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Sample records for modeling vegetation diversity

  1. Capturing Vegetation Diversity in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Haralick, R. M.; Cook, B.; Aleinov, I. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present preliminary results from data mining to develop parameter sets and global vegetation structure datasets to set boundary conditions for the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) for improved representation of diversity and to propagate uncertainty in simulations of land carbon dynamics in the 20th century and under future climate change. The Ent TBM is the only dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) developed for coupling with general circulation models (GCMs) to account for the height structure of mixed canopies, including a canopy radiative transfer scheme that accounts for foliage clumping in dynamically changing canopies. It is flexibly programmed to incorporate any number of "plant functional types" (PFTs). It is now a coupled component of the ModelE2 version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM). We demonstrate a data mining method, linear manifold clustering, to be used with several very recently compiled large databases of plant traits and phenology combined with climate and satellite data, to identify new PFT groupings, and also conduct customized parameter fits of PFT traits already defined in Ent. These parameter sets are used together with satellite-derived global forest height structure and land cover derived from a combination of satellite and inventory sources and bioclimatic relations to provide a new estimate and uncertainty bounds on vegetation biomass carbon stocks. These parameter sets will also be used to reproduce atmospheric CO2 time series over the flask observational period, to evaluate the impact of improved representation of vegetation dynamics on soil carbon stocks, and finally to produce a projection of the land carbon sink under future climate change. This research is timely in taking advantage of new, globally ranging vegetation databases, satellite-derived forest heights, and the advanced framework of the Ent TBM. It will advance understanding of and reduce uncertainty in

  2. Evaluation of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Formation and Diversity in a Modified Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Shao, P.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem formation and diversity have great impact on the stability and frangibility of ecosystem. It is important that Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) can capture these essential properties so that they can correctly simulate the succession and transition of terrestrial ecosystem in company with the global climate change. Previous studies have shown that DGVMs can roughly reproduce the spatial distributions of different vegetation types as well as the dependence of the vegetation distribution on climate conditions, however, the capability of DGVMs to reproduce the global vegetation distribution and ecosystem formation has not been fully evaluated. This study is based on our modified DGVM coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM-DGVM). The modified CLM-DGVM can simulate 12 plant functional types (PFTs) besides the bare soil. It allows two or more PFTs coexisting in a grid cell, in contrast to the DGVMs which tend to generate the ecosystem with single dominant plant functional type and hence lose the functional diversity of ecosystem. Our results show that the density distributions of fractional coverage (DDFC) of three vegetation categories (e.g., forest, grassland, and shrubland) and PFTs are different with the observation. In particular, the model overestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage larger than 70%, but underestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage less than 40%. Furthermore, the functional diversity of PFTs in each gridcell is generally lower than that in the observation. Sensitivity tests show that substantial changes in the terrestrial ecosystem usually occur within the areas where two or more PFTs coexist with comparable fractions, i.e., and the functional diversity is high. These results imply that current CLM-DGVM may not be able to appropriately produce the averaged amplitude and spatial pattern of the transition in global ecosystem. Therefore, we suggest that extensive studies are required to improve

  3. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa - ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate-vegetation interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groner, V. P.; Claussen, M.; Reick, C.

    2015-10-01

    We critically reassess a conceptual model here, dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate-vegetation feedback, and we provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP). Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past 2 decades using a wide range of model and palaeo-proxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013) introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate-vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. In the light of recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, the conceptual model by Claussen et al. (2013) reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate, but it does not capture the reconstructed diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. With a new model version adjusted to AHP vegetation, we can simulate a diverse mosaic-like environment as reconstructed from pollen, and we observe a stabilizing effect of high functional diversity on vegetation cover and precipitation. Sensitivity studies with different combinations of plant types highlight the importance of plant composition on system stability, and the stabilizing or destabilizing potential a single plant type may inherit. The model's simplicity limits its application; however, it provides a useful tool to

  4. Global vegetation model diversity and the risks of climate-driven ecosystem shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2013-11-08

    Climate change is modifying global biogeochemical cycles, and is expected to exert increasingly large effects in the future. How these changes will in turn affect and interact with the structure and function of particular ecosystems is unclear, however, both because of scientific uncertainties and the very diversity of global vegetation models in use. Writing in Environmental Research Letters, Warszawski et al. (1) aggregate results from a group of models, across a range of emissions scenarios and climate data, to investigate these risks. Although the models frequently disagree about which specific regions are at risk, they consistently predict a greater chance of ecosystem restructuring with more warming; this risk roughly doubles between 2 and 3 °C increases in global mean temperature. The innovative work of Warszawski et al. represents an important first step towards fully consistent multi-model, multi-scenario assessments of the future risks to global ecosystems.

  5. The role of biodiversity for the carbon cycle: Implementation of functional diversity in a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakschewski, Boris; Boit, Alice; von Bloh, Werner; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Most dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) condense natural plant diversity to plant functional types (PFTs). A single PFT usually represents a whole biome, e.g. the PFT "tropical broadleaved evergreen tree" and its constant set of functional trait parameters covers entire regions in the model. This approach minimizes functional diversity and neglects the effects of functional diversity on the modeled vegetation and carbon dynamics. Our work aims to overcome this limitation and extend functional diversity in the vegetation model LPJmL to explore the role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation. Our approach improves the representation of biodiversity in the model by incorporating the natural ranges and eco-physiological interrelations of relevant plant traits. Empirical data on plant traits is provided by the TRY data base (www.try-db.org) and the ROBIN project (www.robinproject.info). A first sensitivity analysis revealed that simulated carbon stocks are very stable under a large range of trait combinations. However, several model output variables appeared highly sensitive to small changes of plant trait parameters and thus the introduction of trait ranges requires several improvements of the PFT concept of LPJmL. One possible way of improvement is to implement missing plant-trait tradeoffs, which will be used to simulate the growth of individual plants with flexible parameter combinations at the landscape scale. Our improved model will enable for the simulation of local competition and complementarity of individual plants which, according to their trait values and ranges, can then be categorized into a much broader variety of PFTs. This modeling approach will allow for investigating the role of bio- and functional diversity in the global carbon cycle as well as in regional vegetation dynamics.

  6. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa - ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate-vegetation interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groner, V. P.; Claussen, M.; Reick, C.

    2015-07-01

    We here critically re-assess a conceptual model dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate-vegetation feedback, and provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP). Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past two decades using a wide range of model and palaeoproxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013) introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate-vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. Based on recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, we evaluate the representation of climate-vegetation feedback in this conceptual approach, and put the suggested conclusions into an ecological context. In principle, the original model reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate although vegetation determinants other than precipitation are neglected. However, the model cannot capture the diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. In order to fill the gaps in the description of plant types regarding AHP diversity, we modify the original model in four main aspects. First, the growth ranges in terms of moisture requirements are extended by upper limits to represent full environmental envelopes. Second, data-based AHP plant types replace the hypothetical plant

  7. The Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM): a diverse approach to representing terrestrial biogeography and biogeochemistry based on plant functional trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Drewry, D. T.; Bohn, K.; Reu, B.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-06-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models typically abstract the immense diversity of vegetation forms and functioning into a relatively small set of predefined semi-empirical plant functional types (PFTs). There is growing evidence, however, from the field ecology community as well as from modelling studies that current PFT schemes may not adequately represent the observed variations in plant functional traits and their effect on ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we introduce the Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM) as a new approach to terrestrial biosphere modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity than traditional modelling approaches based on a small number of fixed PFTs. JeDi-DGVM simulates the performance of a large number of randomly generated plant growth strategies, each defined by a set of 15 trait parameters which characterize various aspects of plant functioning including carbon allocation, ecophysiology and phenology. Each trait parameter is involved in one or more functional trade-offs. These trade-offs ultimately determine whether a strategy is able to survive under the climatic conditions in a given model grid cell and its performance relative to the other strategies. The biogeochemical fluxes and land surface properties of the individual strategies are aggregated to the grid-cell scale using a mass-based weighting scheme. We evaluate the simulated global biogeochemical patterns against a variety of field and satellite-based observations following a protocol established by the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project. The land surface fluxes and vegetation structural properties are reasonably well simulated by JeDi-DGVM, and compare favourably with other state-of-the-art global vegetation models. We also evaluate the simulated patterns of functional diversity and the sensitivity of the JeDi-DGVM modelling approach to the number of sampled strategies. Altogether, the results demonstrate the parsimonious and flexible

  8. Increasing biological diversity in a dynamic vegetation model and consequences for simulated response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keribin, R. M.; Friend, A. D.; Purves, D.; Smith, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation, from tropical rainforests to the tundra, is the basis of the world food chain but is also a key component of the Earth system, with biophysical and biogeochemical impacts on the global climate, and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are an important integrative tool for understanding its responses to climate change. DGVMs up to now have treated only a small number of plant types representing broad divisions in vegetation worldwide (e.g. trees and grasses, broadleaf and needleleaf, deciduousness), but these categories ignore most of the variation that exists between plant species and between individuals within a species. Research in community ecology makes it clear however that these variations can affect large-scale ecosystem properties such as productivity and resilience to environmental changes. The current challenge is for DGVMs to account for fine-grained variations between plants and a few such models are being developed using newly-available plant trait databases such as the TRY database and insights from community ecology such as habitat filtering. Hybrid is an individual-based DGVM, first published in 1993, that models plant physiology in a mechanistic way. We modified Hybrid 8, the latest version of the model which uses surface physics taken from the GISS ModelE GCM, to include a mechanistic gap-model component with individual-based variation in tree wood density. This key plant trait is known to be strongly correlated with a trade-off between growth and mortality in the majority of forests worldwide, which allows for otherwise-similar individuals to have different life-history strategies. We investigate how the inclusion of continuous variation in wood density into the model affects the ecosystem's transient dynamics under climate change.

  9. The Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM): a diverse approach to representing terrestrial biogeography and biogeochemistry based on plant functional trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Drewry, D. T.; Bohn, K.; Reu, B.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) typically abstract the immense diversity of vegetation forms and functioning into a relatively small set of predefined semi-empirical Plant Functional Types (PFTs). There is growing evidence, however, from the field ecology community as well as from modelling studies that current PFT schemes may not adequately represent the observed variations in plant functional traits and their effect on ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we introduce the Jena Diversity DGVM (JeDi-DGVM) as a new approach to global vegetation modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity than traditional modelling approaches based on a small number of fixed PFTs. JeDi-DGVM simulates the performance of a large number of randomly-generated plant growth strategies (PGSs), each defined by a set of 15 trait parameters which characterize various aspects of plant functioning including carbon allocation, ecophysiology and phenology. Each trait parameter is involved in one or more functional trade-offs. These trade-offs ultimately determine whether a PGS is able to survive under the climatic conditions in a given model grid cell and its performance relative to the other PGSs. The biogeochemical fluxes and land-surface properties of the individual PGSs are aggregated to the grid cell scale using a mass-based weighting scheme. Simulated global biogeochemical and biogeographical patterns are evaluated against a variety of field and satellite-based observations following a protocol established by the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project. The land surface fluxes and vegetation structural properties are reasonably well simulated by JeDi-DGVM, and compare favorably with other state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models. This is despite the parameters describing the ecophysiological functioning and allometry of JeDi-DGVM plants evolving as a function of vegetation survival in a given climate, as opposed to typical approaches that fix land surface

  10. Hydroecological model predictions indicate wetter and more diverse soil water regimes and vegetation types following floodplain restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Eric G.; Loheide, Steven P., II

    2012-06-01

    Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems represent zones where soil moisture is a dominant factor influencing vegetation composition. Niche models based on hydrological and vegetation observations can be powerful tools for guiding management of these zones, especially when they are linked with physically based hydrological models. Floodplain restoration represents a unique opportunity to utilize such a predictive vegetation tool when a site's hydrology is altered to create a wetter environment. A variably saturated groundwater flow model was developed and used to simulate the soil moisture regime across a floodplain in Wisconsin where post-settlement alluvium was removed with the intent of increasing regionally threatened wetland plant species. Hydrological niche models based on simultaneous observations of vegetation composition and surface effective saturation were used to predict probability of presence for two plant species (Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge) and Elymus canadensis(Canada wildrye)) and wetland indicator score (a composite indicator of relative frequency of species in five habitat categories) based on simulated surface effective saturation. The vegetation predictions following restoration are more wetland-species dominant overall. However, zones of the study site where a confining layer is present that decouples groundwater from the near-surface soil zone tend to be drier following restoration due to restricted upward groundwater flow and less soil water storage above the confining layer. As reflected by an increase in the interquartile range in the predicted wetland indicator score, this restoration technique may increase the site-scale spatial diversity of plant community types while simultaneously accomplishing the goal of increasing wetland plant species occurrence.

  11. Floodplain restoration leads to wetter and more diverse soil water regimes and vegetation types: Insight from an integrated hydroecological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, E. G.; Loheide, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    of vegetation types. Therefore, the management goal of increasing wetland plant species occurrence is shown to co-occur with an increase in the site-scale diversity of plant community types. This result reveals the unique ability of the presented modeling framework to predict vegetation composition and aid land managers that are faced with difficult management decisions in a complex and uncertain future.

  12. Mapping diverse vegetation with multichannel radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.; Ocampo, A.; Sharitz, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne-SAR, SIR-A, Seasat SAR, and Landsat TM images of the Savannah River Plant, a gently sloping area of South Carolina covered with diverse vegetation, are presented and briefly characterized. Preliminary results indicate that multiple-polarization images constructed from the airborne-SAR data give some indication of forest density and understory growth but do not permit discrimination between evergreen and deciduous forests. Heat-tolerant vegetation growing on sand bars in streams bearing thermal effluents from nuclear reactors on the site is found to have a distinguishing polarization signature.

  13. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  14. Expanding the Range of Plant Functional Diversity Represented in Global Vegetation Models: Towards Lineage-based Plant Functional Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, C. J.; Griffith, D.; Edwards, E.; Forrestel, E.; Lehmann, C.; Anderson, M.; Craine, J.; Pau, S.; Osborne, C.

    2014-12-01

    Variation in plant species traits, such as photosynthetic and hydraulic properties, can indicate vulnerability or resilience to climate change, and feed back to broad-scale spatial and temporal patterns in biogeochemistry, demographics, and biogeography. Yet, predicting how vegetation will respond to future environmental changes is severely limited by the inability of our models to represent species-level trait variation in processes and properties, as current generation process-based models are mostly based on the generalized and abstracted concept of plant functional types (PFTs) which were originally developed for hydrological modeling. For example, there are close to 11,000 grass species, but most vegetation models have only a single C4 grass and one or two C3 grass PFTs. However, while species trait databases are expanding rapidly, they have been produced mostly from unstructured research, with a focus on easily researched traits that are not necessarily the most important for determining plant function. Additionally, implementing realistic species-level trait variation in models is challenging. Combining related and ecologically similar species in these models might ameliorate this limitation. Here we argue for an intermediate, lineage-based approach to PFTs, which draws upon recent advances in gene sequencing and phylogenetic modeling, and where trait complex variations and anatomical features are constrained by a shared evolutionary history. We provide an example of this approach with grass lineages that vary in photosynthetic pathway (C3 or C4) and other functional and structural traits. We use machine learning approaches and geospatial databases to infer the most important environmental controls and climate niche variation for the distribution of grass lineages, and utilize a rapidly expanding grass trait database to demonstrate examples of lineage-based grass PFTs. For example, grasses in the Andropogoneae are typically tall species that dominate wet and

  15. High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sandom, Christopher J; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Hansen, Morten D D; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-03-18

    The impact of large herbivores on ecosystems before modern human activities is an open question in ecology and conservation. For Europe, the controversial wood-pasture hypothesis posits that grazing by wild large herbivores supported a dynamic mosaic of vegetation structures at the landscape scale under temperate conditions before agriculture. The contrasting position suggests that European temperate vegetation was primarily closed forest with relatively small open areas, at most impacted locally by large herbivores. Given the role of modern humans in the world-wide decimations of megafauna during the late Quaternary, to resolve this debate it is necessary to understand herbivore-vegetation interactions before these losses. Here, a synthetic analysis of beetle fossils from Great Britain shows that beetles associated with herbivore dung were better represented during the Last Interglacial (132,000-110,000 y B.P., before modern human arrival) than in the early Holocene (10,000-5,000 y B.P.). Furthermore, beetle assemblages indicate closed and partially closed forest in the early Holocene but a greater mixture of semiopen vegetation and forest in the Last Interglacial. Hence, abundant and diverse large herbivores appear to have been associated with high structural diversity of vegetation before the megafauna extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. After these losses and in the presence of modern humans, large herbivores generally were less abundant, and closed woodland was more prevalent in the early Holocene. Our findings point to the importance of the formerly rich fauna of large herbivores in sustaining structurally diverse vegetation in the temperate forest biome and provide support for recent moves toward rewilding-based conservation management.

  16. High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sandom, Christopher J.; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Hansen, Morten D. D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-01-01

    The impact of large herbivores on ecosystems before modern human activities is an open question in ecology and conservation. For Europe, the controversial wood–pasture hypothesis posits that grazing by wild large herbivores supported a dynamic mosaic of vegetation structures at the landscape scale under temperate conditions before agriculture. The contrasting position suggests that European temperate vegetation was primarily closed forest with relatively small open areas, at most impacted locally by large herbivores. Given the role of modern humans in the world-wide decimations of megafauna during the late Quaternary, to resolve this debate it is necessary to understand herbivore–vegetation interactions before these losses. Here, a synthetic analysis of beetle fossils from Great Britain shows that beetles associated with herbivore dung were better represented during the Last Interglacial (132,000–110,000 y B.P., before modern human arrival) than in the early Holocene (10,000–5,000 y B.P.). Furthermore, beetle assemblages indicate closed and partially closed forest in the early Holocene but a greater mixture of semiopen vegetation and forest in the Last Interglacial. Hence, abundant and diverse large herbivores appear to have been associated with high structural diversity of vegetation before the megafauna extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. After these losses and in the presence of modern humans, large herbivores generally were less abundant, and closed woodland was more prevalent in the early Holocene. Our findings point to the importance of the formerly rich fauna of large herbivores in sustaining structurally diverse vegetation in the temperate forest biome and provide support for recent moves toward rewilding-based conservation management. PMID:24591633

  17. High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sandom, Christopher J; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Hansen, Morten D D; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-03-18

    The impact of large herbivores on ecosystems before modern human activities is an open question in ecology and conservation. For Europe, the controversial wood-pasture hypothesis posits that grazing by wild large herbivores supported a dynamic mosaic of vegetation structures at the landscape scale under temperate conditions before agriculture. The contrasting position suggests that European temperate vegetation was primarily closed forest with relatively small open areas, at most impacted locally by large herbivores. Given the role of modern humans in the world-wide decimations of megafauna during the late Quaternary, to resolve this debate it is necessary to understand herbivore-vegetation interactions before these losses. Here, a synthetic analysis of beetle fossils from Great Britain shows that beetles associated with herbivore dung were better represented during the Last Interglacial (132,000-110,000 y B.P., before modern human arrival) than in the early Holocene (10,000-5,000 y B.P.). Furthermore, beetle assemblages indicate closed and partially closed forest in the early Holocene but a greater mixture of semiopen vegetation and forest in the Last Interglacial. Hence, abundant and diverse large herbivores appear to have been associated with high structural diversity of vegetation before the megafauna extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. After these losses and in the presence of modern humans, large herbivores generally were less abundant, and closed woodland was more prevalent in the early Holocene. Our findings point to the importance of the formerly rich fauna of large herbivores in sustaining structurally diverse vegetation in the temperate forest biome and provide support for recent moves toward rewilding-based conservation management. PMID:24591633

  18. Vegetation clutter model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The statistical behavior of the radar backscattering coefficient of agricultural crops is examined. The data used were obtained by the microwave active spectrometer (MAS) systems in 1975 and 1976. Based on an evaluation of the angular and spectral variation of the mean, median, and 90-percent dynamic range of the coefficient (dB) histograms, empirical expressions describing the joint angular and frequency dependence of the mean and median were generated for each linear polarization configuration. The clutter model thus generated covers the angular range between 0 deg (nadir) and 80 deg and the frequency range between 1 GHz and 18 GHz. Decorrelation of the coefficient with frequency spacing was also evaluated and modeled.

  19. Changes in vegetation diversity caused by artificial recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Efforst to increase the rate of artificial recharge through basins often necessitates scrapping and ditching before and during operations. Such operations can result in more or less drastic changes in vegetation (depending on what was there before), characterized by diminisched numbers of species and lowered diversity. Two examples, one from Texas and one from the Netherlands are presented showing how similar treatments cause similar changes in two completely difference plant communities. ?? 1979 Dr. W. Junk b.v. - Publishers.

  20. [Soil faunal diversity under typical alpine vegetations in West Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Wen, Wei-Quan; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-Qin; Liu, Yang; Yan, Bang-Guo; Huang, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the variations of soil faunal diversity under different natural alpine vegetations in West Sichuan, an investigation was made on the soil faunal communities under alpine coniferous forest, shrub, and meadow from August 2008 to June 2009. A total of 48343 individuals were collected, belonging to 7 phyla, 16 classes, 31 orders and 117 families. There was a great difference in the dominant groups of soil macro-fauna, and a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the number of soil faunal groups under different vegetations. Both the individual density and the group number of soil fauna decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in moss layer than in litter layer in coniferous forest. Significant difference (P < 0.01) was also observed in the density-group index among the three vegetations. The maximum biomass of soil macro-fauna was found in June. Jacard indices indicated that disturbed meadow had the lowest similarity of soil faunal community with the other vegetations. It was suggested that vegetation type had significant effects on the community structure of soil fauna, while aspect, altitude, and disturbance also had definite effects.

  1. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  2. [Spatial pattern of vegetation landscape diversity in longitudinal Range-Gorge Region, southwestern China].

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-hong; Dai, Er-fu; Zhao, Dong-sheng; Yin, Yun-he

    2010-12-01

    Based on the China 1:1000000 vegetation type map, and by using GIS spatial analysis, the spatial pattern of major vegetation landscape diversity indices and its relationships with environmental factors in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region (LRGR) were analyzed. The proper scale for studying the vegetation landscape diversity in LRGR was 2000 m. In the study region, an obvious regional difference was observed in the vegetation landscape diversity indices, exhibiting typical longitudinal "corridor" and latitudinal "barrier" characteristics. The correlations between the vegetation landscape diversity indices and environmental elements were significant, and the regional difference in the environmental elements was the main factor controlling the spatial pattern of vegetation landscape diversity indices. The "corridor-barrier" function of the longitudinal range-gorge terrain made a spatial redistribution of hydro-thermal conditions, being the main cause of the special pattern of the vegetation landscape diversity in LRGR.

  3. Plant functional diversity enhances associations of soil fungal diversity with vegetation and soil in the restoration of semiarid sandy grassland.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Wang, Shaokun; Lv, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The trait-based approach shows that plant functional diversity strongly affects ecosystem properties. However, few empirical studies show the relationship between soil fungal diversity and plant functional diversity in natural ecosystems. We investigated soil fungal diversity along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semifixed dune, fixed dune, and grassland) in Horqin Sand Land, northern China, using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rRNA and gene sequencing. We also examined associations of soil fungal diversity with plant functional diversity reflected by the dominant species' traits in community (community-weighted mean, CWM) and the dispersion of functional trait values (FD is). We further used the structure equation model (SEM) to evaluate how plant richness, biomass, functional diversity, and soil properties affect soil fungal diversity in sandy grassland restoration. Soil fungal richness in mobile dune and semifixed dune was markedly lower than those of fixed dune and grassland (P < 0.05). Soil fungal richness was positively associated with plant richness, biomass, CWM plant height, and soil gradient aggregated from the principal component analysis, but SEM results showed that plant richness and CWM plant height determined by soil properties were the main factors exerting direct effects. Soil gradient increased fungal richness through indirect effect on vegetation rather than direct effect. The negative indirect effect of FDis on soil fungal richness was through its effect on plant biomass. Our final SEM model based on plant functional diversity explained nearly 70% variances of soil fungal richness. Strong association of soil fungal richness with the dominant species in the community supported the mass ratio hypothesis. Our results clearly highlight the role of plant functional diversity in enhancing associations of soil fungal diversity with community structure and soil properties in sandy grassland ecosystems.

  4. [Review of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs)].

    PubMed

    Che, Ming-Liang; Chen, Bao-Zhang; Wang, Ying; Guo, Xiang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) is an important and efficient tool for study on the terrestrial carbon circle processes and vegetation dynamics. This paper reviewed the development history of DGVMs, introduced the basic structure of DGVMs, and the outlines of several world-widely used DGVMs, including CLM-DGVM, LPJ, IBIS and SEIB. The shortages of the description of dynamic vegetation mechanisms in the current DGVMs were proposed, including plant functional types (PFT) scheme, vegetation competition, disturbance, and phenology. Then the future research directions of DGVMs were pointed out, i. e. improving the PFT scheme, refining the vegetation dynamic mechanism, and implementing a model inter-comparison project. PMID:24765870

  5. Thermal vegetation canopy model studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Ranson, K.J.; Nguyen, D.; Balick, L.; Link, L.E.; Fritschen, L.; Hutchison, B.

    1981-01-01

    An iterative-type thermal model applicable to forest canopies was tested with data from two diverse forest types. The model framework consists of a system of steady-state energy budget equations describing the interactions of short- and long-wave radiation within three horizontally infinite canopy layers. A state-space formulation of the energy dynamics within the canopy is used which permits a factorization of canopy geometrical parameters from canopy optical and thermal coefficients as well as environmental driving variables. Two sets of data characterizing a coniferous (Douglas-fir) and deciduous (oak-hickory) canopy were collected to evaluate the thermal model. The results show that the model approximates measured mean canopy temperatures to within 2/sup 0/C for relatively clear weather conditions and deviates by a maximum of 3/sup 0/C for very hazy or foggy conditions.

  6. Modeling vegetation rooting strategies on a hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivandran, G.; Bras, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The manner in which water and energy is partitioned and redistributed along a hillslope is the result of complex coupled ecohydrological interactions between the climatic, soils, topography and vegetation operating over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Distributed process based modeling creates a framework through which the interaction of vegetation with the subtle differences in the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture that arise under localized abiotic conditions along a hillslope can be simulated and examined. One deficiency in the current dynamic vegetation models is the one sided manner in which vegetation responds to soil moisture dynamics. Above ground, vegetation is given the freedom to dynamically evolve through alterations in fractional vegetation cover and/or canopy height and density; however below ground rooting profiles are simplistically represented and often held constant in time and space. The need to better represent the belowground role of vegetation through dynamic rooting strategies is fundamental in capturing the magnitude and timing of water and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and land surface. In order to allow vegetation to adapt to gradients in soil moisture a dynamic rooting scheme was incorporated into tRIBS+VEGGIE (a physically based distributed ecohydrological model). The dynamic rooting scheme allows vegetation the freedom to adapt their rooting depth and distribution in response abiotic conditions in a way that more closely mimics observed plant behavior. The incorporation of this belowground plasticity results in vegetation employing a suite of rooting strategies based on soil texture, climatic conditions and location on the hillslope.

  7. WATER DIVERSION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    1999-12-21

    The distribution of seepage in the proposed repository will be highly variable due in part to variations in the spatial distribution of percolations. The performance of the drip shield and the backfill system may divert the water flux around the waste packages to the invert. Diversion will occur along the drift surface, within the backfill, at the drip shield, and at the Waste Package (WP) surface, even after the drip shield and WP have been breached by corrosion. The purpose and objective of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) are to develop a conceptual model and constitutive properties for bounding the volume and rate of seepage water that flows around the drip shield (CRWMS M&O 1999c). This analysis model is to be compatible with the selected repository conceptual design (Wilkins and Heath, 1999) and will be used to evaluate the performance of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), and to provide input to the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Model. This model supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) postclosure performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (SR). This document characterizes the hydrological constitutive properties of the backfill and invert materials (Section 6.2) and a third material that represents a mixture of the two. These include the Overton Sand which is selected as a backfill (Section 5.2), crushed tuff which is selected as the invert (Section 5.1), and a combined material (Sections 5.9 and 5.10) which has retention and hydraulic conductivity properties intermediate to the selected materials for the backfill and the invert. The properties include the grain size distribution, the dry bulk density and porosity, the moisture retention, the intrinsic permeability, the relative permeability, and the material thermal properties. The van Genuchten relationships with curve fit parameters are used to define the basic retention relationship of moisture potential to volumetric moisture content, and the basic relationship of unsaturated

  8. Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon A.

    2008-01-01

    This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

  9. Modelling consumer intakes of vegetable oils and fats

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, David; Gosling, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats make up a significant part of the energy intake in typical European diets. However, their use as ingredients in a diverse range of different foods means that their consumption is often hidden, especially when oils and fats are used for cooking. As a result, there are no reliable estimates of the consumption of different vegetable oils and fats in the diet of European consumers for use in, for example, nutritional assessments or chemical risk assessments. We have developed an innovative model to estimate the consumption of vegetable oils and fats by European Union consumers using the European Union consumption databases and elements of probabilistic modelling. A key feature of the approach is the assessment of uncertainty in the modelling assumptions that can be used to build user confidence and to guide future development. PMID:26160467

  10. Modelling consumer intakes of vegetable oils and fats.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David; Gosling, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats make up a significant part of the energy intake in typical European diets. However, their use as ingredients in a diverse range of different foods means that their consumption is often hidden, especially when oils and fats are used for cooking. As a result, there are no reliable estimates of the consumption of different vegetable oils and fats in the diet of European consumers for use in, for example, nutritional assessments or chemical risk assessments. We have developed an innovative model to estimate the consumption of vegetable oils and fats by European Union consumers using the European Union consumption databases and elements of probabilistic modelling. A key feature of the approach is the assessment of uncertainty in the modelling assumptions that can be used to build user confidence and to guide future development.

  11. Changing landscapes, habitats and vegetation diversity across Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Haines-Young, R; Barr, C J; Firbank, L G; Furse, M; Howard, D C; McGowan, G; Petit, S; Smart, S M; Watkins, J W

    2003-03-01

    diversity in semi-natural habitats, such as Acid Grasslands, more usually associated with vegetation types that are poor in species. An important driver of qualitative change appears to be widespread nutrient enrichment from nitrogen. However, such processes are probably superimposed upon more local factors, such as changes in the way land is managed for agriculture. The importance of understanding the various drives of change for future countryside policy is emphasized.

  12. Vegetation disturbance and maintenance of diversity in intermittently flooded Carolina Bays in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkman, L.K.; Sharitz, R.R. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors manipulated the fire regime and soil disturbance in four grass-dominated Carolina bay wetlands during a prolonged drought period and examined vegetation composition and cover within dominant vegetation types prior to and after treatments. The authors used the seedling emergence technique to determine the role of the seed bank in the recovery process. Burning did not affect richness, evenness, or diversity (all vegetation types combined); however, soil tillage increased diversity, including both evenness and richness. Percent similarity of the vegetation before and after disturbance was greater in the burning treatment than in the tillage treatment, probably due to greater disruption of the rhizomes of the perennial vegetation by tillage. Vegetation types varied in degree of recovery, although dominance was not altered by either treatment. Several native fugitive species increased following disturbance, indicating that species coexistence in these Carolina bay wetlands depends on the life history characteristics of residual vegetation, as well as that of seed bank species.

  13. Modeling aeolian erosion in presence of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S.; Bergametti, G.; Simoëns, S.

    2014-02-01

    Semiarid landscapes are characterized by vegetated surfaces. Understanding the impact of vegetation on aeolian soil erosion is important for reducing soil erosion or limiting crop damage through abrasion or burial. In the present study, a saltation model fully coupled with a large-eddy simulation airflow model is extended to vegetated landscapes. From this model, the sensitivity of sand erosion to different arrangements and type of plants (shrub versus tree) representative of semiarid landscapes is investigated and the wind erosion reduction induced by plants is quantified. We show that saltation processes over vegetated surfaces have a limited impact on the mean wind statistics, the momentum extracted from the flow by saltating particles being negligible compared to that extracted by plants. Simulated sand erosion patterns resulting from plant distribution, i.e., accumulation and erosion areas, appear qualitatively consistent with previous observations. It is shown that sand erosion reduction depends not only on vegetation cover but also on plant morphology and plant distribution relative to the mean wind direction. A simple shear stress partitioning approach applied in shrub cases gives similar trends of sand erosion reduction as the present model following wind direction and vegetation cover. However, the magnitude of the reduction appears significantly different from one approach to another. Although shrubs trap saltating particles, trees appear more efficient than shrubs to reduce sand erosion. This is explained by the large-scale sheltering effect of trees compared to the local shrub one.

  14. Downstream Effects of Diversion Dams on Riparian Vegetation Communities in the Routt National Forest, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, S. T.; Wohl, E. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Merritt, D. M.; Schnackenberg, L.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between riparian vegetation and changes in fluvial processes as a response to flow diversion is not well understood. Water extraction affects the hydrologic flow regime (i.e., magnitude, duration, and frequency of flows) reducing peak and base-flows, which could negatively impact riparian vegetation. Vegetation communities are temporally and spatially variable and are strongly interrelated with alluvial landforms and hydrograph variability. This research compares riparian community characteristics on diverted and undiverted pool-riffle channels and low gradient valleys to examine changes associated with flow diversion in the Routt National Forest (RNF). The RNF is the only under-appropriated area in Colorado, making future water extraction proposals likely. Many small extraction canals siphon water from small, headwater streams in the RNF, but the site-specific or cumulative effects of these diversions on riverine ecosystems have not been investigated. Systematic investigation is necessary, however, to determine whether existing flow diversions have influenced riparian communities and, if so, which communities are most sensitive to diversions. A total of 36 sites were sampled with five channel cross sections established per site, extending into the riparian zone at distance of two times the active channel width, and vegetation was sampled using the line-point intercept method. Preliminary results suggest a shift in vegetation communities from typical riparian species composition to more upland vegetation. The relative sensitivity of these responses are different depending on valley type; low- gradient, unconfined areas are less tolerant of diversion than steeper, confined reaches. Additionally, when stratified by plant assemblage, Salix abundance is significantly reduced downstream of diversion. The results of this study contribute to the collective understanding of mountain headwater riparian vegetation community response to changes in flow

  15. Evaluating models of climate and forest vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding how the biosphere may respond to increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere requires models that contain vegetation responses to regional climate. Most of the processes ecologists study in forests, including trophic interactions, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes, and vital components of the world economy, such as forest products and agriculture, will be influenced in potentially unexpected ways by changing climate. These vegetation changes affect climate in the following ways: changing C, N, and S pools; trace gases; albedo; and water balance. The complexity of the indirect interactions among variables that depend on climate, together with the range of different space/time scales that best describe these processes, make the problems of modeling and prediction enormously difficult. These problems of predicting vegetation response to climate warming and potential ways of testing model predictions are the subjects of this chapter.

  16. Regime shifts in models of dryland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Meron, Ehud

    2013-12-13

    Drylands are pattern-forming systems showing self-organized vegetation patchiness, multiplicity of stable states and fronts separating domains of alternative stable states. Pattern dynamics, induced by droughts or disturbances, can result in desertification shifts from patterned vegetation to bare soil. Pattern formation theory suggests various scenarios for such dynamics: an abrupt global shift involving a fast collapse to bare soil, a gradual global shift involving the expansion and coalescence of bare-soil domains and an incipient shift to a hybrid state consisting of stationary bare-soil domains in an otherwise periodic pattern. Using models of dryland vegetation, we address the question of which of these scenarios can be realized. We found that the models can be split into two groups: models that exhibit multiplicity of periodic-pattern and bare-soil states, and models that exhibit, in addition, multiplicity of hybrid states. Furthermore, in all models, we could not identify parameter regimes in which bare-soil domains expand into vegetated domains. The significance of these findings is that, while models belonging to the first group can only exhibit abrupt shifts, models belonging to the second group can also exhibit gradual and incipient shifts. A discussion of open problems concludes the paper.

  17. Regime shifts in models of dryland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Meron, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Drylands are pattern-forming systems showing self-organized vegetation patchiness, multiplicity of stable states and fronts separating domains of alternative stable states. Pattern dynamics, induced by droughts or disturbances, can result in desertification shifts from patterned vegetation to bare soil. Pattern formation theory suggests various scenarios for such dynamics: an abrupt global shift involving a fast collapse to bare soil, a gradual global shift involving the expansion and coalescence of bare-soil domains and an incipient shift to a hybrid state consisting of stationary bare-soil domains in an otherwise periodic pattern. Using models of dryland vegetation, we address the question of which of these scenarios can be realized. We found that the models can be split into two groups: models that exhibit multiplicity of periodic-pattern and bare-soil states, and models that exhibit, in addition, multiplicity of hybrid states. Furthermore, in all models, we could not identify parameter regimes in which bare-soil domains expand into vegetated domains. The significance of these findings is that, while models belonging to the first group can only exhibit abrupt shifts, models belonging to the second group can also exhibit gradual and incipient shifts. A discussion of open problems concludes the paper.

  18. An assessment of the impact of water impoundment and diversion structures on vegetation in Southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conn, J. S.; Mouat, D. A.; Clark, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    High-altitude color infrared photography was used to survey existing conditions, both upstream and downstream, from nineteen diversion structures in Southern Arizona to determine their effect upon vegetation health, vigor, and cover. A diversion structure is defined as a man/made feature constructed to control storm runoff. The results are used to determine the policy for future structure design.

  19. [Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie-xian; Wan, Nian-feng; Ji, Xiang-yun; Dan, Jia-gui

    2011-09-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1.48, 1.84 and 0.64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 83.733 +/- 4.932, 4.966 +/- 0.110, and 0.795 +/- 0.014, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker's dominance index was 0.135 +/- 0.012, being significantly lower than that (0.184 +/- 0.018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0.883 +/- 0.123. 1714 +/- 0.683, and 0.781 +/- 0.040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon's diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the diversity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp, Sn/Sp, and S/N.

  20. A new thermal vegetation canopy model

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengzhi; Dong Gouquan )

    1992-10-01

    A three-layer thermal vegetation canopy model applicable to forest canopies was developed and tested by field experiments. The model is based on energy budget equations that describe the interactions between short and long wave radiation, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux within three horizontally infinite canopy layers. Particularly it concerns the wind, air temperature, and water vapor pressure profiles in the canopy, which were never considered in earlier models. In solving the nonlinear energy budget equations, a new method was adopted resulting in great reduction of the model computer time. The calculated results of the model are in good agreement with observed data, which shows that the new model is able to simulate exactly the variation of canopy temperature with vegetation structure and environmental conditions. 11 refs.

  1. Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Yao; Rogala, Jim; Sullivan, John; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The ability to predict the distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation in the Upper Mississippi River on the basis of physical or chemical variables is useful to resource managers. Wildlife managers have a keen interest in advanced estimates of food quantity such as American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) population status to give out more informed advisories to hunters before the fall hunting season. Predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation beds can potentially increase hunter observance of voluntary avoidance zones where foraging birds are left alone to feed undisturbed. In years when submersed aquatic vegetation is predicted to be scarce in important wildlife habitats, managers can get the message out to hunters well before the hunting season (Jim Nissen, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, La Crosse District Manager, La Crosse, Wisconsin, personal communication). We developed a statistical model to predict the probability of occurrence of submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River on the basis of a few hydrological, physical, and geomorphic variables. Our model takes into consideration flow velocity, wind fetch, bathymetry, growing-season daily water level, and light extinction coefficient in the river (fig. 1) and calculates the probability of submersed aquatic vegetation existence in Pool 8 in individual 5- x 5-m grid cells. The model was calibrated using the data collected in 1998 (516 sites), 1999 (595 sites), and 2000 (649 sites) using a stratified random sampling protocol (Yin and others, 2000b). To validate the model, we chose the data from the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) transect sampling in backwater areas (Rogers and Owens 1995; Yin and others, 2000a) and ran the model for each 5- x 5-m grid cell in every growing season from 1991 to 2001. We tallied all the cells and came up with an annual average percent frequency of submersed aquatic vegetation

  2. Disentangling vegetation diversity from climate-energy and habitat heterogeneity for explaining animal geographic patterns.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Mucina, Ladislav; Grace, James B; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    Broad-scale animal diversity patterns have been traditionally explained by hypotheses focused on climate-energy and habitat heterogeneity, without considering the direct influence of vegetation structure and composition. However, integrating these factors when considering plant-animal correlates still poses a major challenge because plant communities are controlled by abiotic factors that may, at the same time, influence animal distributions. By testing whether the number and variation of plant community types in Europe explain country-level diversity in six animal groups, we propose a conceptual framework in which vegetation diversity represents a bridge between abiotic factors and animal diversity. We show that vegetation diversity explains variation in animal richness not accounted for by altitudinal range or potential evapotranspiration, being the best predictor for butterflies, beetles, and amphibians. Moreover, the dissimilarity of plant community types explains the highest proportion of variation in animal assemblages across the studied regions, an effect that outperforms the effect of climate and their shared contribution with pure spatial variation. Our results at the country level suggest that vegetation diversity, as estimated from broad-scale classifications of plant communities, may contribute to our understanding of animal richness and may be disentangled, at least to a degree, from climate-energy and abiotic habitat heterogeneity. PMID:26900451

  3. Disentangling vegetation diversity from climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity for explaining animal geographic patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jimenez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytry, Milan; Mucina, Ladislav; Grace, James B.; Rejmanek, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Broad-scale animal diversity patterns have been traditionally explained by hypotheses focused on climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity, without considering the direct influence of vegetation structure and composition. However, integrating these factors when considering plant–animal correlates still poses a major challenge because plant communities are controlled by abiotic factors that may, at the same time, influence animal distributions. By testing whether the number and variation of plant community types in Europe explain country-level diversity in six animal groups, we propose a conceptual framework in which vegetation diversity represents a bridge between abiotic factors and animal diversity. We show that vegetation diversity explains variation in animal richness not accounted for by altitudinal range or potential evapotranspiration, being the best predictor for butterflies, beetles, and amphibians. Moreover, the dissimilarity of plant community types explains the highest proportion of variation in animal assemblages across the studied regions, an effect that outperforms the effect of climate and their shared contribution with pure spatial variation. Our results at the country level suggest that vegetation diversity, as estimated from broad-scale classifications of plant communities, may contribute to our understanding of animal richness and may be disentangled, at least to a degree, from climate–energy and abiotic habitat heterogeneity.

  4. Disentangling vegetation diversity from climate-energy and habitat heterogeneity for explaining animal geographic patterns.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Mucina, Ladislav; Grace, James B; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    Broad-scale animal diversity patterns have been traditionally explained by hypotheses focused on climate-energy and habitat heterogeneity, without considering the direct influence of vegetation structure and composition. However, integrating these factors when considering plant-animal correlates still poses a major challenge because plant communities are controlled by abiotic factors that may, at the same time, influence animal distributions. By testing whether the number and variation of plant community types in Europe explain country-level diversity in six animal groups, we propose a conceptual framework in which vegetation diversity represents a bridge between abiotic factors and animal diversity. We show that vegetation diversity explains variation in animal richness not accounted for by altitudinal range or potential evapotranspiration, being the best predictor for butterflies, beetles, and amphibians. Moreover, the dissimilarity of plant community types explains the highest proportion of variation in animal assemblages across the studied regions, an effect that outperforms the effect of climate and their shared contribution with pure spatial variation. Our results at the country level suggest that vegetation diversity, as estimated from broad-scale classifications of plant communities, may contribute to our understanding of animal richness and may be disentangled, at least to a degree, from climate-energy and abiotic habitat heterogeneity.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  6. Anticipating the spatio-temporal response of plant diversity and vegetation structure to climate and land use change in a protected area

    PubMed Central

    Boulangeat, Isabelle; Georges, Damien; Dentant, Cédric; Bonet, Richard; Van Es, Jérémie; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (e.g. productivity and stability) and of the maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. creating habitats for other species groups). While vegetation sensitivity to climate change has been widely investgated, its spatio-temporally response to the dual efects of land management and climate change has been ignored at landscape scale. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model called FATE-HD, which describes the dominant vegetation dynamics and associated functional diversity, in order to anticipate vegetation response to climate and land-use changes in both short and long-term perspectives. Using three contrasted management scenarios for the Ecrins National Park (French Alps) developed in collaboration with the park managers, and one regional climate change scenario, we tracked the dynamics of vegetation structure (forest expansion) and functional diversity over 100 years of climate change and a further 400 additional years of stabilization. As expected, we observed a slow upward shift in forest cover distribution, which appears to be severely impacted by pasture management (i.e. maintenance or abandonment). The tme lag before observing changes in vegetation cover was the result of demographic and seed dispersal processes. However, plant diversity response to environmental changes was rapid. Afer land abandonment, local diversity increased and spatial turnover was reduced, whereas local diversity decreased following land use intensification. Interestingly, in the long term, as both climate and management scenarios interacted, the regional diversity declined. Our innovative spatio-temporally explicit framework demonstrates that the vegetation may have contrasting responses to changes in the short and the long term. Moreover, climate and land-abandonment interact extensively leading to a decrease in both regional diversity and turnover in the long term. Based on our simulations we therefore suggest a continuing moderate intensity

  7. Comparison modeling for alpine vegetation distribution in an arid area.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihua; Lai, Liming; Guan, Tianyu; Cai, Wetao; Gao, Nannan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dawen; Cong, Zhentao; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2016-07-01

    Mapping and modeling vegetation distribution are fundamental topics in vegetation ecology. With the rise of powerful new statistical techniques and GIS tools, the development of predictive vegetation distribution models has increased rapidly. However, modeling alpine vegetation with high accuracy in arid areas is still a challenge because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the environment. Here, we used a set of 70 variables from ASTER GDEM, WorldClim, and Landsat-8 OLI (land surface albedo and spectral vegetation indices) data with decision tree (DT), maximum likelihood classification (MLC), and random forest (RF) models to discriminate the eight vegetation groups and 19 vegetation formations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China. The combination of variables clearly discriminated vegetation groups but failed to discriminate vegetation formations. Different variable combinations performed differently in each type of model, but the most consistently important parameter in alpine vegetation modeling was elevation. The best RF model was more accurate for vegetation modeling compared with the DT and MLC models for this alpine region, with an overall accuracy of 75 % and a kappa coefficient of 0.64 verified against field point data and an overall accuracy of 65 % and a kappa of 0.52 verified against vegetation map data. The accuracy of regional vegetation modeling differed depending on the variable combinations and models, resulting in different classifications for specific vegetation groups. PMID:27307276

  8. Comparison modeling for alpine vegetation distribution in an arid area.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihua; Lai, Liming; Guan, Tianyu; Cai, Wetao; Gao, Nannan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dawen; Cong, Zhentao; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2016-07-01

    Mapping and modeling vegetation distribution are fundamental topics in vegetation ecology. With the rise of powerful new statistical techniques and GIS tools, the development of predictive vegetation distribution models has increased rapidly. However, modeling alpine vegetation with high accuracy in arid areas is still a challenge because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the environment. Here, we used a set of 70 variables from ASTER GDEM, WorldClim, and Landsat-8 OLI (land surface albedo and spectral vegetation indices) data with decision tree (DT), maximum likelihood classification (MLC), and random forest (RF) models to discriminate the eight vegetation groups and 19 vegetation formations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in the Qilian Mountains, northwest China. The combination of variables clearly discriminated vegetation groups but failed to discriminate vegetation formations. Different variable combinations performed differently in each type of model, but the most consistently important parameter in alpine vegetation modeling was elevation. The best RF model was more accurate for vegetation modeling compared with the DT and MLC models for this alpine region, with an overall accuracy of 75 % and a kappa coefficient of 0.64 verified against field point data and an overall accuracy of 65 % and a kappa of 0.52 verified against vegetation map data. The accuracy of regional vegetation modeling differed depending on the variable combinations and models, resulting in different classifications for specific vegetation groups.

  9. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  10. Next-generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology.

    PubMed

    Scheiter, Simon; Langan, Liam; Higgins, Steven I

    2013-05-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are powerful tools to project past, current and future vegetation patterns and associated biogeochemical cycles. However, most models are limited by how they define vegetation and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve vegetation models. We further present a trait- and individual-based vegetation model (aDGVM2) that allows individual plants to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how individual plants grow and compete. A genetic optimization algorithm is used to simulate trait inheritance and reproductive isolation between individuals. These model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are adapted to a site's biotic and abiotic conditions. The aDGVM2 simulates how environmental conditions influence the trait spectra of plant communities; that fire selects for traits that enhance fire protection and reduces trait diversity; and the emergence of life-history strategies that are suggestive of colonization-competition trade-offs. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current DGVMs. This approach may yield novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change and we believe it could foster collaborations between functional plant biologists and vegetation modellers. PMID:23496172

  11. Introducing tropical lianas in a vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, Hans; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Brugnera, Manfredo di Procia e.; Krshna Moorthy Paravathi, Sruthi; Pausenberger, Nancy; Roels, Jana; kearsley, elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are essential components of the earth system and play a critical role for land surface feedbacks to climate change. These forests are currently experiencing large-scale structural changes, including the increase of liana abundance and biomass. This liana proliferation might have large impacts on the carbon cycle of tropical forests. However no single global vegetation model currently accounts for lianas. The TREECLIMBERS project (ERC starting grant) aims to introduce for the first time lianas into a vegetation model. The project attempts to reach this challenging goal by performing a global meta-analysis on liana data and by collecting new data in South American forests. Those new and existing datasets form the basis of a new liana plant functional type (PFT) that will be included in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2). This presentation will show an overview of the current progress of the TREECLIMBERS project. Liana inventory data collected in French Guiana along a forest disturbance gradient show the relation between liana abundance and disturbance. Xylem water isotope analysis indicates that trees and lianas can rely on different soil water resources. New modelling concepts for liana PFTs will be presented and in-situ leaf gas exchange and sap flow data are used to parameterize water and carbon fluxes for this new PFT. Finally ongoing terrestrial LiDAR observations of liana infested forest will be highlighted.

  12. Canopy reflectance modelling of semiarid vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Three different types of remote sensing algorithms for estimating vegetation amount and other land surface biophysical parameters were tested for semiarid environments. These included statistical linear models, the Li-Strahler geometric-optical canopy model, and linear spectral mixture analysis. The two study areas were the National Science Foundation's Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site near Las Cruces, NM, in the northern Chihuahuan desert, and the HAPEX-Sahel site near Niamey, Niger, in West Africa, comprising semiarid rangeland and subtropical crop land. The statistical approach (simple and multiple regression) resulted in high correlations between SPOT satellite spectral reflectance and shrub and grass cover, although these correlations varied with the spatial scale of aggregation of the measurements. The Li-Strahler model produced estimated of shrub size and density for both study sites with large standard errors. In the Jornada, the estimates were accurate enough to be useful for characterizing structural differences among three shrub strata. In Niger, the range of shrub cover and size in short-fallow shrublands is so low that the necessity of spatially distributed estimation of shrub size and density is questionable. Spectral mixture analysis of multiscale, multitemporal, multispectral radiometer data and imagery for Niger showed a positive relationship between fractions of spectral endmembers and surface parameters of interest including soil cover, vegetation cover, and leaf area index.

  13. A nonlinear coupled soil moisture-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shikuo; Liu, Shida; Fu, Zuntao; Sun, Lan

    2005-06-01

    Based on the physical analysis that the soil moisture and vegetation depend mainly on the precipitation and evaporation as well as the growth, decay and consumption of vegetation a nonlinear dynamic coupled system of soil moisture-vegetation is established. Using this model, the stabilities of the steady states of vegetation are analyzed. This paper focuses on the research of the vegetation catastrophe point which represents the transition between aridness and wetness to a great extent. It is shown that the catastrophe point of steady states of vegetation depends mainly on the rainfall P and saturation value v0, which is selected to balance the growth and decay of vegetation. In addition, when the consumption of vegetation remains constant, the analytic solution of the vegetation equation is obtained.

  14. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu

    2016-10-01

    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models. PMID:27189787

  15. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu

    2016-10-01

    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models.

  16. Modeling the Impact of Vegetation Structure on Canopy Radiative Transfer for a Global Vegetation Dynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, W.; Kiang, N.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    The transmission of light through plant canopies results in vertical profiles of light intensity that affect the photosynthetic activity and gas exchange of plants, their competition for light, and the canopy energy balance. The accurate representation of the canopy light profile is then important for predicting ecological dynamics. The study presents a simple canopy radiative transfer scheme to characterize the impact of the horizontal and vertical vegetation structure heterogeneity on light profiles. Actual vertical foliage profile and a clumping factor which are functions of tree geometry, size and density and foliage density are used to characterize the vertical and horizontal vegetation structure heterogeneity. The simple scheme is evaluated using the ground and airborne lidar data collected in deciduous and coniferous forests and was also compared with the more complex Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model and the two-stream scheme currently being used to describe light interactions with vegetation canopy in most GCMs. The simple modeled PAR profiles match well with the ground data, lidar and full GORT model prediction, it performs much better than the simple Beer's&plaw used in two stream scheme. This scheme will have the same computation cost as the current scheme being used in GCMs, but provides better photosynthesis, radiative fluxes and surface albedo estimates, thus is suitable for a global vegetation dynamic model embedded in GCMs.

  17. A microwave scattering model for layered vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Lang, Roger H.; Chauhan, Narinder S.

    1992-01-01

    A microwave scattering model was developed for layered vegetation based on an iterative solution of the radiative transfer equation up to the second order to account for multiple scattering within the canopy and between the ground and the canopy. The model is designed to operate over a wide frequency range for both deciduous and coniferous forest and to account for the branch size distribution, leaf orientation distribution, and branch orientation distribution for each size. The canopy is modeled as a two-layered medium above a rough interface. The upper layer is the crown containing leaves, stems, and branches. The lower layer is the trunk region modeled as randomly positioned cylinders with a preferred orientation distribution above an irregular soil surface. Comparisons of this model with measurements from deciduous and coniferous forests show good agreements at several frequencies for both like and cross polarizations. Major features of the model needed to realize the agreement include allowance for: (1) branch size distribution, (2) second-order effects, and (3) tree component models valid over a wide range of frequencies.

  18. Repeated burning of eastern tallgrass prairie increases richness and diversity, stabilizing late successional vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Marlin L; Jones, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    Understanding temporal effects of fire frequency on plant species diversity and vegetation structure is critical for managing tallgrass prairie (TGP), which occupies a mid-continental longitudinal precipitation and productivity gradient. Eastern TGP has contributed little information toward understanding whether vegetation-fire interactions are uniform or change across this biome. We resampled 34 fire-managed mid- and late-successional ungrazed TGP remnants occurring across a dry to wet-mesic moisture gradient in the Chicago region of Illinois, USA. We compared hypotheses that burning acts either as a stabilizing force or causes change in diversity and structure, depending upon fire frequency and successional stage. Based on western TGP, we expected a unimodal species richness distribution across a cover-productivity gradient, variable functional group responses to fire frequency, and a negative relationship between fire frequency and species richness. Species diversity was unimodal across the cover gradient and was more strongly humpbacked in stands with greater fire frequency. In support of a stabilizing hypothesis, temporal similarity of late-successional vegetation had a logarithmic relationship with increasing fire frequency, while richness and evenness remained stable. Temporal similarity within mid-successional stands was not correlated with fire frequency, while richness increased and evenness decreased over time. Functional group responses to fire frequency were variable. Summer forb richness increased under high fire frequency, while C4 grasses, spring forbs, and nitrogen-fixing species decreased with fire exclusion. On mesic and wet-mesic sites, vegetation structure measured by the ratio of woody to graminoid species was negatively correlated with abundance of forbs and with fire frequency. Our findings that species richness responds unimodally to an environmental-productivity gradient, and that fire exclusion increases woody vegetation and leads to loss

  19. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems.

