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Sample records for modell und programm

  1. [Promoting Children from Socially Disadvantaged Backgrounds: The Mentoring Programme "Balu und Du"].

    PubMed

    Borrmann, B; Drexler, S; Müller-Kohlenberg, H

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether socially disadvantaged elementary school children profit health-wise from their participation in the mentoring programme "Balu und Du". For the evaluation study we compared an intervention group of 141 children with a stratified control group of 158 children. The project was able to reach elementary school children from socially disadvantaged families. The treatment group showed distinct advancements in the areas of self-organisation, the ability to concentrate, as well as achievement and learning motivation.

  2. Mission reliability model programmers guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Joseph M.; Simonson, Jonathan H.; Veatch, Michael H.

    1986-12-01

    The Mission Reliability Model (MIREM) has been developed to evaluate the reliability and sustained operating capability of advanced electronic circuits during the early stages of development. MIREM is applicable to integrated systems that achieve fault tolerance through dynamic fault detection, fault isolation, and reconfiguration. The model can also be valuable in evaluating designs that employ only dedicated or hard-wired redundancy. The most unique feature of MIREM is its ability to accurately reflect the impact of reconfigurable, competing functions on system reliability. The user defines the resources necessary to support a required function, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), and the model will compute the probability of losing that functional capability over a certain operating time. A critical failure occurs when there is not a sufficient number of working resources to support a specified function. As an analytic model, MIREM determines a value for Mean Time Between Critical Failure, Mission Completion Success Probability, and Failure Resiliency. The MIREM Programmers Guide addresses the model's program structure, function of routines, interdependence of subprograms and common blocks, and file usage. The information needed to port the model to other computer systems is also provided.

  3. Business Planning Model Programmer’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    alloc~wkyI cctot ec-oreca cdosvers dosvers cent avgload cent balancel cent balance2 cent balanc3 cent bpmn (main)Icent choose cent choosemnenu cent...center cýo user -defined data-entry bpmn (main) Page 135 I Business Planning Model Programmer’s Guide 3Called Routine Callina Routine dbedit browse...doit view -tda -org doload assortedIdopack bpmn (miain) dopessitniism revpessimiism doproj org_tda view tda-org doreindex assorted dosvers bpm (main

  4. Communications network design and costing model programmers manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, K. P.; Somes, S. S.; Clark, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Otpimization algorithms and techniques used in the communications network design and costing model for least cost route and least cost network problems are examined from the programmer's point of view. All system program modules, the data structures within the model, and the files which make up the data base are described.

  5. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  6. Teaching Modelling Concepts: Enter the Pocket-Size Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaar, Kermit A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the failure of students to see a physiological system in an integrated way. Programmable calculators armed with a printer are suggested as useful teaching devices that avoid the expense and the unavailability of computers for modelling in teaching physiology. (Author/SA)

  7. Calibration of hydrological model with programme PEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-04-01

    PEST is tool based on minimization of an objective function related to the root mean square error between the model output and the measurement. We use "singular value decomposition", section of the PEST control file, and Tikhonov regularization method for successfully estimation of model parameters. The PEST sometimes failed if inverse problems were ill-posed, but (SVD) ensures that PEST maintains numerical stability. The choice of the initial guess for the initial parameter values is an important issue in the PEST and need expert knowledge. The flexible nature of the PEST software and its ability to be applied to whole catchments at once give results of calibration performed extremely well across high number of sub catchments. Use of parallel computing version of PEST called BeoPEST was successfully useful to speed up calibration process. BeoPEST employs smart slaves and point-to-point communications to transfer data between the master and slaves computers. The HBV-light model is a simple multi-tank-type model for simulating precipitation-runoff. It is conceptual balance model of catchment hydrology which simulates discharge using rainfall, temperature and estimates of potential evaporation. Version of HBV-light-CLI allows the user to run HBV-light from the command line. Input and results files are in XML form. This allows to easily connecting it with other applications such as pre and post-processing utilities and PEST itself. The procedure was applied on hydrological model of Savinja catchment (1852 km2) and consists of twenty one sub-catchments. Data are temporary processed on hourly basis.

  8. LOGAM (Logistic Analysis Model). Volume 3. Technical/Programmer Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    MANUAL VOLUME III Systems Analysis Division Systems Analysis and Evaluation Office US Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 August 1982...hardware or software. I I I- 5 1FORWARD The Logistic Analysis Model LOGAM Technical/Programmer Manual Volume III was written under Contract DAAH)I-82-C-A...LOGAM Users Manual Volume II and LOGAM Executive Summary Volume I. Acces s i on For NT’.... DTIC’ Unari::o, e JuS , 1f l’" C) L i,’ _ By

  9. A clinical internship model for the nurse practitioner programme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geraldine A; Fitzgerald, Les

    2008-11-01

    Nurse practitioners in Victoria, Australia must be prepared to Masters level before seeking nurse practitioner (NP) endorsement. The challenge from a university curriculum development perspective was to develop a programme that prepares the NP theoretically and clinically for their advanced practice role. The aim of this discussion paper is to outline how the internship model was developed and report the students' opinions on the model. The NP students complete the internship with a suitably qualified mentor which requires them to work together to develop and maintain a clinical learning plan, keep a log of the weekly meetings that shows how the objectives have been achieved. The internship includes advanced clinical assessment, prescribing, diagnostic and treatment skills and knowledge related to the nurse's specialty. The clinical assessment tool incorporates the National Competency Standards for the Nurse Practitioner and allows students and mentors to identify the level of practice and set clinical objectives. Students were asked to give feedback on the clinical internship and overall their comments were favourable, reporting benefits of a clinical mentor in their work and the clinical case presentations. The clinical internship allows the acquisition of knowledge and clinical skills in the clinical specialty with an expert clinical mentor in this innovative programme.

  10. [Improved access and quality of palliative care: the Vaud cantonal programme and the Lausanne model].

    PubMed

    Hongler, Thomas; Decollogny, Anne; Clivaz Luchez, Patrizia; Clément, Christine

    2008-02-20

    The Canton of Vaud introduced a development programme of palliative care in 2002. The goal of the programme was to ensure equal access to palliative care for anyone suffering from chronic progressive disease. One cornerstone of this programme is the desire to focus the intervention in the person's home, when desired by the patient and his family. Care networks are responsible for the implementation of this programme. The model presented here illustrates the means implemented and makes a preliminary assessment, which confirms the relevance of the main axes of the programme--training front-line teams, mobile second line teams specialized in palliative care and bed units.

  11. A Distributed Model for Managing Academic Staff in an International Online Academic Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Yoram M.; Leng, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    Online delivery of programmes of Higher Education typically involves a distributed community of students interacting with a single university site, at which the teachers, learning resources and administration of the programme are located. The alternative model, of a fully "Virtual University", which assumes no physical campus, poses…

  12. 76 FR 9513 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Twin III SL powered sailplane has been reported. Grob Aircraft AG suspects that the possible reasons... states: The in-flight loss of a propeller and pulley wheel from the engine of a Grob G 103 C Twin III...

  13. 76 FR 27240 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... propeller and pulley wheel from the engine of a Grob G 103 C Twin III SL powered sailplane has been reported... and pulley wheel from the engine of a Grob G 103 C Twin III SL powered sailplane has been...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of a hypertension management programme in an elderly population: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence shows that multi-intervention programmes for hypertension treatment are more effective than an isolated pharmacological strategy. Full economic evaluations of hypertension management programmes are scarce and contain methodological limitations. The aim of the study was to evaluate if a hypertension management programme for elderly patients is cost-effective compared to usual care from the perspective of a third-party payer. Methods We built a cost-effectiveness model using published evidence of effectiveness of a comprehensive hypertension programme vs. usual care for patients 65 years or older at a community hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We explored incremental cost-effectiveness between groups. The model used a life-time framework adopting a third-party payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in International Dollars per life-year gained. We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) to explore variable uncertainty. Results The ICER for the base-case of the "Hypertension Programme" versus the "Usual care" approach was 1,124 International Dollars per life-year gained. PSA did not significantly influence results. The programme had a probability of 43% of being dominant (more effective and less costly) and, overall, 95% chance of being cost-effective. Discussion Results showed that "Hypertension Programme" had high probabilities of being cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios. This is the first sound cost-effectiveness study to assess a comprehensive hypertension programme versus usual care. This study measures hard outcomes and explores robustness through a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusions The comprehensive hypertension programme had high probabilities of being cost-effective versus usual care. This study supports the idea that similar programmes could be the preferred strategy in countries and within health care systems where hypertension treatment for

  15. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  16. The Asian Epidemic Model: a process model for exploring HIV policy and programme alternatives in Asia.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Peerapatanapokin, W

    2004-08-01

    Process models offer opportunities to explore the effectiveness of different programme and policy alternatives by varying input behaviours and model parameters to reflect programmatic/policy effects. The Asian Epidemic Model (AEM) has been designed to reflect the primary groups and transmission modes driving HIV transmission in Asia. The user adjusts AEM fitting parameters until HIV prevalence outputs from the model agree with observed epidemiological trends. The AEM resultant projections are closely tied to the epidemiological and behavioural data in the country. In Thailand and Cambodia they have shown good agreement with observed epidemiological trends in surveillance populations and with changes in HIV transmission modes, AIDS cases, male:female ratios over time, and other external validation checks. By varying the input behaviours and STI trends, one can examine the impact of different prevention efforts on the future course of the epidemic. In conclusion, the AEM is a semi-empirical model, which has worked well in Asian settings. It provides a useful tool for policy and programme analysis in Asian countries.

  17. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  18. Talent identification and development programmes in sport : current models and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Williams, A Mark; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2008-01-01

    Many children strive to attain excellence in sport. However, although talent identification and development programmes have gained popularity in recent decades, there remains a lack of consensus in relation to how talent should be defined or identified and there is no uniformly accepted theoretical framework to guide current practice. The success rates of talent identification and development programmes have rarely been assessed and the validity of the models applied remains highly debated. This article provides an overview of current knowledge in this area with special focus on problems associated with the identification of gifted adolescents. There is a growing agreement that traditional cross-sectional talent identification models are likely to exclude many, especially late maturing, 'promising' children from development programmes due to the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent. A conceptual framework that acknowledges both genetic and environmental influences and considers the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent is presented. The relevance of this model is highlighted and recommendations for future work provided. It is advocated that talent identification and development programmes should be dynamic and interconnected taking into consideration maturity status and the potential to develop rather than to exclude children at an early age. Finally, more representative real-world tasks should be developed and employed in a multidimensional design to increase the efficacy of talent identification and development programmes.

  19. Academic Civic Mindedness and Model Citizenship in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky

    2016-01-01

    This study uses interview and survey methods to describe the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme's (DP) development of students' "academic civic mindedness" and "model citizenship" at four public schools in California. Results indicate that the DP pedagogy enables students to develop many of the skills that are…

  20. A School-Based Professional Development Programme for Teachers of Mathematical Modelling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Liang Soon; Ang, Keng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A school-based professional development programme (SBPD) aimed at developing secondary school mathematics teachers' competencies to teach mathematical modelling in Singapore is presented and evaluated in this article. The SBPD is characterized by two key features--content elements to develop teachers' knowledge and skills, and transformative…

  1. Evaluation of the Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) Teaching Intervention Programme in a "Real World" Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Makrygianni, Maria; Waddington, Emma; Etherington, Annie; Gainsborough, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was compared to a time-comparable approach (Portage) in terms of child outcomes and parental functioning. BEAM produced improvements in the adaptive behavioural function and language abilities of the children with ASD. Additionally, the programme produced…

  2. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  3. Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model…

  4. An economic model to evaluate the mitigation programme for bovine viral diarrhoea in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Presi, P; Stärk, K D C

    2012-09-15

    Economic analyses are indispensable as sources of information to help policy makers make decisions about mitigation resource use. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Swiss national mitigation programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which was implemented in 2008 and concludes in 2017. The eradication phase of the mitigation programme comprised testing and slaughtering of all persistently infected (PI) animals found. First, the whole population was antigen tested and all PI cattle removed. Since October 2008, all newborn calves have been subject to antigen testing to identify and slaughter PI calves. All mothers of PI calves were retested and slaughtered if the test was positive. Antigen testing in calves and elimination of virus-carriers was envisaged to be conducted until the end of 2011. Subsequently, a surveillance programme will document disease freedom or detect disease if it recurs. Four alternative surveillance strategies based on antibody testing in blood from newborn calves and/or milk from primiparous cows were proposed by Federal Veterinary Office servants in charge of the BVDV mitigation programme. A simple economic spreadsheet model was developed to estimate and compare the costs and benefits of the BVDV mitigation programme. In an independent project, the impact of the mitigation programme on the disease dynamics in the population was simulated using a stochastic compartment model. Mitigation costs accrued from materials, labour, and processes such as handling and testing samples, and recording results. Benefits were disease costs avoided by having the mitigation programme in place compared to a baseline of endemic disease equilibrium. Cumulative eradication costs and benefits were estimated to determine the break-even point for the eradication component of the programme. The margin over eradication cost therefore equalled the maximum expenditure potentially available for surveillance without the net benefit

  5. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : programmer's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, C. M.; Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  6. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  7. Epidemiological models of poliomyelitis and measles and their application in the planning of immunization programmes*

    PubMed Central

    Cvjetanović, B.; Grab, B.; Dixon, H.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the construction and application of epidemiological models of measles and poliomyelitis. In these models, epidemiological classes and their age structure have been based on the natural history of these diseases in the population aged 0 - 19 years. The flow of the population through the classes has been expressed as an equation system suitable for computer interpretation. The models have been used to simulate both the natural course of the diseases and the effect of various immunization schemes. The models were also used to explore prospects for control and eradication of these diseases with specific immunization programmes, and their relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are discussed. PMID:6814774

  8. National treatment programme of hepatitis C in Egypt: Hepatitis C virus model of care.

    PubMed

    El-Akel, W; El-Sayed, M H; El Kassas, M; El-Serafy, M; Khairy, M; Elsaeed, K; Kabil, K; Hassany, M; Shawky, A; Yosry, A; Shaker, M K; ElShazly, Y; Waked, I; Esmat, G; Doss, W

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt as the nation bears the highest prevalence rate worldwide. This necessitated establishing a novel model of care (MOC) to contain the epidemic, deliver patient care and ensure global treatment access. In this review, we describe the process of development of the Egyptian model and future strategies for sustainability. Although the magnitude of the HCV problem was known for many years, the HCV MOC only came into being in 2006 with the establishment of the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) to set up and implement a national control strategy for the disease and other causes of viral hepatitis. The strategy outlines best practices for patient care delivery by applying a set of service principles through identified clinical streams and patient flow continuums. The Egyptian national viral hepatitis treatment programme is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programmes. To date, more than one million patients were evaluated and more than 850 000 received treatment under the umbrella of the programme since 2006. The NCCVH has been successful in establishing a strong infrastructure for controlling viral hepatitis in Egypt. It established a nationwide network of digitally connected viral hepatitis-specialized treatment centres covering the country map to enhance treatment access. Practice guidelines suiting local circumstances were issued and regularly updated and are applied in all affiliated centres. This review illustrates the model and the successful Egyptian experience. It sets an exemplar for states, organizations and policy-makers setting up programmes for care and management of people with hepatitis C.

  9. Assessing Optimal Target Populations for Influenza Vaccination Programmes: An Evidence Synthesis and Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Baguelin, Marc; Flasche, Stefan; Camacho, Anton; Demiris, Nikolaos; Miller, Elizabeth; Edmunds, W. John

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccine policies that maximise health benefit through efficient use of limited resources are needed. Generally, influenza vaccination programmes have targeted individuals 65 y and over and those at risk, according to World Health Organization recommendations. We developed methods to synthesise the multiplicity of surveillance datasets in order to evaluate how changing target populations in the seasonal vaccination programme would affect infection rate and mortality. Methods and Findings Using a contemporary evidence-synthesis approach, we use virological, clinical, epidemiological, and behavioural data to develop an age- and risk-stratified transmission model that reproduces the strain-specific behaviour of influenza over 14 seasons in England and Wales, having accounted for the vaccination uptake over this period. We estimate the reduction in infections and deaths achieved by the historical programme compared with no vaccination, and the reduction had different policies been in place over the period. We find that the current programme has averted 0.39 (95% credible interval 0.34–0.45) infections per dose of vaccine and 1.74 (1.16–3.02) deaths per 1,000 doses. Targeting transmitters by extending the current programme to 5–16-y-old children would increase the efficiency of the total programme, resulting in an overall reduction of 0.70 (0.52–0.81) infections per dose and 1.95 (1.28–3.39) deaths per 1,000 doses. In comparison, choosing the next group most at risk (50–64-y-olds) would prevent only 0.43 (0.35–0.52) infections per dose and 1.77 (1.15–3.14) deaths per 1,000 doses. Conclusions This study proposes a framework to integrate influenza surveillance data into transmission models. Application to data from England and Wales confirms the role of children as key infection spreaders. The most efficient use of vaccine to reduce overall influenza morbidity and mortality is thus to target children in addition to older adults. Please

  10. Mittelwert- und Arbeitstaktsynchrone Simulation von Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Sebastian

    Getrieben durch die immer restriktiveren Anforderungen an das Emissions- und Verbrauchsverhalten moderner Verbrennungsmotoren steigt die Komplexität von Motormanagementsystemen mit jeder Modellgeneration an. Damit geht nicht nur eine Zunahme des Softwareumfangs von Steuergeräten sondern zugleich ein deutlicher Anstieg des Applikations-, Vermessungs- und Testaufwandes einher. Zur Effizienzsteigerung des Software- und Funktionsentwicklungsprozesses haben sich daher in der Automobilindustrie sowie in Forschungsinstituten verschiedene modell- und simulationsbasierte Methoden wie die Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) Simulation, die Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) Simulation, das Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) sowie die Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation etabliert.

  11. Investigating and improving the models of programming concepts held by novice programmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Ferguson, J.; Roper, M.; Wood, M.

    2011-03-01

    The teaching of introductory computer programming seems far from successful, with many first-year students performing more poorly than expected. One possible reason for this is that novices hold 'non-viable' mental models (internal explanations of how something works) of key programming concepts which then cause misconceptions and difficulties. An initial study investigated the apparent viability of novices' models of fundamental programming concepts, focusing on value and reference assignment. This revealed that many students appeared to hold 'non-viable' mental models of these key concepts and that those students who appeared to hold viable mental models performed significantly better in programming tasks than those with non-viable models. To address this, a teaching model integrating cognitive conflict and program visualisation is proposed. A series of studies found that this teaching model is potentially effective in enhancing engagement with learning materials and may therefore help novice programmers develop a better understanding of key concepts.

  12. On the use of programmable hardware and reduced numerical precision in earth‐system modeling

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Francis P.; Niu, Xinyu; Luk, Wayne; Palmer, T. N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Programmable hardware, in particular Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), promises a significant increase in computational performance for simulations in geophysical fluid dynamics compared with CPUs of similar power consumption. FPGAs allow adjusting the representation of floating‐point numbers to specific application needs. We analyze the performance‐precision trade‐off on FPGA hardware for the two‐scale Lorenz '95 model. We scale the size of this toy model to that of a high‐performance computing application in order to make meaningful performance tests. We identify the minimal level of precision at which changes in model results are not significant compared with a maximal precision version of the model and find that this level is very similar for cases where the model is integrated for very short or long intervals. It is therefore a useful approach to investigate model errors due to rounding errors for very short simulations (e.g., 50 time steps) to obtain a range for the level of precision that can be used in expensive long‐term simulations. We also show that an approach to reduce precision with increasing forecast time, when model errors are already accumulated, is very promising. We show that a speed‐up of 1.9 times is possible in comparison to FPGA simulations in single precision if precision is reduced with no strong change in model error. The single‐precision FPGA setup shows a speed‐up of 2.8 times in comparison to our model implementation on two 6‐core CPUs for large model setups. PMID:27642499

  13. On the use of programmable hardware and reduced numerical precision in earth-system modeling.

    PubMed

    Düben, Peter D; Russell, Francis P; Niu, Xinyu; Luk, Wayne; Palmer, T N

    2015-09-01

    Programmable hardware, in particular Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), promises a significant increase in computational performance for simulations in geophysical fluid dynamics compared with CPUs of similar power consumption. FPGAs allow adjusting the representation of floating-point numbers to specific application needs. We analyze the performance-precision trade-off on FPGA hardware for the two-scale Lorenz '95 model. We scale the size of this toy model to that of a high-performance computing application in order to make meaningful performance tests. We identify the minimal level of precision at which changes in model results are not significant compared with a maximal precision version of the model and find that this level is very similar for cases where the model is integrated for very short or long intervals. It is therefore a useful approach to investigate model errors due to rounding errors for very short simulations (e.g., 50 time steps) to obtain a range for the level of precision that can be used in expensive long-term simulations. We also show that an approach to reduce precision with increasing forecast time, when model errors are already accumulated, is very promising. We show that a speed-up of 1.9 times is possible in comparison to FPGA simulations in single precision if precision is reduced with no strong change in model error. The single-precision FPGA setup shows a speed-up of 2.8 times in comparison to our model implementation on two 6-core CPUs for large model setups.

  14. Human Onchocerciasis: Modelling the Potential Long-term Consequences of a Vaccination Programme

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hugo C.; Walker, Martin; Lustigman, Sara; Taylor, David W.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, the predominant onchocerciasis control strategy in Africa is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin. However, there is a consensus among the global health community, supported by mathematical modelling, that onchocerciasis in Africa will not be eliminated within proposed time frameworks in all endemic foci with only annual MDA, and novel and alternative strategies are urgently needed. Furthermore, use of MDA with ivermectin is already compromised in large areas of central Africa co-endemic with Loa loa, and there are areas where suboptimal or atypical responses to ivermectin have been documented. An onchocerciasis vaccine would be highly advantageous in these areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a previously developed onchocerciasis transmission model (EPIONCHO) to investigate the impact of vaccination in areas where loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic and ivermectin is contraindicated. We also explore the potential influence of a vaccination programme on infection resurgence in areas where local elimination has been successfully achieved. Based on the age range included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), the vaccine was assumed to target 1 to 5 year olds. Our modelling results indicate that the deployment of an onchocerciasis vaccine would have a beneficial impact in onchocerciasis–loiasis co-endemic areas, markedly reducing microfilarial load in the young (under 20 yr) age groups. Conclusions/Significance An onchocerciasis prophylactic vaccine would reduce the onchocerciasis disease burden in populations where ivermectin cannot be administered safely. Moreover, a vaccine could substantially decrease the chance of re-emergence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in areas where it is deemed that MDA with ivermectin can be stopped. Therefore, a vaccine would protect the substantial investments made by present and past onchocerciasis control programmes, decreasing the chance of disease recrudescence and

  15. Fische und Fischerzeugnisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    Fische und Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" und Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- und/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere und Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere und Weichtiererzeugnisse und tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.

  16. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34): Programmer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.; Johnson, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a programmer's guide for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34). Included are a brief history and review of the model since its origin in 1988 and a technical discussion of recent additions and modifications. Examples of how to run both the interactive and batch (subroutine) forms are presented. Instructions are provided on how to customize output of the model for various parameters of the Mars atmosphere. Detailed descriptions are given of the main driver programs, subroutines, and associated computational methods. Lists and descriptions include input, output, and local variables in the programs. These descriptions give a summary of program steps and 'map' of calling relationships among the subroutines. Definitions are provided for the variables passed between subroutines through common lists. Explanations are provided for all diagnostic and progress messages generated during execution of the program. A brief outline of future plans for Mars-GRAM is also presented.

  17. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  18. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  19. Ingenieurgeologie: Grundlagen und Anwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Dieter D.

    Geplünderter Planet? Die Ingenieurgeologie ist ein junges, interdisziplinäres Fachgebiet. Es befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung zwischen Geosphäre und Mensch. Der Autor stellt Georisiken vor und diskutiert die Folgen menschlicher Eingriffe in die Natur. Er thematisiert aktuelle Herausforderungen und entwirft nachhaltige Lösungskonzepte für verschiedene Problembereiche: z.B. Naturgefahren wie Hangrutschungen und Bergfälle, die Ausbeute natürlicher Ressourcen, Bau- und Sanierungsvorhaben. Fallbeschreibungen und ausgearbeitete Beispiele vertiefen das Verständnis für diesen neuen, zukunftsweisenden Zweig der Wissenschaft.

  20. Entrepreneurial training for girls empowerment in Lesotho: A process evaluation of a model programme

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Mary O'Neill; Kuriansky, Judy; Lytle, Megan; Vistman, Bozhena; Mosisili, ‘Mathato S.; Hlothoane, Lieketso; Matlanyane, Mapeo; Mokobori, Thabang; Mosuhli, Silas; Pebane, Jane

    2014-01-01

    A Girls Empowerment Programme held in 2010 in Lesotho, Sub-Saharan Africa, focused on HIV/AIDS risk reduction and prevention, life skills and entrepreneurial training (income-generating activities). Entrepreneurial training was a crucial part of equipping the camp attendees with basic skills to help them develop sustainable livelihoods. Such skills and financial independence are essential to enable rural girls to complete their secondary schooling (in a fee-based educational system) and to pursue a career, as well as to further help them be less susceptible to transactional sex and its significant risks. The results of a brief process evaluation with some nested supporting data showed considerable improvement in the girls' knowledge about income-generating activities. In addition, almost half of the camp attendees participated in further entrepreneurial training and about half of these girls went on to develop small businesses. Replication of this model of camp training is recommended and being explored in other African countries. PMID:25505804

  1. Modeling programmable deformation of self-folding all-polymer structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Meie; Zhou, Jinxiong

    2013-11-01

    Combination of soft active hydrogels with hard passive polymers gives rise to all-polymer composites. The hydrogel is sensitive to external stimuli while the passive polymer is inert. Utilizing the different behaviors of two materials subject to environmental variation, for example temperature, results in self-folding soft machines. We report our efforts to model the programmable deformation of self-folding structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels. The self-folding structures are realized either by constructing a bilayer structure or by incorporating hydrogels as hinges. The methodology and the results may aid the design, control and fabrication of 3D complex structures from 2D simple configurations through self-assembly.

  2. Exploration geophysics calculator programs for use on Hewlett-Packard models 67 and 97 programmable calculators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.

    1978-01-01

    Program listing, instructions, and example problems are given for 12 programs for the interpretation of geophysical data, for use on Hewlett-Packard models 67 and 97 programmable hand-held calculators. These are (1) gravity anomaly over 2D prism with = 9 vertices--Talwani method; (2) magnetic anomaly (?T, ?V, or ?H) over 2D prism with = 8 vertices?Talwani method; (3) total-field magnetic anomaly profile over thick sheet/thin dike; (4) single dipping seismic refractor--interpretation and design; (5) = 4 dipping seismic refractors--interpretation; (6) = 4 dipping seismic refractors?design; (7) vertical electrical sounding over = 10 horizontal layers--Schlumberger or Wenner forward calculation; (8) vertical electric sounding: Dar Zarrouk calculations; (9) magnetotelluric planewave apparent conductivity and phase angle over = 9 horizontal layers--forward calculation; (10) petrophysics: a.c. electrical parameters; (11) petrophysics: elastic constants; (12) digital convolution with = 10-1ength filter.

  3. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  4. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  5. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  6. The potential spread of severe footrot in Norway if no elimination programme had been initiated: a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Grøneng, Gry M; Vatn, Synnøve; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Nafstad, Ola; Hopp, Petter

    2015-02-20

    When severe footrot was detected in Norway in 2008, a surveillance programme was initiated and followed by an elimination programme. By 2013 the disease had spread to two of 19 counties and a total of 119 (1%) sheep flocks had been diagnosed with severe footrot. A simulation model was developed to estimate the potential spread of severe footrot in Norway and to estimate the relative importance of the different spreading routes. The model parameters were based on the rate of spread of the first 38 diagnosed cases and the management and climatic factors particular for Norway. The model showed that by 2013, severe footrot would have spread to six counties and infected 16% of the sheep flocks if no elimination programme had been initiated. If this is compared with the 1% of flocks that were diagnosed in Norway by 2013, there seems to be a large effect of the implemented footrot elimination programme. By 2035, it was estimated that severe footrot would have spread to 16 counties and 64% of the sheep flocks. Such an extensive spread would probably impose a large negative impact on the sheep industry and welfare of the sheep. The most effective way to curb the spread of severe footrot was by decreasing the within county infection rate. This could be achieved by decreasing the contact between flocks or by decreasing the environmental load of D. nodosus, for example by footbathing sheep, culling diseased sheep or eliminating severe footrot in the flock.

  7. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1) a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2) the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices). Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity. PMID:21999434

  8. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  9. Hearing the shape of the Ising model with a programmable superconducting-flux annealer.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M; Warburton, Paul A; Severini, Simone

    2014-07-16

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra.

  10. Hearing the Shape of the Ising Model with a Programmable Superconducting-Flux Annealer

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Warburton, Paul A.; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra. PMID:25029660

  11. Hearing the Shape of the Ising Model with a Programmable Superconducting-Flux Annealer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Warburton, Paul A.; Severini, Simone

    2014-07-01

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra.

