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Sample records for modell und programm

  1. [Promoting Children from Socially Disadvantaged Backgrounds: The Mentoring Programme "Balu und Du"].

    PubMed

    Borrmann, B; Drexler, S; Müller-Kohlenberg, H

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether socially disadvantaged elementary school children profit health-wise from their participation in the mentoring programme "Balu und Du". For the evaluation study we compared an intervention group of 141 children with a stratified control group of 158 children. The project was able to reach elementary school children from socially disadvantaged families. The treatment group showed distinct advancements in the areas of self-organisation, the ability to concentrate, as well as achievement and learning motivation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Mission reliability model programmers guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Joseph M.; Simonson, Jonathan H.; Veatch, Michael H.

    1986-12-01

    The Mission Reliability Model (MIREM) has been developed to evaluate the reliability and sustained operating capability of advanced electronic circuits during the early stages of development. MIREM is applicable to integrated systems that achieve fault tolerance through dynamic fault detection, fault isolation, and reconfiguration. The model can also be valuable in evaluating designs that employ only dedicated or hard-wired redundancy. The most unique feature of MIREM is its ability to accurately reflect the impact of reconfigurable, competing functions on system reliability. The user defines the resources necessary to support a required function, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), and the model will compute the probability of losing that functional capability over a certain operating time. A critical failure occurs when there is not a sufficient number of working resources to support a specified function. As an analytic model, MIREM determines a value for Mean Time Between Critical Failure, Mission Completion Success Probability, and Failure Resiliency. The MIREM Programmers Guide addresses the model's program structure, function of routines, interdependence of subprograms and common blocks, and file usage. The information needed to port the model to other computer systems is also provided.

  3. Programmable Cockpit - Flight Dynamic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Airlines of Australia, Library Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Civil Aviation Authority Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty Ltd...detai as well as its limitations . A brief overview of the Programmable Cockpit is also given. -i*Q j, DSTO4 MELBOURNE (C) COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA...components Vt Aircraft true velocity Vil,. Limited aircraft true velocity X., Ya IZ. Aerodynamic forces in stability axes X,, Y, ZP Propulsive forces

  4. Business Planning Model Programmer’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    alloc~wkyI cctot ec-oreca cdosvers dosvers cent avgload cent balancel cent balance2 cent balanc3 cent bpmn (main)Icent choose cent choosemnenu cent...center cýo user -defined data-entry bpmn (main) Page 135 I Business Planning Model Programmer’s Guide 3Called Routine Callina Routine dbedit browse...doit view -tda -org doload assortedIdopack bpmn (miain) dopessitniism revpessimiism doproj org_tda view tda-org doreindex assorted dosvers bpm (main

  5. Evaluating a novel resident role-modelling programme.

    PubMed

    Sternszus, Robert; Steinert, Yvonne; Bhanji, Farhan; Andonian, Sero; Snell, Linda S

    2017-05-09

    Role modelling is a fundamental method by which students learn from residents. To our knowledge, however, resident-as-teacher curricula have not explicitly addressed resident role modelling. The purpose of this project was to design, implement and evaluate an innovative programme to teach residents about role modelling. The authors designed a resident role-modelling programme and incorporated it into the 2015 and 2016 McGill University resident-as-teacher curriculum. Influenced by experiential and social learning theories, the programme incorporated flipped-classroom and simulation approaches to teach residents to be aware and deliberate role models. Outcomes were assessed through a pre- and immediate post-programme questionnaire evaluating reaction and learning, a delayed post-programme questionnaire evaluating learning, and a retrospective pre-post questionnaire (1 month following the programme) evaluating self-reported behaviour changes. Thirty-three of 38 (87%) residents who participated in the programme completed the evaluation, with 25 residents (66%) completing all questionnaires. Participants rated the programme highly on a five-point Likert scale (where 1 = not helpful and 5 = very helpful; mean score, M = 4.57; standard deviation, SD = 0.50), and showed significant improvement in their perceptions of their importance as role models and their knowledge of deliberate role modelling. Residents also reported an increased use of deliberate role-modelling strategies 1 month after completing the programme. Resident-as-teacher curricula have not explicitly addressed resident role modelling DISCUSSION: The incorporation of resident role modelling into our resident-as-teacher curriculum positively influenced the participants' perceptions of their role-modelling abilities. This programme responds to a gap in resident training and has the potential to guide further programme development in this important and often overlooked area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  6. Communications network design and costing model programmers manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, K. P.; Somes, S. S.; Clark, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Otpimization algorithms and techniques used in the communications network design and costing model for least cost route and least cost network problems are examined from the programmer's point of view. All system program modules, the data structures within the model, and the files which make up the data base are described.

  7. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  8. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  9. Teaching Modelling Concepts: Enter the Pocket-Size Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaar, Kermit A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the failure of students to see a physiological system in an integrated way. Programmable calculators armed with a printer are suggested as useful teaching devices that avoid the expense and the unavailability of computers for modelling in teaching physiology. (Author/SA)

  10. Calibration of hydrological model with programme PEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-04-01

    PEST is tool based on minimization of an objective function related to the root mean square error between the model output and the measurement. We use "singular value decomposition", section of the PEST control file, and Tikhonov regularization method for successfully estimation of model parameters. The PEST sometimes failed if inverse problems were ill-posed, but (SVD) ensures that PEST maintains numerical stability. The choice of the initial guess for the initial parameter values is an important issue in the PEST and need expert knowledge. The flexible nature of the PEST software and its ability to be applied to whole catchments at once give results of calibration performed extremely well across high number of sub catchments. Use of parallel computing version of PEST called BeoPEST was successfully useful to speed up calibration process. BeoPEST employs smart slaves and point-to-point communications to transfer data between the master and slaves computers. The HBV-light model is a simple multi-tank-type model for simulating precipitation-runoff. It is conceptual balance model of catchment hydrology which simulates discharge using rainfall, temperature and estimates of potential evaporation. Version of HBV-light-CLI allows the user to run HBV-light from the command line. Input and results files are in XML form. This allows to easily connecting it with other applications such as pre and post-processing utilities and PEST itself. The procedure was applied on hydrological model of Savinja catchment (1852 km2) and consists of twenty one sub-catchments. Data are temporary processed on hourly basis.

  11. Modelling the hepatitis B vaccination programme in prisons.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A J; Gay, N J; Edmunds, W J; Andrews, N J; Hope, V D; Gilbert, R L; Piper, M; Gill, O N

    2006-04-01

    A vaccination programme offering hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine at reception into prison has been introduced into selected prisons in England and Wales. Over the coming years it is anticipated this vaccination programme will be extended. A model has been developed to assess the potential impact of the programme on the vaccination coverage of prisoners, ex-prisoners, and injecting drug users (IDUs). Under a range of coverage scenarios, the model predicts the change over time in the vaccination status of new entrants to prison, current prisoners and IDUs in the community. The model predicts that at baseline in 2012 57% of the IDU population will be vaccinated with up to 72% being vaccinated depending on the vaccination scenario implemented. These results are sensitive to the size of the IDU population in England and Wales and the average time served by an IDU during each prison visit. IDUs that do not receive HBV vaccine in the community are at increased risk from HBV infection. The HBV vaccination programme in prisons is an effective way of vaccinating this hard-to-reach population although vaccination coverage on prison reception must be increased to achieve this.

  12. LOGAM (Logistic Analysis Model). Volume 3. Technical/Programmer Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    MANUAL VOLUME III Systems Analysis Division Systems Analysis and Evaluation Office US Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 August 1982...hardware or software. I I I- 5 1FORWARD The Logistic Analysis Model LOGAM Technical/Programmer Manual Volume III was written under Contract DAAH)I-82-C-A...LOGAM Users Manual Volume II and LOGAM Executive Summary Volume I. Acces s i on For NT’.... DTIC’ Unari::o, e JuS , 1f l’" C) L i,’ _ By

  13. A clinical internship model for the nurse practitioner programme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geraldine A; Fitzgerald, Les

    2008-11-01

    Nurse practitioners in Victoria, Australia must be prepared to Masters level before seeking nurse practitioner (NP) endorsement. The challenge from a university curriculum development perspective was to develop a programme that prepares the NP theoretically and clinically for their advanced practice role. The aim of this discussion paper is to outline how the internship model was developed and report the students' opinions on the model. The NP students complete the internship with a suitably qualified mentor which requires them to work together to develop and maintain a clinical learning plan, keep a log of the weekly meetings that shows how the objectives have been achieved. The internship includes advanced clinical assessment, prescribing, diagnostic and treatment skills and knowledge related to the nurse's specialty. The clinical assessment tool incorporates the National Competency Standards for the Nurse Practitioner and allows students and mentors to identify the level of practice and set clinical objectives. Students were asked to give feedback on the clinical internship and overall their comments were favourable, reporting benefits of a clinical mentor in their work and the clinical case presentations. The clinical internship allows the acquisition of knowledge and clinical skills in the clinical specialty with an expert clinical mentor in this innovative programme.

  14. 76 FR 27240 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... propeller and pulley wheel from the engine of a Grob G 103 C Twin III SL powered sailplane has been reported... and pulley wheel from the engine of a Grob G 103 C Twin III SL powered sailplane has been...

  15. The Eczema Education Programme: intervention development and model feasibility.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K; Ersser, S J; Dennis, H; Farasat, H; More, A

    2014-07-01

    The systematic support of parents of children with eczema is essential to their effective management; however, we have few models of support. This study examines the rationale, evidence base and development of a large-scale, structured, theory-based, nurse-led intervention, the 'Eczema Education Programme' (EEP), for parents of children with eczema. To outline development of the EEP, model of delivery, determine its feasibility and evaluate this based on service access and parental satisfaction data. Parent-child dyads meeting EEP referral criteria were recruited and demographic information recorded. A questionnaire survey of parental satisfaction was conducted 4 weeks post EEP; parental focus groups at 6 weeks provided comparative qualitative data. Descriptive statistics were derived from the questionnaire data using Predictive Analytics Software (PASW); content analysis was applied to focus group data. A total of 356 parents attended the EEP during the evaluation period. Service access was achieved for those in a challenging population. Both survey data (n = 146 parents, 57%) and focus group data (n = 21) revealed a significant level of parental satisfaction with the programme. It was feasible to provide the EEP as an adjunct to normal clinical care on a large scale, achieving a high level of patient/parent satisfaction and access within an urban area of multiple deprivation and high mobility. The intervention is transferable and the results are generalizable to other ethnically diverse child eczema populations within metropolitan areas in Britain. A multicentre RCT is required to test the effectiveness of this intervention on a larger scale. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  17. Die Wirkung als Naturkraft und die Herkunft von Zeit, Raum, Dimensionen, Naturkräften, und Gesetzen von Logik, Geometrie und Physik bei der Entstehung der Welt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2011-02-01

    Das Wirkungs-Welt-Modell enthält eine einfache Beschreibung des Anfanges der Welt, wonach, ausgehend vom einfachsten Zustand der logisch notwendigen Bejahung ihrer Existenz innerhalb ihr selbst, alles sukzessiv bewirkt wird, und ihre logischen, geometrischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften Aspekte der Verkörperung und Fortwirkung primordialer Fakten darstellen, ohne externe Schöpfung auszuschließen. Die ersten Dimensionen und sie formal und subjektiv charakterisierenden Größen sind: Informationsmenge und Wirkung, mit abzählbarem Ereignis und Wirkungsquantum; Zeit und Energie, mit deren Planck-Einheiten; Geschwindigkeit oder Strecke und Impuls, mit Lichtgeschwindigkeit oder Planck-Länge; Krümmung oder zwei räumliche Richtungen, mit Gravitationskonstanten, und aus den ihnen entsprechenden primären Naturkräften setzen sich die uns geläufigen zusammen.

  18. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  19. 76 FR 9513 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... unsafe condition as: The in-flight loss of a propeller and pulley wheel from the engine of a Grob G 103 C... states: The in-flight loss of a propeller and pulley wheel from the engine of a Grob G 103 C Twin III SL...

  20. A Distributed Model for Managing Academic Staff in an International Online Academic Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Yoram M.; Leng, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    Online delivery of programmes of Higher Education typically involves a distributed community of students interacting with a single university site, at which the teachers, learning resources and administration of the programme are located. The alternative model, of a fully "Virtual University", which assumes no physical campus, poses…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a hypertension management programme in an elderly population: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence shows that multi-intervention programmes for hypertension treatment are more effective than an isolated pharmacological strategy. Full economic evaluations of hypertension management programmes are scarce and contain methodological limitations. The aim of the study was to evaluate if a hypertension management programme for elderly patients is cost-effective compared to usual care from the perspective of a third-party payer. Methods We built a cost-effectiveness model using published evidence of effectiveness of a comprehensive hypertension programme vs. usual care for patients 65 years or older at a community hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We explored incremental cost-effectiveness between groups. The model used a life-time framework adopting a third-party payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in International Dollars per life-year gained. We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) to explore variable uncertainty. Results The ICER for the base-case of the "Hypertension Programme" versus the "Usual care" approach was 1,124 International Dollars per life-year gained. PSA did not significantly influence results. The programme had a probability of 43% of being dominant (more effective and less costly) and, overall, 95% chance of being cost-effective. Discussion Results showed that "Hypertension Programme" had high probabilities of being cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios. This is the first sound cost-effectiveness study to assess a comprehensive hypertension programme versus usual care. This study measures hard outcomes and explores robustness through a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusions The comprehensive hypertension programme had high probabilities of being cost-effective versus usual care. This study supports the idea that similar programmes could be the preferred strategy in countries and within health care systems where hypertension treatment for

  2. Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Models of Initial Teacher Education Programmes in Israel: Concurrent vs. Consecutive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzovsky, Ruth; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of two common models of initial teacher education programmes that are prevalent in many countries, including Israel. The two are: the concurrent model, in which disciplinary studies and pedagogical studies are integrated and taught at the same time; and the consecutive model, which…

  3. The Asian Epidemic Model: a process model for exploring HIV policy and programme alternatives in Asia.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Peerapatanapokin, W

    2004-08-01

    Process models offer opportunities to explore the effectiveness of different programme and policy alternatives by varying input behaviours and model parameters to reflect programmatic/policy effects. The Asian Epidemic Model (AEM) has been designed to reflect the primary groups and transmission modes driving HIV transmission in Asia. The user adjusts AEM fitting parameters until HIV prevalence outputs from the model agree with observed epidemiological trends. The AEM resultant projections are closely tied to the epidemiological and behavioural data in the country. In Thailand and Cambodia they have shown good agreement with observed epidemiological trends in surveillance populations and with changes in HIV transmission modes, AIDS cases, male:female ratios over time, and other external validation checks. By varying the input behaviours and STI trends, one can examine the impact of different prevention efforts on the future course of the epidemic. In conclusion, the AEM is a semi-empirical model, which has worked well in Asian settings. It provides a useful tool for policy and programme analysis in Asian countries.

  4. The theoretical model of the school-based prevention programme Unplugged.

    PubMed

    Vadrucci, Serena; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; van der Kreeft, Peer; Vassara, Maro; Scatigna, Maria; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Burkhart, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Unplugged is a school-based prevention programme designed and tested in the EU-Dap trial. The programme consists of 12 units delivered by class teachers to adolescents 12-14 years old. It is a strongly interactive programme including a training of personal and social skills with a specific focus on normative beliefs. The aim of this work is to define the theoretical model of the program, the contribution of the theories to the units, and the targeted mediators. The programme integrates several theories: Social Learning, Social Norms, Health Belief, theory of Reasoned Action-Attitude, and Problem Behaviour theory. Every theory contributes to the development of the units' contents, with specific weights. Knowledge, risk perception, attitudes towards drugs, normative beliefs, critical and creative thinking, relationship skills, communication skills, assertiveness, refusal skills, ability to manage emotions and to cope with stress, empathy, problem solving and decision making skills are the targeted mediators of the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Mittelwert- und Arbeitstaktsynchrone Simulation von Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Sebastian

    Getrieben durch die immer restriktiveren Anforderungen an das Emissions- und Verbrauchsverhalten moderner Verbrennungsmotoren steigt die Komplexität von Motormanagementsystemen mit jeder Modellgeneration an. Damit geht nicht nur eine Zunahme des Softwareumfangs von Steuergeräten sondern zugleich ein deutlicher Anstieg des Applikations-, Vermessungs- und Testaufwandes einher. Zur Effizienzsteigerung des Software- und Funktionsentwicklungsprozesses haben sich daher in der Automobilindustrie sowie in Forschungsinstituten verschiedene modell- und simulationsbasierte Methoden wie die Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) Simulation, die Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) Simulation, das Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) sowie die Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation etabliert.

  6. Talent identification and development programmes in sport : current models and future directions.

    PubMed

    Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Williams, A Mark; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2008-01-01

    Many children strive to attain excellence in sport. However, although talent identification and development programmes have gained popularity in recent decades, there remains a lack of consensus in relation to how talent should be defined or identified and there is no uniformly accepted theoretical framework to guide current practice. The success rates of talent identification and development programmes have rarely been assessed and the validity of the models applied remains highly debated. This article provides an overview of current knowledge in this area with special focus on problems associated with the identification of gifted adolescents. There is a growing agreement that traditional cross-sectional talent identification models are likely to exclude many, especially late maturing, 'promising' children from development programmes due to the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent. A conceptual framework that acknowledges both genetic and environmental influences and considers the dynamic and multidimensional nature of sport talent is presented. The relevance of this model is highlighted and recommendations for future work provided. It is advocated that talent identification and development programmes should be dynamic and interconnected taking into consideration maturity status and the potential to develop rather than to exclude children at an early age. Finally, more representative real-world tasks should be developed and employed in a multidimensional design to increase the efficacy of talent identification and development programmes.

  7. A Model for Design of Tailored Working Environment Intervention Programmes for Small Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Kvorning, Laura V; Rasmussen, Charlotte DN; Smith, Louise H; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Small enterprises have higher exposure to occupational hazards compared to larger enterprises and further, they have fewer resources to control the risks. In order to improve the working environment, development of efficient measures is therefore a major challenge for regulators and other stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to develop a systematic model for the design of tailored intervention programmes meeting the needs of small enterprises. Methods An important challenge for the design process is the transfer of knowledge from one context to another. The concept of realist analysis can provide insight into mechanisms by which intervention knowledge can be transferred from one context to another. We use this theoretical approach to develop a design model. Results The model consist of five steps: 1) Defining occupational health and safety challenges of the target group, 2) selecting methods to improve the working environment, 3) developing theories about mechanisms which motivate the target group, 4) analysing the specific context of the target group for small enterprise programmes including owner-management role, social relations, and the perception of the working environment, and 5) designing the intervention based on the preceding steps. We demonstrate how the design model can be applied in practice by the development of an intervention programme for small enterprises in the construction industry. Conclusion The model provides a useful tool for a systematic design process. The model makes it transparent for both researchers and practitioners as to how existing knowledge can be used in the design of new intervention programmes. PMID:23019530

  8. Launching the Tidal Model in an adult mental health programme.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Stevenson, C

    To implement a new model of psychiatric nursing that uses person-centred care to empower people with acute mental health problems. A pilot study involved the introduction of the model into two wards in the acute mental health services in Newcastle City Health Trust. This was followed by introduction of the model into all nine adult acute wards in the service. One ward was evaluated for six months before and six months after introducing the model and nurses' perceptions of the model have been assessed using questionnaires. Preliminary findings of the ward evaluation show that since the model has been implemented, more people have been admitted on an informal basis and fewer have been subject to sections of the Mental Health Act (MHA); the number of admissions has doubled while the length of stay has decreased; violent incidents and episodes of self-harm have decreased; the use of restraint has decreased; and the interval between admission and assessment has decreased. Preliminary analysis of the nursing questionnaires shows positive perceptions of the model. The introduction of this model appears to have had a positive impact on the care being given to patients and the nurses using the model appear to be satisfied with the use of patient-centred care.