  20. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. PMID:27110977

  1. [Simulation of vegetation landscape in Pingtan Island based on BP neural network model].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xio-fen; Huang, Yi-xiong; Ye, Gong-fu; Chen, Li

    2011-08-01

    Taking GIS as technical platform and by using Matlab 7.0, the vegetation landscape in Pingtan Island was cut with 2 km x 2 km grid graph. The data of 50 quadrats were obtained. Forty-four of the 50 quadrates were used for model training, and the rest 6 were used for model checking. Fractal dimension, Shannon diversity index, and contagion index were selected as output data of the model, and the number of residential quarter, wind speed, and the distance from the coast were chosen as affecting factors. A BP neural network model of vegetation landscape in Pingtan Island was established, and was checked by error test. The results demonstrated that the major factors affecting the vegetation landscape spatial pattern and diversity in Pingtan Island were wind speed and the distance from the coast, and anthropogenic factors had greater effects on the spatial connection of vegetation landscape. The fitted results of the relationships between vegetation landscape and environmental and anthropogenic factors were basically accorded with the truth. The average error was 7.4%, and the minimum error was 0.2%, indicating that the model could be applied to quantitatively predict and simulate the vegetation landscape in Pingtan Island.

  2. Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project ("Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure"), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land

  3. Potential benefits of plant diversity on vegetated roofs: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cook-Patton, Susan C; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2012-09-15

    Although vegetated green roofs can be difficult to establish and maintain, they are an increasingly popular method for mitigating the negative environmental impacts of urbanization. Most green roof development has focused on maximizing green roof performance by planting one or a few drought-tolerant species. We present an alternative approach, which recognizes green roofs as dynamic ecosystems and employs a diversity of species. We draw links between the ecological and green roof literature to generate testable predictions about how increasing plant diversity could improve short- and long-term green roof functioning. Although we found few papers that experimentally manipulated diversity on green roofs, those that did revealed ecological dynamics similar to those in more natural systems. However, there are many unresolved issues. To improve overall green roof performance, we should (1) elucidate the links among plant diversity, structural complexity, and green roof performance, (2) describe feedback mechanisms between plant and animal diversity on green roofs, (3) identify species with complementary traits, and (4) determine whether diverse green roof communities are more resilient to disturbance and environmental change than less diverse green roofs.

  4. Modeling Forest Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Piedmont Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    When the interacting stressors of climate change and land cover/land use change (LCLUC) overwhelm ecosystem resilience to environmental and climatic variability, forest ecosystems are at increased risk of regime shifts and hyperdynamism in process rates. To meet the growing range of novel biotic and environmental stressors on human-impacted ecosystems, the maintenance of taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy in metacommunities has been proposed as a risk spreading measure ensuring that species critical to landscape ecosystem functioning are available for recruitment as local systems respond to novel conditions. This research is the first in a multi-part study to establish a dynamic, predictive model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular plant diversity in North Carolina Piedmont mixed forests using remotely sensed data inputs. While remote sensing technologies are optimally suited to monitor LCLUC over large areas, direct approaches to the remote measurement of plant diversity remain a challenge. This study tests the efficacy of predicting indices of vascular plant diversity using remotely derived measures of forest structural heterogeneity from aerial LiDAR and high spatial resolution broadband optical imagery in addition to derived topo-environmental variables. Diversity distribution modelling of this sort is predicated upon the idea that environmental filtering of dispersing species help define fine-scale (permeable) environmental envelopes within which biotic structural and compositional factors drive competitive interactions that, in addition to background stochasticity, determine fine-scale alpha diversity. Results reveal that over a range of Piedmont forest communities, increasing structural complexity is positively correlated with measures of plant diversity, though the nature of this relationship varies by environmental conditions and community type. The diversity distribution model is parameterized and cross-validated using three high

  5. Improving the Projections of Vegetation Biogeography by Integrating Climate Envelope Models and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, M. J.; Kim, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing changes in vegetation is increasingly important for conservation planning in the face of climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are important tools for assessing such changes. DGVMs have been applied at regional scales to create projections of range expansions and contractions of plant functional types. Many DGVMs use a number of algorithms to determine the biogeography of plant functional types. One such DGVM, MC2, uses a series of decision trees based on bioclimatic thresholds while others, such as LPJ, use constraining emergent properties with a limited set of bioclimatic threshold-based rules. Although both approaches have been used widely, we demonstrate that these biogeography outputs perform poorly at continental scales when compared to existing potential vegetation maps. Specifically, we found that with MC2, the algorithm for determining leaf physiognomy is too simplistic to capture arid and semi-arid vegetation in much of the western U.S., as well as is the algorithm for determining the broadleaf and needleleaf mix in the Southeast. With LPJ, we found that the bioclimatic thresholds used to allow seedling establishment are too broad and fail to capture regional-scale biogeography of the plant functional types. In response, we demonstrate a new approach to determining the biogeography of plant functional types by integrating the climatic thresholds produced for individual tree species by a series of climate envelope models with the biogeography algorithms of MC2 and LPJ. Using this approach, we find that MC2 and LPJ perform considerably better when compared to potential vegetation maps.

  6. Contributions of understory and/or overstory vegetations to soil microbial PLFA and nematode diversities in Eucalyptus monocultures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Wan, Songze; Zhang, Chenlu; Liu, Zhanfeng; Zhou, Lixia; Fu, Shenglei

    2014-01-01

    Ecological interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity have received many attentions in the recent decades. Although soil biodiversity declined with the decrease of plant diversity, many previous studies found plant species identities were more important than plant diversity in controlling soil biodiversity. This study focused on the responses of soil biodiversity to the altering of plant functional groups, namely overstory and understory vegetations, rather than plant diversity gradient. We conducted an experiment by removing overstory and/or understory vegetation to compare their effects on soil microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and nematode diversities in eucalyptus monocultures. Our results indicated that both overstory and understory vegetations could affect soil microbial PLFA and nematode diversities, which manifested as the decrease in Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') and Pielou evenness index (J) and the increase in Simpson dominance index (λ) after vegetation removal. Soil microclimate change explained part of variance of soil biodiversity indices. Both overstory and understory vegetations positively correlated with soil microbial PLFA and nematode diversities. In addition, the alteration of soil biodiversity might be due to a mixing effect of bottom-up control and soil microclimate change after vegetation removal in the studied plantations. Given the studied ecosystem is common in humid subtropical and tropical region of the world, our findings might have great potential to extrapolate to large scales and could be conducive to ecosystem management and service.

  7. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa: Influence of Species Biology on Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    de la Estrella, Manuel; Mateo, Rubén G.; Wieringa, Jan J.; Mackinder, Barbara; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of species richness for conservation planning. Methodology Using Maxent, SDMs based on a suite of 14 environmental predictors were generated for 185 West Central African Leguminosae species, each categorised according to one of five vegetation types: Afromontane, coastal, non-flooded forest, open formations, or riverine forest. The relative contribution of each environmental variable was compared between different vegetation types using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by a post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis Paired Comparison contrast. Legume species diversity patterns were explored initially using the typical method of stacking all SDMs. Subsequently, five different ensemble models were generated by partitioning SDMs according to vegetation category. Ecological modelers worked with legume specialists to improve data integrity and integrate expert opinion in the interpretation of individual species models and potential species richness predictions for different vegetation types. Results/Conclusions Of the 14 environmental predictors used, five showed no difference in their relative contribution to the different vegetation models. Of the nine discriminating variables, the majority were related to temperature variation. The set of variables that played a major role in the Afromontane species diversity model differed significantly from the sets of variables of greatest relative important in other vegetation categories. The traditional approach of stacking all SDMs indicated overall

  8. Galling arthropod diversity in adjacent swamp forests and restinga vegetation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Milton De S; Piccardi, Hosana M F; Jahnke, Simone M; Dalbem, Ricardo V

    2010-01-01

    Galling arthropods create plant structures inside which they find shelter. Factors acting on galler diversity are still being discussed, with this fauna considered more diverse in xeric than mesic environments (higrothermic stress hypothesis, HSH), and also in more plant diverse sites. Here we compare galler abundance (N), equitability (E), species richness (S) and composition between adjacent restinga (xeric) and swamp forests (mesic) in Parque Estadual de Itapeva (29°21' S, 49°45' W), Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Five trails, two in swamp forest and three in restingas, were sampled four times each (January/December 2005). After an effort of 60h/person, 621 galled plant individuals belonging to 104 gall morphotypes were recorded. This suggests a high galler diversity for the Park, comparable to the richest places known. No differences were found for N, E or S between restingas and swamp forests. However, faunal composition differs significantly between the vegetation types. The dominant (most abundant) species are different in either vegetation type, and are rare or absent on the other vegetation type. Such species composition analysis is still largely ignored for gallers, and stresses the fact that the HSH cannot explain this pattern, since the latter is based on preferences by the ovipositing galler for xeric sites instead of mesic ones. The two habitats differ in microclimate, but species richness, as would be predicted by the HSH, does not differ. This small scale pattern can perhaps be attributed to biogeographic processes on larger scales, as suggested by the resource synchronisation hypothesis.

  9. Effects of Coal-Bed Methane Discharge Waters on Soils and Vegetation Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stearns, M.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.; Cronin, G.; Berquist, E.

    2004-12-01

    Coal bed methane co-produced discharge waters in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, resulting from extraction of methane from coal seams, have become a priority for chemical, hydrological and biological research during the last few years. Soil and vegetation samples were taken from impacted and reference sites (upland elevations and wetted gully) to investigate impacts of CBM discharge waters on soil physical and chemical properties and on native and introduced vegetation richness and diversity. Results indicate a significant increase of salinity and sodicity within local soil ecosystems at sites directly exposed to CBM discharge waters. Elevated concentrations of sodium in the soil appear to be due to consistent exposure to CBM waters. Clay-loam soils in the study area, which have a much larger specific surface area than the sandy soils, readily allow sodium ions to adsorb quickly to exchange sites. There was no significant relation between increasing water SAR values and increasing sediment SAR values downstream; however, soils exposed to the CBM water ranged from the moderate to severe SAR hazard index. Native vegetation species richness was highest at the reference (upland and gully) and impacted upland sites. The impacted gully had the greatest percent composition of introduced vegetation species. Salt-tolerant species had the greatest richness at the impacted gully, implicating a potential threat of invasion and competition to established native vegetation. CBM waters could have detrimental impacts to the local ecosystem, causing dispersion of soils and making it difficult for native vegetation to exist. These waters could also have a devastating effect on agricultural production operations and long-term water quality.

  10. Diversity and composition of understory vegetation in the tropical seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Jiang-Xia; Tang, Jian-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests vegetation and community research have tended to focus on the tree component, and limited attention has been paid to understory vegetation. Species diversity and composition of the understory of tropical seasonal rain forest were inventoried in a 625 m2 area (for sapling layer) and a 100 m2 area (for herb/seedling layer) in three 1 ha plots. We found 3068 individuals belonging to 309 species, 192 genera and 89 families. The most important family as determined by the Family Importance Value (FIV) was Rubiaceae in both sapling and herb/seedling layers. In terms of Importance Value Index (IVI), the shrub Mycetia gracilis (Rubiaceae) was the most important species in the sapling layer and the pteridophyte Selaginella delicatula (Selaginellaceae) was the most ecological significant species in the herb/seedling layer. Much more vascular plant species were registered in the understory than in the tree layer totaled among the three plots. The species diversity did not differ significantly among the tree layer, sapling layer and herb/seedling layer. Given that we still know little about the understory plant community for growth forms other than trees, the results from the present study indicate that more attention should be paid to the understory vegetation during the decision-making process for biodiversity conservation in the tropical forests. PMID:21513205

  11. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed.

  12. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. PMID:26742616

  13. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  14. A model of goal directed vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to explore factors underlying parents' motivations to use vegetable parenting practices (VPP) using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) (an adaptation of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior) as the theoretical basis for qualitative interviews. ...

  15. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Species Diversity: The Utility of Integrated Airborne Hyperspectral and Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Keith Stuart

    The change, reduction, or extinction of species is a major issue currently facing the Earth. Efforts are underway to measure, monitor, and protect habitats that contain high species diversity. Remote sensing technology shows extreme value for monitoring species diversity by mapping ecosystems and using those land cover maps or other derived data as proxies to species number and distribution. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) consists of remote sensing instruments such as an imaging spectrometer, a full-waveform lidar, and a high-resolution color camera. AOP collected data over the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in May 2014. A majority of the OSBS site is covered by the Sandhill ecosystem, which contains a very high diversity of vegetation species and is a native habitat for several threatened fauna species. The research presented here investigates ways to analyze the AOP data to map ecosystems at the OSBS site. The research attempts to leverage the high spatial resolution data and study the variability of the data within a ground plot scale along with integrating data from the different sensors. Mathematical features are derived from the data and brought into a decision tree classification algorithm (rpart), in order to create an ecosystem map for the site. The hyperspectral and lidar features serve as proxies for chemical, functional, and structural differences in the vegetation types for each of the ecosystems. K-folds cross validation shows a training accuracy of 91%, a validation accuracy of 78%, and a 66% accuracy using independent ground validation. The results presented here represent an important contribution to utilizing integrated hyperspectral and lidar remote sensing data for ecosystem mapping, by relating the spatial variability of the data within a ground plot scale to a collection of vegetation types that make up a given ecosystem.

  16. Fire disturbance and vegetation dynamics : analysis and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonicke, Kirsten

    2003-04-01

    Studies of the role of disturbance in vegetation or ecosystems showed that disturbances are an essential and intrinsic element of ecosystems that contribute substantially to ecosystem health, to structural diversity of ecosystems and to nutrient cycling at the local as well as global level. Fire as a grassland, bush or forest fire is a special disturbance agent, since it is caused by biotic as well abiotic environmental factors. Fire affects biogeochemical cycles and plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by releasing climate-sensitive trace gases and aerosols, and thus in the global carbon cycle by releasing approximately 3.9 Gt C p.a. through biomass burning. A combined model to describe effects and feedbacks between fire and vegetation became relevant as changes in fire regimes due to land use and land management were observed and the global dimension of biomass burnt as an important carbon flux to the atmosphere, its influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate as well as vegetation dynamics were emphasized. The existing modelling approaches would not allow these investigations. As a consequence, an optimal set of variables that best describes fire occurrence, fire spread and its effects in ecosystems had to be defined, which can simulate observed fire regimes and help to analyse interactions between fire and vegetation dynamics as well as to allude to the reasons behind changing fire regimes. Especially, dynamic links between vegetation, climate and fire processes are required to analyse dynamic feedbacks and effects of changes of single environmental factors. This led us to the point, where new fire models had to be developed that would allow the investigations, mentioned above, and could help to improve our understanding of the role of fire in global ecology. In conclusion of the thesis, one can state that moisture conditions, its persistence over time and fuel load are the important components that describe global fire pattern. If time series of

  17. Localised pattern formation in a model for dryland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dawes, J H P; Williams, J L M

    2016-07-01

    We analyse the model for vegetation growth in a semi-arid landscape proposed by von Hardenberg et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:198101, 2001), which consists of two parabolic partial differential equations that describe the evolution in space and time of the water content of the soil and the level of vegetation. This model is a generalisation of one proposed by Klausmeier but it contains additional terms that capture additional physical effects. By considering the limit in which the diffusion of water in the soil is much faster than the spread of vegetation, we reduce the system to an asymptotically simpler parabolic-elliptic system of equations that describes small amplitude instabilities of the uniform vegetated state. We carry out a thorough weakly nonlinear analysis to investigate bifurcations and pattern formation in the reduced model. We find that the pattern forming instabilities are subcritical except in a small region of parameter space. In the original model at large amplitude there are localised solutions, organised by homoclinic snaking curves. The resulting bifurcation structure is well known from other models for pattern forming systems. Taken together our results describe how the von Hardenberg model displays a sequence of (often hysteretic) transitions from a non-vegetated state, to localised patches of vegetation that exist with uniform low-level vegetation, to periodic patterns, to higher-level uniform vegetation as the precipitation parameter increases.

  18. INTERCOMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE VEGETATION DATABASES FOR REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation cover data are used to characterize several regional air quality modeling processes, including the calculation of heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes with the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) and the estimate of biogenic volatile organic compound and nitric oxide...

  19. Next generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiter, S.; Higgins, S.; Langan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are a powerful tool to project past, current and future vegetation patterns and the associated biogeochemical cycles. However, most models are limited by their representation of vegetation by using static and pre-defined plant functional types and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve dynamic vegetation models. We present a trait- and individual-based dynamic vegetation model, the aDGVM2, that allows individual plants to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how individual plants grow, compete and reproduce under the given biotic and abiotic conditions. A genetic optimization algorithm is used to simulate trait inheritance and reproductive isolation between individuals. These model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are adapted to biotic and abiotic conditions. We show (1) that the aDGVM2 can simulate coarse vegetation patterns in Africa, (2) that changes in the environmental conditions and disturbances strongly influence trait diversity and the assembled plant communities by influencing traits such as leaf phenology and carbon allocation patterns of individual plants and (3) that communities do not necessarily return to the initial state when environmental conditions return to the initial state. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current models and allows novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change. We believe that the aDGVM2 approach could foster collaborations between research communities that focus on functional plant ecology, plant competition, plant physiology and Earth system science.

  20. Freshwater river diversions for marsh restoration in Louisiana: Twenty-six years of changing vegetative cover and marsh area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Michael S.; Riter, J. C. Alexis; Turner, R. Eugene

    2011-08-01

    The restoration of Louisiana's coastal wetlands will be one of the largest, most costly and longest environmental remediation projects undertaken. We use Landsat data to show that freshwater diversions, a major restoration strategy, have not increased vegetation and marsh coverage in three freshwater diversions operating for ˜19 years. Two analytic methods indicate no significant changes in either relative vegetation or overall marsh area from 1984 to 2005 in zones closest to diversion inlets. After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, these zones sustained dramatic and enduring losses in vegetation and overall marsh area, whereas the changes in similar marshes of the adjacent reference sites were relatively moderate and short-lived. We suggest that this vulnerability to storm damage reflects the introduction of nutrients in the freshwater diversions (that add insignificant amounts of additional sediments), which promotes poor rhizome and root growth in marshes where below-ground biomass historically played the dominant role in vertical accretion.

  1. Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

  2. Gradient Analysis: A new paradigm in vegetation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J.; Cushman, S.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation remote sensing has commonly depended on a-priory definitions of vegetation communities that do not necessarily account for scale or specific applications. These classification schemes convolve species relationships and provide discrete representation of data that is inherently continuous in nature. We introduce an analytical hierarchy, where a continuous gradient of vegetation occurrence, structure, or suitability is the foundation, and all subsequent levels in the hierarchy are derived from this gradient. By starting with a continuous measurement of vegetation a coherent down-scaling strategy can be developed, thus avoiding many statistical and aggregation issues. This analytical framework allows for integration of ecological theory including niche, adaptation, and meta-populations. We use a random forest niche model and Lidar derived structural variables to demonstrate vegetation gradients. We then introduce a few simple landscape metrics for analyzing gradients. Finally, we demonstrate how this data can be integrated into analysis addressing climate change and habitat relationships.

  3. Assessing global vegetation activity using spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Vera L.; van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of modelling vegetation activity using a hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal model. This approach allows modelling changes in vegetation and climate simultaneous in space and time. Changes of vegetation activity such as phenology are modelled as a dynamic process depending on climate variability in both space and time. Additionally, differences in observed vegetation status can be contributed to other abiotic ecosystem properties, e.g. soil and terrain properties. Although these properties do not change in time, they do change in space and may provide valuable information in addition to the climate dynamics. The spatio-temporal Bayesian models were calibrated at a regional scale because the local trends in space and time can be better captured by the model. The regional subsets were defined according to the SREX segmentation, as defined by the IPCC. Each region is considered being relatively homogeneous in terms of large-scale climate and biomes, still capturing small-scale (grid-cell level) variability. Modelling within these regions is hence expected to be less uncertain due to the absence of these large-scale patterns, compared to a global approach. This overall modelling approach allows the comparison of model behavior for the different regions and may provide insights on the main dynamic processes driving the interaction between vegetation and climate within different regions. The data employed in this study encompasses the global datasets for soil properties (SoilGrids), terrain properties (Global Relief Model based on SRTM DEM and ETOPO), monthly time series of satellite-derived vegetation indices (GIMMS NDVI3g) and climate variables (Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset). The findings proved the potential of a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling approach for assessing vegetation dynamics, at a regional scale. The observed interrelationships of the employed data and the different spatial and temporal trends support

  4. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  5. Neogene and Quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hammen, Thomas; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-04-01

    The neotropical Amazonian and Andean plant diversity developed mainly during the Tertiary. In Amazonia, Miocene floral diversity seems considerably higher than today. During the Neogene, tropical taxa entered newly created montane area, and montane taxa entered the tropical lowlands. The general decrease of temperature during the upper Neogene and especially during the Quaternary glacial periods may have caused considerable extinctions in the lowlands. Representation of pollen of apparently principally montane taxa ( Podocarpus, Hedyosmum) in Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary sediments of Amazonia and surroundings, is still difficult to interpret in terms of temperature decrease at low elevation. Changes in precipitation may have profound impact on the composition of vegetation communities; Ilex and Melastomataceae increase significantly in many glacial pollen records. Increase of Weinmannia in Amazonian pollen records seems the best indicator of downward migration of montane vegetation belts. A temperature lowering at sea-level of 4.5 ±1°C during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) seems reasonable; it may have caused a downslope migration of some 700 m of the lower montane vegetation belt; lower montane arboreal species may have been able to grow in higher elevation areas (>500 m) of Amazonia, increasing background pollen values of montane taxa in the area. Difference between a cool and wet Middle Pleniglacial (60-28 ka BP), and a cold and dry Upper Pleniglacial (28-14 ka BP; thus including the LGM) is evident in Andean and Amazonian records; statements about environmental conditions of the ice-age Amazon should be specified chronologically. The Middle Pleniglacial is a time of accumulation of fluvial sediments. The Upper Pleniglacial is a time of incision of the rivers in their sediments; sedimentation started again in the Lateglacial (since ca. 13 ka BP) and the Holocene, when lake levels rose again. Based on simplified considerations of precipitation changes and

  6. Diversity in proteinase specificity of thermophilic lactobacilli as revealed by hydrolysis of dairy and vegetable proteins.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Espeche Turbay, María Beatriz; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Hebert, Elvira María

    2013-09-01

    Ability of industrially relevant species of thermophilic lactobacilli strains to hydrolyze proteins from animal (caseins and β-lactoglobulin) and vegetable (soybean and wheat) sources, as well as influence of peptide content of growth medium on cell envelope-associated proteinase (CEP) activity, was evaluated. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (CRL 581 and 654), L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CRL 454 and 656), Lactobacillus acidophilus (CRL 636 and 1063), and Lactobacillus helveticus (CRL 1062 and 1177) were grown in a chemically defined medium supplemented or not with 1 % Casitone. All strains hydrolyzed mainly β-casein, while degradation of αs-caseins was strain dependent. Contrariwise, κ-Casein was poorly degraded by the studied lactobacilli. β-Lactoglobulin was mainly hydrolyzed by CRL 656, CRL 636, and CRL 1062 strains. The L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656, and L. helveticus CRL 1177 degraded gliadins in high extent, while the L. acidophilus and L. helveticus strains highly hydrolyzed soy proteins. Proteinase production was inhibited by Casitone, the most affected being the L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis species. This study highlights the importance of proteolytic diversity of lactobacilli for rational strain selection when formulating hydrolyzed dairy or vegetable food products.

  7. Cultivable bacterial diversity along the altitudinal zonation and vegetation range of tropical Eastern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Lyngwi, Nathaniel A; Koijam, Khedarani; Sharma, D; Joshi, S R

    2013-03-01

    The Northeastern part of India sprawls over an area of 262 379km2 in the Eastern Himalayan range. This constitutes a biodiversity hotspot with high levels of biodiversity and endemism; unfortunately, is also a poorly known area, especially on its microbial diversity. In this study, we assessed cultivable soil bacterial diversity and distribution from lowlands to highlands (34 to 3 990m.a.s.l.). Soil physico-chemical parameters and forest types across the different altitudes were characterized and correlated with bacterial distribution and diversity. Microbes from the soil samples were grown in Nutrient, Muller Hinton and Luria-Bertani agar plates and were initially characterized using biochemical methods. Parameters like dehydrogenase and urease activities, temperature, moisture content, pH, carbon content, bulk density of the sampled soil were measured for each site. Representative isolates were also subjected to 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 155 cultivable bacterial isolates were characterized which were analyzed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. The tropical and sub-tropical forests supported higher bacterial diversity compared to temperate pine, temperate conifer, and sub-alpine rhododendron forests. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis revealed that Firmicutes was the most common group followed by Proteobacreria and Bacteroidetes. Species belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the most abundant. Bacterial CFU showed positive but insignificant correlation with soil parameters like pH (r=0.208), soil temperature (r=0.303), ambient temperature (r=0.443), soil carbon content (r=0.525), soil bulk density (r=0.268), soil urease (r=0.549) and soil dehydrogenase (r=0.492). Altitude (r=-0.561) and soil moisture content (r=-0.051) showed negative correlation. Altitudinal gradient along with the vegetation and soil physico-chemical parameters were found to influence bacterial diversity and distribution. This study points out that this is

  8. Tracking vegetation phenology across diverse North American biomes using PhenoCam imagery: A new, publicly-available dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation phenology controls the seasonality of many ecosystem processes, as well as numerous biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Phenology is highly sensitive to climate change and variability, and is thus a key aspect of global change ecology. The goal of the PhenoCam network is to serve as a long-term, continental-scale, phenological observatory. The network uses repeat digital photography—images captured using conventional, visible-wavelength, automated digital cameras—to characterize vegetation phenology in diverse ecosystems across North America and around the world. At present, imagery from over 200 research sites, spanning a wide range of ecoregions, climate zones, and plant functional types, is currently being archived and processed in near-real-time through the PhenoCam project web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/). Data derived from PhenoCam imagery have been previously used to evaluate satellite phenology products, to constrain and test new phenology models, to understand relationships between canopy phenology and ecosystem processes, and to study the seasonal changes in leaf-level physiology that are associated with changes in leaf color. I will describe a new, publicly-available phenological dataset, derived from over 600 site-years of PhenoCam imagery. For each archived image (ca. 5 million), we extracted RGB (red, green, blue) color channel information, with means and other statistics calculated across a region-of-interest (ROI) delineating a specific vegetation type. From the high-frequency (typically, 30 minute) imagery, we derived time series characterizing vegetation color, including "canopy greenness", processed to 1- and 3-day intervals. For ecosystems with a single annual cycle of vegetation activity, we derived estimates, with uncertainties, for the start, middle, and end of spring and autumn phenological transitions. Given the lack of multi-year, standardized, and geographically distributed phenological data for North America, we

  9. A heat balance model for partially vegetated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. Q.; Fang, X. P.; Zhang, H. X.; Yang, W.; Zhu, C. C.

    1997-08-01

    A steady-state thermal balance model has been designed to enable the prediction of the radiative temperature of partially vegetated surfaces. Vegetation is assumed to be a horizontally homogeneous but porous layer partially covering a soil surface. Short-wave and long-wave energy fluxes absorbed within the vegetation are estimated by solving simplified radiation equations. Sensible and latent heat exchange is estimated using a logarithmic and linear wind profile above the vegetation and a modified exponential profile within the vegetation. The stomatal resistance for latent heat flux is estimated from the equation summarizing the effect of solar irradiance, air temperature, and vapor pressure deficit on stomatal conductance. Based on the energy balance and the heat fluxes and water vapor continuity in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, the temperature of the foliage elements and the soil underneath is determined. The model has been tested by comparing simulated radiative temperatures with observed data gathered in short grass and a wheat field. The simulated and measured results match reasonably well. In order to examine whether the model responds to the change of a specific weather or material parameter, a sensitivity analysis of the model is considered.

  10. Paleocene floral diversities and turnover events in eastern North America and their relation to diversity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses angiosperm pollen taxon turnover (first and last appearance) and diversity events as metrics to describe the Paleocene floral history of the eastern Gulf Coast; data are from 64 samples and 67 angiosperm pollen taxa. Angiosperm pollen diversity was very low at the beginning of the Paleocene, rose slowly and then somewhat more rapidly to a maximum for the epoch in the middle of the late Paleoceneas a result of the maximum in rate of first appearances during the late early Paleocene and earliest late Paleocene. Diversity then dropped very rapidly at or near the end of the epoch as the rate of last appearances reached its maximum, resulting in the Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event. The latest Paleocene diversity decline coincided with an increase in mean annual temperature and probably in rainfall, representing the beginning of the climatic maximum for the Tertiary which characterized the early Eocene. The increase in diversity of early Paleocene floras in the eastern Gulf Coast resulted from exploitation of unfilled ecospace originating from (1) low regional diversity following the Terminal Cretaceous Extinction Event, and (2) creation of many new niches during the Paleocene, resulting, according to megafloral evidence, from a change to a new vegetation type (multistratal tropical rainforest) brought about by an increase in rainfall. The slow rate of recovery of earliest Paleocene angiosperm diversity in the eastern Gulf Coast may be explained in part by the diversity-dependence model of Carr and Kitchell (1980). However, additional factors may have contributed to the slow recovery: (1) the adverse terminal Cretaceous climates may have extended into the early Paleocene, (2) the initial Paleocene environment of the eastern Gulf Coast may have contained relatively few niches, (3) some earliest Paleocene angiosperms, particularly trees, may have had inherently poor capabilities for rapid evolution, and (4) there was a lack of significant immigration of

  11. Modeling the interaction between flow and highly flexible aquatic vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, J. T.; Uittenbogaard, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has an important role in estuaries and rivers by acting as bed stabilizer, filter, food source, and nursing area. However, macrophyte populations worldwide are under high anthropogenic pressure. Protection and restoration efforts will benefit from more insight into the interaction between vegetation, currents, waves, and sediment transport. Most aquatic plants are very flexible, implying that their shape and hence their drag and turbulence production depend on the flow conditions. We have developed a numerical simulation model that describes this dynamic interaction between very flexible vegetation and a time-varying flow, using the sea grass Zostera marina as an example. The model consists of two parts: an existing 1DV k-ɛ turbulence model simulating the flow combined with a new model simulating the bending of the plants, based on a force balance that takes account of both vegetation position and buoyancy. We validated this model using observations of positions of flexible plastic strips and of the forces they are subjected to, as well as hydrodynamic measurements. The model predicts important properties like the forces on plants, flow velocity profiles, and turbulence characteristics well. Although the validation data are limited, the results are sufficiently encouraging to consider our model to be of generic value in studying flow processes in fields of flexible vegetation.

  12. Development of the IAP Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Li, Fang; Song, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    The IAP Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (IAP-DGVM) has been developed to simulate the distribution and structure of global vegetation within the framework of Earth System Models. It incorporates our group's recent developments of major model components such as the shrub sub-model, establishment and competition parameterization schemes, and a process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity. The model has 12 plant functional types, including seven tree, two shrub, and three grass types, plus bare soil. Different PFTs are allowed to coexist within a grid cell, and their state variables are updated by various governing equations describing vegetation processes from fine-scale biogeophysics and biogeochemistry, to individual and population dynamics, to large-scale biogeography. Environmental disturbance due to fire not only affects regional vegetation competition, but also influences atmospheric chemistry and aerosol emissions. Simulations under observed atmospheric conditions showed that the model can correctly reproduce the global distribution of trees, shrubs, grasses, and bare soil. The simulated global dominant vegetation types reproduce the transition from forest to grassland (savanna) in the tropical region, and from forest to shrubland in the boreal region, but overestimate the region of temperate forest.

  13. [Simulation of vegetation indices optimizing under retrieval of vegetation biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Zhou, Bo-Tian; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Li, Lu-Feng

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the sensitivities of three vegetation biochemical parameters [chlorophyll content (Cab), leaf water content (Cw), and leaf area index (LAI)] to the changes of canopy reflectance, with the effects of each parameter on the wavelength regions of canopy reflectance considered, and selected three vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function. Then, the Cab, Cw, and LAI were estimated, based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm and PROSPECT + SAIL model. The results showed that retrieval efficiency with vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function was better than that with all spectral reflectance. The correlation coefficients (R2) between the measured and estimated values of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 90.8%, 95.7%, and 99.7%, and the root mean square errors of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 4.73 microg x cm(-2), 0.001 g x cm(-2), and 0.08, respectively. It was suggested that to adopt vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function could effectively improve the efficiency and precision of the retrieval of biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model.

  14. Modelling tundra vegetation response to recent arctic warming.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Smith, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic land area has warmed by > 1 °C in the last 30 years and there is evidence that this has led to increased productivity and stature of tundra vegetation and reduced albedo, effecting a positive (amplifying) feedback to climate warming. We applied an individual-based dynamic vegetation model over the Arctic forced by observed climate and atmospheric CO(2) for 1980-2006. Averaged over the study area, the model simulated increases in primary production and leaf area index, and an increasing representation of shrubs and trees in vegetation. The main underlying mechanism was a warming-driven increase in growing season length, enhancing the production of shrubs and trees to the detriment of shaded ground-level vegetation. The simulated vegetation changes were estimated to correspond to a 1.75 % decline in snow-season albedo. Implications for modelling future climate impacts on Arctic ecosystems and for the incorporation of biogeophysical feedback mechanisms in Arctic system models are discussed. PMID:22864701

  15. Modeling soil water content for vegetation modeling improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfrani, Carmen; Buri, Aline; Zingg, Barbara; Vittoz, Pascal; Verrecchia, Eric; Guisan, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.55 to 0.65. Bivariate models with higher performance were the one using OM and river distance for pF < 2.7 and the one using clay content and topography (convexity) for pF > 2.7.We found that adding SWC improves vegetation models. It improves 51%-64% (depending on pF) of plant SDMs. In 6-10% of SDMs, SWC was the most important variable. In conclusion, this study emphasized that important information is still missing in SDMs to capture all abiotic drivers of plant species distributions.

  16. Using Ecosystem Experiments to Improve Vegetation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Medlyn, Belinda; Zaehle, S; DeKauwe, Martin G.; Walker, Anthony P.; Dietze, Michael; Hanson, Paul J.; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul; Luo, Yiqi; Parton, William; Prentice, I. Collin; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Shusen; Wang, Yingping; Weng, Ensheng; Iversen, Colleen M.; McCarthy, Heather R.; Warren, Jeffrey; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2015-05-21

    Ecosystem responses to rising CO2 concentrations are a major source of uncertainty in climate change projections. Data from ecosystem-scale Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a unique opportunity to reduce this uncertainty. The recent FACE Model–Data Synthesis project aimed to use the information gathered in two forest FACE experiments to assess and improve land ecosystem models. A new 'assumption-centred' model intercomparison approach was used, in which participating models were evaluated against experimental data based on the ways in which they represent key ecological processes. Identifying and evaluating the main assumptions caused differences among models, and the assumption-centered approach produced a clear roadmap for reducing model uncertainty. We explain this approach and summarize the resulting research agenda. We encourage the application of this approach in other model intercomparison projects to fundamentally improve predictive understanding of the Earth system.

  17. Using Ecosystem Experiments to Improve Vegetation Models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Medlyn, Belinda; Zaehle, S; DeKauwe, Martin G.; Walker, Anthony P.; Dietze, Michael; Hanson, Paul J.; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul; Luo, Yiqi; Parton, William; et al

    2015-05-21

    Ecosystem responses to rising CO2 concentrations are a major source of uncertainty in climate change projections. Data from ecosystem-scale Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a unique opportunity to reduce this uncertainty. The recent FACE Model–Data Synthesis project aimed to use the information gathered in two forest FACE experiments to assess and improve land ecosystem models. A new 'assumption-centred' model intercomparison approach was used, in which participating models were evaluated against experimental data based on the ways in which they represent key ecological processes. Identifying and evaluating the main assumptions caused differences among models, and the assumption-centered approach produced amore » clear roadmap for reducing model uncertainty. We explain this approach and summarize the resulting research agenda. We encourage the application of this approach in other model intercomparison projects to fundamentally improve predictive understanding of the Earth system.« less

  18. Dynamical vegetation-atmosphere modelling of the boreal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Stordal, Frode; Berntsen, Terje K.; Bryn, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation interacts with climate on seasonal to inter-annual time scales through albedo, roughness, evapotranspiration, CO2 sequestration and by influencing snow accumulation and ablation. The Scandinavian mountains and high latitudes is a hot spot for land-atmosphere feedback, as the future's increased winter minimum temperature supports a boreal tree line advance, lowering the surface albedo. The northern ecosystem is dominated by mires, boreal forests and alpine heaths, in addition to agricultural land. Model studies have shown that vegetation-climate feedbacks are strong enough to lead to regime shifts in vegetation and local climate in boreal regions. Biogeophysical factors, such as albedo, the Bowen ratio, and surface roughness, are all involved in these feedbacks, and they are also altered by land use change such as reforestation. For calculations of the dynamical coupling between the atmosphere and the vegetation we have used the Earth System Model NorESM, which includes several advanced features in its land surface model (CLM4.5), such as the inclusion of the radiative forcing due to black carbon and dust deposit onto snow, improved representation of fire, permafrost and its hydrological impact, a new snow cover fraction parameterization reflecting the hysteresis in fractional snow cover for a given snow depth between accumulation and melt phases, as well as dynamic vegetation coupled with carbon-nitrogen cycles. These new features improve the representation of surface albedo feedback in Arctic. We have performed experiments with coupled as well fixed ocean for the current as a quadrupled atmospheric CO2 situation. This model configuration is used to study changes in vegetation in a high end radiative forcing case. It is contrasted with an experiment where vegetation dynamics is neglected. Changes in the features of the vegetation along with surface fluxes, albedo and atmospheric temperatures are analysed, with main emphasis on the boreal zone. In

  19. Trend change detection in vegetation greenness time series: Contrasting methodologies, data sets and global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Verbesselt, Jan; Mahecha, Miguel; Neigh, Christopher; Thonicke, Kirsten; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed satellite datasets and time series analysis methods allow the quantification of changes in vegetation greenness. However, the estimation of trends and trend changes depend often on the applied time series analysis method and the used satellite dataset. Thus, the environmental plausibility of the estimated trends and trend breakpoints is often questionable. We compared four trend and trend change detection methods to assess their performance. We applied the methods to NDVI and FAPAR time series from global satellite datasets and from global vegetation models. We generated surrogate time series with known trends and breakpoints and applied the methods to re-detect the known trends and trend changes. Our results demonstrate that the performance of methods decrease with increasing inter-annual variability of the time series. An overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI time series can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal-trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. The application of the trend change detection methods to real time series allows assessing the multi-method ensemble of trend estimates. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the environmental plausibility of these trend estimates is challenging. For example, some methods suggest a weakening of greening trends in the Tundra after the early 2000s while other methods suggest an ongoing greening. Comparison with vegetation model simulations suggest that this weakening is not an artefact of the satellite dataset or of the applied trend change detection method but might be caused by real changes in environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate the need for a critical appraisal of trend change detection methods. All methods require a careful assessment of the environmental plausibility of detected trend changes in vegetation greenness time series.

  20. Analyzing Groundwater-Vegetation Interactions using a Dynamic Agroecosystem Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, M. E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Loheide, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater is a crucial source of water for vegetation, especially in arid and semiarid environments in many regions around the world and its availability controls the distribution and the physiology of plant species. However, the impact of groundwater on vegetation is not completely understood mainly due to the limited ability of current models to simulate groundwater and vegetation interactions. Existing land surface models (LSM) simulate water and energy fluxes among soil-vegetation-atmosphere systems in a process-based way, but lack a detailed simulation of soil water movement in the unsaturated zone, particularly when groundwater is present. Furthermore, there are only a few available LSM and/or process based vegetation models that can simulate agroecosystems, which are as important to understand as natural ecosystems considering they occupy approximately 40% of the global land surface. On the other hand, current physically-based, variably-saturated soil water flux models are able to accurately simulate water movement in the unsaturated zone. However, they often lack a detailed plant physiology component making it difficult to understand plant responses to both variations in energy fluxes and upward capillary fluxes in shallow groundwater environments. To connect these two different model types, the objectives of this study are (1) to incorporate an advanced dynamic agroecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) and a variably saturated soil water flow model (Hydrus-1D) into a single framework that is capable of simulating groundwater and plant/crop system interactions in a fully, physically-based fashion, and (2) to apply this model using observed climate records to better understand the responses of managed and natural ecosystems to varied water table depths under inter-annual climate forcing conditions. The model results show that as the water table becomes shallower, (1) soil temperature decreases due to the moisture content driven effects on the thermal diffusivity of

  1. A new offline dust cycle model that includes dynamic vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Sarah; Lunt, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Current offline dust cycle models are unable to predict variability in the extent of arid and semi-arid regions caused by the transient response of vegetation cover to the climate. As a consequence, it is not possible to test whether inter-annual variability in the dust loading is caused by vegetation changes or other processes. A new dust cycle model is presented which uses the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (Sitch et al., 2003) to calculate time varying dust sources. Surface emissions are calculated by simulating the processes of saltation and sandblasting (Tegen et al., 2002). Dust particles are transported as independent tracers within the TOMCAT chemical transport (Chipperfield, 2006). Dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling and sub-cloud scavenging. To improve the performance of the model, threshold values for vegetation cover, soil moisture, snow depth and threshold friction velocity, used to determine surface emissions are tuned. The effectiveness of three sub-cloud scavenging schemes are also tested. The tuning experiments are evaluated against multiple measurement datasets. The tuned model is used to investigate whether changes in vegetation cover in the Sahel can explain the four-fold increase in dust concentrations measured at Barbados during the 1980s relative to the 1960s (Prospero and Nees, 1986). Results show there was an expansion of the Sahara in 1984 relative to 1966 resulting in a doubling of emissions from the Sahel. However, this alone is not enough to account for the high dust concentrations measured at Barbados. This finding adds strength to the hypothesis that human induced soil degradation in North Africa may be responsible for the increase in high dust concentrations at Barbados during the 1980s relative to the 1960s. Chipperfield, M. P. (2006). "New version of the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT off-line chemical transport model: Intercomparison of stratospheric tracer experiments." Quarterly Journal of the Royal

  2. A model for seed dispersion and vegetation growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jaqueline Maria; Vieira Kritz, Maurício

    2016-08-01

    The study of processes associated with vegetation grow is very important to understand the dynamics of flooded ecosystems and their sustainable management. We present a cell-centered individual-based probabilistic model for the dynamics of tree-populations, that is further tailored towards the environmental conditions present in the Amazon floodplains.

  3. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  4. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. PMID:27185350

  5. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock.

  6. Potential climatic impacts of vegetation change: A regional modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Copeland, J.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The human species has been modifying the landscape long before the development of modern agrarian techniques. Much of the land area of the conterminous United States is currently used for agricultural production. In certain regions this change in vegetative cover from its natural state may have led to local climatic change. A regional climate version of the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System was used to assess the impact of a natural versus current vegetation distribution on the weather and climate of July 1989. The results indicate that coherent regions of substantial changes, of both positive and negative sign, in screen height temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation are a possible consequence of land use change throughout the United States. The simulated changes in the screen height quantities were closely related to changes in the vegetation parameters of albedo, roughness length, leaf area index, and fractional coverage. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Discrete random media techniques for microwave modeling of vegetated terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Roger H.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing models of vegetated terrain are investigated. The problem is to determine canopy characteristics such as biomass, canopy height, and the moisture of the underlying soil. The report describes a discrete scatter model which has been employed to model backscatter in the active (radar) case and to model brightness temperature in the passive (radiometric) case. The acquisition of ground truth data is discussed, as well as the comparison of theory and experiment. The overall conclusion of the work has been that the discrete scatter model in conjunction with efficient scatter algorithms and the distorted Born approximation is a most appropriate methodology to use for modeling purposes in the microwave region.

  8. Vegetation Dynamics And Soil Moisture: Consequences For Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiola-Claramonte, M.; Troch, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Current global population growth and economical development accelerates land cover conversion in many parts of the world. Introducing non-native species and woody species encroachment, with different water demands, can affect the partitioning of hydrological fluxes. The impacts on the hydrologic cycle at local to regional scales are poorly understood. The present study investigates the hydrologic implications of land use conversion from native vegetation to rubber. We first compare the vegetation dynamics of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), a non- native specie in Southeast Asia, to the other main vegetation types in the study area. The experimental catchment, Nam Ken (69km 2), is located in the Xishuangbanna Prefecture (21 °N, 100 °E), in the south of Yunnan province in South China. From 2005 to 2006, we collected continuous records of 2 m deep soil moisture profiles in four different land covers (tea, secondary forest, grassland and rubber), and measured surface radiation in tea and rubber canopies. Our observations show that root water uptake by rubber during the dry season is controlled by the change of day-length, whereas water demand of the native vegetation starts with the arrival of the first monsoon rainfall. The different root water uptake dynamics of rubber result in distinct depletion of deeper layer soil moisture. Traditional evapotranspiration and soil moisture models are unable to simulate this specific behavior, thus a different conceptual model is needed to predict hydrologic changes due to land use conversion in the area.

  9. Microwave model prediction and verifications for vegetated terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    To understand the scattering properties of a deciduous and a coniferous type vegetation scattering models were developed assuming either a disc type leaf or a needle type leaf. The major effort is to calculate the corresponding scattering phase functions and then each of the functions is used in a radiative transfer formulation to compute the scattering intensity and consequently the scattering coefficient. The radiative transfer formulation takes into account the irregular ground surface by including the rough soil surface in the boundary condition. Thus, the scattering model accounts for volume scattering inside the vegetation layer, the surface scattering from the ground and the interaction between scattering from the soil surface and the vegetation volume. The contribution to backscattering by each of the three scattering mechanisms is illustrated along with the effects of each layer or surface parameter. The major difference between the two types of vegetation is that when the incident wavelength is comparable to the size of the leaf there is a peak appearing in the mid angular region of the backscattering curve for the disc type leaf whereas it is a dip in the same region for a needle type leaf.

  10. A Novel Approach to Modeling Vegetation Distributions and Analyzing Vegetation Sensitivity Through Trait-Climate Relationships In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Peng, C.; Zhu, Q.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that current DGVMs have suffered insufficient realism and hard to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT)-climate schemes. It is urgent to develop new approaches, like plant trait-based methods (FTs), to replace of PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating the vegetation sensitivity. In this research, we proposed a novel approach to modeling vegetation distributions and analyzing the vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationship in China. First, we aggregated data on three key FTs, including leaf mass per area (LMA), area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea), and mass-based leaf nitrogen (Nmass), from the available literatures. In addition, one structural trait of plant communities, leaf area index (LAI), was extracted from MODIS products across China. Second, we derived and developed trait-climate relationships and used different trait combinations in a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to model vegetation distribution. Finally, the GMM trained by the LMA-Nmass-LAI combination was applied to investigate the climate sensitivity of vegetation. The results demonstrated the following: (1) all four traits captured well the relationships between climate variables and traits, as well as effectively predicted vegetation distribution and helped analyzing environmental sensitivity; (2) the LMA-Nmass-LAI combination yielded an accuracy of 72.05% for simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem function, and was therefore selected for training GMMs; and (3) a sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing temperatures shifted the boundaries of most vegetation northward and westward. Because the forests in these regions are well adapted to growth under rainy conditions, increasing precipitation is predicted to expand the boundaries of forests compared with the baseline vegetation distribution

  11. A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanzheng; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Han; Xue, Wei; Lin, Guanghui; Wen, Zhongming; Chang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Liu, Guobin; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have suffered from insufficient realism and are difficult to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT) schemes. Therefore, new approaches, such as plant trait-based methods, are urgently needed to replace PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating vegetation sensitivity. As an important direction towards constructing next-generation DGVMs based on plant functional traits, we propose a novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China. The results demonstrated that a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) trained with a LMA-Nmass-LAI data combination yielded an accuracy of 72.82% in simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem functions. The new approach also performed well in analyses of vegetation sensitivity to different climatic scenarios. Although the trait-climate relationship is not the only candidate useful for predicting vegetation distributions and analysing climatic sensitivity, it sheds new light on the development of next-generation trait-based DGVMs. PMID:27052108

  12. A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanzheng; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Han; Xue, Wei; Lin, Guanghui; Wen, Zhongming; Chang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Liu, Guobin; Li, Shiqing

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have suffered from insufficient realism and are difficult to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT) schemes. Therefore, new approaches, such as plant trait-based methods, are urgently needed to replace PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating vegetation sensitivity. As an important direction towards constructing next-generation DGVMs based on plant functional traits, we propose a novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China. The results demonstrated that a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) trained with a LMA-Nmass-LAI data combination yielded an accuracy of 72.82% in simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem functions. The new approach also performed well in analyses of vegetation sensitivity to different climatic scenarios. Although the trait-climate relationship is not the only candidate useful for predicting vegetation distributions and analysing climatic sensitivity, it sheds new light on the development of next-generation trait-based DGVMs.

  13. A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzheng; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Han; Xue, Wei; Lin, Guanghui; Wen, Zhongming; Chang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Liu, Guobin; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have suffered from insufficient realism and are difficult to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT) schemes. Therefore, new approaches, such as plant trait-based methods, are urgently needed to replace PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating vegetation sensitivity. As an important direction towards constructing next-generation DGVMs based on plant functional traits, we propose a novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China. The results demonstrated that a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) trained with a LMA-Nmass-LAI data combination yielded an accuracy of 72.82% in simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem functions. The new approach also performed well in analyses of vegetation sensitivity to different climatic scenarios. Although the trait-climate relationship is not the only candidate useful for predicting vegetation distributions and analysing climatic sensitivity, it sheds new light on the development of next-generation trait-based DGVMs. PMID:27052108

  14. A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzheng; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Han; Xue, Wei; Lin, Guanghui; Wen, Zhongming; Chang, Jie; Wang, Meng; Liu, Guobin; Li, Shiqing

    2016-04-07

    Increasing evidence indicates that current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have suffered from insufficient realism and are difficult to improve, particularly because they are built on plant functional type (PFT) schemes. Therefore, new approaches, such as plant trait-based methods, are urgently needed to replace PFT schemes when predicting the distribution of vegetation and investigating vegetation sensitivity. As an important direction towards constructing next-generation DGVMs based on plant functional traits, we propose a novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China. The results demonstrated that a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) trained with a LMA-Nmass-LAI data combination yielded an accuracy of 72.82% in simulating vegetation distribution, providing more detailed parameter information regarding community structures and ecosystem functions. The new approach also performed well in analyses of vegetation sensitivity to different climatic scenarios. Although the trait-climate relationship is not the only candidate useful for predicting vegetation distributions and analysing climatic sensitivity, it sheds new light on the development of next-generation trait-based DGVMs.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Leaf Vegetables in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Yangkyun; Kim, Jonguk; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Se-ri; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Roh, Eunjung

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen on global basis. The current study investigated the genetic patterns in S. aureus isolates from leaf vegetables (n = 53). Additional isolates from livestock (n = 31) and humans (n = 27) were compared with the leaf vegetable isolates. Genes associated with toxins, antibiotic resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were analyzed. At least 1 enterotoxin-encoding gene (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see) was detected in 11 of 53 (20.75%) leaf vegetable isolates. When the agr (accessory gene regulator) grouping was analyzed, agr II was the major group, whereas agr IV was not present in leaf vegetable isolates. All S. aureus isolates from leaf vegetables were resistant to more than one of the antibiotics tested. Nineteen of 53 (35.85%) isolates from leaf vegetables exhibited multidrug-resistance, and 11 of these were MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus). A dendrogram displaying the composite types of S. aureus isolates from 3 origins was generated based on the combination of the toxin genes, agr genes, antibiotic resistance, and PFGE patterns. The isolates could be clustered into 8 major composite types. The genetic patterns of S. aureus isolates from leaf vegetables and humans were similar, whereas those from livestock had unique patterns. This suggests some S. aureus isolates from leaf vegetables to be of human origin.

  16. Pathogen Propagation Model with Superinfection in Vegetatively Propagated Plants on Lattice Space.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuma; Takada, Takenori

    2016-01-01

    Many clonal plants have two reproductive patterns, seed propagation and vegetative propagation. By vegetative propagation, plants reproduce the genetically identical offspring with a low mortality, because resources are supplied from the other individuals through interconnected ramets at vegetative-propagated offspring. However, the ramets transport not only resources but also systemic pathogen. Pathogens evolve to establish and spread widely within the plant population. The superinfection, which is defined as the ability that an established pathogen spreads widely by infecting to already-infected individuals with other strains of a pathogen, is important to the evolution of pathogens. We examine the dynamics of plant reproduction and pathogen propagation considering spatial structure and the effect of superinfection on genetic diversity of pathogen by analysis of several models, 1-strain and multiple-strain models, on two-dimensional square lattice. In the analysis of 1-strain model, we derive equilibrium value by mean-field approximation and pair approximation, and its local stability by Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion. In the multiple-strain models, we analyze the dynamics by numerical simulation of mean-field approximation, pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. Through the analyses, we show the effect of parameter values to dynamics of models, such as transition of dominant strain of pathogen, competition between plants and pathogens and density of individuals. As a result, (i) The strain with intermediate cost becomes dominant when both superinfection rate and growth rate are low. (ii) The competition between plants and pathogens occurs in the phase of coexistence of various strains by pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. (iii) Too high growth rate leads to the decrease of plant population in all models. (iv) Pathogens are easy to maintain their genetic diversity with low superinfection rate. However, if they do not superinfect, the

  17. Pathogen Propagation Model with Superinfection in Vegetatively Propagated Plants on Lattice Space

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yuma; Takada, Takenori

    2016-01-01

    Many clonal plants have two reproductive patterns, seed propagation and vegetative propagation. By vegetative propagation, plants reproduce the genetically identical offspring with a low mortality, because resources are supplied from the other individuals through interconnected ramets at vegetative-propagated offspring. However, the ramets transport not only resources but also systemic pathogen. Pathogens evolve to establish and spread widely within the plant population. The superinfection, which is defined as the ability that an established pathogen spreads widely by infecting to already-infected individuals with other strains of a pathogen, is important to the evolution of pathogens. We examine the dynamics of plant reproduction and pathogen propagation considering spatial structure and the effect of superinfection on genetic diversity of pathogen by analysis of several models, 1-strain and multiple-strain models, on two-dimensional square lattice. In the analysis of 1-strain model, we derive equilibrium value by mean-field approximation and pair approximation, and its local stability by Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion. In the multiple-strain models, we analyze the dynamics by numerical simulation of mean-field approximation, pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. Through the analyses, we show the effect of parameter values to dynamics of models, such as transition of dominant strain of pathogen, competition between plants and pathogens and density of individuals. As a result, (i) The strain with intermediate cost becomes dominant when both superinfection rate and growth rate are low. (ii) The competition between plants and pathogens occurs in the phase of coexistence of various strains by pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. (iii) Too high growth rate leads to the decrease of plant population in all models. (iv) Pathogens are easy to maintain their genetic diversity with low superinfection rate. However, if they do not superinfect, the

  18. Transitions between patterned states in vegetation models for semiarid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Karna; Riecke, Hermann; Silber, Mary

    2014-02-01

    A feature common to many models of vegetation pattern formation in semiarid ecosystems is a sequence of qualitatively different patterned states, "gaps → labyrinth → spots," that occurs as a parameter representing precipitation decreases. We explore the robustness of this "standard" sequence in the generic setting of a bifurcation problem on a hexagonal lattice, as well as in a particular reaction-diffusion model for vegetation pattern formation. Specifically, we consider a degeneracy of the bifurcation equations that creates a small bubble in parameter space in which stable small-amplitude patterned states may exist near two Turing bifurcations. Pattern transitions between these bifurcation points can then be analyzed in a weakly nonlinear framework. We find that a number of transition scenarios besides the standard sequence are generically possible, which calls into question the reliability of any particular pattern or sequence as a precursor to vegetation collapse. Additionally, we find that clues to the robustness of the standard sequence lie in the nonlinear details of a particular model.