  12. WASP4, a hydrodynamic and water-quality model - model theory, user's manual, and programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, R.B.; Wool, T.A.; Connolly, J.P.; Schanz, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Version 4 (WASP4) is a dynamic compartment-modeling system that can be used to analyze a variety of water-quality problems in a diverse set of water bodies. WASP4 simulates the transport and transformation of conventional and toxic pollutants in the water column and benthos of ponds, streams, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters. The WASP4 modeling system covers four major subjects--hydrodynamics, conservative mass transport, eutrophication-dissolved oxygen kinetics, and toxic chemical-sediment dynamics. The WASP4 modeling system consists of two stand-alone computer programs, DYNHYD4 and WASP4, that can be run in conjunction or separately. The hydrodynamic program, DYNHYD4, simulates the movement of water and the water quality program, WASP4, simulates the movement and interaction of pollutants within the water. The latter program is supplied with two kinetic submodels to simulate two of the major classes of water-quality problems--conventional pollution (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrients, and eutrophication) and toxic pollution (organic chemicals, heavy metals, and sediment). The substitution of either sub-model constitutes the models EUTRO4 and TOXI4, respectively.

  13. Shuttle cryogenics supply system optimization study. Volume 5, B-3, part 2: Appendix to programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer programmer's manual for a digital computer which will permit rapid and accurate parametric analysis of current and advanced attitude control propulsion systems is presented. The concept is for a cold helium pressurized, subcritical cryogen fluid supplied, bipropellant gas-fed attitude control propulsion system. The cryogen fluids are stored as liquids under low pressure and temperature conditions. The mathematical model provides a generalized form for the procedural technique employed in setting up the analysis program.

  14. Shuttle cryogenics supply system. Optimization study. Volume 5 B-2, part 1: Appendix programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An appendix to the programmers manual for the mathematical model pertaining to the design of cryogenic supply systems for spacecraft is presented. The program listing was produced using the EXEC-8 LISTALL processor which lists a file in alphabetical order. Since the processor does not differentiate between subroutines, functions, and procedure definition processors, each subprogram has been relabeled to clearly identify the type of symbolic listing.

  15. Zwergsatelliten und Sternriesen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baade, Dietrich; Kuschnig, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Leuchtkräftige Sterne sind schwierig: Fär Fotometrie mit großen Teleskopen sind sie zu hell, und ihre geringe Zahl macht konventionelle Lösungen unwirtschaftlich, besonders im Weltraum, wo die äußerste Präzision gegeben wäre. Mit einer Mini-Armada von Nanosatelliten haben Ingenieure und Astronomen aus Kanada, Österreich und Polen nun die Lösung gefunden - auch schon für viele wissenschaftliche Fragen.

  16. Integrated Teacher Education Programme for Open Distance Learning: A Model for Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education in India, including that offered by the open distance learning (ODL) system to thousands every year, imparts mainly pedagogic knowledge, although the need for integrated teacher education programmes has been underscored. As the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an ODL institution, will develop an integrated Bachelor…

  17. A Model for Developing and Assessing Youth-Based Environmental Engagement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemer, Manuel; Lynes, Jennifer; Hickman, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a fundamental cultural shift is needed to effectively address anthropogenic causes of climate change. Evidence suggests that youth are well positioned to create such transformation. While various studies have contributed empirical evidence to numerous youth-based non-formal environmental engagement programmes, what is…

  18. Industry Review and Validation of Model Curriculum for Programmer/Analyst, Network Administration, and Technical Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwager, Mahna; Lee, June

    Industry representatives reviewed the curricula for computer programmer-analyst, network administrator, and technical support courses at 10 community colleges in California. Thirty-eight reviewers participated in the focus groups, and several other reviewers participated via e-mail. The focus groups discussed each of the three degree programs…

  19. Economics and planning in the veterinary undergraduate programme: a model for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mlangwa, J E; Kisauzi, D N

    1993-09-01

    Veterinarians in sub-Saharan Africa work in resource-deficient environments. Decisions taken by veterinarians in this sub-region, on animal health, animal husbandry and public health issues, are therefore influenced by economic factors including macro-economic considerations related to the current structural adjustment programmes being implemented in the sub-region. In turn, decisions or advice given by veterinarians have socio-economic consequences on clients, on the effectiveness of the delivery systems for veterinary services and on the growth of national economies. For these reasons, economics and planning should be essential components of all modern veterinary undergraduate programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, in order to give veterinarians a basis for making decisions and giving advice which is both technically and economically sound. The authors argue that principles of livestock economics, livestock enterprise management, livestock investment analysis and economics of animal health care are necessary elements in economics and planning courses. They propose a division of these elements into discrete course units to allow for flexibility and adaptability to the different curriculum structures of schools in sub-Saharan Africa and, possibly, continuing professional development courses. The resource requirement for teaching the courses, the integration of the units in the undergraduate programme and the problems which are likely to be encountered in developing the courses are discussed.

  20. Neuausrichtung und Konsolidierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische und die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft und die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, und die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung und Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II und III des Bandes berichtet.

  1. Tensoren und Felder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirschmid, Hans J.

    Das Lehrbuch soll Studierende mit Grundkenntnissen der Differential- und Integralrechnung in die klassische Feldtheorie mit modernen mathematischen Methoden einführen. Dementsprechend ist die Tensoranalysis das mathematische Thema, das Prinzip der Relativität das physikalische. Aus didaktischen Erwägungen gliedert sich der Text in zwei Teile. Um den Leser mit den Objekten vertraut zu machen, wird zunächst der affine und euklidische Raum zugrundegelegt, um verallgemeinernd zur Geometrie auf Mannigfaltigkeiten und Riemannschen Räumen überleiten zu können. Im Anschluß an die mathematische Theorie wird in die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie eingeführt, wobei die Geometrie der Raum-Zeit, die Grundgesetze der Elektrodynamik und der Gravitation sowie Folgerungen zur Sprache kommen.

  2. The transmission dynamics of hepatitis B in the UK: a mathematical model for evaluating costs and effectiveness of immunization programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. R.; Nokes, D. J.; Medley, G. F.; Anderson, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Complex hepatitis B (HBV) epidemiology makes it difficult to evaluate and compare effectiveness of different immunization policies. A method for doing so is presented using a mathematical model of HBV transmission dynamics which can represent universal infant and adolescent vaccination strategies and those targeted at genito-urinary (GU) clinic attenders and infants born to infectious mothers. Model structure, epidemiological underpinning, and parameterization, are described. Data from the UK National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles is used to define patterns of sexual activity and GU clinic attendance; data deficiencies are discussed, in particular that of UK seroprevalence of HBV markers stratified by age, sex, and risk factors. General model predictions of endemic HBV marker prevalence in homosexual and heterosexual populations seem consistent with published UK data. The simulations exhibit non-linearities in the impact of different vaccination strategies. Estimated number of carriers prevented per vaccine dose for each strategy provides a measure of costs and benefits, varying temporally over the course of a programme, and with level of vaccine coverage. Screening before vaccination markedly increases payback per dose in homosexuals but not in heterosexuals; mass infant vaccination gives the poorest effectiveness ratio and vaccination of infants after antenatal screening the best; in general, increasing vaccine coverage yields lower pay-back per dose. The model provides a useful framework for evaluating costs and benefits of immunization programmes, but for precise quantitative comparison more UK epidemiological data is urgently needed. PMID:8626006

  3. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  4. Promotional model: a new direction for the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekerete, P P

    2000-01-01

    The National Programme on Immunization (NPI), which was formerly known as the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) were relaunched in 1984 after the problems of vaccine supply had been corrected. The aim of the NPI was to protect children against six childhood killer diseases and ORT to rehydrate the dehydrated child caused by diarrhoea. In order to achieve these objectives, a Partner-in-Health strategy was set up to educate, convince and motivate mothers, pregnant women and the community to accept the programme. To assess the effect of the promotional strategy, the government decided to conduct a National Immunization Coverage survey. The results showed that some states were able to reach the target while some were not. The survey also reported that 32% of the reason for immunization failure was due to lack of information and that 9% was lack of motivation. It therefore became necessary to design a promotional model for effective and rapid implementation of the programme. After an evaluation of the promotional strategy set up by the government, a pilot survey was conducted from which nine promotional elements were selected. These promotional elements were regarded as sources of information and motivation. Based on these, a promotional model was set up which stated that promotion depends on consumer information which in turn depends on the extent of interaction between the consumer and the promotional elements. The implication of the model is the need for the formation of a Public Health Organisation with a Public Health Committee at all levels of government.

  5. Development and application of a multiple linear regression model to consider the impact of weekly waste container capacity on the yield from kerbside recycling programmes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Baird, Jim; Curry, Robin; Reid, Tim

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the development and application of a multiple linear regression model to identify how the key elements of waste and recycling infrastructure, namely container capacity and frequency of collection, affect the yield from municipal kerbside recycling programmes. The overall aim of the research was to gain an understanding of the factors affecting the yield from municipal kerbside recycling programmes in Scotland with an underlying objective to evaluate the efficacy of the model as a decision-support tool for informing the design of kerbside recycling programmes. The study isolates the principal kerbside collection service offered by all 32 councils across Scotland, eliminating those recycling programmes associated with flatted properties or multi-occupancies. The results of the regression analysis model have identified three principal factors which explain 80% of the variability in the average yield of the principal dry recyclate services: weekly residual waste capacity, number of materials collected and the weekly recycling capacity. The use of the model has been evaluated and recommendations made on ongoing methodological development and the use of the results in informing the design of kerbside recycling programmes. We hope that the research can provide insights for the further development of methods to optimise the design and operation of kerbside recycling programmes.

  6. [Hardware Implementation of Numerical Simulation Function of Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neurons Action Potential Based on Field Programmable Gate Array].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Mai; Hu, Yanwen; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Pan, Qiangqiang

    2015-12-01

    Neuron is the basic unit of the biological neural system. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is one of the most realistic neuron models on the electrophysiological characteristic description of neuron. Hardware implementation of neuron could provide new research ideas to clinical treatment of spinal cord injury, bionics and artificial intelligence. Based on the HH model neuron and the DSP Builder technology, in the present study, a single HH model neuron hardware implementation was completed in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The neuron implemented in FPGA was stimulated by different types of current, the action potential response characteristics were analyzed, and the correlation coefficient between numerical simulation result and hardware implementation result were calculated. The results showed that neuronal action potential response of FPGA was highly consistent with numerical simulation result. This work lays the foundation for hardware implementation of neural network.

  7. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  8. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  9. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  10. In vitro and modelling approaches to risk assessment from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast programme.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard; Houck, Keith; Martin, Matt; Knudsen, Thomas; Thomas, Russell S; Sipes, Nisha; Shah, Imran; Wambaugh, John; Crofton, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    A significant challenge in toxicology is the 'too many chemicals' problem. Human beings and environmental species are exposed to tens of thousands of chemicals, only a small percentage of which have been tested thoroughly using standard in vivo test methods. This study reviews several approaches that are being developed to deal with this problem by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the umbrella of the ToxCast programme (http://epa.gov/ncct/toxcast/). The overall approach is broken into seven tasks: (i) identifying biological pathways that, when perturbed, can lead to toxicity; (ii) developing high-throughput in vitro assays to test chemical perturbations of these pathways; (iii) identifying the universe of chemicals with likely human or ecological exposure; (iv) testing as many of these chemicals as possible in the relevant in vitro assays; (v) developing hazard models that take the results of these tests and identify chemicals as being potential toxicants; (vi) generating toxicokinetics data on these chemicals to predict the doses at which these hazard pathways would be activated; and (vii) developing exposure models to identify chemicals for which these hazardous dose levels could be achieved. This overall strategy is described and briefly illustrated with recent examples from the ToxCast programme.

  11. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  12. Mothers, Fathers, and Parental Systems: A Conceptual Model of Parental Engagement in Programmes for Child Mental Health-Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact (CAPE).

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Tully, L A; Lenroot, R; Kimonis, E; Hawes, D; Moul, C; Frick, P J; Anderson, V; Dadds, M R

    2016-12-02

    Parenting programmes are one of the best researched and most effective interventions for reducing child mental health problems. The success of such programmes, however, is largely dependent on their reach and parental engagement. Rates of parental enrolment and attendance are highly variable, and in many cases very low; this is especially true of father involvement in parenting programmes. This paper proposes a conceptual model of parental engagement in parenting programmes-the CAPE model (Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact) that builds on recent models by elaborating on the interdependent stages of engagement, and its interparental or systemic context. That is, we argue that a comprehensive model of parental engagement will best entail a process from connection to enactment of learned strategies in the child's environment, and involve consideration of individual parents (both mothers and fathers) as well as the dynamics of the parenting team. The model provides a framework for considering parent engagement as well as associated facilitators and mechanisms of parenting change such as parenting skills, self-efficacy, attributions, and the implementation context. Empirical investigation of the CAPE model could be used to further our understanding of parental engagement, its importance for programme outcomes, and mechanisms of change. This will guide future intervention refinement and developments as well as change in clinical practice.

  13. Instandhaltung und Normung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz-Wuttig, Angela

    Das DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. ist ein eingetragener Verein mit Sitz in Berlin. Das DIN erarbeitet gemeinsam mit den Experten der interessierten Kreise Normen und Standards als Dienstleistung für Wirtschaft, Staat und Gesellschaft. Die Kenntnis entsprechender Normen, Standards oder Regeln, sowie deren richtiger Einsatz, ist unter den heutigen Marktbedingungen für jedes Unternehmen ein nicht zu unterschätzender wirtschaftlicher Faktor. Normen schaffen Effizienz bei Produktionsabläufen und sorgen durch eine gleichbleibende sowie vergleichbare Produktqualität für Vertrauen bei den Endverbrauchern. Darüber hinaus stehen Normen unter rechtlichen Aspekten für mehr Sicherheit - Hersteller erreichen bei Anwendung und Einhaltung von Normen ein hohes Maß an rechtlicher Absicherung. Das DIN vertritt die deutschen Interessen in den europäischen und weltweiten Normungsorganisationen, siehe Abb. 1. Zuständig für die elektrotechnische Normung in Deutschland sowie als deutscher Repräsentant in den übernationalen Gremien ist die DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN und VDE.

  14. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  15. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume V. SPAHR programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, numbers of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume contains a programmer's guide to SPAHR.

  16. Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    Mit dem Aufschwung von Naturwissenschaft und Technik zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts entstand die mathematische Statistik, angeregt aus der Geodäsie (wie die Methode der kleinsten Quadrate) und der Anthropologie (wie die statistische Analyse mehrdimensionaler Beobachtungen und ihrer stochastischen Abhängigkeiten). Im Gegensatz zu den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, in denen Daten vorwiegend aus Beobachtungsstudien gewonnen werden, stehen in den Naturwissenschaften Experimente im Vordergrund. Daher gehört die statistische Versuchsplanung zu den insbesondere in Naturwissenschaft und Technik angewendeten statistischen Methoden, aber auch die Extremwertstatistik und Lebensdaueranalysen sowie die Methoden der räumlichen Statistik (insbesondere in der Umweltforschung). Im 20. Jahrhundert wurden Stichprobenpläne und Regelkarten (Kontrollkarten) zur Prozessregelung als Hilfsmittel der statistischen Qualitätssicherung entwickelt. Diese Methodenbündel, mit denen sich der Ausschuss Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik immer wieder befasst, werden im Folgenden vorgestellt.

  17. [Design and implementation of the pulse wave generator with field programmable gate array based on windkessel model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Fu, Quanhai; Xu, Lisheng; Liu, Jia; He, Dianning; Li, Qingchun

    2014-10-01

    Pulse waves contain rich physiological and pathological information of the human vascular system. The pulse wave diagnosis systems are very helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Accurate pulse waveform is necessary to evaluate the performances of the pulse wave equipment. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate pulse waveform due to several kinds of physiological and pathological conditions for testing and maintaining the pulse wave acquisition devices. A pulse wave generator was designed and implemented in the present study for this application. The blood flow in the vessel was simulated by modeling the cardiovascular system with windkessel model. Pulse waves can be generated based on the vascular systems with four kinds of resistance. Some functional models such as setting up noise types and signal noise ratio (SNR) values were also added in the designed generator. With the need of portability, high speed dynamic response, scalability and low power consumption for the system, field programmable gate array (FPGA) was chosen as hardware platform, and almost all the works, such as developing an algorithm for pulse waveform and interfacing with memory and liquid crystal display (LCD), were implemented under the flow of system on a programmable chip (SOPC) development. When users input in the key parameters through LCD and touch screen, the corresponding pulse wave will be displayed on the LCD and the desired pulse waveform can be accessed from the analog output channel as well. The structure of the designed pulse wave generator is simple and it can provide accurate solutions for studying and teaching pulse waves and the detection of the equipments for acquisition and diagnosis of pulse wave.

  18. The SOHO joint observing programmes (JOPs) as a model for the practical implementation of the IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) carries 12 instruments designed to study the Sun and the Heliosphere. Many observations involve the co-ordination of operations of several instruments and, on numerous occasions also include co-ordination with other space-based or ground-based instrumentation. The planning and co-ordination for this has been done using so-called Joint Observing Programmes, or JOPs. Scientists write up their plans for multi-instrument use and submit them to the SOHO operations team. The JOPs are stored in a JOP library, which anyone can view, and are refined and used to plan observations in detail. In effect, this approach means that the 'grass roots' scientist effectively requests and designs his or her own observations schemes with the help of the SOHO operations teams. The system has worked very well, and probably accounts for the vast majority of the major scientific breakthroughs using SOHO. However, it is a system which has minimised the 'red tape' and ensures that the end user is in the driving seat. It has made full use of the Web. This system can be adopted and adapted for use as the principal tool for running the observational aspects of the IHY. No-one wants a large bureaucratic system with little scientific profit; a JOP approach would allow the user community to know how to get involved with the IHY, how to request observations and would provide an efficient mechanism for maximising the real scientific return.

  19. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  20. Development and modeling of a stereo vision focusing system for a field programmable gate array robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Buckle, James; Grindley, Josef E.; Smith, Jeremy S.

    2010-10-01

    Stereo vision is a situation where an imaging system has two or more cameras in order to make it more robust by mimicking the human vision system. By using two inputs, knowledge of their own relative geometry can be exploited to derive depth information from the two views they receive. 3D co-ordinates of an object in an observed scene can be computed from the intersection of the two sets of rays. Presented here is the development of a stereo vision system to focus on an object at the centre of a baseline between two cameras at varying distances. This has been developed primarily for use on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) but an adaptation of this developed methodology is also presented for use with a PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator with a single camera attachment. The two main vision systems considered here are a fixed baseline with an object moving at varying distances from this baseline, and a system with a fixed distance and a varying baseline. These two differing situations provide enough data so that the co-efficient variables that determine the system operation can be calibrated automatically with only the baseline value needing to be entered, the system performs all the required calculations for the user for use with a baseline of any distance. The limits of system with regards to the focusing accuracy obtained are also presented along with how the PUMA 560 controls its joints for the stereo vision and how it moves from one position to another to attend stereo vision compared to the two camera system for the FPGA. The benefits of such a system for range finding in mobile robotics are discussed and how this approach is more advantageous when compared against laser range finders or echolocation using ultrasonics.

  1. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention programmes to prevent diabetes based on an example from Germany: Markov modelling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) poses a large worldwide burden for health care systems. One possible tool to decrease this burden is primary prevention. As it is unethical to wait until perfect data are available to conclude whether T2D primary prevention intervention programmes are cost-effective, we need a model that simulates the effect of prevention initiatives. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the long-term cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention programmes for the prevention of T2D using a Markov model. As decision makers often face difficulties in applying health economic results, we visualise our results with health economic tools. Methods We use four-state Markov modelling with a probabilistic cohort analysis to calculate the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A one-year cycle length and a lifetime time horizon are applied. Best available evidence supplies the model with data on transition probabilities between glycaemic states, mortality risks, utility weights, and disease costs. The costs are calculated from a societal perspective. A 3% discount rate is used for costs and QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves are presented to assist decision makers. Results The model indicates that diabetes prevention interventions have the potential to be cost-effective, but the outcome reveals a high level of uncertainty. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were negative for the intervention, ie, the intervention leads to a cost reduction for men and women aged 30 or 50 years at initiation of the intervention. For men and women aged 70 at initiation of the intervention, the ICER was EUR27,546/QALY gained and EUR19,433/QALY gained, respectively. In all cases, the QALYs gained were low. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves show that the higher the willingness-to-pay threshold value, the higher the probability that the intervention is cost-effective. Nonetheless, all curves are flat. The threshold value of

  2. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  3. Budget impact analysis of a pneumococcal vaccination programme in the 65-year-old Spanish cohort using a dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the costs and clinical benefits of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administered annually to the 65-year-old cohort in Spain versus the alternative of not vaccinating patients and treating them only when infected. Methods Cases of pneumococcal disease avoided were calculated through a dynamic model based on the work of Anderson and May (1999). Sixty-six percent of the 65-year-old cohort was assumed to have been vaccinated with one PCV13 dose (304,492 subjects). Base-case estimated vaccine effectiveness and serotype coverage were 58% and 60%, respectively. Disease-related costs were calculated based on published data. Results Over the 5-year period, a total of 125,906 cases of pneumococcal disease would be avoided. Net savings of €102 million would be obtained. The cost-saving distribution was not homogeneous, starting in the 2nd year and increasing through the 5th. To demonstrate model robustness, an additional scenario analysis was performed using extreme values of model parameters (vaccination programme coverage, vaccine effectiveness, discount rate and disease costs). Under those scenarios, net savings were always achieved. Conclusions Based on the assumptions of the model, the 65-year-cohort pneumococcal vaccination campaign appears to be a cost-saving intervention in the Spanish population under different scenarios. PMID:23578307

  4. A model-based evaluation of the national immunization programme against rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, O. G.; Conyn-van Spaendonck, M. A.; Plantinga, A. D.; Kretzschmar, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the prevention of cases of congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands, in 1987 the selective vaccination strategy against rubella infection in girls was replaced by mass vaccination. This decision was supported by mathematical model analyses carried out by Van Druten and De Boo. In order to compare the predicted impact of the rubella vaccination programme with the current available data in more detail, a similar model was built. Although the model predicts elimination of the rubella virus, data show that virus circulation is still present at a higher level than expected by the model. Simulation studies indicate that import of infection and a lower vaccine effectiveness, related to possible asymptomatic reinfection of vaccinated people, could be sources contributing to the present virus circulation. Even though the number of infections is much higher than the number of reported cases of disease, limited serosurveillance data and case notification data show that females of childbearing age are well protected by immunization. PMID:10030716

  5. Development of Children's Creative Visual Imagination: A Theoretical Model and Enhancement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedziewicz, Dorota; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical model of creative imagination and its applications in early education. The model sees creative imagination as composed of three inter-related components: vividness of images, their originality, and the level of transformation of imageries. We explore the theoretical and practical consequences of this new…

  6. An Unusually Effective School/University Programme: The Plymouth and Peninsula Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    la Velle, Linda; Reynolds, David; Nichol, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a novel UK school/university partnership, the "Plymouth Model" designed to encourage young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to aim for higher education (HE) study. The model incorporates the activity of university students, researchers and teachers working together to improve aspirations and outcomes for…

  7. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rashed; Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region. Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM) (Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Multiscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry model, Community Earth System Model, and NorESM. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that convective scavenging outside the Arctic reduces the mean altitude of BC residing in the Arctic, making it more susceptible to scavenging by stratiform (layer) clouds in the Arctic. Consequently, scavenging of BC in convective clouds outside the Arctic acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform clouds, whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  8. Comparing patient care seeking pathways in three models of hospital and TB programme collaboration in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public hospitals in China play an important role in tuberculosis (TB) control. Three models of hospital and TB control exist in China. The dispensary model is the most common one in which a TB dispensary provides both clinical and public health care. The specialist model is similar to the former except that a specialist TB hospital is located in the same area. The specialist hospital should treat only complicated TB cases but it also treats simple cases in practice. The integrated model is a new development to integrate TB service in public hospitals. Patients were diagnosed, treated and followed up in this public hospital in this model while the TB dispensary provides public health service as case reporting and mass education. This study aims to compare patient care seeking pathways under the three models, and to provide policy recommendation for the TB control system reform in China. Methods Six sites, two in each model, were selected across four provinces, with 293 newly treated uncomplicated TB patients being randomly selected. Results The majority (68%) of TB patients were diagnosed in hospitals. Patients in the integrated model presented the simplest care seeking pathways, with the least number of providers visited (2.2), shortest treatment delays (2 days) and the least medical expenditure (2729RMB/401USD). On the contrary, patients in the specialist model had the highest number of provider visits (4), longest treatment delays (23 days) and the highest medical expenditure (11626RMB/1710USD). Logistic regression suggested that patients who were hospitalised tended to have longer treatment delays and higher medical expenditure. Conclusion Specialist hospital treating uncomplicated cases not using the standard regimens posed a threat to TB control. The integrated model has shortened patient treatment pathways, and reduced patient costs; therefore, it could be considered as the direction for future reform of China’s TB control system. PMID

  9. He Waka Tino Whakarawea: A Model for Evaluating the Cultural Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Programmes and Services for Maori Learners both with and without Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a waka tino whakarawea model for evaluating programmes and services for Maori learners. It is based on a set of underlying principles identified in the author's PhD study (Bevan-Brown, 2002). Explanations are provided for eight principles: kaupapa Maori; importance, relevance and beneficence; participation; empowerment,…

  10. Petri net-based dependability modeling methodology for reconfigurable field programmable gate arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Rafał; Orleański, Piotr; Poźniak, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Dependability modeling is an important issue for aerospace and space equipment designers. From system level perspective, one has to choose from multitude of possible architectures, redundancy levels, component combinations in a way to meet desired properties and dependability and finally fit within required cost and time budgets. Modeling of such systems is getting harder as its levels of complexity grow together with demand for more functional and flexible, yet more available systems that govern more and more crucial parts of our civilization's infrastructure (aerospace transport systems, telecommunications, exploration probes). In this article promising method of modeling complex systems using Petri networks is introduced in context of qualitative and quantitative dependability analysis. This method, although with some limitation and drawback offer still convenient visual formal method of describing system behavior on different levels (functional, timing, random events) and offers straight correspondence to underlying mathematical engine, perfect for simulations and engineering support.

  11. Investigating and Improving the Models of Programming Concepts Held by Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, L.; Ferguson, J.; Roper, M.; Wood, M.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of introductory computer programming seems far from successful, with many first-year students performing more poorly than expected. One possible reason for this is that novices hold "non-viable" mental models (internal explanations of how something works) of key programming concepts which then cause misconceptions and difficulties. An…

  12. ICT in EMI Programmes at Tertiary Level in Spain: A Holistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Nanclares, Nuria; Jimenez-Munoz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in Spain has increased the number of degrees taught through English, although secondary schools do not ensure an appropriate set of linguistic skills for bilingual degrees. A holistic, accountable model for Information and Communications Technology (ICT)-supported learning can give students the adequate…

  13. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  14. Arbeitsgestaltung und Mitarbeiterqualifizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin

    Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene und potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985

  15. DIVWAG Model Documentation. Volume II. Programmer/Analyst Manual. Part 3. Chapter 7 Through 8.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    weapon types q carried by the same trans- port as weapon type i. The model utilizes Gauss -Legendre integration, the 10-point formula, to evaluate... Gauss -Legendre 10-point fohmula. he values of these parameters are specified in Equation IV-7-142e: w 1 0.295524225 ri = 0.148874339 w 2 - 0.269266719...firing of all transports within each unit. The true kill fractions are obtained by Gauss -Legendre inte- gration with the results given in Equation IV

  16. DIVWAG Model Documentation. Volume II. Programmer/Analyst Manual. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    personnel replacement. 3. FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS AND CAPABILITIES. Functionally the DIVWAG Model is a dual system; it functions physically ...units that are not performing another military activity such as firing, moving, or combat. Whether or not addressed by gamer orders, an inactive gamed...unit will consume classes I and III or IIIA supplies and can be assessed as to losses and status; other units can gain information about the inactive

  17. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  18. Display system software for the integration of an ADAGE 3000 programmable display generator into the solid modeling package C.A.D. software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Lane, H. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A software system that integrates an ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator into a C.A.D. software package known as the Solid Modeling Program is described. The Solid Modeling Program (SMP) is an interactive program that is used to model complex solid object through the composition of primitive geomeentities. In addition, SMP provides extensive facilities for model editing and display. The ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator (PDG) is a color, raster scan, programmable display generator with a 32-bit bit-slice, bipolar microprocessor (BPS). The modularity of the system architecture and the width and speed of the system bus allow for additional co-processors in the system. These co-processors combine to provide efficient operations on and rendering of graphics entities. The resulting software system takes advantage of the graphics capabilities of the PDG in the operation of SMP by distributing its processing modules between the host and the PDG. Initially, the target host computer was a PRIME 850, which was later substituted with a VAX-11/785. Two versions of the software system were developed, a phase 1 and a phase 2. In phase 1, the ADAGE 3000 is used as a frame buffer. In phase II, SMP was functionally partitioned and some of its functions were implemented in the ADAGE 3000 by means of ADAGE's SOLID 3000 software package.

  19. Zusammenfassung und Ausblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Lothar; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    Mit dem vorliegenden Buch wird als Ergebnis eines durch die Deutsche BundesstiftungUmwelt (DBU) geförderten Forschungsprojektes an der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität Cottbus eine erste Standardisierung der Vorgehensweise zur Erfassung, Risikoabschätzung und Bewertung eines Biodiversitätsschadens nach dem Umweltschadensgesetz (USchadG) vorgelegt. Damit kann eine erste Bewertung potentieller Schadenssituationen vorgenommen werden. Die Nutzung der hier erarbeiteten Vorgehensweise bietet sich daher für all diejenigen an, die mit der Frage einer möglichen Haftung für Biodiversitätsschäden nach dem USchadG konfrontiert sind, seien es die Unteren und Oberen Naturschutzbehörden der Länder, die Schadensversicherer, die potentiell Haftenden oder die Naturschutzverbände.