  9. Shuttle operations simulation model programmers'/users' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The prospective user of the shuttle operations simulation (SOS) model is given sufficient information to enable him to perform simulation studies of the space shuttle launch-to-launch operations cycle. The procedures used for modifying the SOS model to meet user requirements are described. The various control card sequences required to execute the SOS model are given. The report is written for users with varying computer simulation experience. A description of the components of the SOS model is included that presents both an explanation of the logic involved in the simulation of the shuttle operations cycle and a description of the routines used to support the actual simulation.

  10. The use of programme planning and social marketing models by a state public health agency: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kohr, J M; Strack, R W; Newton-Ward, M; Cooke, C H

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the use of planning models and social marketing planning principles within a state's central public health agency as a means for informing improved planning practices. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 key programme planners in selected division branches, and a quantitative survey was distributed to 63 individuals responsible for programme planning in 12 programme-related branches. Employees who have an appreciation of and support for structured programme planning and social marketing may be considered the 'low hanging fruit' or 'early adopters'. On the other hand, employees that do not support or understand either of the two concepts have other barriers to using social marketing when planning programmes. A framework describing the observed factors involved in programme planning on an individual, interpersonal and organizational level is presented. Understanding the individual and structural barriers and facilitators of structured programme planning and social marketing is critical to increase the planning capacity within public health agencies.

  11. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  12. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  13. Evaluation of the Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) Teaching Intervention Programme in a "Real World" Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Makrygianni, Maria; Waddington, Emma; Etherington, Annie; Gainsborough, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was compared to a time-comparable approach (Portage) in terms of child outcomes and parental functioning. BEAM produced improvements in the adaptive behavioural function and language abilities of the children with ASD. Additionally, the programme produced…

  14. Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model…

  15. A School-Based Professional Development Programme for Teachers of Mathematical Modelling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Liang Soon; Ang, Keng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A school-based professional development programme (SBPD) aimed at developing secondary school mathematics teachers' competencies to teach mathematical modelling in Singapore is presented and evaluated in this article. The SBPD is characterized by two key features--content elements to develop teachers' knowledge and skills, and transformative…

  16. Evaluation of the Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) Teaching Intervention Programme in a "Real World" Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Makrygianni, Maria; Waddington, Emma; Etherington, Annie; Gainsborough, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The Barnet Early Autism Model (BEAM) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was compared to a time-comparable approach (Portage) in terms of child outcomes and parental functioning. BEAM produced improvements in the adaptive behavioural function and language abilities of the children with ASD. Additionally, the programme produced…

  17. Academic Civic Mindedness and Model Citizenship in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky

    2016-01-01

    This study uses interview and survey methods to describe the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme's (DP) development of students' "academic civic mindedness" and "model citizenship" at four public schools in California. Results indicate that the DP pedagogy enables students to develop many of the skills that are…

  18. A School-Based Professional Development Programme for Teachers of Mathematical Modelling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Liang Soon; Ang, Keng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A school-based professional development programme (SBPD) aimed at developing secondary school mathematics teachers' competencies to teach mathematical modelling in Singapore is presented and evaluated in this article. The SBPD is characterized by two key features--content elements to develop teachers' knowledge and skills, and transformative…

  19. Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model…

  20. A partnership model of early intervention in psychosis programme--a Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Oyewumi, Lamidi Kola; Savage, Troy

    2009-08-01

    To describe how a new partnership model of early intervention in psychosis, early intervention in psychosis (EIP) programme delivery in Canada attracted the interest of the community and acquired government funding. The process by which a few individuals used a conceptual framework of integrated, collaborative, flexible and recovery focused principles to engage community partners and attract government funding is described. The establishment of a small EIP programme and its expansion to a regional programme serving an area of 20,000 square kilometers and a population of approximately 500,000 people were achieved. A programme specific logic prototype was developed. A synergy of public, private and academic services emerged with an infrastructure for ongoing cohesiveness and productivity. Annual clinic visits increased from 641 in 2002 to 1904 in 2007 and annual new patients enrollments grew from 46 to 128 within the same period. Staffing grew from an interdisciplinary staff of 1.5 full-time equivalent (FTE) to the current 10.0 FTE. A carefully orchestrated programme organization that is inclusive rather than exclusive can produce a balance of evidence-based best practices in client focused service, community mental health integration and academic productivity. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Fische und Fischerzeugnisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    Fische und Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" und Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- und/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere und Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere und Weichtiererzeugnisse und tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.

  2. Mikrodaten und statistische Auswertungsmethoden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hujer, Reinhard

    Mit der zunehmenden Verfügbarkeit immer größerer Querschnitts- und Längschnittsdatensätze für Personen, Haushalte und Betriebe sowie deren Verknüpfungen hat sich die mikroökonometrische Forschung in den vergangenen Jahren rasant weiterentwickelt. Dies gilt sowohl aus methodischer als auch aus empirischer, anwendungsorientierter Sicht. Mikrodaten und mikroökonometrische Ansätze dienen dazu, aktuelle, politikrelevante Fragen aufzugreifen, sie zu analysieren und fundierte politische Empfehlungen zu geben, beispielsweise im Rahmen der Arbeitsmarkt- und Sozialpolitik, der Finanzanalyse und der Marketingforschung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) und deren Mitglieder haben sich in den Ausschüssen und in Hauptversammlungen kontinuierlich mit den Weiterentwicklungen der mikroökonometrischen Methodik und den empirischen Anwendungen befasst. Zahlreiche Publikationen von Mitgliedern der DStatG haben entscheidend zum kritischen Diskurs und zum wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt in diesem Bereich beigetragen.

  3. Model Programmes and Practice Issues in Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mary-Maureen; Hill, Everett W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses diversity in the population of individuals with visual impairments, the changing role of orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists, and the broadened definition of O&M. An overview of best practices and model demonstration programs for providing O&M services to a diverse population of persons with visual impairments is presented. (SM)

  4. Prediction of intern attendance at a seminar-based training programme: a behavioural intention model.

    PubMed

    Boots, R J; Treloar, C

    2000-07-01

    The factors determining intern attendance at 'resident rounds' training programmes are not known. This study aimed to use a behavioural model (the Triandis theory of social behaviour) to predict intern attendance at the resident round programme at a metropolitan teaching hospital. These included 109 interns in a large metropolitan teaching hospital, in the 1996 and 1997 cohorts. Tabulated responses from a structured interview administered to 10 randomly selected interns were used to develop survey items related to the Triandis variables. Attendance was monitored using a sessional logbook and by self-report. Item analysis was conducted for each variable scale. Stepwise multiple regression models were constructed to predict attendance and intention. The average proportion of resident rounds attended was 43% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 40-47%) from logbook attendance, and 63% (95% CI 61-65%) by self-report. Cronbach's alpha for the subscales ranged from 0.62 to 0.91. Intern attendance was predicted by the habit of attendance and negatively predicted by facilitating conditions (AdjR2=0.26, P<0.0001). The intention to attend was only independently predicted by perceived consequences (AdjR2= 0.19, P < 0.0001). The establishment of resident education programmes within teaching hospitals requires attention to and modification of facilitating conditions that may allow improvements in attendance and in quality of the programme.

  5. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : programmer's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, C. M.; Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  6. An economic model to evaluate the mitigation programme for bovine viral diarrhoea in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Presi, P; Stärk, K D C

    2012-09-15

    Economic analyses are indispensable as sources of information to help policy makers make decisions about mitigation resource use. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Swiss national mitigation programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which was implemented in 2008 and concludes in 2017. The eradication phase of the mitigation programme comprised testing and slaughtering of all persistently infected (PI) animals found. First, the whole population was antigen tested and all PI cattle removed. Since October 2008, all newborn calves have been subject to antigen testing to identify and slaughter PI calves. All mothers of PI calves were retested and slaughtered if the test was positive. Antigen testing in calves and elimination of virus-carriers was envisaged to be conducted until the end of 2011. Subsequently, a surveillance programme will document disease freedom or detect disease if it recurs. Four alternative surveillance strategies based on antibody testing in blood from newborn calves and/or milk from primiparous cows were proposed by Federal Veterinary Office servants in charge of the BVDV mitigation programme. A simple economic spreadsheet model was developed to estimate and compare the costs and benefits of the BVDV mitigation programme. In an independent project, the impact of the mitigation programme on the disease dynamics in the population was simulated using a stochastic compartment model. Mitigation costs accrued from materials, labour, and processes such as handling and testing samples, and recording results. Benefits were disease costs avoided by having the mitigation programme in place compared to a baseline of endemic disease equilibrium. Cumulative eradication costs and benefits were estimated to determine the break-even point for the eradication component of the programme. The margin over eradication cost therefore equalled the maximum expenditure potentially available for surveillance without the net benefit

  7. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  8. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  9. Epidemiological models of poliomyelitis and measles and their application in the planning of immunization programmes*

    PubMed Central

    Cvjetanović, B.; Grab, B.; Dixon, H.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the construction and application of epidemiological models of measles and poliomyelitis. In these models, epidemiological classes and their age structure have been based on the natural history of these diseases in the population aged 0 - 19 years. The flow of the population through the classes has been expressed as an equation system suitable for computer interpretation. The models have been used to simulate both the natural course of the diseases and the effect of various immunization schemes. The models were also used to explore prospects for control and eradication of these diseases with specific immunization programmes, and their relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are discussed. PMID:6814774

  10. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  11. Ingenieurgeologie: Grundlagen und Anwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Dieter D.

    Geplünderter Planet? Die Ingenieurgeologie ist ein junges, interdisziplinäres Fachgebiet. Es befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung zwischen Geosphäre und Mensch. Der Autor stellt Georisiken vor und diskutiert die Folgen menschlicher Eingriffe in die Natur. Er thematisiert aktuelle Herausforderungen und entwirft nachhaltige Lösungskonzepte für verschiedene Problembereiche: z.B. Naturgefahren wie Hangrutschungen und Bergfälle, die Ausbeute natürlicher Ressourcen, Bau- und Sanierungsvorhaben. Fallbeschreibungen und ausgearbeitete Beispiele vertiefen das Verständnis für diesen neuen, zukunftsweisenden Zweig der Wissenschaft.

  12. The use of classification models in the evaluation of CBR programmes.

    PubMed

    Finkenflügel, Harry; Cornielje, Huib; Velema, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Classification models for community-based rehabilitation (CBR) create conceptual order in the many types of rehabilitation programmes that exist in developing countries. Several models have been developed but none of the models appears to be widely accepted or being used in the evaluation process. To review classification models and assess its usability. Literature review. Sixteen documents were found describing 11 different models. These models vary from simply listing different types of CBR to multidimensional configurations encircling principles, methods and outcomes of CBR. The models are only incidentally used in the evaluation of CBR programmes. The more recent models have been used to develop, select and group indicators. Classification models can indeed structure the evaluation and comparison of CBR programs that are, by nature, very different from each other. Indicators can be developed within a theoretical framework provided by the classification model. In order to be widely accepted the models should be made less complex and focus on outcomes that are meaningful for the people involved in the evaluation as well as for policymakers and researchers.

  13. A programme of studies including assessment of diagnostic accuracy of school hearing screening tests and a cost-effectiveness model of school entry hearing screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Fortnum, Heather; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Hyde, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Ozolins, Mara; Errington, Sam; Zhelev, Zhivko; Pritchard, Clive; Benton, Claire; Moody, Joanne; Cocking, Laura; Watson, Julian; Roberts, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Identification of permanent hearing impairment at the earliest possible age is crucial to maximise the development of speech and language. Universal newborn hearing screening identifies the majority of the 1 in 1000 children born with a hearing impairment, but later onset can occur at any time and there is no optimum time for further screening. A universal but non-standardised school entry screening (SES) programme is in place in many parts of the UK but its value is questioned. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hearing screening tests and the cost-effectiveness of the SES programme in the UK. Systematic review, case-control diagnostic accuracy study, comparison of routinely collected data for services with and without a SES programme, parental questionnaires, observation of practical implementation and cost-effectiveness modelling. Second- and third-tier audiology services; community. Children aged 4-6 years and their parents. Diagnostic accuracy of two hearing screening devices, referral rate and source, yield, age at referral and cost per quality-adjusted life-year. The review of diagnostic accuracy studies concluded that research to date demonstrates marked variability in the design, methodological quality and results. The pure-tone screen (PTS) (Amplivox, Eynsham, UK) and HearCheck (HC) screener (Siemens, Frimley, UK) devices had high sensitivity (PTS ≥ 89%, HC ≥ 83%) and specificity (PTS ≥ 78%, HC ≥ 83%) for identifying hearing impairment. The rate of referral for hearing problems was 36% lower with SES (Nottingham) relative to no SES (Cambridge) [rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.69; p < 0.001]. The yield of confirmed cases did not differ between areas with and without SES (rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.06; p = 0.12). The mean age of referral did not differ between areas with and without SES for all referrals but children with confirmed hearing impairment were older at referral in the site with SES (mean

  14. National treatment programme of hepatitis C in Egypt: Hepatitis C virus model of care.

    PubMed

    El-Akel, W; El-Sayed, M H; El Kassas, M; El-Serafy, M; Khairy, M; Elsaeed, K; Kabil, K; Hassany, M; Shawky, A; Yosry, A; Shaker, M K; ElShazly, Y; Waked, I; Esmat, G; Doss, W

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt as the nation bears the highest prevalence rate worldwide. This necessitated establishing a novel model of care (MOC) to contain the epidemic, deliver patient care and ensure global treatment access. In this review, we describe the process of development of the Egyptian model and future strategies for sustainability. Although the magnitude of the HCV problem was known for many years, the HCV MOC only came into being in 2006 with the establishment of the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) to set up and implement a national control strategy for the disease and other causes of viral hepatitis. The strategy outlines best practices for patient care delivery by applying a set of service principles through identified clinical streams and patient flow continuums. The Egyptian national viral hepatitis treatment programme is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programmes. To date, more than one million patients were evaluated and more than 850 000 received treatment under the umbrella of the programme since 2006. The NCCVH has been successful in establishing a strong infrastructure for controlling viral hepatitis in Egypt. It established a nationwide network of digitally connected viral hepatitis-specialized treatment centres covering the country map to enhance treatment access. Practice guidelines suiting local circumstances were issued and regularly updated and are applied in all affiliated centres. This review illustrates the model and the successful Egyptian experience. It sets an exemplar for states, organizations and policy-makers setting up programmes for care and management of people with hepatitis C.

  15. Increasing access to the MDR-TB surveillance programme through a collaborative model in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Park, Paul H; Magut, Cornelius; Gardner, Adrian; O'yiengo, Dennis O; Kamle, Lydia; Langat, Bernard K; Buziba, Nathan G; Carter, E Jane

    2012-03-01

    Kenya, like many resource-constrained countries, has a single mycobacterial laboratory, centrally located in Nairobi, with capacity for drug-susceptibility testing (DST) - the gold standard in diagnosing drug-resistant tuberculosis. We describe and evaluate a novel operational design that attempts to overcome diagnostic delivery barriers. Review of the public DST programme identified several barriers limiting access: lack of programme awareness amongst physicians, limited supplies, unreliable transport and no specimen tracking methods. Staff visited 19 clinic sites in western Kenya and trained healthcare providers in regard to the novel diagnostics model. Provincial laboratory registries were reviewed to assess utilization of DST services prior to and after programme modification. Onsite training consisted of the inclusion criteria for re-treatment patients - the high-priority group for DST. Additionally, infrastructural support established a stable supply chain. An existing transport system was adapted to deliver sputum specimens. Task shifting created an accession and tracking system of specimens. During the 24 months post-implementation, the number of re-treatment specimens from the catchment area increased from 9.1 to 23.5 specimens per month. In comparing annual data pre- and post-implementation, the proportion of re-treatment cases receiving DST increased from 24.7% (n = 403) to 32.5% (n = 574) (P < 0.001), and the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB cases increased from 5 to 10 cases. The delivery model significantly increased the proportion of re-treatment cases receiving DST. Barriers to accessing the national MDR-TB surveillance programme can be overcome through an operational model based on pragmatic use of existing services from multiple partners. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Assessing Optimal Target Populations for Influenza Vaccination Programmes: An Evidence Synthesis and Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Baguelin, Marc; Flasche, Stefan; Camacho, Anton; Demiris, Nikolaos; Miller, Elizabeth; Edmunds, W. John

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccine policies that maximise health benefit through efficient use of limited resources are needed. Generally, influenza vaccination programmes have targeted individuals 65 y and over and those at risk, according to World Health Organization recommendations. We developed methods to synthesise the multiplicity of surveillance datasets in order to evaluate how changing target populations in the seasonal vaccination programme would affect infection rate and mortality. Methods and Findings Using a contemporary evidence-synthesis approach, we use virological, clinical, epidemiological, and behavioural data to develop an age- and risk-stratified transmission model that reproduces the strain-specific behaviour of influenza over 14 seasons in England and Wales, having accounted for the vaccination uptake over this period. We estimate the reduction in infections and deaths achieved by the historical programme compared with no vaccination, and the reduction had different policies been in place over the period. We find that the current programme has averted 0.39 (95% credible interval 0.34–0.45) infections per dose of vaccine and 1.74 (1.16–3.02) deaths per 1,000 doses. Targeting transmitters by extending the current programme to 5–16-y-old children would increase the efficiency of the total programme, resulting in an overall reduction of 0.70 (0.52–0.81) infections per dose and 1.95 (1.28–3.39) deaths per 1,000 doses. In comparison, choosing the next group most at risk (50–64-y-olds) would prevent only 0.43 (0.35–0.52) infections per dose and 1.77 (1.15–3.14) deaths per 1,000 doses. Conclusions This study proposes a framework to integrate influenza surveillance data into transmission models. Application to data from England and Wales confirms the role of children as key infection spreaders. The most efficient use of vaccine to reduce overall influenza morbidity and mortality is thus to target children in addition to older adults. Please

  17. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  18. Investigating and improving the models of programming concepts held by novice programmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Ferguson, J.; Roper, M.; Wood, M.

    2011-03-01

    The teaching of introductory computer programming seems far from successful, with many first-year students performing more poorly than expected. One possible reason for this is that novices hold 'non-viable' mental models (internal explanations of how something works) of key programming concepts which then cause misconceptions and difficulties. An initial study investigated the apparent viability of novices' models of fundamental programming concepts, focusing on value and reference assignment. This revealed that many students appeared to hold 'non-viable' mental models of these key concepts and that those students who appeared to hold viable mental models performed significantly better in programming tasks than those with non-viable models. To address this, a teaching model integrating cognitive conflict and program visualisation is proposed. A series of studies found that this teaching model is potentially effective in enhancing engagement with learning materials and may therefore help novice programmers develop a better understanding of key concepts.

  19. On the use of programmable hardware and reduced numerical precision in earth‐system modeling

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Francis P.; Niu, Xinyu; Luk, Wayne; Palmer, T. N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Programmable hardware, in particular Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), promises a significant increase in computational performance for simulations in geophysical fluid dynamics compared with CPUs of similar power consumption. FPGAs allow adjusting the representation of floating‐point numbers to specific application needs. We analyze the performance‐precision trade‐off on FPGA hardware for the two‐scale Lorenz '95 model. We scale the size of this toy model to that of a high‐performance computing application in order to make meaningful performance tests. We identify the minimal level of precision at which changes in model results are not significant compared with a maximal precision version of the model and find that this level is very similar for cases where the model is integrated for very short or long intervals. It is therefore a useful approach to investigate model errors due to rounding errors for very short simulations (e.g., 50 time steps) to obtain a range for the level of precision that can be used in expensive long‐term simulations. We also show that an approach to reduce precision with increasing forecast time, when model errors are already accumulated, is very promising. We show that a speed‐up of 1.9 times is possible in comparison to FPGA simulations in single precision if precision is reduced with no strong change in model error. The single‐precision FPGA setup shows a speed‐up of 2.8 times in comparison to our model implementation on two 6‐core CPUs for large model setups. PMID:27642499

  20. On the use of programmable hardware and reduced numerical precision in earth-system modeling.

    PubMed

    Düben, Peter D; Russell, Francis P; Niu, Xinyu; Luk, Wayne; Palmer, T N

    2015-09-01

    Programmable hardware, in particular Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), promises a significant increase in computational performance for simulations in geophysical fluid dynamics compared with CPUs of similar power consumption. FPGAs allow adjusting the representation of floating-point numbers to specific application needs. We analyze the performance-precision trade-off on FPGA hardware for the two-scale Lorenz '95 model. We scale the size of this toy model to that of a high-performance computing application in order to make meaningful performance tests. We identify the minimal level of precision at which changes in model results are not significant compared with a maximal precision version of the model and find that this level is very similar for cases where the model is integrated for very short or long intervals. It is therefore a useful approach to investigate model errors due to rounding errors for very short simulations (e.g., 50 time steps) to obtain a range for the level of precision that can be used in expensive long-term simulations. We also show that an approach to reduce precision with increasing forecast time, when model errors are already accumulated, is very promising. We show that a speed-up of 1.9 times is possible in comparison to FPGA simulations in single precision if precision is reduced with no strong change in model error. The single-precision FPGA setup shows a speed-up of 2.8 times in comparison to our model implementation on two 6-core CPUs for large model setups.