  19. Transitions between patterned states in vegetation models for semiarid ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Karna; Riecke, Hermann; Silber, Mary

    2014-02-01

    A feature common to many models of vegetation pattern formation in semiarid ecosystems is a sequence of qualitatively different patterned states, "gaps → labyrinth → spots," that occurs as a parameter representing precipitation decreases. We explore the robustness of this "standard" sequence in the generic setting of a bifurcation problem on a hexagonal lattice, as well as in a particular reaction-diffusion model for vegetation pattern formation. Specifically, we consider a degeneracy of the bifurcation equations that creates a small bubble in parameter space in which stable small-amplitude patterned states may exist near two Turing bifurcations. Pattern transitions between these bifurcation points can then be analyzed in a weakly nonlinear framework. We find that a number of transition scenarios besides the standard sequence are generically possible, which calls into question the reliability of any particular pattern or sequence as a precursor to vegetation collapse. Additionally, we find that clues to the robustness of the standard sequence lie in the nonlinear details of a particular model.

  20. Geomorphic process and vegetation diversity in the active riverbed and the floodplain in the Kamikochi valley, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Kamikochi valley is located in a mountainous area in central Japan. The R. Azusa in this valley is a braided river with floodplains. Dense riparian forests cover the floodplains and fragmented small pioneer plant patches and isolated old pioneer trees are distributed in the active riverbed. This study aims to discuss the relationships between geomorphic processes of the river and vegetation diversity. Yearly mapping of the riverbed micro-landforms revealed that channel migrations and landform changes in the active riverbed occurs once every one or several years during a bankfull flood in the rainy season. Germination ages of riparian trees using a dendrochronological technique, their established layers and landform structure were examined to reconstruct floodplain dynamics. Major channel migrations destroyed the riparian forest repeatedly and the recent event occurred about 100 years ago. This caused a longitudinal zonal structure of the riparian forest vegetation, elm-fir forest, mature pioneer forest and young pioneer forests. The young pioneer forest is located alongside the present riverbed. The mature pioneer forest lies between the older elm-fir forests. The pioneer plants germinated simultaneously on the abandoned channel after channel migration. These trees became the mature pioneer forest. Ditches and lobes including boulders are found in the floodplain. The ditches extend parallel to the direction of the present and former channels. The lobes are distributed alongside them. Younger trees under the canopy grow on the lobes in the inner part of the floodplain. These young trees and lobes show that dominant sedimentation process in the floodplain is not lateral flooding, but longitudinal flooding. Sediments from the present channel flew downward through the ditches and were overflowed on the floodplain. This process destroyed the vegetation in and alongside the ditches causing vegetation diversity in the inner part of the riparian forest. Several species

  1. Meander migration modeling accounting for the effect of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eke, E.; Parker, G.

    2010-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to study the development of meandering rivers so as to reproduce patterns of both migration and spatial/temporal width variation pattern observed in nature. The model comprises of: a) a depth-averaged channel hydrodynamic/morphodynamic model developed using a two-parameter perturbation expansion technique that considers perturbations induced by curvature and spatial channel width variation and b) a bank migration model which separately considers bank erosional and depositional processes. Unlike most previous meandering river models where channel migration is characterized only in terms of bank erosion, channel dynamics are here defined at channel banks which are allowed to migrate independently via deposition/erosion based on the local flow field and bank characteristics. A bank erodes (deposits) if the near bank Shields stress computed from the flow field is greater (less) than a specified threshold. This threshold Shields number is equivalent to the formative Shields stress characterizing bankfull flow. Excessive bank erosion is controlled by means of natural armoring provided by cohesive/rooted slump blocks produced when a stream erodes into the lower non-cohesive part of a composite bank. Bank deposition is largely due to sediment trapping by vegetation; resultant channel narrowing is related to both a natural rate of vegetal encroachment and flow characteristics. This new model allows the channel freedom to vary in width both spatially and in time as it migrates, so accounting for the bi-directional coupling between vegetation and flow dynamics and reproducing more realistic planform geometries. Preliminary results based on the model are presented.

  2. Modeling of microwave scattering from vegetated covered terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    General formulation of resonant backscattering from vegetation, mean field and Green's function in three media, and electromagnetic backscattering coefficients from a layer of vegetation are discussed.

  3. Modeling Hydrologic and Vegetation Responses in Freshwater Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Low, Swee Yang; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2010-05-01

    Wetlands constitute 6 - 7 % of the Earth's land surface and provide various critical ecosystem services such as purifying the air and water, mitigating floods and droughts, and supporting wildlife habitats. Despite the importance of wetlands, they are under threat of degradation by human-induced land use changes and climate change. Even if the value of wetlands is recognized, they are often not managed properly or restored successfully due to an inadequate understanding of the ecosystems and their responses to management scenarios. A better understanding of the main components of wetlands, namely the interdependent hydrologic and vegetation systems, and the sensitivity of their responses to engineering works and climate change, is crucial for the preservation of wetlands. To assess these potential impacts, a model is developed in this study for characterizing the coupled dynamics between soil moisture and plant biomass in wetland habitats. The hydrology component of the model is based on the Richards' equation and simulates spatially-varying groundwater movement and provides information on soil moisture at different depths. The plant growth component of the model is described through an equation of the Lotka-Volterra type modified for plant growth dynamics and is adapted from published literature. The two components are coupled via transpiration and ecosystem carrying capacity for plants. Transpiration is modeled for both unsaturated and saturated zones, while the carrying capacity describes limiting oxygen and subsequent nutrient availability in the soil column as a function of water table depth. Vegetation is represented by two species characteristic of mudflat herbaceous plants ranging from facultative wetland to upland plants. The model is first evaluated using a simplified domain and the hydrological information available in the RG2 site of the Everglades wetlands region. The modeled water table fluctuations in general are comparable to field data collected on

  4. Vegetation modeling in Yakutia, northeastern Siberia: connecting to palaeovegetation simulation and model-data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, J.; Herzschuh, U.

    2009-04-01

    Vegetation model is a useful tool to understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems in the present, past and future. Simulation of the palaeovegetation can link the geographical pattern of vegetation in the past to pollen proxy and then test the palaeoclimate modeling. In this study we used an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) and a dynamic vegetation model (LPJ) to predict the present-day vegetation pattern and their dynamic changes from 1901-2002 in Yakutia, an Arctic and sub-Arctic region in eastern Siberia, where is sensitive to climate change. Both the models characterized the basic features of regional vegetation pattern, function and their changes through time. The BIOME4 simulated a reasonable pattern of present biome distribution compared to the regional vegetation maps, the deciduous taiga-montane forests in the southern and central Yakutia, evergreen taiga-montane forests in the southwestern mountainous region and in the eastern coast, shrub tundra and dwarf shrub tundra in the northwest and northeast mixed with temperate xerophytic shrubland. In the NW Yakutia the LPJ demonstrated a dynamic change of local vegetation during the past 102 years responding to the changed climates. Forest and shrub covered the large area from the beginning to the 1950s of the 20th Century. Tundra extended from the west to the east during 1960s to 1970s. The woody plants extended in 1980s and in late 1990s to early 21st Century and grasses extended in 1990s. The performance of global vegetation models in regional study is well, but problems still existed. More plant functional types especially the shrubs and grasses and climatic constraints to them should be taken into account when improving the models. Soil water-related parameters should be redefined. The modules of permafrost, snow, and fire should be added or modified. Regional input data of climates, vegetation and soils at finer resolutions will be obtained from the regional and local studies.

  5. Modelling the Influence of Riparian Vegetation on River Bank Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribb, M.; Darby, S.

    2002-12-01

    Despite the recognition that riparian vegetation influences riverbank stability, many of the mechanical and hydrological mechanisms involved are yet to be fully quantified. In particular, although empirical research (e.g. Abernethy and Rutherfurd, 2001; Simon and Collison, 2002) has advanced our knowledge of the relative importance of each of these mechanisms in certain environments, results are not necessarily transferable. This is because vegetation influences bank stability via a complex suite of process mechanisms that vary in effectiveness as a function of environmental characteristics. The net effects on bank stability at an individual site are therefore difficult to predict. In the face of such complexity, numerical modelling provides a useful adjunct to empirically derived data. Modelling provides a means of analysing and isolating the influence of different vegetation assemblages, across a variety of different bank material types and physiographic settings. Herein we report preliminary results from an integrated field monitoring and numerical modelling study undertaken at six special study sites within the United Kingdom. At each site, field data have been collected to parameterise coupled simulations of pore water seepage dynamics and bank failure processes. The requisite data include bank slope surveys, in situ geotechnical testing, laboratory analyses of sedimentary and hydraulic properties of the bank materials, root tensile strength testing, and surveys of sub-surface root networks. These data are supplemented by archived hydrological and climatological data sets, enabling analyses to be performed for a range of specific flow events at each site. For each event, saturated/unsaturated flow within the riverbank is modelled using a finite element code (SEEP/W v. 5) for the seepage analysis in transient conditions (Geo-Slope International, 2001). In these simulations, model boundary conditions are adjusted to account for the hydrological effects of

  6. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of Tenerife (Canary Islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Meincke, Remo; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P; Berg, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about fungal diversity scaling relationships relative to that of plants is important to understand ecosystem functioning. Tenerife Island, a natural laboratory to study terrestrial biodiversity, is represented by six different vegetation zones characterized by specific abiotic conditions and plant communities with a high proportion of endemic plants. Little is known about the biodiversity of associated fungi. To understand the relationship between plant and fungal communities, we analysed soil/rhizosphere fungi from all vegetation zones. From 12 sampling points dispersed on the whole island, molecular analysis of fungal communities was determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using universal and specific primers for Trichoderma. The highly diverse fungal communities were mainly characterized by ectomycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota and a high proportion of yet-unidentified species. Besides, Trichoderma-specific SSCP resulted in low diversity of mainly cosmopolitan species, for example Hypocrea lixii/T. harzianum. The dominance of T. harzianum was confirmed by cultivation. All Trichoderma isolates show an extraordinarily high antagonistic potential towards different groups of plant pathogens, supporting the hypothesis of extensive colonization by highly competitive Trichoderma species from the continent. In contrast, biodiversity patterns of the whole fungal and plant communities follow the same ecological rules. Furthermore, a high statistical correlation between fungal communities and the main environmental factors, temperature and precipitation, was found.

  7. Wild fire effects on floristic diversity in three thermo-Mediterranean vegetation types in a small islet of eastern Aegean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eleni; Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos; Korakis, George; Parissi, Zoi; Chouvardas, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    Sclerophyllus scrub formations, the main vegetation type in many islands of the Aegean area, are characterized by their high biodiversity. Dominant shrub species of sclerophyllus formations are well adapted to dry season conditions by various anatomical and physiological mechanisms. As a result, their biomass acts as very flammable fine fuel, and consequently wild fires are very common in these ecosystems. Wildfire effects on vegetation and biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin have been studied and the results are diverse depending mainly on vegetation type and frequency of fire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of wildfire on floristic diversity and species composition in three thermo-Mediterranean vegetation types 1) Sacropoterium spinosum phrygana, 2) low formations of Cistus creticus and 3) low formations of Cistus creticus in abandoned terraces. The research was conducted in Enoussa islet, which is located northeastern of Chios Island, in May 2013 (one year after the fire). Vegetation sampling was performed along five transects placed in recently burned and in adjacent unburned sites of each vegetation type. The plant cover and the floristic composition were measured, while diversity, evenness and dominance indices were determined for the vegetation data. Vegetation cover and the floristic diversity were significant lower and higher respectively in burned areas in comparison to the unburned. The woody species followed by the annual grasses and the annual forbs dominated in both burned and unburned areas. However, the woody species were significantly decreased in the burned areas in all vegetation types, while the annual grasses only in the burned areas of Sacropoterium spinosum phrygana and Cistus creticus in abandoned terraces. Inversely, the annual forbs significantly increased in the burned sites of Cistus creticus formations. The highest value of Morisita-Horn Index of similarity between burned and unburned sites (beta diversity) was

  8. Regression based modeling of vegetation and climate variables for the Amazon rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodali, A.; Khandelwal, A.; Ganguly, S.; Bongard, J.; Das, K.

    2015-12-01

    Both short-term (weather) and long-term (climate) variations in the atmosphere directly impact various ecosystems on earth. Forest ecosystems, especially tropical forests, are crucial as they are the largest reserves of terrestrial carbon sink. For example, the Amazon forests are a critical component of global carbon cycle storing about 100 billion tons of carbon in its woody biomass. There is a growing concern that these forests could succumb to precipitation reduction in a progressively warming climate, leading to release of significant amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Therefore, there is a need to accurately quantify the dependence of vegetation growth on different climate variables and obtain better estimates of drought-induced changes to atmospheric CO2. The availability of globally consistent climate and earth observation datasets have allowed global scale monitoring of various climate and vegetation variables such as precipitation, radiation, surface greenness, etc. Using these diverse datasets, we aim to quantify the magnitude and extent of ecosystem exposure, sensitivity and resilience to droughts in forests. The Amazon rainforests have undergone severe droughts twice in last decade (2005 and 2010), which makes them an ideal candidate for the regional scale analysis. Current studies on vegetation and climate relationships have mostly explored linear dependence due to computational and domain knowledge constraints. We explore a modeling technique called symbolic regression based on evolutionary computation that allows discovery of the dependency structure without any prior assumptions. In symbolic regression the population of possible solutions is defined via trees structures. Each tree represents a mathematical expression that includes pre-defined functions (mathematical operators) and terminal sets (independent variables from data). Selection of these sets is critical to computational efficiency and model accuracy. In this work we investigate

  9. Integration of biomass data in the dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbart, N.; Viovy, N.; Ciais, P.; Le Toan, T.

    2009-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are aimed at estimating exchanges between the terrestrial vegetated surface and the atmosphere, and the spatial distribution of natural vegetation types. For this purpose, DVMs use the climatic data alone to feed the vegetation process equations. As dynamic models, they can also give predictions under the current and the future climatic conditions. However, they currently lack accuracy in locating carbon stocks, sinks and sources, and in getting the correct magnitude. Consequently they have been essentially used to compare the vegetation responses under different scenarii. The assimilation of external data such as remote sensing data has been shown to improve the simulations. For example, the land cover maps are used to force the correct distribution of plant functional types (PFTs), and the leaf area index data is used to force the photosynthesis processes. This study concerns the integration of biomass data within the DVM ORCHIDEE. The objective here is to have the living carbon stocks with the correct magnitude and the correct location. Carbon stocks depend on interplay of carbon assimilated by photosynthesis, and carbon lost by respiration, mortality and disturbance. Biomass data can therefore be used as one essential constraint on this interplay. In this study, we use a large database provided by in-situ measurements of carbon stocks and carbon fluxes of old growth forests to constraint this interplay. For each PFT, we first adjust the simulated photosynthesis by reducing the mean error with the in situ measurements. Then we proceed similarly to adjust the autotrophic respiration. We then compare the biomass measured, and adjust the mortality processes in the model. Second, when processes are adjusted for each PFT to minimize the mean error on the carbon stock, biomass measurements can be assimilated. This assimilation is based on the hypothesis that the main variable explaining the biomass level at a given location is the age

  10. Determination of the genetic diversity of vegetable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] using EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gu-wen; Xu, Sheng-chun; Mao, Wei-hua; Hu, Qi-zan; Gong, Ya-ming

    2013-04-01

    The development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) provided a useful tool for investigating plant genetic diversity. In the present study, 22 polymorphic EST-SSRs from grain soybean were identified and used to assess the genetic diversity in 48 vegetable soybean accessions. Among the 22 EST-SSR loci, tri-nucleotides were the most abundant repeats, accounting for 50.00% of the total motifs. GAA was the most common motif among tri-nucleotide repeats, with a frequency of 18.18%. Polymorphic analysis identified a total of 71 alleles, with an average of 3.23 per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.144 to 0.630, with a mean of 0.386. Observed heterozygosity (Ho) values varied from 0.0196 to 1.0000, with an average of 0.6092, while the expected heterozygosity (He) values ranged from 0.1502 to 0.6840, with a mean value of 0.4616. Principal coordinate analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the accessions could be assigned to different groups based to a large extent on their geographic distribution, and most accessions from China were clustered into the same groups. These results suggest that Chinese vegetable soybean accessions have a narrow genetic base. The results of this study indicate that EST-SSRs from grain soybean have high transferability to vegetable soybean, and that these new markers would be helpful in taxonomy, molecular breeding, and comparative mapping studies of vegetable soybean in the future.

  11. Vegetation coupling to global climate: Trajectories of vegetation change and phenology modeling from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jeremy Isaac

    Important systematic shifts in ecosystem function are often masked by natural variability. The rich legacy of over two decades of continuous satellite observations provides an important database for distinguishing climatological and anthropogenic ecosystem changes. Examples from semi-arid Sudanian West Africa and New England (USA) illustrate the response of vegetation to climate and land-use. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, pastoral and agricultural practices compete for land area, while degradation may follow intensification. The Nouhao Valley is a natural experiment in which pastoral and agricultural land uses were allocated separate, coherent reserves. Trajectories of annual net primary productivity were derived from 18 years of coarse-grain (AVHRR) satellite data. Trends suggested that pastoral lands had responded rigorously to increasing rainfall after the 1980's droughts. A detailed analysis at Landsat resolution (30m) indicated that the increased vegetative cover was concentrated in the river basins of the pastoral region, implying a riparian wood expansion. In comparison, riparian cover was reduced in agricultural regions. We suggest that broad-scale patterns of increasing semi-arid West African greenness may be indicative of climate variability, whereas local losses may be anthropogenic in nature. The contiguous deciduous forests, ocean proximity, topography, and dense urban developments of New England provide an ideal landscape to examine influences of climate variability and the impact of urban development vegetation response. Spatial and temporal patterns of interannual climate variability were examined via green leaf phenology. Phenology, or seasonal growth and senescence, is driven by deficits of light, temperature, and water. In temperate environments, phenology variability is driven by interannual temperature and precipitation shifts. Average and interannual phenology analyses across southern New England were conducted at resolutions of 30m (Landsat

  12. Effect of vegetation on the presence and genetic diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil.

    PubMed

    Ricieto, Ana Paula Scaramal; Fazion, Fernanda Aparecida Pires; Carvalho Filho, Celso Duarte; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Vilas-Bôas, Gislayne Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were obtained from soil samples collected at different sites located in the same region but with different vegetation. The sites showed different frequencies of B. thuringiensis, depending on the type of vegetation. Strains of B. thuringiensis were found to be less common in samples of riparian forest soil than in soil of other types of vegetation. The rate of occurrence of B. thuringiensis in the samples also varied according to the vegetation. These results show that whenever this bacterium was found, it showed a high rate of occurrence, indicating that this species could be better adapted to using soil as a reservoir than other Bacillus species. The presence of cry genes was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and genes that exhibited activity against Diptera species were the most commonly found. The isolates obtained were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA, and 50% were clustered into clonal groups. These results demonstrated the possible occurrence of a high number of genetically similar strains when samples are collected from the same region, even if they are from locations with different vegetation.

  13. PROP taster status not related to reported cruciferous vegetable intake among ethnically diverse children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter tasting chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children, but not middle aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (i.e. a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across three days in two age groups of youth (9–10 years and 17–18 year), while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability and reporting bias. Cross sectional design was employed with a multi-ethnic (White, African American, Hispanic, and Other) sample of 843 males and females. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. BMI was calculated and expressed in z-scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by three telephone conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR) and 5 days of Actigraph activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. PROP sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship. PMID:21925344

  14. Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Determinants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Fresh Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Allydice-Francis, Kashina; Brown, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased focus on healthy eating and consuming raw vegetables, this study assessed the extent of contamination of fresh vegetables by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica and examined the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the presence of various virulence associated determinants of P. aeruginosa. Analyses indicated that vegetables from retail markets and supermarkets were widely contaminated by P. aeruginosa; produce from markets were more frequently contaminated, but the difference was not significant. Lettuce and carrots were the most frequently contaminated vegetables, while tomatoes were the least. Pigment production (Pyoverdine, pyocyanin, pyomelanin and pyorubin), fluorescein and alginate were common in these isolates. Imipenem, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the most inhibitory antimicrobial agents. However, isolates were resistant or showed reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and aztreonam, and up to 35% of the isolates were resistant to four antimicrobial agents. As many as 30% of the isolates were positive for the fpv1 gene, and 13% had multiple genes. Sixty-four percent of the isolates harboured an exoenzyme gene (exoS, exoT, exoU or exoY), and multiple exo genes were common. We conclude that P. aeruginosa is a major contaminant of fresh vegetables, which might be a source of infection for susceptible persons within the community. PMID:23213336

  15. Land Use Effects on Vegetation Diversity in High-Elevation Ecosystems: a Comparison of Disturbed and Undisturbed Paramos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, W. A.; Riveros-Iregui, D.; Jaimes, J. C.; Washington-Allen, R. A.; Delgado, A.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between vegetation density, diversity, and structure in a given ecosystem and the capacity for that ecosystem to provide services has been widely investigated. However, the capacity of ecological systems to adapt to various degrees of anthropogenic land use represents a significant challenge in scientific investigations. We examined the effects of disturbance on vegetation diversity and ecosystem function across two paramos in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. The paramo, an alpine meadow that occurs at elevations above 3,000 m mainly in South America, is the major drinking water provider for the Andean highlands. These meadows collect water during the rainy season and release it during the dry season. The goal of this study is to elucidate the relationship between land use, vegetation biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Plant species richness was collected in two paramo watersheds with similar elevation and climatic conditions but with different historic land use, including potato cultivation and cattle grazing. Leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover, species richness and height diversity was quantified using a plant canopy analyzer and terrestrial LiDAR across thirty-six 1-m x1-m plots in each watershed. Results show that species richness is higher in the undisturbed paramo watershed than in the disturbed site. However, species complexity and richness increase in areas closer to streams in both watersheds, suggesting that ecosystem adaptation to disturbance is dependant on landscape position. Our results highlight that paramo ecosystems are vulnerable to human-induced disturbance and their capacity to respond to such disturbance is dependent on proximity to streams.

  16. Directional infrared temperature and emissivity of vegetation: Measurements and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Castello, S.; Balick, L. K.

    1994-01-01

    Directional thermal radiance from vegetation depends on many factors, including the architecture of the plant canopy, thermal irradiance, emissivity of the foliage and soil, view angle, slope, and the kinetic temperature distribution within the vegetation-soil system. A one dimensional model, which includes the influence of topography, indicates that thermal emissivity of vegetation canopies may remain constant with view angle, or emissivity may increase or decrease as view angle from nadir increases. Typically, variations of emissivity with view angle are less than 0.01. As view angle increases away from nadir, directional infrared canopy temperature usually decreases but may remain nearly constant or even increase. Variations in directional temperature with view angle may be 5C or more. Model predictions of directional emissivity are compared with field measurements in corn canopies and over a bare soil using a method that requires two infrared thermometers, one sensitive to the 8 to 14 micrometer wavelength band and a second to the 14 to 22 micrometer band. After correction for CO2 absorption by the atmosphere, a directional canopy emissivity can be obtained as a function of view angle in the 8 to 14 micrometer band to an accuracy of about 0.005. Modeled and measured canopy emissivities for corn varied slightly with view angle (0.990 at nadir and 0.982 at 75 deg view zenith angle) and did not appear to vary significantly with view angle for the bare soil. Canopy emissivity is generally nearer to unity than leaf emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity. High spectral resolution, canopy thermal emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity may vary by 0.07. The one dimensional model provides reasonably accurate predictions of infrared temperature and can be used to study the dependence of infrared temperature on various plant, soil, and environmental factors.

  17. Modeling Vernal Pool Hydrology and Vegetation in the Sierra Nevadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montrone, A. K.; Saito, L.; Weisberg, P.; Gosejohan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Vernal pools are geographic depressions with relatively impermeable substrates that are subject to four distinct seasons in mountainous regions: they fill with snow in the winter, melt into inundated pools in the spring, become unsaturated and vegetated by summer, then dry and become fully desiccated by fall. Vernal pools in California are greatly threatened. Over 90% of the pools in California have been destroyed by urbanization and other land use changes and continue to disappear with population growth. Furthermore, these pools face threats posed by climate change due to altered precipitation and temperature regimes. In the context of anthropogenic climate change, we are evaluating the direct and indirect effects of grazing management on ecohydrology and plant community structure in vernal pools Northern Sierra Nevada mountains. Hydrologic models of vernal pool basins, driven by climatic variables, are used to 1) determine if a changing climate will alter the magnitude and spatial distribution of inundation period within the pools; 2) determine how the available habitat for vernal pool vegetation specialists will change with climate change; 3) determine if increased soil compaction due to cattle grazing can help mitigate effects of climate change resulting from changes in hydraulic conductivity; and 4) determine the importance of spatial resolution in constructing the physical representation of the pools within the hydrologic models. Preliminary results from the models including calibration error metrics and hydroperiod impacts of grazing for models with varying spatial complexity will be presented.

  18. Predicting use of effective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to model effective vegetable parenting practices using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices construct scales. An internet survey was conducted with 307 parents (mostly mothers) of preschoolers in Houston, Texas to assess their agreement with effective vegetable ...

  19. Influence of vegetation on the environmental partitioning of DDT in two global multimedia models.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, F; Scheringer, M; Möller, M; Hungerbühler, K

    2004-03-01

    Two multimedia models are used to investigate the effect of a vegetation compartment on the environmental partitioning of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): a steady-state unit world model using global averages of vegetation cover and land-to-sea ratio and a dynamic model with latitudinal zones and zone-specific vegetation types and annual temperature courses. The vegetation compartment represents canopies of deciduous and coniferous forests and blades of grasses; the organic carbon content of the vegetation-covered soil is higher than in the bare soil. In the steady-state model, transfer from the air to the vegetation and the underlying soil as well as revolatilization from the foliage and reduced deposition to the soil is observed, depending on the chemical's degradation rate constant in vegetation and the deposition velocities of the gaseous and particle-bound fractions. In both models, a significant effect of the organic carbon content of the vegetation-covered soil increasing the effect of the vegetation compartment is observed. In the steady-state model, the changes in the DDT concentrations in air do not exceed 7% difference between the cases with and without vegetation; the soil concentrations differ by maximally a factor of 2.7. In the spatially and temporally resolved model, however, air concentration differences up to 90% are observed, depending on the type and amount of vegetation in the latitudinal zones. Long-range transport is less pronounced in the model with vegetation.

  20. Predicting use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing a parent's ability to influence a child's vegetable intake may require reducing the parent's use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices (IVPP). To understand the influences on IVPP, this study modeled use of IVPP using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenti...

  1. MODELING DYNAMIC VEGETATION RESPONSE TO RAPID CLIMATE CHANGE USING BIOCLIMATIC CLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling potential global redistribution of terrestrial vegetation frequently is based on bioclimatic classifications which relate static regional vegetation zones (biomes) to a set of static climate parameters. The equilibrium character of the relationships limits our confidence...

  2. Inversion of canopy reflectance models for estimation of vegetation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Narendra S.

    1987-01-01

    One of the keys to successful remote sensing of vegetation is to be able to estimate important agronomic parameters like leaf area index (LAI) and biomass (BM) from the bidirectional canopy reflectance (CR) data obtained by a space-shuttle or satellite borne sensor. One approach for such an estimation is through inversion of CR models which relate these parameters to CR. The feasibility of this approach was shown. The overall objective of the research carried out was to address heretofore uninvestigated but important fundamental issues, develop the inversion technique further, and delineate its strengths and limitations.

  3. School-Based Promotion of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Multiculturally Diverse, Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom-Hoffman, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Rates of childhood overweight have reached epidemic proportions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), and schools have been called on to play a role in the prevention of this medical condition. This article describes a multiyear health promotion effort--the Athletes in Service fruit and vegetable (F&V) promotion program--which is…

  4. Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

  5. Farmers’ market use is associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse southern rural communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While farmers’ markets are a potential strategy to increase access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas, more information is needed regarding use of farmers’ markets among rural residents. Thus, this study’s purpose was to examine (1) socio-demographic characteristics of participants; (2) barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping in southern rural communities; and (3) associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with a purposive sample of farmers’ market customers and a representative sample of primary household food shoppers in eastern North Carolina (NC) and the Appalachian region of Kentucky (KY). Customers were interviewed using an intercept survey instrument at farmers’ markets. Representative samples of primary food shoppers were identified via random digit dial (RDD) cellular phone and landline methods in counties that had at least one farmers’ market. All questionnaires assessed socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, barriers to and facilitators of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption and self-reported height and weight. The main outcome measures were fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI. Descriptive statistics were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, and barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI, controlling for age, race, education, and gender. Results Among farmers’ market customers, 44% and 55% (NC and KY customers, respectively) reported shopping at a farmers’ market at least weekly, compared to 16% and 18% of NC and KY RDD respondents. Frequently reported barriers to farmers’ market shopping were market days and hours, “only come when I need something”, extreme

  6. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Chonggang; Fisher, Rosie; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wilson, Cathy; Cai, Michael; McDowell, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions

  7. Feedbacks in Climate - Permafrost - Vegetation System: Predictive Modeling Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, O.; Beloloutskaia, M.

    2003-12-01

    Permafrost models driven by scenarios of climate change predict that reduction of the total (continuous) permafrost area in the northern hemisphere by 2030, 2050, and 2080 is likely to be 10%-18% (15%-25%); 15%-30% (20%-40%), and 20%-35% (25%-50%), respectively. Predicted changes of the seasonal thaw depth in the following three decades are relatively small, typically within 10%-15%. By the middle of the century thaw depth may increase on average by 15%-25%, and by 50% and more in the northernmost locations. By 2080 layer of seasonal thawing will become markedly thicker (by 30%-50% and more) all over the permafrost area. Vegetation above permafrost plays important role in regulating ground temperature and depth of seasonal thawing. In the warm period organic layer of peat, mosses, and lichens has low thermal conductivity and protects permafrost from thawing. Results from coupled climate - permafrost - vegetation model suggest that 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, and 20cm thick organic layer reduces seasonal thaw depth by 10%, 25%, 40%, and 60%, respectively, compared to bare ground. Enhanced growth of non-vascular plants under warmer climatic conditions may thus mitigate the effects of climatic warming on permafrost. Controlled experiments involving continuous localized warming at selected sites in the northern Europe and in Alaska indicate a multiyear tendency towards the replacement of mosses and lichens by vascular plants. In the long term climate-induced changes of vegetation may thus cause enhances warming and deeper seasonal thawing of the frozen ground ultimately leading to degradation of permafrost. Acknowledgement. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation of the Netherlands, grant # 047.011.2001.003.

  8. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  9. Modelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Warnant, P.; Jacquemin, I.; Thuiller, W.; François, L.

    2012-04-01

    What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions. In the framework of the EcoChange project, transient projections over the 1901-2100 period have been performed with a process-based dynamic vegetation model, CARAIB DVM (Dury et al., 2011, iForest 4: 82, 99). The vegetation model was driven by the outputs of four climate models under the SRES A1B scenario: the ARPEGE/Climate model and three regional climate models (KNMI-RACMO2, DMI-HIRHAM5 and HC-HadRM3Q0 RCMs) from the European Union project ENSEMBLES. DVMs are appropriate tools to apprehend potential climate change impacts on ecosystems and identify threatened regions over Europe. CARAIB outputs (soil moisture, runoff, net primary productivity, fire, etc.) were used to characterise the ecosystem evolution. To assess consequences on biodiversity, the evolution of 100 natural common European species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 41 trees) has been studied year-to-year over the 1901-2100 period. Under the combined effects of projected changes particularly in temperature and precipitations, CARAIB simulates important reductions in the annual soil water content. The species productivities vary strongly from year to year reaching during the driest years values much lower than present-day average productivities. According to CARAIB, a lot of species might go beyond their water tolerance very frequently, particularly after 2050, due to more intense summer droughts. In the northern part of Europe and in the Alps, with reduced temperature variability and positive soil water anomalies, NPP variability tends to decrease. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. With this background, the species distributions might be strongly modified at the end of the century. 15% of tree species and 30% of herb and

  10. A STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMIC MODEL OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL ORDER OF VEGETATION. (R827676)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complex pattern of vegetation is the macroscopic manifestation of biological diversity and the ecological order in space and time. How is this overwhelmingly diverse, yet wonderfully ordered spatial pattern formed, and how does it evolve? To answer these questions, most tr...

  11. Early vegetation development after grassland restoration by sowing low-diversity seed mixtures in former sunflower and cereal fields.

    PubMed

    Vida, Enikö; Valkó, Orsolya; Kelemen, A; Török, P; Deák, B; Miglécz, T; Lengyel, Sz; Tóthmérész, B

    2010-01-01

    We studied the early vegetation dynamics in former croplands (sunflower and cereal fields) sown with a low-diversity seed mixture (composed of 2 native grass species) in Egyek-Pusztakócs, Hortobágy National Park, East-Hungary. The percentage cover of vascular plants was recorded in 4 permanent plots per field on 7 restored fields between 2006 and 2009. Ten aboveground biomass samples per field were also collected in June in each year. We addressed two questions: (i) How do seed sowing and annual mowing affect the species richness, biomass and cover of weeds? (ii) How fast does the cover of sown grasses develop after seed sowing? Weedy species were characteristic in the first year after sowing. In the second and third year their cover and species richness decreased. From the second year onwards the cover of perennial grasses increased. Spontaneously immigrating species characteristic to the reference grasslands were also detected with low cover scores. Short-lived weeds were suppressed as their cover and biomass significantly decreased during the study. The amount of litter and sown grass biomass increased progressively. However, perennial weed cover, especially the cover of Cirsium arvense increased substantially. Our results suggest that grassland vegetation can be recovered by sowing low diversity mixtures followed up by yearly mowing. Suppression of perennial weed cover needs more frequent mowing (multiple times a year) or grazing.

  12. Modeling terrestrial carbon and water dynamics across climatic gradients: does plant trait diversity matter?

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christoforos; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait diversity in many vegetation models is crudely represented using a discrete classification of a handful of 'plant types' (named plant functional types; PFTs). The parameterization of PFTs reflects mean properties of observed plant traits over broad categories ignoring most of the inter- and intraspecific plant trait variability. Taking advantage of a multivariate leaf-trait distribution (leaf economics spectrum), as well as documented plant drought strategies, we generate an ensemble of hypothetical species with coordinated attributes, rather than using few PFTs. The behavior of these proxy species is tested using a mechanistic ecohydrological model that translates plant traits into plant performance. Simulations are carried out for a range of climates representative of different elevations and wetness conditions in the European Alps. Using this framework we investigate the sensitivity of ecosystem response to plant trait diversity and compare it with the sensitivity to climate variability. Plant trait diversity leads to highly divergent vegetation carbon dynamics (fluxes and pools) and to a lesser extent water fluxes (transpiration). Abiotic variables, such as soil water content and evaporation, are only marginally affected. These results highlight the need for revising the representation of plant attributes in vegetation models. Probabilistic approaches, based on observed multivariate whole-plant trait distributions, provide a viable alternative.

  13. Modeling terrestrial carbon and water dynamics across climatic gradients: does plant trait diversity matter?

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christoforos; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait diversity in many vegetation models is crudely represented using a discrete classification of a handful of 'plant types' (named plant functional types; PFTs). The parameterization of PFTs reflects mean properties of observed plant traits over broad categories ignoring most of the inter- and intraspecific plant trait variability. Taking advantage of a multivariate leaf-trait distribution (leaf economics spectrum), as well as documented plant drought strategies, we generate an ensemble of hypothetical species with coordinated attributes, rather than using few PFTs. The behavior of these proxy species is tested using a mechanistic ecohydrological model that translates plant traits into plant performance. Simulations are carried out for a range of climates representative of different elevations and wetness conditions in the European Alps. Using this framework we investigate the sensitivity of ecosystem response to plant trait diversity and compare it with the sensitivity to climate variability. Plant trait diversity leads to highly divergent vegetation carbon dynamics (fluxes and pools) and to a lesser extent water fluxes (transpiration). Abiotic variables, such as soil water content and evaporation, are only marginally affected. These results highlight the need for revising the representation of plant attributes in vegetation models. Probabilistic approaches, based on observed multivariate whole-plant trait distributions, provide a viable alternative. PMID:26389742

  14. [Effects of landscape and vegetation structure on the diversity of phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    García-García, José Luis; Santos-Moreno, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The tropical forest fragmentation is known to affect the spatial structure of the landscape and habitat. These alterations can modify the attributes of bat assemblages, however, this phenomenon has been little studied and understood. In this work we evaluated the structure of landscape (i.e. composition and configuration) and vegetation, and its relationship with assemblage- and population-level characteristics of phyllostomid bats in a tropical rainforest of Southeastern Mexico. For this, we previously selected 12 sites located in continuous and fragmented forests, where bats were captured using mist nets during a two years sampling effort (144 nights). Bats relative abundance, species richness (diversity of order 0, 0D), Shannon diversity index (1D) and Simpson index (2D) were evaluated in all sites, and their relationship with seven measures of landscape structure and seven measures of vegetation structure was described using a Hierarchical Partitioning Analysis. A total of 1 840 individuals of 29 species of phyllostomid bats were captured in this period. Differences in the assemblages were manifested only in the relative abundance and not in the richness of the species. The assemblages of fragmented forest exhibited greater variation in species composition and a greater abundance of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in comparison with the assemblages of continuous forest. The landscape configuration was related to the assemblage- and population-level attributes, contrasting with previous studies where the composition was a key element. At habitat level, tree density and canopy cover determined the abundance of bats. Nectarivorous and frugivorous bats were mostly found in disturbed vegetation landscapes, primarily due to landscape configuration (e.g. edge density). This phenomenon could be a response to the availability of food in primary and intermediate successional stages, which are characterized by an abundance of food value.

  15. Diversity of Cronobacter spp. isolates from the vegetables in the middle-east coastline of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanyi; Yang, Jielin; You, Chunping; Liu, Zhenmin

    2016-06-01

    Cronobacter spp. has caused life-threatening neonatal infections mainly resulted from consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. A total of 102 vegetable samples from retail markets were evaluated for the presence of Cronobacter spp. Thirty-five presumptive Cronobacter isolates were isolated and identified using API 20E and 16S rDNA sequencing analyses. All isolates and type strains were characterized using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), and genetic profiles of cluster analysis from this molecular typing test clearly showed that there were differences among isolates from different vegetables. A polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on the amplification of the gyrB gene (1258 bp) was developed to differentiate among Cronobacter species. A new PCR-RFLP assay based on the amplification of the gyrB gene using Alu I and Hinf I endonuclease combination is established and it has been confirmed an accurate and rapid subtyping method to differentiate Cronobacter species. Sequence analysis of the gyrB gene was proven to be suitable for the phylogenetic analysis of the Cronobacter strains, which has much better resolution based on SNPs in the identification of Cronobacter species specificity than PCR-RFLP and ERIC-PCR. Our study further confirmed that vegetables are one of the most common habitats or sources of Cronobacter spp. contamination in the middle-east coastline of China.

  16. Diversity of Cronobacter spp. isolates from the vegetables in the middle-east coastline of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanyi; Yang, Jielin; You, Chunping; Liu, Zhenmin

    2016-06-01

    Cronobacter spp. has caused life-threatening neonatal infections mainly resulted from consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. A total of 102 vegetable samples from retail markets were evaluated for the presence of Cronobacter spp. Thirty-five presumptive Cronobacter isolates were isolated and identified using API 20E and 16S rDNA sequencing analyses. All isolates and type strains were characterized using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), and genetic profiles of cluster analysis from this molecular typing test clearly showed that there were differences among isolates from different vegetables. A polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on the amplification of the gyrB gene (1258 bp) was developed to differentiate among Cronobacter species. A new PCR-RFLP assay based on the amplification of the gyrB gene using Alu I and Hinf I endonuclease combination is established and it has been confirmed an accurate and rapid subtyping method to differentiate Cronobacter species. Sequence analysis of the gyrB gene was proven to be suitable for the phylogenetic analysis of the Cronobacter strains, which has much better resolution based on SNPs in the identification of Cronobacter species specificity than PCR-RFLP and ERIC-PCR. Our study further confirmed that vegetables are one of the most common habitats or sources of Cronobacter spp. contamination in the middle-east coastline of China. PMID:27116956

  17. Soil cyanobacterial and microalgal diversity in dry mountains of Ladakh, NW Himalaya, as related to site, altitude, and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Reháková, Klára; Chlumská, Zuzana; Doležal, Jiří

    2011-08-01

    Although phototrophic microbial communities are important components of soils in arid and semi-arid ecosystems around the world, the knowledge of their taxonomic composition and dependency on soil chemistry and vegetation is still fragmentary. We studied the abundance and the diversity of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae along altitudinal gradients (3,700-5,970 m) at four sites in the dry mountains of Ladakh (Little Tibet, Zanskar Mountains, and Eastern Karakoram), using epifluorescence. The effects of environmental factors (altitude, mountain range, and vegetation type) on soil physico-chemical parameters (pH; texture; organic matter, nitrogen, ammonia, and phosphorus contents; and concentration of chlorophylls and carotenoids) and on the composition and biovolume of phototrophs were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and variance partitioning. Phototrophs were identified in all collected samples, and phototroph biovolume ranged from 0.08 to 0.32 mm(3) g(-1) dry weight. The dominant component was cyanobacteria, which represented 70.9% to 98.6% of the biovolume. Cyanobacterial species richness was low in that only 28 morphotypes were detected. The biovolume of Oscillatoriales consisted mainly of Phormidium spp. and Microcoleus vaginatus. The environmental factors accounted for 43.8% of the total variability in microbial and soil data, 20.6% of which was explained solely by mountain range, 7.0% by altitude, and 8.4% by vegetation type. Oscillatoriales prevailed in alpine meadows (which had relatively high organic matter and fine soil texture), while Nostocales dominated in the subnival zone and screes. Eukaryotic microalgae together with cyanobacteria in the order Chroococcales were mostly present in the subnival zone. We conclude that the high elevation, semiarid, and arid soils in Ladakh are suitable habitats for microbial phototrophic communities and that the differences in these communities are associated with site, altitude, and vegetation type.

  18. Psychometric assessment of scales for a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable intake has been related to lower risk of chronic illnesses in the adult years. The habit of vegetable intake should be established early in life, but many parents of preschoolers report not being able to get their child to eat vegetables. The Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGDB) has been...

  19. Modeling radium and radon transport through soil and vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozak, J.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Lewis, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to describe the movement of two fluid phases, gas and water, within a porous medium and the transport of 226Ra and 222Rn within and between these two phases. Included in this model is the vegetative uptake of water and aqueous 226Ra and 222Rn that can be extracted from the soil via the transpiration stream. The mathematical model is formulated through a set of phase balance equations and a set of species balance equations. Mass exchange, sink terms and the dependence of physical properties upon phase composition couple the two sets of equations. Numerical solution of each set, with iteration between the sets, is carried out leading to a set-iterative compositional model. The Petrov-Galerkin finite element approach is used to allow for upstream weighting if required for a given simulation. Mass lumping improves solution convergence and stability behavior. The resulting numerical model was applied to four problems and was found to produce accurate, mass conservative solutions when compared to published experimental and numerical results and theoretical column experiments. Preliminary results suggest that the model can be used as an investigative tool to determine the feasibility of phytoremediating radium and radon-contaminated soil. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Model Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Satellite Derived Vegetation Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael; Eastman, Joseph; Borak, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of a mesoscale weather prediction model to a 1 km satellite-based vegetation roughness initialization is investigated for a domain within the south central United States. Three different roughness databases are employed: i) a control or standard lookup table roughness that is a function only of land cover type, ii) a spatially heterogeneous roughness database, specific to the domain, that was previously derived using a physically based procedure and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, and iii) a MODIS climatologic roughness database that like (i) is a function only of land cover type, but possesses domain specific mean values from (ii). The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) coupled to the Community Land Model within the Land Information System (LIS). For each simulation, a statistical comparison is made between modeled results and ground observations within a domain including Oklahoma, Eastern Arkansas, and Northwest Louisiana during a 4-day period within IHOP 2002. Sensitivity analysis compares the impact the three roughness initializations on time-series temperature, precipitation probability of detection (POD), average wind speed, boundary layer height, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Overall, the results indicate that, for the current investigation, replacement of the standard look-up table values with the satellite-derived values statistically improves model performance for most observed variables. Such natural roughness heterogeneity enhances the surface wind speed, PBL height and TKE production up to 10 percent, with a lesser effect over grassland, and greater effect over mixed land cover domains.

  1. Effect of ground cover vegetation on the abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Silva, E B; Franco, J C; Vasconcelos, T; Branco, M

    2010-08-01

    The effect of ground cover upon the communities of beneficial arthropods established in the canopy of lemon trees was investigated, by comparing three ground-cover management treatments applied: RV, resident vegetation; S, sowed selected species; and BS, bare soil by controlling weeds with herbicide. Over two consecutive years, arthropod communities in the tree canopy were sampled periodically by beating and suction techniques. Significantly higher numbers of beneficial arthropods were found in the RV and S treatments in comparison with bare soil. Spiders and parasitoid wasps were the two most common groups, representing, respectively, 70% and 19% of all catches in beating samples and 33% and 53% in suction samples. For the RV and S treatments, significant seasonal deviations from the bare soil treatment were observed using principal response curves. Similar seasonal patterns were observed over the two years. The RV and S treatments showed significant positive deviations from the BS treatment in late spring and summer, accounted for the higher numbers of parasitoid wasps, coccinelids and lacewings present. By contrast, the seasonal deviations observed for the spider community differed from those of the remaining arthropods. During late winter and early spring, the RV and S treatments presented a higher abundance of spiders in the tree canopy, in comparison with bare soil, whereas in the summer significantly more spiders were found in the bare soil treatment. Spider movements between tree canopy and ground vegetation layers may justify this result.

  2. Diversity modelling for electrical power system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharip, R. M.; Abu Zarim, M. A. U. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers diversity of generation and demand profiles against the different future energy scenarios and evaluates these on a technical basis. Compared to previous studies, this research applied a forecasting concept based on possible growth rates from publically electrical distribution scenarios concerning the UK. These scenarios were created by different bodies considering aspects such as environment, policy, regulation, economic and technical. In line with these scenarios, forecasting is on a long term timescale (up to every ten years from 2020 until 2050) in order to create a possible output of generation mix and demand profiles to be used as an appropriate boundary condition for the network simulation. The network considered is a segment of rural LV populated with a mixture of different housing types. The profiles for the 'future' energy and demand have been successfully modelled by applying a forecasting method. The network results under these profiles shows for the cases studied that even though the value of the power produced from each Micro-generation is often in line with the demand requirements of an individual dwelling there will be no problems arising from high penetration of Micro-generation and demand side management for each dwellings considered. The results obtained highlight the technical issues/changes for energy delivery and management to rural customers under the future energy scenarios.

  3. Beyond Potential Vegetation II: Using Repeat Lidar Data on Changes in Vegetation Height to Test Model Predictions of Ecosystem Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G.; Thomas, R. Q.; Dubayah, R.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon estimates from terrestrial ecosystem models are limited by large uncertainties in the current state of the land surface, as previous disturbances have important and lasting influences on ecosystem structure and fluxes and can be difficult to detect or assess. Previous studies have illustrated how data on the vertical structure of vegetation from lidar can help to provide needed information on successional status for model initialization and constrain estimates of both carbon stock and fluxes. Here, we illustrate how repeat lidar data on vegetation structure can be used to test model predictions of ecosystem dynamics at a tropical forest site at La Selva, Costa Rica (108259 N, 848009 W). Airborne lidar remote sensing was used to measure spatial heterogeneity in the vertical structure of vegetation in 1998 and 2005. The ecosystem demography model (ED) was used to estimate corresponding patterns of carbon stocks, fluxes, and ecosystem dynamics during the interval. Lidar-initialized ED estimates of changes in maximum canopy height) were comparable to but significantly lower than observed (0.85 +/- 0.9 m observed vs. 0.53 +/- 0.4 m modeled) over the whole domain. Most of the model-data difference was due to growth of primary forest trees that exceeded model estimates (0.44 +/-0.9 m observed vs. 0.04 +/-0.1 m modeled), while the model-data comparison was significantly better over secondary forest areas (1.84 +/- 0.18 m observed vs. 1.71 +/-0.9 m modeled). The results of this study provide a promising illustration of the power of using repeat lidar data on changes in vegetation height to test estimates of ecosystem dynamics from height-structured ecosystem models. Extending these capabilities to regional and global scales will require repeat lidar data sets from space, and the continued development of height-structured ecosystem models.

  4. Diazinon transport through inter-row vegetative filter strips: micro-ecosystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, H.; Grismer, M. E.

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy of inter-row vegetative filter strips (VFS) for controlling runoff of the commonly used organo-phosphate insecticide (diazinon) from dormant-sprayed orchards was investigated through development of physical (micro-ecosystem) models. The micro-ecosystem consisted of a pesticide sprayer, rainfall simulator and orchard floor model with and without VFS. Diazinon was sprayed at a rate of 2.8 kg/ha, 24 h prior to rainfall simulation. Rainfall, at an intensity of 50 mm/h and 44% of the natural rainfall energy, was simulated for 60 min. Experiments were conducted for 0, 50 and 100% VFS soil coverage. Diazinon concentrations in runoff, interflow and baseflow, and also in soil and vegetative samples were measured in order to quantify transport/adsorption processes. Total diazinon losses as a fraction of applied pesticide mass from the orchard floor following rainfall-runoff simulation were 8.6, 5.8 and 2.3%, respectively, for the 0, 50 and 100% VFS cover treatments. Diazinon runoff concentrations decreased with time during the rainfall simulation, but at a slower rate in the VFS treatments as compared to the bare soil treatment apparently due to washoff from the sod leaves. The principle mechanism of diazinon runoff control in VFS was diversion of runoff, the primary pesticide carrier, into interflow through the rootzone and mainly vertical infiltration (baseflow) such that the diazinon was trapped on the VFS surface and in its rootzone. In fact, 37 and 88% of the applied diazinon remained as residue in the VFS vegetative matter and rootzone for the 50 and 100% VFS treatments, respectively, following rainfall simulation. Results from the micro-ecosystem suggest that inter-row VFS should be effective in reducing diazinon runoff from dormant-sprayed orchards. These results are used to calibrate a field-applicable numerical model for development of pesticide runoff control strategies, or best management practices (BMP's).

  5. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Xin, X.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in grassland ecosystem is needed to assess grassland health and monitor available forage for livestock and wildlife habitat. Traditional ground-based field methods for measuring vegetation heights are time consuming. Most emerging airborne remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LIDAR) are too expensive to apply at broad scales. Aerial or spaceborne stereo imagery has the cost advantage for mapping height of tall vegetation, such as forest. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of using stereo imagery for modeling heights of short vegetation, such as grass (generally lower than 50cm) needs to be investigated. In this study, 2.5-cm resolution UAV stereo imagery are used to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem. Strong correlations were observed (r > 0.9) between vegetation heights derived from UAV stereo imagery and those field-measured ones at individual and plot level. However, vegetation heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery especially for those areas with high vegetation coverage. The strong correlations between field-collected vegetation heights and metrics derived from UAV stereo imagery suggest that UAV stereo imagery can be used to estimate short vegetation heights such as those in grassland ecosystem. Future work will be needed to verify the extensibility of the methods to other sites and vegetation types.

  6. Bioclimatic distribution of vegetation for general circulation model studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, Katharine Culbertson

    1990-01-01

    Four global bioclimatic schemes which qualify climates on the basis of the distribution of vegetation, including the Holdridge (1947), Thornthwaite (1948), Koeppen (1936), and Troll and Paffen (1964) schemes, were applied to two global climate data sets to produce maps of global vegetation distribution: the Rand set described by Schutz and Gates (1971, 1973, and 1974) and the Shea (1986) data set. The results show that only 38 to 40 percent of the observed land surface, mapped as 31 vegetation types, could be replicated by applying the four schemes to these data sets. The simulations were significantly improved by further subdividing and regrouping the climates defined by the schemes and by regrouping the observed vegetation types. With these alterations, 77 percent of the predicted vegetative landscape coresponded with the observed distribution of vegetation.

  7. Epigenetic Diversity of Clonal White Poplar (Populus alba L.) Populations: Could Methylation Support the Success of Vegetative Reproduction Strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Francesco; Cicatelli, Angela; Brundu, Giuseppe; Heinze, Berthold; Castiglione, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The widespread poplar populations of Sardinia are vegetatively propagated and live in different natural environments forming large monoclonal stands. The main goals of the present study were: i) to investigate/measure the epigenetic diversity of the poplar populations by determining their DNA methylation status; ii) to assess if and how methylation status influences population clustering; iii) to shed light on the changes that occur in the epigenome of ramets of the same poplar clone. To these purposes, 83 white poplar trees were sampled at different locations on the island of Sardinia. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis was carried out on the genomic DNA extracted from leaves at the same juvenile stage. The study showed that the genetic biodiversity of poplars is quite limited but it is counterbalanced by epigenetic inter-population molecular variability. The comparison between MspI and HpaII DNA fragmentation profiles revealed that environmental conditions strongly influence hemi-methylation of the inner cytosine. The variable epigenetic status of Sardinian white poplars revealed a decreased number of population clusters. Landscape genetics analyses clearly demonstrated that ramets of the same clone were differentially methylated in relation to their geographic position. Therefore, our data support the notion that studies on plant biodiversity should no longer be restricted to genetic aspects, especially in the case of vegetatively propagated plant species. PMID:26147352

  8. Mapping, Monitoring and Modeling Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Species and Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartis, Brett Michael

    Aquatic macrophyte communities are critically important habitat species in aquatic systems worldwide. None are more important than those found beneath the water's surface, commonly referred to as submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although vital to such systems, many native submersed plants have shown near irreversible declines in recent decades as water quality impairment, habitat destruction, and encroachment by invasive species have increased. In the past, aquatic plant science has emphasized the restoration and protection of native species and the management of invasive species. Comparatively little emphasis has been directed toward adequately mapping and monitoring these resources to track their viability over time. Modeling the potential intrusion of certain invasive plant species has also been given little attention, likely because aquatic systems in general can be difficult to assess. In recent years, scientists and resource managers alike have begun paying more attention to mapping SAV communities and to address the spread of invasive species across various regions. This research attempts to provide new, cutting-edge techniques to improve SAV mapping and monitoring efforts in coastal regions, at both community and individual species levels, while also providing insights about the establishment potential of Hydrilla verticillata, a noxious, highly invasive submersed plant. Technological advances in satellite remote sensing, interpolation and spatial analysis in geographic information systems, and state-of-the-art climate envelope modeling techniques were used to further assess the dynamic nature of SAV on various scales. This work contributes to the growing science of mapping, monitoring, and modeling of SAV

  9. Uncertainty analysis of vegetation distribution in the northern high latitudes during the 21st century with a dynamic vegetation model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yueyang; Zhuang, Qianlai; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen; Sokolov, Andrei; Kicklighter, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to assess how high-latitude vegetation may respond under various climate scenarios during the 21st century with a focus on analyzing model parameters induced uncertainty and how this uncertainty compares to the uncertainty induced by various climates. The analysis was based on a set of 10,000 Monte Carlo ensemble Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) simulations for the northern high latitudes (45(o)N and polewards) for the period 1900-2100. The LPJ Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) was run under contemporary and future climates from four Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES), A1FI, A2, B1, and B2, based on the Hadley Centre General Circulation Model (GCM), and six climate scenarios, X901M, X902L, X903H, X904M, X905L, and X906H from the Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In the current dynamic vegetation model, some parameters are more important than others in determining the vegetation distribution. Parameters that control plant carbon uptake and light-use efficiency have the predominant influence on the vegetation distribution of both woody and herbaceous plant functional types. The relative importance of different parameters varies temporally and spatially and is influenced by climate inputs. In addition to climate, these parameters play an important role in determining the vegetation distribution in the region. The parameter-based uncertainties contribute most to the total uncertainty. The current warming conditions lead to a complexity of vegetation responses in the region. Temperate trees will be more sensitive to climate variability, compared with boreal forest trees and C3 perennial grasses. This sensitivity would result in a unanimous northward greenness migration due to anomalous warming in the northern high latitudes. Temporally, boreal needleleaved evergreen plants are projected to decline considerably, and a large portion of C3 perennial grass is projected to disappear by the end of

  10. Effects of tourism and topography on vegetation diversity in the subalpine meadows of the Dongling Mountains of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Tun; Xiang, ChunLing; Li, Min

    2012-02-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Dongling Mountains (located at E115º26'-115º40', N40º00'-40º05') of Beijing, China are important for tourism and the provision of ecosystem services. However, because of poor management serious degradation has occurred on these subalpine meadows. The aim of this paper is to present a quantitative analysis of effects of tourism disturbance and topography on the status and diversity of montane meadow communities and to provide direction for improved management. Sixty quadrats of 2 × 2 m(2) along 10 transects were set up to collect data on site characteristics and vegetation status. The relationships between community composition and structure, species diversity, and tourism disturbance and topographic variables were analyzed by multivariate methods (TWINSPAN and CCA). The results showed that eight meadow communities were identified by TWINSPAN. Most of them were seriously degraded. The first CCA axis identified an elevation and tourism disturbance intensity gradient, which illustrated that tourism disturbance and elevation were most important factors influencing meadow types, composition and structure. Some resistant species and response species to tourism disturbance were identified and can be used as indicator species of tourism disturbance. Species richness, heterogeneity and evenness were closely related to tourism disturbance and elevation. It is concluded that tourism disturbance must be controlled to enable grassland rehabilitation to occur in the meadows. Measures of effective management of the meadows were discussed.

