glottis rings that were either untreated or treated with electrical field stimulation were recorded continuously at temperatures from 37 to 7 °C or from 7 to 37 °C. Warming from 7 to 37 °C increased the basal tension of the glottis rings and decreased the electrical field stimulation-induced glottis ring contraction, which was chiefly due to thyroarytenoid muscle contraction. In comparison, cooling from 37 to 7 °C decreased the basal tension and enhanced glottis ring contraction by electrical field stimulation. We concluded that warming increased the basal tension of the glottis in vitro and decreased the amplitude of electrical field stimulation-induced thyroarytenoid muscle contraction. Thus, vocal pitch and the fine tuning of vocal fold tension might be affected by temperature in vivo.

  3. Mathematical Models for the Education Sector, Supporting Material to the Survey. (Les Modeles Mathematiques du Secteur Enseignement. Annexes.) Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document contains supporting material for the survey on current practice in the construction and use of mathematical models for education. Two kinds of supporting material are included: (1) the responses to the questionnaire, and (2) supporting documents and other materials concerning the mathematical model-building effort in education.…

  4. Contracts in radiology practices: contract types and key provisions.

    PubMed

    Muroff, Julie A; Muroff, Lawrence R

    2004-07-01

    A contract between a radiology group and its physician member(s) provides the foundation for the professional relationships in a group practice. The parties are not in positions of parity; contract provisions are structured to maintain the primacy of the group over the individual members. An integration clause should be included to preclude reliance on communications that are not memorialized by the language of the contract. Precise, unambiguous terms must be used to convey the intentions of the parties. The contract should have a clear date of initiation and, if applicable, an effective date of termination. Mechanisms for termination and modification should be expressed clearly to minimize the risk of judicial interference. The method of determining and adjusting the salary and other benefits of the radiologist should be stated, as consideration is necessary to support the existence of a legal contract. The obligations of the radiologist to the practice are often stated in general terms to maximize the group's flexibility. Finally, other key clauses that are discussed in the paper should be incorporated into the contract.

  5. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  6. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2015 Ozone NAAQS Preliminary Interstate Transport Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) preliminary interstate transport assessment Notice of Data Availability (NODA).

  7. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-08-31

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL{sub 2}-varieties are considered.

  8. An Analysis of the Human/Computer Interface of the Program Manager Support System: Capps(Contract Appraisal System) and Gat(Government Activity Tasking)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    instance, users in a nuclear power plant might need a system that provides: quick response times, display screens that use color and sounds for warnings...34TJS CRAMl .............. DFC 14v P),. . A-V. AFIT/GIR/LSY/88D-6 AN ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN/COMPUTER INTERFACE OF THE PROGRAM MANAGER SUPPORT SYSTEM...events is through employing attention getting 15 t ~chniques. Rubinstein, Hersh, and Shneiderman suggest using the subsequent methods (Rubinstein and Hersh

  9. Procurement Ethics: Have We Resolved the Army’s Expeditionary Contracting Problems?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-11

    contracting officials and contractors while providing contracting support in Kuwait, Iraq, and Afghanistan . The number of substantiated cases...support in Kuwait, Iraq, and Afghanistan . The number of substantiated cases through the International Contract Corruption Task Force was astounding...and contractors while providing expeditionary contracting support in Kuwait, Iraq, and Afghanistan . The number of substantiated cases through the

  10. Artificial intelligence support for scientific model-building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific model-building can be a time-intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientific development team to understand. We believe that artificial intelligence techniques can facilitate both the model-building and model-sharing process. In this paper, we overview our effort to build a scientific modeling software tool that aids the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high-level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities.

  11. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  12. FY90 Based Cost Models to Support Diagnosis Related Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-04

    models presented here were based upon the final model formhs selected for use with the FY88 data. With the exception of identifying outlying fa- cilities...CENTER EXPENSE MODELS ARMY ALV SASER IC NONCLINICIAN EXPENSES 2 1 4 7 CLINICIAN EXPENSES 6 4 6 16 AMBULATORY EXPENSES 0 2 4 6 TOTAL EXPENSES* 1 0 2 3

  13. Supported lipid bilayers as models for studying membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Volker; Yang, Sung-Tae; Tamm, Lukas K

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have been in use for over 30 years. They have been employed to study the structure, composition, and dynamics of lipid bilayer phases, the binding and distribution of soluble, integral, and lipidated proteins in membranes, membrane fusion, and interactions of membranes with elements of the cytoskeleton. This review focuses on the unique ability of supported lipid bilayers to study liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains in membranes. We highlight methods to produce asymmetric lipid bilayers with lipid compositions that mimic those of the extracellular and cytoplasmic leaflets of cell membranes and the functional reconstitution of membrane proteins into such systems. Questions related to interleaflet domain coupling and membrane protein activation have been addressed and answered using advanced reconstitution and imaging procedures in symmetric and asymmetric supported membranes with and without coexisting lipid phase domains. Previously controversial topics regarding anomalous and anisotropic diffusion in membranes have been resolved by using supported membrane approaches showing that the propensity of certain lipid compositions to form "rafts" are important but overlaid with "picket-fence" interactions that are imposed by a subtended cytoskeletal network.

  14. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in "Early Child Res Q" 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in "Early…

  15. Test of a Mediation Model of Perceived Organizational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhen Xiong; Aryee, Samuel; Lee, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the mediating influence of trust in organization (TIO) and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) on the relationship between perceived organization support (POS) and its work outcomes. Data were obtained from employee-supervisor dyads from multiple organizations located in a major city in southern China. Structural equation…

  16. Support interference of wind tunnel models: A selective annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Lawing, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 143 citations arranged in chronological order by dates of publication. Selection of the citations was made for their relevance to the problems involved in understanding or avoiding support interference in wind tunnel testing throughout the Mach number range. An author index is included.

  17. Support interference of wind tunnel models: A selective annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Gloss, B. B.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 143 citations arranged in chronological order by dates of publication. Selection of the citations was made for their relevance to the problems involved in understanding or avoiding support interference in wind tunnel testing throughout the Mach number range. An author index is included.

  18. Developing a Language Support Model for Mainstream Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue; Boyle, James; Turnbull, Mary; Kerr, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with teachers to support children with language impairment (LI) in mainstream schools. Consultancy approaches are often used, where SLTs advise educational staff who then deliver language-learning activities. However, some research suggests that schools may not always sustain activities as…

  19. A Linear Programming Model to Optimize Various Objective Functions of a Foundation Type State Support Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzke, Orville R.

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…

  20. The Optimal Utilization Management Model for Martin Army Community Hospital Under the Next Generation of TRICARE Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    the business operation of our military health care delivery system. The largest area of change is in utilization managemlent (UM). Under the new...contract, the government will be responsible for all aspects of health care management of prime enrolled beneficiaries to include underwriting the cost of...process to include medical necessity review, continued stay review and coding of all medical, surgical and behavioral health episodes of care . The

  1. Endurance Evaluation of Sintered, Porous, Strut-Supported Turbine Blades made by Federal-Mogul-Bower-Bearings, Incorporated, under Bureau of Aeronautics Contract NOas 55-124-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickel, Robert O.; Richards, Hadley T.