  1. Human Onchocerciasis: Modelling the Potential Long-term Consequences of a Vaccination Programme

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hugo C.; Walker, Martin; Lustigman, Sara; Taylor, David W.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, the predominant onchocerciasis control strategy in Africa is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin. However, there is a consensus among the global health community, supported by mathematical modelling, that onchocerciasis in Africa will not be eliminated within proposed time frameworks in all endemic foci with only annual MDA, and novel and alternative strategies are urgently needed. Furthermore, use of MDA with ivermectin is already compromised in large areas of central Africa co-endemic with Loa loa, and there are areas where suboptimal or atypical responses to ivermectin have been documented. An onchocerciasis vaccine would be highly advantageous in these areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a previously developed onchocerciasis transmission model (EPIONCHO) to investigate the impact of vaccination in areas where loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic and ivermectin is contraindicated. We also explore the potential influence of a vaccination programme on infection resurgence in areas where local elimination has been successfully achieved. Based on the age range included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), the vaccine was assumed to target 1 to 5 year olds. Our modelling results indicate that the deployment of an onchocerciasis vaccine would have a beneficial impact in onchocerciasis–loiasis co-endemic areas, markedly reducing microfilarial load in the young (under 20 yr) age groups. Conclusions/Significance An onchocerciasis prophylactic vaccine would reduce the onchocerciasis disease burden in populations where ivermectin cannot be administered safely. Moreover, a vaccine could substantially decrease the chance of re-emergence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in areas where it is deemed that MDA with ivermectin can be stopped. Therefore, a vaccine would protect the substantial investments made by present and past onchocerciasis control programmes, decreasing the chance of disease recrudescence and

  2. Human Onchocerciasis: Modelling the Potential Long-term Consequences of a Vaccination Programme.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hugo C; Walker, Martin; Lustigman, Sara; Taylor, David W; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the predominant onchocerciasis control strategy in Africa is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin. However, there is a consensus among the global health community, supported by mathematical modelling, that onchocerciasis in Africa will not be eliminated within proposed time frameworks in all endemic foci with only annual MDA, and novel and alternative strategies are urgently needed. Furthermore, use of MDA with ivermectin is already compromised in large areas of central Africa co-endemic with Loa loa, and there are areas where suboptimal or atypical responses to ivermectin have been documented. An onchocerciasis vaccine would be highly advantageous in these areas. We used a previously developed onchocerciasis transmission model (EPIONCHO) to investigate the impact of vaccination in areas where loiasis and onchocerciasis are co-endemic and ivermectin is contraindicated. We also explore the potential influence of a vaccination programme on infection resurgence in areas where local elimination has been successfully achieved. Based on the age range included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), the vaccine was assumed to target 1 to 5 year olds. Our modelling results indicate that the deployment of an onchocerciasis vaccine would have a beneficial impact in onchocerciasis-loiasis co-endemic areas, markedly reducing microfilarial load in the young (under 20 yr) age groups. An onchocerciasis prophylactic vaccine would reduce the onchocerciasis disease burden in populations where ivermectin cannot be administered safely. Moreover, a vaccine could substantially decrease the chance of re-emergence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in areas where it is deemed that MDA with ivermectin can be stopped. Therefore, a vaccine would protect the substantial investments made by present and past onchocerciasis control programmes, decreasing the chance of disease recrudescence and offering an important additional tool to mitigate the potentially

  3. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34): Programmer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.; Johnson, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a programmer's guide for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34). Included are a brief history and review of the model since its origin in 1988 and a technical discussion of recent additions and modifications. Examples of how to run both the interactive and batch (subroutine) forms are presented. Instructions are provided on how to customize output of the model for various parameters of the Mars atmosphere. Detailed descriptions are given of the main driver programs, subroutines, and associated computational methods. Lists and descriptions include input, output, and local variables in the programs. These descriptions give a summary of program steps and 'map' of calling relationships among the subroutines. Definitions are provided for the variables passed between subroutines through common lists. Explanations are provided for all diagnostic and progress messages generated during execution of the program. A brief outline of future plans for Mars-GRAM is also presented.

  4. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Shattock, Andrew J.; Do, Hoa Mai; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness. Methods We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY). Results Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300–68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100–54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200–496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447–2,747], US$2,344 [1,843–2,765], and US$248 [201–319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively. Conclusions Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden. PMID:26196290

  5. Development of a model of the tobacco industry's interference with tobacco control programmes

    PubMed Central

    Trochim, W; Stillman, F; Clark, P; Schmitt, C

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To construct a conceptual model of tobacco industry tactics to undermine tobacco control programmes for the purposes of: (1) developing measures to evaluate industry tactics, (2) improving tobacco control planning, and (3) supplementing current or future frameworks used to classify and analyse tobacco industry documents. Design: Web based concept mapping was conducted, including expert brainstorming, sorting, and rating of statements describing industry tactics. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the resulting maps was accomplished by an expert panel during a face-to-face meeting. Subjects: 34 experts, selected because of their previous encounters with industry resistance or because of their research into industry tactics, took part in some or all phases of the project. Results: Maps with eight non-overlapping clusters in two dimensional space were developed, with importance ratings of the statements and clusters. Cluster and quadrant labels were agreed upon by the experts. Conclusions: The conceptual maps summarise the tactics used by the industry and their relationships to each other, and suggest a possible hierarchy for measures that can be used in statistical modelling of industry tactics and for review of industry documents. Finally, the maps enable hypothesis of a likely progression of industry reactions as public health programmes become more successful, and therefore more threatening to industry profits. PMID:12773723

  6. Research Apprenticeships: A Report on a Model Graduate Programme in Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Gursoy, Husra; Almeida, Luis; Beabout, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graduate programmes in instructional design/educational technology are, by their nature, continuously being updated and improved. As a most recent iteration of the ever-evolving graduate experience, an experimental programme at Pennsylvania State University's Instructional Systems programme takes as its centerpiece a research apprenticeship in…

  7. Transfer of Learning from Management Development Programmes: Testing the Holton Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, Cyril; Birchall, David

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of learning from management development programmes has been described as the effective and continuing application back at work of the knowledge and skills gained on those programmes. It is a very important issue for organizations today, given the large amounts of investment in these programmes and the small amounts of that investment that…

  8. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  9. Zwergsatelliten und Sternriesen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baade, Dietrich; Kuschnig, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Leuchtkräftige Sterne sind schwierig: Fär Fotometrie mit großen Teleskopen sind sie zu hell, und ihre geringe Zahl macht konventionelle Lösungen unwirtschaftlich, besonders im Weltraum, wo die äußerste Präzision gegeben wäre. Mit einer Mini-Armada von Nanosatelliten haben Ingenieure und Astronomen aus Kanada, Österreich und Polen nun die Lösung gefunden - auch schon für viele wissenschaftliche Fragen.

  10. Development and use of the generic WHO/CDC logic model for vitamin and mineral interventions in public health programmes.

    PubMed

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; del Socorro Jefferds, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition interventions are critical to achieve the Millennium Development Goals; among them, micronutrient interventions are considered cost-effective and programmatically feasible to scale up, but there are limited tools to communicate the programme components and their relationships. The WHO/CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) logic model for micronutrient interventions in public health programmes is a useful resource for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of these interventions, which depicts the programme theory and expected relationships between inputs and expected Millennium Development Goals. The model was developed by applying principles of programme evaluation, public health nutrition theory and programmatic expertise. The multifaceted and iterative structure validation included feedback from potential users and adaptation by national stakeholders involved in public health programmes' design and implementation. In addition to the inputs, main activity domains identified as essential for programme development, implementation and performance include: (i) policy; (ii) products and supply; (iii) delivery systems; (iv) quality control; and (v) behaviour change communication. Outputs encompass the access to and coverage of interventions. Outcomes include knowledge and appropriate use of the intervention, as well as effects on micronutrient intake, nutritional status and health of target populations, for ultimate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The WHO/CDC logic model simplifies the process of developing a logic model by providing a tool that has identified high-priority areas and concepts that apply to virtually all public health micronutrient interventions. Countries can adapt it to their context in order to support programme design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation for the successful scale-up of nutrition interventions in public health.

  11. Entrepreneurial training for girls empowerment in Lesotho: A process evaluation of a model programme

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Mary O'Neill; Kuriansky, Judy; Lytle, Megan; Vistman, Bozhena; Mosisili, ‘Mathato S.; Hlothoane, Lieketso; Matlanyane, Mapeo; Mokobori, Thabang; Mosuhli, Silas; Pebane, Jane

    2014-01-01

    A Girls Empowerment Programme held in 2010 in Lesotho, Sub-Saharan Africa, focused on HIV/AIDS risk reduction and prevention, life skills and entrepreneurial training (income-generating activities). Entrepreneurial training was a crucial part of equipping the camp attendees with basic skills to help them develop sustainable livelihoods. Such skills and financial independence are essential to enable rural girls to complete their secondary schooling (in a fee-based educational system) and to pursue a career, as well as to further help them be less susceptible to transactional sex and its significant risks. The results of a brief process evaluation with some nested supporting data showed considerable improvement in the girls' knowledge about income-generating activities. In addition, almost half of the camp attendees participated in further entrepreneurial training and about half of these girls went on to develop small businesses. Replication of this model of camp training is recommended and being explored in other African countries. PMID:25505804

  12. Modeling programmable deformation of self-folding all-polymer structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Meie; Zhou, Jinxiong

    2013-11-01

    Combination of soft active hydrogels with hard passive polymers gives rise to all-polymer composites. The hydrogel is sensitive to external stimuli while the passive polymer is inert. Utilizing the different behaviors of two materials subject to environmental variation, for example temperature, results in self-folding soft machines. We report our efforts to model the programmable deformation of self-folding structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels. The self-folding structures are realized either by constructing a bilayer structure or by incorporating hydrogels as hinges. The methodology and the results may aid the design, control and fabrication of 3D complex structures from 2D simple configurations through self-assembly.

  13. Exploration geophysics calculator programs for use on Hewlett-Packard models 67 and 97 programmable calculators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.

    1978-01-01

    Program listing, instructions, and example problems are given for 12 programs for the interpretation of geophysical data, for use on Hewlett-Packard models 67 and 97 programmable hand-held calculators. These are (1) gravity anomaly over 2D prism with = 9 vertices--Talwani method; (2) magnetic anomaly (?T, ?V, or ?H) over 2D prism with = 8 vertices?Talwani method; (3) total-field magnetic anomaly profile over thick sheet/thin dike; (4) single dipping seismic refractor--interpretation and design; (5) = 4 dipping seismic refractors--interpretation; (6) = 4 dipping seismic refractors?design; (7) vertical electrical sounding over = 10 horizontal layers--Schlumberger or Wenner forward calculation; (8) vertical electric sounding: Dar Zarrouk calculations; (9) magnetotelluric planewave apparent conductivity and phase angle over = 9 horizontal layers--forward calculation; (10) petrophysics: a.c. electrical parameters; (11) petrophysics: elastic constants; (12) digital convolution with = 10-1ength filter.

  14. Milch, Milchprodukte, Analoge und Speiseeis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coors, Ursula

    Die Produktpalette Milch und Erzeugnisse aus Milch beinhaltet Konsummilch, die aus Milch oder Bestandteilen der Milch hergestellten Milcherzeugnisse wie Sauermilch-, Joghurt-, Kefir-, Buttermilch-, Sahne-, Kondensmilch-, Trockenmilch- und Molkenerzeugnisse, Milchmisch- und Molkenmischprodukte (Produkte mit beigegebenen Lebensmitteln), Milchzucker, Milcheiweißerzeugnisse, Milchfette und Käse.

  15. Human resources and models of mental healthcare integration into primary and community care in India: Case studies of 72 programmes.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Maheedhariah, Meera S; Ghani, Sarah; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Raja, Anusha; Patel, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    Given the scarcity of specialist mental healthcare in India, diverse community mental healthcare models have evolved. This study explores and compares Indian models of mental healthcare delivered by primary-level workers (PHW), and health workers' roles within these. We aim to describe current service delivery to identify feasible and acceptable models with potential for scaling up. Seventy two programmes (governmental and non-governmental) across 12 states were visited. 246 PHWs, coordinators, leaders, specialists and other staff were interviewed to understand the programme structure, the model of mental health delivery and health workers' roles. Data were analysed using framework analysis. Programmes were categorised using an existing framework of collaborative and non-collaborative models of primary mental healthcare. A new model was identified: the specialist community model, whereby PHWs are trained within specialist programmes to provide community support and treatment for those with severe mental disorders. Most collaborative and specialist community models used lay health workers rather than doctors. Both these models used care managers. PHWs and care managers received support often through multiple specialist and non-specialist organisations from voluntary and government sectors. Many projects still use a simple yet ineffective model of training without supervision (training and identification/referral models). Indian models differ significantly to those in high-income countries-there are less professional PHWs used across all models. There is also intensive specialist involvement particularly in the community outreach and collaborative care models. Excessive reliance on specialists inhibits their scalability, though they may be useful in targeted interventions for severe mental disorders. We propose a revised framework of models based on our findings. The current priorities are to evaluate the comparative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and scalability

  16. Neuausrichtung und Konsolidierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische und die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft und die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, und die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung und Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II und III des Bandes berichtet.

  17. Tensoren und Felder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirschmid, Hans J.

    Das Lehrbuch soll Studierende mit Grundkenntnissen der Differential- und Integralrechnung in die klassische Feldtheorie mit modernen mathematischen Methoden einführen. Dementsprechend ist die Tensoranalysis das mathematische Thema, das Prinzip der Relativität das physikalische. Aus didaktischen Erwägungen gliedert sich der Text in zwei Teile. Um den Leser mit den Objekten vertraut zu machen, wird zunächst der affine und euklidische Raum zugrundegelegt, um verallgemeinernd zur Geometrie auf Mannigfaltigkeiten und Riemannschen Räumen überleiten zu können. Im Anschluß an die mathematische Theorie wird in die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie eingeführt, wobei die Geometrie der Raum-Zeit, die Grundgesetze der Elektrodynamik und der Gravitation sowie Folgerungen zur Sprache kommen.

  18. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  19. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  20. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  1. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  2. PRECEDE-PROCEED model modification in community-based oral health promotion by using the linear structural relations programme.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Makoto; Komabayashi, Takashi; Sasahara, Hisako; Okada, Mitsugi; Taguchi, Norihiro; Ogawa, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    The PRECEDE-PROCEED (P-P) model is a framework for designing health education/promotion programmes. While the P-P model has been used to design community-based oral health programmes, outcome assessments of the model are seldom reported. The aim of the present study was to explore whether pathways in the P-P model accurately reflect the current status of environmental/behavioural assessment in a Japanese community and to examine whether using the linear structural relations (LISREL) programme would improve the model. In a community health centre in Japan, a questionnaire with 29 items regarding oral health was distributed to 824 mothers with 3-year-old children. The items were compiled into eight variables that were tested using the LISREL programme. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were statistically analysed before and after P-P model modification. The GFI, AGFI and RMSEA were 0.913, 0.776 and 0.161 before, and 0.975, 0.939 and 0.075 after P-P model modification, respectively. Indirect effects on the quality of life from the predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors became stronger than those in the initial P-P model. The overall fit of the modified P-P model was significantly better than that of the P-P model without modification, which did not accurately reflect the status of environmental/behavioural assessment in the community. The modified P-P model reflected the current status of environmental/behavioural assessment in the community. Health education models should be tested rigorously to ensure that they fit the reality of people's behaviour.

  3. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  4. DNA-programmable Nanoparticle Self-Assembly and Crystallization via Multi-Scale Modelling & Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Department of Materials Science; Engineering, Northwestern University Team

    2015-03-01

    In the past decades, DNA hybridization has proven promising to rationally guide nanoparticles to assemble into 1D, 2D and 3D structures, lattices and recently, faceted single crystals. In this sense, a gold nanoparticle coated by a dense shell of DNA behaves as a ``programmable atom equivalent.'' Using a scale-accurate coarse-grained model with explicit DNA chains, we identify that the key ingredient for achieving successful 3D crystallization is in the kinetics of DNA hybridization. We predict phase diagrams and propose suitable DNA linker sequences for optimal assembly. We determine the equilibrium shape of single crystals by computing surface energies. Surface energy fluctuations are further estimated for different surface orientations, and are shown to be critical in determining the equilibrium shape of a crystal. In addition, we apply a colloidal model with implicit DNA chains to study the kinetics of crystallization into faceted single crystals. This work was supported by the the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) FA9550-11-1-0275.

  5. The potential spread of severe footrot in Norway if no elimination programme had been initiated: a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Grøneng, Gry M; Vatn, Synnøve; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Nafstad, Ola; Hopp, Petter

    2015-02-20

    When severe footrot was detected in Norway in 2008, a surveillance programme was initiated and followed by an elimination programme. By 2013 the disease had spread to two of 19 counties and a total of 119 (1%) sheep flocks had been diagnosed with severe footrot. A simulation model was developed to estimate the potential spread of severe footrot in Norway and to estimate the relative importance of the different spreading routes. The model parameters were based on the rate of spread of the first 38 diagnosed cases and the management and climatic factors particular for Norway. The model showed that by 2013, severe footrot would have spread to six counties and infected 16% of the sheep flocks if no elimination programme had been initiated. If this is compared with the 1% of flocks that were diagnosed in Norway by 2013, there seems to be a large effect of the implemented footrot elimination programme. By 2035, it was estimated that severe footrot would have spread to 16 counties and 64% of the sheep flocks. Such an extensive spread would probably impose a large negative impact on the sheep industry and welfare of the sheep. The most effective way to curb the spread of severe footrot was by decreasing the within county infection rate. This could be achieved by decreasing the contact between flocks or by decreasing the environmental load of D. nodosus, for example by footbathing sheep, culling diseased sheep or eliminating severe footrot in the flock.

  6. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  7. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1) a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2) the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices). Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity. PMID:21999434

  8. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  9. Hearing the Shape of the Ising Model with a Programmable Superconducting-Flux Annealer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Warburton, Paul A.; Severini, Simone

    2014-07-01

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra.

  10. Hearing the Shape of the Ising Model with a Programmable Superconducting-Flux Annealer

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Warburton, Paul A.; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra. PMID:25029660

  11. Hearing the shape of the Ising model with a programmable superconducting-flux annealer.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M; Warburton, Paul A; Severini, Simone

    2014-07-16

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra.

  12. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  13. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  14. Instandhaltung und Normung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz-Wuttig, Angela

    Das DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. ist ein eingetragener Verein mit Sitz in Berlin. Das DIN erarbeitet gemeinsam mit den Experten der interessierten Kreise Normen und Standards als Dienstleistung für Wirtschaft, Staat und Gesellschaft. Die Kenntnis entsprechender Normen, Standards oder Regeln, sowie deren richtiger Einsatz, ist unter den heutigen Marktbedingungen für jedes Unternehmen ein nicht zu unterschätzender wirtschaftlicher Faktor. Normen schaffen Effizienz bei Produktionsabläufen und sorgen durch eine gleichbleibende sowie vergleichbare Produktqualität für Vertrauen bei den Endverbrauchern. Darüber hinaus stehen Normen unter rechtlichen Aspekten für mehr Sicherheit - Hersteller erreichen bei Anwendung und Einhaltung von Normen ein hohes Maß an rechtlicher Absicherung. Das DIN vertritt die deutschen Interessen in den europäischen und weltweiten Normungsorganisationen, siehe Abb. 1. Zuständig für die elektrotechnische Normung in Deutschland sowie als deutscher Repräsentant in den übernationalen Gremien ist die DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN und VDE.