  11. Incorporating grassland management in a global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Cozic, Anne; Lardy, Romain; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Soussana, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    Grassland is a widespread vegetation type, covering nearly one-fifth of the world's land surface (24 million km2), and playing a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Most of grasslands in Europe are cultivated to feed animals, either directly by grazing or indirectly by grass harvest (cutting). A better understanding of the C fluxes from grassland ecosystems in response to climate and management requires not only field experiments but also the aid of simulation models. ORCHIDEE process-based ecosystem model designed for large-scale applications treats grasslands as being unmanaged, where C / water fluxes are only subject to atmospheric CO2 and climate changes. Our study describes how management of grasslands is included in the ORCHIDEE, and how management affects modeled grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new model, ORCHIDEE-GM (Grassland Management) is capable with a management module inspired from a grassland model (PaSim, version 5.0), of accounting for two grassland management practices (cutting and grazing). The evaluation of the results of ORCHIDEE-GM compared with those of ORCHIDEE at 11 European sites equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, show that ORCHIDEE-GM can capture realistically the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: Leaf Area Index; AGB: Aboveground Biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: Gross Primary Productivity; TER: Total Ecosystem Respiration; and NEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange). But improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM, which relates to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without management. At some sites, the model-observation misfit in ORCHIDEE-GM is found to be more related to ill-constrained parameter values than to model structure. Additionally, ORCHIDEE-GM is able to simulate

  12. Importance and genetic diversity of vegetable-infecting tospoviruses in India.

    PubMed

    Kunkalikar, Suresh R; Poojari, Sudarsana; Arun, Bhanupriya M; Rajagopalan, Prem A; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Naidu, Rayapati A; Zehr, Usha B; Ravi, Kankanallu S

    2011-03-01

    A survey for Peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV), Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV), Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), and Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) was conducted between 2002 and 2009 in the major vegetable-growing areas in India. PBNV was documented widely in tomato and chili peppers in 14 states representing southern, north-western, north-eastern, and central regions and WBNV was predominantly detected in watermelons and cucurbits in all except north-eastern regions. In addition, the expanded host range of PBNV to watermelons and other cucurbits and WBNV to tomato and chili peppers was observed leading to natural mixed infection of the two viruses. IYSV was found in onion in southern, central, and north-eastern regions and CaCV in tomato and chili peppers in northern and southern regions, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleocapsid gene revealed segregation of field isolates of PBNV and WBNV into two distinct subclades, whereas isolates of CaCV and IYSV each clustered into a single clade. A proposal for establishing WBNV as a distinct tospovirus species is made based on the molecular characterization of small- (S) and medium- (M) RNA segments.

  13. Importance and genetic diversity of vegetable-infecting tospoviruses in India.

    PubMed

    Kunkalikar, Suresh R; Poojari, Sudarsana; Arun, Bhanupriya M; Rajagopalan, Prem A; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Naidu, Rayapati A; Zehr, Usha B; Ravi, Kankanallu S

    2011-03-01

    A survey for Peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV), Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV), Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), and Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) was conducted between 2002 and 2009 in the major vegetable-growing areas in India. PBNV was documented widely in tomato and chili peppers in 14 states representing southern, north-western, north-eastern, and central regions and WBNV was predominantly detected in watermelons and cucurbits in all except north-eastern regions. In addition, the expanded host range of PBNV to watermelons and other cucurbits and WBNV to tomato and chili peppers was observed leading to natural mixed infection of the two viruses. IYSV was found in onion in southern, central, and north-eastern regions and CaCV in tomato and chili peppers in northern and southern regions, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleocapsid gene revealed segregation of field isolates of PBNV and WBNV into two distinct subclades, whereas isolates of CaCV and IYSV each clustered into a single clade. A proposal for establishing WBNV as a distinct tospovirus species is made based on the molecular characterization of small- (S) and medium- (M) RNA segments. PMID:21299415

  14. How and why should children eat fruit and vegetables? Ethnographic insights into diverse body pedagogies.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Michalis

    2015-10-01

    Much recent scholarship in the field of sociology of childhood has analyzed the disciplinary and regulatory strategies for governing children's bodies in the name of "health" and "life" in North/Western Europe, North America, and Australia. These analyses problematize how formal and informal pedagogies are shaped by biomedical knowledge, popular media images, and neoliberal agendas in ways not always for the benefit of the children in question. Little research, however, has explored the body pedagogies developed within grass-roots movements concerned with children's health and well-being; furthermore, little research has explored these topics outside the North American or European space. Following a comparative ethnographic approach, I explore the differences in how and why children eat fruit and vegetables in a) public kindergartens and b) allotment gardens in Berlin, Germany, as well as in c) Landless Workers' settlements in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The qualitative analysis reveals that biopedagogical concerns often intermingle with ecological as well as broader societal issues, depending on the concrete context in question. This, in turn, poses new questions concerning our understandings of "biopower" and "biopolitics."

  15. Metabolic model for diversity-generating biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tianero, Ma. Diarey; Pierce, Elizabeth; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Sardar, Debosmita; McIntosh, John A.; Heemstra, John R.; Schonrock, Zachary; Covington, Brett C.; Maschek, J. Alan; Cox, James E.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Ruffner, Duane E.; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    A conventional metabolic pathway leads to a specific product. In stark contrast, there are diversity-generating metabolic pathways that naturally produce different chemicals, sometimes of great diversity. We demonstrate that for one such pathway, tru, each ensuing metabolic step is slower, in parallel with the increasing potential chemical divergence generated as the pathway proceeds. Intermediates are long lived and accumulate progressively, in contrast with conventional metabolic pathways, in which the first step is rate-limiting and metabolic intermediates are short-lived. Understanding these fundamental differences enables several different practical applications, such as combinatorial biosynthesis, some of which we demonstrate here. We propose that these principles may provide a unifying framework underlying diversity-generating metabolism in many different biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26831074

  16. Metabolic model for diversity-generating biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tianero, Ma Diarey; Pierce, Elizabeth; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Sardar, Debosmita; McIntosh, John A; Heemstra, John R; Schonrock, Zachary; Covington, Brett C; Maschek, J Alan; Cox, James E; Bachmann, Brian O; Olivera, Baldomero M; Ruffner, Duane E; Schmidt, Eric W

    2016-02-16

    A conventional metabolic pathway leads to a specific product. In stark contrast, there are diversity-generating metabolic pathways that naturally produce different chemicals, sometimes of great diversity. We demonstrate that for one such pathway, tru, each ensuing metabolic step is slower, in parallel with the increasing potential chemical divergence generated as the pathway proceeds. Intermediates are long lived and accumulate progressively, in contrast with conventional metabolic pathways, in which the first step is rate-limiting and metabolic intermediates are short-lived. Understanding these fundamental differences enables several different practical applications, such as combinatorial biosynthesis, some of which we demonstrate here. We propose that these principles may provide a unifying framework underlying diversity-generating metabolism in many different biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26831074

  17. A gradient model of vegetation and climate utilizing NOAA satellite imagery. Phase 1: Texas transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greegor, D.; Norwine, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A climatological model/variable termed the sponge (a measure of moisture availability based on daily temperature maxima and minima, and precipitation) was tested for potential biogeograhic, ecological, and agro-climatological applications. Results, depicted in tabular and graphic form, suggest that, as generalized climatic index, sponge is particularly appropriate for large-area and global vegetation monitoring. The feasibility of utilizing NOAA/AVHRR data for vegetation classification was investigated and a vegetation gradient model that utilizes sponge and AVHRR data was initiated. Along an east-west Texas gradient, vegetation, sponge, and AVHRR pixel data (channels 1 and 2) were obtained for 12 locations. The normalized difference values for the AVHRR data when plotted against vegetation characteristics (biomass, net productivity, leaf area) and sponge values along the Texas gradient suggest that a multivariate gradient model incorporating AVHRR and sponge data may indeed be useful in global vegetation stratification and monitoring.

  18. The effect of vegetation on pesticide dissipation from ponded treatment wetlands: quantification using a simple model.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael T; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2008-07-01

    Field data shows that plants accelerate pesticide dissipation from aquatic systems by increasing sedimentation, biofilm contact and photolysis. In this study, a graphical model was constructed and calibrated with site-specific and supplementary data to describe the loss of two pesticides, endosulfan and fluometuron, from a vegetated and a non-vegetated pond. In the model, the major processes responsible for endosulfan dissipation were alkaline hydrolysis and sedimentation, with the former process being reduced by vegetation and the latter enhanced. Fluometuron dissipation resulted primarily from biofilm reaction and photolysis, both of which were increased by vegetation. Here, greater photolysis under vegetation arose from faster sedimentation and increased light penetration, despite shading. Management options for employing constructed wetlands to polish pesticide-contaminated agricultural runoff are discussed. The lack of easily fulfilled sub-models and data describing the effect of aquatic vegetation on water chemistry and sedimentation is also highlighted. PMID:18539309

  19. Vegetation fires, absorbing aerosols and smoke plume characteristics in diverse biomass burning regions of Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Vadrevu, Krishna; Lasko, Kristofer; Giglio, Louis; Justice, Chris

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we explored the relationships between the satellite-retrieved fire counts (FC), fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol indices using multi-satellite datasets at a daily time-step covering ten different biomass burning regions in Asia. We first assessed the variations in MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depths (AOD’s) in agriculture, forests, plantation and peat land burning regions and then used MODIS FC and FRP (hereafter FC/FRP) to explain the variations in AOD characteristics. Results suggest that tropical broadleaf forests in Laos burn more intensively than the other vegetation fires. FC/FRP-AOD correlations in different agricultural residue burning regions did not exceed 20% whereas in forest regions they reached 40%. To specifically account for absorbing aerosols, we used Ozone Monitoring Instrument-derived aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI). Results suggest relatively high AAOD and UVAI values in forest fires compared with peat and agriculture fires. Further, FC/FRP could explain a maximum of 29% and 53% of AAOD variations, whereas FC/FRP could explain at most 33% and 51% of the variation in agricultural and forest biomass burning regions, respectively. Relatively, UVAI was found to be a better indicator than AOD and AAOD in both agriculture and forest biomass burning plumes. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations data showed vertically elevated aerosol profiles greater than 3.2-5.3 km altitude in the forest fire plumes compared to 2.2-3.9 km and less than 1 km in agriculture and peat-land fires, respectively. We infer the need to assimilate smoke plume height information for effective characterization of pollutants from different sources.

  20. Aquatic vegetation indices assessment through radiative transfer modeling and linear mixture simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Paolo; Mousivand, Alijafar; Bresciani, Mariano

    2014-08-01

    Although spectral vegetation indices (VIs) have been widely used for remote sensing of vegetation in general, such indices have been traditionally targeted at terrestrial, more than aquatic, vegetation. This study introduces two new VIs specifically targeted at aquatic vegetation: NDAVI and WAVI and assesses their performance in capturing information about aquatic vegetation features by comparison with pre-existing indices: NDVI, SAVI and EVI. The assessment methodology is based on: (i) theoretical radiative transfer modeling of vegetation canopy-backgrounds coupling, and (ii) spectral linear mixture simulation based on real-case endmembers. Two study areas, Lake Garda and Lakes of Mantua, in Northern Italy, and a multisensor dataset have been exploited for our study. Our results demonstrate the advantages of the new indices. In particular, NDAVI and WAVI sensitivity scores to LAI and LIDF parameters were generally higher than pre-existing indices' ones. Radiative transfer modeling and real-case based linear mixture simulation showed a general positive, non-linear correlation of vegetation indices with increasing LAI and vegetation fractional cover (FC), more marked for NDVI and NDAVI. Moreover, NDAVI and WAVI show enhanced capabilities in separating terrestrial from aquatic vegetation response, compared to pre-existing indices, especially of NDVI. The new indices provide good performance in distinguishing aquatic from terrestrial vegetation: NDAVI over low density vegetation (LAI < 0.7-1.0, FC < 40-50%), and WAVI over medium-high density vegetation (LAI > 1.0, FC > 50%). Specific vegetation indices can therefore improve remote sensing applications for aquatic vegetation monitoring.

  1. Incorporation of Vegetation into Mountain Permafrost Distribution Models, Southern Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Marian

    Three groups of variables (Digital Elevation Model [DEM]-derived variables, fieldwork-derived vegetation variables, and satellite imagery-derived vegetation variables) were combined in Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models to determine the utility of vegetation-based variables for mountain permafrost distribution modelling in the southern half of the Yukon Territory. Four variables were measured in the field: canopy openness, vegetation height, organic mat thickness, and dominant species. Using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, three variables were calculated: a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a vegetation classification, and a canopy closure classification. Individual variables were also examined to determine the one most useful for representing vegetation when modelling permafrost presence or absence. Additionally, models for each of five study areas spread across 5° of latitude were compared to examine the transferability of each variable. The addition of vegetation variables to the CART models created with DEM-derived variables resulted in only a minimal increase in the overall accuracy. Dominant species proved to be the most useful variable, but the relationship between permafrost and each species differed among study areas. Only black spruce (Picea mariana) was consistently classified as permafrost probable and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) were classified as permafrost improbable over all study areas. These results indicate that models of permafrost distribution across large areas are not likely to be enriched sufficiently by the inclusion of vegetation variables while models covering smaller areas may benefit from the inclusion of vegetation variables. The CART models tended to show a high accuracy in the prediction of areas with no permafrost which could be useful for the purposes of infrastructure development. CART models have not previously been used in permafrost modelling

  2. A population model of chaparral vegetation response to frequent wildfires.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Timothy A; Johns, Garrett; Jiang, Wancen; Yang, Lucie

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase in wildfire frequency in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) may substantially impact plant community structure. Species of Chaparral shrubs represent the dominant vegetation type in the SMM. These species can be divided into three life history types according to their response to wildfires. Nonsprouting species are completely killed by fire and reproduce by seeds that germinate in response to a fire cue, obligate sprouting species survive by resprouting from dormant buds in a root crown because their seeds are destroyed by fire, and facultative sprouting species recover after fire both by seeds and resprouts. Based on these assumptions, we developed a set of nonlinear difference equations to model each life history type. These models can be used to predict species survivorship under varying fire return intervals. For example, frequent fires can lead to localized extinction of nonsprouting species such as Ceanothus megacarpus while several facultative sprouting species such as Ceanothus spinosus and Malosma (Rhus) laurina will persist as documented by a longitudinal study in a biological preserve in the SMM. We estimated appropriate parameter values for several chaparral species using 25 years of data and explored parameter relationships that lead to equilibrium populations. We conclude by looking at the survival strategies of these three species of chaparral shrubs under varying fire return intervals and predict changes in plant community structure under fire intervals of short return. In particular, our model predicts that an average fire return interval of greater than 12 years is required for 50 % of the initial Ceanothus megacarpus population and 25 % of the initial Ceanothus spinosus population to survive. In contrast, we predict that the Malosma laurina population will have 90 % survivorship for an average fire return interval of at least 6 years.

  3. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  4. Modeling the Effect of Vegetation on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. P.; Inguva, R.; Crosson, W. L.; Coleman, T. L.; Laymon, C.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of vegetation on passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture is studied. The radiative transfer modeling work of Njoku and Kong is applied to a stratified medium of which the upper layer is treated as a layer of vegetation. An effective dielectric constant for this vegetation layer is computed using estimates of the dielectric constant of individual components of the vegetation layer. The horizontally-polarized brightness temperature is then computed as a function of the incidence angle. Model predictions are used to compare with the data obtained in the Huntsville '96, remote sensing of soil moisture experiment, and with predictions obtained using a correction procedure of Jackson and Schmugge.

  5. Effects of heterogeneous wind fields and vegetation composition on modeled estimates of pollen source area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, K. D.; Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil pollen records from lakes, bogs, and small hollows offer the main source of information about vegetation responses to climate change and land use over timescales of decades to millennia. Millions of pollen grains are released from individual trees each year, and are transported by wind before settling out of the atmosphere. Reconstructing past vegetation from sedimentary pollen records, however, requires careful modeling of pollen production, transport, and deposition. The atmosphere is turbulent, and regional wind patterns shift from day to day. In accordance with this, it is necessary for pollen transport models to adequately account for variable, non-uniform wind patterns and vegetation heterogeneity. Using a simulation approach, with both simulated vegetation patterns and vegetation gradients, as well as simulated wind fields, we show the inconsistency in pollen loading proportions and local vegetation proportions when non-uniform wind patterns are incorporated. Vegetation upwind from the lake is over-represented due to the increased prevalence of winds transporting pollen from that area. The inclusion of North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) wind records affirms this finding. Of the lake sites explored in this study, none had uniform wind patterns. The use of a settlement-era gridded vegetation dataset, compiled by the PalEON project and based on Public Land Survey System (PLSS) records allows us to model pollen source area with realistic vegetation heterogeneity. Due to differences in productivity, pollen fall speeds, and neighboring vegetation, there exist patterns of vegetation that may be poorly characterized due to over/under representation of different taxa. Better understanding these differences in representation allows for more accurate reconstruction of historical vegetation, and pollen-vegetation relationships.

  6. Impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan considering uncertainty in an impact model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutomi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the summer of 2010, extreme hot weather hit Japan, and damaged many types of vegetables. In the future, global warming may often cause hot weather and damage vegetable production. In order to make adaptive policies to reduce the future impacts, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the impact of future climate change on vegetables. However, there have been few studies on quantitative impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan because few impact assessment models for vegetables have been developed. In this study, I develop impact assessment models for 14 vegetables, which are designated by the government of Japan, and I assess the impact of climate change on the 14 vegetables considering uncertainty in the developed models. Impact assessment models which I developed are multi-regression models. Dependent variables of the models are shipments in markets in summer, i.e., July, August, and September. Independent variables are monthly temperature and precipitation. In order to consider uncertainty of the models in impact assessments, 1000 regression parameters are derived by the bootstrap method. Data used for developing the regression models are statistics on the shipments of vegetables from 1999 to 2010 and meteorological data of the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Model validations showed that the developed models can reproduce the historical records on the shipments well. Next, I assessed the shipments of the 14 vegetables in 2031-2040 using the developed models and the future climate projections of Miroc-3.2-Hires. The simulations showed that the shipments of almost all vegetables will decrease in 2031-2040.

  7. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  8. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna. PMID:27627066

  9. Modeling and analysis of vegetation-climate interactions using neutral networks and generalized logit models

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, E.; Kandikar, M.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    1995-12-31

    The importance of biosphere-climate interactions for energy and moisture balances and major biogeochemical cycles is well recognized. Climate change is expected to alter the functioning and distribution of major ecosystems. These changes have been investigated using global vegetation transfer models.

  10. Diversity of Phytophthora Species from Declining Mediterranean Maquis Vegetation, including Two New Species, Phytophthora crassamura and P. ornamentata sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Scanu, Bruno; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Deidda, Antonio; Jung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot accounting for more than 25,000 plant species that represent almost 10% of the world's vascular flora. In particular, the maquis vegetation on Mediterranean islands and archipelagos constitutes an important resource of the Mediterranean plant diversity due to its high rate of endemism. Since 2009, a severe and widespread dieback and mortality of Quercus ilex trees and several other plant species of the Mediterranean maquis has been observed in the National Park of La Maddalena archipelago (northeast Sardinia, Italy). Infected plants showed severe decline symptoms and a significant reduction of natural regeneration. First studies revealed the involvement of the highly invasive wide-host range pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi and several fungal pathogens. Subsequent detailed research led to a better understanding of these epidemics showing that multiple Phytophthora spp. were involved, some of them unknown to science. In total, nine Phytophthora species were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from around symptomatic trees and shrubs including Asparagus albus, Cistus sp., Juniperus phoenicea, J. oxycedrus, Pistacia lentiscus and Rhamnus alaternus. Based on morphological characters, growth-temperature relations and sequence analysis of the ITS and cox1 gene regions, the isolates were identified as Phytophthora asparagi, P. bilorbang, P. cinnamomi, P. cryptogea, P. gonapodyides, P. melonis, P. syringae and two new Clade 6 taxa which are here described as P. crassamura sp. nov. and P. ornamentata sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests supported their possible involvement in the severe decline that is currently threatening the Mediterranean maquis vegetation in the La Maddalena archipelago. PMID:26649428

  11. Diversity of Phytophthora Species from Declining Mediterranean Maquis Vegetation, including Two New Species, Phytophthora crassamura and P. ornamentata sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Scanu, Bruno; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T.; Deidda, Antonio; Jung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot accounting for more than 25,000 plant species that represent almost 10% of the world’s vascular flora. In particular, the maquis vegetation on Mediterranean islands and archipelagos constitutes an important resource of the Mediterranean plant diversity due to its high rate of endemism. Since 2009, a severe and widespread dieback and mortality of Quercus ilex trees and several other plant species of the Mediterranean maquis has been observed in the National Park of La Maddalena archipelago (northeast Sardinia, Italy). Infected plants showed severe decline symptoms and a significant reduction of natural regeneration. First studies revealed the involvement of the highly invasive wide-host range pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi and several fungal pathogens. Subsequent detailed research led to a better understanding of these epidemics showing that multiple Phytophthora spp. were involved, some of them unknown to science. In total, nine Phytophthora species were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from around symptomatic trees and shrubs including Asparagus albus, Cistus sp., Juniperus phoenicea, J. oxycedrus, Pistacia lentiscus and Rhamnus alaternus. Based on morphological characters, growth-temperature relations and sequence analysis of the ITS and cox1 gene regions, the isolates were identified as Phytophthora asparagi, P. bilorbang, P. cinnamomi, P. cryptogea, P. gonapodyides, P. melonis, P. syringae and two new Clade 6 taxa which are here described as P. crassamura sp. nov. and P. ornamentata sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests supported their possible involvement in the severe decline that is currently threatening the Mediterranean maquis vegetation in the La Maddalena archipelago. PMID:26649428

  12. The Diversity Challenge: A Collection of Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellander, Gustavo A., Ed.; Prochaska, Fred, Ed.

    Model programs designed to promote diversity within the West Valley-Mission Community College District (WVMCCD) in California are discussed and described in this report. First, an introductory chapter, "The Importance of Cultural Issues to Higher Education," by Gustavo A. Mellander and Fred Prochaska, reviews the diversity recommendations of the…

  13. Using the Adventure Model to Teach about Diversity and Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latess, Dennis R.; Walker, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    There are a variety of curricular approaches in physical education, any one of which can provide a framework and scheme that is the foundation of a physical education unit of study. This article will discuss the use of an adventure model to teach about diversity, multi-cultural understanding and tolerance. Teaching children diversity and tolerance…

  14. Modelling Holocene peatland and permafrost dynamics with the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Nitin; Miller, Paul A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are an important platform to study past, present and future vegetation patterns together with associated biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks (e.g. Sitch et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2001). However, very few attempts have been made to simulate peatlands using DGVMs (Kleinen et al. 2012, Tang et al. 2015, Wania et al. 2009a). In the present study, we have improved the peatland dynamics in the state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) in order to understand the long-term evolution of northern peatland ecosystems and to assess the effect of changing climate on peatland carbon balance. We combined a dynamic multi-layer approach (Frolking et al. 2010, Hilbert et al. 2000) with soil freezing-thawing functionality (Ekici et al. 2015, Wania et al. 2009a) in LPJ-GUESS. The new model is named LPJ-GUESS Peatland (LPJ-GUESS-P) (Chaudhary et al. in prep). The model was calibrated and tested at the sub-arctic mire in Stordalen, Sweden, and the model was able to capture the reported long-term vegetation dynamics and peat accumulation patterns in the mire (Kokfelt et al. 2010). For evaluation, the model was run at 13 grid points across a north to south transect in Europe. The modelled peat accumulation values were found to be consistent with the published data for each grid point (Loisel et al. 2014). Finally, a series of additional experiments were carried out to investigate the vulnerability of high-latitude peatlands to climate change. We find that the Stordalen mire will sequester more carbon in the future due to milder and wetter climate conditions, longer growing seasons, and the carbon fertilization effect. References: - Chaudhary et al. (in prep.). Modelling Holocene peatland and permafrost dynamics with the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model - Ekici A, et al. 2015. Site-level model intercomparison of high latitude and high altitude soil thermal dynamics in tundra and barren landscapes. The Cryosphere 9: 1343

  15. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  16. Modeling the effect of wave-vegetation interaction on wave setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooijen, A. A.; McCall, R. T.; van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Roelvink, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic vegetation in the coastal zone attenuates wave energy and reduces the risk of coastal hazards, e.g., flooding. Besides the attenuation of sea-swell waves, vegetation may also affect infragravity-band (IG) waves and wave setup. To date, knowledge on the effect of vegetation on IG waves and wave setup is lacking, while they are potentially important parameters for coastal risk assessment. In this study, the storm impact model XBeach is extended with formulations for attenuation of sea-swell and IG waves, and wave setup effects in two modes: the sea-swell wave phase-resolving (nonhydrostatic) and the phase-averaged (surfbeat) mode. In surfbeat mode, a wave shape model is implemented to capture the effect of nonlinear wave-vegetation interaction processes on wave setup. Both modeling modes are verified using data from two flume experiments with mimic vegetation and show good skill in computing the sea-swell and IG wave transformation, and wave setup. In surfbeat mode, the wave setup prediction greatly improves when using the wave shape model, while in nonhydrostatic mode (nonlinear) intrawave effects are directly accounted for. Subsequently, the model is used for a range of coastal geomorphological configurations by varying bed slope and vegetation extent. The results indicate that the effect of wave-vegetation interaction on wave setup may be relevant for a range of typical coastal geomorphological configurations (e.g., relatively steep to gentle slope coasts fronted by vegetation).

  17. Drag coefficients for modeling flow through emergent vegetation in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.K.; Roig, L.C.; Jenter, H.L.; Visser, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic data collected in a flume fitted with pans of sawgrass were analyzed to determine the vertically averaged drag coefficient as a function of vegetation characteristics. The drag coefficient is required for modeling flow through emergent vegetation at low Reynolds numbers in the Florida Everglades. Parameters of the vegetation, such as the stem population per unit bed area and the average stem/leaf width, were measured for five fixed vegetation layers. The vertically averaged vegetation parameters for each experiment were then computed by weighted average over the submerged portion of the vegetation. Only laminar flow through emergent vegetation was considered, because this is the dominant flow regime of the inland Everglades. A functional form for the vegetation drag coefficient was determined by linear regression of the logarithmic transforms of measured resistance force and Reynolds number. The coefficients of the drag coefficient function were then determined for the Everglades, using extensive flow and vegetation measurements taken in the field. The Everglades data show that the stem spacing and the Reynolds number are important parameters for the determination of vegetation drag coefficient. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treating chemical diversity in QSAR analysis: modeling diverse HIV-1 integrase inhibitors using 4D fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Manisha; Hopfinger, A J

    2007-01-01

    A set of 213 compounds across 12 structurally diverse classes of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors was used to develop and evaluate a combined clustering and QSAR modeling methodology to construct significant, reliable, and robust models for structurally diverse data sets. The trial-descriptor pool for both clustering- and QSAR-model building consisted of 4D fingerprints and classic QSAR descriptors. Clustering was carried out using a combination of the partitioning around medoids method and divisive hierarchical clustering. QSAR models were constructed for members of each cluster by linear-regression fitting and model optimization using the genetic function approximation. The 12 structurally diverse classes of integrase inhbitors were partitioned into five clusters from which corresponding QSAR models, overwhelmingly composed of 4D fingerprint descriptors, were constructed. Analysis of the five QSAR models suggests that three models correspond to structurally diverse inhibitors that likely bind at a common site on integrase characterized by a common inhibitor hydrogen-bond donor, but involving somewhat different alignments and/or poses for the inhibitors of each of the three clusters. The particular alignments for the inhibitors of each of the three QSAR models involve specific distributions of nonpolar groups over the inhibitors. The two other clusters, one for coumarins and the other for depsides and depsidones, lead to QSAR models with less-defined pharmacophores, likely representing an inhibitor binding to a site(s) different from that of the other nine classes of inhibitors. Overall, the clustering and QSAR methodology employed in this study suggests that it can meaningfully partition structurally diverse compounds expressing a common endpoint in such a manner that leads to statistically significant and pharmacologically insightful composite QSAR models. PMID:17661457

  19. Three Dimensional Morphodynamic and Vegetation Modeling of Wax Lake Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, A. K.; Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is located at the downstream end of the Wax Lake outlet, approximately 13 miles upstream from Morgan City, Louisiana. In 1942 the United States Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) dredged Wax Lake Outlet channel from lower Atchafalaya River to reduce flood stages at Morgan City. The channel diverts 50% of Atchafalaya River water and sediment to WLD. Since 1942, the WLD has been building seaward due to the deposition of sediment at the channel mouth. Growth of this delta supports the concept of land building via river diversions. A process based morphodynamic model (Delft3D) with the ability to predict evolution of river-dominated deltas is used in this study to further our understanding of land-building and delta growth processes. Initial model bathymetry is prepared based on USACE hydrographic survey of 1998 along with LIDAR survey data for over bank areas. Two continuous gauges at Wax Lake outlet near Calumet and Atchafalaya Bay near Eugene Island are used to assign upstream inflow and outflow boundary conditions, respectively. The model is calibrated and validated for Hydrodynamics and Sediment transport through two sets of field observations for flooded and average conditions. Vertical velocity and suspended sediment profiles made in the channels of the WLD in 2000 and 2001 are used for the model calibration and validation. More comprehensive field observations are being gathered as part of an ongoing study funded by the National Science Foundation (FESD-Delta Dynamics Collaboratory). Data include mutli-beam bathymetric data, velocities, sediment, and nutrient concentrations in the channels as well as on top of the islands. The Delft3D morphodynamic model for WLD provides quantitative information regarding water and sediment distribution among the inter-connected channel bifurcations, the exchange of sediment and nutrients between the channels and islands. The model is being used to investigate the rate of land building and delta growth from

  20. Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Epstein, Howard E.; Box, Elgene O.; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Goswami, Santonu; Iversen, Colleen M.; Kattge, Jens; Norby, Richard J.; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Earth system models describe the physical, chemical and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Scope Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modellers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review, the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current and future distribution of vegetation. Conclusions Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially below-ground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait–environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land–atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography

  1. Integrated modeling framework to quantify the coastal protection services supplied by vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guannel, Greg; Ruggiero, Peter; Faries, Joe; Arkema, Katie; Pinsky, Malin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Guerry, Anne; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    can protect communities by reducing nearshore wave height and altering sediment transport processes. However, quantitative approaches for evaluating the coastal protection services, or benefits, supplied by vegetation to people in a wide range of coastal environments are lacking. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, we propose an integrated modeling approach for quantifying how vegetation modifies nearshore processes—including the attenuation of wave height, mean and total water level—and reduces shoreline erosion during storms. We apply the model to idealized seagrass-sand and mangrove-mud cases, and illustrate its potential by quantifying how those habitats reduce water levels and sediment loss beyond what would be observed in the absence of vegetation. The integrated modeling approach provides an efficient way to quantify the coastal protection services supplied by vegetation and highlights specific research needs for improved representations of the ways in which vegetation modifies wave-induced processes.

  2. A gradient model of vegetation and climate utilizing NOAA satellite imagery. Phase 1: Texas transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greegor, D. H.; Norwine, J.

    1981-01-01

    A new experimental climatological model/variable termed the sponge, a measure of moisture availability based on daily temperature maxima and minima and precipitation, is tested for potential biogeographic, ecological, and agro-climatological applications. Results, depicted in tabular and graphic from, suggest that, as a generalized climatic index, sponge's simplicity and sensitivity make particularly appropriate for trans-regional biogeographic studies (e.g., large-area and global vegetation monitoring). The feasibility of utilizing NOAA/AVHRR data for vegetation classification was investigated and a vegetation gradient model that utilizes sponge, and AVHRR pixel data (channels 1 and 2) were obtained for 12 locations. The normalized difference values for the AVHRR data when plotted against vegetation characteristics (biomass, net productivity, leaf area) and sponge values suggest that a multivariate gradient model incorporating AVHRR and sponge data may indeed be useful in global vegetation stratification and monitoring.

  3. Diversity-induced resonance in a model for opinion formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, C. J.; Toral, R.

    2009-10-01

    We study an opinion formation model that takes into account that individuals have diverse preferences when adopting an opinion regarding a particular issue. We show that the system exhibits “diversity-induced resonance” [C.J. Tessone et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 194101 (2006)], by which an external influence (for example advertising, or fashion trends) is better followed by populations having the right degree of diversity in their preferences, rather than others where the individuals are identical or have too different preferences. We support our findings by numerical simulations of the model in different network topologies and a mean-field type analytical theory.

  4. Item response modeling: an evaluation of the children's fruit and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is a key variable mediating FV change in interventions. This study applies item response modeling (IRM) to a fruit, juice and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire (FVSEQ) previously validated with classical test theory (CTT) procedur...

  5. Item Response Modeling: An Evaluation of the Children's Fruit and Vegetable Self-Efficacy Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2006-01-01

    Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is a key variable mediating FV change in interventions. This study applies item response modeling (IRM) to a fruit, juice and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire (FVSEQ) previously validated with classical test theory (CTT) procedures. The 24-item (five-point Likert scale) FVSEQ…

  6. Projected Future Vegetation Changes for the Northwest United States and Southwest Canada at a Fine Spatial Resolution Using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Sarah L; Bartlein, Patrick J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Pelltier, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0-58.0°N latitude by 136.6-103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070-2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas. PMID:26488750

  7. Projected Future Vegetation Changes for the Northwest United States and Southwest Canada at a Fine Spatial Resolution Using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas. PMID:26488750

  8. Projected future vegetation changes for the northwest United States and southwest Canada at a fine spatial resolution using a dynamic global vegetation model.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafer, Sarah; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  9. Projected Future Vegetation Changes for the Northwest United States and Southwest Canada at a Fine Spatial Resolution Using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Sarah L; Bartlein, Patrick J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Pelltier, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0-58.0°N latitude by 136.6-103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070-2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  10. Estimating fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin, China, using dimidiate fractional cover model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyong; Han, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Oasis is an important component of desert ecosystem. This paper employs Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multi-spectral data to extract fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin with four methods. The mixture pixel decomposition model based on normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) is firstly used to estimate fractional vegetation cover(FVC). The results indicated that the method is mainly underestimating the FVC at the low FVC area and overestimating the FVC at high FVC area. Thereafter, a stepwise regression model between 15 Vegetation Indices (VIs) and measured FVC data and a log-linear model have been established through the relation analysis of FVC and NDVI. Trials of these two models showed that they are mainly overestimating the FVC. Finally, a dimidiate fractional cover model was proposed, which is composed of two linear functions. When the NDVI is less than 0.3, the linear function is formed by stress related vegetation index (STVI1) and normal differential water index (NDWI) (R2, 0.764) while the NDVI is greater than 0.3, the linear function is composed of NDVI and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) (R2, 0.801). The validation of the dimidiate fractional cover model has been tested with the measured data. In the optimal case, the mean error is 0.002 and the RMSE is 0.051, demonstrating that the model can be used in estimating fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin.

  11. Unmanaged sexual reproduction and the dynamics of genetic diversity of a vegetatively propagated crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), in a traditional farming system.

    PubMed

    Elias, M; Penet, L; Vindry, P; McKey, D; Panaud, O; Robert, T

    2001-08-01

    Occurrence of intervarietal or interspecific natural crosses has been reported for many crop plants in traditional farming systems, underlining the potential importance of this source of genetic exchange for the dynamics of genetic diversity of crop plants. In this study, we use microsatellite loci to investigate the role of volunteer seedlings (plants originating from unmanaged sexual reproduction) in the dynamics of genetic diversity of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a vegetatively propagated crop, in a traditional farming system in Guyana. A previous field study showed that farmers incorporate such plants into the germplasm for vegetative propagation, and that many of them are likely to be assigned by farmers to recognized varieties. Under strict vegetative propagation clonality of varieties is expected. The high proportion of polyclonal varieties observed suggests that incorporation of seedlings into the germplasm for propagation is a frequent event. The molecular variability assessed with microsatellite markers shows that there is high differentiation among heterozygous varieties, whereas populations of seedlings do not depart from the proportions expected under Hardy-Weinberg assumptions. Assignment of seedlings to a recognized variety on the basis of morphological similarity greatly increases genetic diversity within the variety. We argue that recombination and gene flow play a major role in the dynamics of genetic diversity of cassava in traditional farming systems. Documenting unmanaged sexual reproduction and its genetic consequences is a prerequisite for defining strategies of in situ conservation of crop plant genetic resources.

  12. Dealing with Diversity in Computational Cancer Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David; McKeever, Steve; Stamatakos, Georgios; Dionysiou, Dimitra; Graf, Norbert; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Marias, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for interconnecting computational cancer models from different sources and scales within clinically relevant scenarios to increase the accuracy of the models and speed up their clinical adaptation, validation, and eventual translation. We briefly review current interoperability efforts drawing upon our experiences with the development of in silico models for predictive oncology within a number of European Commission Virtual Physiological Human initiative projects on cancer. A clinically relevant scenario, addressing brain tumor modeling that illustrates the need for coupling models from different sources and levels of complexity, is described. General approaches to enabling interoperability using XML-based markup languages for biological modeling are reviewed, concluding with a discussion on efforts towards developing cancer-specific XML markup to couple multiple component models for predictive in silico oncology. PMID:23700360

  13. How much does weather-driven vegetation dynamics matter in land surface modelling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are an essential part of weather and climate models as they provide the lower boundary condition for the atmospheric models. In state-of-the-art LSMs the seasonal vegetation dynamics is "frozen". The seasonal variation of vegetation state variables, such as leaf area index or green vegetation fraction, are prescribed in lookup tables. Hence, a year-by-year variation in the development of vegetation due to changing weather conditions cannot be considered. For climate simulations, this is obviously a severe drawback. The objective of the present study was to quantify the potential error in the simulation of land surface exchange processes resulting from "frozen" vegetation dynamics. For this purpose we simulated energy and water fluxes from a winter wheat stand and a maize stand in Southwest Germany. In a first set of simulations, six years (2010 to 2015) were simulated considering weather-driven vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we coupled the generic crop growth model GECROS with the NOAH-MP model (NOAHMP-GECROS). In a second set of simulations all vegetation-related state variables of the 2010 simulation were written to an external file and were used to overwrite the vegetation-related state variables of the simulations of the years 2011-2015. The difference between both sets was taken as a measure for the potential error introduced to the LSM due to the assumption of a "frozen" vegetation dynamics. We will present first results and discuss the impact of "frozen" vegetation dynamics on climate change simulations.

  14. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

  15. Laboratory measurements of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surge and waves generated by hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation a...

  16. Experimental investigation of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation are not fully understood. K...

  17. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Woody Vegetation on Seepage in Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, F. T.; Corcoran, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    A remarkable number and diversity of levees exist in the United States. One controversial and complicated concern is the effect of woody vegetation on the performance of levees. Some really appreciate the trees on levees because they are beautiful and great for the environment and habitat. However, others do not like trees on levees because they can cause defects and get in the way of doing maintenance, especially during the time of floods. This poster will focus on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of seepage in levees to determine the effect of woody vegetation on piping and internal erosion of the foundation of the levee. The finite element method is the modeling tool that is used. The approach in the overall modeling study was to select several levees around the country for further analysis. Then for each levee, trees were placed at different locations on the levee. A given root zone from a tree was modeled in three ways: (1) a 6 ft X 5 ft constant hydraulic conductivity zone where the original hydraulic conductivity of the zone was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value, (2) a randomly generated macropore heterogeneous zone where the hydraulic conductivity was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value for each finite element in the zone, and (3) a defect in actual root shapes embedded into the root zone where the hydraulic conductivity of the defect was chosen to be 100.0 times that of its original value without the defect. Both steady-state and transient flow simulations were done. Output from the models consisted of equipotentials, velocities, pore pressures, and isosurfaces of potential. From these data, the likelihood of the initiation of sand boils and internal erosion of the levee foundation was determined. Data generated with and without the presence of trees were compared to see possible helpful or detrimental effects of the woody vegetation. A 3-D finite element model was generated by taking a 2

  18. Interception modeling with vegetation time series derived from Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, M. J.; Díaz-Gutiérrez, A.; González-Dugo, M. P.

    2011-11-01

    Rainfall interception by the vegetation may constitute a significant fraction in the water budget at local and watershed scales, especially in Mediterranean areas. Different approaches can be found to model locally the interception fraction, but a distributed analysis requires time series of vegetation along the watershed for the study period, which includes both type of vegetation and ground cover fraction. In heterogeneous watersheds, remote sensing is usually the only viable alternative to characterize medium to large size areas, but the high number of scenes necessary to capture the temporal variability during long periods, together with the sometimes extreme scarcity of data during the wet season, make it necessary to deal with a limited number of images and interpolate vegetation maps between consecutive dates. This work presents an interception model for heterogeneous watersheds which combines an interception continuous simulation derived from Gash model and their derivations, and a time series of vegetation cover fraction and type from Landsat TM data and vegetation inventories. A mountainous watershed in Southern Spain where a physical hydrological modelling had been previously calibrated was selected for this study. The dominant species distribution and their relevant characteristics regarding the interception process were analyzed from literature and digital cartography; the evolution of the vegetation cover fraction along the watershed during the study period (2002-2005) was produced by the application of a NDVI analysis on the available scenes of Landsat TM images. This model was further calibrated by field data collected in selected areas in the watershed.

  19. Terrestrial Feedbacks Incorporated in Global Vegetation Models through Observed Trait-Environment Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodegom, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Most global vegetation models used to evaluate climate change impacts rely on plant functional types to describe vegetation responses to environmental stresses. In a traditional set-up in which vegetation characteristics are considered constant within a vegetation type, the possibility to implement and infer feedback mechanisms are limited as feedback mechanisms will likely involve a changing expression of community trait values. Based on community assembly concepts, we implemented functional trait-environment relationships into a global dynamic vegetation model to quantitatively assess this feature. For the current climate, a different global vegetation distribution was calculated with and without the inclusion of trait variation, emphasizing the importance of feedbacks -in interaction with competitive processes- for the prevailing global patterns. These trait-environmental responses do, however, not necessarily imply adaptive responses of vegetation to changing conditions and may locally lead to a faster turnover in vegetation upon climate change. Indeed, when running climate projections, simulations with trait variation did not yield a more stable or resilient vegetation than those without. Through the different feedback expressions, global and regional carbon and water fluxes were -however- strongly altered. At a global scale, model projections suggest an increased productivity and hence an increased carbon sink in the next decades to come, when including trait variation. However, by the end of the century, a reduced carbon sink is projected. This effect is due to a downregulation of photosynthesis rates, particularly in the tropical regions, even when accounting for CO2-fertilization effects. Altogether, the various global model simulations suggest the critical importance of including vegetation functional responses to changing environmental conditions to grasp terrestrial feedback mechanisms at global scales in the light of climate change.

  20. DIVERSE MODELS FOR SOLVING CONTRASTING OUTFALL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixing zone initial dilution and far-field models are useful for assuring that water quality criteria will be met when specific outfall discharge criteria are applied. Presented here is a selective review of mixing zone initial dilution models and relatively simple far-field tran...

  1. Biglan Model Test Based on Institutional Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskens, Ronald W.; Creswell, John W.

    The Biglan model, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among subject areas, classifies according to three dimensions: adherence to common set of paradigms (hard or soft), application orientation (pure or applied), and emphasis on living systems (life or nonlife). Tests of the model are reviewed, and a further test is…

  2. Integrating microbial diversity in soil carbon dynamic models parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Benjamin; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Leterme, Philippe; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Viaud, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the numerous concerns about soil carbon dynamic, a large quantity of carbon dynamic models has been developed during the last century. These models are mainly in the form of deterministic compartment models with carbon fluxes between compartments represented by ordinary differential equations. Nowadays, lots of them consider the microbial biomass as a compartment of the soil organic matter (carbon quantity). But the amount of microbial carbon is rarely used in the differential equations of the models as a limiting factor. Additionally, microbial diversity and community composition are mostly missing, although last advances in soil microbial analytical methods during the two past decades have shown that these characteristics play also a significant role in soil carbon dynamic. As soil microorganisms are essential drivers of soil carbon dynamic, the question about explicitly integrating their role have become a key issue in soil carbon dynamic models development. Some interesting attempts can be found and are dominated by the incorporation of several compartments of different groups of microbial biomass in terms of functional traits and/or biogeochemical compositions to integrate microbial diversity. However, these models are basically heuristic models in the sense that they are used to test hypotheses through simulations. They have rarely been confronted to real data and thus cannot be used to predict realistic situations. The objective of this work was to empirically integrate microbial diversity in a simple model of carbon dynamic through statistical modelling of the model parameters. This work is based on available experimental results coming from a French National Research Agency program called DIMIMOS. Briefly, 13C-labelled wheat residue has been incorporated into soils with different pedological characteristics and land use history. Then, the soils have been incubated during 104 days and labelled and non-labelled CO2 fluxes have been measured at ten

  3. Improving sensitivity to vegetation variability in the EC-Earth Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo

    2014-05-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported in previous work to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. The effective vegetation fractional coverage can vary at seasonal and interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation density to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th-century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, it is demonstrated an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows noticeable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization appears to correct the warm biases of the control simulations.

  4. A lumped modeling of river - riparian vegetation interactions with flow variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tealdi, S.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.

    2012-04-01

    Flow variability has a great impact on the river morphology and riparian vegetation dynamics. The most common anthropic cause is the dam construction, which often reduces both the discharge regime and sediment transport, thus producing a narrowing and degradation of the river bed. Furthermore, since riparian vegetation is closely connected to discharge stochasticity, it can experience remarkable changes after the construction of artificial reservoirs. A number of field studies have shown the consequences of river regulation on both river morphology and riparian vegetation, which often exhibits significant decreases and shifts along the transect. Riparian vegetation and river morphology are closely linked. Vegetation provides additional resistance to the soil by the root system, and increases the bank slope. Furthermore ,the aggradation/degradation of river bed modifies the probability density function of river water levels, on which the riparian vegetation depends. Therefore, river cross-section and riparian vegetation dynamics are mutually dependent. In this study we propose a simple lumped bio-morphodynamic model that describes the interplay between fluvial cross-section and vegetation dynamics, and the effects of changes in discharge and sediment transport induced by external factors. The model provides the temporal dynamics of the river width and bed elevation. These dynamics turn out to be non-trivial and can exhibit non-monotonic behavior, with aggradations/ degradations, and narrowing/widening phenomena. In this study, we compare the results with and without vegetation, and we quantitatively investigate how vegetation influences river morphodynamics. The model has been tested on real rivers using data obtained from field studies. The agreement between the outcomes and the measured field data is satisfactory.

  5. Dynamic modeling of vegetation change in arid lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, V. B.; Coiner, J. C.; Barringer, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    A general framework for a digital desertification monitoring system (DDMS) for assessing the worldwide desertification growth rate is presented. The system relies on the development of Landsat derived indicators to identify local processes signalling the growth of arid regions. A study area consisting of the eastern edge of the Niger River delta in Mali was used to characterize three indicators in terms of the covariance of the multispectral scanner (MSS) bands 2 and 4, the correlation of the two bands, and the percent variance expressed by the first eigenvalue. The scenes are imaged multitemporallly in a 400 x 400 pixel array to detect vegetation cover changes. Criteria were defined which characterized the decrease or increase of vegetation. It was determined that the correlation coefficients are the best indicators, and are easily computed.

  6. The diversity changes of soil microbial communities stimulated by climate, soil type and vegetation type analyzed via a functional gene array.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu; Tan, Min; Yang, Yongjun; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Shaoliang; Li, Gang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of soil microbial communities stimulated by climate, soil type and vegetation type using a functional gene array. The dataset GSE51592 was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 54 soil samples. Genetic diversity variation of samples under different sites, soil and vegetation types was examined by calculating the percentage of specific gene number in each sample. Furthermore, gene functional categories and microorganism species in samples under different environmental factors were respectively divided. Gene number in samples with cropping was higher than in samples without cropping. When site, soil type and vegetation type were as the sole variable, respectively, the percentage of specific genes in samples from Yingtan, in phaeozem samples and in samples with cropping was higher. Furthermore, the percentage of gene number in organic remediation for phaeozem and cambisol samples was significant at p < 0.05, comparing with that for acrisol samples. At superkingdom level of microorganisms, for the same category, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the samples. At phylum level, for the categories of Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria, the percentage of gene number in cambisol samples was significantly higher (p < 0.05). Conversely, in the category of Proteobacteria, the percentage of gene number in phaeozem and acrisol samples was markedly higher (p < 0.05). Microbial diversity of soil was cooperatively driven by climate, soil type and vegetation type.

  7. Evaluation of a new model of aeolian transport in the presence of vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, Mark E.; Vest, Kimberly; Draut, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Aeolian transport is an important characteristic of many arid and semiarid regions worldwide that affects dust emission and ecosystem processes. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a recent model of aeolian transport in the presence of vegetation. This approach differs from previous models by accounting for how vegetation affects the distribution of shear velocity on the surface rather than merely calculating the average effect of vegetation on surface shear velocity or simply using empirical relationships. Vegetation, soil, and meteorological data at 65 field sites with measurements of horizontal aeolian flux were collected from the Western United States. Measured fluxes were tested against modeled values to evaluate model performance, to obtain a set of optimum model parameters, and to estimate the uncertainty in these parameters. The same field data were used to model horizontal aeolian flux using three other schemes. Our results show that the model can predict horizontal aeolian flux with an approximate relative error of 2.1 and that further empirical corrections can reduce the approximate relative error to 1.0. The level of error is within what would be expected given uncertainties in threshold shear velocity and wind speed at our sites. The model outperforms the alternative schemes both in terms of approximate relative error and the number of sites at which threshold shear velocity was exceeded. These results lend support to an understanding of the physics of aeolian transport in which (1) vegetation's impact on transport is dependent upon the distribution of vegetation rather than merely its average lateral cover and (2) vegetation impacts surface shear stress locally by depressing it in the immediate lee of plants rather than by changing the bulk surface's threshold shear velocity. Our results also suggest that threshold shear velocity is exceeded more than might be estimated by single measurements of threshold shear stress and roughness length

  8. Evaluation of a new model of aeolian transport in the presence of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, Mark E.; Vest, Kimberly; Draut, Amy E.

    2013-03-01

    Aeolian transport is an important characteristic of many arid and semiarid regions worldwide that affects dust emission and ecosystem processes. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a recent model of aeolian transport in the presence of vegetation. This approach differs from previous models by accounting for how vegetation affects the distribution of shear velocity on the surface rather than merely calculating the average effect of vegetation on surface shear velocity or simply using empirical relationships. Vegetation, soil, and meteorological data at 65 field sites with measurements of horizontal aeolian flux were collected from the Western United States. Measured fluxes were tested against modeled values to evaluate model performance, to obtain a set of optimum model parameters, and to estimate the uncertainty in these parameters. The same field data were used to model horizontal aeolian flux using three other schemes. Our results show that the model can predict horizontal aeolian flux with an approximate relative error of 2.1 and that further empirical corrections can reduce the approximate relative error to 1.0. The level of error is within what would be expected given uncertainties in threshold shear velocity and wind speed at our sites. The model outperforms the alternative schemes both in terms of approximate relative error and the number of sites at which threshold shear velocity was exceeded. These results lend support to an understanding of the physics of aeolian transport in which (1) vegetation's impact on transport is dependent upon the distribution of vegetation rather than merely its average lateral cover and (2) vegetation impacts surface shear stress locally by depressing it in the immediate lee of plants rather than by changing the bulk surface's threshold shear velocity. Our results also suggest that threshold shear velocity is exceeded more than might be estimated by single measurements of threshold shear stress and roughness length

  9. Evaluation of a Linear Mixing Model to Retrieve Soil and Vegetation Temperatures of Land Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinxin; Jia, Li; Cui, Yaokui; Zhou, Jie; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    A simple linear mixing model of heterogeneous soil-vegetation system and retrieval of component temperatures from directional remote sensing measurements by inverting this model is evaluated in this paper using observations by a thermal camera. The thermal camera was used to obtain multi-angular TIR (Thermal Infra-Red) images over vegetable and orchard canopies. A whole thermal camera image was treated as a pixel of a satellite image to evaluate the model with the two-component system, i.e. soil and vegetation. The evaluation included two parts: evaluation of the linear mixing model and evaluation of the inversion of the model to retrieve component temperatures. For evaluation of the linear mixing model, the RMSE is 0.2 K between the observed and modelled brightness temperatures, which indicates that the linear mixing model works well under most conditions. For evaluation of the model inversion, the RMSE between the model retrieved and the observed vegetation temperatures is 1.6K, correspondingly, the RMSE between the observed and retrieved soil temperatures is 2.0K. According to the evaluation of the sensitivity of retrieved component temperatures on fractional cover, the linear mixing model gives more accurate retrieval accuracies for both soil and vegetation temperatures under intermediate fractional cover conditions.

  10. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population

    PubMed Central

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V.; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes. PMID:25426485

  11. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    PubMed

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  12. A model for soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions in water-limited ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudena, M.; D'Andrea, F.; Provenzale, A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the interaction between atmosphere, soil moisture, and vegetation in water-limited environments with significant water recycling, and introduce a simple process model including some of the main feedbacks active in the system. In our model, the soil-vegetation-atmosphere dynamics display two stable states for realistic values of the synoptic moisture convergence flux. Starting from low soil moisture and/or low vegetation cover, the system reaches a dry and hot state, whereas it reaches a wet and cool state when starting from higher initial values of soil moisture and of vegetation cover. The role of synoptic perturbations is investigated by inserting a stochastic input of moisture: in this case, a bimodal distribution of soil moisture is obtained. We explore the difference between the dynamics of natural vegetation, capable of adjusting its areal extent to variations in soil moisture, and cultivated vegetation, whose areal extent cannot vary. The model results indicate that the presence of natural vegetation increases the probability of reaching a wet/cool state with respect to the case of cultivated plants.

  13. Changes in Sahelian annual vegetation growth and phenology since 1960: A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, C.; Grippa, M.; Mougin, E.; Guichard, F.; Kergoat, L.

    2016-08-01

    In semi-arid areas like the Sahel, vegetation is particularly sensitive to climate variability and can play an important role in surface-atmosphere coupling. After a wet period extending from 1950 to 1970, the Sahel experienced a severe drought in the 1970s and 1980s, followed by a partial recovery of rainfall and a "re-greening" of vegetation beginning in the 1990s. This study explores how the multidecadal variability of Sahelian rainfall and particularly the drought period have affected vegetation phenology and growth since 1960. The STEP model, which is specifically designed to simulate the Sahelian annual vegetation, including the dry season processes, is run over an area extending from 13°N to 18°N and from 20°W to 20°E. Mean values, interannual variability and phenological characteristics of the Sahelian annual grasslands simulated by STEP are in good agreement with MODIS derived production and phenology over the 2001-2014 period, which demonstrates the skill of the model and allows the analysis of vegetation changes and variability over the last 50 years. It was found that droughts in the 1970s and 1980s shortened the mean vegetation cycle and reduced its amplitude and that, despite the rainfall recovery since the 1990s, the current conditions for green and dry vegetation are still below pre-drought conditions. While the decrease in vegetation production has been largely homogeneous during droughts, vegetation recovery has been heterogeneous over the Sahel since 1990, with specific changes near the western coast and at the eastern edge of the West African monsoon area. Since 1970, the Sahel also experienced an increased interannual variability in vegetation mass and phenology. In terms of phenology, region-averaged End and Length of Season are the most variable, while maximum date and Start of Season are the least variable, although the latter displays a high variability locally.