    1957-01-01

    Four strut-supported, transpiration-cooled turbine blades were investigated experimentally in a turbojet engine. The blade shells were fabricated by the mold-sintering method with spherical stainless-steel powder. Two blades were investigated in order to evolve suitable capping methods for the blade tip. Two other blades were used to evaluate the durability of the porous-shell material. The blades were investigated at a turbine-tip speed of 1305 feet per second, an average turbine-inlet temperature of about 1670 F, and at a porous-shell temperature limited to a maximum of approximately 1040 F.

  2. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: a maturation model promoting long-term survival of myotubes, structural development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and neonatal myosin heavy chain expression.

    PubMed

    Das, Mainak; Rumsey, John W; Bhargava, Neelima; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James J

    2009-10-01

    The use of defined in vitro systems to study the developmental and physiological characteristics of a variety of cell types is increasing, due in large part to their ease of integration with tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and high-throughput screening applications. In this study, myotubes derived from fetal rat hind limbs were induced to develop several aspects of mature muscle including: sarcomere assembly, development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and myosin heavy chain (MHC) class switching. Utilizing immunocytochemical analysis, anisotropic and isotropic band formation (striations) within the myotubes was established, indicative of sarcomere formation. In addition, clusters of ryanodine receptors were colocalized with dihydropyridine complex proteins which signaled development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and transverse tubule biogenesis. The myotubes also exhibited MHC class switching from embryonic to neonatal MHC. Lastly, the myotubes survived significantly longer in culture (70-90 days) than myotubes from our previously developed system (20-25 days). These results were achieved by modifying the culture timeline as well as the development of a new medium formulation. This defined model system for skeletal muscle maturation supports the goal of developing physiologically relevant muscle constructs for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as for high-throughput screening applications.

  3. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    PubMed

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  4. Army Engineers Develop Model to Support Iraqi Water Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    technical references and computer resources, due to fire damage and looting. Reservoir Simulation Model To assist in this effort, the US Army Corps of...Development Alternatives, Incorporated, the USAID agent. HEC is developing a reservoir simulation model for the Tigris and Euphrates River system in...studying and solving reservoir system management problems. HEC and the Afghanistan Engineer District recently teamed up to develop a reservoir simulation model

  5. Final Technical Report for Contract No. DE-EE0006332, "Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation"

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, Dallas; Edra, Sherwin; Espinoza, Michael; Daye, Tony; Kostylev, Vladimir; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Jelen, Deborah

    2014-12-29

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  6. 48 CFR 46.408 - Single-agency assignments of Government contract quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Department of Commerce. (b) Agencies requiring quality assurance support for acquiring these... of Government contract quality assurance. 46.408 Section 46.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract...

  7. 48 CFR 46.408 - Single-agency assignments of Government contract quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Department of Commerce. (b) Agencies requiring quality assurance support for acquiring these... of Government contract quality assurance. 46.408 Section 46.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract...

  8. 48 CFR 46.408 - Single-agency assignments of Government contract quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Department of Commerce. (b) Agencies requiring quality assurance support for acquiring these... of Government contract quality assurance. 46.408 Section 46.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract...

  9. 48 CFR 46.408 - Single-agency assignments of Government contract quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Department of Commerce. (b) Agencies requiring quality assurance support for acquiring these... of Government contract quality assurance. 46.408 Section 46.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract...

  10. Community Mobilization Model Applied to Support Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jacque; Bruce, Ann; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly; Fruhauf, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the application of a community mobilization model through a case study of one community's response to address the needs of grandparents raising grandchildren. The community mobilization model presented is one that is replicable in addressing diverse community identified issues. Discussed is the building of the partnerships,…

  11. Assessment Models and Software Support for Assistive Technology Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Len; Sanche, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews requirements for considering the need for assistive technology (AT) services within the Individualized Education Program process and highlights the importance of collaborative teamwork. Current AT models are described, along with the AT Co-Planner. The use of a software version of the model is discussed. (Contains references.)…

  12. Bereavement Support in an Acute Hospital: An Irish Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Trish; Foreman, Maeve; Curry, Philip; O'Driscoll, Siobhan; McCormack, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In the first Irish study to examine a hospital-based bereavement care program, 1 year's cohort of bereaved people was surveyed. A response rate of over 40% provided 339 completed questionnaires from bereaved next-of-kin. The findings suggest that a tiered pyramid model of bereavement care (the Beaumont model) may be functional in a number of ways.…

  13. ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMUNITY MODELING AND ANALYSIS SUPPORT MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the fall of 2001, a Cooperative Research Agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and MCNC began a Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) center. The CMAS will foster development, distribution, and use of the Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multiscale ...

  14. Feedback Model to Support Designers of Blended-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Hans G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Although extensive research has been carried out, describing the role of feedback in education, and many theoretical models are yet available, procedures and guidelines for actually designing and implementing feedback in practice have remained scarce so far. This explorative study presents a preliminary six-phase design model for feedback…

  15. Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model: Contemporary Support for an Established Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Donna Cangelosi

    2010-01-01

    This study was an effort to add to the body of research surrounding Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model (BEM). The model was tested to determine its ability to explain factor relationships of organizational safety culture in a high-risk work environment. Three contextual variables were measured: communication, resource availability, and…

  16. Experimental support for a model of birdsong production.

    PubMed

    Mindlin, G B; Gardner, T J; Goller, F; Suthers, R

    2003-10-01

    In this work we present an experimental validation of a recently proposed model for the production of birdsongs. We have previously observed that driving the model with simple functions of time, which represent tensions in vocal muscles, produces a wide variety of sounds resembling birdsongs. In this work we drive the model with functions whose time dependence comes from recordings of muscle activities and air sac pressure. We simultaneously recorded the birds' songs and compared them with the synthetic songs. The model produces recognizable songs. Beyond finding a qualitative agreement, we also test some predictions of the model concerning the relative levels of activity in the gating muscles at the beginning and end of a syllable.

  17. Experimental support for a model of birdsong production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindlin, G. B.; Gardner, T. J.; Goller, F.; Suthers, R.

    2003-10-01

    In this work we present an experimental validation of a recently proposed model for the production of birdsongs. We have previously observed that driving the model with simple functions of time, which represent tensions in vocal muscles, produces a wide variety of sounds resembling birdsongs. In this work we drive the model with functions whose time dependence comes from recordings of muscle activities and air sac pressure. We simultaneously recorded the birds’ songs and compared them with the synthetic songs. The model produces recognizable songs. Beyond finding a qualitative agreement, we also test some predictions of the model concerning the relative levels of activity in the gating muscles at the beginning and end of a syllable.

  18. Phylogenies support out-of-equilibrium models of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Manceau, Marc; Lambert, Amaury; Morlon, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    There is a long tradition in ecology of studying models of biodiversity at equilibrium. These models, including the influential Neutral Theory of Biodiversity, have been successful at predicting major macroecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions. But they have failed to predict macroevolutionary patterns, such as those captured in phylogenetic trees. Here, we develop a model of biodiversity in which all individuals have identical demographic rates, metacommunity size is allowed to vary stochastically according to population dynamics, and speciation arises naturally from the accumulation of point mutations. We show that this model generates phylogenies matching those observed in nature if the metacommunity is out of equilibrium. We develop a likelihood inference framework that allows fitting our model to empirical phylogenies, and apply this framework to various mammalian families. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that biodiversity dynamics are out of equilibrium.