  15. WASP4, a hydrodynamic and water-quality model - model theory, user's manual, and programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, R.B.; Wool, T.A.; Connolly, J.P.; Schanz, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Version 4 (WASP4) is a dynamic compartment-modeling system that can be used to analyze a variety of water-quality problems in a diverse set of water bodies. WASP4 simulates the transport and transformation of conventional and toxic pollutants in the water column and benthos of ponds, streams, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters. The WASP4 modeling system covers four major subjects--hydrodynamics, conservative mass transport, eutrophication-dissolved oxygen kinetics, and toxic chemical-sediment dynamics. The WASP4 modeling system consists of two stand-alone computer programs, DYNHYD4 and WASP4, that can be run in conjunction or separately. The hydrodynamic program, DYNHYD4, simulates the movement of water and the water quality program, WASP4, simulates the movement and interaction of pollutants within the water. The latter program is supplied with two kinetic submodels to simulate two of the major classes of water-quality problems--conventional pollution (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrients, and eutrophication) and toxic pollution (organic chemicals, heavy metals, and sediment). The substitution of either sub-model constitutes the models EUTRO4 and TOXI4, respectively.

  16. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  17. Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilrich, Peter-Theodor

    Mit dem Aufschwung von Naturwissenschaft und Technik zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts entstand die mathematische Statistik, angeregt aus der Geodäsie (wie die Methode der kleinsten Quadrate) und der Anthropologie (wie die statistische Analyse mehrdimensionaler Beobachtungen und ihrer stochastischen Abhängigkeiten). Im Gegensatz zu den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, in denen Daten vorwiegend aus Beobachtungsstudien gewonnen werden, stehen in den Naturwissenschaften Experimente im Vordergrund. Daher gehört die statistische Versuchsplanung zu den insbesondere in Naturwissenschaft und Technik angewendeten statistischen Methoden, aber auch die Extremwertstatistik und Lebensdaueranalysen sowie die Methoden der räumlichen Statistik (insbesondere in der Umweltforschung). Im 20. Jahrhundert wurden Stichprobenpläne und Regelkarten (Kontrollkarten) zur Prozessregelung als Hilfsmittel der statistischen Qualitätssicherung entwickelt. Diese Methodenbündel, mit denen sich der Ausschuss Statistik in Naturwissenschaft und Technik immer wieder befasst, werden im Folgenden vorgestellt.

  18. Steuerungs- und Automatisierungstechnik an Werkzeugmaschinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmann, Werner

    Eine leistungsfähige und funktionssichere Steuerungstechnik ist die Voraussetzung für die Automatisierung der Werkzeugmaschinen und der Produktionsprozesse (Definition nach DIN IEC 60050-351 siehe Teil Steuerungstechnik).

  19. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    PubMed

    Coffeng, Luc E; Stolk, Wilma A; Zouré, Honorat G M; Veerman, J Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B; Murdoch, Michele E; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A P; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J; Amazigo, Uche V

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  20. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Veerman, J. Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A. P.; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J.; Amazigo, Uche V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. Methods and Findings With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Conclusions Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future. PMID:23383355

  1. Shuttle cryogenics supply system. Optimization study. Volume 5 B-2, part 1: Appendix programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An appendix to the programmers manual for the mathematical model pertaining to the design of cryogenic supply systems for spacecraft is presented. The program listing was produced using the EXEC-8 LISTALL processor which lists a file in alphabetical order. Since the processor does not differentiate between subroutines, functions, and procedure definition processors, each subprogram has been relabeled to clearly identify the type of symbolic listing.

  2. Shuttle cryogenics supply system optimization study. Volume 5, B-3, part 2: Appendix to programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer programmer's manual for a digital computer which will permit rapid and accurate parametric analysis of current and advanced attitude control propulsion systems is presented. The concept is for a cold helium pressurized, subcritical cryogen fluid supplied, bipropellant gas-fed attitude control propulsion system. The cryogen fluids are stored as liquids under low pressure and temperature conditions. The mathematical model provides a generalized form for the procedural technique employed in setting up the analysis program.

  3. Korrespondenzfragen zwischen Energiesystem und Telekommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Heiko

    Telekommunikationsnetze und Stromnetze weisen viele Gemeinsamkeiten auf - sowohl hinsichtlich allgemeiner topologischer und hierarchischer Eigenschaften, als auch betreffs der konkreten Technoökonomie unter Regulierungsbedingungen. Das folgende Kapitel analysiert diese Eigenschaften und gibt Antworten auf die Frage, wie die wechselseitige Verkopplung beider, jeweils systemabdeckender Infrastrukturen zu einem Treiber der Energiewende in entwickelten Volkswirtschaften werden kann.

  4. Integrated Teacher Education Programme for Open Distance Learning: A Model for Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education in India, including that offered by the open distance learning (ODL) system to thousands every year, imparts mainly pedagogic knowledge, although the need for integrated teacher education programmes has been underscored. As the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an ODL institution, will develop an integrated Bachelor…

  5. Industry Review and Validation of Model Curriculum for Programmer/Analyst, Network Administration, and Technical Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwager, Mahna; Lee, June

    Industry representatives reviewed the curricula for computer programmer-analyst, network administrator, and technical support courses at 10 community colleges in California. Thirty-eight reviewers participated in the focus groups, and several other reviewers participated via e-mail. The focus groups discussed each of the three degree programs…

  6. A Model for Developing and Assessing Youth-Based Environmental Engagement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemer, Manuel; Lynes, Jennifer; Hickman, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a fundamental cultural shift is needed to effectively address anthropogenic causes of climate change. Evidence suggests that youth are well positioned to create such transformation. While various studies have contributed empirical evidence to numerous youth-based non-formal environmental engagement programmes, what is…

  7. Integrated Teacher Education Programme for Open Distance Learning: A Model for Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education in India, including that offered by the open distance learning (ODL) system to thousands every year, imparts mainly pedagogic knowledge, although the need for integrated teacher education programmes has been underscored. As the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an ODL institution, will develop an integrated Bachelor…

  8. A Model for Developing and Assessing Youth-Based Environmental Engagement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemer, Manuel; Lynes, Jennifer; Hickman, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a fundamental cultural shift is needed to effectively address anthropogenic causes of climate change. Evidence suggests that youth are well positioned to create such transformation. While various studies have contributed empirical evidence to numerous youth-based non-formal environmental engagement programmes, what is…

  9. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  10. Technikwissenschaft - Erfinden und Entdecken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Gerhard

    Umrissen wird das allgemeine Ziel der Technikwissenschaft, konstruktiv zu verwerten und nicht-natürlich Entdeckbares zu erfinden. Wir befinden uns in einer Umwälzung der Technik im Verlauf der wissenschaftlich-technischen Revolution, auf dem Wege zu einem neuen Techniktyp. Dieser schafft und nutzt die künstliche Intelligenz. Dazu benötigt der in der Technik tätige Mensch spezielle Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen in kreativ-konstruktiver, -gestalterischer und erfinderischer Sicht mit dem Einsatz spezieller Strukturen und Sprachen. Vorschläge zur Arbeitsweise in der Technik werden gegeben.Translated AbstractTechnological Science-Invent and DiscoverThe general aim of engineering science is outlined to utilize results constructively and to invent something that cannot be discovered in nature. We are now in a period of transformation of technology in the course of scientific-technological revolution, on the way to a new type of technology. This new type creates and utilizes artificial intelligence. For this, man acitive in this field requires special knowledge and experiences in a creative, constructive, design-oriented and ultimately inventive way by deploying special structures and languages. There are also made some proposals concerning the method of working in the field of technology.

  11. Venture Kapital und Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian

    Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik und die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten und Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- und Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens und die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln und letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden und erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- und Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer und potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen und Engagement die Umsetzung und der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.

  12. Wärme und Arbeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehli, Martin; Wittig, Heinz

    Kapitel 27 Wärme und Arbeit befasst sich zunächst mit dem Systembegriff. Darauf werden die innere Energie U, die Wärme Q und mit der Volumenänderungsarbeit W v , der technischen Arbeit (Druckänderungsarbeit) W t und der irreversiblen Dissipationsarbeit W d verschiedene Formen der Arbeit W behandelt; auch wird die Enthalpie H eingeführt. Weiter wird das Prinzip von der Erhaltung der Energie - der erste Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik - vorgestellt. Auf Kreisprozesse und den thermischen Wirkungsgrad η th wird eingegangen. Weiter werden der zweite Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik und - damit zusammenhängend - reversible und irreversible Abläufe erörtert; hiernach wird - als Zustandsgröße zur Erfassung des Ausmaßes der Irreversibilität eines Prozesses - die Entropie S behandelt. Schließlich wird kurz auf die Exergie und die Anergie - als zwei Bestandteilen der Energie - eingegangen.

  13. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  14. Economics and planning in the veterinary undergraduate programme: a model for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mlangwa, J E; Kisauzi, D N

    1993-09-01

    Veterinarians in sub-Saharan Africa work in resource-deficient environments. Decisions taken by veterinarians in this sub-region, on animal health, animal husbandry and public health issues, are therefore influenced by economic factors including macro-economic considerations related to the current structural adjustment programmes being implemented in the sub-region. In turn, decisions or advice given by veterinarians have socio-economic consequences on clients, on the effectiveness of the delivery systems for veterinary services and on the growth of national economies. For these reasons, economics and planning should be essential components of all modern veterinary undergraduate programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, in order to give veterinarians a basis for making decisions and giving advice which is both technically and economically sound. The authors argue that principles of livestock economics, livestock enterprise management, livestock investment analysis and economics of animal health care are necessary elements in economics and planning courses. They propose a division of these elements into discrete course units to allow for flexibility and adaptability to the different curriculum structures of schools in sub-Saharan Africa and, possibly, continuing professional development courses. The resource requirement for teaching the courses, the integration of the units in the undergraduate programme and the problems which are likely to be encountered in developing the courses are discussed.

  15. The transmission dynamics of hepatitis B in the UK: a mathematical model for evaluating costs and effectiveness of immunization programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. R.; Nokes, D. J.; Medley, G. F.; Anderson, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Complex hepatitis B (HBV) epidemiology makes it difficult to evaluate and compare effectiveness of different immunization policies. A method for doing so is presented using a mathematical model of HBV transmission dynamics which can represent universal infant and adolescent vaccination strategies and those targeted at genito-urinary (GU) clinic attenders and infants born to infectious mothers. Model structure, epidemiological underpinning, and parameterization, are described. Data from the UK National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles is used to define patterns of sexual activity and GU clinic attendance; data deficiencies are discussed, in particular that of UK seroprevalence of HBV markers stratified by age, sex, and risk factors. General model predictions of endemic HBV marker prevalence in homosexual and heterosexual populations seem consistent with published UK data. The simulations exhibit non-linearities in the impact of different vaccination strategies. Estimated number of carriers prevented per vaccine dose for each strategy provides a measure of costs and benefits, varying temporally over the course of a programme, and with level of vaccine coverage. Screening before vaccination markedly increases payback per dose in homosexuals but not in heterosexuals; mass infant vaccination gives the poorest effectiveness ratio and vaccination of infants after antenatal screening the best; in general, increasing vaccine coverage yields lower pay-back per dose. The model provides a useful framework for evaluating costs and benefits of immunization programmes, but for precise quantitative comparison more UK epidemiological data is urgently needed. PMID:8626006

  16. Promotional model: a new direction for the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekerete, P P

    2000-01-01

    The National Programme on Immunization (NPI), which was formerly known as the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) were relaunched in 1984 after the problems of vaccine supply had been corrected. The aim of the NPI was to protect children against six childhood killer diseases and ORT to rehydrate the dehydrated child caused by diarrhoea. In order to achieve these objectives, a Partner-in-Health strategy was set up to educate, convince and motivate mothers, pregnant women and the community to accept the programme. To assess the effect of the promotional strategy, the government decided to conduct a National Immunization Coverage survey. The results showed that some states were able to reach the target while some were not. The survey also reported that 32% of the reason for immunization failure was due to lack of information and that 9% was lack of motivation. It therefore became necessary to design a promotional model for effective and rapid implementation of the programme. After an evaluation of the promotional strategy set up by the government, a pilot survey was conducted from which nine promotional elements were selected. These promotional elements were regarded as sources of information and motivation. Based on these, a promotional model was set up which stated that promotion depends on consumer information which in turn depends on the extent of interaction between the consumer and the promotional elements. The implication of the model is the need for the formation of a Public Health Organisation with a Public Health Committee at all levels of government.

  17. Arbeitsgestaltung und Mitarbeiterqualifizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin

    Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene und potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985

  18. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  19. [Hardware Implementation of Numerical Simulation Function of Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neurons Action Potential Based on Field Programmable Gate Array].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Mai; Hu, Yanwen; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Pan, Qiangqiang

    2015-12-01

    Neuron is the basic unit of the biological neural system. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is one of the most realistic neuron models on the electrophysiological characteristic description of neuron. Hardware implementation of neuron could provide new research ideas to clinical treatment of spinal cord injury, bionics and artificial intelligence. Based on the HH model neuron and the DSP Builder technology, in the present study, a single HH model neuron hardware implementation was completed in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The neuron implemented in FPGA was stimulated by different types of current, the action potential response characteristics were analyzed, and the correlation coefficient between numerical simulation result and hardware implementation result were calculated. The results showed that neuronal action potential response of FPGA was highly consistent with numerical simulation result. This work lays the foundation for hardware implementation of neural network.

  20. Development and application of a multiple linear regression model to consider the impact of weekly waste container capacity on the yield from kerbside recycling programmes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Baird, Jim; Curry, Robin; Reid, Tim

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the development and application of a multiple linear regression model to identify how the key elements of waste and recycling infrastructure, namely container capacity and frequency of collection, affect the yield from municipal kerbside recycling programmes. The overall aim of the research was to gain an understanding of the factors affecting the yield from municipal kerbside recycling programmes in Scotland with an underlying objective to evaluate the efficacy of the model as a decision-support tool for informing the design of kerbside recycling programmes. The study isolates the principal kerbside collection service offered by all 32 councils across Scotland, eliminating those recycling programmes associated with flatted properties or multi-occupancies. The results of the regression analysis model have identified three principal factors which explain 80% of the variability in the average yield of the principal dry recyclate services: weekly residual waste capacity, number of materials collected and the weekly recycling capacity. The use of the model has been evaluated and recommendations made on ongoing methodological development and the use of the results in informing the design of kerbside recycling programmes. We hope that the research can provide insights for the further development of methods to optimise the design and operation of kerbside recycling programmes.

  1. The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention programme: a new model for childhood obesity prevention in Europe?

    PubMed

    De Henauw, S; Verbestel, V; Mårild, S; Barba, G; Bammann, K; Eiben, G; Hebestreit, A; Iacoviello, L; Gallois, K; Konstabel, K; Kovács, E; Lissner, L; Maes, L; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Reisch, L; Siani, A; Tornaritis, M; Williams, G; Ahrens, W; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Pigeot, I

    2011-04-01

    The European Union-as well as other parts of the world-faces a major challenge of increasing incidence of overweight/obesity. In particular, the increase in childhood obesity gives rise to a strong imperative for immediate action. Yet, little is known about the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity prevention and healthy lifestyle primarily in children aged 2-10 years in eight European countries: Sweden, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Cyprus. The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention study mobilised an integrated set of interventional efforts at different levels of society, with the aim of facilitating the adoption of a healthy obesity-preventing lifestyle. The overall programme has been composed of 10 modules: three at community level, six at school level and one for parents. The main focus was on diet, physical activity and stress-coping capacity. The sphere of action encompassed both children and their (grand) parents, schools, local public authorities and influential stakeholders in the community. All materials for the interventions were centrally developed and culturally adapted. So far, the following has been achieved: focus group research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The

  2. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  3. In vitro and modelling approaches to risk assessment from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast programme.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard; Houck, Keith; Martin, Matt; Knudsen, Thomas; Thomas, Russell S; Sipes, Nisha; Shah, Imran; Wambaugh, John; Crofton, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    A significant challenge in toxicology is the 'too many chemicals' problem. Human beings and environmental species are exposed to tens of thousands of chemicals, only a small percentage of which have been tested thoroughly using standard in vivo test methods. This study reviews several approaches that are being developed to deal with this problem by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the umbrella of the ToxCast programme (http://epa.gov/ncct/toxcast/). The overall approach is broken into seven tasks: (i) identifying biological pathways that, when perturbed, can lead to toxicity; (ii) developing high-throughput in vitro assays to test chemical perturbations of these pathways; (iii) identifying the universe of chemicals with likely human or ecological exposure; (iv) testing as many of these chemicals as possible in the relevant in vitro assays; (v) developing hazard models that take the results of these tests and identify chemicals as being potential toxicants; (vi) generating toxicokinetics data on these chemicals to predict the doses at which these hazard pathways would be activated; and (vii) developing exposure models to identify chemicals for which these hazardous dose levels could be achieved. This overall strategy is described and briefly illustrated with recent examples from the ToxCast programme.

  4. Mothers, Fathers, and Parental Systems: A Conceptual Model of Parental Engagement in Programmes for Child Mental Health-Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact (CAPE).

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Tully, L A; Lenroot, R; Kimonis, E; Hawes, D; Moul, C; Frick, P J; Anderson, V; Dadds, M R

    2016-12-02

    Parenting programmes are one of the best researched and most effective interventions for reducing child mental health problems. The success of such programmes, however, is largely dependent on their reach and parental engagement. Rates of parental enrolment and attendance are highly variable, and in many cases very low; this is especially true of father involvement in parenting programmes. This paper proposes a conceptual model of parental engagement in parenting programmes-the CAPE model (Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact) that builds on recent models by elaborating on the interdependent stages of engagement, and its interparental or systemic context. That is, we argue that a comprehensive model of parental engagement will best entail a process from connection to enactment of learned strategies in the child's environment, and involve consideration of individual parents (both mothers and fathers) as well as the dynamics of the parenting team. The model provides a framework for considering parent engagement as well as associated facilitators and mechanisms of parenting change such as parenting skills, self-efficacy, attributions, and the implementation context. Empirical investigation of the CAPE model could be used to further our understanding of parental engagement, its importance for programme outcomes, and mechanisms of change. This will guide future intervention refinement and developments as well as change in clinical practice.

  5. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  6. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  7. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume V. SPAHR programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, numbers of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume contains a programmer's guide to SPAHR.

  8. Zusammenfassung und Ausblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Lothar; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    Mit dem vorliegenden Buch wird als Ergebnis eines durch die Deutsche BundesstiftungUmwelt (DBU) geförderten Forschungsprojektes an der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität Cottbus eine erste Standardisierung der Vorgehensweise zur Erfassung, Risikoabschätzung und Bewertung eines Biodiversitätsschadens nach dem Umweltschadensgesetz (USchadG) vorgelegt. Damit kann eine erste Bewertung potentieller Schadenssituationen vorgenommen werden. Die Nutzung der hier erarbeiteten Vorgehensweise bietet sich daher für all diejenigen an, die mit der Frage einer möglichen Haftung für Biodiversitätsschäden nach dem USchadG konfrontiert sind, seien es die Unteren und Oberen Naturschutzbehörden der Länder, die Schadensversicherer, die potentiell Haftenden oder die Naturschutzverbände.