  14. Fractional Vegetation Cover Estimation Based on an Improved Selective Endmember Spectral Mixture Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiao Bing

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation is an important part of ecosystem and estimation of fractional vegetation cover is of significant meaning to monitoring of vegetation growth in a certain region. With Landsat TM images and HJ-1B images as data source, an improved selective endmember linear spectral mixture model (SELSMM) was put forward in this research to estimate the fractional vegetation cover in Huangfuchuan watershed in China. We compared the result with the vegetation coverage estimated with linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) and conducted accuracy test on the two results with field survey data to study the effectiveness of different models in estimation of vegetation coverage. Results indicated that: (1) the RMSE of the estimation result of SELSMM based on TM images is the lowest, which is 0.044. The RMSEs of the estimation results of LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.052, 0.077 and 0.082, which are all higher than that of SELSMM based on TM images; (2) the R2 of SELSMM based on TM images, LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.668, 0.531, 0.342 and 0.336. Among these models, SELSMM based on TM images has the highest estimation accuracy and also the highest correlation with measured vegetation coverage. Of the two methods tested, SELSMM is superior to LSMM in estimation of vegetation coverage and it is also better at unmixing mixed pixels of TM images than pixels of HJ-1B images. So, the SELSMM based on TM images is comparatively accurate and reliable in the research of regional fractional vegetation cover estimation. PMID:25905772

  15. Fractional vegetation cover estimation based on an improved selective endmember spectral mixture model.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiao Bing

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation is an important part of ecosystem and estimation of fractional vegetation cover is of significant meaning to monitoring of vegetation growth in a certain region. With Landsat TM images and HJ-1B images as data source, an improved selective endmember linear spectral mixture model (SELSMM) was put forward in this research to estimate the fractional vegetation cover in Huangfuchuan watershed in China. We compared the result with the vegetation coverage estimated with linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) and conducted accuracy test on the two results with field survey data to study the effectiveness of different models in estimation of vegetation coverage. Results indicated that: (1) the RMSE of the estimation result of SELSMM based on TM images is the lowest, which is 0.044. The RMSEs of the estimation results of LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.052, 0.077 and 0.082, which are all higher than that of SELSMM based on TM images; (2) the R2 of SELSMM based on TM images, LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.668, 0.531, 0.342 and 0.336. Among these models, SELSMM based on TM images has the highest estimation accuracy and also the highest correlation with measured vegetation coverage. Of the two methods tested, SELSMM is superior to LSMM in estimation of vegetation coverage and it is also better at unmixing mixed pixels of TM images than pixels of HJ-1B images. So, the SELSMM based on TM images is comparatively accurate and reliable in the research of regional fractional vegetation cover estimation.

  16. A structured model for vegetative growth and sporulation in Bacillus thuringiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Starzak, M.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1991-12-31

    A mathematical model has been developed for the 6-endotoxin producing Bacillus thuringiensis. The structure of the model involves the processes taking place during vegetative growth, those leading to the initiation of sporulation under conditions of carbon and/or nitrogen limitation, and the sporulation events. The key features in the model are the pools of compounds, such as PRPP, IMP, ADP/ATP, GDP/GTP, pyrimidine nucleotides, NAD/NADH{sub 2}, amino acids, nucleic acids, cell wall, and vegetative and sporulation proteins. These, along with a-factors that control the nature of RNA-polymerase during the different phases, effectively stimulate the vegetative growth and sporulation. The initiation of sporulation is controlled by the intracellular concentration of GTP. Results of simulation of vegetative growth, initiation of sporulation, spore protein formation, and production of {delta}-endotoxin under C- or N-limitation are presented.

  17. Predicting use of ineffective responsive, structure and control vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the modeling of three categories of ineffective vegetable parenting practices (IVPP) separately (responsive, structure, and control vegetable parenting practices). An internet survey was employed for a cross sectional assessment of parenting practices and cognitive-emotional varia...

  18. Emergence of diversity in a biological evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Pujos, C.

    2015-04-01

    The ecological systems comprise a rich diversity of species, but the minimum requirements to maintain a large species diversity on long time scales are in general unknown. Here we propose one neutral evolution competition mechanism which is identified to ensure successful conservation of the biodiversity in ecosystems. Here we show that, this mechanism can lead the system into a quasistable state regardless of the initial conditions. By changing one parameter p which represents the probability of introducing one new species, the system can evolve from homogeneous state, the system contains only one species into heterogeneous state, the system contains diversity of species with number of species equal to the system size. This model is simple enough to be analysed theoretically. The theoretical estimation on abundance distribution and the diversity show the same result of simulation. Furthermore, the lifetime of the species is independent of the system size.

  19. Application of a coupled vegetation competition and groundwater simulation model to study effects of sea level rise and storm surges on coastal vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teh, Su Yean; Turtora, Michael; DeAngelis, Don; Jiang Jiang,; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Smith, Thomas; Koh, Hock Lye

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change poses challenges to areas such as low-lying coastal zones, where sea level rise (SLR) and storm-surge overwash events can have long-term effects on vegetation and on soil and groundwater salinities, posing risks of habitat loss critical to native species. An early warning system is urgently needed to predict and prepare for the consequences of these climate-related impacts on both the short-term dynamics of salinity in the soil and groundwater and the long-term effects on vegetation. For this purpose, the U.S. Geological Survey’s spatially explicit model of vegetation community dynamics along coastal salinity gradients (MANHAM) is integrated into the USGS groundwater model (SUTRA) to create a coupled hydrology–salinity–vegetation model, MANTRA. In MANTRA, the uptake of water by plants is modeled as a fluid mass sink term. Groundwater salinity, water saturation and vegetation biomass determine the water available for plant transpiration. Formulations and assumptions used in the coupled model are presented. MANTRA is calibrated with salinity data and vegetation pattern for a coastal area of Florida Everglades vulnerable to storm surges. A possible regime shift at that site is investigated by simulating the vegetation responses to climate variability and disturbances, including SLR and storm surges based on empirical information.

  20. Investigation of North American vegetation variability under recent climate - A study using the SSiB4/TRIFFID biophysical/dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xue, Y.; MacDonald, G. M.; Cox, P. M.; Collatz, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study applies a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model (SSiB4/TRIFFID) to investigate the dominant factors affecting vegetation equilibrium conditions, to assess the model's ability to simulate seasonal to decadal variability for the past 60 years (from 1948 through 2008), to analyze vegetation spatiotemporal characteristics over North America (NA), and to identify the relationships between vegetation and climate. Satellite data are employed as constraints for this study. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis, leaf drop threshold temperatures, and competition coefficients in the Lotka-Volterra equation have major impact on the vegetation spatial distribution and reach to equilibrium status in SSiB4/TRIFFID. The phenomenon that vegetation competition coefficients affect equilibrium suggests the importance of including biotic effects in dynamical vegetation modeling. SSiB4/TRIFFID can reproduce the features of NA distributions of dominant vegetation types, the vegetation fraction, and LAI, including its seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability, well compared with satellite-derived products. The NA LAI shows an increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Meanwhile, both simulation and satellite observations reveal LAI increased in the southeastern U.S. starting from the 1980s. The effects of the severe drought during 1987-1992 and the last decade in the southwestern U.S.on vegetation are also evident from the simulated and satellite-derived LAIs.Both simulated and satellite-derived LAIs have the strongest correlations with air temperature at northern middle to high latitudes in spring through their effect on photosynthesis and phenological processes. During the summer, the areas with positive correlations retreat northward. Meanwhile, in southwestern dry lands, the negative correlations appear due to the heat stress there during the summer. Furthermore, there are also positive correlations between soil wetness and LAI, which

  1. Snow modeling within a multi-layer soil-vegetation-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, L. E.; Paw U, K. T.; Pyles, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of snow depth, extent, and melt in the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range are critical to estimating the amount of water that will be available for crops during the growing season within California's Central Valley. Numerical simulations utilizing a fourth order turbulent closure transport scheme in a multi-layer soil-vegetation-atmosphere model, Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil algorithm (ACASA), were used to explore snow model improvements in the physics-based parameterization for the Sierra Nevada Range. A set of alterations were made separately to the existing snowpack model within ACASA focusing on improvements to snow cover simulations on complex terrain slopes and over varying canopy cover. Three winter seasons were simulated; a climatological average, dry, and wet winter. The simulated output from the models are compared to observations to determine which model alterations made the largest improvements to snow simulations.

  2. From terrestrial to aquatic fluxes: Integrating stream dynamics within a dynamic global vegetation modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Jerad; Poulter, Benjamin; Emmett, Kristen; Cross, Molly; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Maneta, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Integrated terrestrial ecosystem models simulate the dynamics and feedbacks between climate, vegetation, disturbance, and hydrology and are used to better understand biogeography and biogeochemical cycles. Extending dynamic vegetation models to the aquatic interface requires coupling surface and sub-surface runoff to catchment routing schemes and has the potential to enhance how researchers and managers investigate how changes in the environment might impact the availability of water resources for human and natural systems. In an effort towards creating such a coupled model, we developed catchment-based hydrologic routing and stream temperature model to pair with LPJ-GUESS, a dynamic global vegetation model. LPJ-GUESS simulates detailed stand-level vegetation dynamics such as growth, carbon allocation, and mortality, as well as various physical and hydrologic processes such as canopy interception and through-fall, and can be applied at small spatial scales, i.e., 1 km. We demonstrate how the coupled model can be used to investigate the effects of transient vegetation dynamics and CO2 on seasonal and annual stream discharge and temperature regimes. As a direct management application, we extend the modeling framework to predict habitat suitability for fish habitat within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a 200,000 km2 region that provides critical habitat for a range of aquatic species. The model is used to evaluate, quantitatively, the effects of management practices aimed to enhance hydrologic resilience to climate change, and benefits for water storage and fish habitat in the coming century.

  3. Implementing Perennial Kitchen Garden Model to Improve Diet Diversity in Melghat, India

    PubMed Central

    Birdi, Tannaz J.; Shah, Shimoni U.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of diet diversity causing micronutrient deficiency is common in developing countries and is gaining attention due to the hidden consequences of impaired physical and cognitive development. This paper describes the propagation of a sustainable perennial kitchen garden (KG) model to address household (HH) diet diversity in Melghat. Nutrient dense plants, comprising of minimum one tree (perennial) and one green leafy vegetable (GLV) were given to participating HHs along with qualitative interventions. Baseline survey was conducted in winter 2011 followed by seasonal surveys over 2 years to record changes in KG practices, dietary intake and childcare practices. Marked increase from 4% at baseline to 95% at endline was seen in the KG maintainance. Increased diversity was seen in all food categories other than cereals and pulses. Variety of GLVs consumed increased over the two winters as well as the 2 summers. However, no change in the quantity of GLV consumed was noted which was attributed to the duration of the study period being insufficient for the trees to grow and provide adequate leaves for consumption. Notably, livelihood component was not promoted and HHs were encouraged to harvest and distribute excess seeds to relatives and neighbours. The study generated huge demand from HHs within the intervention and neighbouring villages. It concludes that a well designed perennial KG along with imparting adequate knowledge can be a sustainable practice to increase diet diversity and GLV intake which would help address micronutrient deficiencies in the community. PMID:26573040

  4. Implementing Perennial Kitchen Garden Model to Improve Diet Diversity in Melghat, India.

    PubMed

    Birdi, Tannaz J; Shah, Shimoni U

    2015-07-30

    Lack of diet diversity causing micronutrient deficiency is common in developing countries and is gaining attention due to the hidden consequences of impaired physical and cognitive development. This paper describes the propagation of a sustainable perennial kitchen garden (KG) model to address household (HH) diet diversity in Melghat. Nutrient dense plants, comprising of minimum one tree (perennial) and one green leafy vegetable (GLV) were given to participating HHs along with qualitative interventions. Baseline survey was conducted in winter 2011 followed by seasonal surveys over 2 years to record changes in KG practices, dietary intake and childcare practices. Marked increase from 4% at baseline to 95% at endline was seen in the KG maintainance. Increased diversity was seen in all food categories other than cereals and pulses. Variety of GLVs consumed increased over the two winters as well as the 2 summers. However, no change in the quantity of GLV consumed was noted which was attributed to the duration of the study period being insufficient for the trees to grow and provide adequate leaves for consumption. Notably, livelihood component was not promoted and HHs were encouraged to harvest and distribute excess seeds to relatives and neighbours. The study generated huge demand from HHs within the intervention and neighbouring villages. It concludes that a well designed perennial KG along with imparting adequate knowledge can be a sustainable practice to increase diet diversity and GLV intake which would help address micronutrient deficiencies in the community.

  5. A fully traits-based approach to modeling global vegetation distribution.

    PubMed

    van Bodegom, Peter M; Douma, Jacob C; Verheijen, Lieneke M

    2014-09-23

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are indispensable for our understanding of climate change impacts. The application of traits in DGVMs is increasingly refined. However, a comprehensive analysis of the direct impacts of trait variation on global vegetation distribution does not yet exist. Here, we present such analysis as proof of principle. We run regressions of trait observations for leaf mass per area, stem-specific density, and seed mass from a global database against multiple environmental drivers, making use of findings of global trait convergence. This analysis explained up to 52% of the global variation of traits. Global trait maps, generated by coupling the regression equations to gridded soil and climate maps, showed up to orders of magnitude variation in trait values. Subsequently, nine vegetation types were characterized by the trait combinations that they possess using Gaussian mixture density functions. The trait maps were input to these functions to determine global occurrence probabilities for each vegetation type. We prepared vegetation maps, assuming that the most probable (and thus, most suited) vegetation type at each location will be realized. This fully traits-based vegetation map predicted 42% of the observed vegetation distribution correctly. Our results indicate that a major proportion of the predictive ability of DGVMs with respect to vegetation distribution can be attained by three traits alone if traits like stem-specific density and seed mass are included. We envision that our traits-based approach, our observation-driven trait maps, and our vegetation maps may inspire a new generation of powerful traits-based DGVMs.

  6. Assessing environmental drivers of vegetation greenness by integrating multiple earth observation data in the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Schaphoff, Sibyll; von Bloh, Werner; Thurner, Martin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Recently produced satellite datasets of vegetation greenness demonstrate a widespread greening of the earth in the last three decades. These positive trends in vegetation greenness are related to changes in leaf area, vegetation cover and photosynthetic activity. Climatic changes, CO2 fertilization, disturbances and other land cover changes are potential drivers of these greening trends. Nevertheless, different satellite datasets show different magnitudes and trends in vegetation greenness. This fact raises the question about the reliability of these datasets. On the other hand, global vegetation models can be potentially used to assess the effects of environmental drivers on vegetation greenness and thus to explore the environmental reliability of these datasets. Unfortunately, current vegetation models have several weaknesses in reproducing observed temporal dynamics in vegetation greenness. Our aim is to integrate multiple earth observation data sets in a dynamic global vegetation model in order to 1) improve the model's capability to reproduce observed dynamics and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness and 2) to assess the spatial and temporal importance of environmental drivers for the seasonal to decadal variability of vegetation greenness. For this purpose, we developed a data integration system for the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model (LPJmL-DIS). We implemented a new phenology scheme in LPJmL to better represent observed temporal dynamics of FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation). Model parameters were globally optimized using a genetic optimization algorithm. The model optimization was performed globally against 30 year FAPAR time series (GIMMS3g dataset), against 10 year albedo time series (MODIS) and global patterns of gross primary production as up-scaled from FLUXNET eddy covariance measurements. Additionally, we directly prescribed satellite observations of land and tree cover in LPJmL to better represent global

  7. On modeling the organization of landscapes and vegetation patterns controlled by solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanbulluoglu, E.; Yetemen, O.

    2014-12-01

    Solar radiation is a critical driver of ecohydrologic processes and vegetation dynamics. Patterns of runoff generation and vegetation dictate landscape geomorphic response. Distinct patterns in the organization of soil moisture, vegetation type, and landscape morphology have been documented in close relation to aspect in a range of climates. Within catchments, from north to south facing slopes, studies have shown ecotone shifts from forest to shrub species, and steep diffusion-dominated landforms to fluvial landforms. Over the long term differential evolution of ecohydrology and geomorphology leads to observed asymmetric structure in the planform of channel network and valley morphology. In this talk we present examples of coupled modeling of ecohydrology and geomorphology driven by solar radiation. In a cellular automata model of vegetation dynamics we will first show how plants organize in north and south facing slopes and how biodiversity changes with elevation. When vegetation-erosion feedbacks are coupled emergent properties of the coupled system are observed in the modeled elevation and vegetation fields. Integrating processes at a range of temporal and spatial scales, coupled models of ecohydrologic and geomorphic dynamics enable examination of global change impacts on landscapes and ecosystems.

  8. Modeling of vegetation canopy reflectance: Status, issues and recommended future strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, N. S. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues related to mapping of vegetative type, condition and stage of maturity, utilizing remotely sensed spectral data are reviewed. The existing knowledge base of models, especially of radiative properties of the vegetation canopy and atmosphere, is reviewed to establish the state of the art for addressing the problem of vegetation mapping. Activities to advance the state of the art are recommended. They include working on canopy reflectance and atmospheric scattering models, and field measurements of canopy reflectance as well as of canopy components. Leaf area index (LAI) and solar radiation interception (SRI) are identified as the two most important vegetation variables requiring further investigation. It is recommended that activities related to sensing them or understanding their relationships with measurable variables, should be encouraged and supported.

  9. Modeling Pacific Northwest carbon and water cycling using CARAIB Dynamic Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, M.; Kim, J. B.; Still, C. J.; Francois, L. M.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    While uncertainties remain regarding projected temperature and precipitation changes, climate warming is already affecting ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Decrease in ecosystem productivity as well as increase in mortality of some plant species induced by drought and disturbance have been reported. Here, we applied the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB to PNW to simulate the response of water and carbon cycling to current and future climate change projections. The vegetation model has already been successfully applied to Europe to simulate plant physiological response to climate change. We calibrated CARAIB to PNW using global Plant Functional Types. For calibration, the model is driven with the gridded surface meteorological dataset UIdaho MACA METDATA with 1/24-degree (~4-km) resolution at a daily time step for the period 1979-2014. The model ability to reproduce the current spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks and fluxes was evaluated using a variety of available datasets, including eddy covariance and satellite observations. We focused particularly on past severe drought and fire episodes. Then, we simulated future conditions using the UIdaho MACAv2-METDATA dataset, which includes downscaled CMIP5 projections from 28 GCMs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We evaluated the future ecosystem carbon balance resulting from changes in drought frequency as well as in fire risk. We also simulated future productivity and drought-induced mortality of several key PNW tree species.

  10. The interplay between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A; Mafe, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The interplay between cooperativity and diversity is crucial for biological ensembles because single molecule experiments show a significant degree of heterogeneity and also for artificial nanostructures because of the high individual variability characteristic of nanoscale units. We study the cross-effects between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles composed of individually different units that show a cooperative behaviour. The units are modelled as statistical distributions of parameters (the individual threshold potentials here) characterized by central and width distribution values. The simulations show that the interplay between cooperativity and diversity results in ensemble-averaged responses of interest for the understanding of electrical transduction in cell membranes, the experimental characterization of heterogeneous groups of biomolecules and the development of biologically inspired engineering designs with individually different building blocks. PMID:25142516

  11. The interplay between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A; Mafe, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The interplay between cooperativity and diversity is crucial for biological ensembles because single molecule experiments show a significant degree of heterogeneity and also for artificial nanostructures because of the high individual variability characteristic of nanoscale units. We study the cross-effects between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles composed of individually different units that show a cooperative behaviour. The units are modelled as statistical distributions of parameters (the individual threshold potentials here) characterized by central and width distribution values. The simulations show that the interplay between cooperativity and diversity results in ensemble-averaged responses of interest for the understanding of electrical transduction in cell membranes, the experimental characterization of heterogeneous groups of biomolecules and the development of biologically inspired engineering designs with individually different building blocks.

  12. The interplay between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between cooperativity and diversity is crucial for biological ensembles because single molecule experiments show a significant degree of heterogeneity and also for artificial nanostructures because of the high individual variability characteristic of nanoscale units. We study the cross-effects between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles composed of individually different units that show a cooperative behaviour. The units are modelled as statistical distributions of parameters (the individual threshold potentials here) characterized by central and width distribution values. The simulations show that the interplay between cooperativity and diversity results in ensemble-averaged responses of interest for the understanding of electrical transduction in cell membranes, the experimental characterization of heterogeneous groups of biomolecules and the development of biologically inspired engineering designs with individually different building blocks. PMID:25142516

  13. Characterising Vegetation Canopies by means of optical data and Microwave Scattering models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Iñigo; Gonzalez, Constancio; Ormeño, Santiago; Morillo, Carmen; Garcia-Melendez, Eduardo

    One of the main strengths of active microwave remote sensing, in relation to frequency, is its capacity to penetrate vegetation canopies, and reach the ground surface, so that information about the vegetation and hydrological properties of the surface can be drawn. All this infor-mation is gathered in the so called backscattering coefficient (σ 0 ), and in a vegetated medium, this coefficient reveals important information on the vegetation water content, geometry and/or structure of the canopy elements, above ground biomass, and soil roughness and moisture. In the scope of microwave frequencies, modeling the backscattering coefficient of vegetated terrain, involves taking into account scattering models that simulate the soil surface contribution by means of its physical variables, and the vegetation layer, through the knowledge of its biophys-ical properties. Soil surface scattering models require describing parameters of roughness, like soil profile height displacement standard deviation and correlation length, and moisture, which determines sur-face reflective properties. The knowledge of these parameters, allows to establishing surface scattering models with different validity ranges. Some frequently used models are divided into theoretical and empirical models. The vegetation canopy is usually regarded as a homogeneous, or random layer, at a certain height above terrain surface, and it is used to compute the attenuation through this layer. This requires a geometric generalization of the vegetation layer and its constituents, specifying additionally its electromagnetic properties. The main simulation models are based on Radiative Transfer theory, which allows for different approaches and simplifications. In this sense, somo of these models, can be efficiently adapted to any vegetated medium, and the constituents can by approximated by more general variables like Leaf Area Index (LAI), or Water total Content (WTC) of Vegetation. Moreover, in the microwave region

  14. Analysis of vegetation effect on waves using a vertical 2-D RANS model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vertical two-dimensional (2-D) model has been applied in the simulation of wave propagation through vegetated water bodies. The model is based on an existing model SOLA-VOF which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the finite difference method on a staggered rectangula...

  15. Succession of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Soil along a Chronosequence of Reclamation and Re-Vegetation on Coal Mine Spoils in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important

  16. Succession of bacterial community structure and diversity in soil along a chronosequence of reclamation and re-vegetation on coal mine spoils in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important

  17. Succession of bacterial community structure and diversity in soil along a chronosequence of reclamation and re-vegetation on coal mine spoils in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important

  18. Investigation of North American vegetation variability under recent climate: A study using the SSiB4/TRIFFID biophysical/dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Xue, Yongkang; MacDonald, Glen; Cox, Peter M.; Collatz, G. James

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that current dynamic vegetation models have serious weaknesses in reproducing the observed vegetation dynamics and contribute to bias in climate simulations. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the connections between vegetation dynamics and climate variability and investigates vegetation spatial distribution and temporal variability at seasonal to decadal scales over North America (NA) to assess a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model's (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4, coupled with the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID)) ability to simulate these characteristics for the past 60 years (1948 through 2008). Satellite data are employed as constraints for the study and to compare the relationships between vegetation and climate from the observational and the simulation data sets. Trends in NA vegetation over this period are examined. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis, leaf drop threshold temperatures, and competition coefficients in the Lotka-Volterra equation, which describes the population dynamics of species competing for some common resource, have been identified as having major impacts on vegetation spatial distribution and obtaining proper initial vegetation conditions in SSiB4/TRIFFID. The finding that vegetation competition coefficients significantly affect vegetation distribution suggests the importance of including biotic effects in dynamical vegetation modeling. The improved SSiB4/TRIFFID can reproduce the main features of the NA distributions of dominant vegetation types, the vegetation fraction, and leaf area index (LAI), including its seasonal, interannual, and decadal variabilities. The simulated NA LAI also shows a general increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Both simulation and satellite observations reveal that LAI increased substantially in the southeastern U.S. starting from the 1980

  19. Using a LIDAR Vegetation Model to Predict UHF SAR Attenuation in Coniferous Forests

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Alan; Huang, Shengli; Crabtree, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of radar signals by vegetation can be a problem for target detection and GPS reception, and is an important parameter in models describing vegetation backscatter. Here we first present a model describing the 3D distribution of stem and foliage structure based on small footprint scanning LIDAR data. Secondly we present a model that uses ray-tracing methodology to record detailed interactions between simulated radar beams and vegetation components. These interactions are combined over the SAR aperture and used to predict two-way attenuation of the SAR signal. Accuracy of the model is demonstrated using UHF SAR observations of large trihedral corner reflectors in coniferous forest stands. Our study showed that the model explains between 66% and 81% of the variability in observed attenuation. PMID:22573972

  20. Using a LIDAR Vegetation Model to Predict UHF SAR Attenuation in Coniferous Forests.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alan; Huang, Shengli; Crabtree, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of radar signals by vegetation can be a problem for target detection and GPS reception, and is an important parameter in models describing vegetation backscatter. Here we first present a model describing the 3D distribution of stem and foliage structure based on small footprint scanning LIDAR data. Secondly we present a model that uses ray-tracing methodology to record detailed interactions between simulated radar beams and vegetation components. These interactions are combined over the SAR aperture and used to predict two-way attenuation of the SAR signal. Accuracy of the model is demonstrated using UHF SAR observations of large trihedral corner reflectors in coniferous forest stands. Our study showed that the model explains between 66% and 81% of the variability in observed attenuation. PMID:22573972

  1. Numerical investigation of spatial pattern in a vegetation model with feedback function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Jin, Zhen; Li, Bai-Lian

    2008-09-21

    The vegetative cover in semi-arid lands typically occurs as patches of individual species more or less separated from one another by bare ground. Klausmeier [1999. Regular and irregular patterns in semiarid vegetation. Science 284 (5421), 1826-1828] reported that the vegetation striped patterns can grow lying along the contours of gentle slopes. He has proposed a model of vegetation stripes based on competition for water. In this paper, our main aim is to study the positive feedback effects between the water and biomass on the vegetation spatial pattern formation within a nonsaturated soil, which arises from the suction of water by the roots and processes of water resource redistribution. According to the dispersion relation formula, we discuss the changes of the wavelength, wave speed, as well as the conditions of the spatial pattern formation. Our numerical results show that trees are more sensitive than grasses to the positive feedback function to format the spatial heterogeneous pattern, and the stronger positive feedback increases the parameters region where vegetation bands occur, which indicates that the positive feedback raises the possibility of shift from green to desert states in semi-arid areas for the long term. Our numerical results also show that the positive feedback can increase the migration velocity of the vegetation stripes.

  2. Investigation of North American Vegetation Variability under Recent Climate: A Study Using the SSiB4/TRIFFID Biophysical/Dynamic Vegetation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Xue, Yongkang; MacDonald, Glen; Cox, Peter M.; Collatz, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that current dynamic vegetation models have serious weaknesses in reproducing the observed vegetation dynamics and contribute to bias in climate simulations. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the connections between vegetation dynamics and climate variability and investigates vegetation spatial distribution and temporal variability at seasonal to decadal scales over North America (NA) to assess a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model's (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4, coupled with the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID)) ability to simulate these characteristics for the past 60 years (1948 through 2008). Satellite data are employed as constraints for the study and to compare the relationships between vegetation and climate from the observational and the simulation data sets. Trends in NA vegetation over this period are examined. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis, leaf drop threshold temperatures, and competition coefficients in the Lotka-Volterra equation, which describes the population dynamics of species competing for some common resource, have been identified as having major impacts on vegetation spatial distribution and obtaining proper initial vegetation conditions in SSiB4/TRIFFID. The finding that vegetation competition coefficients significantly affect vegetation distribution suggests the importance of including biotic effects in dynamical vegetation modeling. The improved SSiB4/TRIFFID can reproduce the main features of the NA distributions of dominant vegetation types, the vegetation fraction, and leaf area index (LAI), including its seasonal, interannual, and decadal variabilities. The simulated NA LAI also shows a general increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Both simulation and satellite observations reveal that LAI increased substantially in the southeastern U.S. starting from the 1980

  3. Beyond Potential Vegetation: Improving Model Carbon Projections of the Land Surface Using Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubayah, R.; Hurtt, G.; Drake, J.; Fearon, M.

    2002-05-01

    Carbon projections from terrestrial ecosystem models are currently limited by large uncertainties in the present conditions of the land surface. Natural and anthropogenic disturbance events have a dramatic impact on vegetation dynamics and associated biogeochemical fluxes. Without such data it is difficult to go beyond predictions about "potential vegetation" to predictions of ecosystem dynamics and carbon fluxes for the current landscape and across policy-relevant time scales. Two ongoing technological developments should greatly improve this situation. The first is the application of lidar remote sensing to land surface characterization. Airborne lidar data have been proven to provide accurate information on canopy vertical structure and associated biophysical variables. The second development is a new terrestrial ecosystem model that predicts both height-structured vegetation dynamics and associated biophysical and biogeochemical fluxes from local to global scales (the ED model). In this research we unite canopy structural data from an airborne lidar instrument with the ED model for a tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. We found that there was close agreement between lidar and model estimates of the total amount and the spatial distribution of carbon stocks. We also demonstrate that carbon flux estimates from ED initialized with lidar canopy heights are a great improvement over flux estimates from potential vegetation because data on the canopy structure of vegetation are powerful descriptors of current ecosystem state. Our results show that the marriage of lidar forest structural data and the ED model is a powerful new approach for estimation of carbon fluxes.

  4. Stressed deserts: A new vegetation/sediment-transport model for dryland environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Jerome; Bailey, Richard; Wiggs, Giles

    2016-04-01

    In many drylands, vegetation is patchy and dynamic through time and space, with complex ecohydrological feedbacks and plant-plant interactions leading to the emergence of characteristic vegetation patterning. There is increasing evidence that information from the patterns themselves can be used as indicators of a dryland system's proximity to collapse. However, current models simulating the evolution of these vegetation patterns do not account for their effects on wind flow and on the entrainment, transport and redistribution of wind-blown material. Significant uncertainty therefore remains about how these vulnerable landscapes will react to increasing climate forcing and land-use pressure over the 21st century and beyond. We present the coupled Vegetation and Sediment TrAnsport model (ViSTA), a new, multi-scale cellular automaton model designed to simulate transport in vegetated dryland contexts. The model is parameterised using empirical data collected during a field campaign in Namibia that sought to investigate the impact of desert vegetation on wind speed and turbulence at the surface. A new turbulence-based model for aeolian transport is also used to drive the movement of sediment within ViSTA. We show that this coupled approach allows for realistic simulations of dynamics at both the bedform and landscape scale. It is especially important to understand the geomorphological responses of vegetated semi-arid landscapes to a variety of simulated stresses, since these regions are often heavily used for pastoralism, agriculture and habitation. In characterising possible transition scenarios between patterned and desert states, the ViSTA model therefore represents a powerful tool that has direct relevance to land management policies in highly vulnerable environments.

  5. Modelling and Investigating Dune Transformations Driven by Vegetation and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Despite growing perception of the significant role of vegetation in shaping distinct landscapes in aeolian systems, the complex eco-geomorphic interrelationships between vegetation and dune landforms are not well understood. Projections of future climatic change, meanwhile, in particular increased temperature and drought severity, raise concerns that widespread aeolian activity may intensify as a result of semi-stabilised dunes transforming to highly mobile forms. Computer modelling of aeolian landscapes and sand transport processes has been in wide use in the past decade, due to its capability of bridging the gap between different temporal and spatial scales. Numerical simulations serve as an important tool to investigate and explore theoretical foundations underlying distinctive landscape patterns and their response to perturbations arising from both natural and anthropogenic impacts. This research focuses on modelling and understanding the transformation of a semi-fixed parabolic dunefield with shrubs and nebkhas into a highly mobile barchanoid dunefield, and tries to clarify the fundamental mechanisms underlying dunefield reactivation and transformation driven by vegetation and environmental change in Inner Mongolia, China. Vegetation distribution and topography maps of a number of parabolic dunes on the Ordos Plateau were acquired using quadrat surveys and d-GPS. Sampling transects were established along longitudinal sections, cross sections and lee slopes. Historical trajectories of vegetation and morphologic change of two active parabolic dunes were determined by analysing three satellite RS images in 2005, 2007 and 2010. Vegetation density maps and potential sand transport rates were estimated by combining the DEM acquired from the field and the migration rate determined from the remote sensing image interpretation. Based on this fieldwork investigation, remote sensing image interpretation, and local climatic context analysis, the DECAL (Discrete Eco

  6. Characterization of Seasonally Dependent Emergent Vegetation Variables for Coastal Impact Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellern, C.; Grossman, E.; Linneman, S. R.; Fuller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Emergent wetland vegetation has been shown to mitigate coastal inundation and erosion hazards by reducing wave energy through friction (Shepard et al., 2011), although its use in coastal protection planning is limited because predictive models require improved vegetation data. We isolated biophysical characteristics (biomass, stem density, rigidity, etc.) of plants using horizontal digital photographs (Side-On Photos) in conjunction with remote sensing and physical surveys. We studied the dominant salt-marsh species/assemblages in Port Susan Bay of Washington State, a vulnerable estuary that has experienced up to 1 kilometer of marsh retreat since the mid-1960s. We measured plant height, stem diameter, stem density (area available for flow) from fall to early spring (August 2014 through April 2015) using Side-On Photography and digital image processing techniques. Metrics from Side-On Photography were highly correlated to physical lab measurements. Vegetation rigidity was measured in-situ with a handheld digital scale with respect to measurement height and bending angle. Plant elasticity showed a strong correlation to stem diameter in two dominant bulrush species. We employed remote sensing supervised classifications techniques (Maximum-Likelihood and Decision Tree Classifiers) to hyperspectral imagery to map the spatial extent of vegetation assemblages with an overall accuracy of 86.7%. Combining these methods enabled us to extrapolate and validate vegetation characteristics across the study area and to estimate species-specific friction coefficients for input to cross-shore wave models. On-going studies include sensitivity analyses of wave models to seasonally-dependent vegetation parameters in the nearshore and ultimately wave impacts along the coast. By accounting for site-specific and spatiotemporal variability in vegetation data, we inform scientific understanding of the interactions of vegetation, waves, and sediment processes.

  7. Climate change and Ecotone boundaries: Insights from a cellular automata ecohydrology model in a Mediterranean catchment with topography controlled vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, Domenico; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Fatichi, Simone; Zhou, Xiaochi

    2014-11-01

    Regions of vegetation transitions (ecotones) are known to be highly sensitive to climate fluctuations. In this study, the Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) has been modified, calibrated and used with downscaled future climate scenarios to examine the role of climate change on vegetation patterns in a steep mountainous catchment (1.3 km2) located in Sicily, Italy. In the catchment, north-facing slopes are mostly covered by trees and grass, and south-facing slopes by Indian Fig opuntia and grass, with grasses dominating as elevation grows. CATGraSS simulates solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture in space and time. Each model cell can hold a single plant type or can be bare soil. Plant competition is modeled explicitly through mortality and the establishment of individual plants in open spaces. In this study, CATGraSS is modified to account for heterogeneity in soil thickness and tested in the study catchment using the historical climate of the region. Predicted vegetation patterns are compared with those obtained from satellite images. Results of model under current climate underscore the importance of solar irradiance and soil thickness, especially in the uplands where soil is shallow, in determining vegetation composition over complex terrain. A stochastic weather generator is used to generate future climate change scenarios for the catchment by downscaling GCM realizations in space and time. Future increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration was considered through modifying the vegetation water use efficiency and stomatal resistance for our study site. Model results suggest that vegetation pattern is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall variations provided by climate scenarios (30% reduction of the annual precipitation and a 2.8 °C increase of the mean annual temperature). Future climate change is predicted to bring a considerable reorganization of the plant composition following topographic patterns, leading to a

  8. PALADYN, a comprehensive land surface-vegetation-carbon cycle model of intermediate complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willeit, Matteo; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    PALADYN is presented, a new comprehensive and computationally efficient land surface-vegetation-carbon cycle model designed to be used in Earth system models of intermediate complexity for long-term simulations and paleoclimate studies. The model treats in a consistent manner the interaction between atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation and soil through the fluxes of energy, water and carbon. Energy, water and carbon are conserved. The model explicitly treats permafrost, both in physical processes and as important carbon pool. The model distinguishes 9 surface types of which 5 are different vegetation types, bare soil, land ice, lake and ocean shelf. Including the ocean shelf allows to treat continuous changes in sea level and shelf area associated with glacial cycles. Over each surface type the model solves the surface energy balance and computes the fluxes of sensible, latent and ground heat and upward shortwave and longwave radiation. It includes a single snow layer. The soil model distinguishes between three different macro surface types which have their own soil column: vegetation and bare soil, ice sheet and ocean shelf. The soil is vertically discretized into 5 layers where prognostic equations for temperature, water and carbon are consistently solved. Phase changes of water in the soil are explicitly considered. A surface hydrology module computes precipitation interception by vegetation, surface runoff and soil infiltration. The soil water equation is based on Darcy's law. Given soil water content, the wetland fraction is computed based on a topographic index. Photosynthesis is computed using a light use efficiency model. Carbon assimilation by vegetation is coupled to the transpiration of water through stomatal conductance. The model includes a dynamic vegetation module with 5 plant functional types competing for the gridcell share with their respective net primary productivity. Each macro surface type has its own carbon pools represented by a litter, a fast

  9. Patterns of neutral diversity under general models of selective sweeps.

    PubMed

    Coop, Graham; Ralph, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Two major sources of stochasticity in the dynamics of neutral alleles result from resampling of finite populations (genetic drift) and the random genetic background of nearby selected alleles on which the neutral alleles are found (linked selection). There is now good evidence that linked selection plays an important role in shaping polymorphism levels in a number of species. One of the best-investigated models of linked selection is the recurrent full-sweep model, in which newly arisen selected alleles fix rapidly. However, the bulk of selected alleles that sweep into the population may not be destined for rapid fixation. Here we develop a general model of recurrent selective sweeps in a coalescent framework, one that generalizes the recurrent full-sweep model to the case where selected alleles do not sweep to fixation. We show that in a large population, only the initial rapid increase of a selected allele affects the genealogy at partially linked sites, which under fairly general assumptions are unaffected by the subsequent fate of the selected allele. We also apply the theory to a simple model to investigate the impact of recurrent partial sweeps on levels of neutral diversity and find that for a given reduction in diversity, the impact of recurrent partial sweeps on the frequency spectrum at neutral sites is determined primarily by the frequencies rapidly achieved by the selected alleles. Consequently, recurrent sweeps of selected alleles to low frequencies can have a profound effect on levels of diversity but can leave the frequency spectrum relatively unperturbed. In fact, the limiting coalescent model under a high rate of sweeps to low frequency is identical to the standard neutral model. The general model of selective sweeps we describe goes some way toward providing a more flexible framework to describe genomic patterns of diversity than is currently available. PMID:22714413

  10. Optimum strategies for mapping vegetation using multiple-endmember spectral mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Gardner, Margaret E.; Church, Rick; Ustin, Susan L.; Green, Robert O.

    1997-10-01

    Improved vegetation maps are required for fire management and biodiversity assessment, from critical inputs for hydrological and biogeochemical models and represent a means for scaling-up point measurements. At scales greater than 10 meters, vegetation communities are typically mixed consisting of leaves, branches, exposed soil and shadows. To map mixed vegetation, many researchers employ spectral mixture analysis (SMA). In most SMA applications, a single set of spectra consisting of green vegetation, soil, non- photosynthetic vegetation and shade are used to 'unmix' images. However, because most scenes contain more than four components, this simple approach leads to fraction errors and may fail to differentiate many vegetation types. In this work, we apply a new approach called multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis, in which the number and types of endmembers vary per-pixel. Using this approach, hundreds of unique models are generated that account for community specific differences in plant chemistry, physical attributes and phenology. Additionally, we describe a new strategy for developing and organizing regionally specific spectral libraries. We present result from a study in the Santa Monica Mountains using AVIRIS data, in which we map grassland and chaparral communities, mapping species dominance in some cases to a high degree of accuracy.

  11. A global vegetation corrected SRTM DEM for use in hazard modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; O'Loughlin, F.; Neal, J. C.; Durand, M. T.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Paiva, R. C. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present the methodology and results from the development of a near-global 'bare-earth' Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. Digital Elevation Models are the most important input for hazard modelling, as the DEM quality governs the accuracy of the model outputs. While SRTM is currently the best near-globally [60N to 60S] available DEM, it requires adjustments to reduce the vegetation contamination and make it useful for hazard modelling over heavily vegetated areas (e.g. tropical wetlands). Unlike previous methods of accounting for vegetation contamination, which concentrated on correcting relatively small areas and usually applied a static adjustment, we account for vegetation contamination globally and apply a spatial varying correction, based on information about canopy height and density. Our new 'Bare-Earth' SRTM DEM combines multiple remote sensing datasets, including ICESat GLA14 ground elevations, the vegetation continuous field dataset as a proxy for penetration depth of SRTM and a global vegetation height map, to remove the vegetation artefacts present in the original SRTM DEM. In creating the final 'bare-earth' SRTM DEM dataset, we produced three different 'bare-earth' SRTM products. The first applies global parameters, while the second and third products apply parameters that are regionalised based on either climatic zones or vegetation types, respectively. We also tested two different canopy density proxies of different spatial resolution. Using ground elevations obtained from the ICESat GLA14 satellite altimeter, we calculate the residual errors for the raw SRTM and the three 'bare-earth' SRTM products and compare performances. The three 'bare-earth' products all show large improvements over the raw SRTM in vegetated areas with the overall mean bias reduced by between 75 and 92% from 4.94 m to 0.40 m. The overall standard deviation is reduced by between 29 and 33 % from 7.12 m to 4.80 m. As

  12. Modeling the effects of vegetation on methane oxidation and emissions through soil landfill final covers across different climates.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Kormi, Tarek; Yuan, Lei; Johnson, Terry; Francisco, Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Plant roots are reported to enhance the aeration of soil by creating secondary macropores which improve the diffusion of oxygen into soil as well as the supply of methane to bacteria. Therefore, methane oxidation can be improved considerably by the soil structuring processes of vegetation, along with the increase of organic biomass in the soil associated with plant roots. This study consisted of using a numerical model that combines flow of water and heat with gas transport and oxidation in soils, to simulate methane emission and oxidation through simulated vegetated and non-vegetated landfill covers under different climatic conditions. Different simulations were performed using different methane loading flux (5-200 g m(-2) d(-1)) as the bottom boundary. The lowest modeled surface emissions were always obtained with vegetated soil covers for all simulated climates. The largest differences in simulated surface emissions between the vegetated and non-vegetated scenarios occur during the growing season. Higher average yearly percent oxidation was obtained in simulations with vegetated soil covers as compared to non-vegetated scenario. The modeled effects of vegetation on methane surface emissions and percent oxidation were attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) increase in methane oxidation associated with the change of the physical properties of the upper vegetative layer and (2) increase in organic matter associated with vegetated soil layers. Finally, correlations between percent oxidation and methane loading into simulated vegetated and non-vegetated covers were proposed to allow decision makers to compare vegetated versus non-vegetated soil landfill covers. These results were obtained using a modeling study with several simplifying assumptions that do not capture the complexities of vegetated soils under field conditions.

  13. Data-based modelling and environmental sensitivity of vegetation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Prentice, I. C.; Ni, J.

    2013-01-01

    A process-oriented niche specification (PONS) model was constructed to quantify climatic controls on the distribution of ecosystems, based on the vegetation map of China. PONS uses general hypotheses about bioclimatic controls to provide a "bridge" between statistical niche models and more complex process-based models. Canonical correspondence analysis provided an overview of relationships between the abundances of 55 plant communities in 0.1° grid cells and associated mean values of 20 predictor variables. Of these, GDD (accumulated degree days above 0 °C) Cramer-Prentice α (an estimate of the ratio of actual to equilibrium evapotranspiration) and mGDD5 (mean temperature during the period above 5 °C) showed the greatest predictive power. These three variables were used to develop generalized linear models for the probability of occurrence of 16 vegetation classes, aggregated from the original 55 types by k-means clustering according to bioclimatic similarity. Each class was hypothesized to possess a unimodal relationship to each bioclimate variable, independently of the other variables. A simple calibration was used to generate vegetation maps from the predicted probabilities of the classes. Modelled and observed vegetation maps showed good to excellent agreement (κ = 0.745). A sensitivity study examined modelled responses of vegetation distribution to spatially uniform changes in temperature, precipitation and [CO2], the latter included via an offset to α (based on an independent, data-based light use efficiency model for forest net primary production). Warming shifted the boundaries of most vegetation classes northward and westward while temperate steppe and desert replaced alpine tundra and steppe in the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau. Increased precipitation expanded mesic vegetation at the expense of xeric vegetation. The effect of [CO2] doubling was roughly equivalent to increasing precipitation by ∼ 30%, favouring woody vegetation types

  14. Data-based modelling and environmental sensitivity of vegetation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Prentice, I. C.; Ni, J.

    2013-09-01

    A process-oriented niche specification (PONS) model was constructed to quantify climatic controls on the distribution of ecosystems, based on the vegetation map of China. PONS uses general hypotheses about bioclimatic controls to provide a "bridge" between statistical niche models and more complex process-based models. Canonical correspondence analysis provided an overview of relationships between the abundances of 55 plant communities in 0.1° grid cells and associated mean values of 20 predictor variables. Of these, GDD0 (accumulated degree days above 0 °C), Cramer-Prentice α (an estimate of the ratio of actual to equilibrium evapotranspiration) and mGDD5 (mean temperature during the period above 5 °C) showed the greatest predictive power. These three variables were used to develop generalized linear models for the probability of occurrence of 16 vegetation classes, aggregated from the original 55 types by k-means clustering according to bioclimatic similarity. Each class was hypothesized to possess a unimodal relationship to each bioclimate variable, independently of the other variables. A simple calibration was used to generate vegetation maps from the predicted probabilities of the classes. Modelled and observed vegetation maps showed good to excellent agreement (κ = 0.745). A sensitivity study examined modelled responses of vegetation distribution to spatially uniform changes in temperature, precipitation and [CO2], the latter included via an offset to α (based on an independent, data-based light use efficiency model for forest net primary production). Warming shifted the boundaries of most vegetation classes northward and westward while temperate steppe and desert replaced alpine tundra and steppe in the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau. Increased precipitation expanded mesic vegetation at the expense of xeric vegetation. The effect of [CO2] doubling was roughly equivalent to increasing precipitation by ~ 30%, favouring woody vegetation types

  15. Preliminary Analysis of a Dynamic General Vegetation Model, MC1, for use in Forecasting Runoff Under a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, B. S.; Neilson, R. P.; Wells, J. R.; Drapek, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent climate-driven changes in the hydrologic regime of Western US rivers are projected to continue in the future. These changes have implications for a wide range of stakeholders, including federal, state, and local agencies and private landowners and advocacy groups, which have multiple, diverse and sometimes conflicting goals. Changes in timing and amount of runoff have significant implications for fish and other aquatic organisms, as well as for anticipated anthropogenic uses of the water. MC1, a monthly timestep Dynamic General Vegetation Model, DGVM, simulates the vegetative response to climatic drivers, including variations in temperature and precipitation, and contains an internal water balance. A DGVM changes leaf area and above ground vegetation structure as a dynamic function of changes in climate, resulting in runoff which reflects changes in the above ground ecosystem dynamics. Calibration of a DGVM and a traditional hydrologic model over historical climate might show equal skill. However, under future climate scenarios, traditional hydrologic models having a fixed above ground ecosystem, can result in dramatically different outcomes. With recent improvements to the MC1snow model, we have simulated historical stream flow patterns which show strong agreement with stream gage data in the northern Rocky Mountains. These stream gages monitor headwater watersheds with minimal anthropogenic impact. Running MC1 under future climate scenarios shows a shift in timing of runoff, with less snow accumulation in the winter. This could negatively impact fall-spawning trout, whose eggs and fry benefit from low winter flows. Spring spawners, on the other hand, may benefit from a longer growing season, unless summer temperatures are too high. Decreased snow pack, resulting in lower summer flows, will also impact agricultural uses of the runoff. .

  16. Influence of vegetation dynamic modeling on the allocation of green and blue waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar; Francés, Félix

    2015-04-01

    The long history of the Mediterranean region is dominated by the interactions and co-evolution between man and its natural environment. It is important to consider that the Mediterranean region is recurrently or permanently confronted with the scarcity of the water. The issue of climate change is (and will be) aggravating this situation. This raises the question of a loss of services that ecosystems provide to human and also the amount of available water to be used by vegetation. The question of the water cycle, therefore, should be considered in an integrated manner by taking into account both blue water (water in liquid form used for the human needs or which flows into the oceans) and green water (water having the vapor for resulting from evaporation and transpiration processes). In spite of this, traditionally, very few hydrological models have incorporated the vegetation dynamic as a state variable. In fact, most of them are able to represent fairly well the observed discharge, but usually including the vegetation as a static parameter. However, in the last decade, the number of hydrological models which explicitly take into account the vegetation development as a state variable has increased substantially. In this work, we want to analyze if it is really necessary to use a dynamic vegetation model to quantify adequately the distribution of water into blue and green water. The study site is located in the Public Forest Monte de la Hunde y Palomeras (Spain). The vegetation in the study area is dominated by Aleppo pine of high tree density with scant presence of other species. Two different daily models were applied (with static and dynamic vegetation representation respectively) in three different scenarios: dry year (2005), normal year (2008) and wet year (2010). The static vegetation model simulates the evapotranspiration considering the vegetation as a stationary parameter. Contrarily, the dynamic vegetation model connects the hydrological model with a

  17. Projected vegetation changes for the American Southwest: combined dynamic modeling and bioclimatic-envelope approach.

    PubMed

    Notaro, Michael; Mauss, Adrien; Williams, John W

    2012-06-01

    This study focuses on potential impacts of 21st century climate change on vegetation in the Southwest United States, based on debiased and interpolated climate projections from 17 global climate models used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Among these models a warming trend is universal, but projected changes in precipitation vary in sign and magnitude. Two independent methods are applied: a dynamic global vegetation model to assess changes in plant functional types and bioclimatic envelope modeling to assess changes in individual tree and shrub species and biodiversity. The former approach investigates broad responses of plant functional types to climate change, while considering competition, disturbances, and carbon fertilization, while the latter approach focuses on the response of individual plant species, and net biodiversity, to climate change. The dynamic model simulates a region-wide reduction in vegetation cover during the 21st century, with a partial replacement of evergreen trees with grasses in the mountains of Colorado and Utah, except at the highest elevations, where tree cover increases. Across southern Arizona, central New Mexico, and eastern Colorado, grass cover declines, in some cases abruptly. Due to the prevalent warming trend among all 17 climate models, vegetation cover declines in the 21st century, with the greatest vegetation losses associated with models that project a drying trend. The inclusion of the carbon fertilization effect largely ameliorates the projected vegetation loss. Based on bioclimatic envelope modeling for the 21st century, the number of tree and shrub species that are expected to experience robust declines in range likely outweighs the number of species that are expected to expand in range. Dramatic shifts in plant species richness are projected, with declines in the high-elevation evergreen forests, increases in the eastern New Mexico prairies, and a northward shift of the

  18. Projected vegetation changes for the American Southwest: combined dynamic modeling and bioclimatic-envelope approach.

    PubMed

    Notaro, Michael; Mauss, Adrien; Williams, John W

    2012-06-01

    This study focuses on potential impacts of 21st century climate change on vegetation in the Southwest United States, based on debiased and interpolated climate projections from 17 global climate models used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Among these models a warming trend is universal, but projected changes in precipitation vary in sign and magnitude. Two independent methods are applied: a dynamic global vegetation model to assess changes in plant functional types and bioclimatic envelope modeling to assess changes in individual tree and shrub species and biodiversity. The former approach investigates broad responses of plant functional types to climate change, while considering competition, disturbances, and carbon fertilization, while the latter approach focuses on the response of individual plant species, and net biodiversity, to climate change. The dynamic model simulates a region-wide reduction in vegetation cover during the 21st century, with a partial replacement of evergreen trees with grasses in the mountains of Colorado and Utah, except at the highest elevations, where tree cover increases. Across southern Arizona, central New Mexico, and eastern Colorado, grass cover declines, in some cases abruptly. Due to the prevalent warming trend among all 17 climate models, vegetation cover declines in the 21st century, with the greatest vegetation losses associated with models that project a drying trend. The inclusion of the carbon fertilization effect largely ameliorates the projected vegetation loss. Based on bioclimatic envelope modeling for the 21st century, the number of tree and shrub species that are expected to experience robust declines in range likely outweighs the number of species that are expected to expand in range. Dramatic shifts in plant species richness are projected, with declines in the high-elevation evergreen forests, increases in the eastern New Mexico prairies, and a northward shift of the

  19. Development of a New Model for Accurate Prediction of Cloud Water Deposition on Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, G.; Nagai, H.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Klemm, O.; Eugster, W.; Burkard, R.

    2006-12-01

    Scarcity of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas is of great concern in the light of population growth and food shortages. Several experiments focusing on cloud (fog) water deposition on the land surface suggest that cloud water plays an important role in water resource in such regions. A one-dimensional vegetation model including the process of cloud water deposition on vegetation has been developed to better predict cloud water deposition on the vegetation. New schemes to calculate capture efficiency of leaf, cloud droplet size distribution, and gravitational flux of cloud water were incorporated in the model. Model calculations were compared with the data acquired at the Norway spruce forest at the Waldstein site, Germany. High performance of the model was confirmed by comparisons of calculated net radiation, sensible and latent heat, and cloud water fluxes over the forest with measurements. The present model provided a better prediction of measured turbulent and gravitational fluxes of cloud water over the canopy than the Lovett model, which is a commonly used cloud water deposition model. Detailed calculations of evapotranspiration and of turbulent exchange of heat and water vapor within the canopy and the modifications are necessary for accurate prediction of cloud water deposition. Numerical experiments to examine the dependence of cloud water deposition on the vegetation species (coniferous and broad-leaved trees, flat and cylindrical grasses) and structures (Leaf Area Index (LAI) and canopy height) are performed using the presented model. The results indicate that the differences of leaf shape and size have a large impact on cloud water deposition. Cloud water deposition also varies with the growth of vegetation and seasonal change of LAI. We found that the coniferous trees whose height and LAI are 24 m and 2.0 m2m-2, respectively, produce the largest amount of cloud water deposition in all combinations of vegetation species and structures in the

  20. Modelling spatial and temporal vegetation variability with the Climate Constrained Vegetation Index: evidence of CO2 fertilisation and of water stress in continental interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, S. O.