  19. Two Models of Magnetic Support for Photoevaporated Molecular Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Kane, J; Mizuta, A; Pound, M; Remington, B

    2004-05-05

    The thermal pressure inside molecular clouds is insufficient for maintaining the pressure balance at an ablation front at the cloud surface illuminated by nearby UV stars. Most probably, the required stiffness is provided by the magnetic pressure. After surveying existing models of this type, we concentrate on two of them: the model of a quasi-homogeneous magnetic field and the recently proposed model of a ''magnetostatic turbulence''. We discuss observational consequences of the two models, in particular, the structure and the strength of the magnetic field inside the cloud and in the ionized outflow. We comment on the possible role of reconnection events and their observational signatures. We mention laboratory experiments where the most significant features of the models can be tested.

  20. Assessing Contract Management Maturity: U.S. Army Joint Munitions and Lethality Contracting Center, Army Contracting Command, Picatinny Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Federal Government in contractual agreements (Nash, Schooner, O - Brien -DeBakey, Edwards, 2007). The JM&L requires that all contracting officers be...Bruce B. Berinato, External Support Advisor _____________________________________ Dr. William Gates

  1. An Elaborated Model of Student Support to Allow for Gender Considerations in Asian Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Seongyoun, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that distance education (DE) students regard learner support systems as the key element in quality provision. This study sought to identify the key concerns of Asian DE students regarding support provision in different types of DE and dual-mode providers and formulate a student support model which took account of gender issues.…

  2. Control and modeling of a CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Babcock, P. S.; Nadel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Research topics that arise from the conceptualization of control for closed life support systems which are life support systems in which all or most of the mass is recycled are discussed. Modeling and control of uncertain and poorly defined systems, resource allocation in closed life support systems, and control structures or systems with delay and closure are emphasized.

  3. Cable dynamics under non-ideal support excitations: Nonlinear dynamic interactions and asymptotic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tieding; Kang, Houjun; Wang, Lianhua; Zhao, Yueyu

    2016-12-01

    Cable dynamics under ideal longitudinal support motions/excitations assumes that the support's mass, stiffness and mechanical energy are infinite. However, for many long/slender support structures, their finite mass and stiffness should be taken into account and the cable-support dynamic interactions should be modelled and evaluated. These moving supports are non-ideal support excitations, deserving a proper coupling analysis. For systems with a large support/cable mass ratio, using the multiple scale method and asymptotic approximations, a cable-support coupled reduced model, with both cable's geometric nonlinearity and cable-support coupling nonlinearity included, is established asymptotically and validated numerically in this paper. Based upon the reduced model, cable's nonlinear responses under non-ideal support excitations(and also the coupled responses) are found, with stability and bifurcation characteristics determined. By finding the modifications caused by the support/cable mass ratio, boundary damping, and internal detuning, full investigations into coupling-induced dynamic effects on the cable are conducted. Finally, the approximate analytical results based on the reduced model are verified by numerical results from the original full model.

  4. Modelling System Processes to Support Uncertainty Analysis and Robustness Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Charles; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the use of advanced systems control techniques in the development of a dynamic system, results from effective mathematical modelling is required. Historically, in some cases the use of a model which only reflects the "expected" or "nominal" important -information about the system's internal processes has resulted in acceptable system performance, but it should be recognized that for those cases success was due to a combination of the remarkable inherent potential of feedback control for robustness and fortuitously wide margins between system performance requirements and system performance capability. In the cases of a CELSS development, no such fortuitous combinations should be expected, and it should be expected that the uncertainty in the information on the system's processes will have to be taken into account in order to generate a performance robust design. In this paper, we develop one perspective of the issue of providing robustness as mathematical modelling impacts it, and present some examples of model formats which serve the needed purpose.

  5. Decision support model for introduction of gamification solution using AHP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyun

    2014-01-01

    Gamification means the use of various elements of game design in nongame contexts including workplace collaboration, marketing, education, military, and medical services. Gamification is effective for both improving workplace productivity and motivating employees. However, introduction of gamification is not easy because the planning and implementation processes of gamification are very complicated and it needs interdisciplinary knowledge such as information systems, organization behavior, and human psychology. Providing a systematic decision making method for gamification process is the purpose of this paper. This paper suggests the decision criteria for selection of gamification platform to support a systematic decision making process for managements. The criteria are derived from previous works on gamification, introduction of information systems, and analytic hierarchy process. The weights of decision criteria are calculated through a survey by the professionals on game, information systems, and business administration. The analytic hierarchy process is used to derive the weights. The decision criteria and weights provided in this paper could support the managements to make a systematic decision for selection of gamification platform.

  6. Decision Support Model for Introduction of Gamification Solution Using AHP

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gamification means the use of various elements of game design in nongame contexts including workplace collaboration, marketing, education, military, and medical services. Gamification is effective for both improving workplace productivity and motivating employees. However, introduction of gamification is not easy because the planning and implementation processes of gamification are very complicated and it needs interdisciplinary knowledge such as information systems, organization behavior, and human psychology. Providing a systematic decision making method for gamification process is the purpose of this paper. This paper suggests the decision criteria for selection of gamification platform to support a systematic decision making process for managements. The criteria are derived from previous works on gamification, introduction of information systems, and analytic hierarchy process. The weights of decision criteria are calculated through a survey by the professionals on game, information systems, and business administration. The analytic hierarchy process is used to derive the weights. The decision criteria and weights provided in this paper could support the managements to make a systematic decision for selection of gamification platform. PMID:24892075

  7. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. • Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes • Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources • Implementation of radon exposure pathways models • Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display • Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select “dominant” radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include • soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and • Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed

  8. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  9. A monomer-trimer model supports intermittent glucagon fibril growth

    PubMed Central

    Košmrlj, Andrej; Cordsen, Pia; Kyrsting, Anders; Otzen, Daniel E.; Oddershede, Lene B.; Jensen, Mogens H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate in vitro fibrillation kinetics of the hormone peptide glucagon at various concentrations using confocal microscopy and determine the glucagon fibril persistence length 60μm. At all concentrations we observe that periods of individual fibril growth are interrupted by periods of stasis. The growth probability is large at high and low concentrations and is reduced for intermediate glucagon concentrations. To explain this behavior we propose a simple model, where fibrils come in two forms, one built entirely from glucagon monomers and one entirely from glucagon trimers. The opposite building blocks act as fibril growth blockers, and this generic model reproduces experimental behavior well. PMID:25758791

  10. Supporting SBML as a model exchange format in software applications.

    PubMed

    Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) from its origins. It describes the rationale behind and importance of having a common language when it comes to representing models. This chapter mentions the development of SBML and outlines the structure of an SBML model. It provides a section on libSBML, a useful application programming interface (API) library for reading, writing, manipulating and validating content expressed in the SBML format. Finally the chapter also provides a description of the SBML Toolbox which provides a means of facilitating the import and export of SBML from both MATLAB and Octave ( http://www.gnu.org/software/octave/) environments.