  9. [Design and implementation of the pulse wave generator with field programmable gate array based on windkessel model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Fu, Quanhai; Xu, Lisheng; Liu, Jia; He, Dianning; Li, Qingchun

    2014-10-01

    Pulse waves contain rich physiological and pathological information of the human vascular system. The pulse wave diagnosis systems are very helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Accurate pulse waveform is necessary to evaluate the performances of the pulse wave equipment. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate pulse waveform due to several kinds of physiological and pathological conditions for testing and maintaining the pulse wave acquisition devices. A pulse wave generator was designed and implemented in the present study for this application. The blood flow in the vessel was simulated by modeling the cardiovascular system with windkessel model. Pulse waves can be generated based on the vascular systems with four kinds of resistance. Some functional models such as setting up noise types and signal noise ratio (SNR) values were also added in the designed generator. With the need of portability, high speed dynamic response, scalability and low power consumption for the system, field programmable gate array (FPGA) was chosen as hardware platform, and almost all the works, such as developing an algorithm for pulse waveform and interfacing with memory and liquid crystal display (LCD), were implemented under the flow of system on a programmable chip (SOPC) development. When users input in the key parameters through LCD and touch screen, the corresponding pulse wave will be displayed on the LCD and the desired pulse waveform can be accessed from the analog output channel as well. The structure of the designed pulse wave generator is simple and it can provide accurate solutions for studying and teaching pulse waves and the detection of the equipments for acquisition and diagnosis of pulse wave.

  10. Modelling the impact and cost-effectiveness of the HIV intervention programme amongst commercial sex workers in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac C-H; Guinness, Lorna; Vickerman, Peter; Watts, Charlotte; Vannela, Gangadhar; Vadhvana, Jagdish; Foss, Anna M; Malodia, Laxman; Gandhi, Meena; Jani, Gaurang

    2007-01-01

    Background Ahmedabad is an industrial city in Gujarat, India. In 2003, the HIV prevalence among commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Ahmedabad reached 13.0%. In response, the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme for CSWs was initiated, which involves outreach, peer education, condom distribution, and free STD clinics. Two surveys were performed among CSWs in 1999 and 2003. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme. Methods A dynamic mathematical model was used with survey and intervention-specific data from Ahmedabad to estimate the HIV impact of the Jyoti Sangh project for the 51 months between the two CSW surveys. Uncertainty analysis was used to obtain different model fits to the HIV/STI epidemiological data, producing a range for the HIV impact of the project. Financial and economic costs of the intervention were estimated from the provider's perspective for the same time period. The cost per HIV-infection averted was estimated. Results Over 51 months, projections suggest that the intervention averted 624 and 5,131 HIV cases among the CSWs and their clients, respectively. This equates to a 54% and 51% decrease in the HIV infections that would have occurred among the CSWs and clients without the intervention. In the absence of intervention, the model predicts that the HIV prevalence amongst the CSWs in 2003 would have been 26%, almost twice that with the intervention. Cost per HIV infection averted, excluding and including peer educator economic costs, was USD 59 and USD 98 respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that targeted CSW interventions in India can be cost-effective, and highlights the importance of replicating this effort in other similar settings. PMID:17683595

  11. The SOHO joint observing programmes (JOPs) as a model for the practical implementation of the IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) carries 12 instruments designed to study the Sun and the Heliosphere. Many observations involve the co-ordination of operations of several instruments and, on numerous occasions also include co-ordination with other space-based or ground-based instrumentation. The planning and co-ordination for this has been done using so-called Joint Observing Programmes, or JOPs. Scientists write up their plans for multi-instrument use and submit them to the SOHO operations team. The JOPs are stored in a JOP library, which anyone can view, and are refined and used to plan observations in detail. In effect, this approach means that the 'grass roots' scientist effectively requests and designs his or her own observations schemes with the help of the SOHO operations teams. The system has worked very well, and probably accounts for the vast majority of the major scientific breakthroughs using SOHO. However, it is a system which has minimised the 'red tape' and ensures that the end user is in the driving seat. It has made full use of the Web. This system can be adopted and adapted for use as the principal tool for running the observational aspects of the IHY. No-one wants a large bureaucratic system with little scientific profit; a JOP approach would allow the user community to know how to get involved with the IHY, how to request observations and would provide an efficient mechanism for maximising the real scientific return.

  12. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  13. Bildanalyse in Medizin und Biologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athelogou, Maria; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Schmidt, Günther; Schäpe, Arno; Baatz, Martin; Binnig, Gerd

    Heutzutage sind bildgebende Verfahren aus medizinischen Untersuchungen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Diverse Methoden - basierend auf dem Einsatz von Ultraschallwellen, Röntgenstrahlung, Magnetfeldern oder Lichtstrahlen - werden dabei spezifisch eingesetzt und liefern umfangreiches Datenmaterial über den Körper und sein Inneres. Anhand von Mikroskopieaufnahmen aus Biopsien können darüber hinaus Daten über die morphologische Eigenschaften von Körpergeweben gewonnen werden. Aus der Analyse all dieser unterschiedlichen Arten von Informationen und unter Konsultation weiterer klinischer Untersuchungen aus diversen medizinischen Disziplinen kann unter Berücksichtigung von Anamnesedaten ein "Gesamtbild“ des Gesundheitszustands eines Patienten erstellt werden. Durch die Flut der erzeugten Bilddaten kommt der Bildverarbeitung im Allgemeinen und der Bildanalyse im Besonderen eine immer wichtigere Rolle zu. Gerade im Bereich der Diagnoseunterstützung, der Therapieplanung und der bildgeführten Chirurgie bilden sie Schlüsseltechnologien, die den Forschritt nicht nur auf diesen Gebieten maßgeblich vorantreiben.

  14. Clinical leadership and pre-registration nursing programmes: A model for clinical leadership and a prospective curriculum implementation and evaluation research strategy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Angela; Dewing, Jan; Crookes, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    To present for wider debate a conceptual model for clinical leadership development in pre-registration nursing programmes and a proposed implementation plan. Globally, leadership in nursing has become a significant issue. Whilst there is continued support for leadership preparation in pre-registration nursing programmes, there have been very few published accounts of curriculum content and/or pedagogical approaches that foster clinical leadership development in pre-registration nursing. A doctoral research study has resulted in the creation of an overarching model for clinical leadership. A multi-method research study using theoretical and empirical literature 1974-2015, a focus group, expert opinion and a national on-line survey. A conceptual model of clinical leadership development in pre-registration nursing programme is presented, including the infinity loop of clinical leadership, an integral curriculum thread and a conceptual model: a curriculum-pedagogy nexus for clinical leadership. In order to test out usability and evaluate effectiveness, a multi method programme of research in one school of nursing in Australia is outlined. Implementation of the proposed conceptual model for clinical leadership development in pre-registration nursing programmes and a programme of (post-doctoral) research will contribute to what is known about curriculum content and pedagogy for nurse academics. Importantly, for nursing students and the profession as a whole, there is a clearer expectation of what clinical leadership might look like in the novice registered nurse. For nurse academics a model is offered for consideration in curriculum design and implementation with an evaluation strategy that could be replicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and modeling of a stereo vision focusing system for a field programmable gate array robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Buckle, James; Grindley, Josef E.; Smith, Jeremy S.

    2010-10-01

    Stereo vision is a situation where an imaging system has two or more cameras in order to make it more robust by mimicking the human vision system. By using two inputs, knowledge of their own relative geometry can be exploited to derive depth information from the two views they receive. 3D co-ordinates of an object in an observed scene can be computed from the intersection of the two sets of rays. Presented here is the development of a stereo vision system to focus on an object at the centre of a baseline between two cameras at varying distances. This has been developed primarily for use on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) but an adaptation of this developed methodology is also presented for use with a PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator with a single camera attachment. The two main vision systems considered here are a fixed baseline with an object moving at varying distances from this baseline, and a system with a fixed distance and a varying baseline. These two differing situations provide enough data so that the co-efficient variables that determine the system operation can be calibrated automatically with only the baseline value needing to be entered, the system performs all the required calculations for the user for use with a baseline of any distance. The limits of system with regards to the focusing accuracy obtained are also presented along with how the PUMA 560 controls its joints for the stereo vision and how it moves from one position to another to attend stereo vision compared to the two camera system for the FPGA. The benefits of such a system for range finding in mobile robotics are discussed and how this approach is more advantageous when compared against laser range finders or echolocation using ultrasonics.

  16. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention programmes to prevent diabetes based on an example from Germany: Markov modelling.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anne; Schwarz, Peter; Lindholm, Lars

    2011-11-18

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) poses a large worldwide burden for health care systems. One possible tool to decrease this burden is primary prevention. As it is unethical to wait until perfect data are available to conclude whether T2D primary prevention intervention programmes are cost-effective, we need a model that simulates the effect of prevention initiatives. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the long-term cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention programmes for the prevention of T2D using a Markov model. As decision makers often face difficulties in applying health economic results, we visualise our results with health economic tools. We use four-state Markov modelling with a probabilistic cohort analysis to calculate the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A one-year cycle length and a lifetime time horizon are applied. Best available evidence supplies the model with data on transition probabilities between glycaemic states, mortality risks, utility weights, and disease costs. The costs are calculated from a societal perspective. A 3% discount rate is used for costs and QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves are presented to assist decision makers. The model indicates that diabetes prevention interventions have the potential to be cost-effective, but the outcome reveals a high level of uncertainty. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were negative for the intervention, ie, the intervention leads to a cost reduction for men and women aged 30 or 50 years at initiation of the intervention. For men and women aged 70 at initiation of the intervention, the ICER was EUR27,546/QALY gained and EUR19,433/QALY gained, respectively. In all cases, the QALYs gained were low. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves show that the higher the willingness-to-pay threshold value, the higher the probability that the intervention is cost-effective. Nonetheless, all curves are flat. The threshold value of EUR50,000/QALY gained has a

  17. Empirical Evaluation of a Forecasting Model for Successful Facilitation in Telematic Learning Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisschoff, A.; Bisschoff, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education evaluated the usefulness of a model created to predict the success of distance education course facilitators. The model identified eight key attributes based on performance measures from the 1999 Facilitator Customer Service Survey. The evaluation accredited the model while suggesting…

  18. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  19. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…

  20. Simulation modelling as a tool for evaluating surveillance programmes for detection of the Asian honeybee mite ( Varroa destructor ) in the South Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sanson, R L

    2007-12-01

    To use a simulation model of the spread of the Asian honeybee mite (Varroa destructor) amongst apiaries, to evaluate a series of detection surveillance programmes for the South Island of New Zealand. Five potential incursion sites into the South Island were selected. A stochastic spatial simulation model, Varroa_ sim, was adapted to simulate spread of the mite from these sites as a series of silent-phase propagating epidemics. The study population comprised all apiaries in the South Island registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's (MAF's) apiary database in 2003. Six different surveillance programmes were simulated to try and detect the mite. Three of these were the actual multi-stage sampling plans conducted during the autumn (March-May) of 2001, 2002 and 2003, and the other three involved simple random sampling with sampling fractions equivalent to the actual numbers of apiaries tested in each of those years. The relative performances of the different surveillance plans were evaluated in terms of their ability to detect the mite early before it had spread too far and whilst there might still be a chance of eradication. There were 13,798 registered apiaries in the South Island with valid map coordinates in the apiary database at the time of the study. The model generated 50 epidemics against which the various surveillance programmes were evaluated. The actual surveillance programmes conducted during the autumn of 2001 and 2002 generally performed fairly well in detecting the mite. The programme conducted in autumn 2003 detected the mite reasonably well in high-risk areas, but was very poor in low-risk areas. The simple random sampling strategies performed surprisingly well, and their relative rankings were proportional to the sampling fractions employed. This study showed the value in using a spatial simulation model to generate plausible silent-phase epidemics, against which detection surveillance programmes could be evaluated, in ways that would

  1. Budget impact analysis of a pneumococcal vaccination programme in the 65-year-old Spanish cohort using a dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the costs and clinical benefits of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administered annually to the 65-year-old cohort in Spain versus the alternative of not vaccinating patients and treating them only when infected. Methods Cases of pneumococcal disease avoided were calculated through a dynamic model based on the work of Anderson and May (1999). Sixty-six percent of the 65-year-old cohort was assumed to have been vaccinated with one PCV13 dose (304,492 subjects). Base-case estimated vaccine effectiveness and serotype coverage were 58% and 60%, respectively. Disease-related costs were calculated based on published data. Results Over the 5-year period, a total of 125,906 cases of pneumococcal disease would be avoided. Net savings of €102 million would be obtained. The cost-saving distribution was not homogeneous, starting in the 2nd year and increasing through the 5th. To demonstrate model robustness, an additional scenario analysis was performed using extreme values of model parameters (vaccination programme coverage, vaccine effectiveness, discount rate and disease costs). Under those scenarios, net savings were always achieved. Conclusions Based on the assumptions of the model, the 65-year-cohort pneumococcal vaccination campaign appears to be a cost-saving intervention in the Spanish population under different scenarios. PMID:23578307

  2. A model-based evaluation of the national immunization programme against rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, O. G.; Conyn-van Spaendonck, M. A.; Plantinga, A. D.; Kretzschmar, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the prevention of cases of congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands, in 1987 the selective vaccination strategy against rubella infection in girls was replaced by mass vaccination. This decision was supported by mathematical model analyses carried out by Van Druten and De Boo. In order to compare the predicted impact of the rubella vaccination programme with the current available data in more detail, a similar model was built. Although the model predicts elimination of the rubella virus, data show that virus circulation is still present at a higher level than expected by the model. Simulation studies indicate that import of infection and a lower vaccine effectiveness, related to possible asymptomatic reinfection of vaccinated people, could be sources contributing to the present virus circulation. Even though the number of infections is much higher than the number of reported cases of disease, limited serosurveillance data and case notification data show that females of childbearing age are well protected by immunization. PMID:10030716

  3. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  4. Organe der Osmoregulation und Exkretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    Die meisten Schädeltiere sind in der Lage, die Wasser- und Ionenkonzentration ihres Innenmilieus zu regulieren, sind also im Hinblick auf ihren Ionenhaushalt weitgehend unabhängig von der Umgebung. Sie halten die Konzentration von Wasser und anorganischen Ionen in ihren Körperflüssigkeiten (interstitielle Flüssigkeit und Blut) innerhalb enger Grenzen konstant (Osmoregulierer). Schleim aale (Myxinoida) können zwar die Konzentration einzelner anorganischer Ionen regulieren, sind aber insgesamt der hohen Osmolarität des Meerwassers angepasst, also isoosmostisch zu diesem. Isoosmotisch oder leic ht hyperosmostisch zur Umgebung sind auch marine Neoselachier und Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), die dazu organische Osmolyte (Harnstoff und Trimethylaminoxid) im Blut akkumulieren (Osmokonformer). Bei anderen aquatischen Schädeltieren sind die Körperflüssigkeiten zur Umgebung hypoosmotisch (im Meerwasser) — sie halten Wasser zurück und scheiden anorganiche Ionen aus — oder hyperosmotisch (im Süßwasser), indem sie Wasser abgeben und anorganische Ionen aufnehmen.

  5. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  6. The Potential Cost Effectiveness of Different Dengue Vaccination Programmes in Malaysia: A Value-Based Pricing Assessment Using Dynamic Transmission Mathematical Modelling.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Yeo, Hui Yee; Coudeville, Laurent; Steinberg, Lucas; Gill, Balvinder Singh; Jahis, Rohani; Amar-Singh Hss

    2017-05-01

    Dengue disease poses a great economic burden in Malaysia. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness and impact of dengue vaccination in Malaysia from both provider and societal perspectives using a dynamic transmission mathematical model. The model incorporated sensitivity analyses, Malaysia-specific data, evidence from recent phase III studies and pooled efficacy and long-term safety data to refine the estimates from previous published studies. Unit costs were valued in $US, year 2013 values. Six vaccination programmes employing a three-dose schedule were identified as the most likely programmes to be implemented. In all programmes, vaccination produced positive benefits expressed as reductions in dengue cases, dengue-related deaths, life-years lost, disability-adjusted life-years and dengue treatment costs. Instead of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), we evaluated the cost effectiveness of the programmes by calculating the threshold prices for a highly cost-effective strategy [ICER <1 × gross domestic product (GDP) per capita] and a cost-effective strategy (ICER between 1 and 3 × GDP per capita). We found that vaccination may be cost effective up to a price of $US32.39 for programme 6 (highly cost effective up to $US14.15) and up to a price of $US100.59 for programme 1 (highly cost effective up to $US47.96) from the provider perspective. The cost-effectiveness analysis is sensitive to under-reporting, vaccine protection duration and model time horizon. Routine vaccination for a population aged 13 years with a catch-up cohort aged 14-30 years in targeted hotspot areas appears to be the best-value strategy among those investigated. Dengue vaccination is a potentially good investment if the purchaser can negotiate a price at or below the cost-effective threshold price.

  7. Development of Children's Creative Visual Imagination: A Theoretical Model and Enhancement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedziewicz, Dorota; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical model of creative imagination and its applications in early education. The model sees creative imagination as composed of three inter-related components: vividness of images, their originality, and the level of transformation of imageries. We explore the theoretical and practical consequences of this new…

  8. Development of Children's Creative Visual Imagination: A Theoretical Model and Enhancement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedziewicz, Dorota; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical model of creative imagination and its applications in early education. The model sees creative imagination as composed of three inter-related components: vividness of images, their originality, and the level of transformation of imageries. We explore the theoretical and practical consequences of this new…

  9. An Unusually Effective School/University Programme: The Plymouth and Peninsula Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    la Velle, Linda; Reynolds, David; Nichol, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a novel UK school/university partnership, the "Plymouth Model" designed to encourage young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to aim for higher education (HE) study. The model incorporates the activity of university students, researchers and teachers working together to improve aspirations and outcomes for…

  10. A risk-adjusted financial model to estimate the cost of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy programme.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Tentzeris, Vasileios; Sandri, Alberto; McKenna, Alexandra; Liew, Shan Liung; Milton, Richard; Chaudhuri, Nilanjan; Kefaloyannis, Emmanuel; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2016-05-01

    To develop a clinically risk-adjusted financial model to estimate the cost associated with a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy programme. Prospectively collected data of 236 VATS lobectomy patients (August 2012-December 2013) were analysed retrospectively. Fixed and variable intraoperative and postoperative costs were retrieved from the Hospital Accounting Department. Baseline and surgical variables were tested for a possible association with total cost using a multivariable linear regression and bootstrap analyses. Costs were calculated in GBP and expressed in Euros (EUR:GBP exchange rate 1.4). The average total cost of a VATS lobectomy was €11 368 (range €6992-€62 535). Average intraoperative (including surgical and anaesthetic time, overhead, disposable materials) and postoperative costs [including ward stay, high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) and variable costs associated with management of complications] were €8226 (range €5656-€13 296) and €3029 (range €529-€51 970), respectively. The following variables remained reliably associated with total costs after linear regression analysis and bootstrap: carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity (DLCO) <60% predicted value (P = 0.02, bootstrap 63%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; P = 0.035, bootstrap 57%). The following model was developed to estimate the total costs: 10 523 + 1894 × COPD + 2376 × DLCO < 60%. The comparison between predicted and observed costs was repeated in 1000 bootstrapped samples to verify the stability of the model. The two values were not different (P > 0.05) in 86% of the samples. A hypothetical patient with COPD and DLCO less than 60% would cost €4270 more than a patient without COPD and with higher DLCO values (€14 793 vs €10 523). Risk-adjusting financial data can help estimate the total cost associated with VATS lobectomy based on clinical factors. This model can be used to audit the internal financial

  11. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rashed; Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region. Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM) (Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Multiscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry model, Community Earth System Model, and NorESM. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that convective scavenging outside the Arctic reduces the mean altitude of BC residing in the Arctic, making it more susceptible to scavenging by stratiform (layer) clouds in the Arctic. Consequently, scavenging of BC in convective clouds outside the Arctic acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform clouds, whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  12. Comparing patient care seeking pathways in three models of hospital and TB programme collaboration in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public hospitals in China play an important role in tuberculosis (TB) control. Three models of hospital and TB control exist in China. The dispensary model is the most common one in which a TB dispensary provides both clinical and public health care. The specialist model is similar to the former except that a specialist TB hospital is located in the same area. The specialist hospital should treat only complicated TB cases but it also treats simple cases in practice. The integrated model is a new development to integrate TB service in public hospitals. Patients were diagnosed, treated and followed up in this public hospital in this model while the TB dispensary provides public health service as case reporting and mass education. This study aims to compare patient care seeking pathways under the three models, and to provide policy recommendation for the TB control system reform in China. Methods Six sites, two in each model, were selected across four provinces, with 293 newly treated uncomplicated TB patients being randomly selected. Results The majority (68%) of TB patients were diagnosed in hospitals. Patients in the integrated model presented the simplest care seeking pathways, with the least number of providers visited (2.2), shortest treatment delays (2 days) and the least medical expenditure (2729RMB/401USD). On the contrary, patients in the specialist model had the highest number of provider visits (4), longest treatment delays (23 days) and the highest medical expenditure (11626RMB/1710USD). Logistic regression suggested that patients who were hospitalised tended to have longer treatment delays and higher medical expenditure. Conclusion Specialist hospital treating uncomplicated cases not using the standard regimens posed a threat to TB control. The integrated model has shortened patient treatment pathways, and reduced patient costs; therefore, it could be considered as the direction for future reform of China’s TB control system. PMID

  13. Dynamische Satzgenerierung und Sprachausgabe für einen mobilen Serviceroboter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlitz, Christopher; Amann, Bernd; Hägele, Martin

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung einer Sprachausgabe für ein mobiles Robotersystem. Dazu wurde zum einen ein auf die Anwendung zugeschittenes Text-To-Speech Verfahren und zum anderen eine Grammatik, die eine dynamische Satzgenerierung ermöglicht, implementiert. Die Verfahren arbeiten unabhängig voneinander und können daher auch gegen andere Komponenten ausgetauscht werden. Die Programme wurden als Client-Server Applikationen programmiert, um möglichst flexibel die Sprachausgabe einsetzen zu können.