    2015-06-01

    A model was developed to simulate spatial, seasonal and interannual variations in vegetation in response to temperature, precipitation and atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the model addresses shortcomings in current implementations. The model uses the minimum of 12 temperature and precipitation constraint functions to simulate NDVI. Functions vary based on the Köppen-Trewartha climate classification to take adaptations of vegetation to climate into account. The simulated NDVI, referred to as the climate constrained vegetation index (CCVI), captured the spatial variability (0.82 < r <0.87), seasonal variability (median r = 0.83) and interannual variability (median global r = 0.24) in NDVI. The CCVI simulated the effects of adverse climate on vegetation during the 1984 drought in the Sahel and during dust bowls of the 1930s and 1950s in the Great Plains in North America. A global CO2 fertilisation effect was found in NDVI data, similar in magnitude to that of earlier estimates (8 % for the 20th century). This effect increased linearly with simple ratio, a transformation of the NDVI. Three CCVI scenarios, based on climate simulations using the representative concentration pathway RCP4.5, showed a greater sensitivity of vegetation towards precipitation in Northern Hemisphere mid latitudes than is currently implemented in climate models. This higher sensitivity is of importance to assess the impact of climate variability on vegetation, in particular on agricultural productivity.

  1. Modeling Vegetation Dynamics in Response to Hydrological Changes in a Small Urban Tropical Freshwater Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. M.; Palanisamy, B.; Mohanadas, H.

    2011-12-01

    Wetlands worldwide face drastic degradation from human-induced changes. A small freshwater wetland located within the dense urbanized island state of Singapore---the Nee Soon Wetland---is no exception. It is the only significant locality in Singapore of peat swamp forest and is home to a wide range of rare and endangered floral and faunal species. Unfortunately, changes in downstream land use and surrounding reservoirs' operations may pose threats to the coupled hydrological and vegetation systems. This study develops and applies coupled hydrological-vegetation models to understand the dynamic relationships between hydrology and vegetation systems, and simulates vegetation responses to hydrological changes in Nee Soon. The models combine a hydrological component with a vegetation component. The hydrological component accounts for both saturated and unsaturated flows, and incorporates evapotranspiration, rainfall infiltration and recharge from streams and reservoirs. The vegetation component is described by Lokta-Volterra equations that are tailored for plant growth, to simulate the vegetation dynamics of up to three species that thrive in different flooding conditions. Important findings include: (1) groundwater levels within Nee Soon are not highly sensitive to the operating levels of the surrounding reservoirs. However, (2) downstream drainage results in a localized zone of influence with significant adverse impacts, especially on the less flood-tolerant species. In addition, (3) the severely impacted less flood-tolerant species is unable to recover even when previous hydrological conditions are restored, unless the downstream drainage duration is reduced, or the plant characteristics such as maximum assimilation rates or competitiveness are increased. Finally, (4) hydrological conditions and species competitiveness supersede any other plant growth characteristics in determining the stable coexistence of different species. The developed models and modeling

  2. Predicting the impact of water demand and river flow regulation over riparian vegetation through mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Arias, A.; Pons, C.; Frances, F.

    2013-12-01

    The vegetation of the riversides is a main part of the complex riparian ecosystems and has an important role maintaining the fluvial ecosystems. Biotic and abiotic interactions between the river and the riverbank are essential for the subsistence and the development of both ecosystems. In semi-arid Mediterranean areas, the riparian vegetation growth and distribution is especially controlled by the water accessibility, determining the limit between the lush riparian bands and the sparse upland. Human intervention can alter the river hydrology determining the riparian vegetation wellbeing and its distribution and, in consequence, affecting both riparian and fluvial ecosystems. Predictive models are necessary decision support tools for adequate river management and restoration initiatives. In this context, the RibAV model is useful to predict the impact of water demand and river flow regulation on the riparian vegetation. RibAV is able to reproduce the vegetation performance on the riverside allowing the scenarios analysis in terms of vegetation distribution and wellbeing. In this research several flow regulation and water demand scenarios are proposed and the impacts over three plant functional types (PFTs) are analyzed. The PFTs group the herbaceous riparian plants, the woody riparian plants and the terrestrial vegetation. The study site is the Terde reach at the Mijares River, a 539m length reach located in a semi-arid Mediterranean area in Spain. The scenarios represent river flow alterations required to attend different human demands. These demands encompass different seasonality, magnitude and location. The seasonality is represented as hydroelectric (constant all over the year), urban (increased during the summer period) and agricultural demands (monthly seasonality). The magnitude is varied considering the 20%, the 40% and the 80% of the mean daily flow. Two locations are considered, upstream or downstream the study site. To attend the demands located

  3. Modeling mechanisms of vegetation change due to fire in a semi-arid ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.D.; Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Randall, L.J.; Swint, P.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation growth and community composition in semi-arid environments is determined by water availability and carbon assimilation mechanisms specific to different plant types. Disturbance also impacts vegetation productivity and composition dependent on area affected, intensity, and frequency factors. In this study, a new spatially explicit ecosystem model is presented for the purpose of simulating vegetation cover type changes associated with fire disturbance in the northern Chihuahuan Desert region. The model is called the Landscape and Fire Simulator (LAFS) and represents physiological activity of six functional plant types incorporating site climate, fire, and seed dispersal routines for individual grid cells. We applied this model for Big Bend National Park, Texas, by assessing the impact of wildfire on the trajectory of vegetation communities over time. The model was initialized and calibrated based on landcover maps derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data acquired in 1986 and 1999 coupled with plant biomass measurements collected in the field during 2000. Initial vegetation cover change analysis from satellite data showed shrub encroachment during this time period that was captured in the simulated results. A synthetic 50-year climate record was derived from historical meteorological data to assess system response based on initial landcover conditions. This simulation showed that shrublands increased to the detriment of grass and yucca-ocotillo vegetation cover types indicating an ecosystem-level trajectory for shrub encroachment. Our analysis of simulated fires also showed that fires significantly reduced site biomass components including leaf area, stem, and seed biomass in this semi-arid ecosystem. In contrast to other landscape simulation models, this new model incorporates detailed physiological responses of functional plant types that will allow us to simulated the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 occurring with climate change coupled with fire

  4. State-and-transition prototype model of riparian vegetation downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Starfield, Anthony M.; Black, Ronald S.; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Facing an altered riparian plant community dominated by nonnative species, resource managers are increasingly interested in understanding how to manage and promote healthy riparian habitats in which native species dominate. For regulated rivers, managing flows is one tool resource managers consider to achieve these goals. Among many factors that can influence riparian community composition, hydrology is a primary forcing variable. Frame-based models, used successfully in grassland systems, provide an opportunity for stakeholders concerned with riparian systems to evaluate potential riparian vegetation responses to alternative flows. Frame-based, state-and-transition models of riparian vegetation for reattachment bars, separation bars, and the channel margin found on the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam were constructed using information from the literature. Frame-based models can be simple spreadsheet models (created in Microsoft® Excel) or developed further with programming languages (for example, C-sharp). The models described here include seven community states and five dam operations that cause transitions between states. Each model divides operations into growing (April–September) and non-growing seasons (October–March) and incorporates upper and lower bar models, using stage elevation as a division. The inputs (operations) can be used by stakeholders to evaluate flows that may promote dynamic riparian vegetation states, or identify those flow options that may promote less desirable states (for example, Tamarisk [Tamarix sp.] temporarily flooded shrubland). This prototype model, although simple, can still elicit discussion about operational options and vegetation response.

  5. A predictive model for floating leaf vegetation in the St. Louis River Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 2014, USEPA staff was asked by MPCA to develop a predictive model for floating leaf vegetation (FLV) in the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE). The existing model (Host et al. 2012) greatly overpredicts FLV in St. Louis Bay probably because it was based on a limited number of...

  6. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

    2008-03-31

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  7. Constructions of vegetation cover cartographical models based on remote sensing information and traditional maps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenke, Alexander; Puzachenko, Yuriy

    2010-05-01

    Construction of models of vegetation based on remote sensing information is actually a problem of classification of remote sensing information. Each pixel in the classification procedure applies to one class of vegetation. These classes can be initially defined by the values of variables (channels, indexes, etc.), or can be obtained during the procedure. If the problem is solved on the basis of the training set, i.e. classes are originally specified, then arises the question of the representativeness of the sample. If the classes and their spatial distribution are obtained in the classification process, there is a problem of physical interpretation of the classes. The proposed technique is one of the options for addressing the problems described above. For many territories, there are maps representing the structure of vegetation and associated characteristics. These maps are a generalization of the expert opinion of the authors, a large array of field descriptions, interpretation of aerial photographs. Depending on the scale, such maps have varying degrees of accuracy and generalization, for example, small-scale maps reflect the structure of the phenomenon described in very simplified form. However, any high-quality map, in general, correctly, at the appropriate scale, reflects the phenomenon described. Thus, you can use these maps as a training sample covering the whole modeling territory. Using the traditional maps, we use the data accumulated over many years of research in its spatial form. This approach gives us a pre-defined types of modeled phenomena and provides a greater variety of manifestations of these types, than, for example, a few reference points derived from the field observation. Kernel of the method is based on the following sequence of procedures: 1. Map, remote sensing information and its derivatives are combined into one database. Elementary unit of such a database represents a pixel, which has the geographic coordinates and has a size

  8. Assessing and Adapting LiDAR-Derived Pit-Free Canopy Height Model Algorithm for Sites with Varying Vegetation Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, V.; Hulslander, D.; Goulden, T.; Wasser, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and temporal monitoring of vegetation structure is important to the ecological community. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems are used to efficiently survey large forested areas. From LiDAR data, three-dimensional models of forests called canopy height models (CHMs) are generated and used to estimate tree height. A common problem associated with CHMs is data pits, where LiDAR pulses penetrate the top of the canopy, leading to an underestimation of vegetation height. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) currently implements an algorithm to reduce data pit frequency, which requires two height threshold parameters, increment size and range ceiling. CHMs are produced at a series of height increments up to a height range ceiling and combined to produce a CHM with reduced pits (referred to as a "pit-free" CHM). The current implementation uses static values for the height increment and ceiling (5 and 15 meters, respectively). To facilitate the generation of accurate pit-free CHMs across diverse NEON sites with varying vegetation structure, the impacts of adjusting the height threshold parameters were investigated through development of an algorithm which dynamically selects the height increment and ceiling. A series of pit-free CHMs were generated using three height range ceilings and four height increment values for three ecologically different sites. Height threshold parameters were found to change CHM-derived tree heights up to 36% compared to original CHMs. The extent of the parameters' influence on modelled tree heights was greater than expected, which will be considered during future CHM data product development at NEON. (A) Aerial image of Harvard National Forest, (B) standard CHM containing pits, appearing as black speckles, (C) a pit-free CHM created with the static algorithm implementation, and (D) a pit-free CHM created through varying the height threshold ceiling up to 82 m and the increment to 1 m.

  9. Middle Pliocene vegetation: Reconstructions, paleoclimatic inferences, and boundary conditions for climate modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.; Fleming, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The general characteristics of global vegetation during the middle Pliocene warm period can be reconstructed from fossil pollen and plant megafossil data. The largest differences between Pliocene vegetation and that of today occurred at high latitudes in both hemispheres, where warming was pronounced relative to today. In the Northern Hemisphere coniferous forests lived in the modern tundra and polar desert regions, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere southern beech apparently grew in coastal areas of Antarctica. Pliocene middle latitude vegetation differed less, although moister-than-modern conditions supported forest and woodland growth in some regions now covered by steppe or grassland. Pliocene tropical vegetation reflects essentially modern conditions in some regions and slightly cooler-than-or warmer-than- modern climates in other areas. Changes in topography induced by tectonics may be responsible for many of the climatic changes since the Pliocene in both middle and lower latitudes. However, the overall latitudinal progression of climatic conditions on land parallels that seen in the reconstruction of middle Pliocene sea-surface temperatures. Pliocene paleovegetational data was employed to construct a 2????2?? global grid of estimated mid-Pliocene vegetational cover for use as boundary conditions for numerical General Circulation Model simulations of middle Pliocene climates. Continental outlines and topography were first modified to represent the Pliocene landscape on the 2????2?? grid. A modern 1????1?? vegetation grid was simplified and mapped on this Pliocene grid, and then modified following general geographic trends evident in the Pliocene paleovegetation data set.

  10. Comparison between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Liao, Jingjuan

    2014-11-01

    In order to reveal more deeply the scattering characteristics of wetland vegetation and determine the microwave scattering model suitable for the inversion of wetland vegetation parameters, the comparison and analysis between microwave coherent and incoherent scattering models for wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake area were performed in this paper. In the research, we proposed a coherent scattering model exclusive for wetland vegetation, in which, Generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) approach and infinite-length dielectric cylinder were used to calculate single-scattering matrices of wetland vegetation leaves and stalks. In addition, coherent components produced from interaction among the scattering mechanisms and different scatterers were also considered and this coherent model was compared with Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) model. The measured data collected in 2011 in Poyang Lake wetland were used as the input parameters of the coherent and incoherent models. We simulated backscattering coefficients of VV, VH and HH polarization at C band and made a comparison between the simulation results and C-band data from the Radarsat-2 satellite. For both coherent and incoherent scattering model, simulation results for HH and VV polarization were better than the simulation results for HV polarization. In addition, comparisons between coherent and incoherent scattering models proved that the coherence triggered by the scattering mechanism and different scatterers can't be ignored. In the research, we analyzed differences between coherent and incoherent scattering models with change of incident angle. In most instances, the difference between coherent and incoherent scattering models is of the order of several dB.

  11. Influence of the vegetation management of the leeves in irrigated rice organic in diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Simões-Pires, P R; Jahnke, S M; Redaelli, L R

    2016-04-19

    Among the natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields, parasitoids are especially notable. To better understand the space-time dynamics of these insects, the objectives of this study were to describe and compare groups of parasitoids in organic irrigated rice fields using two management approaches for levee vegetation, and to relate them to the phenological stages of rice cultivation (the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages). The samples were taken in a plantation located in Viamão, RS, Brazil. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two parts: a no-cut (NC) subarea in which the wild vegetation of the levees was maintained, and a cut (C) subarea in which the levee vegetation was cut monthly. In each subarea, four Malaise traps considered as pseudo-replicas were installed and remained in the field for 24 hours at each sampling location. Collections occurred twice a month from the beginning of cultivation (October 2012) until harvest (March 2013). A total of 3,184 Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected: 2,038 individuals in the NC subarea and 1,146 in the C subarea. We identified 458 morphospecies distributed in 24 families. Mymaridae was the most abundant and Eulophidae was the richest in both subareas. A total of 198 morphospecies was shared between the subareas, including Platygastridae, Eulophidae, and Mymaridae, which were the families with the highest number of shared species. The richness and abundance of parasitoids varied according to their phenological developmental stages, with peak abundance registering during the vegetative period. The Morisita index identified three groupings, indicating a similarity that was related to the three phases of rice growth and development: seedling, vegetative and post-harvest. PMID:27097090

  12. [Effects of different vegetation restoration patterns on the diversity of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land, Inner Mongolia of North China].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li-Juan; Li, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Jiang; Zhang, Hai-Fang; Song, Xiao-Long; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-06-01

    By using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and sequence analysis, this paper studied the nifH gene diversity and community structure of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land of Inner Mongolia under four years management of five vegetation restoration modes, i. e., mixed-planting of Agropyron cristatum, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii, and Elymus nutans (ACHE) and of Agropyron cristatum and Hedysarum fruticosum (AC), and mono-planting of Caragana korshinskii (UC), Agropyron cristatum (UA), and Hedysarum fruticosum (UH), taking the bare land as the control (CK). There existed significant differences in the community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes among the five vegetation restoration patterns. The Shannon index of the nifH gene was the highest under ACHE, followed by under AC, UC, UA, and UH, and the lowest in CK. Except that UH and CK had less difference in the Shannon index, the other four vegetation restoration modes had a significantly higher Shannon index than CK (P < 0.05). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under UA, UH, and UC were mainly of cyanobacteria, but the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under AC and ACHE changed obviously, mainly of proteobacteria, and also of cyanobacteria. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen contents under the five vegetation restoration modes had significant effects on the nitrogen-fixing microbial communities, and there existed significant correlations among the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. It was suggested that the variations of the community composition of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under the five vegetation restoration modes were resulted from the interactive and combined effects of the soil physical and chemical factors.

  13. [Effects of different vegetation restoration patterns on the diversity of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land, Inner Mongolia of North China].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li-Juan; Li, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Jiang; Zhang, Hai-Fang; Song, Xiao-Long; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-06-01

    By using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and sequence analysis, this paper studied the nifH gene diversity and community structure of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land of Inner Mongolia under four years management of five vegetation restoration modes, i. e., mixed-planting of Agropyron cristatum, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii, and Elymus nutans (ACHE) and of Agropyron cristatum and Hedysarum fruticosum (AC), and mono-planting of Caragana korshinskii (UC), Agropyron cristatum (UA), and Hedysarum fruticosum (UH), taking the bare land as the control (CK). There existed significant differences in the community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes among the five vegetation restoration patterns. The Shannon index of the nifH gene was the highest under ACHE, followed by under AC, UC, UA, and UH, and the lowest in CK. Except that UH and CK had less difference in the Shannon index, the other four vegetation restoration modes had a significantly higher Shannon index than CK (P < 0.05). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under UA, UH, and UC were mainly of cyanobacteria, but the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under AC and ACHE changed obviously, mainly of proteobacteria, and also of cyanobacteria. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen contents under the five vegetation restoration modes had significant effects on the nitrogen-fixing microbial communities, and there existed significant correlations among the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. It was suggested that the variations of the community composition of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under the five vegetation restoration modes were resulted from the interactive and combined effects of the soil physical and chemical factors. PMID:24066552

  14. Modeling approach to assess the impact of point source air pollutant emission on vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Dauzvardis, P.A.; Veselka, T.; Ballou, S.W.

    1980-09-01

    Dose-response effects of gases emitted from industrial sources on vegetation were investigated. Some of the techniques available for vegetation damage assessments are outlined in this report. A new method of assessing potential chronic and visible damage has been developed and is described. Predictive models that will estimate plant damage in terms of decreased yields and the geographic area exposed are developed. An example is presented in which the modeling technique is used to determine the possible occurrence of yield reductions in crops grown near coal-fired power plants. (RJC)

  15. a Radiative Transfer Equation/phase Function Approach to Vegetation Canopy Reflectance Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, Marion Herbert

    Vegetation canopy reflectance models currently in use differ considerably in their treatment of the radiation scattering problem, and it is this fundamental difference which stimulated this investigation of the radiative transfer equation/phase function approach. The primary objective of this thesis is the development of vegetation canopy phase functions which describe the probability of radiation scattering within a canopy in terms of its biological and physical characteristics. In this thesis a technique based upon quadrature formulae is used to numerically generate a variety of vegetation canopy phase functions. Based upon leaf inclination distribution functions, phase functions are generated for plagiophile, extremophile, erectophile, spherical, planophile, blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and soybean canopies. The vegetation canopy phase functions generated are symmetric with respect to the incident and exitant angles, and hence satisfy the principle of reciprocity. The remaining terms in the radiative transfer equation are also derived in terms of canopy geometry and optical properties to complete the development of the radiative transfer equation/phase function description for vegetation canopy reflectance modeling. In order to test the radiative transfer equation/phase function approach the iterative discrete ordinates method for solving the radiative transfer equation is implemented. In comparison with field data, the approach tends to underestimate the visible reflectance and overestimate infrared reflectance. The approach does compare well, however, with other extant canopy reflectance models; for example, it agrees to within ten to fifteen percent of the Suits model (Suits, 1972). Sensitivity analysis indicates that canopy geometry may influence reflectance as much as 100 percent for a given wavelength. Optical thickness produces little change in reflectance after a depth of 2.5 (Leaf area index of 4.0) is reached, and reflectance generally increases

  16. Vegetation influence on runoff and sediment yield in the Andes region: observation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braud, I.; Vich, A. I. J.; Zuluaga, J.; Fornero, L.; Pedrani, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Precordillera of the Andes Mountains (Mendoza, Argentina) is prone to severe flash floods, caused by heavy rainfall events of short duration and high intensities. Two catchments were instrumented in order to study the rainfall-runoff process and soil management impact on runoff and/or sediment yield. In the first catchment (Divisadero Largo, DL, 5.47 km 2), characterized by a large heterogeneity of surface geology, a data set of about 50 rainfall-runoff events covering the 1983-1994 period was available. Vegetation cover changed significantly after the catchment was enclosed in 1989-1990. This change was successfully mapped using Landsat TM image analysis. The second catchment (Cuenca Aluvional Piloto, CAP, 35 ha), the soil of which was homogeneous, was instrumented in 1992 for total runoff and sediment yield measurements. Three small plots of 3×10 m 2 (bare soil, 42 and 60% vegetation cover) and three sub catchments (2-4.5 ha) were delimited with different average vegetation cover. Data analysis showed the difficulty in relating runoff volume and sediment yield to simple descriptors of the catchments such as the average slope and/or the average vegetation cover. The DL and CAP catchments were modelled using the Areal Non Point Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation (ANSWERS) model with contrasting results. Good agreement between model and observation could be achieved after calibration on the 3×10 m 2 plots, but the model failed to correctly reproduce runoff on the three 2-4.5 ha CAP sub-catchments using the values calibrated on the small plots. Better results were obtained on the larger and heterogeneous DL basin, where surface geology variations and rainfall variability seemed to be the most influential factors. In this case, no sensitivity to vegetation coverage changes, induced when enclosing the catchment, was found. On the other hand, the model proved sensitive to differences in vegetation cover at smaller scales when the geology was

  17. A spatial simulation model of hydrology and vegetation dynamics in semi-permanent prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a spatial simulation model of the vegetation dynamics in semi-permanent prairie wetlands. A hydrologic submodel estimated water levels based on precipitation, runoff, and potential evapotranspiration. A vegetation submodel calculated the amount and distribution of emergent cover and open water using a geographic information system. The response of vegetation to water-level changes was based on seed bank composition, seedling recruitment and establishment, and plant survivorship. The model was developed and tested using data from the Cottonwood Lake study site in North Dakota. Data from semi-permanent wetland P1 were used to calibrate the model. Data from a second wetland, P4, were used to evaluate model performance. Simulation results were compared with actual water data from 1797 through 1989. Test results showed that differences between calculated and observed water levels were within 10 cm 75% of the time. Open water over the past decade ranged from 0 to 7% in wetland P4 and from 0 to 8% in submodel simulations. Several model parameters including evapotranspiration and timing of seedling germination could be improved with more complex techniques or relatively minor adjustments. Despite these differences the model adequately represented vegetation dynamics of prairie wetlands and can be used to examine wetland response to natural or human-induced climate change.

  18. Modelling Vegetation Response to Climate Change in the Upper Danube Subcatchment applying a Biophysical Landsurface Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hank, T.; Mauser, W.

    2009-04-01

    The manifold exchange processes that occur between landsurface and atmosphere are largely determined through the living vegetation cover that dynamically responds to atmospheric conditions such as humidity, temperature or the concentration of carbon dioxide respectively. When dealing with the mapping of biospheric feedbacks on changing climatic conditions, the numerical description of the involved processes represents a helpful tool and reliable instrument for the investigation of the dynamics that are part of these landsurface exchange cycles. A considerable number of current studies concentrates on the modelling of global dynamic reactions of the vegetation cover on changing atmospheric parameters. Nonetheless, questions concerning the regional effects of climate change are getting more and more important for stakeholders and decision makers worldwide. Within the scope of the GLOWA-Danube cooperative project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMB+F), the physically-based hydrological model PROMET (process of radiation mass and energy transfer) is applied to investigate the consequences of climate change on the regional scale. PROMET largely represents the landsurface component of the DANUBIA decision support system, which has been recently enhanced by an explicit model of photosynthesis. The assimilation model was combined with a model of stomatal conductance and the respective physiological submodels to enable a spatial modelling of active vegetation growth, taking the sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus with respect to changing atmospheric conditions into account. The combined model approach was applied to a set of climate scenarios, all tracing the characteristics of the moderate IPCC A1B scenario, but featuring different realizations of this storyline. The meteorology for the scenario runs was generated, using a stochastic method that is based on a statistical analysis and rearrangement of measured

  19. Implementation of diverse tree hydraulics in a land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, A.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Weng, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the occurence of drought kill in forests worldwide. These mortality events are significant disruptions to the terrestrial carbon cycle, but the mechanisms required to represent drought kill are not represented in terrestrial carbon cycle models. In part, this is due to the challenge of representing the diversity of hydraulic strategies, which include stomatal sensitivity to water deficit and woody tissue vulnerability to cavitation at low water potential. In part, this is due to the challenge of representing this boundary value problem numerically, because the hydraulic components determine water potential at the leaf, but the stomatal conductance on the leaf also determines the hydraulic gradients within the plant. This poster will describe the development of a land surface model parameterization of diverse tree hydraulic strategies.

  20. Small diversity effects on ocean primary production under environmental change in a diversity-resolving ocean ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowe, A. E. F.; Pahlow, M.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Oschlies, A.

    2013-07-01

    Marine ecosystem models used to investigate how global change affects ocean ecosystems and their functioning typically omit pelagic diversity. Diversity, however, can affect functions such as primary production and their sensitivity to environmental changes. Using a global ocean ecosystem model that explicitly resolves phytoplankton diversity within four phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) we investigate the model's ability to capture diversity effects on primary production under environmental change. An idealized scenario with a sudden reduction in vertical mixing causes diversity and primary-production changes that turn out to be largely independent of the number of coexisting phytoplankton types. The model provides a small number of niches with respect to nutrient use in accordance with the PFTs defined in the model, and increasing the number of phytoplankton types increases the resolution within the niches. The variety of traits and trade-offs resolved in the model constrains diversity effects such as niche complementarity, which operate between, but not within PFTs. The number and nature of the niches formulated in the model, for example via trade-offs or different PFTs, thus determines the diversity effects on ecosystem functioning captured in ocean ecosystem models.

  1. Neutral null models for diversity in serial transfer evolution experiments.

    PubMed

    Harpak, Arbel; Sella, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Evolution experiments with microorganisms coupled with genome-wide sequencing now allow for the systematic study of population genetic processes under a wide range of conditions. In learning about these processes in natural, sexual populations, neutral models that describe the behavior of diversity and divergence summaries have played a pivotal role. It is therefore natural to ask whether neutral models, suitably modified, could be useful in the context of evolution experiments. Here, we introduce coalescent models for polymorphism and divergence under the most common experimental evolution assay, a serial transfer experiment. This relatively simple setting allows us to address several issues that could affect diversity patterns in evolution experiments, whether selection is operating or not: the transient behavior of neutral polymorphism in an experiment beginning from a single clone, the effects of randomness in the timing of cell division and noisiness in population size in the dilution stage. In our analyses and discussion, we emphasize the implications for experiments aimed at measuring diversity patterns and making inferences about population genetic processes based on these measurements.

  2. A Test of the Optimality Approach to Modelling Canopy gas Exchange by Natural Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Sivapalan, M.; Roderick, M. L.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.

    2005-12-01

    Natural vegetation has co-evolved with its environment over a long period of time and natural selection has led to a species composition that is most suited for the given conditions. Part of this adaptation is the vegetation's water use strategy, which determines the amount and timing of water extraction from the soil. Knowing that water extraction by vegetation often accounts for over 90% of the annual water balance in some places, we need to understand its controls if we want to properly model the hydrologic cycle. Water extraction by roots is driven by transpiration from the canopy, which in turn is an inevitable consequence of CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis provides plants with their main building material, carbohydrates, and with the energy necessary to thrive and prosper in their environment. Therefore we expect that natural vegetation would have evolved an optimal water use strategy to maximise its `net carbon profit' (the difference between carbon acquired by photosynthesis and carbon spent on maintenance of the organs involved in its uptake). Based on this hypothesis and on an ecophysiological gas exchange and photosynthesis model (Cowan and Farquhar 1977; von Caemmerer 2000), we model the optimal vegetation for a site in Howard Springs (N.T., Australia) and compare the modelled fluxes with measurements by Beringer, Hutley et al. (2003). The comparison gives insights into theoretical and real controls on transpiration and photosynthesis and tests the optimality approach to modelling gas exchange of natural vegetation with unknown properties. The main advantage of the optimality approach is that no assumptions about the particular vegetation on a site are needed, which makes it very powerful for predicting vegetation response to long-term climate- or land use change. Literature: Beringer, J., L. B. Hutley, et al. (2003). "Fire impacts on surface heat, moisture and carbon fluxes from a tropical savanna in northern Australia." International

  3. Modeling the Channel/Floodplain Interface: The Influence of Riparian Vegetation on Mass and Momentum Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to improve understanding of the impacts of riparian vegetation on mass and momentum flux between the main channel and the floodplain. Numerical investigations were carried out on five sites within three rivers in New Mexico, USA. Vegetation characteristics were varied to represent different riparian scenarios ranging from no vegetation to dense understory. The sedimentation and river hydraulics in two dimensions (SRH-2D) model was applied to simulate hydrodynamic conditions. The model was modified to include two algorithms for simulating a dynamic hydraulic roughness in the riparian zone. Thus resistive forces were represented as a function of vegetation characteristics and hydrodynamic condition. The results provide insights into the processes of mass and momentum transfer at the channel/floodplain interface. As expected, an increase in vegetation density produced enhanced momentum exchange. However, a threshold was reached beyond which the momentum exchange peaked and then dropped. This threshold was the results of low floodplain velocities producing very little resistive force due to low drag. Future work will focus on unsteady investigations and laboratory and field verification studies.

  4. Reaction pathways for the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and related model compounds.

    PubMed

    Gosselink, Robert W; Hollak, Stefan A W; Chang, Shu-Wei; van Haveren, Jacco; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H; van Es, Daan S

    2013-09-01

    Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and specific triglycerides because of their structural similarity to vegetable oils. In this Review we discuss the impact of feedstock, reaction conditions, and nature of the catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and its derivatives. As such, we conclude on the suitability of model compounds for this reaction. It is shown that the type of catalyst has a significant effect on the deoxygenation pathway, that is, group 10 metal catalysts are active in decarbonylation/decarboxylation whereas metal sulfide catalysts are more selective to hydrodeoxygenation. Deoxygenation studies performed under H2 showed similar pathways for fatty acids, fatty acid esters, triglycerides, and vegetable oils, as mostly deoxygenation occurs indirectly via the formation of fatty acids. Deoxygenation in the absence of H2 results in significant differences in reaction pathways and selectivities depending on the feedstock. Additionally, using unsaturated feedstocks under inert gas results in a high selectivity to undesired reactions such as cracking and the formation of heavies. Therefore, addition of H2 is proposed to be essential for the catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil feeds.

  5. Mathematical modeling riparian vegetation zonation in semiarid conditions based on a transpiration index.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Joaquin; Morales, Marco; Garcia, Alicia; Garofano, Virginia; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Frances, Felix

    2010-05-01

    Initially riparian vegetation modeling was focused on the study of ecological patches without taking into account the interactive effects of structures and processes in between them (Tabacchi et al., 1998). One of the greatest challenges, when carrying out a riparian ecosystem restoration, is to understand the physical and ecological processes of a system and the interaction and feedback within these processes. Jorde (2002) pointed out the importance of addressing complex linkages between processes and biotic interactions in research and in the development of restoration projects over larger spatial and temporal scales in the future. According to Tabacchi et al. (2000), the water cycle in riparian zones depends on three important relations: the water absorption by the plants, water storage and atmospherical return by evaporation. During recent years a variety of ecological models have taken into account the changes in the plant species as consequence of changes in the environmental variables and hydrological alterations (Baptist, 2005; Braatne et al., 2002; Glenz, 2005; Hooke et al., 2005; Murphy et al., 2006). Most of these models are based on functional relationships between river hydrology and vegetation species or communities. In semiarid regions we make the hypothesis transpiration will be one of the key factors determining the riparian vegetation presence and therefore, we will not consider in our model other factors as recruitment, flood damages, etc. The objectives of this work are: firstly to develop a model capable of simulating several riparian vegetation types which can be applied in a wide range of conditions across Mediterranean environments; and secondly to calibrate and to validate the model in several Mediterranean river stretches of the Iberian Peninsula, both in undisturbed and disturbed flow regimes. To achieve these objectives the following methodology has been applied. The model has been conceptualized as a static tank flow model based on the

  6. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Pleim, Jonathan; Gilliam, Robert; Binkowski, Francis S.; Hogrefe, Christian; Band, Larry

    2016-03-01

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model) that employs the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM). Recently, PX LSM WRF/CMAQ has been updated in vegetation, soil, and boundary layer processes resulting in improved 2 m temperature (T) and mixing ratio (Q), 10 m wind speed, and surface ozone simulations across the domain compared to the previous version for a period around August 2006. Yearlong meteorology simulations with the updated system demonstrate that MODIS input helps reduce bias of the 2 m Q estimation during the growing season from April to September. Improvements follow the green-up in the southeast from April and move toward the west and north through August. From October to March, MODIS input does not have much influence on the system because vegetation is not as active. The greatest effects of MODIS input include more accurate phenology, better representation of leaf area index (LAI) for various forest ecosystems and agricultural areas, and realistically sparse vegetation coverage in the western drylands. Despite the improved meteorology, MODIS input causes higher bias for the surface O3 simulation in April, August, and October in areas where MODIS LAI is much less than the base LAI. Thus, improvements may be needed in the CMAQ dry deposition model for low LAI areas where deposition on the soil surface becomes important.

  7. Analysis of Evapotranspiration Model Sensitivity to Climate and Vegetation Parameters With Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a dominant component of the global water balance and in the study of hydroclimatic effects of climate change. However, its computation remains challenging due to the multiple environmental factors that influence the magnitude of ET flux. Therefore, understanding the sensitivity of ET models to changes in climate and vegetation inputs remains a major concern for hydrologists, biometeorologists, and climatologists. To date, sensitivity analyses (SAs) of evapotranspiration (ET) models are incomplete on two counts: 1) contemporary, data-driven SAs do not account for the effects of both climate and vegetation input variables on model output (ET estimates); and 2) SAs do not account for the effects of input variable correlation on model output. This is problematic because of the potentially dominant role of vegetation in controlling ET, and the non-trivial interactions between climate variables, and climate and vegetation variables. Ignoring the role of interactions between variables limits the value of SAs for reducing model dimensionality and guiding model calibration, and may lead to incorrect assessments of environmental system response to climate change, where the synchronies between climate variables change over time and space. The problems addressed by this study are the issues identified above: the lack of accounting for both climate and vegetation inputs, and correlated inputs, on ET model SAs. This study: 1) performs a SA of the standardized American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Penman-Monteith (PM) equation for reference ET to both climate and vegetation variables using a mixed empirical and simulation based global Sobol' SA; and 2) performs a SA of ASCE PM reference ET to both climate and vegetation variables through a simulation-based analysis using a new Sobol' SA analogue developed for models with correlated input variables. At the time of completion, this study constitutes the first use of a Sobol' SA (Sobol', 2001

  8. Modelling Vegetation and the Carbon Cycle as Interactive Elements of the Climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, P. M.; Betts, R. A.; Jones, C. D.; Spall, S. A.; Totterdell, I. J.

    INTRODUCTION MODEL DESCRIPTION Ocean-Atmosphere GCM (HadCM3L) The Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle Model (HadOCC) The Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (TRIFFID) PRE-INDUSTRIAL STATE Spin-up Methodology The Mean Pre-industrial State A FIRST TRANSIENT CLIMATE-CARBON CYCLE SIMULATION 1860-2000 2000-2100 DISCUSSION Sink-to-source Transitions in the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

  9. Feedback of observed interannual vegetation change: a regional climate model analysis for the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Cornelia; Bliefernicht, Jan; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Gessner, Ursula; Klein, Igor; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-06-01

    West Africa is a hot spot region for land-atmosphere coupling where atmospheric conditions and convective rainfall can strongly depend on surface characteristics. To investigate the effect of natural interannual vegetation changes on the West African monsoon precipitation, we implement satellite-derived dynamical datasets for vegetation fraction (VF), albedo and leaf area index into the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Two sets of 4-member ensembles with dynamic and static land surface description are used to extract vegetation-related changes in the interannual difference between August-September 2009 and 2010. The observed vegetation patterns retain a significant long-term memory of preceding rainfall patterns of at least 2 months. The interannual vegetation changes exhibit the strongest effect on latent heat fluxes and associated surface temperatures. We find a decrease (increase) of rainy hours over regions with higher (lower) VF during the day and the opposite during the night. The probability that maximum precipitation is shifted to nighttime (daytime) over higher (lower) VF is 12 % higher than by chance. We attribute this behaviour to horizontal circulations driven by differential heating. Over more vegetated regions, the divergence of moist air together with lower sensible heat fluxes hinders the initiation of deep convection during the day. During the night, mature convective systems cause an increase in the number of rainy hours over these regions. We identify this feedback in both water- and energy-limited regions of West Africa. The inclusion of observed dynamical surface information improved the spatial distribution of modelled rainfall in the Sahel with respect to observations, illustrating the potential of satellite data as a boundary constraint for atmospheric models.

  10. Distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in the St. Louis River estuary: Maps and models

    EPA Science Inventory

    In late summer of 2011 and 2012 we used echo-sounding gear to map the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE). From these data we produced maps of SAV distribution and we created logistic models to predict the probability of occurr...

  11. Measuring and Modeling of the Dielectric Properties and Attenuation of Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    The dielectric properties of vegetation material--primarily agricultural plants--as a function of moisture content and microwave frequency was measured and used to develop dielectric mixing models for the vegetation-water mixture. A model for the loss factor of a vegetation canopy was also developed. During the first phase of this investigation, three waveguide transmission systems covering from 1 to 2-GHz, from 3.5 to 6.5-GHz, and from 7.5 to 8.5-GHz bands were constructed and calibrated. By measuring the magnitude and phase of the field transmission coefficient of a given sample, it was possible to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant of the sample. Measurements were made for numerous samples of leaves and stalks of wheat and corn, and for wheat heads. Also, dielectric measurements were made of the liquid included in the vegetation material after extraction by mechanical means. The propagation loss is more than an order of magnitude greater than had previously been assumed. Various types of dielectric mixing models were investigated in terms of the available data, and a propagation model was developed and evaluated against direct canopy attenuation measurements. The canopy measurements were made by transmitting a signal from a radar antenna mounted atop a truck-mounted boom, and using a small antenna mounted on a rail beneath the canopy to receive it.

  12. Soil detachment by overland flow under different vegetation restoration models in the loess plateau of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use change has significant effects on soil properties and vegetation cover and thus probably affects soil detachment by overland flow. Few studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of restoration models on the soil detachment process in the Loess Plateau in the past decade during which a Gr...

  13. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Constitutive Model for Vegetated Soils: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switala, Barbara Maria; Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei; Askarinejad, Amin

    2016-04-01

    It is well known, that presence of vegetation influences stability of the slope. However, the quantitative assessment of this contribution remains challenging. It is essential to develop a numerical model, which combines mechanical root reinforcement and root water uptake, and allows modelling rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes. Therefore a novel constitutive formulation is proposed, which is based on the modified Cam-clay model for unsaturated soils. Mechanical root reinforcement is modelled introducing a new constitutive parameter, which governs the evolution of the Cam-clay failure surface with the degree of root reinforcement. Evapotranspiration is modelled in terms of the root water uptake, defined as a sink term in the water flow continuity equation. The original concept is extended for different shapes of the root architecture in three dimensions, and combined with the mechanical model. The model is implemented in the research finite element code Comes-Geo, and in the commercial software Abaqus. The formulation is tested, performing a series of numerical examples, which allow validation of the concept. The direct shear test and the triaxial test are modelled in order to test the performance of the mechanical part of the model. In order to validate the hydrological part of the constitutive formulation, evapotranspiration from the vegetated box is simulated and compared with the experimental results. Obtained numerical results exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data. The implemented model is capable of reproducing results of basic geotechnical laboratory tests. Moreover, the constitutive formulation can be used to model rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes, taking into account the most important factors influencing the slope stability (root reinforcement and evapotranspiration).

  14. SPITFIRE-2: an improved fire module for Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2012-08-01

    Fire is the primary disturbance factor in many terrestrial ecosystems. Wildfire alters vegetation structure and composition, affects carbon storage and biogeochemical cycling, and results in the release of climatically relevant trace gases, including CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, and aerosols. Assessing the impacts of global wildfire on centennial to multi-millennial timescales requires the linkage of process-based fire modeling with vegetation modeling using Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). Here we present a new fire module, SPITFIRE-2, and an update to the LPJ-DGVM that includes major improvements to the way in which fire occurrence, behavior, and the effect of fire on vegetation is simulated. The new fire module includes explicit calculation of natural ignitions, the representation of multi-day burning and coalescence of fires and the calculation of rates of spread in different vegetation types, as well as a simple scheme to model crown fires. We describe a new representation of anthropogenic biomass burning under preindustrial conditions that distinguishes the way in which the relationship between humans and fire are different between hunter-gatherers, obligate pastoralists, and farmers. Where and when available, we evaluate our model simulations against remote-sensing based estimates of burned area. While wildfire in much of the modern world is largely influenced by anthropogenic suppression and ignitions, in those parts of the world where natural fire is still the dominant process, e.g. in remote areas of the boreal forest, our results demonstrate a significant improvement in simulated burned area over previous models. With its unique properties of being able to simulate preindustrial fire, the new module we present here is particularly well suited for the investigation of climate-human-fire relationships on multi-millennial timescales.

  15. The application of a geometric optical canopy reflectance model to semiarid shrub vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet; Turner, Debra L.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the average plant size and density of shrub vegetation on the basis of SPOT High Resolution Visible Multispectral imagery from Chihuahuan desert areas, using the Li and Strahler (1985) model. The aggregated predictions for a number of stands within a class were accurate to within one or two standard errors of the observed average value. Accuracy was highest for those classes of vegetation where the nonrandom scrub pattern was characterized for the class on the basis of the average coefficient of the determination of density.

  16. Turing Pattern Formation in a Semiarid Vegetation Model with Fractional-in-Space Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Tian, Canrong

    2015-11-01

    A fractional power of the Laplacian is introduced to a reaction-diffusion system to describe water's anomalous diffusion in a semiarid vegetation model. Our linear stability analysis shows that the wavenumber of Turing pattern increases with the superdiffusive exponent. A weakly nonlinear analysis yields a system of amplitude equations, and the analysis of these amplitude equations shows that the spatial patterns are asymptotic stable due to the supercritical Turing bifurcation. Numerical simulations exhibit a bistable regime composed of hexagons and stripes, which confirm our analytical results. Moreover, the characteristic length of the emergent spatial pattern is consistent with the scale of vegetation patterns observed in field studies.

  17. Scaling effects on area-averaged fraction of vegetation cover derived using a linear mixture model with two-band spectral vegetation index constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Kenta; Huete, Alfredo R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects that apply to a fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) estimates derived using two-band spectral vegetation index (VI) isoline-based linear mixture models (VI isoline-based LMM). The VIs included the normalized difference vegetation index, a soil-adjusted vegetation index, and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2). This study focused in part on the monotonicity of an area-averaged FVC estimate as a function of spatial resolution. The proof of monotonicity yielded measures of the intrinsic area-averaged FVC uncertainties due to scaling effects. The derived results demonstrate that a factor ξ, which was defined as a function of "true" and "estimated" endmember spectra of the vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, was responsible for conveying monotonicity or nonmonotonicity. The monotonic FVC values displayed a uniform increasing or decreasing trend that was independent of the choice of the two-band VI. Conditions under which scaling effects were eliminated from the FVC were identified. Numerical simulations verifying the monotonicity and the practical utility of the scaling theory were evaluated using numerical experiments applied to Landsat7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The findings contribute to developing scale-invariant FVC estimation algorithms for multisensor and data continuity.

  18. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Ahmed K.; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-01-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species. PMID:25473364

  19. Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, David W.; Docker, Margaret F.; Whyard, Steve; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Here, we provide an overview of the ways in which genomic tools are currently being deployed to tackle diverse research questions and suggest several areas that may benefit from the availability of the sea lamprey genome. PMID:26951616

  20. Self efficacy for fruit, vegetable and water intakes: Expanded and abbreviated scales from item response modeling analyses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To improve an existing measure of fruit and vegetable intake self efficacy by including items that varied on levels of difficulty, and testing a corresponding measure of water intake self efficacy. Design Cross sectional assessment. Items were modified to have easy, moderate and difficult levels of self efficacy. Classical test theory and item response modeling were applied. Setting One middle school at each of seven participating sites (Houston TX, Irvine CA, Philadelphia PA, Pittsburg PA, Portland OR, rural NC, and San Antonio TX). Subjects 714 6th grade students. Results Adding items to reflect level (low, medium, high) of self efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake achieved scale reliability and validity comparable to existing scales, but the distribution of items across the latent variable did not improve. Selecting items from among clusters of items at similar levels of difficulty along the latent variable resulted in an abbreviated scale with psychometric characteristics comparable to the full scale, except for reliability. Conclusions The abbreviated scale can reduce participant burden. Additional research is necessary to generate items that better distribute across the latent variable. Additional items may need to tap confidence in overcoming more diverse barriers to dietary intake. PMID:20350316

  1. Large-eddy simulations with a dynamic explicit vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, G.; Maurer, K.; Chatziefstratiou, E.; Medvigy, D.

    2014-12-01

    We coupled the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) and a modified version of the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 (ED2) to form a dynamic, high resolution, physiologically driven large eddy simulation. RAFLES represents both drag and volume restriction by the canopy over an explicit 3-D domain. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of uplift and circulation patterns at the front and back of a rectangular barrier to the representation of the canopy volume. We then used this model to perform a virtual experiment using combinations of realistic heterogeneous canopies and virtual homogenous canopies combined with heterogeneous and homogenous patterns of soil moisture to test the effects of the spatial scaling of soil moisture on the fluxes of momentum, heat, and water in heterogeneous environments at the tree-crown scale. Further simulations were performed to test the combined effects of canopy structure, soil moisture heterogeneity, and soil water availability. We found flux dynamics of momentum, heat, and water to be significantly influenced by canopy structure, soil moisture heterogeneity, and soil water availability. During non-plant-limiting soil-water conditions, we found canopy structure to be the primary driver of tree-crown scale fluxes of momentum, heat, and water, specifically through modification of the ejection sweep dynamics. However, as soil water conditions became limiting for latent heat flux from plants, tree-crown scale fluxes of momentum and heat became influenced by the spatial pattern of soil moisture, whereas soil moisture became a significant driver of tree-crown scale fluxes of water along with canopy structure.

  2. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  3. Soil dynamics and accelerated erosion: a sensitivity analysis of the LPJ Dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoms, Samuel; Van Oost, Kristof; Vanacker, Veerle; Kaplan, Jed O.; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2013-04-01

    It is widely accepted that humans have become a major geomorphic force by disturbing natural vegetation patterns. Land conversion for agriculture purposes removes the protection of soils by the natural vegetation and leads to increased soil erosion by one to two orders of magnitude, breaking the balance that exists between the loss of soils and its production. Accelerated erosion and deposition have a strong influence on evolution and heterogeneity of basic soil characteristics (soil thickness, hydrology, horizon development,…) as well as on organic matter storage and cycling. Yet, since they are operating at a long time scale, those processes are not represented in state-of-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which is a clear lack when exploring vegetation dynamics over past centuries. The main objectives of this paper are (i) to test the sensitivity of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model, in terms of NPP and organic matter turnover, variations in state variables in response to accelerated erosion and (ii) to assess the performance of the model under the impact of erosion for a case-study in Central Spain. We evaluated the Lund-Postdam-Jena Dynamic Vegetation Model (LPJ DVGM) (Sitch et al, 2003) which simulates vegetation growth and carbon pools at the surface and in the soil based on climatic, pedologic and topographic variables. We assessed its reactions to changes in key soil properties that are affected by erosion such as texture and soil depth. We present the results of where we manipulated soil texture and bulk density while keeping the environmental drivers of climate, slope and altitude constant. For parameters exhibiting a strong control on NPP or SOM, a factorial analysis was conducted to test for interaction effects. The simulations show an important dependence on the clay content, especially for the slow cycling carbon pools and the biomass production, though the underground litter seems to be mostly influenced by the silt content. The fast cycling C

  4. An Approach to Modeling the Water Balance Sensitivity to Landscape Vegetation Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I. N.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2008-12-01

    Watershed development and management require an understanding of how hydrological processes affect water balance components. The study of water resources management, especially in Western United States, is currently motivated by climate change, the impact of vegetation cover change on water production, and the need to manage water supplies. Vegetation management and its relation to runoff has been well documented, as reduction of forest cover, reducing evapotranspiration, increases water yield and in contrast the establishment of forest cover on sparsely vegetated land, increasing evapotranspiration, deceases water yield. This paper presents a water balance model developed to quantify the sensitivity of runoff production to changes in vegetation based on differences in evapotranspiration from different land cover types. The model is intended to provide a simple framework for estimating long term yield changes due to managed vegetation change. The model assumes that relative potential evapotranspiration from specific land cover can be quantified by a set of potential evapotranspiration coefficients for each land cover type. The model uses the Budyko curve to partition precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff over the long term. Potential evapotranspiration is estimated from the Budyko curve for present conditions, then adjusted for land cover changes using the relative potential evapotranspiration coefficients for each land cover type. The adjusted potential evapotranspiration is then partitioned using the Budyko curve to provide estimates of long term runoff and evapotranspiration for the changed conditions. We found that the changes in runoff were in general close to being linearly proportional to the changes in land cover. In Utah study watersheds, reducing 50% of the present coniferous forests resulted in runoff increase that ranged from 0.5 to 38 mm/year, while the transition of 50% of area present as range/shrub/other to forest resulted in runoff

  5. Spatial and temporal signatures of fragility and threshold proximity in modelled semi-arid vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of complex environmental systems, particularly as critical thresholds are approached, is vitally important in many contexts. Among these are the moisture-limited vegetation systems in semi-arid (SA) regions of the World, which support approximately 36 per cent of the human population, maintain considerable biodiversity and which are susceptible to rapid stress-induced collapse. Change in spatially self-organized vegetation patterning has previously been proposed as a means of identifying approaching thresholds in these systems. In this paper, a newly developed cellular automata model is used to explore spatial patterning and also the temporal dynamics of SA vegetation cover. Results show, for the first time, to my knowledge, in a cellular automata model, that ‘critical slowdown’ (a pronounced reduction in post-perturbation recovery rates) provides clear signals of system fragility as major thresholds are approached. A consequence of slowing recovery rates is the appearance of quasi-stable population states and increased potential for perturbation-induced multi-staged population collapse. The model also predicts a non-patterned cover where environmental stress levels are high, or where more moderate stress levels are accompanied by frequent perturbations. In the context of changing climatic and environmental pressures, these results provide observable indicators of fragility and threshold proximity in SA vegetation systems that have direct relevance to management policies. PMID:20943693

  6. Equilibrium Response and Transient Dynamics Datasets from VEMAP: Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP) was a large, collaborative, multi-agency program to simulate and understand ecosystem dynamics for the continental U.S. The project involved the development of common data sets for model input including a high-resolution topographically-adjusted climate history of the U.S. from 1895-1993 on a 0.5? grid, with soils and vegetation cover. The vegetation cover data set includes a detailed agricultural data base based on USDA statistics and remote sensing, as well as natural vegetation (also derived from satellite imagery). Two principal model experiments were run. First, a series of ecosystem models were run from 1895 to 1993 to simulate current ecosystem biogeochemistry. Second, these same models were integrated forward using the output from two climate system models (CCC (Canadian Climate Centre) and Hadley Centre models) using climate results translated into the VEMAP grid and re-adjusted for high-resolution topography for the simulated period 1994-2100.[Quoted from http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/findings.html] The VEMAP Data Portal is a central collection of files maintained and serviced by the NCAR Data Group. These files (the VEMAP Community Datasets) represent a complete and current collection of VEMAP data files. All data files available through the Data Portal have undergone extensive quality assurance.[Taken from http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html] Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.

  7. An exactly solvable coarse-grained model for species diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2012-07-01

    We present novel analytical results concerning ecosystem species diversity that stem from a proposed coarse-grained neutral model based on birth-death processes. The relevance of the problem lies in the urgency for understanding and synthesizing both theoretical results from ecological neutral theory and empirical evidence on species diversity preservation. The neutral model of biodiversity deals with ecosystems at the same trophic level, where per capita vital rates are assumed to be species independent. Closed-form analytical solutions for the neutral theory are obtained within a coarse-grained model, where the only input is the species persistence time distribution. Our results pertain to: the probability distribution function of the number of species in the ecosystem, both in transient and in stationary states; the n-point connected time correlation function; and the survival probability, defined as the distribution of time spans to local extinction for a species randomly sampled from the community. Analytical predictions are also tested on empirical data from an estuarine fish ecosystem. We find that emerging properties of the ecosystem are very robust and do not depend on specific details of the model, with implications for biodiversity and conservation biology.

  8. Evaluation of a two source snow-vegetation energy balance model for estimating surface energy fluxes in a rangeland ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of a two source snow-vegetation energy balance model for estimating surface energy fluxes is evaluated with field measurements at two sites in a rangeland ecosystem in southwestern Idaho during the winter of 2007: one site dominated by aspen vegetation and the other by sagebrush. Model ...

  9. Estimating riparian understory vegetation cover with beta regression and copula models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eskelson, Bianca N.I.; Madsen, Lisa; Hagar, Joan C.; Temesgen, Hailemariam

    2011-01-01

    Understory vegetation communities are critical components of forest ecosystems. As a result, the importance of modeling understory vegetation characteristics in forested landscapes has become more apparent. Abundance measures such as shrub cover are bounded between 0 and 1, exhibit heteroscedastic error variance, and are often subject to spatial dependence. These distributional features tend to be ignored when shrub cover data are analyzed. The beta distribution has been used successfully to describe the frequency distribution of vegetation cover. Beta regression models ignoring spatial dependence (BR) and accounting for spatial dependence (BRdep) were used to estimate percent shrub cover as a function of topographic conditions and overstory vegetation structure in riparian zones in western Oregon. The BR models showed poor explanatory power (pseudo-R2 ≤ 0.34) but outperformed ordinary least-squares (OLS) and generalized least-squares (GLS) regression models with logit-transformed response in terms of mean square prediction error and absolute bias. We introduce a copula (COP) model that is based on the beta distribution and accounts for spatial dependence. A simulation study was designed to illustrate the effects of incorrectly assuming normality, equal variance, and spatial independence. It showed that BR, BRdep, and COP models provide unbiased parameter estimates, whereas OLS and GLS models result in slightly biased estimates for two of the three parameters. On the basis of the simulation study, 93–97% of the GLS, BRdep, and COP confidence intervals covered the true parameters, whereas OLS and BR only resulted in 84–88% coverage, which demonstrated the superiority of GLS, BRdep, and COP over OLS and BR models in providing standard errors for the parameter estimates in the presence of spatial dependence.

  10. Modeling of sorption isotherms of dried vegetable wastes from wholesale market

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Iguaz, A.; Esnoz, A.; Virseda, P.

    2000-05-01

    The moisture sorption isotherms of dried vegetable wastes (based on green leaves and fruits) from wholesale market were determined at 25, 40, 60 and 90 C by the static gravimetric method. Experimental data were fit by using several mathematical models. The G.A.B. and the Halsey model gave the minimum mean square error. G.A.B. parameters were related with temperature by Arrhenius expressions.

  11. Vegetation controls on northern high latitude snow-albedo feedback: observations and CMIP5 model simulations.

    PubMed

    Loranty, Michael M; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-02-01

    The snow-masking effect of vegetation exerts strong control on albedo in northern high latitude ecosystems. Large-scale changes in the distribution and stature of vegetation in this region will thus have important feedbacks to climate. The snow-albedo feedback is controlled largely by the contrast between snow-covered and snow-free albedo (Δα), which influences predictions of future warming in coupled climate models, despite being poorly constrained at seasonal and century time scales. Here, we compare satellite observations and coupled climate model representations of albedo and tree cover for the boreal and Arctic region. Our analyses reveal consistent declines in albedo with increasing tree cover, occurring south of latitudinal tree line, that are poorly represented in coupled climate models. Observed relationships between albedo and tree cover differ substantially between snow-covered and snow-free periods, and among plant functional type. Tree cover in models varies widely but surprisingly does not correlate well with model albedo. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a relationship between tree cover and snow-albedo feedback that may be used to accurately constrain high latitude albedo feedbacks in coupled climate models under current and future vegetation distributions.