  20. Epidemiologic programs for computers and calculators. Simple algorithms for the representation of deterministic and stochastic versions of the Reed-Frost epidemic model using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Franco, E L; Simons, A R

    1986-05-01

    Two programs are described for the emulation of the dynamics of Reed-Frost progressive epidemics in a handheld programmable calculator (HP-41C series). The programs provide a complete record of cases, susceptibles, and immunes at each epidemic period using either the deterministic formulation or the trough analogue of the mechanical model for the stochastic version. Both programs can compute epidemics that include a constant rate of influx or outflux of susceptibles and single or double infectivity time periods.

  1. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  2. Academic Civic Mindedness and Model Citizenship in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. Working Paper WR-1044-IBO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky

    2014-01-01

    Originally founded as a private means for diplomats' children to earn an internationally recognized high school diploma, today the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) serves students from a variety of backgrounds in 144 countries. The IB mission and Learner Profile--consisting of ten attributes to foster in students--suggest…

  3. Innovation and Alliances in International Management Programmes; Redefining and Extending the Model. The "Transcontinental Tracks" at Grenoble EM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patrick; Zahner, Martin; Silvestre, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative international management programme that has been developed across four countries for Master-level students. It first analyses the advantages and disadvantages of two of the most common forms of internationalisation in higher education; the student exchange and full-scale offshore…

  4. Dynamische Satzgenerierung und Sprachausgabe für einen mobilen Serviceroboter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlitz, Christopher; Amann, Bernd; Hägele, Martin

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung einer Sprachausgabe für ein mobiles Robotersystem. Dazu wurde zum einen ein auf die Anwendung zugeschittenes Text-To-Speech Verfahren und zum anderen eine Grammatik, die eine dynamische Satzgenerierung ermöglicht, implementiert. Die Verfahren arbeiten unabhängig voneinander und können daher auch gegen andere Komponenten ausgetauscht werden. Die Programme wurden als Client-Server Applikationen programmiert, um möglichst flexibel die Sprachausgabe einsetzen zu können.

  5. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  6. Organe der Osmoregulation und Exkretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    Die meisten Schädeltiere sind in der Lage, die Wasser- und Ionenkonzentration ihres Innenmilieus zu regulieren, sind also im Hinblick auf ihren Ionenhaushalt weitgehend unabhängig von der Umgebung. Sie halten die Konzentration von Wasser und anorganischen Ionen in ihren Körperflüssigkeiten (interstitielle Flüssigkeit und Blut) innerhalb enger Grenzen konstant (Osmoregulierer). Schleim aale (Myxinoida) können zwar die Konzentration einzelner anorganischer Ionen regulieren, sind aber insgesamt der hohen Osmolarität des Meerwassers angepasst, also isoosmostisch zu diesem. Isoosmotisch oder leic ht hyperosmostisch zur Umgebung sind auch marine Neoselachier und Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), die dazu organische Osmolyte (Harnstoff und Trimethylaminoxid) im Blut akkumulieren (Osmokonformer). Bei anderen aquatischen Schädeltieren sind die Körperflüssigkeiten zur Umgebung hypoosmotisch (im Meerwasser) — sie halten Wasser zurück und scheiden anorganiche Ionen aus — oder hyperosmotisch (im Süßwasser), indem sie Wasser abgeben und anorganische Ionen aufnehmen.

  7. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  8. Modellierung und Simulation des Substrat-Rauschens in integrierten RF CMOS-Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Xiong, J.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Im integrierten CMOS-Schaltungsentwurf kann das Substrat-Rauschen, das vom digitalen Teil entsteht, die Funktionalität des analogen Teils stark beeinflussen. Es wird daher immer wichtiger, das Substrat als ein Medium der Rauschen-Propagation genau zu modellieren. Im vorliegenden Artikel wird ein auf der Finite Elemente Methode (FEM) und Modellordnungsreduktion (MOR) basiertes Modellierungsverfahren zur Admittanzen-Extraktion im Halbleitersubstrat vorgestellt. Nach der Diskretisierung mit FEM wird das Substrat im Allgemeinen als ein resistives/kapazitives Netz angesehen. Durch Bestimmung der Admittanz-Matrix und MOR ist es möglich ein äquivalentes Dreipol-Modell zwischen digitalem und analogem Teil über das Substrat zu bilden. Das Ergebnis der Modellierung wird dargestellt und mit numerischer Simulation des Substrat-Rauschens verglichen. Die Modellierung ermöglicht es, die Einflüsse des Substrat-Rauschens im Schaltungsentwurf zu berücksichtigen und so bestehende CMOS-Schaltungsarchitekturen zu optimieren.

  9. Entwicklung und Formulierung der Unternehmensstrategie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Thomas

    Ursprünglich stammt der Begriff "Strategie“ aus dem Altgriechischen: "strategos“ bedeutete "Heer“, "Heeresmacht“ und damit auch "konzentrierte Kraft“; das Wort "agein“ bedeutete "tun, machen, treiben“. Ein Stratege war also eine Person, die ein Heer führte und damit Kraft, Macht und Stärke konzentrierte und einsetzen konnte. Strategie bezeichnete dementsprechend die Maßnahmen, die in dieser Funktion entwickelt wurden. Daher ist es leicht verständlich, dass der Begriff Strategie bis in die Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts in erster Linie militärisch verstanden wurde. Anschließend wurde der Begriff in weiteren Bereichen, wie beispielsweise der Unternehmensführung, verwendet. Im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne bedeutet der Begriff Strategie die langfristig geplante Verhaltensweise eines Unternehmens zur Erreichung seiner Ziele.

  10. Das Konstanzer Trainingsmodell (KTM) - Grundlagen und neue Entwicklungen (The Konstanz Training Model (KTM) -- Fundamental Principles and Recent Developments).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Hanns-Dietrich; Humpert, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes the Konstanz Training Model (KTM), a German primary and secondary preventive program that increases teacher self-competence and social competence in dealing with aggressive and disruptive student behaviors. Emphasizes KTM's focus on systemic aspects, cognitive level, and behavioral level approaches. Describes KTM Compact, a short term…

  11. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to ‘think’ conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. Methods and Findings In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Conclusions Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions. PMID:26575182

  12. Das Pinealorgan der Wirbeltiere: ein Modell für Untersuchungen von Rezeptor-und Effektormechanismen in neuronalen Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korf, Horst-W.; Wicht, Helmut

    1991-10-01

    Cell and molecular biological investigations have greatly contributed to our understanding of receptor and effector mechanisms in sensory, neuronal, and endocrine cells. A fascinating aspect of this line of research is how such mechanisms have evolved and how they interact with each other. As shown in this contribution, the vertebrate pineal organ is an interesting model to study these problems, because it undergoes a conspicuous transformation during phylogeny, comprises two well-chraracterized receptor mechanisms (photoreception and adrenoreception), and acts upon its targets via neuronal and neuroendocrine signals.

  13. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  14. Programmable 3D silk bone marrow niche for platelet generation ex vivo and modeling of megakaryopoiesis pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Di Buduo, Christian A.; Wray, Lindsay S.; Tozzi, Lorenzo; Malara, Alessandro; Chen, Ying; Ghezzi, Chiara E.; Smoot, Daniel; Sfara, Carla; Antonelli, Antonella; Spedden, Elise; Bruni, Giovanna; Staii, Cristian; De Marco, Luigi; Magnani, Mauro; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a programmable bioengineered 3-dimensional silk-based bone marrow niche tissue system that successfully mimics the physiology of human bone marrow environment allowing us to manufacture functional human platelets ex vivo. Using stem/progenitor cells, megakaryocyte function and platelet generation were recorded in response to variations in extracellular matrix components, surface topography, stiffness, coculture with endothelial cells, and shear forces. Millions of human platelets were produced and showed to be functional based on multiple activation tests. Using adult hematopoietic progenitor cells our system demonstrated the ability to reproduce key steps of thrombopoiesis, including alterations observed in diseased states. A critical feature of the system is the use of natural silk protein biomaterial allowing us to leverage its biocompatibility, nonthrombogenic features, programmable mechanical properties, and surface binding of cytokines, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial-derived proteins. This in turn offers new opportunities for the study of blood component production ex vivo and provides a superior tissue system for the study of pathologic mechanisms of human platelet production. PMID:25575540

  15. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  16. Dynamical and Mechanistic Reconstructive Approaches of T Lymphocyte Dynamics: Using Visual Modeling Languages to Bridge the Gap between Immunologists, Theoreticians, and Programmers.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Six, Adrien; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Bersini, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    Dynamic modeling of lymphocyte behavior has primarily been based on populations based differential equations or on cellular agents moving in space and interacting each other. The final steps of this modeling effort are expressed in a code written in a programing language. On account of the complete lack of standardization of the different steps to proceed, we have to deplore poor communication and sharing between experimentalists, theoreticians and programmers. The adoption of diagrammatic visual computer language should however greatly help the immunologists to better communicate, to more easily identify the models similarities and facilitate the reuse and extension of existing software models. Since immunologists often conceptualize the dynamical evolution of immune systems in terms of "state-transitions" of biological objects, we promote the use of unified modeling language (UML) state-transition diagram. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we present a UML refactoring of two published models on thymocyte differentiation. Originally built with different modeling strategies, a mathematical ordinary differential equation-based model and a cellular automata model, the two models are now in the same visual formalism and can be compared.

  17. Dynamical and Mechanistic Reconstructive Approaches of T Lymphocyte Dynamics: Using Visual Modeling Languages to Bridge the Gap between Immunologists, Theoreticians, and Programmers

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Six, Adrien; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Bersini, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of lymphocyte behavior has primarily been based on populations based differential equations or on cellular agents moving in space and interacting each other. The final steps of this modeling effort are expressed in a code written in a programing language. On account of the complete lack of standardization of the different steps to proceed, we have to deplore poor communication and sharing between experimentalists, theoreticians and programmers. The adoption of diagrammatic visual computer language should however greatly help the immunologists to better communicate, to more easily identify the models similarities and facilitate the reuse and extension of existing software models. Since immunologists often conceptualize the dynamical evolution of immune systems in terms of “state-transitions” of biological objects, we promote the use of unified modeling language (UML) state-transition diagram. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we present a UML refactoring of two published models on thymocyte differentiation. Originally built with different modeling strategies, a mathematical ordinary differential equation-based model and a cellular automata model, the two models are now in the same visual formalism and can be compared. PMID:24101919

  18. Coeur en santé St-Henri--a heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada: theoretical model and early field experience.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, G; O'Loughlin, J; Elliott, M; Masson, P; Renaud, L; Sacks-Silver, G; Lampron, G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Coeur en santé St-Henri is a five year, community based, multifactorial, heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada. The objectives of this programme are to improve heart-healthy behaviours among adults of St-Henri. This paper describes the theoretical model underlying programme development as well as our early field experience implementing interventions. DESIGN--The design of the intervention programme is based on a behaviour change model adapted from social learning theory, the reasoned action model, and the precede-proceed model. The Ottawa charter for health promotion provided the framework for the development of specific interventions. Each intervention is submitted to formative, implementation, and impact evaluations using simple and inexpensive methods. PARTICIPANTS--The target population consists of adults living in St-Henri, a neighbourhood of 23,360 residents. Because of costs constraints, the intervention strategy targets women more specifically. The community is one of the poorest in Canada with 46% of the population living below the poverty line and 20% being very poor. The age-sex adjusted ischaemic heart disease mortality in 1985-87 was 317 per 100,000 compared with 126 per 100,000 in an affluent adjacent neighbourhood. RESULTS--Thirty nine distinct interventions have been developed and tested in the community, eight related to tobacco, 10 to diet, seven to physical activity, and 14 which are multifactorial. The interventions include smoking cessation and healthy recipes contests, a menu labelling and healthy food discount programme in restaurants, a point of choice nutrition education campaign, healthy eating and smoking cessation workshops, a walking club, educational material, print and electronic media campaigns, heart health fairs, and community events. CONCLUSION--An integrated heart health promotion programme is feasible in low income urban neighbourhoods but not all

  19. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  20. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  1. Programmer/Analyst Guide for the Army Unit Resiliency Analysis (AURA) computer Simulation Model. Volume 1. AURA Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Combat model Optimization Unit Analysis 170C CD Effectiveness Lethality Chemical Model Nuclear model 1.PIECD 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY... Chemical Lethality Model ................................................................. 112 a. Triggering a Toxic Scenario...112 b. Overview of the Chemical Lethality Model .................................. 112 (1) Inputs

  2. Kosmologie und Teilchenphysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appenzeller, I.

    This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft und Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).

  3. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-11-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection.

  4. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  5. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  6. Der Forschungsflughafen und das Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrtsysteme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Broitzem: Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule Völkenrode: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luftfahrt (DFL) Waggum: Technische Hochschule Grundsteinlegung...Forschungsflughafen Aerodata Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt DLR VW Air Services TU Braunschweig Luftfahrt -Bundesamt LBA Deutscher Aeroclub

  7. “Broadband” Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Chimusa, Emile R.; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-01-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The “omics” fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection. PMID:26583922

  8. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide

  9. D Recording, Modelling and Visualisation of the Fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (norway) by Photogrammetric Methods and Terrestrial Laser Scanning in the Framework of Erasmus Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Lindstaedt, M.; Maziull, L.; Schreyer, K.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Holm, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution the 3D recording, 3D modelling and 3D visualisation of the fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (Norway) by digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning are presented. The fortification Kristiansten was built after the large city fire in the year 1681 above the city and has been a museum since 1997. The recording of the fortress took place in each case at the end of August/at the beginning of September 2010 and 2011 during two two-week summer schools with the topic "Digital Photogrammetry & Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Cultural Heritage Documentation" at NTNU Trondheim with international students in the context of ERASMUS teaching programs. For data acquisition, a terrestrial laser scanner and digital SLR cameras were used. The establishment of a geodetic 3D network, which was later transformed into the Norwegian UTM coordinate system using control points, ensured a consistent registration of the scans and an orientation of the photogrammetric images. The fortress buildings were constructed in detail from photogrammetric photographs and point clouds using AutoCAD, while the fortress area and walls were modelled by triangle meshing in Geomagic. The visualisation of the fortress was carried out 2013 with the software Cinema 4D in the context of a lecture in the Master study programme Geomatics. The 3D model was textured and afterwards presented in a video. This 3D model was finally transferred into the game engine Unity for an interactive 3D visualisation on 3D monitors.

  10. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3): Multi-Model Dataset Archive at PCMDI (Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In response to a proposed activity of the WCRP's Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM),PCMDI volunteered to collect model output contributed by leading modeling centers around the world. Climate model output from simulations of the past, present and future climate was collected by PCMDI mostly during the years 2005 and 2006, and this archived data constitutes phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). In part, the WGCM organized this activity to enable those outside the major modeling centers to perform research of relevance to climate scientists preparing the Fourth Asssessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Program to assess scientific information on climate change. The IPCC publishes reports that summarize the state of the science. This unprecedented collection of recent model output is officially known as the WCRP CMIP3 multi-model dataset. It is meant to serve IPCC's Working Group 1, which focuses on the physical climate system - atmosphere, land surface, ocean and sea ice - and the choice of variables archived at the PCMDI reflects this focus. A more comprehensive set of output for a given model may be available from the modeling center that produced it. As of November 2007, over 35 terabytes of data were in the archive and over 303 terabytes of data had been downloaded among the more than 1200 registered users. Over 250 journal articles, based at least in part on the dataset, have been published or have been accepted for peer-reviewed publication. Countries from which models have been gathered include Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany and Korea, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Great Britain and the United States. Models, variables, and documentation are collected and stored. Check http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ipcc/data_status_tables.htm to see at a glance the output that is available

  11. Didaktisch-methodisches Modell, Methode und methodisches Instrumentarium im Fremdsprachenunterricht (Pedagogical-Methodological Model, Method and Methodological Arsenal in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Klaus

    1975-01-01

    Concentrates on (1) an exposition of the categories "pedagogical-methodological model", "method", and "methodological arsenal" from the viewpoint of FL teaching; (2) clearing up the relation between the pedagogical-methodological model and teaching method; (3) explaining an example of the application of the categories mentioned. (Text is in…

  12. What Role for Developmental Theories in Mathematics Study Programmes in French-Speaking Belgium? An Analysis of the Geometry Curriculum's Aspects, Framed by Van Hiele's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duroisin, Natacha; Demeuse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    One possible way of evaluating set curricula is to examine the consistency of study programmes with students' psycho-cognitive development. Three theories were used to evaluate matching between developmental theories and content proposed in the mathematics programmes (geometry section) for primary and the beginning of secondary education. These…

  13. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  14. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  15. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  16. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  17. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  18. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  19. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  20. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper.

  1. Topika und deren Einsatz in der Dermatologie.

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Grundkenntnisse zur Zusammensetzung und den regulatorischen Hintergründen von Topika gehören zu den alltäglich benötigten Herausforderungen dermatologisch-ärztlichen Handelns. Ein professioneller und indikationsgerechter Umgang bei der Auswahl, Verordnung und Anwendung topischer Präparate ist somit Voraussetzung für eine verantwortungsvolle fachärztliche Tätigkeit. Dabei bereiten die regulatorische Zuordnung (Arzneimittel, Medizinprodukt, Kosmetikum), die Feststellung der Erstattungsfähigkeit durch die GKV und die unzureichende Kennzeichnung des Vehikelsystems einzelner Präparate nicht selten Probleme. Bestreben sollte es sein, neben der Wahl des geeigneten Wirkstoffs und der geeigneten Konzentration ein an die Indikation der Therapie angepasstes galenisches System auszuwählen, um dessen Eigenwirkung für den therapeutischen Effekt nutzen zu können. Bei der Verschreibung von Rezepturarzneimitteln sollte nach Möglichkeit immer auf eine standardisierte Rezeptur (Magistralrezeptur) zurückgegriffen werden. Durch die Vielzahl der möglichen Inhaltsstoffe und der sich daraus ergebenden Komplexität eines galenischen Systems ist eine willkürliche Manipulation durch qualitative oder quantitative Veränderungen einzelner Komponenten mit hohen Risiken für eine Instabilität und damit für Sicherheit und Sinnhaftigkeit verbunden. Eine optimierte Anwendung von Topika setzt zudem Grundlagenkenntnisse zur Pharmakokinetik und zur evidenzbasierten Therapieplanung voraus.

  2. A Bayesian hierarchical model for multi-level repeated ordinal data: analysis of oral practice examinations in a large anaesthesiology training programme.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; Qu, Y; Mascha, E; Schubert, A

    1999-08-15

    Oral practice examinations (OPEs) are used in many anaesthesiology programmes to familiarize anaesthesiology residents with the format of the oral examination administered by the American Board of Anesthesiology. The OPE outcome (final grade) consists of 'Definite Not Pass', 'Probable Not Pass', 'Probable Pass' and 'Definite Pass'. In our study to assess the validity of the OPE, residents took an average of two (ranging from one to six) OPEs, each of which was evaluated by two board certified anaesthesiologists randomly selected from a pool of 12. A key question of interest was to identify factors, for example, the length of training, didactic experience and other characteristics, that most influence OPE outcome. In addition, we were interested in assessing the reliability of the final grade, that is, the covariance parameters are of interest as well. However, estimating variance components in multi-level data with an unequal number of repeated ordinal outcomes presents several statistical challenges, such as how to estimate high dimensional random effects parameters, especially for ordinal outcomes. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical proportional odds model for data with such complexity. The flexibility of such a model allows us to make inference on the association of OPE outcomes with other factors and to estimate the variance components as well.

  3. The use of mathematical models in the epidemiological study of infectious diseases and in the design of mass immunization programmes.

    PubMed

    Nokes, D J; Anderson, R M

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between the number of people vaccinated for an infectious disease and the resulting decrease in incidence of the disease is not straightforward and linear because many independent variables determine the course of infection. However, these variables are quantifiable and can therefore by used to model the course of an infectious disease and impact of mass vaccination. Before one can construct a model, one must know for any specific infectious disease the number of individuals in the community protected by maternally derived antibodies, the number susceptible to infectious the number infected but not yet infectious (i.e., with latent infection), the number of infectious individuals, and the number of recovered (i.e., immune) individuals. Compartmental models are sets of differential equations which describe the rates of flow of individuals between these categories. Several major epidemiologic concepts comprise the ingredients of the model: the net rate of infection (i.e., incidence), the per capita rate of infection, the Force of Infection, and the basic reproductive rate of infection. When a community attains a high level of vaccination coverage, it is no longer necessary to vaccinate everyone because the herd immunity of the population protects the unvaccinated because it lowers the likelihood of their coming into contact with an infectious individual. Many infections that confer lasting immunity tend to have interepidemic periods when the number of susceptibles is too low to sustain an epidemic. Mass vacination programs reduce the net rate of transmission of the infective organism; they also increase the length of the interepidemic period. Many diseases primawrily associated with children have much more serious consequences in older people and the question arises as to at what point childhood immunization will successfully prevent the more dangerous incidence of the disease in older cohorts. Mathematical models of disease transmission enable one

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS ANALYSIS MODEL (GSAM) VOLUME I - SUMMARY REPORT VOLUME II - USER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIA - RP PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIB - SRPM PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIC - E&P PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIID - D&I PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-02-01

    This report summarizes work completed on DOE Contract DE-AC21-92MC28138, Development of a Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The products developed under this project directly support the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in carrying out its natural gas R&D mission. The objective of this research effort has been to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas market. GSAM has been developed to explicitly evaluate components of the natural gas system, including the entire in-place gas resource base, exploration and development technologies, extraction technology and performance parameters, transportation and storage factors, and end-use demand issues. The system has been fully tested and calibrated and has been used for multiple natural gas metrics analyses at NETL in which metric associated with NETL natural gas upstream R&D technologies and strategies under the direction of NETL has been evaluated. NETL's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced natural gas. GSAM provides the capability to assess potential and on-going R&D projects using a full fuel cycle, cost-benefit approach. This method yields realistic, market-based assessments of benefits and costs of alternative or related technology advances. GSAM is capable of estimating both technical and commercial successes, quantifying the potential benefits to the market, as well as to other related research. GSAM, therefore, represents an integration of research activities and a method for planning and prioritizing efforts to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Without an analytical tool like GSAM, NETL natural gas upstream R&D activities cannot be appropriately ranked or focused on the most important aspects of natural gas extraction efforts or utilization considerations.

  5. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.

    PubMed

    Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis.

  6. User manual and programmer reference manual for the ATS-6 navigation model AOIPS and McIDAS versions, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatters, G. C.; Kuhlow, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of a navigation system for a given satellite is reported. An algorithm for converting a satellite picture element location to earth location and vice versa was defined as well as a procedure for measuring the set of constants needed by the algorithm. A user manual briefly describing the current version of the navigation model and how to use the computer programs developed for it is presented.

  7. Ray Calculations of Ocean Sound Channels Using a Pocket Programmable Calculator and Extended Forms of the Hirsch-Carter Mathematical Model with Tables of the Incomplete Beta Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    pocket programmable calculator on two Sargasso Sea profiles, one from the center of a cold ring eddy are given. Necessary tables of the incomplete beta-function and calculator programs are included in a supplement.

  8. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus.

  9. Ruhende Flüssigkeiten und Gase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Das mechanische Verhalten von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie keine statische Schubfestigkeit besitzen, andernfalls würden sie nicht beginnen, zu fließen. In ruhenden Flüssigkeiten und Gasen können daher keine Schubspannungen bestehen:

  10. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  11. Effective use of simple computer programmes and clay models to demonstrate the planning and operative steps for teaching and presentations

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rahul Krishnarao; Malhotra, Gopal; Srinivasan, Venugopal; Abdul Hamid, Ahmed Osama; Cherian, Mahil; Koul, Ashok Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presenting and demonstrating a surgical procedure in the current era is difficult without good intraoperative pictures and videos. A long, complex, multi-staged surgery is better illustrated by detailed intraoperative images at various stages. Although desirable, it may be difficult due to various reasons. Material and Methods: A simple method of preparing illustrations with pictures/diagrams created on PowerPoint and clay models to recreate the missing links in clinical photographs has been proposed. Results: It is a simple technique with a moderate learning curve. Once familiar with technique, one can effectively use the technique to convey the details in much more clear manner. Conclusion: It is a simple and effective way of communicating through digital images, and gives the audience a 3 dimensional idea about the concept. PMID:27833280

  12. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  13. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  14. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  15. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  16. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  17. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  18. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  19. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  20. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  1. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  2. [Disease management programmes in Germany: first reactions by patients suffering from diabetes].

    PubMed

    Eller, M; Satzinger, W; Holle, R; Meisinger, C; Thorand, B

    2005-08-01

    The performance of health delivery for chronic diseases in Germany has been considered deficient for a long time and in need of improvement. The launch of Disease Management Programmes (DMP) for type 2 diabetes in the summer of 2002 can be seen as an attempt to optimise health care for the chronically ill. The aim of our study was to find out at an early stage of DMP development which factors, personal or otherwise, would have an influence on whether diabetic patients know of, and are willing to participate in, such a programme. The data of 679 diabetic patients, collected between late 2002 and the end of 2003, presented here have been extracted from a written follow-up study to the three baseline surveys S1 (1984/85), S2 (1989/90) und S3 (1994/95) in Augsburg as part of the WHO-MONICA project with more than 13,000 participants. The study population is characterised by a rather high age (mean: 67.4 years), a long duration of the disease (mean: 9.8 years) as well as a high intensity of contacts with physicians. Only 28 % of the diabetic patients had heard of the DMP, but a majority of the participants (54 %) stated their readiness to participate in DMP once offered. Higher age, low education as well as no participation in diabetes education have been identified in logistic regression models as impeding factors both for the knowing of and the participation in DMP. As a consequence, promotion of the DMP should be directed to those sections of the diabetic population outside the effective reach of the traditional diabetes care organisations.

  3. Dentalwerkstoffe und Dentalimplantate - Teil 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltermeier, Andreas

    Wie in allen Bereichen der Medizin findet auch in der Zahnmedizin eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung der verwendeten Werkstoffe statt. Gerade für Zahnersatz werden Werkstoffe gesucht, die zum einen ästhetisch, zum anderen haltbar und darüber hinaus auch körperverträglich sind. Auch steigt immer mehr der Wunsch der Patienten nach ästhetischen und zugleich biokompatiblen Materialien. Wurde früher fast ausschließlich als Füllungsmaterial im Seitenzahngebiet quecksilberhaltiges Amalgam verwendet, hat der Zahnarzt heutzutage eine große Auswahl an verschiedenen zahnfarbenen Materialien: zum einen werden sog. Komposite verwendet, das aus einer Polymermatrix mit eingebetteten Füllstoffen besteht, zum anderen können diverse Dentalkeramiken verwendet werden. Besonders die Verwendung von Hochleistungskeramiken, wie beispielsweise Zirkonoxid, das sich bereits als Bremsscheiben für Sportwägen, Hitzeschilde im Space Shuttle und als Kugelköpfe künstlicher Hüftgelenke bewährt hat, spielt heutzutage eine große Rolle bei der Verdrängung des Metalls aus der Mundhöhle. War es früher nur möglich, einen verloren gegangen Zahn mittels einer Brücke, die ein Beschleifen der Nachbarzähne zur Folge hat, oder durch herausnehmbaren Zahnersatz zu ersetzen, ist es heutzutage mit der modernen Implantologie möglich, Zahnersatz zahnschonend einzugliedern. Auch kann mittels Dentalimplantaten dem Wunsch vieler Patienten nach festem Zahnersatz anstelle eines herausnehmbaren Zahnersatzes entsprochen werden. So kann mit Hilfe neuer biokompatiblen Werkstoffe sowohl der ästhetische Anspruch befriedigt als auch das Selbstwertgefühl vieler Patienten angehoben werden.

  4. Protocol for a process-oriented qualitative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme using the Researcher-in-Residence model

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Laura; George, Bethan; Marshall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The integration of health and social care in England is widely accepted as the answer to fragmentation, financial concerns and system inefficiencies, in the context of growing and ageing populations with increasingly complex needs. Despite an expanding body of literature, there is little evidence yet to suggest that integrated care can achieve the benefits that its advocates claim for it. Researchers have often adopted rationalist and technocratic approaches to evaluation, treating integration as an intervention rather than a process. Results have usually been of limited use to practitioners responsible for health and social care integration. There is, therefore, a need to broaden the evidence base, exploring not only what works but also how integrated care can most successfully be implemented and delivered. For this reason, we are carrying out a formative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme. Our expectation is that this will add value to the literature by focusing on the processes by which the vision and objectives of integrated care are translated through phases of development, implementation and delivery from a central to a local perspective, and from a strategic to an operational perspective. Methods and analysis The qualitative and process-oriented evaluation uses an innovative participative approach—the Researcher-in-Residence model. The evaluation is underpinned by a critical ontology, an interpretive epistemology and a critical discourse analysis methodology. Data will be generated using interviews, observations and documentary gathering. Ethics and dissemination Emerging findings will be interpreted and disseminated collaboratively with stakeholders, to enable the research to influence and optimise the effective implementation of integrated care across WELC. Presentations and publications will ensure that learning is shared as widely as possible. The study has received

  5. Aufbau und Anpassung der Motorsteuerungs-Software für Otto- und Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhler, Harald; Ricken, Volker; Diener, René

    Die Erfüllung steigender Kundenansprüche und strenger gesetzlicher Vorgaben hinsichtlich der Verringerung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, der Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit, Fahrleistung und Fahrkomfort ist untrennbar mit dem Einzug elektronischer Systeme in moderne Kraftfahrzeuge verbunden. Die elektronischen Systeme bestimmen zunehmend den Kundennutzen und werden für die Differenzierung der Automobilhersteller untereinander immer wichtiger. Daher sind sie ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor moderner Kraftfahrzeuge.