  14. He Waka Tino Whakarawea: A Model for Evaluating the Cultural Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Programmes and Services for Maori Learners both with and without Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a waka tino whakarawea model for evaluating programmes and services for Maori learners. It is based on a set of underlying principles identified in the author's PhD study (Bevan-Brown, 2002). Explanations are provided for eight principles: kaupapa Maori; importance, relevance and beneficence; participation; empowerment,…

  15. Der Forschungsflughafen und das Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrtsysteme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Forschungsflughafen Aerodata Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt DLR VW Air Services TU Braunschweig Luftfahrt-Bundesamt LBA Deutscher Aeroclub... Aerodata - Weltmarktführer für Flight Inspection Systeme Flight Inspection - Flugvermessung

  16. [Vaccination programmes].

    PubMed

    Varela, M Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella.

  17. Modellierung und Simulation des Substrat-Rauschens in integrierten RF CMOS-Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Xiong, J.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Im integrierten CMOS-Schaltungsentwurf kann das Substrat-Rauschen, das vom digitalen Teil entsteht, die Funktionalität des analogen Teils stark beeinflussen. Es wird daher immer wichtiger, das Substrat als ein Medium der Rauschen-Propagation genau zu modellieren. Im vorliegenden Artikel wird ein auf der Finite Elemente Methode (FEM) und Modellordnungsreduktion (MOR) basiertes Modellierungsverfahren zur Admittanzen-Extraktion im Halbleitersubstrat vorgestellt. Nach der Diskretisierung mit FEM wird das Substrat im Allgemeinen als ein resistives/kapazitives Netz angesehen. Durch Bestimmung der Admittanz-Matrix und MOR ist es möglich ein äquivalentes Dreipol-Modell zwischen digitalem und analogem Teil über das Substrat zu bilden. Das Ergebnis der Modellierung wird dargestellt und mit numerischer Simulation des Substrat-Rauschens verglichen. Die Modellierung ermöglicht es, die Einflüsse des Substrat-Rauschens im Schaltungsentwurf zu berücksichtigen und so bestehende CMOS-Schaltungsarchitekturen zu optimieren.

  18. Petri net-based dependability modeling methodology for reconfigurable field programmable gate arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Rafał; Orleański, Piotr; Poźniak, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Dependability modeling is an important issue for aerospace and space equipment designers. From system level perspective, one has to choose from multitude of possible architectures, redundancy levels, component combinations in a way to meet desired properties and dependability and finally fit within required cost and time budgets. Modeling of such systems is getting harder as its levels of complexity grow together with demand for more functional and flexible, yet more available systems that govern more and more crucial parts of our civilization's infrastructure (aerospace transport systems, telecommunications, exploration probes). In this article promising method of modeling complex systems using Petri networks is introduced in context of qualitative and quantitative dependability analysis. This method, although with some limitation and drawback offer still convenient visual formal method of describing system behavior on different levels (functional, timing, random events) and offers straight correspondence to underlying mathematical engine, perfect for simulations and engineering support.

  19. A model to increase rehabilitation adherence to home exercise programmes in patients with varying levels of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Picha, Kelsey J; Howell, Dana M

    2017-04-12

    Patient adherence to rehabilitation programmes is frequently low - particularly adherence to home exercise programmes. Home exercise programmes have been identified as complementary to clinic-based physical therapy in an orthopaedic setting. Barriers to patient adherence have previously been identified within the literature. Low self-efficacy is a barrier to adherence that clinicians have the ability to have an impact on and improve. The theory of self-efficacy is defined as a person's confidence in their ability to perform a task. This theory examines the ability of a person to change through exerting control over inner processes of goal setting, self-monitoring, feedback, problem solving and self-evaluation. If clinicians are able to identify patients with low self-efficacy prior to the prescription of a home exercise programme, adjustments to individualized care can be implemented. Individualized care based on improving self-efficacy for home exercise programmes may improve patient adherence to these programmes. The purpose of this article was to use the theory of self-efficacy to direct clinicians in providing individualized programmes to patients with varying levels of self-efficacy.

  20. Investigating and Improving the Models of Programming Concepts Held by Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, L.; Ferguson, J.; Roper, M.; Wood, M.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of introductory computer programming seems far from successful, with many first-year students performing more poorly than expected. One possible reason for this is that novices hold "non-viable" mental models (internal explanations of how something works) of key programming concepts which then cause misconceptions and difficulties. An…

  1. ICT in EMI Programmes at Tertiary Level in Spain: A Holistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Nanclares, Nuria; Jimenez-Munoz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in Spain has increased the number of degrees taught through English, although secondary schools do not ensure an appropriate set of linguistic skills for bilingual degrees. A holistic, accountable model for Information and Communications Technology (ICT)-supported learning can give students the adequate…

  2. Entwicklung und Formulierung der Unternehmensstrategie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Thomas

    Ursprünglich stammt der Begriff "Strategie“ aus dem Altgriechischen: "strategos“ bedeutete "Heer“, "Heeresmacht“ und damit auch "konzentrierte Kraft“; das Wort "agein“ bedeutete "tun, machen, treiben“. Ein Stratege war also eine Person, die ein Heer führte und damit Kraft, Macht und Stärke konzentrierte und einsetzen konnte. Strategie bezeichnete dementsprechend die Maßnahmen, die in dieser Funktion entwickelt wurden. Daher ist es leicht verständlich, dass der Begriff Strategie bis in die Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts in erster Linie militärisch verstanden wurde. Anschließend wurde der Begriff in weiteren Bereichen, wie beispielsweise der Unternehmensführung, verwendet. Im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne bedeutet der Begriff Strategie die langfristig geplante Verhaltensweise eines Unternehmens zur Erreichung seiner Ziele.

  3. Grundlagen und Grundbegriffe der Messtechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Es ist eine wesentliche Aufgabe der Messtechnik, technische Vorgänge quantitativ zu erfassen und anhand der gemessenen Größen Funktionsabläufe zu steuern. Als Beispiel sei ein Kraftwerk zur Energieerzeugung genannt, bei dem nur über die Messung von Temperaturen, Leistungen, Drücken und anderen Größen Aussagen über den momentanen Zustand möglich sind und bei Abweichungen vom Sollwert geeignete Eingriffe in das System erfolgen können. Damit eine eindeutige Kommunikation möglich wird, sind die in der Messtechnik verwendeten Begriffe, Messverfahren und Maßeinheiten in entsprechenden Normen oder Vorschriften festgelegt.

  4. DIVWAG Model Documentation. Volume II. Programmer/Analyst Manual. Part 3. Chapter 7 Through 8.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    weapon types q carried by the same trans- port as weapon type i. The model utilizes Gauss -Legendre integration, the 10-point formula, to evaluate... Gauss -Legendre 10-point fohmula. he values of these parameters are specified in Equation IV-7-142e: w 1 0.295524225 ri = 0.148874339 w 2 - 0.269266719...firing of all transports within each unit. The true kill fractions are obtained by Gauss -Legendre inte- gration with the results given in Equation IV

  5. DIVWAG Model Documentation. Volume II. Programmer/Analyst Manual. Part 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    consumption of food and fuel along the move segment is recorded. b. Specific Model Design. This paragraph discusses the specific desgin aspects of the...may be used, but at least one table must be used. The decision tables are independent of the unit’s mobility category and other data necessary for the...the quadrature system is force independent . (2) Geographical Area (Columns 4-19). Enter maximum X and Y coordinates (not to exceed seven numerals for

  6. DIVWAG Model Documentation. Volume II. Programmer/Analyst Manual. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    personnel replacement. 3. FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS AND CAPABILITIES. Functionally the DIVWAG Model is a dual system; it functions physically ...units that are not performing another military activity such as firing, moving, or combat. Whether or not addressed by gamer orders, an inactive gamed...unit will consume classes I and III or IIIA supplies and can be assessed as to losses and status; other units can gain information about the inactive

  7. Patient-specific computer modelling of coronary bifurcation stenting: the John Doe programme.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Peter; Wentzel, Jolanda J; De Santis, Gianluca; Chiastra, Claudio; Migliavacca, Francesco; De Beule, Matthieu; Louvard, Yves; Dubini, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    John Doe, an 81-year-old patient with a significant distal left main (LM) stenosis, was treated using a provisional stenting approach. As part of an European Bifurcation Club (EBC) project, the complete stenting procedure was repeated using computational modelling. First, a tailored three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the bifurcation anatomy was created by fusion of multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging and intravascular ultrasound. Second, finite element analysis was employed to deploy and post-dilate the stent virtually within the generated patient-specific anatomical bifurcation model. Finally, blood flow was modelled using computational fluid dynamics. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of such patient-specific simulations for bifurcation stenting and has provided unique insights into the bifurcation anatomy, the technical aspects of LM bifurcation stenting, and the positive impact of adequate post-dilatation on blood flow patterns. Potential clinical applications such as virtual trials and preoperative planning seem feasible but require a thorough clinical validation of the predictive power of these computer simulations.

  8. Das Konstanzer Trainingsmodell (KTM) - Grundlagen und neue Entwicklungen (The Konstanz Training Model (KTM) -- Fundamental Principles and Recent Developments).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Hanns-Dietrich; Humpert, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes the Konstanz Training Model (KTM), a German primary and secondary preventive program that increases teacher self-competence and social competence in dealing with aggressive and disruptive student behaviors. Emphasizes KTM's focus on systemic aspects, cognitive level, and behavioral level approaches. Describes KTM Compact, a short term…

  9. Models and applications for measuring the impact of health research: update of a systematic review for the Health Technology Assessment programme.

    PubMed

    Raftery, James; Hanney, Steve; Greenhalgh, Trish; Glover, Matthew; Blatch-Jones, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme. We searched databases including Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and The Cochrane Library from January 2005 to August 2014. This narrative systematic literature review comprised an update, extension and analysis/discussion. We systematically searched eight databases, supplemented by personal knowledge, in August 2014 through to March 2015. The literature on impact assessment has much expanded. The Payback Framework, with adaptations, remains the most widely used approach. It draws on different philosophical traditions, enhancing an underlying logic model with an interpretative case study element and attention to context. Besides the logic model, other ideal type approaches included constructionist, realist, critical and performative. Most models in practice drew pragmatically on elements of several ideal types. Monetisation of impact, an increasingly popular approach, shows a high return from research but relies heavily on assumptions about the extent to which health gains depend on research. Despite usually requiring systematic reviews before funding trials, the HTA programme does not routinely examine the impact of those trials on subsequent systematic reviews. The York/Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation toolkits provide ways of assessing such impact, but need to be evaluated. The literature, as reviewed here, provides very few instances of a randomised trial

  10. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from −23% for sodium and −62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (−15 to −28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial

  11. Unfallaufnahme und Datenerhebung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brösdorf, Klaus-Dieter; Moser, Andreas; Burg, Jürgen

    Unfälle ereignen sich in unterschiedlichen Schweregraden. Man unterscheidet zwischen Unfälle mit nur Sachschaden und in Unfälle mit Personenschaden. Gemäß Statistik [1] machten in Deutschland im Jahr 2005 Unfälle mit Personenschaden (336.619) etwa 15 % der Gesamtanzahl der polizeilich erfassten Unfälle (2.253.992) aus. In den amtlichen Statistiken sind nur polizeilich erfasste Unfälle enthalten. Eine größere Zahl von Unfällen, insbesondere leichtere Unfälle, wird offensichtlich polizeilich nicht gemeldet. Mit den Daten der Versicherungswirtschaft wird die Anzahl der Kfz-Schäden pro Jahr in Deutschland mit 8.673.000 angegeben [2].

  12. Decision-making in healthcare: a practical application of partial least square path modelling to coverage of newborn screening programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Decision-making in healthcare is complex. Research on coverage decision-making has focused on comparative studies for several countries, statistical analyses for single decision-makers, the decision outcome and appraisal criteria. Accounting for decision processes extends the complexity, as they are multidimensional and process elements need to be regarded as latent constructs (composites) that are not observed directly. The objective of this study was to present a practical application of partial least square path modelling (PLS-PM) to evaluate how it offers a method for empirical analysis of decision-making in healthcare. Methods Empirical approaches that applied PLS-PM to decision-making in healthcare were identified through a systematic literature search. PLS-PM was used as an estimation technique for a structural equation model that specified hypotheses between the components of decision processes and the reasonableness of decision-making in terms of medical, economic and other ethical criteria. The model was estimated for a sample of 55 coverage decisions on the extension of newborn screening programmes in Europe. Results were evaluated by standard reliability and validity measures for PLS-PM. Results After modification by dropping two indicators that showed poor measures in the measurement models’ quality assessment and were not meaningful for newborn screening, the structural equation model estimation produced plausible results. The presence of three influences was supported: the links between both stakeholder participation or transparency and the reasonableness of decision-making; and the effect of transparency on the degree of scientific rigour of assessment. Reliable and valid measurement models were obtained to describe the composites of ‘transparency’, ‘participation’, ‘scientific rigour’ and ‘reasonableness’. Conclusions The structural equation model was among the first applications of PLS-PM to coverage decision

  13. Das Pinealorgan der Wirbeltiere: ein Modell für Untersuchungen von Rezeptor-und Effektormechanismen in neuronalen Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korf, Horst-W.; Wicht, Helmut

    1991-10-01

    Cell and molecular biological investigations have greatly contributed to our understanding of receptor and effector mechanisms in sensory, neuronal, and endocrine cells. A fascinating aspect of this line of research is how such mechanisms have evolved and how they interact with each other. As shown in this contribution, the vertebrate pineal organ is an interesting model to study these problems, because it undergoes a conspicuous transformation during phylogeny, comprises two well-chraracterized receptor mechanisms (photoreception and adrenoreception), and acts upon its targets via neuronal and neuroendocrine signals.

  14. Kernspaltung und Westintegration Beispiel österreich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Christian

    Während des Kalten Krieges erreichte in Europa sowohl die Verflechtung physikalischer Forschung mit Staat, Politik und Industrie als auch deren öffentliche Verhandlung und Bewertung eine qualitativ neuartige Dimension. Dieser Aspekt tritt am schärfsten in der Geschichte der Kernphysik und Kerntechnik hervor.

  15. Display system software for the integration of an ADAGE 3000 programmable display generator into the solid modeling package C.A.D. software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Lane, H. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A software system that integrates an ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator into a C.A.D. software package known as the Solid Modeling Program is described. The Solid Modeling Program (SMP) is an interactive program that is used to model complex solid object through the composition of primitive geomeentities. In addition, SMP provides extensive facilities for model editing and display. The ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator (PDG) is a color, raster scan, programmable display generator with a 32-bit bit-slice, bipolar microprocessor (BPS). The modularity of the system architecture and the width and speed of the system bus allow for additional co-processors in the system. These co-processors combine to provide efficient operations on and rendering of graphics entities. The resulting software system takes advantage of the graphics capabilities of the PDG in the operation of SMP by distributing its processing modules between the host and the PDG. Initially, the target host computer was a PRIME 850, which was later substituted with a VAX-11/785. Two versions of the software system were developed, a phase 1 and a phase 2. In phase 1, the ADAGE 3000 is used as a frame buffer. In phase II, SMP was functionally partitioned and some of its functions were implemented in the ADAGE 3000 by means of ADAGE's SOLID 3000 software package.

  16. Malaria intervention scale-up in Africa: effectiveness predictions for health programme planning tools, based on dynamic transmission modelling.

    PubMed

    Korenromp, Eline; Mahiané, Guy; Hamilton, Matthew; Pretorius, Carel; Cibulskis, Richard; Lauer, Jeremy; Smith, Thomas A; Briët, Olivier J T

    2016-08-18

    Scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment needs to continue to further important gains made in the past decade, but national strategies and budget allocations are not always evidence-based. Statistical models were developed summarizing dynamically simulated relations between increases in coverage and intervention impact, to inform a malaria module in the Spectrum health programme planning tool. The dynamic Plasmodium falciparum transmission model OpenMalaria was used to simulate health effects of scale-up of insecticide-treated net (ITN) usage, indoor residual spraying (IRS), management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CM) and seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC) over a 10-year horizon, over a range of settings with stable endemic malaria. Generalized linear regression models (GLMs) were used to summarize determinants of impact across a range of sub-Sahara African settings. Selected (best) GLMs explained 94-97 % of variation in simulated post-intervention parasite infection prevalence, 86-97 % of variation in case incidence (three age groups, three 3-year horizons), and 74-95 % of variation in malaria mortality. For any given effective population coverage, CM and ITNs were predicted to avert most prevalent infections, cases and deaths, with lower impacts for IRS, and impacts of SMC limited to young children reached. Proportional impacts were larger at lower endemicity, and (except for SMC) largest in low-endemic settings with little seasonality. Incremental health impacts for a given coverage increase started to diminish noticeably at above ~40 % coverage, while in high-endemic settings, CM and ITNs acted in synergy by lowering endemicity. Vector control and CM, by reducing endemicity and acquired immunity, entail a partial rebound in malaria mortality among people above 5 years of age from around 5-7 years following scale-up. SMC does not reduce endemicity, but slightly shifts malaria to older ages by reducing immunity in child cohorts reached. Health

  17. Epidemiologic programs for computers and calculators. Simple algorithms for the representation of deterministic and stochastic versions of the Reed-Frost epidemic model using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Franco, E L; Simons, A R

    1986-05-01

    Two programs are described for the emulation of the dynamics of Reed-Frost progressive epidemics in a handheld programmable calculator (HP-41C series). The programs provide a complete record of cases, susceptibles, and immunes at each epidemic period using either the deterministic formulation or the trough analogue of the mechanical model for the stochastic version. Both programs can compute epidemics that include a constant rate of influx or outflux of susceptibles and single or double infectivity time periods.

  18. Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a 'peer-training' model--results of the 'ABC for life' programme.