  12. Technique for assessing vegetation-induced moisture flux, with implications for global climate modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macari, Emir Jose

    1990-01-01

    The time between storms, the duration of storms, and the storm depths are studied in relation to vegetation controls on the disposition of rainfall. It is proposed that understanding the movement of water between the vegetation and soil (including evapotranspiration and infiltration) will be the gateway for modeling atmospheric flux and improving global climate models. The overall objective goal of the proposed research effort is to develop a field/lab methodology which will provide a better understanding of vegetation induced water movement. Water flow initiated from stem flow of wooded slopes feeds soil water pathways, which in turn feed the deeper ground water system and give rise to stream response. This is balanced by more water inputs via throughfall, where it percolates the soil matrix and allows much greater rates of evapotranspiration and atmospheric/soil moisture flux. This research study seeks to gain an understanding of the effect of vegetation on soil moisture, and the effect of this differential wetting on resulting evapotranspiration and atmospheric flux.

  13. Quantifying the Negative Feedback of Vegetation to Greenhouse Warming: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounous, L.; Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.; Kumar, A.; Collatz, G. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Imhoff, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Several climate models indicate that in a 2 x CO2 environment, temperature and precipitation would increase and runoff would increase faster than precipitation. These models, however, did not allow the vegetation to increase its leaf density as a response to the physiological effects of increased CO2 and consequent changes in climate. Other assessments included these interactions but did not account for the vegetation down-regulation to reduce plant's photosynthetic activity and as such resulted in a weak vegetation negative response. When we combine these interactions in climate simulations with 2 x CO2, the associated increase in precipitation contributes primarily to increase evapotranspiration rather than surface runoff, consistent with observations, and results in an additional cooling effect not fully accounted for in previous simulations with elevated CO2. By accelerating the water cycle, this feedback slows but does not alleviate the projected warming, reducing the land surface warming by 0.6 C. Compared to previous studies, these results imply that long term negative feedback from CO2-induced increases in vegetation density could reduce temperature following a stabilization of CO2 concentration.

  14. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  15. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate.

  16. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guangquan

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P < 0.10) to effect accuracy. Vegetation spatial structure (i.e., physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland

  17. Wildfire risk for main vegetation units in a biodiversity hotspot: modeling approach in New Caledonia, South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Mangeas, Morgan; Curt, Thomas; Ibanez, Thomas; Munzinger, Jérôme; Dumas, Pascal; Jérémy, André; Despinoy, Marc; Hély, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire has been recognized as one of the most ubiquitous disturbance agents to impact on natural environments. In this study, our main objective was to propose a modeling approach to investigate the potential impact of wildfire on biodiversity. The method is illustrated with an application example in New Caledonia where conservation and sustainable biodiversity management represent an important challenge. Firstly, a biodiversity loss index, including the diversity and the vulnerability indexes, was calculated for every vegetation unit in New Caledonia and mapped according to its distribution over the New Caledonian mainland. Then, based on spatially explicit fire behavior simulations (using the FLAMMAP software) and fire ignition probabilities, two original fire risk assessment approaches were proposed: a one-off event model and a multi-event burn probability model. The spatial distribution of fire risk across New Caledonia was similar for both indices with very small localized spots having high risk. The patterns relating to highest risk are all located around the remaining sclerophyll forest fragments and are representing 0.012% of the mainland surface. A small part of maquis and areas adjacent to dense humid forest on ultramafic substrates should also be monitored. Vegetation interfaces between secondary and primary units displayed high risk and should represent priority zones for fire effects mitigation. Low fire ignition probability in anthropogenic-free areas decreases drastically the risk. A one-off event associated risk allowed localizing of the most likely ignition areas with potential for extensive damage. Emergency actions could aim limiting specific fire spread known to have high impact or consist of on targeting high risk areas to limit one-off fire ignitions. Spatially explicit information on burning probability is necessary for setting strategic fire and fuel management planning. Both risk indices provide clues to preserve New Caledonia hot spot of

  18. Wildfire risk for main vegetation units in a biodiversity hotspot: modeling approach in New Caledonia, South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Céline; Mangeas, Morgan; Curt, Thomas; Ibanez, Thomas; Munzinger, Jérôme; Dumas, Pascal; Jérémy, André; Despinoy, Marc; Hély, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire has been recognized as one of the most ubiquitous disturbance agents to impact on natural environments. In this study, our main objective was to propose a modeling approach to investigate the potential impact of wildfire on biodiversity. The method is illustrated with an application example in New Caledonia where conservation and sustainable biodiversity management represent an important challenge. Firstly, a biodiversity loss index, including the diversity and the vulnerability indexes, was calculated for every vegetation unit in New Caledonia and mapped according to its distribution over the New Caledonian mainland. Then, based on spatially explicit fire behavior simulations (using the FLAMMAP software) and fire ignition probabilities, two original fire risk assessment approaches were proposed: a one-off event model and a multi-event burn probability model. The spatial distribution of fire risk across New Caledonia was similar for both indices with very small localized spots having high risk. The patterns relating to highest risk are all located around the remaining sclerophyll forest fragments and are representing 0.012% of the mainland surface. A small part of maquis and areas adjacent to dense humid forest on ultramafic substrates should also be monitored. Vegetation interfaces between secondary and primary units displayed high risk and should represent priority zones for fire effects mitigation. Low fire ignition probability in anthropogenic-free areas decreases drastically the risk. A one-off event associated risk allowed localizing of the most likely ignition areas with potential for extensive damage. Emergency actions could aim limiting specific fire spread known to have high impact or consist of on targeting high risk areas to limit one-off fire ignitions. Spatially explicit information on burning probability is necessary for setting strategic fire and fuel management planning. Both risk indices provide clues to preserve New Caledonia hot spot of

  19. Wildfire risk for main vegetation units in a biodiversity hotspot: modeling approach in New Caledonia, South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Mangeas, Morgan; Curt, Thomas; Ibanez, Thomas; Munzinger, Jérôme; Dumas, Pascal; Jérémy, André; Despinoy, Marc; Hély, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire has been recognized as one of the most ubiquitous disturbance agents to impact on natural environments. In this study, our main objective was to propose a modeling approach to investigate the potential impact of wildfire on biodiversity. The method is illustrated with an application example in New Caledonia where conservation and sustainable biodiversity management represent an important challenge. Firstly, a biodiversity loss index, including the diversity and the vulnerability indexes, was calculated for every vegetation unit in New Caledonia and mapped according to its distribution over the New Caledonian mainland. Then, based on spatially explicit fire behavior simulations (using the FLAMMAP software) and fire ignition probabilities, two original fire risk assessment approaches were proposed: a one-off event model and a multi-event burn probability model. The spatial distribution of fire risk across New Caledonia was similar for both indices with very small localized spots having high risk. The patterns relating to highest risk are all located around the remaining sclerophyll forest fragments and are representing 0.012% of the mainland surface. A small part of maquis and areas adjacent to dense humid forest on ultramafic substrates should also be monitored. Vegetation interfaces between secondary and primary units displayed high risk and should represent priority zones for fire effects mitigation. Low fire ignition probability in anthropogenic-free areas decreases drastically the risk. A one-off event associated risk allowed localizing of the most likely ignition areas with potential for extensive damage. Emergency actions could aim limiting specific fire spread known to have high impact or consist of on targeting high risk areas to limit one-off fire ignitions. Spatially explicit information on burning probability is necessary for setting strategic fire and fuel management planning. Both risk indices provide clues to preserve New Caledonia hot spot of

  20. Modeling the SHG activities of diverse protein crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haupert, Levi M.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2012-11-01

    The origins of the diversity in the SHG signal from protein crystals are investigated and potential protein-crystal coverage by SHG microscopy is assessed. A symmetry-additive ab initio model for second-harmonic generation (SHG) activity of protein crystals was applied to assess the likely protein-crystal coverage of SHG microscopy. Calculations were performed for 250 proteins in nine point-group symmetries: a total of 2250 crystals. The model suggests that the crystal symmetry and the limit of detection of the instrument are expected to be the strongest predictors of coverage of the factors considered, which also included secondary-structural content and protein size. Much of the diversity in SHG activity is expected to arise primarily from the variability in the intrinsic protein response as well as the orientation within the crystal lattice. Two or more orders-of-magnitude variation in intensity are expected even within protein crystals of the same symmetry. SHG measurements of tetragonal lysozyme crystals confirmed detection, from which a protein coverage of ∼84% was estimated based on the proportion of proteins calculated to produce SHG responses greater than that of tetragonal lysozyme. Good agreement was observed between the measured and calculated ratios of the SHG intensity from lysozyme in tetragonal and monoclinic lattices.

  1. Phreatophytic vegetation and groundwater fluctuations: a review of current research and application of ecosystem response modeling with an emphasis on great basin vegetation.

    PubMed

    Naumburg, Elke; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Hunter, Rachael G; McLendon, Terry; Martin, David W

    2005-06-01

    Although changes in depth to groundwater occur naturally, anthropogenic alterations may exacerbate these fluctuations and, thus, affect vegetation reliant on groundwater. These effects include changes in physiology, structure, and community dynamics, particularly in arid regions where groundwater can be an important water source for many plants. To properly manage ecosystems subject to changes in depth to groundwater, plant responses to both rising and falling groundwater tables must be understood. However, most research has focused exclusively on riparian ecosystems, ignoring regions where groundwater is available to a wider range of species. Here, we review responses of riparian and other species to changes in groundwater levels in arid environments. Although decreasing water tables often result in plant water stress and reduced live biomass, the converse is not necessarily true for rising water tables. Initially, rising water tables kill flooded roots because most species cannot tolerate the associated low oxygen levels. Thus, flooded plants can also experience water stress. Ultimately, individual species responses to either scenario depend on drought and flooding tolerance and the change in root system size and water uptake capacity. However, additional environmental and biological factors can play important roles in the severity of vegetation response to altered groundwater tables. Using the reviewed information, we created two conceptual models to highlight vegetation dynamics in areas with groundwater fluctuations. These models use flow charts to identify key vegetation and ecosystem properties and their responses to changes in groundwater tables to predict community responses. We then incorporated key concepts from these models into EDYS, a comprehensive ecosystem model, to highlight the potential complexity of predicting community change under different fluctuating groundwater scenarios. Such models provide a valuable tool for managing vegetation and

  2. Utilizing observations of vegetation patterns to infer ecosystem parameters and test model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, G.; Daniels, K. E.; Thompson, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Periodic vegetation patterns arise globally in arid and semi-arid environments, and are believed to indicate competing positive and negative feedbacks between resource availability and plant uptake at different length scales. The patterns have become the object of two separate research themes, one focusing on observation of ecosystem properties and vegetation morphology, and another focusing on the development of theoretical models and descriptions of pattern behavior. Given the growing body of work in both directions, there is a compelling need to unify both strands of research by bringing together observations of large-scale pattern morphology with predictions made by various models. Previous attempts have employed spectral analysis on pattern images and inverse modeling on one-dimensional transects of patterns images, yet have not made a concerted effort to rigorously confront predictions with observational data in two dimensions. This study makes the first steps towards unification, utilizing high resolution landscape-scale images of vegetation patterns over multiple years at five different locations, including Niger, Central Mexico, Baja California, Texas, and Australia. Initial analyses of the observed patterns reveal considerable departures from the idealized morphologies predicted by models. Pattern wavelengths, while clustered around a local average, vary through space and are frequently altered by pattern defects such as missing or broken bands. While often locally homogeneous, pattern orientation also varies through space, allowing the correlations between landscape features and changes in local pattern morphology to be explored. Stationarity of the pattern can then be examined by comparing temporal changes in morphology with local climatic fluctuations. Ultimately, by identifying homogeneous regions of coherent pattern, inversion approaches can be applied to infer model parameters and build links between observable pattern and landscape features and the

  3. Aboveground Biomass and Dynamics of Forest Attributes using LiDAR Data and Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V V L, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, biomass estimation for tropical forests has received much attention because of the fact that regional biomass is considered to be a critical input to climate change. Biomass almost determines the potential carbon emission that could be released to the atmosphere due to deforestation or conservation to non-forest land use. Thus, accurate biomass estimation is necessary for better understating of deforestation impacts on global warming and environmental degradation. In this context, forest stand height inclusion in biomass estimation plays a major role in reducing the uncertainty in the estimation of biomass. The improvement in the accuracy in biomass shall also help in meeting the MRV objectives of REDD+. Along with the precise estimate of biomass, it is also important to emphasize the role of vegetation models that will most likely become an important tool for assessing the effects of climate change on potential vegetation dynamics and terrestrial carbon storage and for managing terrestrial ecosystem sustainability. Remote sensing is an efficient way to estimate forest parameters in large area, especially at regional scale where field data is limited. LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests. We estimated average tree canopy heights and AGB from GLAS waveform parameters by using a multi-regression linear model in forested area of Madhya Pradesh (area-3,08,245 km2), India. The derived heights from ICESat-GLAS were correlated with field measured tree canopy heights for 60 plots. Results have shown a significant correlation of R2= 74% for top canopy heights and R2= 57% for stand biomass. The total biomass estimation 320.17 Mt and canopy heights are generated by using random forest algorithm. These canopy heights and biomass maps were used in vegetation models to predict the changes biophysical/physiological characteristics of forest according to the changing climate. In our study we have

  4. An ecohydrological model for studying groundwater-vegetation interactions in wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Low, Swee Yang; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2011-10-01

    SummaryDespite their importance to the natural environment, wetlands worldwide face drastic degradation from changes in land use and climatic patterns. To help preservation efforts and guide conservation strategies, a clear understanding of the dynamic relationship between coupled hydrology and vegetation systems in wetlands, and their responses to engineering works and climate change, is needed. An ecohydrological model was developed in this study to address this issue. The model combines a hydrology component based on the Richards' equation for characterizing variably saturated groundwater flow, with a vegetation component described by Lotka-Volterra equations tailored for plant growth. Vegetation is represented by two characteristic wetland herbaceous plant types which differ in their flood and drought resistances. Validation of the model on a study site in the Everglades demonstrated the capability of the model in capturing field-measured water table and transpiration dynamics. The model was next applied on a section of the Nee Soon swamp forest, a tropical wetland in Singapore, for studying the impact of possible drainage works on the groundwater hydrology and native vegetation. Drainage of 10 m downstream of the wetland resulted in a localized zone of influence within half a kilometer from the drainage site with significant adverse impacts on groundwater and biomass levels, indicating a strong need for conservation. Simulated water table-plant biomass relationships demonstrated the capability of the model in capturing the time-lag in biomass response to water table changes. To test the significance of taking plant growth into consideration, the performance of the model was compared to one that substituted the vegetation component with a pre-specified evapotranspiration rate. Unlike its revised counterpart, the original ecohydrological model explicitly accounted for the drainage-induced plant biomass decrease and translated the resulting reduced transpiration

  5. Scale-dependent performances of CMIP5 earth system models in simulating terrestrial vegetation carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Luo, Y.; Yan, Y.; Hararuk, O.

    2013-12-01

    Mitigation of global changes will depend on reliable projection for the future situation. As the major tools to predict future climate, Earth System Models (ESMs) used in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report have incorporated carbon cycle components, which account for the important fluxes of carbon between the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial biosphere carbon reservoirs; and therefore are expected to provide more detailed and more certain projections. However, ESMs are never perfect; and evaluating the ESMs can help us to identify uncertainties in prediction and give the priorities for model development. In this study, we benchmarked carbon in live vegetation in the terrestrial ecosystems simulated by 19 ESMs models from CMIP5 with an observationally estimated data set of global carbon vegetation pool 'Olson's Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: An Updated Database Using the GLC2000 Land Cover Product' by Gibbs (2006). Our aim is to evaluate the ability of ESMs to reproduce the global vegetation carbon pool at different scales and what are the possible causes for the bias. We found that the performance CMIP5 ESMs is very scale-dependent. While CESM1-BGC, CESM1-CAM5, CESM1-FASTCHEM and CESM1-WACCM, and NorESM1-M and NorESM1-ME (they share the same model structure) have very similar global sums with the observation data but they usually perform poorly at grid cell and biome scale. In contrast, MIROC-ESM and MIROC-ESM-CHEM simulate the best on at grid cell and biome scale but have larger differences in global sums than others. Our results will help improve CMIP5 ESMs for more reliable prediction.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern bifurcations in a model for vegetation stripes in semi-arid environments.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Jonathan A; Lord, Gabriel J

    2007-02-01

    In many semi-arid environments, vegetation is self-organised into spatial patterns. The most striking examples of this are on gentle slopes, where striped patterns are typical, running parallel to the contours. Previously, Klausmeier [1999. Regular and irregular patterns in semiarid vegetation. Science 284, 1826-1828.] has proposed a model for vegetation stripes based on competition for water. Here, we present a detailed study of the patterned solutions in the full nonlinear model, using numerical bifurcation analysis of both the pattern odes and the model pdes. We show that patterns exist for a wide range of rainfall levels, and in particular for much lower rainfall than have been considered by previous authors. Moreover, we show that for many rainfall levels, patterns with a variety of different wavelengths are stable, with mode selection dependent on initial conditions. This raises the possibility of hysteresis, and in numerical solutions of the model we show that pattern selection depends on rainfall history in a relatively simple way.

  7. Measuring and modeling water-related soil-vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.

    2014-03-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field-scale water balance. The objectives of this study are to test the potential of integrated non-invasive geophysical methods and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil-vegetation interaction on the water balance of fallow land at the local- and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during a controlled irrigation experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of ERT maps of soil moisture evidenced a considerably different hydrologic response to irrigation of the two plots. Local measurements of soil saturation and vegetation cover were repeated in space to evidence a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the fallow site.

  8. Measuring and modelling water related soil-vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Vignoli, G.; Boaga, J.

    2013-08-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objectives of this study are to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysical methods and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during a controlled irrigation experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of ERT maps of soil moisture evidenced a considerably different hydrologic response to irrigation of the two plots. Local measurements of soil saturation and vegetation cover were repeated in space to evidence a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the fallow site.

  9. [Estimation models of vegetation fractional coverage (VFC) based on remote sensing image at different radiometric correction levels].

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhu-Jun; Zeng, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Xue-Zheng; Yu, Dong-Sheng; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Long; Hu, Zi-Fu

    2008-06-01

    The images of post atmospheric correction reflectance (PAC), top of atmosphere reflectance (TOA), and digital number (DN) of a SPOT5 HRG remote sensing image of Nanjing, China were used to derive four vegetation indices (VIs), i. e., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI), and 36 VI-VFC relationship models were established based on these VIs and the VFC data obtained from ground measurement. The results showed that among the models established, the cubic polynomial models based on NDVI and TVI from PAC were the best, followed by those based on SAVI and MSAVI from DN, with the accuracy being slightly higher than that of the former two models when VFC > 0.8. The accuracy of these four models was higher in middle-densely vegetated areas (VFC = 0.4-0.8) than in sparsely vegetated areas (VFC = 0-0.4). All the established models could be used in other places via the introduction of calibration models. In VI-VFC modeling, using VIs derived from different radiometric correction levels of remote sensing image could help mining valuable information from remote sensing image, and thus, improving the accuracy of VFC estimation.

  10. Associations Between School Meals Offered Through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Burgess-Champoux, Teri; Haines, Jess; Hannan, Peter J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite evidence in support of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, national data indicate that FV consumption among school-aged children is below recommended levels, particularly among low-income children. School meals offered through the School Breakfast Program and National School Lunch Program can provide an important contribution to child FV intake. This study examines the proportion of fruits and vegetables consumed from school meals programs among ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status children. METHODS Participants (n = 103) included fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from 4 urban elementary schools in St. Paul, Minnesota serving primarily low-income populations. Research staff interviewed children during school hours and recorded dietary intake via 24-hour recall. Analysis included descriptive statistics using cross tabulations and means. RESULTS Average reported mean (SD) daily FV intake was 3.6 (2.5) servings, with 80% of children consuming fewer than 5 daily servings of FV. On average, children consumed over half of their daily FV intake within school. Children with low FV intake (<5 FV servings daily) consumed a higher proportion of their daily intake at school than children with higher FV intake (≥5 FV servings daily) (39% vs 59%; p = .002). CONCLUSIONS Child FV intake is below recommended levels. School meals provide an important contribution to the daily FV intake among ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status children, particularly among those with the lowest FV intake. School meals programs promoting FV intake within the school environment may provide an opportunity to encourage increased FV consumption. PMID:20840658

  11. Ecohydrological impacts of vegetation conversion from diverse sagebrush steppe to exotic grassland: insight from a long-term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germino, M. J.; Reinhardt, K.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most widespread landscape changes in the western US is conversion of rangelands from mixed woody-herbaceous to exotic grass cover types. We asked how hydrologic factors promote interconversion of these cover types, and how the interconversion in turn affects soil hydrology. These questions were evaluated using a unique study on the Idaho National Lab, in which the amount and timing of rainfall has been experimentally altered since 1993 by doubling annual precipitation in either summer or in the winter-dormant period, relative to unwatered control plots. Plots were planted with either a native mix of big sagebrush and associated perennials or with a monoculture of the exotic, invasive crested wheatgrass. These hydrology and vegetation treatments were further superimposed on a range of soil-types, including shallow (1-m depth) and deep (2-m depth) loams and deep soils that had buried cobble layers intended to exclude burrowing animals and act as capillary breaks (n=3, 64 m2 plot sizes). Plant cover was evaluated annually, and soil water was assessed biweekly using a neutron probe. Preliminary findings to 2011 suggest that plant cover was enhanced by supplemental precipitation and soil depth, and that seasonal timing of irrigation strongly affected shrub:herb abundances. Specifically, winter irrigation increased shrub cover where soils were deep, but, surprisingly, it decreased shrubs in shallow-soil plots. Our preliminary findings also suggest that soil water use was greater and deep infiltration was reduced on plots that had sagebrush and other natives compared to crested wheatgrass. Interestingly, deep infiltration appeared most reduced where summer irrigation was added, or where cobble layers were present. These findings indicate changes in vegetation abundance and species composition in response to altered hydroclimate that may act in the longer term to moderate soil hydrological responses, with important exceptions.

  12. Prokaryotes in salt marsh sediments of Ria de Aveiro: Effects of halophyte vegetation on abundance and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vanessa; Santos, Ana L.; Aguiar, Claúdia; Santos, Luisa; Salvador, Ângelo C.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Silva, Helena; Rocha, Sílvia M.; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of monospecific colonization of sediment stands by Spartina maritima or Halimione portulacoides on benthic prokaryote assemblages in a salt marsh located in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The distribution of Bacteria, Archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments with monospecific plant stands and in unvegetated sediments was characterized by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Total prokaryote abundance (0.4 × 109-1.7 × 109 cells gdw-1) was highest in sediments from the surface layer. The domain Bacteria comprised approximately 40% of total prokaryote communities with the highest percentages occurring in the surface layer. Archaeal cells corresponded to an average of 25% of total prokaryote population, with higher abundance in the vegetation banks, and displaying homogeneous vertical distribution. The relative abundance of SRB represented approximately 3% of total 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) stained cells at unvegetated sediment and H. portulacoides stand and 7% at S. maritima stand. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS) was used to analyse the volatile and semi-volatile fraction of root exudates. A total of 171 compounds were identified and Principal Component Analysis showed a clear separation between the chemical composition (volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds) of the exudates of the two plants. The patterns of vertical distribution and differences in the proportion of SRB and Archaea in the prokaryote communities developing in sediments colonized by Spartina maritima or Halimione portulacoides suggest the existence of plant-specific interactions between halophyte vegetation and estuarine sediment bacteria in Ria de Aveiro salt marshes, exerted via sediment lithology and root-derived exudates.

  13. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  14. [Prediction of PCBs uptake by vegetable in a representative area and evaluation of the human health risk by Trapp model].

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Po; Luo, Yong-Ming; Song, Jing; Teng, Ying; Chen, Yong-Shan

    2010-12-01

    Air, soil and vegetable samples were collected from an e-waste disassembly site and analyzed for characteristic contaminants PCBs. Based on the measured PCBs concentrations in soil and air, PCBs concentration in leafy vegetables was predicted by Trapp Model and the sources, composition of PCBs in vegetable and influencing factors were analyzed. By using human health risk assessment model of USEPA, risk to human health from consumption of vegetable that take up PCBs from environment was evaluated. The results showed that the Trapp Model could give good prediction of PCBs concentrations in leafy vegetables based on PCBs concentration in the soil and air. For instance, the measured sum of seven PCBs in vegetable was 51.2 microg x kg(-1) and the predicted value was 39.9 microg x kg(-1). So the predicted value agrees well with the measured value. The gaseous PCBs were the main source of PCBs in leafy vegetables, and the model predicting results indicated that the contribution rate was as high as 98.8%. The uptake pathway, n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) and the n-octanol/air partition coefficient (K(oa)) of PCBs determine the concentration and composition of PCBs in vegetables. The duration needed for PCBs uptake to reach equilibrium was in good correlation with lgK(ow) and lgK(oa). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that lgK(oa) was more important. Carcinogenic risk from consumption of PCBs contaminated vegetables was 10 000 times higher than that of gaseous PCBs, and the no-carcinogenic risk was increased by approximately 200 times. The main reasons are firstly the vegetables take up and accumulate more toxic PCBs with high-chloride substitutes and consequently the oral toxic factors of PCBs increase dramatically. Secondly, an adult takes 71 times more PCBs via consumption of vegetables than via inhalation of air.

  15. Climate-vegetation interactions in the coupled RegCM4 - CLM4.5 CNDV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, Luca; Giuliani, Graziano; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    We use the latest version of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) including a dynamic vegetation model to study biogeophysical feedbacks in the climate system related to vegetation composition and structure. Sets of parallel experiments are conducted over the Africa and South America CORDEX domains using the RegCM4-CLM4.5 in its standard configuration and with the CNDV activated (CLM 4.5 with both the Carbon Nitrogen and the Dynamic Vegetation Model activated). The potential role of regional vegetation feedbacks within the climate system and the impact of climate variability and change on the ecosystem dynamics is assessed for both domains. In addition, the sensitivity to initial vegetation conditions and different idealized climate forcings is investigated. Preliminary results show that the changes in the climate forcing can have substantial effects on the dynamics and evolution of different vegetation types over both domains, and that the vegetation coupling can have a substantial effect on the simulated regional climate regimes. Our results thus indicate on the one hand that climate change can have profound effects on the evolution of important ecosystems for the two regions, and on the other that vegetation dynamics can indeed affect the climate response at the regional scale.

  16. Evaluating the coupled vegetation-fire model, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE, against observed tropical forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, Allan; Forrest, Matthew; Werner, Christian; Steinkamp, Joerg; Hickler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Wildfire is a fundamental Earth System process. It is the most important disturbance worldwide in terms of area and variety of biomes affected; a major mechanism by which carbon is transferred from the land to the atmosphere (2-4 Pg per annum, equiv. 20-30% of global fossil fuel emissions over the last decade); and globally a significant source of particulate aerosols and trace greenhouse gases. Fire is also potentially important as a feedback in the climate system. If climate change favours more intense fire regimes, this would result in a net transfer of carbon from ecosystems to the atmosphere, as well as higher emissions, and under certain circumstances, increased troposphere ozone production- all contributing to positive climate-land surface feedbacks. Quantitative analysis of fire-vegetation-climate interactions has been held back until recently by a lack of consistent global data sets on fire, and by the underdeveloped state of dynamic vegetation-fire modelling. Dynamic vegetation-fire modelling is an essential part of our forecasting armory for examining the possible impacts of climate, fire regimes and land-use on ecosystems and emissions from biomass burning beyond the observation period, as part of future climate or paleo-climate studies. LPJ-GUESS is a process-based model of vegetation dynamics designed for regional to global applications. It combines features of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) with those of the General Ecosystem Simulator (GUESS) in a single, flexible modelling framework. The models have identical representations of eco-physiological and biogeochemical processes, including the hydrological cycle. However, they differ in the detail with which vegetation dynamics and canopy structure are simulated. Simplified, computationally efficient representations are used in the LPJ-DGVM, while LPJ-GUESS employs a gap-model approach, which better captures ecological succession and hence ecosystem changes due to

  17. Glacial and Holocene climates of Australia reconstructed by vegetation-model inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S. P.; Willis, K.; Wang, H.; Herbert, A.; Prentice, I. C.

    2013-12-01

    We present reconstructions of temperature and moisture variables for Australia at key periods in the last glacial and the Holocene. The reconstructions were made by inversion of a simple, semi-empirical plant-functional type (PFT) based vegetation model developed using a Process-Oriented Niche Specification (PONS) approach, which makes it possible to take into account the effect of changing orbital parameters and CO2 concentration on plant water relations and therefore on the climatic implications of observed vegetation shifts. The data are PFT abundance ';scores' derived from site-based pollen assemblages in nearly 2000 records. The procedure used to calculate these scores involves assigning all living taxa that could contribute to a given pollen taxon to PFTs (independently, based on major plant traits), and using Bayes' theorem to re-allocate the share of the pollen sum represented by ';ambiguous' taxa to the different PFTs they could represent, given information on the other taxa present. In each case the vegetation model was run with a large set of alternative climates corresponding to systematic perturbations around the modern climate. The reconstructed anomaly of each climate variable is the difference between the best-fit climate (for which the dissimilarity between the modelled and observed profile of PFT scores is a minimum) and the modern climate at the site. This minimum is identified by fitting a second-degree polynomial surface to the dissimilarity values as a function of climate variables. The method also allows the assignment of a confidence interval using the second derivative of the fitted surface. We demonstrate that this inversion technique reproduces modern climates from surface samples collected at the fossil pollen sites, with only modest uncertainties, implying that the reconstructions are plausible. This work provides the first quantitative reconstructions of climate changes across Australia over the last glacial-interglacial cycle, and

  18. A seed-diffusion model for tropical tree diversity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsi, A.; Néda, Z.

    2012-10-01

    Diversity patterns of tree species in a tropical forest community are approached by a simple lattice model and investigated by Monte Carlo simulations using a backtracking method. Our spatially explicit neutral model is based on a simple statistical physics process, namely the diffusion of seeds. The model has three parameters: the speciation rate, the size of the meta-community in which the studied tree-community is embedded, and the average surviving time of the seeds. By extensive computer simulations we aim towards the reproduction of relevant statistical measures derived from the experimental data of the Barro Colorado Island tree census in 1995. The first two parameters of the model are fixed to known values, characteristic of the studied community, thus obtaining a model with only one freely adjustable parameter. As a result of this, the average number of species in the considered territory, the relative species abundance distribution, the species-area relationship and the spatial auto-correlation function of the individuals in abundant species are simultaneously fitted with only one parameter which is the average surviving time of the seeds.

  19. Beyond the zebrafish: diverse fish species for modeling human disease

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, zebrafish, and to a lesser extent medaka, have become widely used small animal models for human diseases. These organisms have convincingly demonstrated the usefulness of fish for improving our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to pathological conditions, and for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite the usefulness of zebrafish and medaka in the investigation of a wide spectrum of traits, there is evidence to suggest that other fish species could be better suited for more targeted questions. With the emergence of new, improved sequencing technologies that enable genomic resources to be generated with increasing efficiency and speed, the potential of non-mainstream fish species as disease models can now be explored. A key feature of these fish species is that the pathological condition that they model is often related to specific evolutionary adaptations. By exploring these adaptations, new disease-causing and disease-modifier genes might be identified; thus, diverse fish species could be exploited to better understand the complexity of disease processes. In addition, non-mainstream fish models could allow us to study the impact of environmental factors, as well as genetic variation, on complex disease phenotypes. This Review will discuss the opportunities that such fish models offer for current and future biomedical research. PMID:24271780

  20. Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Alatalo, Juha M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden. We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory. We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the canopy level, and significant decreases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs in the canopy layer and lichens in the understory. Proximity also had a significant negative impact on species richness of lichens. However, there were no significant changes in species richness, diversity or evenness of distribution in the canopy or understory with proximity to the trail. While not significant, liverworts, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous bryophytes tended to have contrasting abundance patterns with differing proximity to the trail, indicating that trampling may cause shifts in dominance hierarchies of different groups of bryophytes. Due to the decrease in understory cover, the abundance of litter, rock and soil increased with proximity to the trail. These results demonstrate that low-frequency human trampling in alpine heaths over long periods can have major negative impacts on lichen abundance and species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that trampling can decrease species richness of lichens. It emphasises the importance of including species-level data on non-vascular plants when conducting studies in alpine or tundra ecosystems, since they often make up the majority of species and play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and response in many of these extreme environments.

  1. Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Alatalo, Juha M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden. We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory. We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the canopy level, and significant decreases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs in the canopy layer and lichens in the understory. Proximity also had a significant negative impact on species richness of lichens. However, there were no significant changes in species richness, diversity or evenness of distribution in the canopy or understory with proximity to the trail. While not significant, liverworts, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous bryophytes tended to have contrasting abundance patterns with differing proximity to the trail, indicating that trampling may cause shifts in dominance hierarchies of different groups of bryophytes. Due to the decrease in understory cover, the abundance of litter, rock and soil increased with proximity to the trail. These results demonstrate that low-frequency human trampling in alpine heaths over long periods can have major negative impacts on lichen abundance and species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that trampling can decrease species richness of lichens. It emphasises the importance of including species-level data on non-vascular plants when conducting studies in alpine or tundra ecosystems, since they often make up the majority of species and play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and response in many of these extreme environments. PMID:25774335

  2. Landscape evolution in tidal embayments: Modeling the interplay of erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, Andrea; Lanzoni, Stefano; Marani, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    We propose an ecomorphodynamic model which conceptualizes the chief land-forming processes operating on the intertwined, long-term evolution of marsh platforms and embedded tidal networks. The rapid network incision (previously addressed by the authors) is decoupled from the geomorphological dynamics of intertidal areas, governed by sediment erosion and deposition and crucially affected by the presence of vegetation. This allows us to investigate the response of tidal morphologies to different scenarios of sediment supply, colonization by halophytes, and changing sea level. Different morphological evolutionary regimes are shown to depend on marsh ecology. Marsh accretion rates, enhanced by vegetation growth, and the related platform elevations tend to decrease with distance from the creek, measured along suitably defined flow paths. The negative feedback between surface elevation and its inorganic accretion rate is reinforced by the relation between plant productivity and soil elevation in Spartina-dominated marshes and counteracted by positive feedbacks in multispecies-vegetated marshes. When evolving under constant sea level, unvegetated and Spartina-dominated marshes asymptotically tend to mean high water level (MHWL), different from multiple vegetation species marshes, which can make the evolutionary transition to upland. Equilibrium configurations below MHWL can be reached under constant rates of sea level rise, depending on sediment supply and vegetation productivity. Our analyses on marine regressions and transgressions show that when the system is in a supply-limited regime, network retreat and expansion (associated with regressions and transgressions, respectively) tend to be cyclic. Conversely, in a transport-limited regime, network reexpansion following a regression tends to take on a new configuration, showing a hysteretic behavior.

  3. Physically-based modeling of drag force caused by natural woody vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvelä, J.; Aberle, J.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian areas and floodplains are characterized by woody vegetation, which is an essential feature to be accounted for in many hydro-environmental models. For applications including flood protection, river restoration and modelling of sediment processes, there is a need to improve the reliability of flow resistance estimates. Conventional methods such as the use of lumped resistance coefficients or simplistic cylinder-based drag force equations can result in significant errors, as these methods do not adequately address the effect of foliage and reconfiguration of flexible plant parts under flow action. To tackle the problem, physically-based methods relying on objective and measurable vegetation properties are advantageous for describing complex vegetation. We have conducted flume and towing tank investigations with living and artificial plants, both in arrays and with isolated plants, providing new insight into advanced parameterization of natural vegetation. The stem, leaf and total areas of the trees confirmed to be suitable characteristic dimensions for estimating flow resistance. Consequently, we propose the use of leaf area index and leaf-to-stem-area ratio to achieve better drag force estimates. Novel remote sensing techniques including laser scanning have become available for effective collection of the required data. The benefits of the proposed parameterization have been clearly demonstrated in our newest experimental studies, but it remains to be investigated to what extent the parameter values are species-specific and how they depend on local habitat conditions. The purpose of this contribution is to summarize developments in the estimation of vegetative drag force based on physically-based approaches as the latest research results are somewhat dispersed. In particular, concerning woody vegetation we seek to discuss three issues: 1) parameterization of reconfiguration with the Vogel exponent; 2) advantage of parameterizing plants with the leaf area

  4. Simulating Regional Dynamic Vegetation and Water Resources with Coupled Biophysical and Hydrologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change, population growth, biofuel production, and a host of other global forces are driving alterations of agricultural production worldwide, with little comprehensive understanding of the impacts these changes will have on water resources. While plot-scale soil-plant-water interactions have been intensively studied and simulated for decades, few tools are available to quantify watershed-to-basin scale impacts of shifting agricultural production systems. A recent class of fully-distributed models that simulate the complete terrestrial hydrologic cycle are well suited for fine-resolution, basin-scale studies. Here we present the first coupling of such a model, the Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model (ILHM), with a dynamic vegetation/crop growth model, the Systems Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) model. The coupled SALUS-ILHM code was first tested for a series of plots with both intensively monitored agricultural and natural land uses in Michigan. We then simulate a regional watershed in Michigan under current and statistically-downscaled forecast climate to demonstrate the capabilities of the coupled models and validate their performance. Model-predicted leaf area index (LAI) and agricultural yields are compared to remotely-sensed and county-aggregate statistics, respectively. Impacts of explicitly simulating vegetation and root growth on hydrologic model performance are presented. Preliminary climate change forecast scenarios indicate significant alterations to Michigan’s hydrologic and agroecological systems, including longer growing seasons, altered yields for current-generation crops, reduced seasonal snowpacks, and lower summer stream flows.

  5. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i) modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii) evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii) gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH) model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981-2006 (R2 > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient > 0.52). The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences < 15%) with observed values for these rivers. Compared to a degree-day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt enabled LH to better simulate monthly

  6. Landscape evolution in tidal embayments: modeling the interplay of erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2006-12-01

    Modeling the long-term landscape evolution of tidal embayments requires a holistic eco-geomorphological approach to incorporate the description of the delicate balance and strong feedbacks characterizing hydrodinamic and sediment transport processes on the one hand, and ecological dynamics on the other. In order to address issues of conservation of these delicate systems and predict their future fate we have set up a process-based eco-morphodynamic model which conceptualizes the chief landforming processes operating on the intertwined, long-term evolution of marsh platforms and tidal networks cutting through them. Such a model is aimed at improving our understanding of the main processes shaping the geomorphological and biological characters of the tidal landscape. Based on observational evidence indicating the existence of different time scales governing the various landscape-forming processes, the model decouples the initial rapid network incision from its subsequent slower elaboration and from the eco-morphological evolution of intertidal areas, governed by sediment erosion and deposition and crucially affected by the presence of vegetation. This allows us to investigate the response of tidal morphologies to different scenarios of sediment supply, colonization by halophytes and changing sea level. Different morphological evolutionary regimes are shown to depend on marsh ecology. Marsh accretion rates, enhanced by vegetation growth, and the related platform elevations are found to decrease with distance from the creek, measured along suitably defined flow paths. The negative feedback between surface elevation and its inorganic accretion rate is reinforced by the relation between plant productivity and soil elevation in Spartina-dominated marshes, whereas counteracted by positive feedbacks in marshes populated by a variety of vegetation species. When evolving under constant sea level, unvegetated and Spartina-dominated marshes asymptotically tend to mean high

  7. Uncertainties in modelling CH4 emissions from northern wetlands in glacial climates: the role of vegetation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrittella, C.; van Huissteden, J.

    2011-10-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) interstadials are marked by a sharp increase in the atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration, as recorded in ice cores. Wetlands are assumed to be the major source of this CH4, although several other hypotheses have been advanced. Modelling of CH4 emissions is crucial to quantify CH4 sources for past climates. Vegetation effects are generally highly generalized in modelling past and present-day CH4 fluxes, but should not be neglected. Plants strongly affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and the net primary production of the vegetation supplies organic matter as substrate for methanogens. For modelling past CH4 fluxes from northern wetlands, assumptions on vegetation are highly relevant since paleobotanical data indicate large differences in Last Glacial (LG) wetland vegetation composition as compared to modern wetland vegetation. Besides more cold-adapted vegetation, Sphagnum mosses appear to be much less dominant during large parts of the LG than at present, which particularly affects CH4 oxidation and transport. To evaluate the effect of vegetation parameters, we used the PEATLAND-VU wetland CO2/CH4 model to simulate emissions from wetlands in continental Europe during LG and modern climates. We tested the effect of parameters influencing oxidation during plant transport (fox), vegetation net primary production (NPP, parameter symbol Pmax), plant transport rate (Vtransp), maximum rooting depth (Zroot) and root exudation rate (fex). Our model results show that modelled CH4 fluxes are sensitive to fox and Zroot in particular. The effects of Pmax, Vtransp and fex are of lesser relevance. Interactions with water table modelling are significant for Vtransp. We conducted experiments with different wetland vegetation types for Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) stadial and interstadial climates and the present-day climate, by coupling PEATLAND-VU to high resolution climate model simulations for Europe. Experiments assuming dominance of

  8. Application of a plane-stratified emission model to predict the effects of vegetation in passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Chawn Harlow, R.; Burke, E. J.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    This paper reports the application to vegetation canopies of a coherent model for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through a stratified medium. The resulting multi-layer vegetation model is plausibly realistic in that it recognises the dielectric permittivity of the vegetation matter, the mixing of the dielectric permittivities for vegetation and air within the canopy and, in simplified terms, the overall vertical distribution of dielectric permittivity and temperature through the canopy. Any sharp changes in the dielectric profile of the canopy resulted in interference effects manifested as oscillations in the microwave brightness temperature as a function of canopy height or look angle. However, when Gaussian broadening of the top and bottom of the canopy (reflecting the natural variability between plants) was included within the model, these oscillations were eliminated. The model parameters required to specify the dielectric profile within the canopy, particularly the parameters that quantify the dielectric mixing between vegetation and air in the canopy, are not usually available in typical field experiments. Thus, the feasibility of specifying these parameters using an advanced single-criterion, multiple-parameter optimisation technique was investigated by automatically minimizing the difference between the modelled and measured brightness temperatures. The results imply that the mixing parameters can be so determined but only if other parameters that specify vegetation dry matter and water content are measured independently. The new model was then applied to investigate the sensitivity of microwave emission to specific vegetation parameters.

  9. WC WAVE - Integrating Diverse Hydrological-Modeling Data and Services Into an Interoperable Geospatial Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Baros, S.; Barrett, H.; Savickas, J.; Erickson, J.

    2015-12-01

    WC WAVE (Western Consortium for Watershed Analysis, Visualization and Exploration) is a collaborative research project between the states of Idaho, Nevada, and New Mexico that is funded under the National Science Foundation's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). The goal of the project is to understand and document the effects of climate change on interactions between precipitation, vegetation growth, soil moisture and other landscape properties. These interactions are modeled within a framework we refer to as a virtual watershed (VW), a computer infrastructure that simulates watershed dynamics by linking scientific modeling, visualization, and data management components into a coherent whole. Developed and hosted at the Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico, the virtual watershed has a number of core functions which include: a) streamlined access to data required for model initialization and boundary conditions; b) the development of analytic scenarios through interactive visualization of available data and the storage of model configuration options; c) coupling of hydrological models through the rapid assimilation of model outputs into the data management system for access and use by sequent models. The WC-WAVE virtual watershed accomplishes these functions by provision of large-scale vector and raster data discovery, subsetting, and delivery via Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and REST web service standards. Central to the virtual watershed is the design and use of an innovative array of metadata elements that permits the stepwise coupling of diverse hydrological models (e.g. ISNOBAL, PRMS, CASiMiR) and input data to rapidly assess variation in outcomes under different climatic conditions. We present details on the architecture and functionality of the virtual watershed, results from three western U.S. watersheds, and discuss the realized benefits to watershed science of employing this integrated solution.

  10. Nitrogen feedbacks increase future terrestrial ecosystem carbon uptake in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wårlind, D.; Smith, B.; Hickler, T.; Arneth, A.

    2014-11-01

    Recently a considerable amount of effort has been put into quantifying how interactions of the carbon and nitrogen cycle affect future terrestrial carbon sinks. Dynamic vegetation models, representing the nitrogen cycle with varying degree of complexity, have shown diverging constraints of nitrogen dynamics on future carbon sequestration. In this study, we use LPJ-GUESS, a dynamic vegetation model employing a detailed individual- and patch-based representation of vegetation dynamics, to evaluate how population dynamics and resource competition between plant functional types, combined with nitrogen dynamics, have influenced the terrestrial carbon storage in the past and to investigate how terrestrial carbon and nitrogen dynamics might change in the future (1850 to 2100; one representative "business-as-usual" climate scenario). Single-factor model experiments of CO2 fertilisation and climate change show generally similar directions of the responses of C-N interactions, compared to the C-only version of the model as documented in previous studies using other global models. Under an RCP 8.5 scenario, nitrogen limitation suppresses potential CO2 fertilisation, reducing the cumulative net ecosystem carbon uptake between 1850 and 2100 by 61%, and soil warming-induced increase in nitrogen mineralisation reduces terrestrial carbon loss by 31%. When environmental changes are considered conjointly, carbon sequestration is limited by nitrogen dynamics up to the present. However, during the 21st century, nitrogen dynamics induce a net increase in carbon sequestration, resulting in an overall larger carbon uptake of 17% over the full period. This contrasts with previous results with other global models that have shown an 8 to 37% decrease in carbon uptake relative to modern baseline conditions. Implications for the plausibility of earlier projections of future terrestrial C dynamics based on C-only models are discussed.

  11. From Dynamic Global Vegetation Modelling to Real-World regional and local Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, J.; Forrest, M.; Kamm, K.; Leiblein-Wild, M.; Pachzelt, A.; Werner, C.; Hickler, T.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic (global) vegetation models (DGVM) can be applied to any spatial resolution on the local, national, continental and global scale given suitable climatic and geographic input forcing data. LPJ-GUESS, the main DGVM applied in our research group, uses the plant functional type (PFT) concept in the global setup with typically about 10-20 tree PFTs (subdivided into tropical, temperate and boreal) and two herbaceous PFTs by default. When modelling smaller spatial extents, such as continental (e.g. Europe/North America) national domains, or individual sites (e.g. Frankfurt, Germany), i.e. the scale of decision making, it becomes necessary to refine the PFT representation, the model initialization and validation and, in some case, to include additional processes. I will present examples of LPJ-GUESS applications at the continental to local scale performed by our working group including i.) a European simulation representing the main tree species and Mediterranean shrubs, ii.) a climate impact study for Turkey, iii.) coupled dynamic large grazer-vegetation modelling across Africa and, iv.) modelling an allergenic and in Europe invasive shrub (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), iv.) simulating water usage by an oak-pine forest stand near Frankfurt, and v.) stand specific differences in modelling at the FACE sites. Finally, I will present some thoughts on how to advance the models in terms of more detailed and realistic PFT or species parameterizations accounting for adaptive functional trait responses also within species.

  12. Vegetation monitoring and estimation of evapotranspiration using remote sensing-based models in heterogeneous areas with patchy natural vegetation and crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, Elisabet; Andreu, Ana; Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria P.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of remotely sensed data into models for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) has increased significantly in recent years, allowing the extension of these models application from point to regional scale. Remote sensors provide distributed information about the status of vegetation and allow for a regular monitoring of water consumption. Currently, there are two types of approaches for estimating ET based either on the soil water balance, or surface energy balance. The first one uses the reflectance of vegetated surfaces in the visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (VIS / NIR) to characterize the vegetation and its role in the water balance (Gonzalez-Dugo and Mateos, 2008). On the other hand, thermal-based energy balance models use the radiometric surface temperature registered by the sensor on thermal infrared (TIR) bands as the primary boundary condition for estimating ET (Kustas and Norman, 1996). The aim of this work is to carry out, using Landsat-8 satellite images, a continuous monitoring of growth and evapotranspiration of the different vegetation types, both natural and cultivated, in a region located in Southern Spain during the season August 2013 / September 2014. The region, with about 13800 ha, is marked by strong contrasts in the physical environment, with significant altitudinal gradient combined with a great variety of soil types and vegetation. It is characterized by a variation of grassland, scrubs, conifers, oaks and irrigated crops. In this work, a daily soil water balance has been applied using the vegetation index-basal crop coefficient approach (RSWB). This model is based on FAO-56 methodology (Allen et al., 1998), which determines the evapotranspiration of vegetation with the concepts of crop coefficient and reference ET. The crop coefficient accounts for the influence of the plants on the evapotranspiration, considering the effect of changes in canopy biophysical properties throughout the growth cycle

  13. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  14. Models of interacting supernovae and their spectral diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Audit, Edouard; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni

    2016-05-01

    Using radiation hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we explore the origin of the spectral diversity of interacting supernovae (SNe) of Type IIn. We revisit SN 1994W and investigate the dynamical configurations that can give rise to spectra with narrow lines at all times. We find that a standard ˜10 M⊙ 1051 erg SN ejecta ramming into a 0.4 M⊙ dense circumstellar material is inadequate for SN 1994W, as it leads to the appearance of broad lines at late times. This structure, however, generates spectra that exhibit the key morphological changes seen in SN 1998S. For SN 1994W, we consider a completely different configuration, which involves the interaction at a large radius of a low-mass inner shell with a high-mass outer shell. Such a structure may arise in an 8-12 M⊙ star from a nuclear flash (e.g. of Ne) followed within a few years by core collapse. Our simulations show that the large mass of the outer shell leads to the complete braking of the inner shell material, the formation of a slow dense shell, and the powering of a luminous SN IIn, even for a low inner shell energy. Early on, our model line profiles are typical of SNe IIn, exhibiting narrow cores and broad electron-scattering wings. As observed in SN 1994W, they also remain narrow at late times. Our SN 1994W model invokes two low-energy ejections, both atypical of observed massive stars, and illustrates the diversity of configurations leading to SNe IIn. These results also highlight the importance of spectra to constrain the dynamical properties and understand the origin of SNe IIn.

  15. Analyzing savannah vegetation phenology with remotely sensed data, lagged time-series models and phenopictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boke-Olén, Niklas; Lehsten, Veiko; Ardö, Jonas; Eklundh, Lars; Holst, Thomas; Beringer, Jason; Veenendaal, Elmar; Tagesson, Torbern

    2016-04-01

    It is predicted that savannah regions will see changes in precipitation patterns due to current climate change projections. The change will most likely affect leaf phenology which controls net primary production. It is therefore important to; 1) study those changes and its drivers, 2) to be able to correctly model the changes to vegetation phenology due to climate change. To our knowledge there is no existing global savannah phenology model that can capture both the phenological events and the vegetation state between the events. We therefore, investigate how day length, mean annual precipitation and soil moisture affects and controls the vegetation phenology of savannahs (using MODIS NDVI as a proxy for phenological state) with a lagged time series model for global application. We furthermore use phenological pictures (phenopictures) to investigate savannah tree and grass phenology. Phenopictures are pictures taken with a digital time-lapse camera with the purpose of recording and studying phenological events. We used climate data from 15 flux towers sites located in 4 continents together with normalized difference vegetation index from MODIS for the model development. Two of the sites located in Africa were further analyzed using phenopictures. The developed model identified all three considered variables as usable for modelling of savannah leaf phenology but showed some inconsistent result for some of the sites indicating the difficulties in creating a simple common model that works equally well across sites. We attribute some of these difficulties to site specific differences (e.g. grazing or tree and grass ratio) that the simplified model did not consider. But we expect it to on average give the cross-validated result (r2= 0.6, RMSE = 0.1) when applied to other savannah areas. The preliminary analysis of the phenological pictures with respect to tree and grass to some extent support this by showing differences in the start of the leaves development in the

  16. Global Mapping of Vegetation Composition and Fractional Cover using Mixing Models, Progress, Prospects and Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) has become an increasingly important analysis tool for working with hyperspectral data. Applications include mapping photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation fractional cover, plant species identification, inputs into land-cover classification, change detection and biophysical retrievals, such as mapping wildfire fuel condition. In this talk, I provide an overview of SMA, discussing the two main classes of mixture models, non-linear (intimate) and linear (checker-board), endmember identification approaches and sources of endmember variability. Each topic is supported by examples drawn from remote sensing studies, including mapping fractional vegetation cover, plant species identification in natural and urban ecosystems and wildfire fuel condition mapping. Key challenges discussed include potential impacts of Near-Infrared multiple scattering and non-linear mixing, needed strategies for building globally applicable spectral libraries, and on-going challenges in endmember selection. I conclude with a discussion of the potential of the NASA proposed Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (HyspIRI) mission.

  17. Large-Scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate and its Relation to Climate - Remote Sensing vs. Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhais, N.; Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Forkel, M.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Tum, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    While vegetation productivity is known to be strongly correlated to climate, there is a need for an improved understanding of the underlying processes of vegetation carbon turnover and their importance at a global scale. This shortcoming has been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which we recently have been able to overcome by a biomass dataset covering northern boreal and temperate forests originating from radar remote sensing. Based on state-of-the-art products on biomass and NPP, we are for the first time able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests. The implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current global vegetation models. In contrast to our observation-based findings, investigated models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well to observation-based NPP, simulated vegetation carbon stocks are severely biased compared to our biomass dataset. Current limitations lead to considerable uncertainties in the estimated vegetation carbon turnover, contributing substantially to the forest feedback to climate change. Our results are the basis for improving mortality concepts in global vegetation models and estimating their impact on the land carbon balance.

  18. Modeling wave effects on limits of woody vegetation in Catahoula Lake, LA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. L.; Curcic, M.; Keim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to water waves in lakes is an important control on the structure and distribution of both submerged and shoreline vegetative communities. Wave exposure incident on the shoreline limits the distribution of shrubs on both lake and coastal margins by preventing establishment of seedlings via bed disturbance and uprooting. The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between bed stress due to wave action and the spatial distribution of woody seedling establishment in Catahoula Lake, Louisiana, USA. The lake bed consists of a broad, seasonally inundated flat bordered by a band of woody shrubs. Annual summer de-watering of the lake allows the lake bed to support a moist-soil herbaceous vegetation community, but recent encroachment by woody shrubs over the past ~70 years threatens ecosystem conversion. We use the University of Miami Wave Model (UMWM) to simulate surface wave evolution and bed shear stress for a range of dominant wind conditions and water levels. UMWM is a 3rdgeneration ocean wave model that solves the wave energy balance equation given wind forcing input. While the model has been previously validated in deep water and coastal ocean applications, this study validates the model in very shallow water where bed-induced wave dissipation is a significant process. Model results show that waves of sufficient energy to prevent establishment or to uproot seedlings are common in areas of the lake that are experiencing the least woody encroachment. Areas of the lake bed that are experiencing encroachment are often sheltered from the strongest waves due to the lakes orientation with respect to dominant winds and prior establishment of woody growth, which dissipates wave energy significantly. Results are consistent with some otherwise-unexplained conditions at the lake such as spatially inconsistent relationships between elevation and vegetation communities. We use model results to investigate feedbacks between woody encoachment (both new and

  19. Climate-vegetation modelling and fossil plant data suggest low atmospheric CO2 in the late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Eronen, J. T.; Utescher, T.; Knorr, G.; Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.; Hickler, T.

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing need to understand the pre-Quaternary warm climates, how climate-vegetation interactions functioned in the past, and how we can use this information for understanding the present. Here we report vegetation modelling results for the Late Miocene (11-7 Ma) to study the mechanisms of vegetation dynamics and the role of different forcing factors that influence the spatial patterns of vegetation coverage. One of the key uncertainties is the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during past climates. Estimates for the last 20 million years range from 280 to 500 ppm. We simulated Late Miocene vegetation using two plausible CO2 concentrations, 280 and 450 ppm CO2, with a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) driven by climate input from a coupled AOGCM (Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model). The simulated vegetation was compared to existing plant fossil data for the whole Northern Hemisphere. For the comparison we developed a novel approach that uses information of the relative dominance of different Plant Functional Types (PFTs) in the palaeobotanical data to provide a quantitative estimate of the agreement between the simulated and reconstructed vegetation. Based on this quantitative assessment we find that pre-industrial CO2 levels are largely consistent with the presence of seasonal temperate forests in Europe (suggested by fossil data) and open vegetation in North America (suggested by multiple lines of evidence). This suggests that during the Late Miocene the CO2 levels have been relatively low, or that other factors that are not included in the models maintained the seasonal temperate forests and open vegetation.