  11. A monomer-trimer model supports intermittent glucagon fibril growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košmrlj, Andrej; Cordsen, Pia; Kyrsting, Anders; Otzen, Daniel E.; Oddershede, Lene B.; Jensen, Mogens H.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate in vitro fibrillation kinetics of the hormone peptide glucagon at various concentrations using confocal microscopy and determine the glucagon fibril persistence length 60μm. At all concentrations we observe that periods of individual fibril growth are interrupted by periods of stasis. The growth probability is large at high and low concentrations and is reduced for intermediate glucagon concentrations. To explain this behavior we propose a simple model, where fibrils come in two forms, one built entirely from glucagon monomers and one entirely from glucagon trimers. The opposite building blocks act as fibril growth blockers, and this generic model reproduces experimental behavior well.

  12. Sea Surface Analysis in Support of the NRL NWP Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-16

    data into a global SST retrieval product at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is described here. The data set exist for NOAA -18 and METOP-A...kg] 200 • !••—i • - tiny ii ’«*>••***»•« wm *m 400 • * ..Vi M|^i^nj0tfl’* BOO - • ’Uftft«flP • *• T *fw1l i ^ 800 - • :-JL*S» twr...Community radiative transfer model (CRTM) Community radiative transfer model (CRTM) was used to simulate radiance at the top of atmospheres for NOAA -18

  13. A Quantitative Cost Effectiveness Model for Web-Supported Academic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative cost effectiveness model for Web-supported academic instruction. The model was designed for Web-supported instruction (rather than distance learning only) characterizing most of the traditional higher education institutions. It is based on empirical data (Web logs) of students' and instructors' usage…

  14. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  15. Model supports and their effects on the results of wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, David L

    1923-01-01

    The airflow about a model while being tested is often sufficiently affected by the model support to lead to erroneous conclusions unless appropriate corrections are used. In this paper some new material on the subject is presented, together with a review of the airfoil support corrections used in several other laboratories.

  16. Methodology for the use of DSSAT Models for Precision Agriculture Decision Support

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prototype decision support system (DSS) called Apollo was developed to assist researchers in using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop growth models to analyze precision farming datasets. Because the DSSAT models are written to simulate crop growth and development...

  17. Hanford Tanks 241-C-202 and 241-C-203 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2007-09-13

    As directed by Congress, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of River Protection in 1998 to manage DOE's largest, most complex environmental cleanup project – retrieval of radioactive waste from Hanford tanks for treatment and eventual disposal. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored at Hanford in aging deteriorating tanks. If not cleaned up, this waste is a threat to the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., is the Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for the storage, retrieval, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. As part of this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for DOE.

  18. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific…

  19. Support for Career Development in Youth: Program Models and Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekinda, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines four influential programs--Citizen Schools, After School Matters, career academies, and Job Corps--to demonstrate the diversity of approaches to career programming for youth. It compares the specific program models and draws from the evaluation literature to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each. The article highlights…

  20. Scale Issues in Air Quality Modeling Policy Support

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the issues relating to the use of regional photochemical air quality models for evaluating their performance in reproducing the spatio-temporal features embedded in the observations and for designing emission control strategies needed to achieve compliance wit...

  1. A Prototype Windflow Modeling System for Tactical Weather Support Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-07

    individuals and organi - zations. Instead of describing these contributions in detail, we choose to list the individuals and groups who have helped us over...illustrates the usefulness of the model windflow clima ~ology together with other known information to make a determina- tion of safety conditions at

  2. Developing a Model to Support Students in Solving Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdiyani, Nila Mareta; Zulkardi; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; van Eerde, Dolly; van Galen, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the different strategies. The meaning of "taking away something" suggests a direct subtraction, while the meaning of "determining the difference between two numbers" is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Many prior researches found that the second meaning and…

  3. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  4. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceeding)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  5. Prerequisite Skills That Support Learning through Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Dickson, Chata A.; Martineau, Meaghan; Ahearn, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tasks that require delayed discriminations such as delayed imitation and delayed matching to sample on acquisition of skills using video modeling. Twenty-nine participants with an ASD diagnosis were assessed on a battery of tasks including both immediate and delayed imitation and…

  6. Supporting Synchronous Collaborative Learning: A Generic, Multi-Dimensional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonchamp, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Future CSCL technologies are described by the community as flexible, tailorable, negotiable, and appropriate for various collaborative settings, conditions and contexts. This paper describes the key design issues of a generic synchronous collaborative learning environment, called Omega+. In this approach, model-based genericity is applied to the…

  7. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing mete...

  8. Modelling the Reasons for Training Choices: Technical Paper. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Oczkowski, Eddie; Hill, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report provides the technical details on the modelling aspects of identifying significant drivers for the reasons for using certain types of training and for the choice of training types. The employed data is from the 2005 Survey of Employer Use and Views of the VET system (SEUV). The data has previously been analysed in NCVER (2006). This…

  9. Roles of University Support for International Students in the United States: Analysis of a Systematic Model of University Identification, University Support, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jaehee; Yu, Hongsik

    2015-01-01

    Unlike previous research on international students' social support, this current study applied the concept of organizational support to university contexts, examining the effects of university support. Mainly based on the social identity/self-categorization stress model, this study developed and tested a path model composed of four key…

  10. Trace Gas/Aerosol Interactions and GMI Modeling Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Joyce E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Das, Bigyani; Bergmann, Dan; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Strahan, Susan; Wang, Minghuai; Feng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Current global aerosol models use different physical and chemical schemes and parameters, different meteorological fields, and often different emission sources. Since the physical and chemical parameterization schemes are often tuned to obtain results that are consistent with observations, it is difficult to assess the true uncertainty due to meteorology alone. Under the framework of the NASA global modeling initiative (GMI), the differences and uncertainties in aerosol simulations (for sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, dust and sea salt) solely due to different meteorological fields are analyzed and quantified. Three meteorological datasets available from the NASA DAO GCM, the GISS-II' GCM, and the NASA finite volume GCM (FVGCM) are used to drive the same aerosol model. The global sulfate and mineral dust burdens with FVGCM fields are 40% and 20% less than those with DAO and GISS fields, respectively due to its heavier rainfall. Meanwhile, the sea salt burden predicted with FVGCM fields is 56% and 43% higher than those with DAO and GISS, respectively, due to its stronger convection especially over the Southern Hemispheric Ocean. Sulfate concentrations at the surface in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics and in the middle to upper troposphere differ by more than a factor of 3 between the three meteorological datasets. The agreement between model calculated and observed aerosol concentrations in the industrial regions (e.g., North America and Europe) is quite similar for all three meteorological datasets. Away from the source regions, however, the comparisons with observations differ greatly for DAO, FVGCM and GISS, and the performance of the model using different datasets varies largely depending on sites and species. Global annual average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm is 0.120-0.131 for the three meteorological datasets.

  11. The Bremerton enrollment capacity model: an enrollment capacity model supporting the military health system optimization plan.

    PubMed

    Helmers, S

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Defense has launched several initiatives to improve efficiency and quality of care in the military health system. The goal of empaneling 1,300 to 1,500 patients per primary care manager did not correlate well with Naval Hospital Bremerton's experience and did not accurately account for military-specific requirements. The Bremerton Model Task Force was chartered to assess current business practices, identify areas for improvement, and develop a capacity model reflecting military readiness and residency training requirements. Methods included a 12-month review of patient visits and staff surveys of how providers spent their day, with time-and-motion analysis to verify assumptions. Our capacity results (average, 791 enrollees per primary care manager) demonstrated that objective measures at the local level do not support enrollment to Department of Defense-specified levels. Significant changes in "corporate culture" are necessary to accomplish the military health system goals.