  6. A model for integrating strategic planning and competence-based curriculum design in establishing a public health programme: the UNC Charlotte experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael E; Harver, Andrew; Eure, Marquis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a doctoral/research-intensive university, is the largest institution of higher education in the Charlotte region. The university currently offers 18 doctoral, 62 master's and 90 baccalaureate programmes. Fall 2008 enrolment exceeded 23 300 students, including more than 4900 graduate students. The university's Department of Health Behavior and Administration was established on 1 July 2002 as part of a transformed College of Health & Human Services. Case description In 2003, the Department initiated a series of stakeholder activities as part of its strategic planning and programmatic realignment efforts. The Department followed an empirically derived top-down/bottom-up strategic planning process that fostered community engagement and coordination of efforts across institutional levels. This process culminated in a vision to transform the unit into a Council on Education for Public Health accredited programme in public health and, eventually, an accredited school of public health. To date, the Department has revised its Master of Science in health promotion into an Master of Science in Public Health programme, renamed itself the Department of Public Health Sciences, launched a Bachelor of Science in Public Health major, laid plans for a doctoral programme, and received accreditation from the Council on Education for Public Health as a public health programme. Furthermore, the campus has endorsed the programme's growth into a school of public health as one of its priorities. Discussion and Evaluation It is only through this rigorous and cyclical process of determining what society needs, designing a curriculum specifically to prepare graduates to meet those needs, ensuring that those graduates meet those needs, and reassessing society's needs that we can continue to advance the profession and ensure the public's health. Community stakeholders should be active contributors to programme innovation. Lessons

  7. Systemlieferant und OEM Hersteller für die Medizintechnik und Pharmabranche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Thomas; Reichenberger, Robert

    Unter einem Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) versteht man einen Hersteller fertiger Komponenten oder Produkte, der diese in seinen eigenen Produktionsfabriken produziert, sie aber anschließend nicht selbst in den Handel bringt. Die Anforderungen an einen OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche sind weitaus komplexer und umfangreicher als in anderen Branchen. Diese zusätzlichen Anforderungen haben schließlich auch ihre Berechtigung, da es letztendlich immer um die Gesundheit und das Leben von Menschen geht. Ein OEM muss neben der heute immer stärker geforderten Flexibilität, Schnelligkeit und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sämtliche für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche erforderlichen Qualitäts- und Prozesssicherheitskriterien erfüllen. Entsprechende Nachweise sind durch regelmäßige Kunden- und Überwachungsaudits zu erbringen. Das Arbeitsumfeld eines OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche bezieht sich somit nicht nur auf die Herstellung der Produkte für seine Kunden, sondern auch auf die Einhaltung sämtlicher Normen, Sicherheitskriterien, regulatorischen Voraussetzungen und Gesetze die zur Herstellung der Produkte notwendig sind.

  8. PCR und Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Regina; Busch, Ulrich

    Die vielfältigen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Polymerasekettenreaktion (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) machen sie zu einer der wichtigsten und am häufigsten eingesetzten Methoden in der molekularbiologischen Forschung und Diagnostik. Für diese Technologie wurde der Erfinder der Methode, Kary Mullis, 1993 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Die PCR erlaubt einen hochsensitiven und spezifischen in-vitro-Nachweis von Desoxyribonukleinsäuren (DNA), da im Zuge der Reaktion Sequenzabschnitte gezielt vermehrt werden. Innerhalb weniger Stunden können aus einem einzigen Zielmolekül 1012 identische Moleküle entstehen [1].

  9. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  10. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  11. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  12. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  13. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  14. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  15. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  16. Bilingual Education in Rural Schools with Native and Non-Native Students: Indigenous-Language Programme Elements for an Inclusive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Phyllis Bo-yuen

    2007-01-01

    The inclusive bilingual-education programme suggestions and insights presented here are derived from grassroots input on the Flathead Reservation. This study focuses on the emic point of view. Views from the inside are valuable because they provide authoritative interpretations of local conditions. The author conducted 101 interviews with 89…

  17. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  18. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  19. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  20. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Outreach

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Federalism and Tribal consultation efforts related to the Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS) and links to copies of each presentation, both to state and local representatives, as well as federally-recognized tribes.

  1. What Makes a Good Educator? The Relevance of Meta Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study which explores the relevance of meta programmes to students' perceptions of teaching quality. Meta programmes are a model of personality preferences from the discipline of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). Research into teaching effectiveness indicates that students rate as important "hygiene…

  2. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  3. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  4. Positionsbestimmung des Unternehmens: Interne und externe Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Portmann, Stefan

    Die Initiierung und Lenkung von Maßnahmen zur integrierten Modernisierung zielen auf die Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens ab. Damit diese Maßnahmen zielgerichtet die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verbessern können, ist Wissen über die bestehende Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sowie über die bestehenden Fähigkeiten eine zentrale Voraussetzung. Eine zielgerichtete Auswahl problemadäquater Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit bedarf daher im Vorfeld einer Bewertung der aktuellen Situation des Unternehmens im Sinne einer Positionsbestimmung. Erst wenn die internen Stärken und Schwächen sowie die externen Chancen und Risiken identifiziert sind, kann ein ganzheitliches Bild von der Position eines Unternehmens in seiner Umwelt gewonnen werden. Auf Basis der Kenntnisse über die Position des Unternehmens können anschließend zielgerichtet Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, die einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens haben. Damit kommt der Positionsbestimmung als initialer Schritt des Prozesses der strategischen Unternehmensplanung eine zentrale Bedeutung im Rahmen der integrierten Modernisierung zu. Erfolgt die Auswahl von Maßnahmen ohne eine vorherige Positionsbestimmung, also lediglich auf Basis drängender Probleme, so besteht die Gefahr einer unbedachten und nur auf das "hier und heute“ bezogenen Schwerpunktbildung ohne Berücksichtigung der mittel- und langfristigen Ziele des Unternehmens.

  5. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  6. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  7. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  8. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  9. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  10. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  11. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  12. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  13. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  14. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  15. The NATA code; theory and analysis. Volume 3: Programmer's manual. [for calculating flow in arc-heated wind tunnels and conditions on models tested in reentry simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bade, W. L.; Yos, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present, third volume of the final report is a programmer's manual for the code. It provides a listing of the FORTRAN 4 source program; a complete glossary of FORTRAN symbols; a discussion of the purpose and method of operation of each subroutine (including mathematical analyses of special algorithms); and a discussion of the operation of the code on IBM/360 and UNIVAC 1108 systems, including required control cards and the overlay structure used to accommodate the code to the limited core size of the 1108. In addition, similar information is provided to document the programming of the NOZFIT code, which is employed to set up nozzle profile curvefits for use in NATA.

  16. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  17. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  18. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  19. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  20. RELBET 4.0 programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huysman, B. P.; Kwong, P. S.; Pieniazek, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    The RELBET 4.0 System as implemented on the Hewlett Packard model 9000 computer system is described. The manual is directed toward programmers and system maintenance personnel. It is intended to serve both as a reference and as a introductory guide to the software. The body of the manual provides an overview of major features and indicates where to look for further information. Full details are left to Appendices.

  1. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  2. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  3. Shape-programmable macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Schafmeister, Christian E; Brown, Zachary Z; Gupta, Sharad

    2008-10-01

    Proteins catalyze specific chemical reactions and carry out highly selective molecular recognition because they adopt well-defined three-dimensional structures and position chemically reactive functional groups in specific constellations. Proteins attain these well-defined structures through the complex process of protein folding. We seek to emulate these protein functions by constructing macromolecules that are easier to engineer by avoiding folding altogether. Toward that goal, we have developed an approach for the synthesis of macromolecules with programmable shapes. As described in this Account, we have constructed synthetic building blocks called bis-amino acids that we then couple through pairs of amide bonds to create water-soluble, spiroladder oligomers (bis-peptides) with well-defined three-dimensional structures. Bis-peptides use the conformational preferences of fused rings, stereochemistry, and strong covalent bonds to define their shape, unlike natural proteins and synthetic foldamers, which depend on noncovalent interactions and an unpredictable folding process to attain structure. Using these bis-amino acid monomers, we have built and characterized a number of bis-peptide nanostructures. We also constructed a molecular actuator that undergoes a large change in conformation under the control of metal exchange; the first application of bis-peptides. We are currently developing further approaches to functionalize bis-peptides as scaffolds to present well-defined constellations of functional groups. Such macromolecules could facilitate multifunctional catalysis and molecular recognition and lead to nanoscale molecular devices.

  4. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  5. Using the Global Environment Facility for developing Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) models -- Papua New Guinea`s Biodiversity Conservation Management Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, G.; Jefferies, B.

    1995-03-01

    The unprecedented level of support that has been pledged to strengthen Government of Papua New Guinea (GoPNG) biodiversity conservation initiatives has re-identified an important fact that technical and infrastructure support must be complemented by programs that provide realistic opportunities for developing national capacity. Indications are that the next five years will present a range of challenging opportunities for the department to move from the intensive period of planning, which has been the focus of attention during the first phase of the National Forestry and Conservation Action Programme (NFCAP), into a sustained period of policy and project application. This paper examines processes under which strengthening programs contribute to national development objectives and complement accomplishment of the Department of Environment and Conservation Strategic Plan. An overview of the Global Environment Facility-Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) Project and coordination effort that are being made for biodiversity conservation projects in Papua New Guinea, are addressed.

  6. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  7. Glaucoma expert patient programme and ocular hypotensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Amro, Raed; Cox, Carol L; Waddington, Kathryn; Siriwardena, Dilani

    Expert patient programmes (EPPs) are becoming an increasingly important aspect of chronic disease management, resulting in improved health outcomes for patients. Patients with chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) require lifelong therapy. However, to date, no EPPs have been designed specifically for patients with chronic eye conditions like COAG. This article describes the development and implementation of the Glaucoma Expert Patient Programme (GEPP), a glaucoma-specific educational self-management programme which aims to improve glaucoma patients' knowledge, self-management skills, expectations and adherence to treatment. A review of theoretical frameworks and models which underpin the design, use and conduct of EPPs was undertaken, and the GEPP was designed based on the model by Kate Lorig (2003). The result is an educational programme which offers COAG patients a different perspective on their condition and supports them with knowledge, skills and strategies to better manage their condition on a daily basis.

  8. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  9. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  10. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  11. Study of radiation induced cancers in a breast screening programme.

    PubMed

    León, A; Verdú, G; Cuevas, M D; Salas, M D; Villaescusa, J I; Bueno, F

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk, the most important being the late somatic effect of the induction of cancer. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the risk to the population produced by the Comunidad Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriments are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X ray equipment. On the other hand the radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains in the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography units' doses and average compression breast thickness. Finally, risk comparison between a screening programme starting at 45 years old and another one starting at 50 years old is made.

  12. Ökologische Grundlagen und limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzel, N.; Rebele, F.; Rosenthal, G.; Eichberg, C.

    In den dicht besiedelten und agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- und Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung und Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume und Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker und Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer und Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen und die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough und Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).

  13. Modellgestützte Hybrid Systementwicklung - Modellierung und Optimierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Thomas

    Im Bereich der Hybridfahrzeugentwicklung wird nach wie vor intensiv an Konzepten zur Verbrauchseinsparung und Reduzierung von Emissionen gearbeitet. Gleichzeitig sollen "Fahrspaß" und Komfort solcher Fahrzeuge verbessert werden. Für verschiedene Anwendungen sind unterschiedlichste Hybridkonzepte denkbar und sinnvoll. Trotz dieser Variantenvielfalt und den daraus resultierenden technischen Anforderungen sind die Kosten eines Hybridfahrzeugs zu minimieren, wobei ein wesentlicher Aspekt bei der Kostenreduzierung die Stückzahl ist. Bei der Entwicklung von Komponenten steht daher, neben den technischen Anforderungen, deren vielseitige Einsetzbarkeit im Vordergrund.

  14. The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: New Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, D. E.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme, one of the tree research Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GAW) is the only existing long-term international global programme that coordinates observations and analysis of atmospheric composition changes. The GAW Programme builds on a partnership of more than 100 countries. Within its 25 years of existence WMO/GAW has matured to the system that provides reliable long-term high quality observations in support of international policy making. WMO/GAW includes globally coordinated observational network, complemented by a comprehensive quality assurance system and capacity development. In spite of the fact that GAW has embraced the IGACO strategy (Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations), the programme in its current form still has a strong observational bias. Future development of WMO/GAW requires the further evolution of the programme concept toward "science for services". New challenges call for the changes in the GAW station requirements and data managements, for new approaches to collaboration with the contributing networks and better involvement of the modelling community. The programme structure is evolving to streamline better to user requirements with the move from precipitation chemistry to total deposition and from near-real-time data delivery to applications (modeling) requiring such data delivery. The updated concept of GAW will include more cross-cutting applications. A new category of local station is introduced to help with the verification of some applications including those related to urban areas and the impacts of urban complexes regionally and globally. The evolution of the GAW Programme towards user driven cross-cutting applications provides a new opportunity to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in partnership with other science - based institutions to increase their relevance to society.

  15. Rekonfigurationstechniken und Anwendungsgebiete für ein programmierbares Gm-C Analog-Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2006-09-01

    FPAAs (Field Programmable Analog Arrays) erlauben es, analoge Signalübertragungsfunktionen auf Hardware abzubilden, die von veränderbaren digitalen Konfigurationsdaten abhängen. Sowohl für das Design von Filterstrukturen auf Systemebene als auch für die genaue Simulation ihrer analogen Übertragungsfunktion auf Transistorebene ist es dabei notwendig, die entsprechenden Konfigurationsdaten einzugeben bevor die Phasen/Betragsanalyse durchgeführt werden kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt ein graphisches Entwurfsprogramm zur Instantiierung von analogen Filtern für ein FPAA mit 17 gm-C Blöcken vor. Es wird über erste Simulationsergebnisse berichtet, die die Machbarkeit mit Eckfrequenzen bis zu hundert Mhz bestätigen. Simulierte Übertragungsfunktionen von grundlegenden Bausteinen werden mit der Theorie verglichen und zu einer exemplarischen Instantiierung eines Butterworth-Filters der vierten Ordnung weitergeführt.

  16. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  17. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  18. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  19. Implantate und Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhann, Tobias H.

    Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg und Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen und im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].

  20. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  1. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  2. Klein's programme and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Gallardo, Jesús; Marmo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    We review the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics to identify, according to Klein's programme, the corresponding group of transformations. For closed systems, it is the unitary group. For open quantum systems, the semigroup of Kraus maps contains, as a maximal subgroup, the general linear group. The same group emerges as the exponentiation of the C*-algebra associated with the quantum system, when thought of as a Lie algebra. Thus, open quantum systems seem to identify the general linear group as associated with quantum mechanics and moreover suggest to extend the Klein programme also to groupoids. The usual unitary group emerges as a maximal compact subgroup of the general linear group.

  3. Stretch not flex: programmable rubber keyboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daniel; Tairych, Andreas; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    Stretchability is a property that brings versatility and design freedom to human interface devices. We present a soft, flexible and stretchable keyboard made from a dielectric elastomer sensor sheet. Using a multi-frequency capacitance sensing technique based on a transmission line model, we demonstrate how this keyboard can detect touch in two dimensions, programmable to increase the number of keys and into different layouts, all without adding any new wires, connections or modifying the hardware. The method is efficient and scalable for large sensing systems with multiple degrees of freedom.

  4. Toward Understanding the Cognitive Processes of Software Design in Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    This study provides insights with regard to the types of cognitive processes that are involved in the formation of mental models and the way those models change over the course of a semester in novice programmers doing a design task. Eight novice programmers participated in this study for three distinct software design sessions, using the same…

  5. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  6. Classification of Staff Development Programmes and Effects Perceived by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rijdt, Catherine; Dochy, Filip; Bamelis, Sofie; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions offer diverse staff development programmes to allow staff members to keep up with educational innovations and to guarantee educational quality. The current study investigates by means of a survey and semi-structured interviews whether the teacher perceives staff development as a management model, a shop-floor model or a…

  7. Simulation of Population Processes with a Programmable Pocket Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, N. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a set of simulation models for use in teaching population dynamics. These models are designed specifically for use with a programmable pocket calculator, and can be used to demonstrate growth of populations with discrete or overlapping generations and also to explore effects of density-dependent and -independent mortality. (Author/CS)

  8. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  9. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Yang, Shu; Yi, Yun Kyu; Kamien, Randall D; Yin, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy-saving buildings, is discussed.

  10. STALK programmers guide

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Hallstrom, P.; Reeder, G.; Walenz, B.; Stevens, F.; Facello, M.

    1996-07-01

    STALK is a system that models molecular docking between two proteins. A problem is posed as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the intermolecular interaction energy between the two molecules. The possible number of conformations between the two molecules can be very large. A parallel genetic algorithm (GA) is used to explore the conformation space and identify the low-energy molecular configurations. The CAVE, a virtual reality environment, can be used to visualize and interact with the system while it is executing. STALK consists of two programs: stalk.ga, the docking program that runs the GA, and stalk. cave, the visualization program. The visualization component is optional.

  11. Establishing a workplace antiretroviral therapy programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, S; Grant, A D; Day, J H; Pemba, L; Chaisson, R E; Kruger, P; Martin, D; Wood, R; Brink, B; Churchyard, G J

    2007-01-01

    Ways to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low income settings are being sought. We describe an HIV care programme including ART in an industrial setting in South Africa. The programme uses guidelines derived from local and international best practice. The training component aims to build capacity among health care staff. Nurses and doctors are supported by experienced HIV clinicians through telephone consultation and site visits. Patients undergo a three-stage counselling procedure prior to starting ART. Drug regimens and monitoring are standardised and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (isoniazid and cotrimoxazole) is offered routinely. Laboratory and pharmacy services, using named-patient dispensing, are centralized. The programme is designed to ensure that data on clinical and economic outcomes will be available for programme evaluation. Between November 2002-December 2004, ART delivery has been established at 70 ART workplace ART sites. The sites range from 200 to 12000 employees, and from small occupational health clinics and general practitioner rooms to larger hospital clinics. During this period, 2456 patients began ART. Of those on treatment for at least three months, 1728 (78%) have been retained on the programme and only 38 (1.7%) patients have failed the first-line ART regimen. This model for delivery of ART is feasible and successful in an industrial setting. The model may be generalizable to other employment health services in settings of high HIV prevalence, and as a model for implementing ART in other types of health-care settings.

  12. Global Geospace Science Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  13. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  14. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  15. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models: Global and Arctic Black Carbon Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, Rashed; von Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin

    2016-06-22

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region while Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with CanAM (NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. The relative contribution of wet and dry deposition rates in removing BC varies seasonally and is one of the major factors causing seasonal variations in BC burdens in the Arctic. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform (layer) clouds whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  16. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  17. Evaluation of kidney transplantation programmes using system simulation.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Prasanna; Kumar, S Saravana; Rao, K Suryaprakasa

    2012-06-01

    In the case of kidney transplantations, there is always a serious imbalance between the number of kidneys donated for transplantation and the number of persons wishing to receive a transplant. This not only affects the quality of life of those unable to obtain a transplant, but it also has important repercussions on the treatment of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) by transplantation and dialysis. Also there are a number of ways in which the kidney transplantation can be achieved, such as the cadaveric kidney transplantation, live donor kidney transplantation, kidney paired donation and list exchange. A simulation study of all the referred programmes is performed using simulation models developed for each programme to obtain the better estimate of the average waiting time of a patient per year. With the estimates given by the simulation models, the best serving programme for each blood type patient is selected, declared and recommended.

  18. Modeling, Simulation and Implementation of a Non-Coherent Binary-Frequency-Shift-Keying (BFSK) Receiver-Transmitter into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    software, which inter- faces with the Altera Quartus® II design software to program the FPGA . Chapter II gives a brief history of FPGAs , discusses the...Figure 14. Square Wave Source . In order for a Simulink model design to be con- verted to VHDL , the model has to establish the input and output...than the modulation. The only re- source that was more than 10% used was the M4K memory blocks at 37%. The board can easily hold the coding and even

  19. Technology transfer trends in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Shoba, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    Indian space programme, whose objectives involve acceleration of economic and social development through applications of space technology, has been engaged in the development of state-of-the-art satellite systems, launch vehicles and equipment necessary for applications. Even during the early phase of evolution of this Programme, deliberate policies have been adopted by the national space agency, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), to promote spin-off benefit from the technologies developed for the use of space projects. Consistently adhering to this policy, ISRO has transferred over 280 technologies till date, spanning a wide spectrum of disciplines. This has resulted in a fruitful two-way cooperation between a number of SMEs and the ISRO. In order to make the technology transfer process effective, ISRO has adopted a variety of functional and organizational policies that included awareness building measures, licensee selection methods, innovative contract systems, diverse transfer processes, post licencing services and feedback mechanisms. Besides analyzing these policies and their evolution, the paper discusses various models adopted for technology transfer and their impact on assessment. It also touches upon relevant issues relating to creating interface between public funded R&D and the private commercial enterprises. It suggests few models in which international cooperation could be pursued in this field.

  20. Planning and Implementation Framework for a Hybrid E-Learning Model: The Context of a Part-Time LIS Postgraduate Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Leelien Ken

    2010-01-01

    E-learning and traditional classroom learning have been combined to deliver library and information science (LIS) education. However, the framework for planning and implementing a hybrid e-learning model is unclear in the literature. Using a routines-based perspective, e-learning opportunities were explored through identifying the internal…

  1. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  2. Principles of Development of Model Health Care Programmes. Report on a WHO Meeting. (Turku, Finland, May 3-6, 1982). EURO Reports and Studies 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A report is given of the work of a group convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the issues related to the development of Model Health Care Programs (MHCPs), and to apply the principles thus identified to the case of a specific health problem--low back pain. A discussion of the principles of the development of MHCPs includes…

  3. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  4. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  5. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  9. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  10. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  11. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  12. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  13. `Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer': Effectiveness of an intervention programme to motivate students for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.

  14. Modelling Anti-Ov16 IgG4 Antibody Prevalence as an Indicator for Evaluation and Decision Making in Onchocerciasis Elimination Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Lont, Yvonne L.; Coffeng, Luc E.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Golden, Allison; de los Santos, Tala

    2017-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination in Africa through annual or biannual ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA). An immunodiagnostic test, based on the detection of human IgG4 antibodies in the blood to the Onchocerca volvulus-specific antigen Ov16, is one of the recommended tools for determining whether transmission is interrupted and mass treatment can stop. For different transmission settings, the relationship between post-MDA Ov16 antibody prevalence in children (measured 1 year after the last round of MDA) and the duration and coverage of MDA, the mf prevalence in the population, and the probability that onchocerciasis is eventually eliminated is explored through mathematical modelling. Methodology The ONCHOSIM model was extended with new output on the Ov16 antibody serostatus of individuals. Seroconversion was assumed to be triggered by the first worm establishing in the host, with seroconversion occurring either before maturation, after maturation or only after the start of mf production. We are mainly interested in seroconversion rates in children, and for now ignore the possibility of seroreversion to simplify the model. Principal findings Yearly repeated MDA leads to a strong reduction in the parasite acquisition rate in humans. This reduces the seroconversion rate in newborns and young children, while those who seroconverted before the start of control remain antibody positive. Both the microfiladermia prevalence in the population aged 5 years and above and the Ov16 antibody prevalence in children under 10 declined with increasing duration of MDA. The association between either of these indicators and the model-predicted probability of elimination was not influenced much by the assumed treatment coverage levels, but was found to depend on baseline endemicity levels, assumptions regarding the trigger of seroconversion, and diagnostic test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). Conclusions Better understanding of the dynamics

  15. Methodologies for optimal resource allocation to the national space program and new space utilizations. Volume 2: Resource allocation and smoothing model, programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Appendixes are presented that provide model input requirements, a sample case, flow charts, and a program listing. At the beginning of each appendix, descriptive details and technical comments are provided to indicate any special instructions applicable to the use of that appendix. In addition, the program listing includes comment cards that state the purpose of each subroutine in the complete program and describe operations performed within that subroutine. The input requirements includes details on the many options that adapt the program to the specific needs of the analyst for a particular problem.

  16. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  17. Quantitative skills as a graduate learning outcome of university science degree programmes: student performance explored through theplanned-enacted-experiencedcurriculum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Adams, Peter; Goos, Merrilyn

    2016-07-01

    Application of mathematical and statistical thinking and reasoning, typically referred to as quantitative skills, is essential for university bioscience students. First, this study developed an assessment task intended to gauge graduating students' quantitative skills. The Quantitative Skills Assessment of Science Students (QSASS) was the result, which examined 10 mathematical and statistical sub-topics. Second, the study established an evidential baseline of students' quantitative skills performance and confidence levels by piloting the QSASS with 187 final-year biosciences students at a research-intensive university. The study is framed within the planned-enacted-experienced curriculum model and contributes to science reform efforts focused on enhancing the quantitative skills of university graduates, particularly in the biosciences. The results found, on average, weak performance and low confidence on the QSASS, suggesting divergence between academics' intentions and students' experiences of learning quantitative skills. Implications for curriculum design and future studies are discussed.

  18. Grundlagen und Vollzug der amtlichen Lebensmittelkontrolle in der Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Philipp; Spinner, Christoph

    In der Schweiz wird die Mehrheit der hoheitlichen Aufgaben von den 26 Kantonen, die zusammen die schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft bilden, autonom vollzogen. So liegt zum Beispiel die Kompetenz in den Bereichen Steuern, Gesundheit, Schulen oder Polizei grundsätzlich bei den Kantonen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist die Lebensmittelgesetzgebung national durch eidgenössische Erlasse harmonisiert. Die Vollzugsaufgaben liegen aber auch in diesem Bereich, abgesehen vom Vollzug an der Grenze und von einer nationalen Vollzugsaufsicht und Weisungsberechtigung, in kantonaler Kompetenz. Die Kantone können anhand kantonaler Erlasse das Bundesrecht präzisieren - insbesondere die organisatorischen Aspekte - und Regelungen im nicht harmonisierten Bereich treffen.

  19. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  20. Diving in and Exploring Curricular Frameworks: The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; MacIntyre, Bill; Bicknell, Brenda; Cutler, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre has developed a programme for secondary gifted and talented students offering hands-on science in the real world. These programmes are designed to include elements of the Enrichment Triad Model (ETM), specifically the three types of enrichment, and, to a lesser degree, some aspects of the Schoolwide Enrichment…

  1. Developing Everyone's Learning and Thinking Abilities: A Parenting Programme the Southern Area Experience--10 Years on!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Liz

    2006-01-01

    The Developing Everyone's Learning and Thinking Abilities (DELTA) parenting programme aims to promote both the holistic development of children and their parent's self-esteem in order to enhance the parent/carer and child relationship. DELTA operates on a multidisciplinary basis using a "Parents as Partners" model. The programme was…

  2. Sustaining and Scaling up the Impact of Professional Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehetmeier, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a crucial topic: which factors influence the sustainability and scale-up of a professional development programme's impact? Theoretical models and empirical findings from impact research (e.g. Zehetmeier and Krainer, "ZDM Int J Math" 43(6/7):875-887, 2011) and innovation research (e.g. Cobb and Smith,…

  3. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  4. Evaluation of Formal Training Programmes in Greek Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to highlight the training factors that mostly affect trainees' perception of learning and training usefulness. Design/methodology/approach: A new research model is proposed exploring the relationships between a trainer's performance, training programme components, outcomes of the learning process and training…

  5. Evaluating Doctoral Programmes in Africa: Context and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Backhouse, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Models of doctoral education in Africa remained similar to those in European universities, well into the 2000s. However, there has been an increasing realisation that such programmes are ill-suited for the African realities. With recent efforts to revitalise higher education in Africa, considerable attention has been placed on the need to explore…

  6. Multicompartment pharmacokinetic analysis and simulations using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Niazi, S

    1979-05-01

    This paper describes the use of a programmable calculator (HP-97), for fitting plasma concentration profiles to 1 and 2 compartment open models and calculating fitted and derived parameters together with estimates of steady state plasma drug levels following various dosage regimens in clinical settings.