    PubMed

    Toner, P; Connolly, M; Laverty, L; McGrath, P; Connolly, D; McCluskey, D R

    2007-10-01

    The 'ABC for life' programme was designed to facilitate the wider dissemination of basic life support (BLS) skills and knowledge in the population. A previous study demonstrated that using this programme 10-12-year olds are capable of performing and retaining these vital skills when taught by medical students. There are approximately 25,000 year 7 school children in 900 primary schools in Northern Ireland. By using a pyramidal teaching approach involving medical students and teachers, there is the potential to train BLS to all of these children each year. To assess the effectiveness of a programme of CPR instruction using a three-tier training model in which medical students instruct primary school teachers who then teach school children. School children and teachers in the Western Education and Library Board in Northern Ireland. A course of instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--the 'ABC for life' programme--specifically designed to teach 10-12-year-old children basic life support skills. Medical students taught teachers from the Western Education and Library Board area of Northern Ireland how to teach basic life support skills to year 7 pupils in their schools. Pupils were given a 22-point questionnaire to assess knowledge of basic life support immediately before and after a teacher led training session. Children instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation using this three-tier training had a significantly improved score following training (57.2% and 77.7%, respectively, p<0.001). This study demonstrates that primary school teachers, previously trained by medical students, can teach BLS effectively to 10-12-year-old children using the 'ABC for life' programme.

  19. Markov model to forecast the change in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths during a control programme: a case study in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Montresor, Antonio; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Yajima, Aya; Lethanh, Nam; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Casey, Gerald J.; Tinh, Ta Thi; Engels, Dirk; Savioli, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background a mathematical model based on the Markov methodology to predict the change in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections during public health control activities is not available but would be an extremely efficient planning tool. Method we used the parasitological data collected during a deworming and iron supplementation programme for women of child-bearing age conducted in Vietnam between 2006 and 2011 to develop a Markov transition probability model. The transition probabilities were calculated from the observed changes in prevalence in the different classes of intensity for each STH species during the first year of intervention. The model was then developed and used to estimate the prevalence in year 2, 3, 4 and 5 for each STH species and for ‘any STH infection’. The prevalence predicted by the model was then compared with the prevalence observed at different times during programme implementation. Results The comparison between the model-predicted prevalence and the observed prevalence proved a good fit of the model. Conclusions We consider the Markov transition probability model to be a promising method of predicting changes in STH prevalence during control efforts. Further research to validate the model with observed data in different geographical and epidemiological settings is suggested to refine the prediction model. PMID:23471919

  20. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews.

    PubMed

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to 'think' conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions.

  1. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  2. Konfigurations- und Sicherheitsmanagement in heterogenen Verzeichnisdienstumgebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Pluta, Daniel

    In komplexen Umgebungen wie IntegraTUM reicht der Einsatz eines Verzeichnisdienstprodukts mit nur einer hochverfügbaren Instanz nicht aus. Vielmehr müssen, um ein möglichst breites Spektrum an Diensten integrieren zu können, beispielsweise Microsoft Active Directory, Novell eDirectory und OpenLDAP parallel und jeweils in verschiedenen Ausprägungen bereitgestellt und betrieben werden. Um dennoch Skalierbarkeit und ein effizientes operatives Management sicherstellen zu können, müssen Betriebs- und auch Sicherheitskonzepte systemübergreifend nachweislich konsistent umgesetzt werden. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die im Rahmen von IntegraTUM erarbeiteten und mit sehr gutem Erfolg praktisch eingesetzten Konzepte für das Konfigurations- und Sicherheitsmanagement der heterogenen Verzeichnisdienstlandschaft.

  3. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  4. Kosmologie und Teilchenphysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appenzeller, I.

    This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft und Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).

  5. Academic Civic Mindedness and Model Citizenship in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. Working Paper WR-1044-IBO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky

    2014-01-01

    Originally founded as a private means for diplomats' children to earn an internationally recognized high school diploma, today the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) serves students from a variety of backgrounds in 144 countries. The IB mission and Learner Profile--consisting of ten attributes to foster in students--suggest…

  6. Innovation and Alliances in International Management Programmes; Redefining and Extending the Model. The "Transcontinental Tracks" at Grenoble EM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patrick; Zahner, Martin; Silvestre, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative international management programme that has been developed across four countries for Master-level students. It first analyses the advantages and disadvantages of two of the most common forms of internationalisation in higher education; the student exchange and full-scale offshore…

  7. Academic Civic Mindedness and Model Citizenship in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. Working Paper WR-1044-IBO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky

    2014-01-01

    Originally founded as a private means for diplomats' children to earn an internationally recognized high school diploma, today the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) serves students from a variety of backgrounds in 144 countries. The IB mission and Learner Profile--consisting of ten attributes to foster in students--suggest…

  8. Innovation and Alliances in International Management Programmes; Redefining and Extending the Model. The "Transcontinental Tracks" at Grenoble EM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patrick; Zahner, Martin; Silvestre, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative international management programme that has been developed across four countries for Master-level students. It first analyses the advantages and disadvantages of two of the most common forms of internationalisation in higher education; the student exchange and full-scale offshore…

  9. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide

  10. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  11. Übergreifende Risiken und Unsicherheiten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    Inzwischen kann die Wissenschaft mit Klimamodellen künftige Entwicklungen und Gefährdungen durch den Klimawandel relativ gut projizieren. Doch das ist immer mit Unsicherheiten und Mehrdeutigkeiten verbunden, die Anlass für gesellschaftliche Debatten geben. Im Mittelpunkt dieses Kapitels steht daher die Frage, wie Individuen, Gesellschaften und die Weltgemeinschaft mit globalen Risiken umgehen sollen und wie sie die mit Risiko verknüpften Probleme von Komplexität, Unsicherheit und Mehrdeutigkeit angehen wollen. Zudem gilt es auszuhandeln, wie viel Aufmerksamkeit und wie viele Ressourcen eine Gesellschaft aufwenden soll, um das Risiko "Klimawandel" zu mindern, während noch viele andere, ebenso gravierende Risiken die Menschheit bedrohen.

  12. Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platts, Thomas

    Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten, im Folgenden auch als Verbundabdichtungen oder mit Kurzzeichen als AIV bezeichnet, haben sich in der Baupraxis insbesondere in Innenräumen wegen des vereinfachten konstruktiven Aufbaus gegenüber Bahnenabdichtungen nach DIN 18195-5 [14.1] in der Mehrzahl der Ausführungen durchgesetzt und bewährt. Sie können im Innen- und Außenbereich angeordnet werden und sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nutzschicht in Boden- und Wandbereichen im Dünnbettverfahren unmittelbar auf die Abdichtung aufgebracht wird. Aufwändige Zwischenschichten oder Einbauteile wie armierter Putz, Telleranker etc. entfallen (Bild 14.1) und es lassen sich geringere Aufbauhöhen realisieren.

  13. FAUST: Entwicklung von Fahrerassistenz- und autonomen Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareigis, Stephan; Schwarz, Bernd; Korf, Franz

    Der Beitrag beschreibt ein Ausbildungs- und Entwicklungsprojekt am Department Informatik der Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften (HAW) Hamburg. Auf verschiedenen Fahrzeugplattformen werden Fahrerassistenz- und autonome Systeme entwickelt. Die zu erarbeitenden Inhalte umfassen die Themen verteilte Echtzeitsysteme, Sensordatenverarbeitung und Bildverarbeitung. Aus didaktischer Sicht wird durch die geforderte Teamarbeit ein hohes Motivationspotential der Studierenden erreicht, durch das neben den technologischen Kenntnissen auch Softskills vermittelt werden.

  14. Didaktisch-methodisches Modell, Methode und methodisches Instrumentarium im Fremdsprachenunterricht (Pedagogical-Methodological Model, Method and Methodological Arsenal in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Klaus

    1975-01-01

    Concentrates on (1) an exposition of the categories "pedagogical-methodological model", "method", and "methodological arsenal" from the viewpoint of FL teaching; (2) clearing up the relation between the pedagogical-methodological model and teaching method; (3) explaining an example of the application of the categories mentioned. (Text is in…

  15. Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to ‘think’ conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. Methods and Findings In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Conclusions Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions. PMID:26575182

  16. Entwicklung und lmplementierung von Analysemethoden zum Erfassen vonGeschwindigkeitsfeldem mit dem PIV Verfahren (Development and Implementation of Analytical Methods for Detecting Velocity Fields using PIV- Method)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-26

    Particle-Image-Velocimetry 1 064nm beam dump 532nm output / Dielectric polarizer Doubling crystal Laser mirrors and plates Output couple Nd:YAG Rod...zuriickgesetzt. Der Anwender befindet sic :1 wieder an dem Funkt im Programm, nachdem er die Bildpaare eingelesen hatte. 5.2.3. Auswertung der Daten und

  17. Programmable 3D silk bone marrow niche for platelet generation ex vivo and modeling of megakaryopoiesis pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Di Buduo, Christian A.; Wray, Lindsay S.; Tozzi, Lorenzo; Malara, Alessandro; Chen, Ying; Ghezzi, Chiara E.; Smoot, Daniel; Sfara, Carla; Antonelli, Antonella; Spedden, Elise; Bruni, Giovanna; Staii, Cristian; De Marco, Luigi; Magnani, Mauro; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a programmable bioengineered 3-dimensional silk-based bone marrow niche tissue system that successfully mimics the physiology of human bone marrow environment allowing us to manufacture functional human platelets ex vivo. Using stem/progenitor cells, megakaryocyte function and platelet generation were recorded in response to variations in extracellular matrix components, surface topography, stiffness, coculture with endothelial cells, and shear forces. Millions of human platelets were produced and showed to be functional based on multiple activation tests. Using adult hematopoietic progenitor cells our system demonstrated the ability to reproduce key steps of thrombopoiesis, including alterations observed in diseased states. A critical feature of the system is the use of natural silk protein biomaterial allowing us to leverage its biocompatibility, nonthrombogenic features, programmable mechanical properties, and surface binding of cytokines, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial-derived proteins. This in turn offers new opportunities for the study of blood component production ex vivo and provides a superior tissue system for the study of pathologic mechanisms of human platelet production. PMID:25575540

  18. Dynamical and Mechanistic Reconstructive Approaches of T Lymphocyte Dynamics: Using Visual Modeling Languages to Bridge the Gap between Immunologists, Theoreticians, and Programmers.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Six, Adrien; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Bersini, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    Dynamic modeling of lymphocyte behavior has primarily been based on populations based differential equations or on cellular agents moving in space and interacting each other. The final steps of this modeling effort are expressed in a code written in a programing language. On account of the complete lack of standardization of the different steps to proceed, we have to deplore poor communication and sharing between experimentalists, theoreticians and programmers. The adoption of diagrammatic visual computer language should however greatly help the immunologists to better communicate, to more easily identify the models similarities and facilitate the reuse and extension of existing software models. Since immunologists often conceptualize the dynamical evolution of immune systems in terms of "state-transitions" of biological objects, we promote the use of unified modeling language (UML) state-transition diagram. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we present a UML refactoring of two published models on thymocyte differentiation. Originally built with different modeling strategies, a mathematical ordinary differential equation-based model and a cellular automata model, the two models are now in the same visual formalism and can be compared.

  19. Dynamical and Mechanistic Reconstructive Approaches of T Lymphocyte Dynamics: Using Visual Modeling Languages to Bridge the Gap between Immunologists, Theoreticians, and Programmers

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Six, Adrien; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Bersini, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of lymphocyte behavior has primarily been based on populations based differential equations or on cellular agents moving in space and interacting each other. The final steps of this modeling effort are expressed in a code written in a programing language. On account of the complete lack of standardization of the different steps to proceed, we have to deplore poor communication and sharing between experimentalists, theoreticians and programmers. The adoption of diagrammatic visual computer language should however greatly help the immunologists to better communicate, to more easily identify the models similarities and facilitate the reuse and extension of existing software models. Since immunologists often conceptualize the dynamical evolution of immune systems in terms of “state-transitions” of biological objects, we promote the use of unified modeling language (UML) state-transition diagram. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we present a UML refactoring of two published models on thymocyte differentiation. Originally built with different modeling strategies, a mathematical ordinary differential equation-based model and a cellular automata model, the two models are now in the same visual formalism and can be compared. PMID:24101919

  20. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  1. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  2. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  3. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  4. Ruhende Flüssigkeiten und Gase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Das mechanische Verhalten von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie keine statische Schubfestigkeit besitzen, andernfalls würden sie nicht beginnen, zu fließen. In ruhenden Flüssigkeiten und Gasen können daher keine Schubspannungen bestehen:

  5. Ton- und Bildübertragung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Stichworte zum Kapitel: Analoge Rundfunk-Stereoübertragung; Digitale Farbfernsehtechnik: Zielsetzung, Vorgaben, DVB-Projekt, MPEG-2 Standard, Redundanz- und Irrelevanzreduktion, Differenz-Pulsmodulation, Diskrete Kosinus-Transformation, Fehler-Erkennung und -Korrektur, Energieverwischung, 16-QAPSK-Modulation, Gleichwellennetz, Statistischer Multiplex, Daten zum DVB-T.

  6. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  7. Power estimation on functional level for programmable processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M.; Blume, H.; Noll, T. G.

    2004-05-01

    In diesem Beitrag werden verschiedene Ansätze zur Verlustleistungsschätzung von programmierbaren Prozessoren vorgestellt und bezüglich ihrer Übertragbarkeit auf moderne Prozessor-Architekturen wie beispielsweise Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW)-Architekturen bewertet. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf dem Konzept der sogenannten Functional-Level Power Analysis (FLPA). Dieser Ansatz basiert auf der Einteilung der Prozessor-Architektur in funktionale Blöcke wie beispielsweise Processing-Unit, Clock-Netzwerk, interner Speicher und andere. Die Verlustleistungsaufnahme dieser Bl¨ocke wird parameterabhängig durch arithmetische Modellfunktionen beschrieben. Durch automatisierte Analyse von Assemblercodes des zu schätzenden Systems mittels eines Parsers können die Eingangsparameter wie beispielsweise der erzielte Parallelitätsgrad oder die Art des Speicherzugriffs gewonnen werden. Dieser Ansatz wird am Beispiel zweier moderner digitaler Signalprozessoren durch eine Vielzahl von Basis-Algorithmen der digitalen Signalverarbeitung evaluiert. Die ermittelten Schätzwerte für die einzelnen Algorithmen werden dabei mit physikalisch gemessenen Werten verglichen. Es ergibt sich ein sehr kleiner maximaler Schätzfehler von 3%. In this contribution different approaches for power estimation for programmable processors are presented and evaluated concerning their capability to be applied to modern digital signal processor architectures like e.g. Very Long InstructionWord (VLIW) -architectures. Special emphasis will be laid on the concept of so-called Functional-Level Power Analysis (FLPA). This approach is based on the separation of the processor architecture into functional blocks like e.g. processing unit, clock network, internal memory and others. The power consumption of these blocks is described by parameter dependent arithmetic model functions. By application of a parser based automized analysis of assembler codes of the systems to be estimated the input

  8. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  9. A leadership programme for critical care.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Linda

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the genesis, design and implementation of a leadership programme for critical care. This was an initiative funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Nursing Leadership Project and had at the core of its design flexibility to meet the needs of the individual hospitals, which took part in it. Participation was from the multi-disciplinary critical care team. Six NHS hospitals took part in the programme which was of 20 days duration and took place on hospital sites. The programme used the leadership model of as its template and had a number of distinct components; a baseline assessment, personal development, principles of leadership and critical case reviews. The programme was underpinned by three themes; working effectively in multi-professional teams to provide patient focussed care, managing change through effective leadership and developing the virtual critical care service. Each group set objectives pertinent to their own organisation's needs. The programme was evaluated by a self-reporting questionnaire; group feedback and feedback from stakeholders. Programme evaluation was positive from all the hospitals but it was clear that the impact of the programme varied considerably between the groups who took part. It was noted that there was some correlation between the success of the programme and organisational 'buy in' as well as the organisational culture within which the participants operated. A key feature of the programme success was the critical case reviews, which were considered to be a powerful learning tool and medium for group learning and change management.

  10. Coeur en santé St-Henri--a heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada: theoretical model and early field experience.

    PubMed

    Paradis, G; O'Loughlin, J; Elliott, M; Masson, P; Renaud, L; Sacks-Silver, G; Lampron, G

    1995-10-01

    Coeur en santé St-Henri is a five year, community based, multifactorial, heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada. The objectives of this programme are to improve heart-healthy behaviours among adults of St-Henri. This paper describes the theoretical model underlying programme development as well as our early field experience implementing interventions. The design of the intervention programme is based on a behaviour change model adapted from social learning theory, the reasoned action model, and the precede-proceed model. The Ottawa charter for health promotion provided the framework for the development of specific interventions. Each intervention is submitted to formative, implementation, and impact evaluations using simple and inexpensive methods. The target population consists of adults living in St-Henri, a neighbourhood of 23,360 residents. Because of costs constraints, the intervention strategy targets women more specifically. The community is one of the poorest in Canada with 46% of the population living below the poverty line and 20% being very poor. The age-sex adjusted ischaemic heart disease mortality in 1985-87 was 317 per 100,000 compared with 126 per 100,000 in an affluent adjacent neighbourhood. Thirty nine distinct interventions have been developed and tested in the community, eight related to tobacco, 10 to diet, seven to physical activity, and 14 which are multifactorial. The interventions include smoking cessation and healthy recipes contests, a menu labelling and healthy food discount programme in restaurants, a point of choice nutrition education campaign, healthy eating and smoking cessation workshops, a walking club, educational material, print and electronic media campaigns, heart health fairs, and community events. An integrated heart health promotion programme is feasible in low income urban neighbourhoods but not all interventions are successful. Such a programme requires

  11. Coeur en santé St-Henri--a heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada: theoretical model and early field experience.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, G; O'Loughlin, J; Elliott, M; Masson, P; Renaud, L; Sacks-Silver, G; Lampron, G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Coeur en santé St-Henri is a five year, community based, multifactorial, heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada. The objectives of this programme are to improve heart-healthy behaviours among adults of St-Henri. This paper describes the theoretical model underlying programme development as well as our early field experience implementing interventions. DESIGN--The design of the intervention programme is based on a behaviour change model adapted from social learning theory, the reasoned action model, and the precede-proceed model. The Ottawa charter for health promotion provided the framework for the development of specific interventions. Each intervention is submitted to formative, implementation, and impact evaluations using simple and inexpensive methods. PARTICIPANTS--The target population consists of adults living in St-Henri, a neighbourhood of 23,360 residents. Because of costs constraints, the intervention strategy targets women more specifically. The community is one of the poorest in Canada with 46% of the population living below the poverty line and 20% being very poor. The age-sex adjusted ischaemic heart disease mortality in 1985-87 was 317 per 100,000 compared with 126 per 100,000 in an affluent adjacent neighbourhood. RESULTS--Thirty nine distinct interventions have been developed and tested in the community, eight related to tobacco, 10 to diet, seven to physical activity, and 14 which are multifactorial. The interventions include smoking cessation and healthy recipes contests, a menu labelling and healthy food discount programme in restaurants, a point of choice nutrition education campaign, healthy eating and smoking cessation workshops, a walking club, educational material, print and electronic media campaigns, heart health fairs, and community events. CONCLUSION--An integrated heart health promotion programme is feasible in low income urban neighbourhoods but not all

  12. Programmer/Analyst Guide for the Army Unit Resiliency Analysis (AURA) computer Simulation Model. Volume 1. AURA Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Combat model Optimization Unit Analysis 170C CD Effectiveness Lethality Chemical Model Nuclear model 1.PIECD 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY... Chemical Lethality Model ................................................................. 112 a. Triggering a Toxic Scenario...112 b. Overview of the Chemical Lethality Model .................................. 112 (1) Inputs

  13. A 5-year Chlamydia vaccination programme could reverse disease-related koala population decline: predictions from a mathematical model using field data.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew P; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Ellis, William A H; Callaghan, John; Dexter, Cathryn; Jones, Darryl; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Wilson, David P

    2014-07-16

    Many koala populations around Australia are in serious decline, with a substantial component of this decline in some Southeast Queensland populations attributed to the impact of Chlamydia. A Chlamydia vaccine for koalas is in development and has shown promise in early trials. This study contributes to implementation preparedness by simulating vaccination strategies designed to reverse population decline and by identifying which age and sex category it would be most effective to target. We used field data to inform the development and parameterisation of an individual-based stochastic simulation model of a koala population endemic with Chlamydia. The model took into account transmission, morbidity and mortality caused by Chlamydia infections. We calibrated the model to characteristics of typical Southeast Queensland koala populations. As there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the vaccine in real-world settings, a variety of potential vaccine efficacies, half-lives and dosing schedules were simulated. Assuming other threats remain constant, it is expected that current population declines could be reversed in around 5-6 years if female koalas aged 1-2 years are targeted, average vaccine protective efficacy is 75%, and vaccine coverage is around 10% per year. At lower vaccine efficacies the immunological effects of boosting become important: at 45% vaccine efficacy population decline is predicted to reverse in 6 years under optimistic boosting assumptions but in 9 years under pessimistic boosting assumptions. Terminating a successful vaccination programme at 5 years would lead to a rise in Chlamydia prevalence towards pre-vaccination levels. For a range of vaccine efficacy levels it is projected that population decline due to endemic Chlamydia can be reversed under realistic dosing schedules, potentially in just 5 years. However, a vaccination programme might need to continue indefinitely in order to maintain Chlamydia prevalence at a sufficiently low level

  14. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-11-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection.