  12. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    PubMed

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary.

  13. Modeling snail breeding in a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kolmakova, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The discrete-time model of snail breeding consists of two sequentially linked submodels: "Stoichiometry" and "Population". In both submodels, a snail population is split up into twelve age groups within one year of age. The first submodel is used to simulate the metabolism of a single snail in each age group via the stoichiometric equation; the second submodel is used to optimize the age structure and the size of the snail population. Daily intake of snail meat by crewmen is a guideline which specifies the population productivity. The mass exchange of the snail unit inhabited by land snails of Achatina fulica is given as an outcome of step-by-step modeling. All simulations are performed using Solver Add-In of Excel 2007.

  14. Mathematical Modeling in Support of Military Operational Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Small plate Left Lung Liver Spleen Diaphragm Kidneys Bone Structure Heart Right Lung Guts K1 C1 M1 M2 M27 K27 K28 C27 C28 M28 Contact...finite element models for simulation analyses. Left Lung Liver Spleen Diaphragm Kidneys Bone Structure Heart Right Lung Guts Large...responses, such as rib maximum normal stress, normalized lung and heart energy density, liver normal stress, skin energy density and some other

  15. AskIT Service Desk Support Value Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcraft, Phillip Lynn; Cummings, Susan M.; Fogle, Blythe G.; Valdez, Christopher D.

    2015-08-07

    The value model discussed herein provides an accurate and simple calculation of the funding required to adequately staff the AskIT Service Desk (SD).  The model is incremental – only technical labor cost is considered.  All other costs, such as management, equipment, buildings, HVAC, and training are considered common elements of providing any labor related IT Service. Depending on the amount of productivity loss and the number of hours the defect was unresolved, the value of resolving work from the SD is unquestionably an economic winner; the average cost of $16 per SD resolution can commonly translate to cost avoidance exceeding well over $100. Attempting to extract too much from the SD will likely create a significant downside. The analysis used to develop the value model indicates that the utilization of the SD is very high (approximately 90%).  As a benchmark, consider a comment from a manager at Vitalyst (a commercial IT service desk) that their utilization target is approximately 60%.  While high SD utilization is impressive, over the long term it is likely to cause unwanted consequences to staff such as higher turnover, illness, or burnout.  A better solution is to staff the SD so that analysts have time to improve skills through training, develop knowledge, improve processes, collaborate with peers, and improve customer relationship skills.

  16. The Human Exposure Model (HEM): A Tool to Support Rapid ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US EPA is developing an open and publically available software program called the Human Exposure Model (HEM) to provide near-field exposure information for Life Cycle Impact Assessments (LCIAs). Historically, LCIAs have often omitted impacts from near-field sources of exposure. The use of consumer products often results in near-field exposures (exposures that occur directly from the use of a product) that are larger than environmentally mediated exposures (i.e. far-field sources)1,2. Failure to consider near-field exposures could result in biases in LCIA-based determinations of the relative sustainability of consumer products. HEM is designed to provide this information.Characterizing near-field sources of chemical exposures present a challenge to LCIA practitioners. Unlike far-field sources, where multimedia mass balance models have been used to determine human exposure, near-field sources require product-specific models of human exposure and considerable information on product use and product composition. Such information is difficult and time-consuming to gather and curate. The HEM software will characterize the distribution of doses and product intake fractions2 across populations of product users and bystanders, allowing for differentiation by various demographic characteristics. The tool incorporates a newly developed database of the composition of more than 17,000 products, data on physical and chemical properties for more than 2,000 chemicals, and mo

  17. Implementing a Technology-Supported Model for Cross-Organisational Learning and Knowledge Building for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammets, Kairit; Pata, Kai; Laanpere, Mart

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed using the elaborated learning and knowledge building model (LKB model) derived from Nonaka and Takeuchi's knowledge management model for supporting cross-organisational teacher development in the temporarily extended organisations composed of universities and schools. It investigated the main LKB model components in the context…

  18. Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capacho, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating…

  19. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  20. A human performance modelling approach to intelligent decision support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Michael S.; Boys, Randy M.

    1987-01-01

    Manned space operations require that the many automated subsystems of a space platform be controllable by a limited number of personnel. To minimize the interaction required of these operators, artificial intelligence techniques may be applied to embed a human performance model within the automated, or semi-automated, systems, thereby allowing the derivation of operator intent. A similar application has previously been proposed in the domain of fighter piloting, where the demand for pilot intent derivation is primarily a function of limited time and high workload rather than limited operators. The derivation and propagation of pilot intent is presented as it might be applied to some programs.

  1. ATMOSPHERIC MODELING IN SUPPORT OF A ROADWAY ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.

    2010-10-21

    The United States Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS) routinely performs prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. This facility covers {approx}800 square kilometers and is mainly wooded except for scattered industrial areas containing facilities used in managing nuclear materials for national defense and waste processing. Prescribed fires of forest undergrowth are necessary to reduce the risk of inadvertent wild fires which have the potential to destroy large areas and threaten nuclear facility operations. This paper discusses meteorological observations and numerical model simulations from a period in early 2002 of an incident involving an early-morning multicar accident caused by poor visibility along a major roadway on the northern border of the SRS. At the time of the accident, it was not clear if the limited visibility was due solely to fog or whether smoke from a prescribed burn conducted the previous day just to the northwest of the crash site had contributed to the visibility. Through use of available meteorological information and detailed modeling, it was determined that the primary reason for the low visibility on this night was fog induced by meteorological conditions.

  2. Models to support active sensing of biological aerosol clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrea M.; Kalter, Jeffrey M.; Corson, Elizabeth C.; Chaudhry, Zahra; Boggs, Nathan T.; Brown, David M.; Thomas, Michael E.; Carter, Christopher C.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic backscatter LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) is a promising approach for stand-off detection of biological aerosol clouds. Comprehensive models that explain the scattering behavior from the aerosol cloud are needed to understand and predict the scattering signatures of biological aerosols under varying atmospheric conditions and against different aerosol backgrounds. Elastic signatures are dependent on many parameters of the aerosol cloud, with two major components being the size distribution and refractive index of the aerosols. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been in a unique position to measure the size distributions of released biological simulant clouds using a wide assortment of aerosol characterization systems that are available on the commercial market. In conjunction with the size distribution measurements, JHU/APL has also been making a dedicated effort to properly measure the refractive indices of the released materials using a thin-film absorption technique and laboratory characterization of the released materials. Intimate knowledge of the size distributions and refractive indices of the biological aerosols provides JHU/APL with powerful tools to build elastic scattering models, with the purpose of understanding, and ultimately, predicting the active signatures of biological clouds.

  3. Using hybrid models to support the development of organizational evaluation capacity: a case narrative.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Hart, Rebecca E; Townsend, Shannon H; Gagné, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The ongoing need for public sector organizations to enhance their internal evaluation capacity is increasingly resulting in the use of hybrid evaluation project models, where internal evaluators work with external contracted evaluators to complete evaluative work. This paper first seeks to identify what is currently known about internal evaluation through a synthesis of the literature in this area. It then presents a case narrative illustrating how internal and external evaluation approaches may be used together to strengthen an evaluation project and to develop the evaluation capacity of the organization. Lessons learned include the need to integrate internal and external resources throughout the evaluation and to clarify expectations at the outset of the project.