  7. Generative Adaptation and Reuse of Competence Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodero, Juan Manuel; Zarraonandia, Telmo; Fernandez, Camino; Diez, David

    2007-01-01

    Instructional engineering provides methods to conduct the design and adaptation of competence development programmes by the combination of diverse learning components (i.e. units of learning, learning activities, learning resources and learning services). It occurs through an established process workflow in which models with diverse levels of…

  8. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using

  9. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  10. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  11. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    antigenpräsentierender Zellen verantwortlich sein. Durch die Modifikation einer Methode zur intrazellulären IFN-gamma Färbung konnten in vakzinierten Mäusen tumorantigenspezifische CTL sensitiv und quantitativ detektiert werden. Die so bestimmte CTL-Frequenz, nicht jedoch die humorale Antwort, korrelierte mit der in vivo Wirksamkeit der verschiedenen Vakzinen: DNA vakzinierte Tiere entwickeln starke tumorantigenspezifische CTL-Antworten, wohingegen in MVA-vakzinierten Tieren überwiegend gegen virale Epitope gerichtete CD4 und CD8-T-Zellen detektiert wurden. Die Wirksamkeit der pCI-DNA-Vakzine spricht für die Weiterentwicklung in weiteren präklinischen Mausmodellen, beispielsweise unter Verwendung von MUC1 oder HLA-A2 transgenen Mäusen. Die Methoden zur Detektion Tumorantigen-spezifischer CTL in 96-Loch-Mikrotiterplatten können dabei zur systematischen Suche nach im Menschen immundominanten T-Zell-Epitopen im Muzin-Molekül genutzt werden. Der durchgeführte Vergleich der auf den Vektoren pCI und MVA basierenden Vakzinen und die Analyse neuerer Publikationen führen zu dem Ergebniss, daß vor allem DNA-Vakzinen in Zukunft eine wichtige Rolle bei der Entwicklung von aktiven Tumorimpfstoffen spielen werden. Rekombinante MVA-Viren, eventuell in Kombination mit DNA- oder anderen Vektoren, haben sich dagegen in zahlreichen Studien als wirksame Impfstoffe zur Kontrolle von durch Pathogene hervorgerufenen Infektionserkrankungen erwiesen. In this study, tumor vaccines based on the plasmid pCI, the attenuated vaccinia virus strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and MVA-infected dendritic cells were constructed and characterized by sequencing, Western blot and flow cytometric analysis. The efficiency to induce tumor immunity in vivo was compared in several C57BL/6 mouse tumor models. Naked DNA Vaccination based on the eukaryotic expression vector pCI did induce very effective, antigen-specific and long-term protection against tumor cell lines expressing mucin, CEA or

  12. Developing a generic, individualised adherence programme for chronic medication users

    PubMed Central

    Herborg, Hanne; Haugbølle, Lotte S.; Sørensen, Lene; Rossing, Charlotte; Dam, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Objective The scope of this article is to describe the background for and content of an adherence counselling programme with a specific focus on an individualised, multi-dimensional adherence model for patients with a potential adherence problem (a so-called ‘individualised systems model’). Methods An intervention programme based on WHO’s systems model for adherence was developed for implementation in primary health care and tested in a development project in Danish pharmacies in 2004-2005 in three pharmacies and 4 GP practices by 27 patients. Data were collected from the participants by registration forms, questionnaires, and focus groups. Since the programme was to support patients in the self-management process regarding choice and implementation of medication treatment, various strategies were used and different theoretical assumptions and choices made prior to setting up the study. These strategies include distinguishing between different types of non-adherence, a model for stages of change, self-efficacy, narratives, motivating interviewing strategies and coaching techniques. These strategic and theoretical choices are described in the article. Results The strategies and theoretical reflections formed the platform for the creation of a counselling programme, which was tested in two forms, a basic and an extended version - provided by either a pharmaconomist or a pharmacist. The result section also describes a toolbox of instruments to enable pharmacy staff and GPs to tailor a counselling programme for patients individually called ‘Safe and effective use of medicines’. Besides, the results include a description of how the WHO-model is transformed into an individualised counselling model. PMID:25177406

  13. Nonvolatile, electrically erasable programmable ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dessouky, A.

    1984-01-01

    The processing technology for integration of MNOS-EEPROMs and NMOS Logic was investigated as p-well isolation. Memory characteristics of both Si gate and metal gate MNOS devices are investigated for nitride constitution which aims for lower programming voltages and good memory performance. The complete fabrication process for 128 byte SNOS-EEPROM chip is described by using high voltage depletion MOS devices in p-well technology. Another test vehicle uses 4 x 4 metal gate MNOS array to demonstrate possible fabrication of 12 V programmable scaled MNOS devices with 10 years retention after 10 to the 5th power endurance.

  14. Toxicological programmes and teaching methods.

    PubMed

    Bergendorff, A

    2000-03-15

    Toxicological knowledge is required for three main purposes: basic and applied research, toxicity testing, and risk assessment. Curricula and teaching methods designed to meet these demands for knowledge are aimed at appropriation of relevant facts, appreciation of causality and an overall understanding of biological events caused by chemical substances. The Toxicology Programme at Karolinska Institutet is considered as an example for the design of appropriate courses. Teaching methods developed towards more self-tuition are becoming a natural part of such education. Continued escalation in scientific achievements and demands for safe use of chemicals will govern future trends in toxicological education.

  15. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  16. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  17. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  18. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  19. Certain aspects of the psychological analysis of programmer activity. [selection of computer programmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondarovskaya, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The psychological analysis of programmer activity showed that one of its basic characteristics is the need to employ formal languages. In determining ways of effectively mastering the capacity to write algorithms in the algorithmic language, it is expedient to proceed from its similarity to the living languages and the language of mathematical formulas, and to choose certain psychological principles of mastering foreign languages and mathematical symbols in teaching the algorithmic language. General models of the input language significantly increase the effectiveness of its mastery and permit the development of thinking on the part of the students.

  20. Konstruieren von Pkw-Karosserien: Grundlagen, Elemente und Baugruppen, Vorschriftenübersicht, Beispiele mit CATIA V4 und V5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Jörg; Nothhaft, Richard

    Die Faszination, die vom Auto ausgeht, ist und bleibt ungebrochen. Entsprechend interessant ist es, sich vor dem Hintergrund konventioneller Konstruktionstechniken über die virtuelle Produktentwicklung von Pkw-Karosserien an modernen CAD-Arbeitsplätzen informieren zu können. Die Autoren führen in die Grundlagen ein und zeigen anhand von Beispielen und zahlreichen Abbildungen, wie mit dem System CATIA der Rohbau sowie die Ausstattung innen und au=C3=9Fen konstruiert werden. Darüber hinaus wird das so genannte "Package" an Beispielen beschrieben, also das Management und die Harmonisierung der Anforderungen an die Bauräume (z.

  1. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  2. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen.

  3. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  4. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  5. Modifications of und rbcS in und Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 resulted in high CO sub 2 requiring mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.; Liehman-Hurwitz, J.; Martinez, F.; Reinhold, L.; Kaplan, A. )

    1990-05-01

    High CO{sub 2} requiring mutants (HCR), capable of growing in the presence of kanamycin, were obtained following transformation with a construct containing {und nptII} in the coding region of rbcS (encoding for the small subunit (SS) of Rubisco). The apparent photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon was very low in mutant EK6 whereas in mutant JR12 it was only slightly lower than in high-CO{sub 2}-grown wild type. Southern analysis indicated double crossing over in the case of EK6. In mutant JR12 Southern analysis revealed some rearrangement and a deletion of a region downstream fro {und rbcS}. Western analysis demonstrated normal SS in JR12 but a larger (by about 3 kD) SS in EK6. Sequence analysis indicated that the latter was the result of fusion between {und rbcS} and the flanking region of {und nptII}.

  6. Strömungs- und Tracer-Transportmodellierung am Natural Attenuation-Standort Zeitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gödeke, Stefan; Weiß, Holger; Geistlinger, Helmut; Fischer, Anko; Richnow, Hans Herrmann; Schirmer, Mario

    Kurzfassung Numerische Modelle spielen bei der Bewertung von Natural-Attenuation-Prozessen an Feldstandorten eine bedeutende Rolle. Daher ist es wichtig diese mit Felddaten zu überprüfen und gegebenenfalls erneut zu kalibrieren. Die Modellierung des Transports eines konservativen Tracers auf der Grundlage von Felddaten ergab eine zuverlässigere Abschätzung der Kf-Werte des numerischen Strömungsmodells für den Standort, als es mit anderen Methoden (z. B. Analyse der Siebwerte) möglich war. Die Kf-Werte berechnet aus Siebanalysen führten zu einer deutlichen Unterschätzung der Tracerausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit. Zwischen beobachteten und berechneten Durchbruchskurven wurde eine gute Übereinstimmung erzielt, sodass das Modell für die Planung weiterer Feldexperimente und als Grundlage für eine reaktive Transportmodellierung genutzt werden kann. Die hydraulischen Leitfähigkeiten im Untersuchungsgebiet ändern sich in vertikaler und horizontaler Richtung im Bereich weniger Dezimeter z. T. stark, was von dem numerischen Modell nur begrenzt wiedergegeben werden kann. Für die Modellierung der Tracerausbreitung ist die Kenntnis der Kf-Wert-Verteilung im Bereich des Infiltrationsbrunnens besonders wichtig, weil sie die Struktur der Tracerfahne im Abstrom wesentlich beeinflusst. Die Wahl des numerischen Verfahrens für die Lösung der Transportgleichung hatte bei der Kalibrierung des Strömungsmodells einen großen Einfluss. Während mit dem in MT3DMS vorhandenen TVD (〝Total Variation Diminishing``)-Algorithmus eine akzeptable Lösung gefunden wurde, zeigten sich bei der Verwendung des MOC (〝Method of Characteristics``)-Verfahrens signifikante Fehler in der Massenbilanz. Reliable numerical models are of primary importance for the evaluation of Natural-Attenuation processes at field sites. Modelling the flow and transport of a conservative tracer, a more realistic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity values for the numerical model was achieved and a good

  7. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  8. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes.

  9. A new programmable calculator procedure for individualizing phenytoin dosage.

    PubMed

    Messori, A; Valenza, T; Zaccara, G; Arnetoli, G; Bartoli, C; Donati-Cori, G; Tendi, E; Zappoli, R

    1983-12-01

    A programmable calculator procedure allowing nonlinear least-squares fit to pharmacokinetic data conforming to the Michaelis-Menten model is described. Model parameter estimation is performed according to the iterative Gauss-Newton technique as modified by Hartley. This procedure thus employs the same theoretical approach used by most pharmacokinetic computer programs. No programming skill is needed to run the program described. The proposed procedure is discussed in detail and applied to some sets of pharmacokinetic data.

  10. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  11. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  12. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  13. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  14. Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Viali, Satupaitea; Saena, Puleiala; Futi, Vailogoua

    2011-02-11

    Rheumatic fever is very common in Samoa. The following paper describes the Rheumatic Fever Programme in Samoa and looks at the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The incidence of ARF has decreased to 30 per 100,000 in 2005, 12.8 per 100,000 in 2007, 7.3 per 100,000 in 2008, and 9.5 per 100,000 in 2009. The incidence of RHD has decreased to 40.2 per 100,000 in 2007, 34 per 100,000 in 2008, and 31.8 per 100,000 in 2009. Cardiac surgery in New Zealand is expensive, but is cheaper to perform in Samoa. RHD screening with echocardiogram at schools may be the best way to reduce the burden and suffering from RHD.

  15. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  16. The Use of Programmable Calculators in the Teaching of Economics, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addis, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the use of programmable calculators to perform classroom controlled experiments on economic models. The complete program for exploring the dynamics of the Harrod-Domar equation is given. Some difficulties encountered and statistical uses are mentioned. (BC)

  17. Verbesserte Ausbildung für neue Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure - eine wichtige Investition in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Oliver

    Bedingt durch die Globalisierung und die damit einhergehende Verschärfung des Wettbewerbs befinden sich die Produktionsbetriebe der chemischen Industrie in stetigem Wandel. Für Betriebsleiter und Betriebsingenieure werden damit Fähigkeiten wie Kostenmanagement, Sozial- und Organisationskompetenz, Führungsqualifikationen und unternehmerisches Handeln immer wichtiger. Neben den Anforderungsprofilen bei Neueinstellungen ist dies auch bei der Fortbildung zu berücksichtigen. Das Trainingsprogramm der Evonik Degussa wurde daher durch die Konzeption neuer Seminare und die Anpassung bestehender Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen weiterentwickelt. Neben Vorträgen und Fallbeispielen sind ebenfalls die Durchführung von Planspielen sowie das Kennenlernen eines Produktionsbetriebes einer anderen Organisationseinheit enthalten. Ziel ist es vor allem die unternehmerische Orientierung neuer Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure zu fördern, die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit zu erhöhen und durch Kenntnis und Nutzung bereits anderweitig entwickelter Lösungen und Methoden die Produktivität zu steigern. Die Produktionsmeister werden aufgrund der Bedeutung dieser Funktion für die Führung der Mitarbeiter und bei der Umsetzung von Veränderungsprojekten in das Ausbildungsprogramm einbezogen. Der Erfolg des Trainingsprogramms zeigt sich an den Teilnehmerzahlen und den ausgesprochen positiven Rückmeldungen.

  18. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Band VI/1. Documenta Copernicana: Briefe (Texte und Übersetzungen).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, A.

    Im Auftrage der Kommission für die Copernicus-Gesamtausgabe, herausgegeben von H. M. Nobis und M. Folkerts. Band VI/1 wurde bearbeitet von A. Kühne unter Mitarbeit von F. Boockmann und S. Kirschner und Verwendung der Vorarbeiten von H. M. Nobis.

  19. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  20. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  1. Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

  2. Using Programmable Calculators to Evaluate Complicated Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    The application of the programmable calculator to evaluating complicated formulas is illustrated by considering the formula for finding the area of any triangle when only the lengths of the three sides are known. Other advantages of the programmable calculator are discussed such as freeing the student to explore more challenging problems and…

  3. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  4. The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Enarson, D A; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Hoa, N B; Tweya, H; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Tayler-Smith, K; Manzi, M; Khogali, M; Kizito, W; Ali, E; Delaunois, P; Reeder, J C

    2014-06-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally, it could act as an observatory to monitor and evaluate operational research in public health. Criteria for prospective partners wishing to join SORT IT have been drawn up.

  5. Selected Logistics Models and Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Programmable Calculator LCC...Program 27 TI-59 Programmable Calculator LCC Model 30 Unmanned Spacecraft Cost Model 31 iv I: TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D) (Subject Index) LOGISTICS...34"" - % - "° > - " ° .° - " .’ > -% > ]*° - LOGISTICS ANALYSIS MODEL/TECHNIQUE DATA MODEL/TECHNIQUE NAME: TI-59 Programmable Calculator LCC Model TYPE MODEL: Cost Estimating DEVELOPED BY:

  6. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  7. A modularized pulse programmer for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenping; Bao, Qingjia; Yang, Liang; Chen, Yiqun; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Jianqing; Ye, Chaohui

    2011-02-01

    A modularized pulse programmer for a NMR spectrometer is described. It consists of a networked PCI-104 single-board computer and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The PCI-104 is dedicated to translate the pulse sequence elements from the host computer into 48-bit binary words and download these words to the FPGA, while the FPGA functions as a sequencer to execute these binary words. High-resolution NMR spectra obtained on a home-built spectrometer with four pulse programmers working concurrently demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulse programmer. Advantages of the module include (1) once designed it can be duplicated and used to construct a scalable NMR/MRI system with multiple transmitter and receiver channels, (2) it is a totally programmable system in which all specific applications are determined by software, and (3) it provides enough reserve for possible new pulse sequences.

  8. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  9. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  10. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  11. Aufnahme, Analyse und Visualisierung von Bewegungen nativer Herzklappen in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Oliver; Friedl, Sven; Kondruweit, Markus; Wittenberg, Thomas

    Die hohe Zahl an Transplantationen von Herzklappen und viele nötige Re-Operationen machen eine detaillierte Analyse der Strömungen und Klappenbewegungen klinisch interessant. Ein neuer Ansatz ist hierbei der Einsatz von Hochgeschwindigkeitskameras um Bewegungsabl äufe der Herzklappen beobachten und auswerten zu können. Die hohen Datenraten erfordern allerdings eine möglichst automatisierte Analyse und möglichst komprimierte Darstellung des Schwingungsverhaltens. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, bei dem Bewegungen nativer Herzklappen in-vitro aufgenommen, analysiert und kompakt visualisiert werden.

  12. Advanced space system analysis software. Technical, user, and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Zimbelman, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    The LASS computer program provides a tool for interactive preliminary and conceptual design of LSS. Eight program modules were developed, including four automated model geometry generators, an associated mass properties module, an appendage synthesizer module, an rf analysis module, and an orbital transfer analysis module. The existing rigid body controls analysis module was modified to permit analysis of effects of solar pressure on orbital performance. A description of each module, user instructions, and programmer information are included.

  13. Multiple comparisons and nonparametric statistical tests on a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, A

    1987-03-01

    Calculator programs are provided for statistical tests for comparing groups of data. These tests can be applied when t-tests are inappropriate, as for multiple comparisons, or for evaluating groups of data that are not distributed normally or have unequal variances. The programs, designed to run on the least expensive Hewlett-Packard programmable scientific calculator, Model HP-11C, should place these statistical tests within easy reach of most students and investigators.

  14. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    address some limitations encountered when evaluating programmes without a theoretical base. Prospectively articulating theory aided by existing models and mid-range implementation theories may strengthen guideline adoption efforts by prompting planners to scrutinise implementation methods. Benefits of deriving programme theory, with or without the aid of mid-range implementation theories, however, may be limited when the evidence underpinning guidelines is flawed. PMID:28328942

  15. Community-level impact of the reproductive health vouchers programme on service utilization in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Sunday, Joseph; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines community-level association between exposure to the reproductive health vouchers programme in Kenya and utilization of services. The data are from a household survey conducted among 2527 women (15-49 years) from voucher and comparable non-voucher sites. Analysis entails cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests and significant tests of proportions as well as estimation of multi-level logit models to predict service utilization by exposure to the programme. The results show that for births occurring after the voucher programme began, women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 were significantly more likely to have delivered at a health facility and to have received skilled care during delivery compared with those from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. There were, however, no significant differences in the timing of first trimester utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and making four or more ANC visits by exposure to the programme. In addition, poor women were significantly less likely to have used safe motherhood services (health facility delivery, skilled delivery care and postnatal care) compared with their non-poor counterparts regardless of exposure to the programme. Nonetheless, a significantly higher proportion of poor women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 used the services compared with their poor counterparts from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. The findings suggest that the programme is associated with increased health facility deliveries and skilled delivery care especially among poor women. However, it has had limited community-level impact on the first trimester timing of antenatal care use and making four or more visits, which remain a challenge despite the high proportion of women in the country that make at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy.

  16. Lessons from a microfinance recapitalisation programme.

    PubMed

    Poston, Angus

    2010-04-01

    Following a major disaster, microfinance institutions (MFIs) often face high levels of bad debt, which may require the institutions to be recapitalised. This paper describes a recapitalisation programme implemented by the SANASA movement of Sri Lanka in 390 microfinance societies following the December 2004 tsunami, and highlights lessons for other similar programmes. MFI recapitalisation is a good use of funds in post-disaster situations. To create successful programmes, donors should expect to relax some of their usual project requirements and MFIs should focus on maintaining credit discipline.

  17. Safety programmes in the Egyptian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Amr A G; Hanna, Ragaa S

    2007-12-01

    This study is aimed at exploring the nature of the safety programmes applied by large-size contractors operating in Egypt. Results revealed that safety programmes applied by those contractors were less formal than the programmes applied by their American counterparts. Only three contractors out of the surveyed sample had accident records broken down by projects, provided workers with formal safety orientation, and trained safety personnel on first-aid. The study recommended that reforms to the scheme of the employers' contribution to social insurance are necessary. This is meant to serve as a strong incentive for safety management.

  18. Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berens, Kalynnda

    2002-01-01

    Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.

  19. Gender differences found in a qualitative study of a disordered eating prevention programme: What do boys have to say?

    PubMed

    González, Marcela L; Mora, Marisol; Penelo, Eva; Goddard, Elizabeth; Treasure, Janet; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative studies examining gender differences of eating disorder prevention programmes are scarce. We aimed to evaluate gender differences in adolescents who participated in a larger study on effectiveness of a disordered eating prevention programme. Perceptions of eating, female and male aesthetic models, media influences, prevention programmes and emerging topics from 12 school-going boys who received a media-literacy programme (n = 4), media-literacy plus nutrition-awareness programme (n = 4) or neither (n = 4) were explored using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and compared with previous results in girls. Findings suggest that the prevention programme is effective for both genders. Gender differences and consumer-culture influences may be considered in future interventions.

  20. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  1. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  2. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.

  3. Designing a catheter skills training programme.

    PubMed

    Logan, Karen

    Karen Logan describes how a team of continence advisers designed and implemented a training programme that allows local nurses to meet the national occupational standards and competencies in catheterisation and catheter care.

  4. Establishing a national universal vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Duma, R

    1995-01-01

    The collaborative efforts of healthcare providers, governmental policy and law makers and the public are often needed to provide the pressure necessary to establish a national universal vaccination programme. Key initiatives for those beginning to establish such a programme are the following: secure a scientific consensus or base of support; clarify relevance of the subject to all concerned; increase awareness of everyone (providers and consumers); recruit and involve influential people (angels) for support; seek out agendas within which to review the topic; generate cost-benefit data; encourage a consensus to be reached; identify legislative pathways to be used; convince politicians of the value of such a programme; request budgeting and funding; and, finally, follow up with surveillance studies to demonstrate the benefits of the programme.

  5. Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslam, R; Abdollahi, Z; Haghighi, F N

    2004-11-01

    Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health--and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals.

  6. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  7. Review of field-programmable analog arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulak, Glen; D'Mello, Dean R.

    1996-10-01

    The drive towards shorter design cycles for analog integrated circuits has given impetus to several developments in the area of field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs). Various approaches have been taken in implementing topological and parametric programmability of analog circuits. Recent extensions of this work have married FPAAs to their digital counterparts (FPGAs) along with data conversion interfaces, to form field-programmable mixed signal arrays (FPMAs). This survey paper reviews work to data in the area of programmable analog and mixed signal circuits. The body of work reviewed includes university and industrial research, commercial products and patents. A time-line of important achievements in the area is drawn and the status of various activities is summarized.

  8. Evaluation of a nurse leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    West, Margaret; Smithgall, Lisa; Rosler, Greta; Winn, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The challenge for nursing leaders responsible for workforce planning is to predict the knowledge, skills and abilities required to lead future healthcare delivery systems effectively. Succession planning requires a constant, competitive pool of qualified nursing leader candidates, and retention of those interested in career growth. Formal nursing leadership education in the United States is available through graduate education and professional nursing organisation programmes, such as the Emerging Nurse Leader Institute of the American Organization of Nurse Executives. However, there is also a need for local development programmes tailored to the needs of individual organisations. Leaders at Geisinger Health System, one of the largest rural health systems in the US, identified the need for an internal professional development scheme for nurses. In 2013 the Nurses Emerging as Leaders programme was developed to prepare nurse leaders for effective leadership and successful role transition. This article describes the programme and an evaluation of its effectiveness.

  9. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  10. The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: a review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adéle

    2014-01-01

    UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics. In 2011, after four years of debate, UNESCO decided not to draft a convention on human reproductive cloning, because consensus on the issue proved impossible. This article reviews the standard setting and capacity building activities of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme. While the Programme faces challenges common to most intergovernmental organizations, its achievements in expanding international law and building bioethics capacity should not be underestimated.

  11. The Case for Programmable Calculators in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    Programmable calculators are useful tools in the classroom that are often overlooked. This report gives examples of problems and activities that can be brought within the scope of such calculators. (MP)

  12. ESO Fellowship Programme 2006/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO awards several postdoctoral fellow-ships each year. The goal of these fel-lowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  13. Paramedir: A Tool for Programmable Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    Performance analysis of parallel scientific applications is time consuming and requires great expertise in areas such as programming paradigms, system software, and computer hardware architectures. In this paper we describe a tool that facilitates the programmability of performance metric calculations thereby allowing the automation of the analysis and reducing the application development time. We demonstrate how the system can be used to capture knowledge and intuition acquired by advanced parallel programmers in order to be transferred to novice users.

  14. Firmware Modification Analysis in Programmable Logic Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    MODIFICATION ANALYSIS IN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Arturo M. Garcia Jr., B.S.S.E.C.A. Captain, USA Approved: //signed// Robert F. Mills , PhD...Matthew 5:37 v Acknowledgments My sincere gratitude to my committee for their guidance and teamwork which made this thesis possible. Dr. Mills ...2012. 2012. [5] Bolton, William. Programmable logic controllers. Newnes, 2009. [6] Boyer, Stuart . SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition 4th

  15. Bovine viral diarrhoea eradication and control programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Greiser-Wilke, Irene; Grummer, Beatrice; Moennig, Volker

    2003-06-01

    The economic impact of BVDV infections has led a number of countries in Europe to start eradication or control programmes. While in both cases the primary step is identification and elimination of persistently infected (PI) animals, the strategy applied thereafter is dependent on the density and seroprevalence of the regional cattle population. One of the first countries to design and implement an eradication programme was Sweden in 1993, a country with a relatively low cattle density and no vaccination. For screening, an indirect antibody ELISA for serum, milk and bulk milk samples is being used. The basics of the Swedish model are no vaccination, voluntary participation, and financing of the entire scheme by the subscribing farmers. BVDV-free herds are certified and permanently checked. While in 1993 only about 35% of the herds were seronegative, about 87% were BVDV-free in 2001. The aim of control programmes in high density areas with high seroprevalence is to minimize economic losses by reducing the incidence of PI animals and thereby virus circulation (German model). Participation is voluntary, and parts of the costs are carried by the public animal insurance (Tierseuchenkasse). Screening is performed using an antigen capture ELISA with blood or serum. In Lower Saxony, for example, a herd is declared BVDV unsuspicious if all animals up to 36 months are BVDV antigen negative and the female offspring older than six months is vaccinated twice (an inactivated vaccine is used for basic immunization, and an attenuated live virus vaccine for boosting).

  16. Evaluating Environmental Knowledge Dimension Convergence to Assess Educational Programme Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kibbe, Alexandra; Kaiser, Florian G.

    2015-03-01

    One aim of environmental education is fostering sustainable environmental action. Some environmental behaviour models suggest that this can be accomplished in part by improving people's knowledge. Recent studies have identified a distinct, psychometrically supported environmental knowledge structure consisting of system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge. Besides system knowledge, which is most often the focus of such studies, incorporating the other knowledge dimensions into these dimensions was suggested to enhance effectiveness. Our study is among the first to implement these dimensions together in an educational campaign and to use these dimensions to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme on water issues. We designed a four-day environmental education programme on water issues for students at an educational field centre. We applied a newly developed multiple-choice instrument using a pre-, post-, retention test design. The knowledge scales were calibrated with the Rasch model. In addition to the commonly assessed individual change in knowledge level, we also measured the change in knowledge convergence, the extent to which the knowledge dimensions merge as a person's environmental knowledge increases, as an innovative indicator of educational success. Following programme participation, students significantly improved in terms of amount learned in each knowledge dimension and in terms of integration of the knowledge dimensions. The effectiveness knowledge shows the least gain, persistence and convergence, which we explain by considering the dependence of the knowledge dimensions on each other. Finally, we discuss emerging challenges for educational researchers and practical implications for environmental educators.

  17. Design of a Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2003-01-01

    A programmable logic gate array has been designed utilizing ferroelectric field effect transistors. The design has only a small number of gates, but this could be scaled up to a more useful size. Using FFET's in a logic array gives several advantages. First, it allows real-time programmability to the array to give high speed reconfiguration. It also allows the array to be configured nearly an unlimited number of times, unlike a FLASH FPGA. Finally, the Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array (FPLGA) can be implemented using a smaller number of transistors because of the inherent logic characteristics of an FFET. The device was only designed and modeled using Spice models of the circuit, including the FFET. The actual device was not produced. The design consists of a small array of NAND and NOR logic gates. Other gates could easily be produced. They are linked by FFET's that control the logic flow. Timing and logic tables have been produced showing the array can produce a variety of logic combinations at a real time usable speed. This device could be a prototype for a device that could be put into imbedded systems that need the high speed of hardware implementation of logic and the complexity to need to change the logic algorithm. Because of the non-volatile nature of the FFET, it would also be useful in situations that needed to program a logic array once and use it repeatedly after the power has been shut off.

  18. Context Aware Programmable Trackers for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Pedro

    This work introduces and proposes the concept of context aware programmable trackers for the next generation Internet. The proposed solution gives ground for the development of advanced applications based on the P2P paradigm and will foster collaborative efforts among several network entities (e.g. P2P applications and ISPs). The proposed concept of context aware programmable trackers allows that several peer selection strategies might be supported by a P2P tracker entity able to improve the peer selection decisions according with pre-defined objectives and external inputs provided by specific services. The flexible, adaptive and enhanced peer selection semantics that might be achieved by the proposed solution will contribute for devising novel P2P based services and business models for the future Internet.

  19. Epitaxy: Programmable Atom Equivalents Versus Atoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mary X; Seo, Soyoung E; Gabrys, Paul A; Fleischman, Dagny; Lee, Byeongdu; Kim, Youngeun; Atwater, Harry A; Macfarlane, Robert J; Mirkin, Chad A

    2017-01-24

    The programmability of DNA makes it an attractive structure-directing ligand for the assembly of nanoparticle (NP) superlattices in a manner that mimics many aspects of atomic crystallization. However, the synthesis of multilayer single crystals of defined size remains a challenge. Though previous studies considered lattice mismatch as the major limiting factor for multilayer assembly, thin film growth depends on many interlinked variables. Here, a more comprehensive approach is taken to study fundamental elements, such as the growth temperature and the thermodynamics of interfacial energetics, to achieve epitaxial growth of NP thin films. Both surface morphology and internal thin film structure are examined to provide an understanding of particle attachment and reorganization during growth. Under equilibrium conditions, single crystalline, multilayer thin films can be synthesized over 500 × 500 μm(2) areas on lithographically patterned templates, whereas deposition under kinetic conditions leads to the rapid growth of glassy films. Importantly, these superlattices follow the same patterns of crystal growth demonstrated in atomic thin film deposition, allowing these processes to be understood in the context of well-studied atomic epitaxy and enabling a nanoscale model to study fundamental crystallization processes. Through understanding the role of epitaxy as a driving force for NP assembly, we are able to realize 3D architectures of arbitrary domain geometry and size.