  20. Climate-vegetation modelling and fossil plant data suggest low atmospheric CO2 in the late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Eronen, J. T.; Utescher, T.; Knorr, G.; Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.; Hickler, T.

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing need to understand the pre-Quaternary warm climates, how climate-vegetation interactions functioned in the past, and how we can use this information to understand the present. Here we report vegetation modelling results for the Late Miocene (11-7 Ma) to study the mechanisms of vegetation dynamics and the role of different forcing factors that influence the spatial patterns of vegetation coverage. One of the key uncertainties is the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during past climates. Estimates for the last 20 million years range from 280 to 500 ppm. We simulated Late Miocene vegetation using two plausible CO2 concentrations, 280 ppm CO2 and 450 ppm CO2, with a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) driven by climate input from a coupled AOGCM (Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model). The simulated vegetation was compared to existing plant fossil data for the whole Northern Hemisphere. For the comparison we developed a novel approach that uses information of the relative dominance of different plant functional types (PFTs) in the palaeobotanical data to provide a quantitative estimate of the agreement between the simulated and reconstructed vegetation. Based on this quantitative assessment we find that pre-industrial CO2 levels are largely consistent with the presence of seasonal temperate forests in Europe (suggested by fossil data) and open vegetation in North America (suggested by multiple lines of evidence). This suggests that during the Late Miocene the CO2 levels have been relatively low, or that other factors that are not included in the models maintained the seasonal temperate forests and open vegetation.

  1. Modeling Laser Altimeter Return Waveforms Over Complex Vegetation Using High-Resolution Elevation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    The upcoming generation of laser altimeters record the interaction of emitted laser radiation with terrestrial surfaces in the form of a digitized waveform. We model these laser altimeter return waveforms as the sum of the reflections from individual surfaces within laser footprints, accounting for instrument-specific properties. We compare over 1000 modeled and recorded waveform pairs using the Pearson correlation. We show that we reliably synthesize the vertical structure information for vegetation canopies contained in a medium-large diameter laser footprint from a high-resolution elevation data set.

  2. Understanding barriers and facilitators of fruit and vegetable consumption among a diverse multi-ethnic population in the USA.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Ickes, Scott B; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Shuval, Kerem; Ammerman, Alice S; Farris, Rosanne; Katz, David L

    2008-03-01

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers, reduced morbidity and mortality from heart disease, and enhanced weight management. Yet to date, most of the US population does not consume the recommended amount of F&V despite numerous interventions and government guidelines to promote consumption. Research has found various impediments to F&V consumption, such as high costs, an obesogenic environment and low socio-economic status. However, studies have not sufficiently focused on barriers and enablers to F&V intake among adult multi-ethnic populations. The present qualitative study examines 147 focus group participants' perceptions of impediments and enablers to F&V consumption. Twelve focus groups were conducted among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina and Connecticut. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo Software. Text data were systematically analyzed by investigators to identify recurrent themes both within and across groups and states. Focus group results indicate that most participants were aware of the health benefits associated with a diet rich in F&V. Yet many admitted not adhering to the Health and Human Service's recommendations. Individual impediments consisted of the high costs of F&V and a perceived lack of time. Early home food environment was perceived as affecting F&V consumption later in life. Other barriers reported were ethnic-specific. The African American participants reported limited access to fresh produce. This finding is consistent with numerous studies and must be addressed through health promotion intervention. Both the church and primary care clinics were described by African Americans as appropriate settings for health behavior interventions; these findings should be considered. Hispanic participants, mostly immigrants, cited inhibiting factors encountered in their adopted US environment. There is a

  3. Connexin diversity in the heart: insights from transgenic mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Verheule, Sander; Kaese, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac conduction is mediated by gap junction channels that are formed by connexin (Cx) protein subunits. The connexin family of proteins consists of more than 20 members varying in their biophysical properties and ability to combine with other connexins into heteromeric gap junction channels. The mammalian heart shows regional differences both in connexin expression profile and in degree of electrical coupling. The latter reflects functional requirements for conduction velocity which needs to be low in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes and high in the ventricular conduction system. Over the past 20 years knowledge of the biology of gap junction channels and their role in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias has increased enormously. This review focuses on the insights gained from transgenic mouse models. The mouse heart expresses Cx30, 30.2, 37, 40, 43, 45, and 46. For these connexins a variety of knock-outs, heart-specific knock-outs, conditional knock-outs, double knock-outs, knock-ins and overexpressors has been studied. We discuss the cardiac phenotype in these models and compare Cx expression between mice and men. Mouse models have enhanced our understanding of (patho)-physiological implications of Cx diversity in the heart. In principle connexin-specific modulation of electrical coupling in the heart represents an interesting treatment strategy for cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders. PMID:23818881

  4. Determination of strength behaviour of slope supported by vegetated crib walls using centrifuge model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2010-05-01

    The crib retaining structures made of wooden/bamboo logs with live plants inside are called vegetative crib walls which are now becoming popular due to their advantages over conventional civil engineering walls. Conventionally, wooden crib walls were dimensioned based on past experiences. At present, there are several guidelines and design standards for machine finished wooden crib walls, but only few guidelines for the design and construction of vegetative log crib walls are available which are generally not sufficient for an economic engineering design of such walls. Analytical methods are generally used to determine the strength of vegetated crib retaining walls. The crib construction is analysed statically by satisfying the condition of static equilibrium with acceptable level of safety. The crib wall system is checked for internal and external stability using conventional monolithic and silo theories. Due to limitations of available theories, the exact calculation of the strength of vegetated wooden/bamboo crib wall cannot be made in static calculation. Therefore, experimental measurements are generally done to verify the static analysis. In this work, a model crib construction (1:20) made of bamboo elements is tested in the centrifuge machine to determine the strength behaviour of the slope supported by vegetated crib retaining wall. A geotechnical centrifuge is used to conduct model tests to study geotechnical problems such as the strength, stiffness and bearing capacity of different structures, settlement of embankments, stability of slopes, earth retaining structures etc. Centrifuge model testing is particularly well suited to modelling geotechnical events because the increase in gravitational force creates stresses in the model that are equivalent to the much larger prototype and hence ensures that the mechanisms of ground movements observed in the tests are realistic. Centrifuge model testing provides data to improve our understanding of basic mechanisms

  5. Insights for empirically modeling evapotranspiration influenced by riparian and upland vegetation in semiarid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunting, Daniel P.; Kurc, Shirley A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Water resource managers aim to ensure long-term water supplies for increasing human populations. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the water balance and accurate estimates are important to quantify safe allocations to humans while supporting environmental needs. Scaling up ET measurements from small spatial scales has been problematic due to spatiotemporal variability. Remote sensing products provide spatially distributed data that account for seasonal climate and vegetation variability. We used MODIS products [i.e., Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and nighttime land surface temperatures (LSTn)] to create empirical ET models calibrated using measured ET from three riparian-influenced and two upland, water-limited flux tower sites. Results showed that combining all sites introduced systematic bias, so we developed separate models to estimate riparian and upland ET. While EVI and LSTn were the main drivers for ET in riparian sites, precipitation replaced LSTn as the secondary driver of ET in upland sites. Riparian ET was successfully modeled using an inverse exponential approach (r2 = 0.92) while upland ET was adequately modeled using a multiple linear regression approach (r2 = 0.77). These models can be used in combination to estimate ET at basin scales provided each region is classified and precipitation data is available.

  6. Geoinformation modeling system for analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using space images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichtchouk, Yuri; Ryukhko, Viatcheslav; Tokareva, Olga; Alexeeva, Mary

    2002-02-01

    Geoinformation modeling system structure for assessment of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution on forest- swamp ecosystems of West Siberia is considered. Complex approach to the assessment of man-caused impact based on the combination of sanitary-hygienic and landscape-geochemical approaches is reported. Methodical problems of analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using geoinformation systems and remote sensing data are developed. Landscape structure of oil production territories in southern part of West Siberia are determined on base of processing of space images from spaceborn Resource-O. Particularities of atmosphere pollution zones modeling caused by gas burning in torches in territories of oil fields are considered. For instance, a pollution zones were revealed modeling of contaminants dispersal in atmosphere by standard model. Polluted landscapes areas are calculated depending on oil production volume. It is shown calculated data is well approximated by polynomial models.

  7. Temperature Dependence of Vegetative Growth and Dark Respiration: A Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Martin P. N.; Enoch, Herbert Z.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the processes involved in carbon metabolism is described that predicts the influence of temperature on the growth of plants. The model assumes that the rate of production of dry matter depends both on the temperature and the level of nonstructural carbohydrate. The level of nonstructural carbohydrate is determined by the rates of photosynthesis, growth, and maintenance respiration. The model describes the rate of growth and dark respiration, and the levels of carbohydrate seen in vegetative growth of carnation and tomato. The model suggests that the growth of plants at low temperatures is limited by a shortage of respiratory energy, whereas at high temperatures growth is limited by the shortage of carbohydrate. Thermoperiodism, wherein a warm day and cool night results in faster growth than does constant temperature, is explained by the model as an increase in the level of nonstructural carbohydrate which promotes the rate of growth relative to the rate of maintenance respiration. PMID:16662867

  8. The modeled effects of fire on carbon balance and vegetation abundance in Alaskan tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M. C.; Davidson, C. D.; Kelly, R.; Higuera, P. E.; Hu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic climate is warming at a rate disproportionately faster than the rest of the world. Changes have been observed within the tundra that are attributed to this trend, including active layer thickening, shrub land expansion, and increases in fire frequency. Whether tundra remains a global net sink of carbon could depend upon the effects of fire on vegetation, specifically concerning the speed at which vegetation reestablishes, the stimulation of growth after fire, and the changes that occur in species composition during succession. While rapid regeneration of graminoid vegetation favors the spread of this functional type in early succession, late succession appears to favor shrub vegetation at abundances greater than those observed before fire. Possible reasons for this latter observation include changes in albedo, soil insulation, and soil moisture regimes. Here we investigate the course of succession after fire disturbance within tundra ecosystems, and the mechanisms involved. A series of simulated burn experiments were conducted on the burn site left by the 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire to access the behavior of the Ecosystem Demography model v2.2 (ED2) in the simulation of fire on the tundra. The land surface sub-model within ED is modified to improve simulate permafrost through the effects of an increased soil-column depth, a peat texture class, and the effects of wind compaction and depth hoar on snow density. Parameterization is conducted through Bayesian techniques used to constrain parameter distributions based upon data from a literature survey, field measurements at Toolik Lake, Alaska, and a data assimilation over three datasets. At each step, priority was assigned to measurements that could constrain parameters that account for the greatest explained variance in model output as determined through sensitivity analysis. Following parameterization, a series of simulations were performed to gauge the suitability of the model in predicting carbon balance and

  9. Investigation of uncertainties of establishment schemes in dynamic global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiang; Zeng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    In Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), the establishment of woody vegetation refers to flowering, fertilization, seed production, germination, and the growth of tree seedlings. It determines not only the population densities but also other important ecosystem structural variables. In current DGVMs, establishments of woody plant functional types (PFTs) are assumed to be either the same in the same grid cell, or largely stochastic. We investigated the uncertainties in the competition of establishment among coexisting woody PFTs from three aspects: the dependence of PFT establishments on vegetation states; background establishment; and relative establishment potentials of different PFTs. Sensitivity experiments showed that the dependence of establishment rate on the fractional coverage of a PFT favored the dominant PFT by increasing its share in establishment. While a small background establishment rate had little impact on equilibrium states of the ecosystem, it did change the timescale required for the establishment of alien species in pre-existing forest due to their disadvantage in seed competition during the early stage of invasion. Meanwhile, establishment purely from background (the scheme commonly used in current DGVMs) led to inconsistent behavior in response to the change in PFT specification (e.g., number of PFTs and their specification). Furthermore, the results also indicated that trade-off between individual growth and reproduction/colonization has significant influences on the competition of establishment. Hence, further development of establishment parameterization in DGVMs is essential in reducing the uncertainties in simulations of both ecosystem structures and successions.

  10. Measuring and Modelling water related soil - vegetation feedbacks in a fallow plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, Nadia; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Vignoli, Giulio; Boaga, Jacopo

    2013-04-01

    Land fallowing is one possible response to shortage of water for irrigation. Leaving the soil unseeded implies a change of the soil functioning that has an impact on the water cycle. The development of a soil crust in the open spaces between the patterns of grass weed affects the soil properties and the field scale water balance. The objective of this study was to test the potential of integrated non invasive geophysics and ground-image analysis and to quantify the effect of the soil vegetation interaction on the water balance of a fallow land at the local and plot scale. We measured repeatedly in space and time local soil saturation and vegetation cover over two small plots located in southern Sardinia, Italy, during an infiltration experiment. One plot was left unseeded and the other was cultivated. The comparative analysis of the experimental data evidenced a positive feedback between weed growth and infiltration at the fallow plot. A simple bucket model captured the different soil moisture dynamics at the two plots during the infiltration experiment and was used to estimate the impact of the soil vegetation feedback on the yearly water balance at the site.

  11. Advances in modelling the coevolving soils, landforms and vegetation in semiarid regions: a multidisciplinary approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saco, Patricia M.; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Willgoose, Garry R.

    2014-05-01

    Semiarid landscapes exhibit highly nonlinear interactions between coevolving physical and biological processes. Coevolution in these systems leads to the emergence of remarkable soil, landform and vegetation patterns. Growing concern over ecosystem resilience to climate and land use perturbations that could result in irreversible degradation imposes a pressing need for research, aiming at elucidating the processes, feedbacks, and dynamics leading to these coevolving patterns. This is particularly important since degradation in drylands has been frequently linked to feedback effects between soils, biota and erosion processes. In many dryland regions, feedbacks are responsible for the emergence of areas with low infiltration in unvegetated soil patches (due to surface crusting) and high infiltration rates in the vegetated soil patches (due to improved soil aggregation and macroporosity). This variable infiltration field gives rise to runoff-runon redistribution which determines areas of soil erosion and deposition. We have combined a coupled landform-soil-vegetation model with remote sensing and field data to capture these feedbacks and improve our knowledge of these coevolving biotic-abiotic processes. We discuss and present results showing that the dynamics of the individual processes and their response to climatic and anthropic disturbances cannot be fully understood or predicted if nonlinear feedbacks and coevolution are not considered. Implications for management and restoration efforts are illustrated using data and observations from agricultural sites in central Australia and reclaimed mining sites in Spain.

  12. Multiple stable states of tree cover in a global land surface model due to fire - vegetation feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasslop, Gitta; Brovkin, Victor; Reick, Christian; Bathiany, Sebastian; Kloster, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    The presence of multiple stable states has far reaching consequences for a system's susceptibility to disturbances, including the possibility of abrupt transitions between the stable states. Tree cover is an ecosystem characteristic for which the occurrence of multiple stable states is supported by ecological theory, conceptual simple models and global satellite observations. Fire has been identified as an important process in those ecosystems. Global dynamic vegetation models usually represent the vegetation dynamics in a simplified way with only one equilibrium state for certain environmental conditions. The equilibrium state then does not depend on the history and vegetation would always recover to the equilibrium state. Here, we describe the occurrence of multiple stable states in a global simulation with the JSBACH-SPITFIRE model, the land surface model in the MPI-ESM. With the improved process representation of fire, the equilibrium state of vegetation depends on the initial conditions. Model initialization with only woody species leads to a higher global tree covered area in equilibrium compared to an initialization with only grass species. The potential bistability occurs for gridcells with intermediately strong fire regimes in the transition zones between grasslands and forests. We find regions in mainly Africa and Asia to have multiple stable vegetation states. By performing sensitivity simulations and simplifying the relevant model equations we show that the multiple states occur due to a strong feedback between fire and forest cover. This is corroborated by comparing the model behavior to a fire model without fire-vegetation feedback in which no multiple stable states occur. Our results support the view that changes in vegetation cover can be irreversible due to the fire-vegetation feedback.

  13. Using the VERHIB model to reconstruct palaeo-vegetation from preserved biomarker patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Emiel; Jansen, Boris

    2010-05-01

    One of the most detailed methods available to date to reconstruct past vegetation dynamics is the analysis of fossil pollen. Unfortunately, fossil pollen analysis does not distinguish beyond family or generic level in most cases, while its spatial resolution is limited amongst others by windblown dispersal of pollen, affecting the accuracy of pollen-based reconstructions of UFL positions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new method based on the analysis of plant-specific groups of biomarkers preserved in suitable archives, such as peat deposits, that are unraveled into the plant species of origin by the newly developed VERHIB model. It consists of a linear forward model to describe the way in which a certain vegetation development over time at a certain location results in accumulation of biomarkers in a suitable archive such as marine or lacustrine sediment, peat deposit or soil. An inversion of the forward model is used to reconstruct paleovegetation on the basis of the observed accumulated biomarker signal. Tikhonov regularization is used to cope with non-uniqueness resulting from the combination of fine-scale output resolution and limited sample numbers. The Bayesian quality control technique by Ingleby & Lorenc is used to deal with heterogeneity in observational errors. Hard as well as soft constraints, derived from biological principles and dynamical models are included to ensure model results are always within physically and biologically realistic limits. Sequential Quadratic Programming is used as the solution technique for the combined non-linear constrained and regularized problem in VERHIB. Here we describe the model and present its first application to reconstruct palaeo-vegetation based on patterns of plant-specific n-alcohols and n-alkanes with chain lengths of C20-C36 preserved in a peat sequence from a biodiversity hotspot of montane rainforest in the Ecuadorian Andes. We show how a combination of the new biomarker application using

  14. Tropical Forests, Savannas and Grasslands: Bridging the Knowledge Gap Between Ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to global climate change, tropical forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are largely used to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their different representations of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. We compared model outcomes to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism encompasses water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna occurrence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savannas in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially

  15. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-03-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modeling. The outcomes of the models, which include different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. By drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need improved representation in the examined DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna presence in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant forest trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant savanna trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and

  16. The Chief Diversity Officer: An Examination of CDO Models and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, C. A. Stanley comments on R. A. Leon's "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" article, "The Chief Diversity Officer: An Examination of CDO Models and Strategies" that focuses on the role of the chief diversity officer (CDO) in higher education. Stanley, in her position as Vice President and Associate Provost…

  17. Biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs.

    PubMed

    Klales, Anna; Duncan, James; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than a single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of different thermal strains and the functional dependence of the net population density on temperature. We present a simple population dynamics model of these systems that is highly constrained by biophysical data and by physical features of the environment. This model can explain in detail the observed thermal population distributions, as well as certain features of population dynamics observed in laboratory studies of the same organisms.

  18. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of vegetative compatibility groups determine biocontrol strategies to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Atehnkeng, Joseph; Donner, Matthias; Ojiambo, Peter S; Ikotun, Babatunde; Augusto, Joao; Cotty, Peter J; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2016-01-01

    Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers' income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin contamination in grain by > 96%. A total of 25 VCGs were inferred from the collected isolates based on complementation tests involving nitrate non-utilizing (nit(-)) mutants. To determine genetic diversity and distribution of VCGs across agro-ecological zones, 832 nit(-) mutants from 52 locations in 11 administrative districts were paired with one self-complementary nitrate auxotroph tester-pair for each VCG. Atoxigenic VCGs accounted for 81.1% of the 153 positive complementations recorded. Genetic diversity of VCGs was highest in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone (H = 2.61) compared with the southern Guinea savannah (H = 1.90) and northern Guinea savannah (H = 0.94) zones. Genetic richness (H = 2.60) and evenness (E5  = 0.96) of VCGs were high across all agro-ecological zones. Ten VCGs (40%) had members restricted to the original location of isolation, whereas 15 VCGs (60%) had members located between the original source of isolation and a distance

  19. Europlanet/IDIS: Combining Diverse Planetary Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Planetary research involves a diversity of research fields from astrophysics and plasma physics to atmospheric physics, climatology, spectroscopy and surface imaging. Data from all these disciplines are collected from various space-borne platforms or telescopes, supported by modelling teams and laboratory work. In order to interpret one set of data often supporting data from different disciplines and other missions are needed while the scientist does not always have the detailed expertise to access and utilize these observations. The Integrated and Distributed Information System (IDIS) [1], developed in the framework of the Europlanet-RI project, implements a Virtual Observatory approach ([2] and [3]), where different data sets, stored in archives around the world and in different formats, are accessed, re-formatted and combined to meet the user's requirements without the need of familiarizing oneself with the different technical details. While observational astrophysical data from different observatories could already earlier be accessed via Virtual Observatories, this concept is now extended to diverse planetary data and related model data sets, spectral data bases etc. A dedicated XML-based Europlanet Data Model (EPN-DM) [4] was developed based on data models from the planetary science community and the Virtual Observatory approach. A dedicated editor simplifies the registration of new resources. As the EPN-DM is a super-set of existing data models existing archives as well as new spectroscopic or chemical data bases for the interpretation of atmospheric or surface observations, or even modeling facilities at research institutes in Europe or Russia can be easily integrated and accessed via a Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) [5] adapted from the corresponding protocol of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance [6] (IVOA-TAP). EPN-TAP allows to search catalogues, retrieve data and make them available through standard IVOA tools if the access to the archive

  20. A Fully Data-Constrained Benchmark Global Vegetation Model for Identifying Priority Sources of Uncertainty and Facilitating Rapid Model Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.; Purves, D.; Lyutsarev, V.; Vanderwel, M.; Emmott, S.

    2011-12-01

    Human societies urgently need more accurate predictions of how the biosphere is going to change under plausible future scenarios. The current major source of uncertainty in these predictions is how the biotic components will interact with a changing climate. Unfortunately, models of the terrestrial carbon-climate feedback make widely diverging predictions even under the same or similar climate change scenarios. The reasons for these different predictions have never been fully understood because of the technical and computational obstacles preventing the intercomparison of model components and structures. We therefore developed a new global vegetation model with the objective of establishing it as a benchmark on which to justify further refinements. We coupled every component process in our vegetation model with global datasets and used Bayesian inference to find the probability distributions for all model parameters. Using various experiments we identified model components and datasets responsible for the major sources of uncertainty. We then simulated our model whilst accounting for full parameter and structural uncertainty to quantify the importance of such uncertainty for climate change predictions. Finally we have wrapped up our study within a computational methodology designed to facilitate objective model intercomparison and rapid model refinement for use by the wider scientific community.

  1. Carbon Cycle and Vegetation Dynamics in the GFDL-Princeton University Coupled Atmosphere-Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S. W.; Malyshev, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Caspersen, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Modeling global interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere continues to pose a significant challenge, because of the tight and complex coupling of flows of water, energy, greenhouse gases, and ecosystem dynamics. We developed a comprehensive dynamic land surface model (LM3) able to simulate carbon and vegetation dynamics on time scales from minutes to centuries, as well as the exchange of water and energy among the land, LM3 predicts carbon dynamics in vegetation and soil in response to environmental conditions (weather, climate and soil type), ambient concentration of CO2, natural disturbances (e.g. fire), and anthropogenic land use changes (e.g. deforestation, agricultural cropland abandonment and forest management). A suite of the historical 300 years land cover change scenarios (developed at University of New Hampshire) is used to represent direct anthropogenic forcing on the terrestrial carbon system. Here we analyze the behavior of LM3 forced with observed atmospheric data and coupled with GFDL atmospheric circulation model AM2. The series of experiments indicates that our model adequately simulates climatic gradients of net primary productivity (NPP), leaf area index (LAI), biomass accumulation, evapotranspiration, and runoff. Additionally, analysis of the simulations suggests that anthropogenic land use has been a major forcing on the terrestrial carbon cycle, with large sources of CO2 caused primarily by deforestation and timber harvesting in the current tropics and past north temperate zone, and large current north temperate sinks caused primarily by secondary forest growth.

  2. A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zeng, X. D.; Levis, S.

    2012-07-01

    A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity has been developed for global simulations in the framework of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) in an Earth System Model (ESM). Burned area in a grid cell is estimated by the product of fire counts and average burned area of a fire. The scheme comprises three parts: fire occurrence, fire spread, and fire impact. In the fire occurrence part, fire counts rather than fire occurrence probability are calculated in order to capture the observed high burned area fraction in areas of high fire frequency and realize parameter calibration based on MODIS fire counts product. In the fire spread part, post-fire region of a fire is assumed to be elliptical in shape. Mathematical properties of ellipses and some mathematical derivations are applied to improve the equation and assumptions of an existing fire spread parameterization. In the fire impact part, trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning are estimated, which offers an interface with atmospheric chemistry and aerosol models in ESMs. In addition, flexible time-step length makes the new fire parameterization easily applied to various DGVMs. Global performance of the new fire parameterization is assessed by using an improved version of the Community Land Model version 3 with the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM). Simulations are compared against the latest satellite-based Global Fire Emission Database version 3 (GFED3) for 1997-2004. Results show that simulated global totals and spatial patterns of burned area and fire carbon emissions, regional totals and spreads of burned area, global annual burned area fractions for various vegetation types, and interannual variability of burned area are reasonable, and closer to GFED3 than CLM-DGVM simulations with the commonly used Glob-FIRM fire parameterization and the old fire module of CLM-DGVM. Furthermore, average error of simulated trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning

  3. A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zeng, X. D.; Levis, S.

    2012-03-01

    A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity has been developed for global simulations in the framework of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) in an Earth System Model (ESM). Burned area in a grid cell is estimated by the product of fire counts and average burned area per fire. The scheme comprises three parts: fire occurrence, fire spread, and fire impact. In the fire occurrence part, fire counts rather than fire occurrence probability is calculated in order to capture the observed high burned area fraction in regions where fire occurs frequently. In the fire spread part, post-fire region of a fire is assumed to be elliptical in shape. Mathematical properties of ellipses and mathematical derivation are applied to remove redundant and unreasonable equation and assumptions in existing fire spread parameterization. In the fire impact part, trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning are estimated, which offers an interface with atmospheric chemistry and aerosol models in ESMs. In addition, flexible time-step length makes the new fire parameterization easily applied to various DGVMs. Global performance of the new fire parameterization is assessed by using an improved version of the Community Land Model version 3 with the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM). Simulations are compared against the latest satellite-based Global Fire Emission Database version 3 (GFED3) for 1997-2004. Results show that simulated global totals and spatial patterns of burned area and fire carbon emissions, global annual burned area fractions for various vegetation types and interannual variability of burned area are in close agreement with the GFED3, and more accurate than CLM-DGVM simulations with the commonly used Glob-FIRM fire parameterization and the old fire module of CLM-DGVM. Furthermore, the average relative error of simulated trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning is 7 %. Results suggest that the new fire parameterization may

  4. Mapping vegetation patterns in arable land using the models STICS and DAISY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, Antje; Casper, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Several statistical methods exist to detect spatial and / or temporal variability with regard to ecological data-analysis: Semivariance-analysis, Trend surface analysis, Kriging, Voronoi polygons, Moran's I and Mantel-test, to mention just some of them. In this contribution, we concentrate on spatial vegetation patterns within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVAT) system. Using variography, spatial analysis with a geographic information system and self-organizing maps, spatial patterns of yield have been isolated in an agro-ecosystem (see poster contribution EGU 2009, EGU2009-8948). Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each about 5 hectare, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots have been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. The aim of the present study is to find out if the existing natural spatial patterns can be mapped by means of SVAT models. If so, the discretization of a landscape according to its spatial patterns could be the basis for parameterization of SVAT models in order to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction over a large area, that is for up-scaling. For this purpose the SVAT models STICS (developed by INRA, France) and DAISY (developed at Tåstrup University, Denmark) are applied. After a wide sensitivity analysis both models are parameterized with field data according to the given situation of each of the detected spatial patterns. The results of the simulation per representative location of a pattern are validated first with field data concerning yield, soil water content and soil nitrogen; besides, above ground dry matter, root depth and specific stress indices are used for validation. The conclusions that can be made with regard to up-scaling are discussed in detail. In a second step the results of the STICS model are compared with those of the DAISY model to analyse the models' behaviour, to get further knowledge about the inner structure

  5. A model of onshore-offshore change in faunal diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Onshore-offshore patterns of faunal change occurred at many taxonomic scales during the Paleozoic Era, ranging from replacement of the Cambrian evolutionary fauna by the Paleozoic fauna to the environmental expansion of many orders and classes. A simple mathematical model is constructed to investigate such change. The environmental gradient across the marine shelf-slope is treated as a linear array of discrete habitats, each of which holds a set number of species, as observed in the fossil record. During any interval of time, some portion of the species in each habitat becomes extinct by background processes, with rates of extinction varying among both clades and habitats, as also observed in the record. After extinction, species are replaced from within the habitat and from immediately adjacent habitats, with proportions dependent on surviving species. This model leads to the prediction that extinction-resistant clades will always diversify at the expense of extinction-prone clades. But if extinction intensity is highest in nearshore habitats, extinction-resistant clades will expand preferentially in the onshore direction, build up diversity there, and then diversify outward toward the offshore. Thus, onshore-offshore patterns of diversification may be the expectation for faunal change quite independently of whether or not clades originate onshore. When the model is parameterized for Paleozoic trilobites and brachiopods, numerical solutions exhibit both a pattern of faunal change and a time span for diversification similar to that seen in the fossil record. They also generate structure similar to that seen in global diversification, including logistic patterns of growth, declining origination but constant extinction within clades through time, and declining overall extinction across clades through time.

  6. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  7. Use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to predict breeding birds on the San Pedro River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, Tiffany Marie; van Riper, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Successful management practices of avian populations depend on understanding relationships between birds and their habitat, especially in rare habitats, such as riparian areas of the desert Southwest. Remote-sensing technology has become popular in habitat modeling, but most of these models focus on single species, leaving their applicability to understanding broader community structure and function largely untested. We investigated the usefulness of two Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to model avian abundance and species richness on the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. Although NDVI was positively correlated with our bird metrics, the amount of explained variation was low. We then investigated the addition of vegetation metrics and other remote-sensing metrics to improve our models. Although both vegetation metrics and remotely sensed metrics increased the power of our models, the overall explained variation was still low, suggesting that general avian community structure may be too complex for NDVI models.

  8. Diversity Competent Group Work Supervision: An Application of the Supervision of Group Work Model (SGW)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, Jane E. Atieno; Rubel, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for concrete descriptions of supervision to promote diversity-competent group work and presents an application of the supervision of group work model (SGW) to this end. The SGW, a supervision model adapted from the discrimination model, is uniquely suited for promoting diversity competence in group work, since it…

  9. Characterization of a Field Spectroradiometer for Unattended Vegetation Monitoring. Key Sensor Models and Impacts on Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Labrador, Javier; Martín, M. Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Field spectroradiometers integrated in automated systems at Eddy Covariance (EC) sites are a powerful tool for monitoring and upscaling vegetation physiology and carbon and water fluxes. However, exposure to varying environmental conditions can affect the functioning of these sensors, especially if these cannot be completely insulated and stabilized. This can cause inaccuracy in the spectral measurements and hinder the comparison between data acquired at different sites. This paper describes the characterization of key sensor models in a double beam spectroradiometer necessary to calculate the Hemispherical-Conical Reflectance Factor (HCRF). Dark current, temperature dependence, non-linearity, spectral calibration and cosine receptor directional responses are modeled in the laboratory as a function of temperature, instrument settings, radiation measured or illumination angle. These models are used to correct the spectral measurements acquired continuously by the same instrument integrated outdoors in an automated system (AMSPEC-MED). Results suggest that part of the instrumental issues cancel out mutually or can be controlled by the instrument configuration, so that changes induced in HCFR reached about 0.05 at maximum. However, these corrections are necessary to ensure the inter-comparison of data with other ground or remote sensors and to discriminate instrumentally induced changes in HCRF from those related with vegetation physiology and directional effects. PMID:25679315

  10. Modeling the mechanical and hydrological controls of vegetation in shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.; Sivandran, Gajan; Bras, Rafael L.

    2014-05-01

    Coupled hydrological-stability models are widely used to evaluate rain triggered shallow landslide hazards at basin. Vegetation influences landslides in several ways. Plants directly interact with many of the hydrological processes (e.g. foliage interception, evapotranspiration, root water uptaking), and lead to a reduction of the amount of water available for infiltration which can cause instability. From a mechanical point of view, the root system increases the resistance of soil through its tensile strength and frictional or adhesive properties (apparent root cohesion); however, such an effect is rarely explicitly considered in the spatially distributed applications. This study proposes a methodology for modeling the mechanical control of vegetation within an existing physically-based, eco-hydrological and stability model. The approach is based on the estimation of the apparent root cohesion term as a function of the spatial distribution of the roots in soil expressed in terms of Root Area Ratio (RAR). A synthetic case study is presented to assess the consistency and the capability of the methodology, by investigating both the hydrological and mechanical controls.

  11. Representation of vegetation effects on the snow-covered albedo in the Noah land surface model with multiple physics options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Park, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Snow albedo plays a critical role in calculating the energy budget, but parameterization of the snow surface albedo is still under great uncertainty. It varies with snow grain size, snow cover thickness, snow age, forest shading factor and other variables. Snow albedo of forest is typically lower than that of short vegetation; thus snow albedo is dependent on the spatial distributions of characteristic land cover and on the canopy density and structure. In the Noah land surface model with multiple physics options (Noah-MP), almost all vegetation types in East Asia during winter have the minimum values of leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI), which are too low and do not consider the vegetation types. Because LAI and SAI are represented in terms of photosynthetic activeness, the vegetation effect rarely exerts on the surface albedo in winter in East Asia with only these parameters. Thus, we investigated the vegetation effects on the snow-covered albedo from observations and evaluated the model improvement by considering such effect. We found that calculation of albedo without proper reflection of the vegetation effect is mainly responsible for the large positive bias in winter. Therefore, we developed new parameters, called leaf index (LI) and stem index (SI), which properly manage the effect of vegetation structure on the winter albedo. As a result, the Noah-MP's performance in albedo has been significantly improved - RMSE is reduced by approximately 73%.

  12. A computer model to forecast wetland vegetation changes resulting from restoration and protection in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visser, Jenneke M.; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Carter, Jacoby; Broussard, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    The coastal wetlands of Louisiana are a unique ecosystem that supports a diversity of wildlife as well as a diverse community of commercial interests of both local and national importance. The state of Louisiana has established a 5-year cycle of scientific investigation to provide up-to-date information to guide future legislation and regulation aimed at preserving this critical ecosystem. Here we report on a model that projects changes in plant community distribution and composition in response to environmental conditions. This model is linked to a suite of other models and requires input from those that simulate the hydrology and morphology of coastal Louisiana. Collectively, these models are used to assess how alternative management plans may affect the wetland ecosystem through explicit spatial modeling of the physical and biological processes affected by proposed modifications to the ecosystem. We have also taken the opportunity to advance the state-of-the-art in wetland plant community modeling by using a model that is more species-based in its description of plant communities instead of one based on aggregated community types such as brackish marsh and saline marsh. The resulting model provides an increased level of ecological detail about how wetland communities are expected to respond. In addition, the output from this model provides critical inputs for estimating the effects of management on higher trophic level species though a more complete description of the shifts in habitat.

  13. Correcting the influence of vegetation on surface soil moisture indices by using hyperspectral artificial 3D-canopy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spengler, D.; Kuester, T.; Frick, A.; Scheffler, D.; Kaufmann, H.

    2013-10-01

    Surface soil moisture content is one of the key variables used for many applications especially in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Hyperspectral remote sensing provides effective methodologies for mapping soil moisture content over a broad area by different indices such as NSMI [1,2] and SMGM [3]. Both indices can achieve a high accuracy for non-vegetation influenced soil samples, but their accuracy is limited in case of the presence of vegetation. Since, the increase of the vegetation cover leads to non-linear variations of the indices. In this study a new methodology for moisture indices correcting the influence of vegetation is presented consisting of several processing steps. First, hyperspectral reflectance data are classified in terms of crop type and growth stage. Second, based on these parameters 3D plant models from a database used to simulate typical canopy reflectance considering variations in the canopy structure (e.g. plant density and distribution) and the soil moisture content for actual solar illumination and sensor viewing angles. Third, a vegetation correction function is developed, based on the calculated soil moisture indices and vegetation indices of the simulated canopy reflectance data. Finally this function is applied on hyperspectral image data. The method is tested on two hyperspectral image data sets of the AISA DUAL at the test site Fichtwald in Germany. The results show a significant improvements compared to solely use of NSMI index. Up to a vegetation cover of 75 % the correction function minimise the influences of vegetation cover significantly. If the vegetation is denser the method leads to inadequate quality to predict the soil moisture content. In summary it can be said that applying the method on weakly to moderately overgrown with vegetation locations enables a significant improvement in the quantification of soil moisture and thus greatly expands the scope of NSMI.

  14. Modelling trends in woody vegetation structure in semi-arid Australia as determined from aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick John; Low Choy, Sama J; Fairfax, Russell James; Cavallaro, Paul C

    2003-08-01

    Accounting of carbon stocks in woody vegetation for greenhouse purposes requires definition of medium term trends with accurate error assessment. Tree and shrub cover was sampled through time at randomly located sites over a large area of central Queensland, Australia using aerial photography from 1945 to 1999. Calibration models developed from field data for the same land types as those represented within the study area allowed for the extrapolation of overstorey and understorey cover, basal area and biomass values and these were modelled as trends over the latter half of the 20th century. These structural attributes have declined over the region because of land clearing with values for biomass changing from a mean of 58.0(+/-1.2)t/ha in 1953 to 41.1(+/-1.0)t/ha in 1991. The biomass of Acacia on clay and Eucalypt on texture contrast soils land types has declined most dramatically. Within uncleared vegetation there was an overall trend of increase from 56.1(+/-1.2)t/ha in 1951 to 67.6(+/-1.3)t/ha in 1995. The increase in structural attributes within uncleared vegetation was most pronounced for the Eucalypt on texture contrast soils and Eucalypt on clay land types. It was demonstrated that the sites sampled were representative of their land types and that spatial bias of the photography, undetected tree-killing, sampling error, inherent variability of structural attributes and measurement error should not have impacted greatly on bias or precision of trend estimates for well-sampled land types. Certainly the errors are not likely to be substantial for trends averaged over all land types and they provide an accurate assessment of the magnitude and direction of change. The technique presented here would appear to be a robust means of accounting for the above-ground woody component of woodlands and open forests and will also contribute to a broader understanding of savanna dynamics. PMID:12877875

  15. An intermediate process-based fire parameterization in Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zeng, X.

    2011-12-01

    An intermediate process-based fire parameterization has been developed for global fire simulation. It fits the framework of Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) which has been a pivot component in Earth System Model (ESM). The fire parameterization comprises three parts: fire occurrence, fire spread, and fire impact. In the first part, the number of fires is determined by ignition counts due to anthropogenic and natural causes and three constraints: fuel load, fuel moisture, and human suppression. Human caused ignition and suppression is explicitly considered as a nonlinear function of population density. The fire counts rather than fire occurrence probability is estimated to avoid underestimating the observed high burned area fraction in tropical savannas where fire occurs frequently. In the second part, post-fire region is assumed to be elliptical in shape with the wind direction along the major axis and the point of ignition at one of the foci. Burned area is determined by fire spread rate,fire duration, and fire counts. Mathematical characteristics of ellipse and some mathematical derivations are used to avoid redundant and unreasonable equations and assumptions in the CTEM-FIRE and make the parameterization equations self-consistently. In the third part, the impact of fire on vegetation component and structure, carbon cycle, trace gases and aerosol emissions are taken into account. The new estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning offers an interface with aerosol and atmospheric chemistry model in ESMs. Furthermore, in the new fire parameterization, fire occurrence part and fire spread part can be updated hourly or daily, and fire impact part can be updated daily, monthly, or annually. Its flexibility in selection of time-step length makes it easily applied to various DGVMs. The improved Community Land Model 3.0's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM) is used as the model platform to assess the global performance of the new

  16. Nitrogen feedbacks increase future terrestrial ecosystem carbon uptake in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wårlind, D.; Smith, B.; Hickler, T.; Arneth, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a considerable amount of effort has been put into quantifying how interactions of the carbon and nitrogen cycle affect future terrestrial carbon sinks. Dynamic vegetation models, representing the nitrogen cycle with varying degree of complexity, have shown diverging constraints of nitrogen dynamics on future carbon sequestration. In this study, we use the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS to evaluate how population dynamics and resource competition between plant functional types, combined with nitrogen dynamics, have influenced the terrestrial carbon storage in the past and to investigate how terrestrial carbon and nitrogen dynamics might change in the future (1850 to 2100; one exemplary "business-as-usual" climate scenario). Single factor model experiments of CO2 fertilisation and climate change show generally similar directions of the responses of C-N interactions, compared to the C-only version of the model, as documented in previous studies. Under a RCP 8.5 scenario, nitrogen limitation suppresses potential CO2 fertilisation, reducing the cumulative net ecosystem carbon uptake between 1850 and 2100 by 61%, and soil warming-induced increase in nitrogen mineralisation reduces terrestrial carbon loss by 31%. When environmental changes are considered conjointly, carbon sequestration is limited by nitrogen dynamics until present. However, during the 21st century nitrogen dynamics induce a net increase in carbon sequestration, resulting in an overall larger carbon uptake of 17% over the full period. This contradicts earlier model results that showed an 8 to 37% decrease in carbon uptake, questioning the often stated assumption that projections of future terrestrial C dynamics from C-only models are too optimistic.

  17. Irrigation Requirement Estimation using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling; A Case Study for Oran, Algeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M.L.; Franks, S.

    2008-01-01

    Human demand for food influences the water cycle through diversion and extraction of fresh water needed to support agriculture. Future population growth and economic development alone will substantially increase water demand and much of it for agricultural uses. For many semi-arid lands, socio-economic shifts are likely to exacerbate changes in climate as a driver of future water supply and demand. For these areas in particular, where the balance between water supply and demand is fragile, variations in regional climate can have potentially predictable effect on agricultural production. Satellite data and biophysically-based models provide a powerful method to quantify the interactions between local climate, plant growth and water resource requirements. In irrigated agricultural lands, satellite observations indicate high vegetation density while the precipitation amount indicates otherwise. This inconsistency between the observed precipitation and the observed canopy leaf density triggers the possibility that the observed high leaf density is due to an alternate source of water, irrigation. We explore an inverse process approach using observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), climatological data, and the NASA's Simple Biosphere model, SiB2, to quantitatively assess water demand in a semi-arid agricultural land by constraining the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium (balance between vegetation and prevailing local climate) and nonequilibrium (water added through irrigation) conditions. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. We added water using two distribution methods: The first method adds water on top of the canopy and is a proxy for the traditional spray irrigation. The second method allows water to be applied directly into the soil layer and serves as proxy for drip irrigation. Our approach indicates that over

  18. Evaluation of the vegetated urban canopy model (VUCM) and its impacts on urban boundary layer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2011-02-01

    The vegetated urban canopy model (VUCM) is implemented in a meteorological model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), for urban atmospheric modeling. The VUCM includes various urban physical processes such as in-canyon radiative transfer, turbulent energy exchanges, substrate heat conduction, and in-canyon momentum drag. The coupled model RAMS/VUCM is evaluated and then used to examine its impacts on the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the urban boundary layer (UBL) in the Seoul metropolitan area. The spatial pattern of the nocturnal urban heat island (UHI) in Seoul is quite well simulated by the RAMS/VUCM. A statistical evaluation of 2-m air temperature reveals a significant improvement in model performance, especially in the nighttime. The RAMS/VUCM simulates the diurnal variations of surface energy balance fluxes realistically. This contributes to a reasonable UBL formation. A weakly unstable UBL is formed in the nighttime with UBL heights of about 100-200 m. When urban surfaces are represented in the RAMS using a land surface model of the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback (LEAF), the RAMS/LEAF produces strong cold biases and thus fails to simulate UHI formation. This is due to the poor representation or absence of important urban physical processes in the RAMS/LEAF. This study implies that urban physical processes should be included in numerical models in order to reasonably simulate meteorology and air quality in urban areas and that the VUCM is one of the promising urban canopy models.

  19. [Estimation model for daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Long; Li, Jian-Ming; Wu, Pu-Te; Li, Wei-Li; Zhao, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Fei; Li, Jun

    2013-07-01

    For developing an estimation method of muskmelon transpiration in greenhouse, an estimation model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period was established, based on the greenhouse environmental parameters, muskmelon growth and development parameters, and soil moisture parameters. According to the specific environment in greenhouse, the item of aerodynamics in Penman-Monteith equation was modified, and the greenhouse environmental sub-model suitable for calculating the reference crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse was deduced. The crop factor sub-model was established with the leaf area index as independent variable, and the form of the model was linear function. The soil moisture sub-model was established with the soil relative effective moisture content as independent variable, and the form of the model was logarithmic function. With interval sowing, the model parameters were estimated and analyzed, according to the measurement data of different sowing dates in a year. The prediction accuracy of the model for sufficient irrigation and water-saving irrigation was verified, according to measurement data when the relative soil moisture content was 80%, 70%, and 60%, and the mean relative error was 11.5%, 16.2% , and 16.9% respectively. The model was a beneficial exploration for the application of Penman-Monteith equation under greenhouse environment and water-saving irrigation, having good application foreground and popularization value.

  20. Bayesian inversions of a dynamic vegetation model at four European grassland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minet, J.; Laloy, E.; Tychon, B.; Francois, L.

    2015-05-01

    Eddy covariance data from four European grassland sites are used to probabilistically invert the CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with 10 unknown parameters, using the DREAM(ZS) (DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis) Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler. We focus on comparing model inversions, considering both homoscedastic and heteroscedastic eddy covariance residual errors, with variances either fixed a priori or jointly inferred together with the model parameters. Agreements between measured and simulated data during calibration are comparable with previous studies, with root mean square errors (RMSEs) of simulated daily gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RECO) and evapotranspiration (ET) ranging from 1.73 to 2.19, 1.04 to 1.56 g C m-2 day-1 and 0.50 to 1.28 mm day-1, respectively. For the calibration period, using a homoscedastic eddy covariance residual error model resulted in a better agreement between measured and modelled data than using a heteroscedastic residual error model. However, a model validation experiment showed that CARAIB models calibrated considering heteroscedastic residual errors perform better. Posterior parameter distributions derived from using a heteroscedastic model of the residuals thus appear to be more robust. This is the case even though the classical linear heteroscedastic error model assumed herein did not fully remove heteroscedasticity of the GPP residuals. Despite the fact that the calibrated model is generally capable of fitting the data within measurement errors, systematic bias in the model simulations are observed. These are likely due to model inadequacies such as shortcomings in the photosynthesis modelling. Besides the residual error treatment, differences between model parameter posterior distributions among the four grassland sites are also investigated. It is shown that the marginal distributions of the specific leaf area and characteristic

  1. Integration of vegetation indices into a water balance model to estimate evapotranspiration of wheat and corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, F. L. M.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Gavilán, P.; Domínguez, J.

    2010-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) have been traditionally used for quantitative monitoring of vegetation. Remotely sensed radiometric measurements of visible and infrared solar energy, which is reflected or emitted by plant canopies, can be used to obtain rapid, non-destructive estimates of certain canopy attributes and parameters. One parameter of special interest for water management applications, is the crop coefficient employed by the FAO-56 model to derive actual crop evapotranspiration (ET). The aim of this study was to evaluate a methodology that combines the basal crop coefficient derived from VIs with a daily soil water balance in the root zone to estimate daily evapotranspiration rates for corn and wheat crops at field scale. The ability of the model to trace water stress in these crops was also assessed. Vegetation indices were first retrieved from field hand-held radiometer measurements and then from Landsat 5 and 7 satellite images. The results of the model were validated using two independent measurement systems for ET and regular soil moisture monitoring, in order to evaluate the behavior of the soil and atmosphere components of the model. ET estimates were compared with latent heat flux measured by an eddy covariance system and with weighing lysimeter measurements. Average overestimates of daily ET of 8 and 11% were obtained for corn and wheat, respectively, with good agreement between the estimated and measured root-zone water deficit for both crops when field radiometry was employed. Satellite remote-sensing inputs overestimated ET by 4 to 9%, showing a non-significant lost of accuracy when the satellite sensor data replaced the field radiometry data. The model was also used to monitor the water stress during the 2009 growing season, detecting several periods of water stress in both crops. Some of these stresses occurred during stages like grain filling, when the water stress is know to have a negative effect on yield. This fact could explain the lower

  2. Integration of vegetation indices into a water balance model to estimate evapotranspiration of wheat and corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, F. L. M.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Gavilán, P.; Domínguez, J.

    2011-04-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) have been traditionally used for quantitative monitoring of vegetation. Remotely sensed radiometric measurements of visible and infrared solar energy, which is reflected or emitted by plant canopies, can be used to obtain rapid, non-destructive estimates of certain canopy attributes and parameters. One parameter of special interest for water management applications, is the crop coefficient employed by the FAO-56 model to derive actual crop evapotranspiration (ET). The aim of this study was to evaluate a methodology that combines the basal crop coefficient derived from VIs with a daily soil water balance in the root zone to estimate daily evapotranspiration rates for corn and wheat crops at field scale. The ability of the model to trace water stress in these crops was also assessed. Vegetation indices were first retrieved from field hand-held radiometer measurements and then from Landsat 5 and 7 satellite images. The results of the model were validated using two independent measurement systems for ET and regular soil moisture monitoring, in order to evaluate the behavior of the soil and atmosphere components of the model. ET estimates were compared with latent heat flux measured by an eddy covariance system and with weighing lysimeter measurements. Average overestimates of daily ET of 8 and 11% were obtained for corn and wheat, respectively, with good agreement between the estimated and measured root-zone water deficit for both crops when field radiometry was employed. When the satellite sensor data replaced the field radiometry data the overestimation figures slightly changed to 9 and 6% for the same two crops. The model was also used to monitor the water stress during the 2009 growing season, detecting several periods of water stress in both crops. Some of these stresses occurred during stages like grain filling, when the water stress is know to have a negative effect on yield. This fact could explain the lower yield reached compared to

  3. Landsat monitoring of desert vegetation growth, 1972-1979 using a plant-shadowing model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otterman, Joseph; Robinove, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat digital data spanning the period 1972-1979 were analyzed to monitor the status of vegetation within and outside an exclosure in the northern Sinai (precipitation 100-150 mm/year). This 6??6 km exclosure was fenced off in the summer of 1974 and subsequently has been free from the anthropogenic pressures (overgrazing, cultivation in small fields, and harvesting of dry plants as firewood) that continued outside the exclosure. The recovery of the ecosystem within the exclosure is monitored applying a previously tested model. The model quantitatively describes the reduction in the reflectivity to zenith due to shadowing effects by mostly vertical plants. The darkening (reduction in the reflectivity) in the exclosure was compared to the status before the fencing-off and to the essentially unchanging bare sands outside the exclosure. The vegetation protrusion parameter s (sum of the products of plant height times diameter for a unit area of the surface), calculated from Landsat digital data for the exclosure, increased from essentially zero in 1972 and 1973 to about 0.18 in 1975 and changed only within narrow limits from 1975 to 1979. The s value of 0.18 indicates that if the clumps of the plants protruding from the surface in the exclosure were laid horizontally on the soil, they would cover 18 percent of the area. This parameter provides a quantitative measure of the condition of the ecosystem, but the relation to the total green and/or brown biomass remains to be determined. ?? 1983.

  4. Frequency dependence and viral diversity imply chaos in an HIV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, Shingo; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the effect of viral diversity on the human immune system with frequency dependent rate of proliferation of CTLs (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) and rate of elimination of infected cells by CTLs. We show that the interior equilibrium of our model can become unstable without viral diversity and we observe stable periodic orbits. Furthermore, our mathematical models suggest that viral diversity produces strange attractors.

  5. Pattern selection and hysteresis in the Rietkerk model for banded vegetation in semi-arid environments.

    PubMed

    Dagbovie, Ayawoa S; Sherratt, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Banded vegetation is a characteristic feature of semi-arid environments. It occurs on gentle slopes, with alternating stripes of vegetation and bare ground running parallel to the contours. A number of mathematical models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms underlying these patterns, and how they might be affected by changes in environmental conditions. One of the most widely used models is due to Rietkerk and co-workers, and is based on a water redistribution hypothesis, with the key feedback being that the rate of rainwater infiltration into the soil is an increasing function of plant biomass. Here, for the first time, we present a detailed study of the existence and stability of pattern solutions of the Rietkerk model on slopes, using the software package wavetrain (www.ma.hw.ac.uk/wavetrain). Specifically, we calculate the region of the rainfall-migration speed parameter plane in which patterns exist, and the sub-region in which these patterns are stable as solutions of the model partial differential equations. We then perform a detailed simulation-based study of the way in which patterns evolve when the rainfall parameter is slowly varied. This reveals complex behaviour, with sudden jumps in pattern wavelength, and hysteresis; we show that these jumps occur when the contours of constant pattern wavelength leave the parameter region giving stable patterns. Finally, we extend our results to the case in which a diffusion term for surface water is added to the model equations. The parameter regions for pattern existence and stability are relatively insensitive to small or moderate levels of surface water diffusion, but larger diffusion coefficients significantly change the subdivision into stable and unstable patterns. PMID:25142517

  6. Analyzing model uncertainty in predicted surface fluxes resulting from prescribed soil and vegetation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankov, M.; Prochaka, L.; Mölders, N.

    2003-12-01

    The atmosphere and land-surface continuously interact, for which the surface affects current weather and climate. The biosphere-soil system plays an important role because it is the media in those interactions. The processes that describe those interactions are the exchange of momentuum, heat, water vapor, and matter. To include these processes at the soil-biosphere-atmosphere interface in atmospheric models they have to be parameterized. The different vegetation and soil types are realized by prescribed plant physiological and soil physical parameters (e.g. soil hydraulic conductivity, soil thermal conductivity, porosity, pore-size distribution index, leaf area index, albedo and emissivity of the foliage and soil, minimum stomatal resistance, canopy height, etc.) in these parameterizations. The parameters can vary even among the same soil or plant type. The order of magnitude of those variations can be as much as the mean values of the parameters themselves. In order to improve weather prediction the model uncertainty, caused by the necessity to prescribe parameters, has to be minimized. To asses the errors uncertainty analysis with respect to the prescribed parameters is carried out using the Gaussian Error Propagation method. We use the PennState/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model MM5 coupled with the Oregon State University land surface model (OSULSM) as the test-platform. The Gaussian Error Propagation technique provides error bars for the fluxes simulated by MM5. Moreover, the technique can point out which parameters contribute the most to the error, and should be replaced in future model development. Our preliminary results show that throughout the domain errors were at low or moderate levels. The highest errors predicted appear to be associated with scarcely vegetated, sandy clay loam areas and areas covered by ice and snow.

  7. Pattern selection and hysteresis in the Rietkerk model for banded vegetation in semi-arid environments

    PubMed Central

    Dagbovie, Ayawoa S.; Sherratt, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Banded vegetation is a characteristic feature of semi-arid environments. It occurs on gentle slopes, with alternating stripes of vegetation and bare ground running parallel to the contours. A number of mathematical models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms underlying these patterns, and how they might be affected by changes in environmental conditions. One of the most widely used models is due to Rietkerk and co-workers, and is based on a water redistribution hypothesis, with the key feedback being that the rate of rainwater infiltration into the soil is an increasing function of plant biomass. Here, for the first time, we present a detailed study of the existence and stability of pattern solutions of the Rietkerk model on slopes, using the software package wavetrain (www.ma.hw.ac.uk/wavetrain). Specifically, we calculate the region of the rainfall–migration speed parameter plane in which patterns exist, and the sub-region in which these patterns are stable as solutions of the model partial differential equations. We then perform a detailed simulation-based study of the way in which patterns evolve when the rainfall parameter is slowly varied. This reveals complex behaviour, with sudden jumps in pattern wavelength,