  4. Suicide prevention by online support groups: an action theory-based model of emotional first aid.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Itzhak; Shahar, Golan

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, online support groups have become a valuable source of help for individuals in suicidal crisis. Their attractiveness is attributed to features that enhance help-seeking and self-disclosure such as availability, anonymity, and use of written communication. However, online support groups also suffer from limitations and potential risks as agents of suicide prevention. The Israeli Association for Emotional First Aid (ERAN) has developed a practical model that seeks to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of online suicide prevention. The model applies the Action Theory concepts whereby individuals shape their own environment. The present paper presents the model, which is based on an online support group combined with personal chat and a telephonic help line. The online support group is moderated by paraprofessionals who function as both process regulators and support providers. The principles and practice of the model are described, the theoretical rationale is presented, and directions for future research are suggested.

  5. Modeling and Simulation in Support of MALSP II Report of Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-08

    relationships. The classification trees and regression models confirm that Demand Frequency Type, Buffer, number of aircraft, Design TRR, and Delta are...project employs modeling and simulation analysis in an effort to assess various aspects of the Marine Aviation Logistics Support Program II (MALSP II...process improvement in order to improve logistical support to deployed Marine air assets. The model develop in this project is a Discrete Event

  6. An approach to the mathematical modelling of a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to the design of a computer based model of a closed ecological life-support system suitable for use in extraterrestrial habitats is presented. The model is based on elemental mass balance and contains representations of the metabolic activities of biological components. The model can be used as a tool in evaluating preliminary designs for closed regenerative life support systems and as a method for predicting the behavior of such systems.

  7. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project ‘European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’ – http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods A model was built to assess policy scenarios’ impact on the pharmaceutical budgets of seven member states of the EU, namely France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The following scenarios were tested: expanding the UK policies to EU, changing time to market access, modifying generic price and penetration, shifting the distribution chain of biosimilars (retail/hospital). Results Applying the UK policy resulted in dramatic savings for Germany (10 times the base case forecast) and substantial additional savings for France and Portugal (2 and 4 times the base case forecast, respectively). Delaying time to market was found be to a very powerful tool to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Applying the EU transparency directive (6-month process for pricing and reimbursement) increased pharmaceutical expenditure for all countries (from 1.1 to 4 times the base case forecast), except in Germany (additional savings). Decreasing the price of generics and boosting the penetration rate, as well as shifting distribution of biosimilars through hospital chain were also key methods to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Change in the level of reimbursement rate to 100% in all countries led to an important increase in the pharmaceutical budget. Conclusions Forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure is a critical exercise to inform policy decision makers. The most important leverages identified by the model on pharmaceutical budget were driven by generic and biosimilar prices, penetration rate

  8. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  9. [Psychological support for disaster victims: an evidence-based care model].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Marín, Humberto; González, Matías

    2010-02-01

    A search for meta analyses and systematic reviews on psychological support to disaster victims was carried out to devise a local support model. Based on 36 meta analyses and systematic reviews, the support should be carried out in five echelon levels: diffusion, social support, general medical care, general psychiatric care and psychiatric care carried out by experts. Only victims with well-established formal psychiatric disorders should receive psychotherapy or psychotropic medication. The rest should only receive psychological first aid. According to the best evidence available, a model for psychological care is proposed.

  10. Teaching about Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  11. Experiences Supporting the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: the Devops Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, A.; Estes, N. M.; Bowman-Cisnesros, E.; Hanger, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for instrument targeting, product processing, and archiving [1]. The LROC SOC maintains over 1,000,000 observations with over 300 TB of released data. Processing challenges compound with the acquisition of over 400 Gbits of observations daily creating the need for a robust, efficient, and reliable suite of specialized software. Development Environment: The LROC SOC's software development methodology has evolved over time. Today, the development team operates in close cooperation with the systems administration team in a model known in the IT industry as DevOps. The DevOps model enables a highly productive development environment that facilitates accomplishment of key goals within tight schedules[2]. The LROC SOC DevOps model incorporates industry best practices including prototyping, continuous integration, unit testing, code coverage analysis, version control, and utilizing existing open source software. Scientists and researchers at LROC often prototype algorithms and scripts in a high-level language such as MATLAB or IDL. After the prototype is functionally complete the solution is implemented as production ready software by the developers. Following this process ensures that all controls and requirements set by the LROC SOC DevOps team are met. The LROC SOC also strives to enhance the efficiency of the operations staff by way of weekly presentations and informal mentoring. Many small scripting tasks are assigned to the cognizant operations personnel (end users), allowing for the DevOps team to focus on more complex and mission critical tasks. In addition to leveraging open source software the LROC SOC has also contributed to the open source community by releasing Lunaserv [3]. Findings: The DevOps software model very efficiently provides smooth software releases and maintains team momentum. Scientists prototyping their work has proven to be very efficient

  12. AMFESYS: Modelling and diagnosis functions for operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheadon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Packetized telemetry, combined with low station coverage for close-earth satellites, may introduce new problems in presenting to the operator a clear picture of what the spacecraft is doing. A recent ESOC study has gone some way to show, by means of a practical demonstration, how the use of subsystem models combined with artificial intelligence techniques, within a real-time spacecraft control system (SCS), can help to overcome these problems. A spin-off from using these techniques can be an improvement in the reliability of the telemetry (TM) limit-checking function, as well as the telecommand verification function, of the Spacecraft Control systems (SCS). The problem and how it was addressed, including an overview of the 'AMF Expert System' prototype are described, and proposes further work which needs to be done to prove the concept. The Automatic Mirror Furnace is part of the payload of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) spacecraft, which was launched in July 1992.

  13. Modeling in Support of Groundwater-Remediation Cost Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    The allocation of costs for remediation among multiple potentially responsible parties (PRPs) can be addressed using a `stand alone' method developed and applied initially to water supply problems. The variant of the stand alone approach used in an allocation case in the San Fernando Valley of California involves 1) the development of groundwater flow and transport models that reflect 1) the contributions of each of the PRPs individually and, 2) the combined effect of all parties. The allocation is then based upon the proportional impact of each PRP. The proportional cost is therefore established by taking the ratio of the plume size of each PRP divided by the overall plume size multiplied by the overall remediation costs.

  14. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  15. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  16. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  17. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  18. 46 CFR 154.432 - Expansion and contraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expansion and contraction. 154.432 Section 154.432... Membrane Tanks § 154.432 Expansion and contraction. The support system of a membrane tank must allow for thermal and physical expansion and contraction of the tank. Semi-Membrane Tanks...

  19. 12 CFR 704.16 - Contracts/written agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contracts/written agreements. 704.16 Section... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.16 Contracts/written agreements. Services, facilities, personnel, or equipment shared with any party shall be supported by a written contract, with the duties and responsibilities...

  20. 78 FR 80369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Service Contracts Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Contracts Reporting Requirements AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... contractors for executive agencies, except where DoD has fully funded the contract or order, to submit information annually in support of agency-level inventories for service contracts. DATES: Effective:...