  20. Paper pump for passive and programmable transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In microfluidic systems, a pump for fluid-driving is often necessary. To keep the size of microfluidic systems small, a pump that is small in size, light-weight and needs no external power source is advantageous. In this work, we present a passive, simple, ultra-low-cost, and easily controlled pumping method based on capillary action of paper that pumps fluid through conventional polymer-based microfluidic channels with steady flow rate. By using inexpensive cutting tools, paper can be shaped and placed at the outlet port of a conventional microfluidic channel, providing a wide range of pumping rates. A theoretical model was developed to describe the pumping mechanism and aid in the design of paper pumps. As we show, paper pumps can provide steady flow rates from 0.3 μl/s to 1.7 μl/s and can be cascaded to achieve programmable flow-rate tuning during the pumping process. We also successfully demonstrate transport of the most common biofluids (urine, serum, and blood). With these capabilities, the paper pump has the potential to become a powerful fluid-driving approach that will benefit the fielding of microfluidic systems for point-of-care applications.

  1. Paper pump for passive and programmable transport

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Hagen, Joshua A.; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In microfluidic systems, a pump for fluid-driving is often necessary. To keep the size of microfluidic systems small, a pump that is small in size, light-weight and needs no external power source is advantageous. In this work, we present a passive, simple, ultra-low-cost, and easily controlled pumping method based on capillary action of paper that pumps fluid through conventional polymer-based microfluidic channels with steady flow rate. By using inexpensive cutting tools, paper can be shaped and placed at the outlet port of a conventional microfluidic channel, providing a wide range of pumping rates. A theoretical model was developed to describe the pumping mechanism and aid in the design of paper pumps. As we show, paper pumps can provide steady flow rates from 0.3 μl/s to 1.7 μl/s and can be cascaded to achieve programmable flow-rate tuning during the pumping process. We also successfully demonstrate transport of the most common biofluids (urine, serum, and blood). With these capabilities, the paper pump has the potential to become a powerful fluid-driving approach that will benefit the fielding of microfluidic systems for point-of-care applications. PMID:24403999

  2. The International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Ortmeyer, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Arctic has undergone dramatic changes in weather, climate and environment. It should be noted that many of these changes were first observed and studied using data from the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). For example, IABP data were fundamental to Walsh et al. (1996) showing that atmospheric pressure has decreased, Rigor et al. (2000) showing that air temperatures have increased, and to Proshutinsky and Johnson (1997); Steele and Boyd, (1998); Kwok, (2000); and Rigor et al. (2002) showing that the clockwise circulation of sea ice and the ocean has weakened. All these results relied heavily on data from the IABP. In addition to supporting these studies of climate change, the IABP observations are also used to forecast weather and ice conditions, validate satellite retrievals of environmental variables, to force, validate and initialize numerical models. Over 350 papers have been written using data from the IABP. The observations and datasets of the IABP data are one of the cornerstones for environmental forecasting and research in the Arctic.

  3. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    als bei V79-r1B1/A. Die zytosolische Fraktion aus V79-r1B1/B-Zellen enthielt in etwa die dreifache Menge an r1B1-Protein wie die aus Colonmucosa der Ratte. Da zumindest für die humane Mukosa gezeigt wurde, da die 1B1 nur im einschichtigen Epithel, nicht aber in allen Zellen der Mukosa exprimiert wird, repräsentiert die zytosolische Fraktion aus der Mukosa nur bedingt die Expression in den Epithelzellen und der Vergleich mit den V79-1B1-Zellen ist grob. Im Gegensatz zu V79-r1B1/B war die Zellinie V79-h1B1, die ebenfalls nur mit Darm und Leber vergleichbare Mengen an h1B1 exprimierte, in der Lage, beide benzylischen Alkohole zu aktivieren. Der Erhöhung der Mutantenfrequenz im Vergleich zur KontrollZellinie war ähnlich wie bei der stark exprimierenden Zellinie V79-r1B1/A, erforderte aber 10fach höhere Konzentrationen. Somit unterscheiden sich Mensch und Ratte nicht nur insgesamt in ihrer Ausstattung des Gastrointestinaltrakts mit Sulfotransferasen, auch bei Betrachtung einer einzelnen Form zeigten sich deutliche Unterschiede in der Aktivierung von zwei Promutagenen. Die Ratte ist daher ein ungeeignetes Modell, um die Rolle von Sulfotransferasen bei tumorinitiierenden Prozessen im Darm zu untersuchen. Dies unterstreicht die Bedeutung von rekombinanten in-vitro-Systemen für die Erfassung des humanen Metabolismus von Fremdstoffen. Insgesamt kennt man nur eine geringe Anzahl von Substanzen, die im Tierexperiment Colontumore erzeugen, und mit Ausnahme der heterozyklischen aromatischen Amine sind diese lediglich von experimenteller Bedeutung. Dies spricht für effiziente Schutzmechanismen der Darmmukosa gegenüber Mutagenen und lät die Frage nach der hohen Inzidenz des Kolorektalkarzinoms offen. Cytosolic fractions of human and rat gastro-intestinal mucosa were electrophoresed, blotted and probed with six antibodies with differing specificities for sulfotransferase (SULT) forms. Using SULTs heterologously expressed in bacteria for comparison of electrophoretic and

  4. METAPHOR: Programmer's guide, Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furchtgott, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The internal structure of the Michigan Evaluation Aid for Perphormability (METAPHOR), an interactive software package to facilitate performability modeling and evaluation is described. Revised supplemented guides are prepared in order to maintain an up-to-date documentation of the system. Programmed tools to facilitate each step of performability model construction and model solution are given.

  5. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  6. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for the elderly - exploring the lessons from other sectors and examining the general characteristics of the programmes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Portugal, there are several physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people developed by the local government. The importance of these programmes has been increasing since the evidence has shown that this type of health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. However, no study has already identified the general characteristics of these programmes nor if they use any scheme to assess the quality of the service provided. A widely-used scheme is the EFQM Excellence Model, which will be in the core of our present work. Thus, the main aims of this preliminary study were 1) to identify the general characteristics of the PA programmes developed by the Portuguese Local Public Administration 2) to determine the extent of implementation of quality initiatives in these programmes. Methods Data were collected by an on-line questionnaire sent to all Continental Municipalities (n = 278). Categorical data were expressed as absolute counts and percentages. Continuous data were expressed as the mean and SD. An open-ended question was analysed using qualitative content analysis with QSR NVivo software. Associations between categorical variables were tested by the use of contingency tables and the calculation of chi-square tests. Significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results Results showed: i) a total of 125 PA programmes were identified in the 18 districts of the Portugal mainland; ii) the main goal of the majority (95.2%) was the participants' health promotion; iii) different characteristics of the programmes were found according to different regions of the country; iv) certain characteristics of the programmes were associated to the existence of other features; v) only one PA programme developed quality initiatives. Conclusions In conclusion, although there are many PA programmes for elderly people spread throughout the country, aiming at improving the health of participants, the overwhelming majority does not adopt

  7. Diorganostyrylzinndiorganophosphine und Ihre Tricarbonylnickelkomplexe (Diorganostyryltin Phosphines and its Tricarbonylnickel Complexes).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Umkristallisieren aus Pentan/Benzol/Toluol gereinigt werden konnen; IVb zeigt bereits ab 0°C Polym erisationserschei- nungen. Vb und VIb werden als heligelbe...einem Rar.ger Engeneering M6ssbauer Spectrometer benutzt wurde. in C 6 D 6c) die Ha lbwertsbreiten wurden als glei~h vorausgesetzt , um dos Si gnal als

  8. Increasing Pragmatic Awareness: Die Vagheit der Sprache "und so"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Tran, Jennie; Zietze, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a description of some pragmatic expressions ("oder so," "und so," "oder wie") rarely found in textbooks, but common in everyday conversation. Though often treated as vague or superfluous, these expressions perform important functions in interpersonal communication. Focusing on these easily identifiable phrases can help…

  9. Denken in Wertschöpfung und Verschwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Michael

    Eine Antwort auf die Frage welche Arbeitsschritte, Aktivitäten und Prozesse als wertschöpfend betrachtet werden können, erhält man durch die Überlegung, ob der Kunde bereit ist dafür zu zahlen. Kunden sind sicher bereit dafür zu zahlen, dass z.B. die Räder an ihrem neuen PKW sicher montiert sind. Die im Unternehmen notwendigen logistischen Prozesse, die die Räder zu ihrem Montageort transportieren, sind aus Sicht des Kunden dagegen mit keinem Wert verbunden. Insofern ist er nicht bereit dafür zu zahlen und sämtliche internen logistischen Aktivitäten sind entsprechend nicht wertschöpfend. Verschwendung bzw. nicht wertschöpfende Arbeit umfasst alle Aktivitäten, Tätigkeiten und Prozesse, die Zeit, Ressourcen und/oder Raum kosten, aber nicht zur Erfüllung der Kundenanforderungen beitragen. Verschwendung ist damit der Teil der Arbeit, für den der Kunde nicht zahlt, z.B. den internen Transport von Bauteilen zum Montageort.

  10. Rapid climate change: scientific challenges and the new NERC programme.

    PubMed

    Srokosz, M A

    2003-09-15

    In this paper the scientific challenges of observing, modelling, understanding and predicting rapid changes in climate are discussed, with a specific focus on the role of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The palaeo and present-day observational and modelling studies being carried out to meet these challenges, under the aegis of a new NERC Rapid Climate Change thematic programme (RAPID), are outlined. In particular, the paper describes the work being done to monitor changes in the meridional overturning circulation of the North Atlantic. The paper concludes with some speculative comments about potential mechanisms for rapid changes.

  11. Programmer's Apprentice For A Special-Purpose Robotics Dataflow Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alan J.; Lamont, Gary B.; Rogers, Steven K.

    1985-12-01

    The motivation for this development is a need to construct a robot simulation facility which will assist in the development of effective algorithms to plan and control robot movements. It was thought that a system that presented robot's movements with an animated graphic display would be useful in the design and testing of robot planning and control programs. In this research a "programmer's apprentice", called the Graph Design Assistant (GDA), has been designed to help researchers construct robot simulation models on an Evans and Sutherland PS 300 graphic workstation. A programmer's apprentice is an expert system with knowledge about a programming task. It guides and advises a programmer as he interactively builds a program. This article describes how the system allows a researcher to develop a program on the PS 300 without having to learn the intricacies of the PS 300's dataflow language. In this system, plans are templates for portions of a graph in the functional graph network. The plans are similar to the macros used in the Evans and Sutherland Functional Graph Network Editor. The difference is that plans have slots which can be expanded to arbitrary structures. Some of the other aspects of the GDA are the development of an interactive interface, a library of plans, a user controlled agenda, consistency checker, and plan creation and editing capability.

  12. Meeting Teacher Expectations in a DL Professional Development Programme--A Case Study for Sustained Applied Competence as Programme Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Cornè Gerda; Van Rensburg, Ona Janse; De Witt, Marike W.

    2016-01-01

    Meeting teacher expectations for a professional development programme (PDP) is expected to strengthen sustainable applied competence as programme outcome since teachers will be more motivated to apply the programme content in practice. A revised distance learning (DL) programme was augmented by a practical component comprising a work-integrated…

  13. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential management tool for the improvement of public health programmes or projects. As malaria morbidity and mortality continue to increase in most countries in Africa, international agencies and malaria control programme managers have identified the strengthening of programme evaluation as an important strategy for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of malaria control programmes. Managers can develop an evaluation strategy only after they have defined programme objectives and planned specific programme activities. Indicators should be directly related to programme objectives and should be selected on the basis of the following criteria: their validity; reliability; ability to detect change within a reasonable time period and as a result of successful programme implementation; ability to be interpreted; and usefulness in guiding programme change. Only those indicators that can be measured with available programme resources should be selected. Managers will also need to identify the sources of indicator data and to determine how often each indicator will be measured. Programme managers should develop criteria or indicators for the following: programme policies and plans; the process of programme implementation; the outcomes of malaria control interventions in disease management and prevention; and programme impact in terms of reductions in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Key issues related to the management of evaluation activities within a national programme include the need to begin with available resources and build incrementally; to explore options for administering evaluation activities; to select, train and supervise staff who carry out evaluation activities; to develop quality control strategies; and to ensure that data are managed and communicated in ways that support effective programme decision-making. For evaluation to lead to improvements in malaria control programmes it must be clearly defined as a part of the

  14. RHrFPGA Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. B.; LaBel, K. A.; McCabe, J. F.; Gardner, G. A.; Lintz, J.; Ross, C.; Golke, K.; Burns, B.; Carts, M. A.; Kim, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the development of the Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array (RHrFPGA) are presented. The topics include: 1) Radiation Test Suite; 2) Testing Interface; 3) Test Configuration; 4) Facilities; 5) Test Programs; 6) Test Procedure; and 7) Test Results. A summary of heavy ion and proton testing is also included.

  15. National haemophilia programme development in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kirtava, A; Soucie, M; Evatt, B; Mdivinishvili, M; Abashidze, M; Iosava, G

    2005-09-01

    After the dissolution of Soviet Union in 1991, haemophilia care in the Republic of Georgia was negatively affected because of the expense of treatment products, lack of clinical and diagnostic facilities, and the need for trained personnel throughout the country. In 2001, the Georgian Government, working through the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with Georgian Association of Haemophilia and Donors, the Institute of Haematology and Transfusion, and the World Federation of Haemophilia, initiated a National Haemophilia Programme. As part of this programme the first Georgian Haemophilia Treatment Centre (HTC) was established. In this paper, we will describe (i) our outreach efforts to identify patients with haemophilia (PWH), (ii) the diagnostic and clinical services provided to patients by the HTC, and (iii) the results of a patient survey designed to assess patient satisfaction with the care provided. Total of 216 PWH were diagnosed, mean age was 25 years (range 4 months to 75 years); 43% had severe, 33% had moderate and 24% had mild haemophilia A or B. Overall, 183 (85%) had haemophilia A and 33 (15%) had haemophilia B, giving a ratio of 5.6. During the 2-year period, 77% of the expected number of PWH was identified by our outreach programme. Vast majority had comprehensive evaluation including joint assessment and over 60% were tested for blood-borne infections within a year and half period. Our findings showed that haemophilia care was considerably improved since the beginning of the National Haemophilia Programme and the survey of PWH showed a high degree of satisfaction with services provided in the HTC. In conclusion, close collaboration of the government, non-government entities and medical professionals in a Georgian national haemophilia care model; resulted in the successful delivery of the much needed services and care to the people living in Georgia with haemophilia.

  16. EPAs Virtual Embryo: Modeling Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryogenesis is regulated by concurrent activities of signaling pathways organized into networks that control spatial patterning, molecular clocks, morphogenetic rearrangements and cell differentiation. Quantitative mathematical and computational models are needed to better unde...

  17. Environmental risk perception, environmental concern and propensity to participate in organic farming programmes.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper aims to identify the factors underlying farmers' propensity to participate in organic farming programmes in a Romanian rural region that confronts non-point source pollution. For this, we employ structural equation modelling with latent variables using a specific data set collected through an agri-environmental farm survey in 2001. The model includes one 'behavioural intention' latent variable ('propensity to participate in organic farming programmes') and five 'attitude' and 'socio-economic' latent variables ('socio-demographic characteristics', 'economic characteristics', 'agri-environmental information access', 'environmental risk perception' and 'general environmental concern'). The results indicate that, overall, the model has an adequate fit to the data. All loadings are statistically significant, supporting the theoretical basis for assignment of indicators for each latent variable. The significance tests for the structural model parameters show 'environmental risk perception' as the strongest determinant of farmers' propensity to participate in organic farming programmes.

  18. Making programmable BMS safe and reliable

    SciTech Connect

    Cusimano, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Burner management systems ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and prevent explosions. This article describes how programmable control systems can be every bit as safe and reliable as hardwired or standard programmable logic controller-based designs. High-pressure boilers are required by regulatory agencies and insurance companies alike to be equipped with a burner management system (BMS) to ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and to prevent explosions. These systems work in parallel with, but independently of, the combustion and feedwater control systems that start up, monitor, and shut down burners and furnaces. Safety and reliability are the fundamental requirements of a BMS. Programmable control system for BMS applications are now available that incorporate high safety and reliability into traditional microprocessor-based designs. With one of these control systems, a qualified systems engineer applying relevant standards, such as the National Fire Protection Assn (NFPA) 85 series, can design and implement a superior BMS.

  19. The SAS-3 programmable telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concept, system design and operation principles of the telemetry system developed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) are analyzed. The concept of programmable format selected for the SAS-3 represents an optical combination of the fixed format system of SAS-1 and SAS-2, and the adaptive format concept. The programmable telemetry system permits a very wide range of changes in the data sampling order by a ground control station, depending on the experimental requirements, so that the maximal amount of useful data can be returned from orbit. The programmable system also allows the data format to differ from one spacecraft to another without changing hardware. Attention is given to the command requirements and redundancy of the SAS-3 telemetry system.

  20. Programmable DNA-Mediated Multitasking Processor.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qi-Wen; Yong, Kian-Yan; Shao, Fangwei; Lee, Kee Jin

    2015-04-30

    Because of DNA appealing features as perfect material, including minuscule size, defined structural repeat and rigidity, programmable DNA-mediated processing is a promising computing paradigm, which employs DNAs as information storing and processing substrates to tackle the computational problems. The massive parallelism of DNA hybridization exhibits transcendent potential to improve multitasking capabilities and yield a tremendous speed-up over the conventional electronic processors with stepwise signal cascade. As an example of multitasking capability, we present an in vitro programmable DNA-mediated optimal route planning processor as a functional unit embedded in contemporary navigation systems. The novel programmable DNA-mediated processor has several advantages over the existing silicon-mediated methods, such as conducting massive data storage and simultaneous processing via much fewer materials than conventional silicon devices.

  1. Implementing neural nets with programmable logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.

  2. Radiation Effects on Current Field Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAS) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar y technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  3. The Schome Park Programme: Exploring Educational Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri

    The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.

  4. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  5. Evaluating a nurse mentor preparation programme.

    PubMed

    Gray, Olivia; Brown, Donna

    Following the introduction of a regional nurse mentor preparation programme, research was undertaken within a health and social care trust to explore both the trainee mentors' and their supervisors' perception of this new programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups was undertaken. The focus groups comprised a total of twelve participants including five trainee mentors and seven supervisors (experienced mentors) who had recently completed a mentor preparation programme. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Three themes were identified from the data: personal investment (including the emotional impact of mentoring) contextual perceptions (environmental factors such as time) and intellectual facets (related to personal and professional growth). Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice. However, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care.

  6. Antibiotic stewardship programmes and the surgeon's role.

    PubMed

    Çakmakçi, M

    2015-04-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use is a frequent occurrence, especially in surgical units. Among the unnecessary costs of such usage are unfavourable outcomes for patients and the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. Antibiotic stewardship programmes aim to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance by promoting thoughtful prescribing of antibiotics. Such programmes usually try to control inappropriate use of antibiotics; to optimize the choice of drug, dosing, route, and duration of therapy; to maximize clinical cure or prevention of infection; and to limit unwanted effects and excess cost. In this paper, I discuss the impact of improper use of antibiotics and outline why I believe that antibiotic stewardship is likely to be the best way of dealing with it. Engagement of surgeons in antibiotic stewardship programmes is crucial to their success.

  7. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances < 20 pc). All stars with known extrasolar planets within this distance are included; additionally, some M- and A-type stars will be observed in collaboration with the Herschel DEBRIS OTKP, so that the entire sample covers a decade in stellar mass, from 0.2 to 2 solar masses. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the wavelength range from 70 to 500 microns. The PACS observations at 100 microns have been designed to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion limit with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  8. Adapting Nepal’s polio eradication programme

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Krishna P; Hampton, Lee M; Bohara, Rajendra; Rai, Indra K; Anaokar, Sameer; Swift, Rachel D; Cochi, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems. Approach In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal’s polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Japanese encephalitis and rubella cases were added to the surveillance system in 2004. Staff from the programme aided the development and implementation of government immunization policies, helped launch vaccination campaigns, and trained government staff in reporting practices and vaccine management. Local setting Nepal eliminated indigenous polio in 2000, and controlled outbreaks caused by polio importations between 2005 and 2010. Relevant changes In 2014, the surveillance activities had expanded to 299 sites, with active surveillance for measles, rubella and neonatal tetanus, including weekly visits from 15 surveillance medical officers. Sentinel surveillance for Japanese encephalitis consisted of 132 sites. Since 2002, staff from the eradication programme have helped to introduce six new vaccines and helped to secure funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Staff have also assisted in responding to other health events in the country. Lesson learnt By expanding the activities of its polio eradication programme, Nepal has improved its surveillance and immunization systems and increased vaccination coverage of other vaccine-preventable diseases. Continued donor support, a close collaboration with the Expanded Programme on Immunization, and the retention of the polio eradication programme’s skilled workforce were important for this expansion. PMID:28250536

  9. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. Dieter; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    EUMETSAT is providing space based observations for operational meteorology and climate monitoring. The observations are measured by geostationary and sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellites in the frame of mandatory programmes. In the frame of optional programmes further observations for altimetry and oceanography are collected and disseminated. In the frame of third party programmes, EUMETSAT makes available data from other agencies' satellites to the user community. Since summer 2015 MSG-4 complements the current operational fleet of operational geostationary spacecraft, Meteosat-7, which is the last satellite of the first generation and the three satellites of the Second Generation of Meteosat, Meteosat-8, Meteosat-9 and Meteosat-10. MSG-4 became Meteosat-11 and was stored in orbit after successful commissioning. Two satellites of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) provide data from sunsynchronous polar orbit. Metop-B, the second of a series of three satellites, launched in September 2012 and Metop-A, the first of the series, in orbit since October 2006 provide operational services. The satellites belong to the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) with the US. EUMETSAT's first optional programme continues to provide data from the Jason-2 satellite since summer 2008. As follow on the Jason-3 satellite was launched in January 2016 and is currently in commissioning. To assure continuity development of Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) is ongoing. The EPS-SG programme was fully approved in summer 2015. In the frame of the Copernicus Programme (formerly GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security)) EUMETSAT will operate the marine part of the Sentinel-3 satellite. It was launched in February 2016 and is currently under commissioning.

  10. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  11. Nurses' views on workplace wellbeing programmes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Zakarin, Melissa; Blake, Holly

    2016-11-24

    Workplace stress is prevalent among nurses. Healthcare employers have implemented complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for relaxation and stress management within workplace wellbeing programmes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 registered nurses to explore the perceptions and experiences of nurses towards accessing CATs in and outside the workplace. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using conventional, qualitative thematic techniques. Themes identified were 'perceptions of complementary and alternative therapies for stress management' and 'engagement with workplace wellness schemes'. CATs have a role within workplace wellbeing programmes and nurses are not averse to accessing them, although there are barriers to access that need to be addressed.

  12. Developing an online programme in computational biology.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather M; Page, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Much has been written about the need for continuing education and training to enable life scientists and computer scientists to manage and exploit the different types of biological data now becoming available. Here we describe the development of an online programme that combines short training courses, so that those who require an educational programme can progress to complete a formal qualification. Although this flexible approach fits the needs of course participants, it does not fit easily within the organizational structures of a campus-based university.

  13. Overview of the National Centralized Tokamak programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Tamai, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Takase, Y.; Sakurai, S.; Kizu, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kurita, G.; Morioka, A.; Hayashi, N.; Miura, Y.; Itoh, S.; Bialek, J.; Navratil, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Fujii, T.; Kurihara, K.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.; Miya, N.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kawashima, H.; Kudo, Y.; Masaki, K.; Takahashi, H.; Takechi, M.; Akiba, M.; Okuno, K.; Ishida, S.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T.; Hashizume; Miura, Y. M.; Horiike, H.; Kimura, A.; Tsutsui, H.; Matsuoka, M.; Uesugi, Y.; Sagara, A.; Nishimura, A.; Shimizu, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Okano, K.; Ida, K.; Shimada, H. R.; Kishimoto, Y.; Azechi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Yatsu, K.; Yoshida, N.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Inoue, N.; Hosogane, N.; Kuriyama, M.; Ninomiya, H.

    2006-03-01

    An overview is given of the National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) programme as a research programme for advanced tokamak research to succeed JT-60U. The mission of NCT is to establish high beta steady-state operation for DEMO and to contribute to ITER. The machine flexibility is pursued in aspect ratio and shape controllability for the demonstration of the high-β steady-state, feedback control of resistive wall modes, wide current and pressure profile control capability and also very long pulse steady-state operation. Existing JT-60 infrastructure such as the heating and current drive system, power supplies and cooling systems will be best utilized for this modification.

  14. A programmable interface to neuromolecular computing networks.

    PubMed

    Akingbehin, K

    1995-01-01

    A programmable interface is provided to a simulated network of reaction-diffusion neurons. The interface allows special 'learn' and 'decide' syntactic constructs to be intermixed with conventional programming constructs. This hybrid combination allows the power of programmability to be combined with the power of adaptability to provide innovative solutions to complex problems. The network uses reaction-diffusion neurons instead of adaline neurons. A mesh topology is used instead of a feedforward topology. The performance of the mesh reaction-diffusion network compares favorably with that of conventional feedforward adaline networks. Enhancements to incorporate short- and long-term memory are described.

  15. Programmable Metallization Cell Devices for Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliga, Sunil

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between them. Devices based on this phenomenon exhibit a unique, self-healing property, as a broken metallic structure can be healed by applying an appropriate voltage between the two broken ends. This work explores methods of fabricating interconnects and switches based on PMC technology on flexible substrates. The objective was the evaluation of the feasibility of using this technology in flexible electronics applications in which reliability is a primary concern. The re-healable property of the interconnect is characterized for the silver doped germanium selenide (Ag-Ge-Se) solid electrolyte system. This property was evaluated by measuring the resistances of the healed interconnect structures and comparing these to the resistances of the unbroken structures. The reliability of the interconnects in both unbroken and healed states is studied by investigating the resistances of the structures to DC voltages, AC voltages and different temperatures as a function of time. This work also explores replacing silver with copper for these interconnects to enhance their reliability. A model for PMC-based switches on flexible substrates is proposed and compared to the observed device behavior with the objective of developing a formal design methodology for these devices. The switches were subjected to voltage sweeps and their resistance was investigated as a function of sweep voltage. The resistance of the switches as a function of voltage pulse magnitude when placed in series with a resistance was also investigated. A model was then developed to explain the behavior of these devices. All observations were based on statistical measurements to account for random errors. The results of this work demonstrate that solid electrolyte based interconnects display self

  16. Enhancing health programme efficiency: a Cambodian case study.

    PubMed

    Stuer, F

    1998-09-01

    In 1995, the Cambodian Urban Health Care Association (CUHCA) was set up as facilitator between private health care providers and patients, guaranteeing good quality health care and fair pricing to patients and providing training and logistic support to providers. Providers were engaged on a fee-for-service basis and competition encouraged. CUHCA's objectives followed the same line of thought as the 1993 World Development Report, aiming at influencing the unregulated private health care market through competition mechanisms. But soon after the start of the project the basic problem was recognized to be not the absence of effective government regulation but rather that consumers lack the requisite knowledge to make good choices in the market for health services. CUHCA had not adequately addressed the demand for health services. The original supply-side strategy of improving health services by increasing competition was a failure. In order to improve CUHCA's health programme efficiency the association's objectives were subsequently redefined and its functioning reorganized. CUHCA now tries to educate consumers and provides good quality services so that consumers will be able to act on the basis of their newly acquired knowledge. CUHCA's health centres serve as model clinics for first-line health care. Community educators organize information, education and communication (IEC) activities. Staff help school teachers to improve formal health education in schools and CUHCA assists local leaders in sanitation development. Only full-time personnel are employed, encouraging team spirit and communication with the target population. Salaries are based on team performance. The CUHCA programme demonstrates that, depending on the market situation, health programme models need to address both the supply and the demand for services in order to be efficient. Where consumers lack essential knowledge to make appropriate choices in the health service market, interventions should focus

  17. Searching for the mechanisms of change: a protocol for a realist review of batterer treatment programmes

    PubMed Central

    Cheff, Rebecca; Finn, Debbie; Davloor, Whitney; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conflicting results reported by evaluations of typical batterer intervention programmes leave many judicial officials and policymakers uncertain about the best way to respond to domestic violence, and whether to recommend and fund these programmes. Traditional evaluations and systematic reviews tend to focus predominantly on whether the programmes ‘worked’ (eg, reduced recidivism) often at the exclusion of understanding for whom they may or may not have worked, under what circumstances, and why. Methods and analysis We are undertaking a realist review of the batterer treatment programme literature with the aim of addressing this gap. Keeping with the goals of realist review, our primary aims are to identify the theory that underlies these programmes, highlight the mechanisms that trigger changes in participant behaviour and finally explain why these programmes help some individuals reduce their use of violence and under what conditions they are effective or not effective. We begin by describing the process of perpetrator treatment, and by proposing an initial theoretical model of behaviour change that will be tested by our review. We then describe the criteria for inclusion of an evaluation into the review, the search strategy we will use to identify the studies, and the plan for data extraction and analysis. Ethics and dissemination The results of this review will be written up using the RAMESES Guidelines for Realist Synthesis, and disseminated through peer-reviewed publications aimed at the practitioner community as well as presented at community forums, and at violence against women conferences. Ethics approval was not needed. PMID:27053268

  18. GAP Flow Measurements During the Mesoscale Alpine Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, G.; Armi, L.; Arnold, S.; Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Durran, D. D.; Flamant, C.; Gabersek, S.; Gohm, A.; Mayr, R.; Mobbs, S.; Nance, L. B.; Vergeiner, I.; Vergeiner, J.; Whiteman, Charles D.