  1. 76 FR 22070 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Service Contracts Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ..., and 52 RIN 9000-AM06 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Service Contracts Reporting Requirements AGENCY..., to submit information annually in support of agency-level inventories for service contracts. DATES...) already requires DoD to develop an annual service contract inventory. House Report 111-366 notes,...

  2. 48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... weapon systems. 217.173 Section 217.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Mulityear Contracting 217.173 Multiyear contracts for weapon systems. As authorized by 10 U.S.C. 2306b(h... contract for— (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon...

  3. Service Contract Compliance Management in Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kharbili, Marwane; Pulvermueller, Elke

    Compliance management is a critical concern for corporations, required to respect contracts. This concern is particularly relevant in the context of business process management (BPM) as this paradigm is getting adopted more widely for-designing and building IT systems. Enforcing contractual compliance needs to be modeled at different levels of a BPM framework, which also includes the service layer. In this paper, we discuss requirements and methods for modeling contractual compliance for an SOA-supported BPM. We also show how business rule management integrated into an industry BPM tool allows modeling and processing functional and non-functional-property constraints which may be extracted from business process contracts. This work proposes a framework that responds to the requirements identified and proposes an architecture implementing it. Our approach is also illustrated by an example.

  4. A Four-Phase Model of the Evolution of Clinical Decision Support Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence over many years suggests that clinical decision support systems can be helpful in improving both clinical outcomes and adherence to evidence-based guidelines. However, to this day, clinical decision support systems are not widely used outside of a small number of sites. One reason why decision support systems are not widely used is the relative difficulty of integrating such systems into clinical workflows and computer systems. Purpose To review and synthesize the history of clinical decision support systems, and to propose a model of various architectures for integrating clinical decision support systems with clinical systems. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of the clinical decision support literature since 1959, sequenced the systems and developed a model. Results The model developed consists of four phases: standalone decision support systems, decision support integrated into clinical systems, standards for sharing clinical decision support content and service models for decision support. These four phases have not heretofore been identified, but they track remarkably well with the chronological history of clinical decision support, and show evolving and increasingly sophisticated attempts to ease integrating decision support systems into clinical workflows and other clinical systems. Conclusions Each of the four evolutionary approaches to decision support architecture has unique advantages and disadvantages. A key lesson was that there were common limitations that almost all the approaches faced, and no single approach has been able to entirely surmount: 1) fixed knowledge representation systems inherently circumscribe the type of knowledge that can be represented in them, 2) there are serious terminological issues, 3) patient data may be spread across several sources with no single source having a complete view of the patient, and 4) major difficulties exist in transferring successful interventions from one

  5. A new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB): An empirical investigation with a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Sheying

    2016-01-01

    Bereavement can be an extremely stressful experience while the protective effect of social support is expected to facilitate the adjustment after loss. The ingredients or elements of social support as illustrated by a new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB), however, requires empirical evidence. Who might be the most effective providers of social support in bereavement has also been understudied, particularly within specific cultural contexts. The present study uses both qualitative and quantitative analyses to explore these two important issues among bereaved Chinese families and individuals. The results show that three major types of social support described by the SSB model were frequently acknowledged by the participants in this study. Aside from relevant books, family and friends were the primary sources of social support who in turn received support from their workplaces. Helping professionals turned out to be the least significant source of social support in the Chinese cultural context. Differences by gender, age, and bereavement time were also found. The findings render empirical evidence to the conceptual model of Social Support in Bereavement and also offer culturally relevant guidance for providing effective support to the bereaved.

  6. Impacts of the IBM Cell Processor to Support Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Shujia; Duffy, Daniel; Clune, Tom; Suarez, Max; Williams, Samuel; Halem, Milt

    2008-01-01

    NASA is interested in the performance and cost benefits for adapting its applications to the IBM Cell processor. However, its 256KB local memory per SPE and the new communication mechanism, make it very challenging to port an application. We selected the solar radiation component of the NASA GEOS-5 climate model, which: (1) is representative of column physics (approximately 50% computational time), (2) has a high computational load relative to transferring data from and to main memory, (3) performs independent calculations across multiple columns. We converted the baseline code (single-precision, Fortran) to C and ported it with manually SIMDizing 4 independent columns and found that a Cell with 8 SPEs can process 2274 columns per second. Compared with the baseline results, the Cell is approximately 5.2X, approximately 8.2X, approximately 15.1X faster than a core on Intel Woodcrest, Dempsey, and Itanium2, respectively. We believe this dramatic performance improvement makes a hybrid cluster with Cell and traditional nodes competitive.

  7. Lab measurements to support modeling terahertz propagation in brownout conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Grice, Phillip M.; Krizo, Matthew J.; Bartell, Richard J.; Haiducek, John D.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2010-04-01

    Brownout, the loss of visibility caused by dust and debris introduced into the atmosphere by the downwash of a helicopter, currently represents a serious challenge to U.S. military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, where it has been cited as a factor in the majority of helicopter accidents. Brownout not only reduces visibility, but can create visual illusions for the pilot and difficult conditions for crew beneath the aircraft. Terahertz imaging may provide one solution to this problem. Terahertz frequency radiation readily propagates through the dirt aerosols present in brownout, and therefore can provide an imaging capability to improve effective visibility for pilots, helping prevent the associated accidents. To properly model the success of such systems, it is necessary to determine the optical properties of such obscurants in the terahertz regime. This research attempts to empirically determine, and measure in the laboratory, the full complex index of refraction optical properties of dirt aerosols representative of brownout conditions. These properties are incorporated into the AFIT/CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) software, allowing this program to more accurately assess the propagation of terahertz radiation under brownout conditions than was done in the past with estimated optical properties.

  8. Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Chikhi, Lounes; Nichols, Richard A; Barbujani, Guido; Beaumont, Mark A

    2002-08-20

    There still is no general agreement on the origins of the European gene pool, even though Europe has been more thoroughly investigated than any other continent. In particular, there is continuing controversy about the relative contributions of European Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers and of migrant Near Eastern Neolithic farmers, who brought agriculture to Europe. Here, we apply a statistical framework that we have developed to obtain direct estimates of the contribution of these two groups at the time they met. We analyze a large dataset of 22 binary markers from the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY), by using a genealogical likelihood-based approach. The results reveal a significantly larger genetic contribution from Neolithic farmers than did previous indirect approaches based on the distribution of haplotypes selected by using post hoc criteria. We detect a significant decrease in admixture across the entire range between the Near East and Western Europe. We also argue that local hunter-gatherers contributed less than 30% in the original settlements. This finding leads us to reject a predominantly cultural transmission of agriculture. Instead, we argue that the demic diffusion model introduced by Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza [Ammerman, A. J. & Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1984) The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton)] captures the major features of this dramatic episode in European prehistory.

  9. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C.

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  10. Nutritional models for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS): Linear mathematical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Rose C.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is involved in developing a biogenerative life support system that will supply food, air, and water to space crews on long-duration missions. An important part of this effort is in development of the knowledge and technological capability of producing and processing foods to provide optimal diets for space crews. This involves such interrelated factors as determination of the diet, based on knowledge of nutrient needs of humans and adjustments in those needs that may be required as a result of the conditions of long-duration space flight; determination of the optimal mixture of crops required to provide nutrients at levels that are sufficient but not excessive or toxic; and consideration of the critical issues of spacecraft space and power limitations, which impose a phytomass minimization requirement. The complex interactions among these factors are examined with the goal of supplying a diet that will satisfy human needs while minimizing the total phytomass requirement. The approach taken was to collect plant nutritional composition and phytomass production data, identify human nutritional needs and estimate the adjustments to the nutrient requirements likely to result from space flight, and then to generate mathematical models from these data.