    2004-04-30

    This article provides an overview of the Gap Flow sub-program of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme, a major international meteorological field experiment conducted in the European Alps. The article describes the initial results of an investigation of the wind flow through the Brenner Pass gap in the east-west oriented central section of the European Alps under conditions of south foehn. The overview describes the objectives of the experiments, the instrumentation used for the field investigation, and the mesoscale model simulations. Initial findings of the scientific program are provided.

  19. Programmable modular joint tactical radio in a communications system environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Richard M.; Newman, Alfred V.; Noll, Bruce T.; Russell, Victor C.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a software programmable and modular communications system that will be interoperable with legacy waveforms. It will also be capable of satisfying new communication system requirements for a multitude of military and civilian land, air, and maritime platforms. A Systems Reference Model has been developed to guide a systems architecture design that will use families of common hardware and software configurations to support requirements of different users. The JTRS is a cost-effective approach that allows users to dynamically change capability by reinitializing application software.

  20. USE OF A PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR IN CARDIOPULMONARY PERFUSION.

    PubMed

    Mills, J David; Tallent, Jerome H.

    1978-06-01

    This study describes a hand-held, battery-powered, programmable instrument (Calculator Model SR-52) that can be taken directly into the operating room by cardiopulmonary perfusionists. Three programs are described in detail: 1) Cardiopulmonary perfusion parameters and estimated blood volume; 2) blood gas parameters and saturations, with temperature corrections; and 3) cardiopulmonary oxygen transfer and oxygenator efficiency. This inexpensive calculator allows perfusion personnel to manipulate easily-derived data into values which heretofore have required elaborate nomograms or special slide rules-or were not available within a reasonable computational time.

  1. Determining aminoglycoside dosage and blood levels using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ng, P K

    1980-02-01

    A programmable calculator procedure for the determination of dosage regimens and steady-state peak and trough levels of aminoglycoside antibiotics is described. The calculator is programmed based on a one-compartment open model and first-order elimination of aminoglycosides. A detailed description of the programs and user instructions are presented. The programs allow calculation of intermittent i.v. infusion dosage regimens and steady-state levels, and adjustment of dosage and dosing interval when measured plasma levels differ significantly from predicted levels. The calculator programs provide a rapid means of predicting and modifying dosage regimens and steady-state plasma levels for aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  2. Introducing new diagnostics into STI control programmes: the importance of programme science.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David; Ballard, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Many innovative diagnostic technologies will become commercially available over the next 5-10 years. These tests can potentially transform the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections but their introduction into control programmes can be hampered by health system constraints, and political, cultural, socioeconomic and behavioural factors. We used the introduction of syphilis rapid tests to illustrate the importance of programme science to address the gap between accruing evidence of acceptable test performance and the complexity of programme design, implementation and evaluation of test deployment to address public health needs and improve patient-important outcomes.

  3. Health programmes for school employees: improving quality of life, health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Lloyd J; Tirozzi, Gerald N; Marx, Eva; Bobbitt-Cooke, Mary; Riedel, Sara; Jones, Jack; Schmoyer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    School health programmes in the 21st century could include eight components: 1) health services; 2) health education; 3) healthy physical and psychosocial environments; 4) psychological, counselling, and social services; 5) physical education and other physical activities; 6) healthy food services; and 7) integrated efforts of schools, families, and communities to improve the health of school students and employees. The eighth component of modern school health programmes, health programmes for school employees, is the focus of this article. Health programmes for school employees could be designed to increase the recruitment, retention, and productivity of school employees by partially focusing each of the preceding seven components of the school health programme on improving the health and quality of life of school employees as well as students. Thus, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees may be distinct from, but integrated with, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and education of students. School employee health programmes can improve employee: 1) recruitment; 2) morale; 3) retention; and 4) productivity. They can reduce employee: 5) risk behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity); 6) risk factors (e.g., stress, obesity, high blood pressure); (7) illnesses; 8) work-related injuries; 9) absentee days; 10) worker compensation and disability claims; and 11) health care and health insurance costs. Further, if we hope to improve our schools' performance and raise student achievement levels, developing effective school employee health programmes can increase the likelihood that employees will: 12) serve as healthy role models for students; 13) implement effective school health programmes for students; and 14) present a positive image of the school to the community. If we are to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees in the 21st century: school administrators, employees, and

  4. Faculty Development through an Educational Action Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigmar, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries, including Sweden, are reconsidering traditional teaching and learning methods in higher education. This article describes the work of implementing an Educational Action Programme to support faculty development. The work has been organized by an educational developer at the Educational Development Unit (EDU). Representatives…

  5. Implementing biosecurity education: approaches, resources and programmes.

    PubMed

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia-Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level "Train-the-Trainer" programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students.

  6. Report of Programme Commission II (Natural Sciences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    As the first part of the report of the Programme Commission II, a summary of discussions on plans for natural sciences and their applications is presented in this document. The two agenda items are: (1) detailed consideration of the 1973-74 draft program and budget and of the 1973-78 draft medium-term outline, and (2) desirability of adopting an…

  7. Creating meaningful business continuity management programme metrics.

    PubMed

    Strong, Brian

    2010-11-01

    The popular axiom, 'what gets measured gets done', is often applied in the quality management and continuous improvement disciplines. This truism is also useful to business continuity practitioners as they continually strive to prove the value of their organisation's investment in a business continuity management (BCM) programme. BCM practitioners must also remain relevant to their organisations as executives focus on the bottom line and maintaining stakeholder confidence. It seems that executives always find a way, whether in a hallway or elevator, to ask BCM professionals about the company's level of readiness. When asked, they must be ready with an informed response. The establishment of a process to measure business continuity programme performance and organisational readiness has emerged as a key component of US Department of Homeland Security 'Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness (PS-Prep) Program' standards where the overarching goal is to improve private sector preparedness for disasters and emergencies. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to introduce continuity professionals to best practices that should be considered when developing a BCM metrics programme as well as providing a case study of how a large health insurance company researched, developed and implemented a process to measure BCM programme performance and company readiness.

  8. Improved Programmable High-Voltage Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Rutberg, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Improved dc-to-dc converter functions as programmable high-voltage power supply with low-power-dissipation voltage regulator on high-voltage side. Design of power supply overcomes deficiencies of older designs. Voltage regulation with low power dissipation provided on high-voltage side.

  9. Voyageur Wilderness Programme: A Different Educational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoie, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Back in 1958, environmental clubs were few, organizations that considered eco-practices were almost non-existent, and the concept of environmental studies at any level in their educational system was in its infancy. It was in this environment that Voyageur Wilderness Programme (VWP) was founded on Voyageur Island, Nym Lake, Quetico, Ontario,…

  10. Evaluation of the 1981 Vocational Preparation Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, D. L.; Grosvenor, J. S.

    An evaluation project investigated the Vocational Preparation Programme conducted in 1981 by the South Australian Department of Technical and Further Education (TAFE). The vocational preparation program was designed to increase the employability of young unemployed people aged 15 to 19 by providing them with an understanding of a family of related…

  11. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  12. International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Examining College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David; McGaughy, Charis; Davis-Molin, Whitney; Farkas, Rachel; Fukuda, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) works with schools, governments, and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. This three-phase study prepared by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization explored the impact…

  13. The Northland fluoridation advocacy programme: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sunitha; Thomas, David R

    2008-12-01

    On 20 July 2006, the Far North District Council resolved to fluoridate Kaitaia and Kaikohe. This was the first such initiative by any Territorial Local Authority (TLA) in New Zealand for 23 years, and resulted from a fluoridation advocacy programme. This paper describes the programme implementation, assesses its consistency with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and critically examines the collaboration between the fluoride advocate and the key stakeholders. Process evaluation identified three main categories of programme implementation: policy advocacy, community action projects, and media advocacy. The collaboration of iwi, Maori health providers and the community suggests that the programme was consistent with the principles (partnership, participation and protection) ofthe Treaty ofWaitangi. Media advocacy played an important role in reflecting and engaging community views on fluoridation, and it influenced decision-making by the Far North District Council. The simultaneous, combined 'top-down and bottom-up' approach was an effective and successful strategy for fluoridation advocacy in the community. Less integrated approaches implemented on their own (such as the 'top down' approach in Whangarei and the 'bottom-up' approach in Dargaville) were not effective.

  14. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  15. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  16. Empathy among students in engineering programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoal, Chato; Danielsson, Henrik; Jungert, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Engineers face challenges when they are to manage project groups and be leaders for organisations because such positions demand skills in social competence and empathy. Previous studies have shown that engineers have low degrees of social competence skills. In this study, the level of empathy as measured by the four subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking, fantasy, empathic distress and empathic concern, among engineering students was compared to students in health care profession programmes. Participants were undergraduate students at Linköping University, 365 students from four different health care profession programmes and 115 students from two different engineering programmes. When the empathy measures were corrected for effects of sex, engineering students from one of the programmes had lower empathy than psychology and social worker students on the fantasy and perspective-taking subscales. These results raise questions regarding opportunities for engineering students to develop their empathic abilities. It is important that engineering students acquire both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills regarding empathy.

  17. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before September 20, 2012,...

  18. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  19. Community nutrition programmes, globalization and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Herrera, José Carlos

    2006-08-01

    On an international scale, the last seventy-five years have been a period of deep social, economic and political transformation for the developing countries. They have been especially influenced by the international phenomenon of globalization, the benefits of which have been unequally distributed among countries. In this context, the strategies used to improve the general nutritional health of the population of developing countries include broad approaches integrating nutritional interventions in a context of sustainable community development, while valuing the existing relations between fields as diverse as agriculture, education, sociology, economy, health, environment, hygiene and nutrition. The community nutrition programmes are emblematic of these initiatives. Nevertheless, in spite of the increasing evidence of the potential possibilities offered by these programmes to improve the nutritional status and contribute to the development and the self-sufficiency of the community, their success is relatively limited, due to the inappropriate planning, implementation and evaluation of the programmes. In the present article, I attempt to emphasie the importance of community participation of the population of developing countries in the community nutrition programmes within the context of globalization. This process is not only an ethical imperative, but a pragmatic one. It is a crucial step in the process of liberation, democratization and equality that will lead to true sustainable development.

  20. Implementing Biosecurity Education: Approaches, Resources and Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia–Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level “Train-the-Trainer” programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students. PMID:22038099

  1. Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

  2. Programmable Calculators: Uses in Freshman Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Clark, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Suggests two uses for the programmable calculator in the freshman chemistry laboratory: as a means of determining whether or not a student's raw data from a laboratory experiment fall within acceptable tolerance limits; and as a means of checking the reliability of unknowns and grading on quantitative experiments. (MLH)

  3. The Legacy of the Microelectronics Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP), a plan developed to help British secondary school students learn about microcomputers and the role of technology in society, and its successor, the Microelectronics Support Unit (MESU). Highlights include curriculum development, teacher training, computer assisted instruction and the…

  4. Development of the Microelectronic Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of the Microelectronics Education Programme for England, Northern Ireland and Wales, including funding, aims, and relationships of the national program with local organizations. The program focuses on incorporating uses/effects of microelectronic technology into the total school curriculum and ways of using this…

  5. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment…

  6. ESO Fellowship Programme 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere awards several postdoctoral fellowships each year. The goal of these fellowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes by facilitating close contact between young astronomers and the activities and staff at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  7. Evaluating disease management programme effectiveness: an introduction to instrumental variables.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L

    2006-04-01

    This paper introduces the concept of instrumental variables (IVs) as a means of providing an unbiased estimate of treatment effects in evaluating disease management (DM) programme effectiveness. Model development is described using zip codes as the IV. Three diabetes DM outcomes were evaluated: annual diabetes costs, emergency department (ED) visits and hospital days. Both ordinary least squares (OLS) and IV estimates showed a significant treatment effect for diabetes costs (P = 0.011) but neither model produced a significant treatment effect for ED visits. However, the IV estimate showed a significant treatment effect for hospital days (P = 0.006) whereas the OLS model did not. These results illustrate the utility of IV estimation when the OLS model is sensitive to the confounding effect of hidden bias.

  8. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. Methods A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results Results showed that Processes (65,38%), Leadership (61,03%), Customer results (58,46) and People (51,28%) had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%), People results (41,03%), Policy and strategy (37,91%), Key performance results (19,23%) and Society results (19,23%) had lower percentage occurrences. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement. PMID:21338497

  9. American diagnostic radiology residency and fellowship programmes.

    PubMed

    Rumack, Carol Masters

    2011-03-01

    American Diagnostic Radiology Residency and Fellowship programmes are Graduate Medical Education programmes in the United States (US) equivalent to the Postgraduate Medical Education programmes in Singapore. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited diagnostic radiology residency programmes require 5 years total with Post Graduate Year (PGY) 1 year internship in a clinical specialty, e.g. Internal Medicine following medical school. PGY Years 2 to 5 are the core years which must include Radiology Physics, Radiation Biology and rotations in 9 required subspecialty rotations: Abdominal, Breast, Cardiothoracic, Musculoskeletal, Neuroradiology, Nuclear and Paediatric Radiology, Obstetric & Vascular Ultrasound and Vascular Interventional Radiology. A core curriculum of lectures must be organised by the required 9 core subspecialty faculty. All residents (PGY 2 to 4) take a yearly American College of Radiology Diagnostic In-Training Examination based on national benchmarks of medical knowledge in each subspecialty. Because the American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations are changing, until 2012, residents have to take 3 ABR examinations: (i) ABR physics examination in the PGY 2 to 3 years, (ii) a written examination at the start of the PGY 5 year and (iii) an oral exam at the end of the PGY 5 year. Beginning in 2013, there will be only 2 examinations: (i) the physics and written examinations after PGY 4 will become a combined core radiology examination. Beginning in 2015, the final certifying examination will be given 15 months after the completion of residency. After residency, ACGME fellowships in PGY 6 are all one-year optional programmes which focus on only one subspecialty discipline. There are 4 ACGME accredited fellowships which have a Board Certifi cation Examination: Neuroradiology, Nuclear, Paediatric and Vascular Interventional Radiology. Some ACGME fellowships do not have a certifying examination: Abdominal, Endovascular

  10. Numerical simulations of sulphate emissions from the unsaturated zone on NA processes in ground water - reactive transport modelling of a benzene and naphthalene contaminated plume. Reaktive Transportmodellierungen einer mit Benzen und Naphthalin kontaminierten Abstromfahne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbruch, G.; Schäfer, D.; Dahmke, A.

    2007-06-01

    The supply of electron acceptors from leachate through the unsaturated zone could represent a special boundary condition with regard to contaminant plume spreading in groundwater. This is an important issue for the acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) strategies and the prediction of NA processes, but which to date has received little attention. The results of the numerical simulations considered herein show problems in parameterisation of the Monod kinetic approach used for modelling biodegradation processes under sulphate reducing conditions and show the effects of different sulphate loads on the future spreading of a benzene and naphthalene plume at a former coking plant. The results indicate a strong influence of sulphate supply and thus highlight the importance of quantifying these electron acceptor sources and loads, and of defining the controlling parameters for predicting long-term trends in plume development.

  11. Kraft-Wärmekopplung und Blockheiz-Kraftwerke BHKW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Die thermischen Wirkungsgrade von Kraftwerken zur Stromerzeugung sind relativ gering. Beispielsweise erreichen moderne Kohlekraftwerke heute bis etwa 45 %, Gasturbinen maximal 40 % und Diesel-Motoren nicht über 50 %. Kombinations-Kraftwerke, Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Prozesse können an die 60 % thermischer Wirkungsgrad bei der Umwandlung der zugeführten Wärme in mechanische bzw. elektrische Energie erzielen. Ein ähnlich hoher Wert wird in Zukunft von den Brennstoffzellen erwartet. Der nicht in Arbeit umgewandelte Anteil der zugeführten Wärme fällt als Abwärme an und geht ungenutzt in die Umgebung. Ein Teil dieser Abwärme lässt sich durch entsprechende Installationen bei allen Kraftwerksprozessen zur Wassererwärmung oder zur Dampferzeugung für industrielle Zwecke nutzen. Für Heizzwecke genügt eine Temperatur der Abwärme von 60 %C bis 80 %C, während die Erzeugung von Industriedampf deutlich höhere Temperaturen voraussetzt.

  12. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  13. Physik gestern und heute: Fragwürdiges beim Millikan-Versuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Robert A. Millikan erhielt 1923 als erster amerikanischer Physiker den Nobelpreis für Physik. Geehrt wurde er für seine Präzisionsmessungen zum Photoeffekt und zur experimentellen Bestimmung der elektrischen Elementarladung. Millikans Experimente zur Elementarladung sind auch heute noch ein Standardthema im schulischen Physikunterricht, gleichzeitig werfen sie aber eine Reihe von wissenschaftstheoretischen und ethisch relevanten Fragen auf.

  14. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  15. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  16. An Analysis of Ethical Considerations in Programme Design Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2014-01-01

    Ethical considerations are inherent to programme design decision-making, but not normally explicit. Nonetheless, they influence whose interests are served in a programme and who benefits from it. This paper presents an analysis of ethical considerations made by programme design practitioners in the context of a polytechnic in Aotearoa/New Zealand.…

  17. Silos to Symphonies? Hopes and Challenges Implementing Multicultural Programme Infusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Laura B.; Milman, Natalie B.

    2013-01-01

    The need to infuse multicultural education (ME) across teacher preparation programmes is well documented by research, yet institutions are at very different stages in this endeavour. While most programmes demonstrate a segregated approach to ME, confining diversity to specialty courses, ME programme infusion places diversity, equity and social…

  18. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  19. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  20. "We Are Family": Maori Success in Foundation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the question: What constitutes an optimal learning environment for Maori learners in foundation programmes? Using Kaupapa Maori methodology, nearly 100 adult Maori (Indigenous) students in Aotearoa/New Zealand were interviewed from a range of tertiary providers of foundation programmes. State-funded foundation programmes that…

  1. A Mathematics Support Programme for First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillock, Poh Wah; Jennings, Michael; Roberts, Anthony; Scharaschkin, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a mathematics support programme at the University of Queensland, targeted at first-year engineering students identified as having a high risk of failing a first-year mathematics course in calculus and linear algebra. It describes how students were identified for the programme and the main features of the programme. The…

  2. Diploma Disease in Ghanaian Distance Education Upgrading Programmes for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mereku, Damian Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This research explores manifestations of "diploma disease" in distance education (DE) upgrading programmes for basic school teachers in Ghana. A survey design which included document analysis was used to explore the emphasis in the contents of the DE programme and the experiences of teachers who took the programmes. The study involved a…

  3. Conceptualising Transformation and Interrogating Elitism: The Bale Scholarship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsis, Hannah; Dominguez-Whitehead, Yasmine; Liccardo, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the extent to which a scholarship programme at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) engages with the challenges of transformation. This scholarship programme highlights the transformative potential of a programme that focuses on excellence for a previously under-represented group, but also demonstrates how this…

  4. Programmes of Educational Technology in China: Looking Backward, Thinking Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuyin, Xu; Jianli, Jiao

    2010-01-01

    There is a history of programmes in educational technology in colleges and universities in China going back about 70 years. This paper briefly reviews the developmental history of the educational technology programme in China, elaborates the status-quo of the programme and looks ahead into the future trends of educational technology development in…

  5. A Teacher Competence Development Programme for Supporting Students' Reflection Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker-Groen, Agaath M.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a training programme for Dutch teachers in six institutes for nursing education to support students' reflection skills. The research question was: what are the feasibility, quality and effects of the programme? The training programme focused on four competences of teachers regarding instructing, guiding, giving…

  6. Informing New String Programmes: Lessons Learned from an Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Fintan; Rickard, Nikki; Gill, Anneliese; Grimmett, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many examples of notable string programmes there has been relatively little comparative analysis of these programmes. This paper examines three benchmark string programmes (The University of Illinois String Project, The Tower Hamlets String Teaching Project and Colourstrings) alongside Music4All, an innovative string programme…

  7. A Programmable Calculator Activity, x = 1/x + 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    An activity for secondary schools is presented and discussed which may be explored with a programmable calculator. The activity is non-standard and could not be easily explored without the use of a programmable calculator. Related activities are also discussed. Flow charts and programs for different programmable calculators are presented. (MP)

  8. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  13. Learning in and beyond Small Business Advisory Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rachel Louise; Hine, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how participants learn in small business advisory programmes and to explore the impact of these learning programmes on the development of reflective learning dispositions in participants. The research involves two case studies of small business advisory programmes in Queensland, a state of Australia. One…

  14. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  15. Promoting Interdisciplinary Education: The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, Günter; Bucher, Christian; Carr, Gemma; Farnleitner, Andreas; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    An interdisciplinary approach is often described as a valuable strategy to assist in overcoming the existing and emerging challenges to water resource management. The development of educational approaches to instil a culture of interdisciplinarity in the future generation of water resource professionals will help to meet this strategic need. The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems demonstrates how the adoption of an interdisciplinary education framework has been applied to a graduate programme in the water sciences. The interdisciplinary approach aims to provide doctoral research students with an understanding of the wide spectrum of processes relevant to water resource systems. This will enable them to bring together a range of ideas, strategies and methods to their current research and future careers. The education programme also aims to teach the softer skills required for successful interdisciplinary work such as the ability to communicate clearly with non-specialist professionals and the capacity to listen to and accommodate suggestions from experts in different disciplines, which have often not traditionally been grouped together. The Vienna Doctoral Programme achieves these aims through teaching an appreciation for a wide variety of approaches including laboratory analysis, field studies and numerical methods across the fields of hydrology, remote sensing, hydrogeology, structural mechanics, microbiology, water quality and resource management. Teaching takes the form of a detailed study programme on topics such as socio-economic concepts, resource and river basin management, modelling and simulation methods, health related water quality targets, urban water management, spatial data from remote sensing and basics for stochastic mechanics. Courses are also held by internationally recognised top scientists, and a guest scientist seminar series allows doctoral researchers to profit from the expertise of senior researchers from around the world

  16. Variationeller Ansatz für eine integrierte Segmentierung und nicht-lineare Registrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Ehrhardt, Jan; Handels, Heinz

    Vierdimensionale tomographische Bilddaten ermöglichen neuartige Therapie- und Diagnoseverfahren in der medizinischen Praxis. Voraussetzung dafür sind oft die räumlich-zeitliche Segmentierung anatomischer Strukturen in den 4D- Daten und die Bestimmung ihrer dynamischen Eigenschaften durch Schätzung der 3D-Bewegungsfelder mittels nicht-linearer Registrierungsverfahren. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, mit dem sich Level-Set-Segmentierung und diffusive, nicht-lineare Registrierung unter Berücksichtigung ihrer wechelseitigen Abhängigkeiten integriert lösen lassen. Die Aufgabe wird als Energieminimierung formuliert und ein variationelles Lösungsverfahren angegeben. Anschließend wird der Ansatz an Phantom- und CT-Patientendaten am Beispiel der Leber validiert.

  17. Universal programmable quantum circuit schemes to emulate an operator.

    PubMed

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kollias, Giorgos; Kais, Sabre

    2012-12-21

    Unlike fixed designs, programmable circuit designs support an infinite number of operators. The functionality of a programmable circuit can be altered by simply changing the angle values of the rotation gates in the circuit. Here, we present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting in two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are determined from the elements of the given matrix-which can be non-unitary-in an efficient way. We also give both the classical and quantum complexity analysis for these circuits and show that the circuits require a few classical computations. For the electronic structure simulation on a quantum computer, one has to perform the following steps: prepare the initial wave function of the system; present the evolution operator U = e(-iHt) for a given atomic and molecular Hamiltonian H in terms of quantum gates array and apply the phase estimation algorithm to find the energy eigenvalues. Thus, in the circuit model of quantum computing for quantum chemistry, a crucial step is presenting the evolution operator for the atomic and molecular Hamiltonians in terms of quantum gate arrays. Since the presented circuit designs are independent from the matrix decomposition techniques and the global optimization processes used to find quantum circuits for a given operator, high accuracy simulations can be done for the unitary propagators of molecular Hamiltonians on quantum computers. As an example, we show how to build the circuit design for the hydrogen molecule.

  18. The UK geothermal hot dry rock R&D programme

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Paul; Stedman, Ann; Symons, Geoff

    1992-01-01

    The UK hot dry rock research and development programme is funded by the Department of Energy and aims to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial exploitation of HDR in the UK. The philosophy of the UK programme has been to proceed to a full-scale prototype HDR power station via a number of stages: Phase 1--Experiments at shallow depth (300 m) to assess the feasibility of enhancing the permeability of the rock. Phase 2--Studies at intermediate depth (2500 m) to determine the feasibility of creating a viable HDR subsurface heat exchanger. Phase 3--Establishment of an HDR prototype at commercial depth. The programme has run over a 15 year period, and has been formally reviewed at stages throughout its progress. The 1987 review towards the end of Phase 2 identified a number of technical objectives for continuing research and proposed that the initial design stage of the deep HDR prototype should start. Phase 3A is now complete. It addressed: the feasibility of creating an underground HDR heat exchanger suitable for commercial operation; techniques for improving hydraulic performance and correcting short circuits in HDR systems; modeling of the performance, resource size and economic aspects of HDR systems. The work has been conducted by a number of contractors, including Cambome School of Mines, Sunderland and Sheffield City Polytechnics and RTZ Consultants Limited. This paper focuses upon the experimental work at Rosemanowes in Cornwall and the recently completed conceptual design of a prototype HDR power station. The economics of HDR-generated electricity are also discussed and the conclusions of a 1990 program review are presented. Details of the HDR program to 1994, as announced by the UK Department of Energy in February 1991, are included.

  19. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output.

  20. Programmable hydrogenation of graphene for novel nanocages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Wang, Xianqiao

    2013-11-01

    Folded graphene has exhibited novel electrical and mechanical properties unmatched by pristine graphene, which implies that morphology of graphene adds the dimensionality of design space to tailor its properties. However, how to overcome the energy barrier of the folding process to fold the graphene with the specific morphology remains unexplored. Here we propose a programmable chemical functionalization by doping a pristine graphene sheet in a certain pattern with hydrogen atoms to precisely control its folding morphology. Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to create a cross-shaped cubic graphene nanocage encapsulating a biomolecule by warping the top graphene layer downward and the bottom graphene layer upward to mimic the drug delivery vehicle. Such a paradigm, programmable enabled graphene nanocage, opens up a new avenue to control the 3D architecture of folded graphene and therefore provides a feasible way to exploit and fabricate the graphene-based unconventional nanomaterials and nanodevices for drug delivery.

  1. ECORLOG computer application users' and programmers' guides

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, C.

    1984-09-01

    This document consists of two separate guides to the ECORLOG application. Sections One through Five make up the Users' Guide, while the Programmers' Guide is contained in the Appendix. The Programmers' Guide contains information that will be useful in maintaining or updating the ECORLOG application's capabilities, but is not needed for day-to-day use of the ECORLOG Job and programs. Each of the following four sections covers a separate aspect of ECORLOG. Section Two explains how data is entered into a Batch of the ECORLOG Job. In Section Three, several common data-editing operations are described. Instructions for running the three ECORLOG programs (ECORUP, ECRPT1 and ECRPT2) are given in Section Four, which also includes samples of the ECORLOG reports. Section Five concludes the Users' Guide with procedures for redirecting the output of ECORLOG reports to different printers, and for storing ECORLOG data at the end of a fiscal year.

  2. Auto-programmable impulse neural circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watula, D.; Meador, J.

    1990-01-01

    Impulse neural networks use pulse trains to communicate neuron activation levels. Impulse neural circuits emulate natural neurons at a more detailed level than that typically employed by contemporary neural network implementation methods. An impulse neural circuit which realizes short term memory dynamics is presented. The operation of that circuit is then characterized in terms of pulse frequency modulated signals. Both fixed and programmable synapse circuits for realizing long term memory are also described. The implementation of a simple and useful unsupervised learning law is then presented. The implementation of a differential Hebbian learning rule for a specific mean-frequency signal interpretation is shown to have a straightforward implementation using digital combinational logic with a variation of a previously developed programmable synapse circuit. This circuit is expected to be exploited for simple and straightforward implementation of future auto-adaptive neural circuits.

  3. String formatting considered harmful for novice programmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-09-01

    In Java, System.out.printf and String.format consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the compilation errors and 100% of the exceptional, run-time behaviour they encountered were due to the improper construction of format strings. Format strings are a language unto themselves embedded within Java, and they are difficult for novice programmers to master when learning to program. In this article, we present exemplars of students' problematic interactions with the Java compiler and run-time environment when dealing with format strings, discuss these interactions, and recommend possible instructional interventions based on our observations.

  4. [Vaccination: a programme for the whole life].

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-10

    In 2010 in Switzerland, vaccine-preventable infectious diseases still cause a significant morbi-mortality, notably among old adults. While the vaccination-based prevention in the aged population has been neglected for a long time, the two European geriatrics and gerontology societies, EUGMS, IAGG-ER has recently proposed a vaccine schedule dedicated to adults aged over 60 and promote a life-course vaccination programme. To convince of the importance of such measures in Switzerland, this article: recounts the beneficial impact of vaccines on the incidence of measles, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus as well as influenza and pneumococcal diseases; presents the burden of these infectious diseases among the population no or insufficiently immunized; demonstrates that vaccinating in the respect of a life-course vaccine programme will reduce considerably the burden of these infectious disease.

  5. Experimental signature of programmable quantum annealing.

    PubMed

    Boixo, Sergio; Albash, Tameem; Spedalieri, Federico M; Chancellor, Nicholas; Lidar, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a general strategy for solving difficult optimization problems with the aid of quantum adiabatic evolution. Both analytical and numerical evidence suggests that under idealized, closed system conditions, quantum annealing can outperform classical thermalization-based algorithms such as simulated annealing. Current engineered quantum annealing devices have a decoherence timescale which is orders of magnitude shorter than the adiabatic evolution time. Do they effectively perform classical thermalization when coupled to a decohering thermal environment? Here we present an experimental signature which is consistent with quantum annealing, and at the same time inconsistent with classical thermalization. Our experiment uses groups of eight superconducting flux qubits with programmable spin-spin couplings, embedded on a commercially available chip with >100 functional qubits. This suggests that programmable quantum devices, scalable with current superconducting technology, implement quantum annealing with a surprising robustness against noise and imperfections.

  6. Programmable resolution imager for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Elisenda; Soriano, German; Espejo, Servando; Dominguez-Castro, Rafael; Linan, Gustavo; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2000-05-01

    In this paper a programmable imager with averaging capabilities will be described which is intended for averaging of different groups or sets of pixels formed by n X n kernels, n X m kernels or any group of randomly- selected pixels across the array. This imager is a 64 X 64 array which uses passive pixels with electronic shutter and anti-blooming structure that can be randomly accessed. The read-out stage includes a sole charge amplifier with programmable gain, a sample-and-hold structure and an analog buffer. This read-out structure is different from other existing imagers with variable resolution since it uses a sole charge amplifier, whereas the conventional structure employs an opamp per column plus another global opamp. this architecture allows a reduction of the fixed-pattern noise observed in standard imagers. The prototype also includes an analog to digital converter which provides the digital output of the images.

  7. Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

  8. An evaluation of programmer/analyst workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, K.; Mital, R.; Card, D.; Maione, A.

    1984-01-01

    Very few automated tools were available to support software requirements analysis and design even though improvements in quality during these phases appear to offer the greatest leverage for improving the quality and productivity of the overall software development process. Recently, however, some such tools have appeared on the market. An industry survey, and an in-house evaluation of two commercial products by programmers and analysts was undertaken to determine which tool is the best to support programmers and analysts through life cycle development. A tool was selected for full implementation on a project, where complete analysis of software statistics over the system life cycle will determine whether or not quality and productivity improvements have actually occurred. The results of the industry survey and in-house evaluation are summarized.

  9. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  10. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  11. Data management in schistosomiasis control programmes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, H G

    1986-06-01

    Adequate data recording, processing, analysis and evaluation are all components of data management within schistosomiasis control programmes oriented towards reduction of morbidity. Without data management, the response to operational questions will remain subjective and vague. Different types of data related to the population and the environment are reviewed. Examples of data format and presentation are given. The importance of data management for proper short and long term evaluation of control measures is emphasized.

  12. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis.

  13. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  14. Programmable near-infrared ranging system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Jr., Hobart R.

    1989-01-01

    A high angular resolution ranging system particularly suitable for indoor plications involving mobile robot navigation and collision avoidance uses a programmable array of light emitters that can be sequentially incremented by a microprocessor. A plurality of adjustable level threshold detectors are used in an optical receiver for detecting the threshold level of the light echoes produced when light emitted from one or more of the emitters is reflected by a target or object in the scan path of the ranging system.

  15. Digitally Programmable Active Switched Capacitor Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California n FILE WRY In THESIS DIGITALLY PROGRAMMABLE ACTIVE SWITCHED CAPACITOR FILTERS by Yalkin, Cengiz March 1987 Thesis ...COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year. Month. Day) 15 PAGE (OkNTMaster’s Thesis FROM ’O 1987 March 89 𔄀 SLP-ILENIENTARY NOTATION COSArI CODES 18 SUBJECT...Sheri chael, Thesis Advisor Roberto Cristi, Second Reader "harriet Rigas, Clirman, Department of Electrical and Computer En’ ineering Gordon E

  16. Studying large-scale programmes to improve patient safety in whole care systems: challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Benn, Jonathan; Burnett, Susan; Parand, Anam; Pinto, Anna; Iskander, Sandra; Vincent, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale national and multi-institutional patient safety improvement programmes are being developed in the health care systems of several countries to address problems in the reliability of care delivered to patients. Drawing upon popular collaborative improvement models, these campaigns are ambitious in their aims to improve patient safety in macro-level systems such as whole health care organisations. This article considers the methodological issues involved in conducting research and evaluation of these programmes. Several specific research challenges are outlined, which result from the complexity of longitudinal, multi-level intervention programmes and the variable, highly sociotechnical care systems, with which they interact. Organisational-level improvement programmes are often underspecified due to local variations in context and organisational readiness for improvement work. The result is variable implementation patterns and local adaptations. Programme effects span levels and other boundaries within a system, vary dynamically or are cumulative over time and are problematic to understand in terms of cause and effect, where concurrent external influences exist and the impact upon study endpoints may be mediated by a range of organisational and social factors. We outline the methodological approach to research in the United Kingdom Safer Patients Initiative, to exemplify how some of the challenges for research in this area can be met through a multi-method, longitudinal research design. Specifically, effective research designs must be sensitive to complex variation, through employing multiple qualitative and quantitative measures, collect data over time to understand change and utilise descriptive techniques to capture specific interactions between programme and context for implementation. When considering the long-term, sustained impact of an improvement programme, researchers must consider how to define and measure the capability for continuous safe and

  17. Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust Fellowships in Clinical Leadership Programme: An Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miani, Celine; Marjanovic, Sonja; Jones, Molly Morgan; Marshall, Martin; Meikle, Samantha; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Leadership is seen to be central to improving the quality of healthcare and existing research suggests that absence of leadership is related to poor quality and safety performance. Leadership training might therefore provide an important means through which to promote quality improvement and, more widely, performance within the healthcare environment. This article presents an evaluation of the Fellowships in Clinical Leadership Programme, which combines leadership training and quality improvement initiatives with the placement of temporary external clinical champions in Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust. We assessed impacts of the Programme on individual and organisational change, alongside core enablers and barriers for Programme success. Analyses drew on the principles of a theory-of-change-led realist evaluation, using logic modelling to specify the underlying causal mechanisms of the Programme. Data collection involved a stakeholder workshop, online questionnaires of programme participants, senior managers and support staff (n=114), and follow-up in-depth semi-structured interviews with a subsample of survey participants (n=15). We observed that the Programme had notable impacts at individual and organisational levels. Examples of individual impact included enhanced communication and negotiation skills or increased confidence as a result of multi-modal leadership training. At the organisational level, participants reported indications of behaviour change among staff, with evidence of spill-over effects to non-participants towards a greater focus on patient-centred care. Our findings suggest that there is potential for combined leadership training and quality improvement programmes to contribute to strengthening a culture of care quality in healthcare organisations. Our study provides useful insights into strategies seeking to achieve sustainable improvement in NHS organisations.

  18. Undergraduate medical education programme renewal: a longitudinal context, input, process and product evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Azim; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Koochak, Hamid Emadi; Golestani, Abolfazl; Jafarian, Ali; Jalili, Mohammad; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Saleh, Narges; Shahi, Farhad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a comprehensive framework to guide initiating, planning, implementing and evaluating a revised undergraduate medical education programme. The eight-year longitudinal evaluation study consisted of four phases compatible with the four components of the CIPP model. In the first phase, we explored the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional programme as well as contextual needs, assets, and resources. For the second phase, we proposed a model for the programme considering contextual features. During the process phase, we provided formative information for revisions and adjustments. Finally, in the fourth phase, we evaluated the outcomes of the new undergraduate medical education programme in the basic sciences phase. Information was collected from different sources such as medical students, faculty members, administrators, and graduates, using various qualitative and quantitative methods including focus groups, questionnaires, and performance measures. The CIPP model has the potential to guide policy makers to systematically collect evaluation data and to manage stakeholders' reactions at each stage of the reform in order to make informed decisions. However, the model may result in evaluation burden and fail to address some unplanned evaluation questions.

  19. Multicopy programmable discrimination of general qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Sentis, G.; Bagan, E.; Calsamiglia, J.; Munoz-Tapia, R.

    2010-10-15

    Quantum state discrimination is a fundamental primitive in quantum statistics where one has to correctly identify the state of a system that is in one of two possible known states. A programmable discrimination machine performs this task when the pair of possible states is not a priori known but instead the two possible states are provided through two respective program ports. We study optimal programmable discrimination machines for general qubit states when several copies of states are available in the data or program ports. Two scenarios are considered: One in which the purity of the possible states is a priori known, and the fully universal one where the machine operates over generic mixed states of unknown purity. We find analytical results for both the unambiguous and minimum error discrimination strategies. This allows us to calculate the asymptotic performance of programmable discrimination machines when a large number of copies are provided and to recover the standard state discrimination and state comparison values as different limiting cases.

  20. PATIENT SATISFACTION IN PROSTHETIC REHABILITATION PROGRAMME.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Parmar, N K; Mand, G S

    2001-04-01

    Patient satisfaction is an important outcome measure independent of other outcomes. Its measurement is important to assess the effectiveness of a programme and to gain insight into the patients' perception of the programme. In this study conducted in a large rehabilitation centre it was found that majority of patients express satisfaction with care inspite of perceived discomfort. Various demographic factors, severity or duration of the disability or the level of rehabilitation do not influence patient satisfaction. Patients express more concern with aspects such as delay in issue of the prosthesis, or hotel component of the hospital services. Patients did not appear too concerned about the level of information provided. Patient satisfaction is an individual reaction to the overall care process and is influenced by the initial expectation level of the patient. Emotional response of the patient appears to be more important determinant of patient satisfaction than the cognitive evaluation. Periodical assessment of patient satisfaction should be an important component of any programme evaluation exercise.

  1. Programmable diffractive lens for ophthalmic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Romero, Lenny A.; Ramírez, Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Pixelated liquid crystal displays have been widely used as spatial light modulators to implement programmable diffractive optical elements, particularly diffractive lenses. Many different applications of such components have been developed in information optics and optical processors that take advantage of their properties of great flexibility, easy and fast refreshment, and multiplexing capability in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. We explore the application of programmable diffractive lenses displayed on the pixelated screen of a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator to ophthalmic optics. In particular, we consider the use of programmable diffractive lenses for the visual compensation of refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism) and presbyopia. The principles of compensation are described and sketched using geometrical optics and paraxial ray tracing. For the proof of concept, a series of experiments with artificial eye in optical bench are conducted. We analyze the compensation precision in terms of optical power and compare the results with those obtained by means of conventional ophthalmic lenses. Practical considerations oriented to feasible applications are provided.

  2. European Association of Echocardiography: Research Grant Programme.

    PubMed

    Gargani, Luna; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Sicari, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) offers a variety of grants/fellowships to help young professionals in the field of cardiological training or research activities throughout Europe. The number of grants has significantly increased in recent years with contributions from the Associations, Working Groups and Councils of the ESC. The European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) is a registered branch of the ESC and actively takes part in this initiative. One of the aims of EAE is to promote excellence in research in cardiovascular ultrasound and other imaging modalities in Europe. Therefore, since 2008, the EAE offers a Research Grant Programme to help young doctors to obtain research experience in a high standard academic centre (or similar institution oriented to clinical or pre-clinical research) in an ESC member country other than their own. This programme can be considered as a valorization of the geographical mobility as well as cultural exchanges and professional practice in the field of cardiovascular imaging. The programme has been very successful so far, therefore in 2012 the EAE has increased its offer to two grants of 25,000 euros per annum each.

  3. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  4. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  5. Provision of orientation programmes for nurses in pediatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen

    2002-01-01

    It has been recommended that nursing staff who are new to paediatric intensive care should be offered an orientation programme There is no guidance currently available to influence the content or duration of such a programme on a national level A multi-centre research study was carried out to identify the existing provision of orientation programmes and how beneficial these are perceived to be Supernumerary status and effective mentoring are seen as essential to the success of these programmes Many new starters perceive that they receive inadequate preparation on stress management and psychosocial issues National communication between paediatric intensive care educators will help to improve and develop orientation programme provision.

  6. Development of a training programme for primary care providers to counsel patients with risky lifestyle behaviours in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Everett-Murphy, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background We are facing a global epidemic of non-communicable disease (NCDs), which has been linked with four risky lifestyle behaviours. It is recommended that primary care providers (PCPs) provide individual brief behaviour change counselling (BBCC) as part of everyday primary care, however currently training is required to build capacity. Local training programmes are not sufficient to achieve competence. Aim This study aimed to redesign the current training for PCPs in South Africa, around a new model for BBCC that would offer a standardised approach to addressing patients’ risky lifestyle behaviours. Setting The study population included clinical nurse practitioners and primary care doctors in the Western Cape Province. Methods The analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate (ADDIE) model provided a systematic approach to the analysis of learning needs, the design and development of the training programme, its implementation and initial evaluation. Results This study designed a new training programme for PCPs in BBCC, which was based on a conceptual model that combined the 5As (ask, alert, assess, assist and arrange) with a guiding style derived from motivational interviewing. The programme was developed as an eight-hour training programme that combined theory, modelling and simulated practice with feedback, for either clinical nurse practitioners or primary care doctors. Conclusion This was the first attempt at developing and implementing a best practice BBCC training programme in our context, targeting a variety of PCPs, and addressing different risk factors. PMID:26245608

  7. Sustainability science: an integrated approach for health-programme planning.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Russell L; Elliott, Julian H; Nolan, Monica L; Lawton, Paul D; Parkhill, Anne; McLaren, Cameron J; Lavis, John N

    2008-11-01

    Planning for programme sustainability is a key contributor to health and development, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. A consensus evidence-based operational framework would facilitate policy and research advances in understanding, measuring, and improving programme sustainability. We did a systematic review of both conceptual frameworks and empirical studies about health-programme sustainability. On the basis of the review, we propose that sustainable health programmes are regarded as complex systems that encompass programmes, health problems targeted by programmes, and programmes' drivers or key stakeholders, all of which interact dynamically within any given context. We show the usefulness of this approach with case studies drawn from the authors' experience.

  8. The Herschel/planck Programme Planck Pfm Testing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reix, Jean-Michel; Rideau, Pascal; Gavila, Emmanuel; Chambelland, Jean-Philippe; Collaudin, Bernard; Passvogel, Thomas; Guillaume, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    The two science missions Herschel, an observatory-type mission, and Planck, a survey mission, are combined in one programme within ESAs long-term science programme. The objective for Planck is to image systematically the whole sky simultaneously with two scientific instruments in nine frequency channels between 30 and 900 GHz to unravel the temperature fluctuations, the anisotropy, of the cosmic background radiation. For both satellites, which have now been launched from the European Space Port in Kourou, French Guiana, on a single Ariane 5 launcher, the orbits will be Lissajous orbits around the 2nd Lagrange Point L2 of the Earth-Sun system. Having surpassed the technological problems and more generally the development phase, this paper focuses on the extensive assembly, integration and tests undertaken for the Proto-Flight Model (PFM) of the Planck Satellite. The paper details the early stages of the integration of the PFM until completeness of the assembly. It then describes the logic and the various tests implemented for the acceptance verification of the Planck PFM. It finally depicts the Launch campaign activities up to the launch from Kourou in the first half of May 2009.

  9. Scaling up breastfeeding programmes in a complex adaptive world.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hall Moran, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The 2016 Breastfeeding Lancet Series continues to provide unequivocal evidence regarding the numerous benefits that optimal breastfeeding practices offer to children and women worldwide and the major savings that improving these practices can have as a result of their major public health benefits. Unfortunately, this knowledge remains underutilized as there has been little progress scaling up effective breastfeeding programmes globally. Improving the uptake and scaling up of effective national breastfeeding programmes that are potent enough to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration should be a top priority for all countries. Complex analysis systems longitudinal research is needed to understand how best to empower decision makers to achieve this goal through well-validated participatory decision-making tools to help their countries assess baseline needs, including costs, as well as progress with their scaling-up efforts. Sound systems thinking frameworks and scaling-up models are now available to guide and research prospectively future scaling-up efforts that can be replicated, with proper adaptations, across countries.

  10. Status of national diabetes programmes in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    White, F.; Nanan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the responses in the latter half of 1997 of all ministries of health in the Region of the Americas to the Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes, which was adopted by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1996 as a basis for national programme development in diabetes. The short-term targets were the designation of national focal points, the preparation of national estimates of the disease burden, and the development and implementation of national strategies and plans to deal with diabetes. The survey found that most countries recognized diabetes as a significant public health problem. In terms of global relevance, a number of lessons have been learned from this exercise: the role of broadly based participation in gaining recognition at the national health policy level; the wide acceptance of an integrated programme model; the relevance of process-related targets to achieve short-term success; and the critical role of having a designated focal point within the managerial approach. PMID:10680245

  11. Experiences from 10 years of school programmes at GEOMAR Kiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengg, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany, started a programme of cooperations with secondary schools in 2003, which has been expanding continually since that time. By active involvement of teachers and students, the Centre's research topics are communicated to schools, and young people are encouraged to develop their interest for biogeosciences. The portfolio of activities includes: project work with schools over periods from one day to several months, individual student theses at the research centre, internships, a weekly "Research Club" allowing individual experiments, summer school programmes, teacher training courses, joint activities with international partners and a video-project in which students portray scientific aspects of oceanic oxygen minimum zones (in the context of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 754) to other students. Essential prerequisites for these activities are the direct involvement of the Centre's researchers who contribute their expertise and act as role-models for the students, dedicated staff for coordination and continuity, and financial and structural support both at the research centre and the schools.

  12. Support for All in the UK Work Programme? Differential Payments, Same Old Problem

    PubMed Central

    Rees, James; Whitworth, Adam; Carter, Elle

    2014-01-01

    The UK has been a high profile policy innovator in welfare-to-work provision which has led in the Coalition government's Work Programme to a fully outsourced, ‘black box’ model with payments based overwhelmingly on job outcome results. A perennial fear in such programmes is providers' incentives to ‘cream’ and ‘park’ claimants, and the Department for Work and Pensions has sought to mitigate such provider behaviours through Work Programme design, particularly via the use of claimant groups and differential pricing. In this article, we draw on a qualitative study of providers in the programme alongside quantitative analysis of published performance data to explore evidence around creaming and parking. The combination of the quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest that creaming and parking are widespread, seem systematically embedded within the Work Programme, and are driven by a combination of intense cost-pressures and extremely ambitious performance targets alongside overly diverse claimant groups and inadequately calibrated differentiated payment levels. PMID:25411516

  13. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    PubMed

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  14. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  15. Evaluating Initial Teacher Education Programmes: Perspectives from the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marie; Lodge, Anne; Shevlin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Research studies in teacher education have focussed on the outcomes of preparatory programmes. Less attention has been paid to the processes through which professional learning is acquired. This article argues that the study of attitudes and persuasion is very important in teacher education. The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion…

  16. Attitudes towards Participation in Business Development Programmes: An Ethnic Comparison in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbasian, Saeid; Yazdanfar, Darush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are any differences between the attitudes towards participation in development programmes of entrepreneurs who are immigrants and those who are native-born. Design/methodology/approach: Several statistical methods, including a binary logistic regression model, were used to analyse a…

  17. Does the "Pupil Enterprise Programme" Influence Grades among Pupils with Special Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Vegard; Somby, Hege M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Pupil Enterprise Programme (PEP) is a suitable working method for improving academic performance among pupils with special needs. Overall, 20% of pupils participate in PEP at some point during lower secondary school. Results from multilevel regression modelling indicate that pupils with special needs who have…

  18. Teacher Performance and Student Learning: Linking Evidence from Two National Assessment Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Valencia, Edgar; Palacios, Diego; Santelices, Maria V.; Jiménez, Daniela; Manzi, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers' evaluation results and their students' learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and…

  19. Integration of Behaviour-Based Safety Programme into Engineering Laboratories and Workshops Conceptually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Kean Eng; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Zainal, Siti Rohaida Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual research framework is to develop and integrate a safety training model using a behaviour-based safety training programme into laboratories for young adults, during their tertiary education, particularly in technical and vocational education. Hence, this research will be investigating the outcome of basic safety…

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Based on Academic Procrastination Prevention: Training Programme of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Düsmez, Ihsan; Barut, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The research is an experimental study which has experimental and control groups, and based on pre-test, post-test, monitoring test model. Research group consists of second and third grade students of Primary School Education and Psychological Counseling undergraduate programmes in Giresun University Faculty of Educational Sciences. The research…

  1. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes on Satisfaction with Innovation Behaviour and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Natalia Martin; Escudero, Ana Isabel Rodriguez; Barahona, Juan Hernangomez; Leitao, Fernando Saboia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to shed light on the effect of educational programmes aimed at entrepreneurs on innovation and business success. Design/methodology/approach: We use as theoretical framework the theory of planned behaviour. We use a sample of 354 entrepreneurs from Castile and Leon, Spain. To estimate the model we use a path analysis…

  2. Relating the bivalve shellfish harvesting area classification criteria in the United States and European Union programmes.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Reese, R A

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the relative level of public health protection and regulating international trade. The relationship was investigated using both statistical modelling and simple compliance assessment on large international data sets of paired seawater and shellfish samples. The two approaches yielded the same conclusions: EU class A is more stringent than the US Approved category for all species; the US Restrictive standard is more restrictive than EU class B for some bivalve species. Therefore, the classifications under the two programmes are not exactly equivalent.

  3. An evaluation of a primary preventive dental programme in non-fluoridated areas of Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M V; Campain, A C; Crowley, S J; Wright, F A

    1997-12-01

    A primary preventive dental programme targeting adolescents living in non-fluoridated areas of Victoria, Australia was evaluated for a three-year period. The programme comprised annual placement or replacement/repair of fissure sealants combined with a weekly 0.2 per cent sodium fluoride mouthrinse and was evaluated in terms of acceptance by the providers and the community to which it was directed. Acceptance was measured using accessibility, availability, continuity, quality of care, role responsibility, provider and consumer satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. In general, the programme was considered to represent an acceptable model for future preventive interventions, although there were areas of its design that were found to require improvement. In particular, deficiencies in the manner in which the fluoride mouthrinsing component was delivered indicate that further investigation would be required before a recommendation to adopt its use could be made.

  4. Leveraging a faculty fellowship programme to develop leaders in interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Robins, Lynne; Murphy, Nanci; Zierler, Brenda

    2016-07-01

    This article reports findings from an interprofessional education (IPE) study of a longitudinal faculty fellowship that aimed to develop IPE leaders at an academic institution based in the United States. Eight applicants were competitively selected to participate in an IPE track of the fellowship, alongside 14 faculty members who entered through a separate selection process. One year after graduation, a survey of the IPE fellows was undertaken to evaluate programme outcomes using open-ended questions based on an adaptation of Kirkpatrick's four-level training evaluation model. Results indicated that respondents valued participating in a longitudinal programme where they could learn about and practice teaching and leadership skills and conduct education scholarship. While learning on an interprofessional basis, the fellows reported establishing relationships that endured after graduation. This report suggests that adding IPE activities to existing faculty fellowship programmes can be an effective means of building faculty capacity to advance institutional IPE initiatives.

  5. Healthcare Programmes for Truck Drivers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lalla-Edward, Samanta Tresha; Fobosi, Siyabulela Christopher; Hankins, Catherine; Case, Kelsey; Venter, W. D. Francois; Gomez, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Background Truck drivers have unique health needs, and by virtue of their continuous travel, experience difficulty in accessing healthcare. Currently, planning for effective care is hindered by lack of knowledge about their health needs and about the impact of on-going programmes on this population’s health outcomes. We reviewed healthcare programmes implemented for sub-Saharan African truck drivers, assessed the evaluation methods, and examined impact on health outcomes. Methods We searched scientific and institutional databases, and online search engines to include all publications describing a healthcare programme in sub-Saharan Africa where the main clients were truck drivers. We consulted experts and organisations working with mobile populations to identify unpublished reports. Forest plots of impact and outcome indicators with unadjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were created to map the impact of these programmes. We performed a subgroup analysis by type of indicator using a random-effects model to assess between-study heterogeneity. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to examine both the summary effect estimate chosen (risk difference vs. risk ratio) and model to summarise results (fixed vs. random effects). Results Thirty-seven publications describing 22 healthcare programmes across 30 countries were included from 5,599 unique records. All programmes had an HIV-prevention focus with only three expanding their services to cover conditions other primary healthcare services. Twelve programmes were evaluated and most evaluations assessed changes in input, output, and outcome indicators. Absence of comparison groups, preventing attribution of the effect observed to the programme and lack of biologically confirmed outcomes were the main limitations. Four programmes estimated a quantitative change in HIV prevalence or reported STI incidence, with mixed results, and one provided anecdotal evidence of changes in AIDS-related mortality and social

  6. Understanding and quantifying greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions: the UK GHG Emissions and Feedback Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Palmer, Paul; Watson, Andrew; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    We give an overview over the structure, objectives, and methods of the UK-based Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Feedback Programme. The overarching objective of this research programme is to deliver improved GHG inventories and predictions for the UK, and for the globe at a regional scale. To address this objective, the Programme has developed a comprehensive, multi-year and interlinked measurement and data analysis programme, focussing on the major GHGs carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The Programme integrates three UK research consortia with complementary objectives, focussing on observation and modelling in the atmosphere, the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere: GAUGE (Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions) will produce robust estimates of the UK GHG budget, using new and existing atmospheric measurement networks and modelling activities at a range of scales. It integrates inter-calibrated information from ground-based, airborne, ferry-borne, balloon-borne, and space-borne sensors, including new sensor technology. The GREENHOUSE (Generating Regional Emissions Estimates with a Novel Hierarchy of Observations and Upscaled Simulation Experiments) project aims to understand the spatio-temporal patterns of biogenic GHG emissions in the UK's landscape of managed and semi-managed ecosystems. It uses existing UK field data and several targeted new measurement campaigns to build regional GHG inventories and improve the capabilities of land surface models. RAGNARoCC (Radiatively active gases from the North Atlantic Region and Climate Change) is an oceanographic project to investigate the air-sea fluxes of GHGs in the North Atlantic region. Through dedicated research cruises as well as data collection from ships of opportunity, it develops a comprehensive budget of natural and anthropogenic components of the carbon cycle in the North Atlantic and a better understanding of why the air-sea fluxes of CO2 vary regionally, seasonally and multi

  7. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  8. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  9. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    PubMed

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  10. French space programmes related to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

    The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

  11. Nonvolatile programmable neural network synaptic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A floating-gate metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor is implemented for use as a nonvolatile analog storage element of a synaptic cell used to implement an array of processing synaptic cells. These cells are based on a four-quadrant analog multiplier requiring both X and Y differential inputs, where one Y input is UV programmable. These nonvolatile synaptic cells are disclosed fully connected in a 32 x 32 synaptic cell array using standard very large scale integration (VLSI) complementary MOS (CMOS) technology.

  12. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling. PMID:27353838

  13. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling.

  14. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  15. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work.

  16. Surfaces and Interfaces of Ceramic Materials. Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Univ. Aveiro, Portugal P26 / 3’epariamn ofan AIO ,,-r0 ’ sol fgm L MONTANARO, Politecnico, Torno, Italy 1030- 11.00 Coffeebreak 11.00- 12.15 ROUND...Division Centre National de la Recherche Scientifiaue. France European Research Office of US Army ISA Riber. France PROGRAMME (%J TL = Tutorial lecture L ...Invited lecture (Seminar) 3:. L - P= Contrbuted paperS i 3 189 I SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 4 14.00 - 22.0 Reception and registration of participants MONDAY

  17. Universal programmable logic gate and routing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.

  18. A programmable MTD system with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ying-Ning; Ma, Zang-E.; Ding, Xiu-Dong; Wang, Xiu-Tan; Fu, Jeng-Yun

    A digital programmable MTD system has been developed recently. In this system slow and fast moving targets are detected by a 64-order complex FIR filter and 64-point FFT equivalent filter bank, respectively. The method which obtains land clutter CFAR threshold for every Doppler channel with very good performance is proposed. When power spectral density of land clutter has a certain cubic shape, an average signal to clutter ratio improvement factor of about 48dB could be realized in this system.

  19. A Programmable System for Motion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlin, Brent C.

    2003-01-01

    The need for improved flow measurements in the flow path of aeronautics testing facilities has led the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a new motion control system. The new system is programmable, offering a flexibility unheard of in previous systems. The motion control system is PLC-based, which leads to highly accurate positioning ability, as well as reliability. The user interface is a software-based HMI package, which also adds flexibility to the overall system. The system also has the ability to create and execute motion profiles. This paper discusses the system's operation, control implementation, and experiences.

  20. PLAFST Programmable Logic Array from State Table.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    HD -i8 466 PL AFST PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ARRAY FROM STATE T ABLE(U) AIR /2 FORC INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF UNCLSSIIED...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ) A ’J[. .:’,,- oved iot public T.,-].:.,’ 8 4 7 x -;..- APIT/GE/EE/83D-57 Accession For...number of rows with y - 1. Don’t care symbols are denoted by a " x ". The l’s and x’s are grouped together like Karnaugh maps with two exceptions. The