  11. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  12. Advanced space transportation system support contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The general focus is on a phase 2 lunar base, or a lunar base during the period after the first return of a crew to the Moon, but before permanent occupancy. The software effort produced a series of trajectory programs covering low earth orbit (LEO) to various node locations, the node locations to the lunar surface, and then back to LEO. The surface operations study took a lunar scenario in the civil needs data base (CNDB) and attempted to estimate the amount of space-suit work or extravehicular activity (EVA) required to set up the base. The maintenance and supply options study was a first look at the problems of supplying and maintaining the base. A lunar surface launch and landing facility was conceptually designed. The lunar storm shelter study examined the problems of radiation protection. The lunar surface construction and equipment assembly study defined twenty surface construction and assembly tasks in detail.

  13. A Consistent Information Criterion for Support Vector Machines in Diverging Model Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Wu, Yichao; Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2015-01-01

    Information criteria have been popularly used in model selection and proved to possess nice theoretical properties. For classification, Claeskens et al. (2008) proposed support vector machine information criterion for feature selection and provided encouraging numerical evidence. Yet no theoretical justification was given there. This work aims to fill the gap and to provide some theoretical justifications for support vector machine information criterion in both fixed and diverging model spaces. We first derive a uniform convergence rate for the support vector machine solution and then show that a modification of the support vector machine information criterion achieves model selection consistency even when the number of features diverges at an exponential rate of the sample size. This consistency result can be further applied to selecting the optimal tuning parameter for various penalized support vector machine methods. Finite-sample performance of the proposed information criterion is investigated using Monte Carlo studies and one real-world gene selection problem. PMID:27239164

  14. Paediatric models in motion: requirements for model-based decision support at the bedside

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Optimal paediatric pharmacotherapy is reliant on a detailed understanding of the individual patient including their developmental status and disease state as well as the pharmaceutical agents he/she is receiving for treatment or management of side effects. Our appreciation for size and maturation effects on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) phenomenon has improved to the point that we can develop predictive models that permit us to individualize therapy, especially in the situation where we are monitoring drug effects or therapeutic concentrations. The growth of efforts to guide paediatric pharmacotherapy via model-based decision support necessitates a coordinated and systematic approach to ensuring reliable and robust output to caregivers that represents the current standard of care and adheres to governance imposed by the host institution or coalition responsible. Model-based systems which guide caregivers on dosing paediatric patients in a more comprehensive manner are in development at several institutions. Care must be taken that these systems provide robust guidance with the current best practice. These systems must evolve as new information becomes available and ultimately are best constructed from diverse data representing global input on demographics, ethnic / racial diversity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Multidisciplinary involvement at the project team level is key to the ultimate clinical valuation. Likewise, early engagement of clinical champions is also critical for the success of model-based tools. Adherence to regulatory requirements as well as best practices with respect to software development and testing are essential if these tools are to be used as part of the routine standard of care. PMID:24251868

  15. Analysis of the contraction of fibroblast-collagen gels and the traction force of individual cells by a novel elementary structural model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z; Wagatsuma, Y; Kobayashi, S; Kosawada, T; Sato, D; Nakamura, T; Kitajima, T; Umezu, M

    2013-01-01

    Based on the experimental data of the contraction ratio of fibroblast-collagen gels with different initial collagen concentrations and cell numbers, we analyzed the traction force exerted by individual cells through a novel elementary structural model. We postulate that the mechanical mechanism of the gel contraction is mainly because that populated cells apply traction force to some of the surrounding collagen fibrils with such proper length potential to be pulled straight so as to be able to sustain the traction force; this traction induce the cells moving closely to each other and consequently compact the fibrillar network; the bending force of the fibrils in turn resists the movement. By employing fiber packing theory for random fibrillar networks and network alteration theory, the bending force of collagen fibrils was deduced. The traction force exerted by individual fibroblasts in the gels was balanced by the bending force and the resistance from interstitial fluid since inertial force can be neglected. The maximum traction force per cell under free floating condition is in the range of 0.27-9.02 nN depending on the initial collagen concentration and populated cell number. The most important outcome of this study is that the traction force of individual cells dynamically varies under different gel conditions, whereas the adhesion force between cell and individual fibrils is relatively converging and stable.

  16. Designing a Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment to Support Scientific Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of a natural phenomenon is of value in science learning and increasingly emphasized as an important component of science education. However, previous research has shown that secondary school students encounter difficulties when engaging in modeling activities and need substantial support in order to create meaningful scientific models.…

  17. Teachers' Temporary Support and Worked-Out Examples as Elements of Scaffolding in Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropper, Natalie; Leiss, Dominik; Hänze, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Empirical findings show that students have manifold difficulties when dealing with mathematical modeling problems. Accordingly, approaches for supporting students in modeling-based learning environments have to be investigated. In the research presented here, we adopted a scaffolding perspective on teaching modeling with the aim of both providing…

  18. Ensemble modelling and structured decision-making to support Emergency Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Webb, Colleen T; Ferrari, Matthew; Lindström, Tom; Carpenter, Tim; Dürr, Salome; Garner, Graeme; Jewell, Chris; Stevenson, Mark; Ward, Michael P; Werkman, Marleen; Backer, Jantien; Tildesley, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological models in animal health are commonly used as decision-support tools to understand the impact of various control actions on infection spread in susceptible populations. Different models contain different assumptions and parameterizations, and policy decisions might be improved by considering outputs from multiple models. However, a transparent decision-support framework to integrate outputs from multiple models is nascent in epidemiology. Ensemble modelling and structured decision-making integrate the outputs of multiple models, compare policy actions and support policy decision-making. We briefly review the epidemiological application of ensemble modelling and structured decision-making and illustrate the potential of these methods using foot and mouth disease (FMD) models. In case study one, we apply structured decision-making to compare five possible control actions across three FMD models and show which control actions and outbreak costs are robustly supported and which are impacted by model uncertainty. In case study two, we develop a methodology for weighting the outputs of different models and show how different weighting schemes may impact the choice of control action. Using these case studies, we broadly illustrate the potential of ensemble modelling and structured decision-making in epidemiology to provide better information for decision-making and outline necessary development of these methods for their further application.

  19. Promoting and Supporting Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom: The Evaluate-Alternatives Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an instructional model that science teachers can use to promote and support student engagement in scientific argumentation. This model is called the evaluate-alternatives instructional model and it is grounded in current research on argumentation in science education (e.g., Berland and Reiser 2009; McNeill and Krajcik 2006;…

  20. A Research on the Generative Learning Model Supported by Context-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Fatma Merve; Onen, Aysem Seda

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on the generative learning model which involves context-based learning. Using the generative learning model, we taught the topic of Halogens. This topic is covered in the grade 10 chemistry curriculum using activities which are designed in accordance with the generative learning model supported by context-based learning. The…