  15. Dentalwerkstoffe und Dentalimplantate - Teil 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltermeier, Andreas

    Wie in allen Bereichen der Medizin findet auch in der Zahnmedizin eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung der verwendeten Werkstoffe statt. Gerade für Zahnersatz werden Werkstoffe gesucht, die zum einen ästhetisch, zum anderen haltbar und darüber hinaus auch körperverträglich sind. Auch steigt immer mehr der Wunsch der Patienten nach ästhetischen und zugleich biokompatiblen Materialien. Wurde früher fast ausschließlich als Füllungsmaterial im Seitenzahngebiet quecksilberhaltiges Amalgam verwendet, hat der Zahnarzt heutzutage eine große Auswahl an verschiedenen zahnfarbenen Materialien: zum einen werden sog. Komposite verwendet, das aus einer Polymermatrix mit eingebetteten Füllstoffen besteht, zum anderen können diverse Dentalkeramiken verwendet werden. Besonders die Verwendung von Hochleistungskeramiken, wie beispielsweise Zirkonoxid, das sich bereits als Bremsscheiben für Sportwägen, Hitzeschilde im Space Shuttle und als Kugelköpfe künstlicher Hüftgelenke bewährt hat, spielt heutzutage eine große Rolle bei der Verdrängung des Metalls aus der Mundhöhle. War es früher nur möglich, einen verloren gegangen Zahn mittels einer Brücke, die ein Beschleifen der Nachbarzähne zur Folge hat, oder durch herausnehmbaren Zahnersatz zu ersetzen, ist es heutzutage mit der modernen Implantologie möglich, Zahnersatz zahnschonend einzugliedern. Auch kann mittels Dentalimplantaten dem Wunsch vieler Patienten nach festem Zahnersatz anstelle eines herausnehmbaren Zahnersatzes entsprochen werden. So kann mit Hilfe neuer biokompatiblen Werkstoffe sowohl der ästhetische Anspruch befriedigt als auch das Selbstwertgefühl vieler Patienten angehoben werden.

  16. Aufbau und Anpassung der Motorsteuerungs-Software für Otto- und Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhler, Harald; Ricken, Volker; Diener, René

    Die Erfüllung steigender Kundenansprüche und strenger gesetzlicher Vorgaben hinsichtlich der Verringerung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, der Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit, Fahrleistung und Fahrkomfort ist untrennbar mit dem Einzug elektronischer Systeme in moderne Kraftfahrzeuge verbunden. Die elektronischen Systeme bestimmen zunehmend den Kundennutzen und werden für die Differenzierung der Automobilhersteller untereinander immer wichtiger. Daher sind sie ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor moderner Kraftfahrzeuge.

  17. Assessment of the population-level effectiveness of the Avahan HIV-prevention programme in South India: a preplanned, causal-pathway-based modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Michael; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Lowndes, Catherine M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Deering, Kathleen N; Bradley, Janet; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Avahan, the India AIDS initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, was a large-scale, targeted HIV prevention intervention. We aimed to assess its overall effectiveness by estimating the number and proportion of HIV infections averted across Avahan districts, following the causal pathway of the intervention. We created a mathematical model of HIV transmission in high-risk groups and the general population using data from serial cross-sectional surveys (integrated behavioural and biological assessments, IBBAs) within a Bayesian framework, which we used to reproduce HIV prevalence trends in female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and the general population in 24 South Indian districts over the first 4 years (2004-07 or 2005-08 dependent on the district) and the full 10 years (2004-13) of the Avahan programme. We tested whether these prevalence trends were more consistent with self-reported increases in consistent condom use after the implementation of Avahan or with a counterfactual (assuming consistent condom use increased at slower, pre-Avahan rates) using a Bayes factor, which gave a measure of the strength of evidence for the effectiveness estimates. Using regression analysis, we extrapolated the prevention effect in the districts covered by IBBAs to all 69 Avahan districts. In 13 of 24 IBBA districts, modelling suggested medium to strong evidence for the large self-reported increase in consistent condom use since Avahan implementation. In the remaining 11 IBBA districts, the evidence was weaker, with consistent condom use generally already high before Avahan began. Roughly 32700 HIV infections (95% credibility interval 17900-61600) were averted over the first 4 years of the programme in the IBBA districts with moderate to strong evidence. Addition of the districts with weaker evidence increased this total to 62800 (32000-118000) averted infections, and extrapolation suggested that 202000 (98300-407000) infections were averted

  18. 'Many voices, one song': a model for an oral health programme as a first step in establishing a health promoting school.

    PubMed

    Macnab, Andrew; Kasangaki, Arabat

    2012-03-01

    Four health promoting (HP) schools were established in rural communities in Uganda by a joint Ugandan/Canadian university team. The model was based on a successful Canadian health promotion initiative designed to address poor oral health in Aboriginal children in rural and remote communities. Careful situation analysis, orientation of partner schools and collaborative development of educational materials and evaluation methodology preceded implementation. The intervention had three elements: inclusion of health topics by teachers in regular classroom activities; health education delivered by the university team to reinforce key educational concepts; and daily in-school tooth brushing to develop healthy practices. All children entering Grade 1 at four schools were recruited for 4 years; evaluation included year 1 pre-intervention and annual end-of-year data collection of quantitative and qualitative measures. Principal findings at 4 years included: an increase from baseline in the original cohort (n = 600) in those brushing at least once daily (p < 0.05) and before bed (p < 0.05); improved oral health (less 'bad breath', pain and absences for emergency dental treatment); more comprehensive health knowledge. Other positive observations were change in the schools' health culture; children sharing new health knowledge and advocating for health practices learned; and evolution of health promotion activity to address other community-identified issues following success with the initial oral health component. University faculty and students learned from participation in programme delivery and community-based educational opportunities. School-based health promotion using this oral health model was readily accepted, implemented, sustained and evaluated; all communities took ownership, and all schools continue their programmes. Addressing oral health through HP schools is novel in Africa, and several lessons learned are of potential value for similar health promotion

  19. Systemlieferant und OEM Hersteller für die Medizintechnik und Pharmabranche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Thomas; Reichenberger, Robert

    Unter einem Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) versteht man einen Hersteller fertiger Komponenten oder Produkte, der diese in seinen eigenen Produktionsfabriken produziert, sie aber anschließend nicht selbst in den Handel bringt. Die Anforderungen an einen OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche sind weitaus komplexer und umfangreicher als in anderen Branchen. Diese zusätzlichen Anforderungen haben schließlich auch ihre Berechtigung, da es letztendlich immer um die Gesundheit und das Leben von Menschen geht. Ein OEM muss neben der heute immer stärker geforderten Flexibilität, Schnelligkeit und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sämtliche für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche erforderlichen Qualitäts- und Prozesssicherheitskriterien erfüllen. Entsprechende Nachweise sind durch regelmäßige Kunden- und Überwachungsaudits zu erbringen. Das Arbeitsumfeld eines OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche bezieht sich somit nicht nur auf die Herstellung der Produkte für seine Kunden, sondern auch auf die Einhaltung sämtlicher Normen, Sicherheitskriterien, regulatorischen Voraussetzungen und Gesetze die zur Herstellung der Produkte notwendig sind.

  20. “Broadband” Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Chimusa, Emile R.; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-01-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The “omics” fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection. PMID:26583922

  1. PCR und Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Regina; Busch, Ulrich

    Die vielfältigen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Polymerasekettenreaktion (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) machen sie zu einer der wichtigsten und am häufigsten eingesetzten Methoden in der molekularbiologischen Forschung und Diagnostik. Für diese Technologie wurde der Erfinder der Methode, Kary Mullis, 1993 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Die PCR erlaubt einen hochsensitiven und spezifischen in-vitro-Nachweis von Desoxyribonukleinsäuren (DNA), da im Zuge der Reaktion Sequenzabschnitte gezielt vermehrt werden. Innerhalb weniger Stunden können aus einem einzigen Zielmolekül 1012 identische Moleküle entstehen [1].

  2. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  3. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3): Multi-Model Dataset Archive at PCMDI (Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In response to a proposed activity of the WCRP's Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM),PCMDI volunteered to collect model output contributed by leading modeling centers around the world. Climate model output from simulations of the past, present and future climate was collected by PCMDI mostly during the years 2005 and 2006, and this archived data constitutes phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3). In part, the WGCM organized this activity to enable those outside the major modeling centers to perform research of relevance to climate scientists preparing the Fourth Asssessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Program to assess scientific information on climate change. The IPCC publishes reports that summarize the state of the science. This unprecedented collection of recent model output is officially known as the WCRP CMIP3 multi-model dataset. It is meant to serve IPCC's Working Group 1, which focuses on the physical climate system - atmosphere, land surface, ocean and sea ice - and the choice of variables archived at the PCMDI reflects this focus. A more comprehensive set of output for a given model may be available from the modeling center that produced it. As of November 2007, over 35 terabytes of data were in the archive and over 303 terabytes of data had been downloaded among the more than 1200 registered users. Over 250 journal articles, based at least in part on the dataset, have been published or have been accepted for peer-reviewed publication. Countries from which models have been gathered include Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany and Korea, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Great Britain and the United States. Models, variables, and documentation are collected and stored. Check http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ipcc/data_status_tables.htm to see at a glance the output that is available

  4. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  5. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  6. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  7. D Recording, Modelling and Visualisation of the Fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (norway) by Photogrammetric Methods and Terrestrial Laser Scanning in the Framework of Erasmus Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Lindstaedt, M.; Maziull, L.; Schreyer, K.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Holm, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution the 3D recording, 3D modelling and 3D visualisation of the fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (Norway) by digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning are presented. The fortification Kristiansten was built after the large city fire in the year 1681 above the city and has been a museum since 1997. The recording of the fortress took place in each case at the end of August/at the beginning of September 2010 and 2011 during two two-week summer schools with the topic "Digital Photogrammetry & Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Cultural Heritage Documentation" at NTNU Trondheim with international students in the context of ERASMUS teaching programs. For data acquisition, a terrestrial laser scanner and digital SLR cameras were used. The establishment of a geodetic 3D network, which was later transformed into the Norwegian UTM coordinate system using control points, ensured a consistent registration of the scans and an orientation of the photogrammetric images. The fortress buildings were constructed in detail from photogrammetric photographs and point clouds using AutoCAD, while the fortress area and walls were modelled by triangle meshing in Geomagic. The visualisation of the fortress was carried out 2013 with the software Cinema 4D in the context of a lecture in the Master study programme Geomatics. The 3D model was textured and afterwards presented in a video. This 3D model was finally transferred into the game engine Unity for an interactive 3D visualisation on 3D monitors.

  8. Factor analytic and reduced animal models for the investigation of additive genotype-by-environment interaction in outcrossing plant species with application to a Pinus radiata breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Cullis, Brian R; Jefferson, Paul; Thompson, Robin; Smith, Alison B

    2014-10-01

    Modelling additive genotype-by-environment interaction is best achieved with the use of factor analytic models. With numerous environments and for outcrossing plant species, computation is facilitated using reduced animal models. The development of efficient plant breeding strategies requires a knowledge of the magnitude and structure of genotype-by-environment interaction. This information can be obtained from appropriate linear mixed model analyses of phenotypic data from multi-environment trials. The use of factor analytic models for genotype-by-environment effects is known to provide a reliable, parsimonious and holistic approach for obtaining estimates of genetic correlations between all pairs of trials. When breeding for outcrossing species the focus is on estimating additive genetic correlations and effects which is achieved by including pedigree information in the analysis. The use of factor analytic models in this setting may be computationally prohibitive when the number of environments is moderate to large. In this paper, we present an approach that uses an approximate reduced animal model to overcome the computational issues associated with factor analytic models for additive genotype-by-environment effects. The approach is illustrated using a Pinus radiata breeding dataset involving 77 trials, located in environments across New Zealand and south eastern Australia, and with pedigree information on 315,581 trees. Using this approach we demonstrate the existence of substantial additive genotype-by-environment interaction for the trait of stem diameter measured at breast height. This finding has potentially significant implications for both breeding and deployment strategies. Although our approach has been developed for forest tree breeding programmes, it is directly applicable for other outcrossing plant species, including sugarcane, maize and numerous horticultural crops.

  9. Lektine, Toxine und Immunotoxine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbruck, Gerhard

    1981-12-01

    A definition and classification of lectins (carbohydrate-binding (glyco)proteins) is given on the basis of new data and experimental results. Especially the biological role of bacterial, vertebrate and sponge lectins is discussed. The lectin-toxin combination offers an excellent model not only for studying adhesion to and penetration through the cell membrane, but also for hybridization with antibody fragments showing anti-tumor specificity.

  10. Can needle and syringe programmes and opiate substitution therapy achieve substantial reductions in hepatitis C virus prevalence? Model projections for different epidemic settings.

    PubMed

    Vickerman, Peter; Martin, Natasha; Turner, Katy; Hickman, Matthew

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the impact of scaling-up opiate substitution therapy (OST) and high coverage needle and syringe programmes (100%NSP-obtaining more sterile syringes than you inject) on HCV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs). Hepatitis C virus HCV transmission modelling using U.K. estimates for effect of OST and 100%NSP on individual risk of HCV infection. Range of chronic HCV prevalent (20/40/60%) settings with no OST/100%NSP, and U.K. setting with 50% coverage of both OST and 100%NSP. Injecting drug users. Decrease in HCV prevalence after 5-20 years due to scale-up of OST and 100%NSP to 20/40/60% coverage in no OST/100%NSP settings, or from 50% to 60/70/80% coverage in the U.K. setting. For 40% chronic HCV prevalence, scaling-up OST and 100%NSP from 0% to 20% coverage reduces HCV prevalence by 13% after 10 years. This increases to a 24/33% relative reduction at 40/60% coverage. Marginally less impact occurs in higher prevalence settings over 10 years, but this becomes more pronounced over time. In the United Kingdom, without current coverage levels of OST and 100%NSP the chronic HCV prevalence could be 65% instead of 40%. However, increasing OST and 100%NSP coverage further is unlikely to reduce chronic prevalence to less than 30% over 10 years unless coverage becomes ≥80%. Scaling-up opiate substitution therapy and high coverage needle and syringe programmes can reduce hepatitis C prevalence among injecting drug users, but reductions can be modest and require long-term sustained intervention coverage. In high coverage settings, other interventions are needed to further decrease hepatitis C prevalence. In low coverage settings, sustained scale-up of both interventions is needed. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  12. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Outreach

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Federalism and Tribal consultation efforts related to the Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS) and links to copies of each presentation, both to state and local representatives, as well as federally-recognized tribes.

  13. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  14. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  15. Aufruf und Wertübergaben zwischen Bausteinen nach IEC 61131-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellenreuther, Günter; Zastrow, Dieter

    Das Anwenderprogramm einer SPS hat einen hierarchischen Aufbau. An oberster Stelle steht ein Baustein des Typs Programm (P), dessen Deklaration und Gebrauch identisch ist mit denen der bereits beschriebenen Funktionsbausteine, jedoch mit den begrenzenden Schlüsselwörtern PROGRAM … END_PROGRAM. In diesem Baustein können Instanzen von Funktionsbausteinen (FB) sowie Funktionen (FC) aufgerufen werden. An mittlerer Stelle stehen die Bausteine des Typs Funktionsbaustein (FB). Innerhalb eines Funktionsbausteins können Instanzen anderer Funktionsbausteine oder auch Funktionen (FC) aufgerufen werden. An unterster Stelle stehen die Bausteine vom Typ Funktionen (FC). Innerhalb einer Funktion können andere Funktionen (FC) aufgerufen werden.

  16. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  17. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  18. What Role for Developmental Theories in Mathematics Study Programmes in French-Speaking Belgium? An Analysis of the Geometry Curriculum's Aspects, Framed by Van Hiele's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duroisin, Natacha; Demeuse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    One possible way of evaluating set curricula is to examine the consistency of study programmes with students' psycho-cognitive development. Three theories were used to evaluate matching between developmental theories and content proposed in the mathematics programmes (geometry section) for primary and the beginning of secondary education. These…

  19. Hobeln und Stoßen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böge, Wolfgang

    Im Gegensatz zum Drehen ist die Schnittbewegung bei Maschinen mit hin- und hergehender Bewegung nicht gleichförmig (Hobel-, Stoß- und Räummaschinen). Die mittlere Rücklaufgeschwindigkeit v mr ist meist größer als die mittlere Geschwindigkeit beim Arbeitshub v ma , z. B. beim Antrieb durch die schwingende Kurbelschleife ({v}_{m}\\colon{v}_{ma} etwa 1,4-1,8).

  20. Kostenüberwachung und Wirtschaftlichkeitsrechnung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jürgen

    Die ERP-Produktkalkulation erfolgt auf der Basis des Mengen- und Wertgerüsts der Produktionsprozesse. Sie greift dabei auf die Stammdaten (Materialstamm, Arbeitsplätze, Arbeitspläne, Stücklisten) zu. Basis ist die übliche Industriekalkulation in der Form einer Zuschlagskalkulation, ergänzt durch Platzkostensätze der Maschinen und Arbeitsplätze (siehe Teil ).

  1. Positionsbestimmung des Unternehmens: Interne und externe Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Portmann, Stefan

    Die Initiierung und Lenkung von Maßnahmen zur integrierten Modernisierung zielen auf die Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens ab. Damit diese Maßnahmen zielgerichtet die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verbessern können, ist Wissen über die bestehende Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sowie über die bestehenden Fähigkeiten eine zentrale Voraussetzung. Eine zielgerichtete Auswahl problemadäquater Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit bedarf daher im Vorfeld einer Bewertung der aktuellen Situation des Unternehmens im Sinne einer Positionsbestimmung. Erst wenn die internen Stärken und Schwächen sowie die externen Chancen und Risiken identifiziert sind, kann ein ganzheitliches Bild von der Position eines Unternehmens in seiner Umwelt gewonnen werden. Auf Basis der Kenntnisse über die Position des Unternehmens können anschließend zielgerichtet Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, die einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens haben. Damit kommt der Positionsbestimmung als initialer Schritt des Prozesses der strategischen Unternehmensplanung eine zentrale Bedeutung im Rahmen der integrierten Modernisierung zu. Erfolgt die Auswahl von Maßnahmen ohne eine vorherige Positionsbestimmung, also lediglich auf Basis drängender Probleme, so besteht die Gefahr einer unbedachten und nur auf das "hier und heute“ bezogenen Schwerpunktbildung ohne Berücksichtigung der mittel- und langfristigen Ziele des Unternehmens.

  2. Aus Wirtschaft und Betrieb. Biomasse: Gewinnung und Verarbeitung mit Profilschal-maschinen

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1977-01-01

    1963 wurden in den Südstaaten der USA nur 30% der oberund unterirdischen Biomasse der geernteten sog. Southern pines für Schnittholz und Zellstoff verwertet bzw. als getrockneies, gehobletes und abgelängtes Schnittholz oder als Kraftpapier verkauft. Keine der zusammen mit den Kiefern vorkommenden Laubholzarten wurde bisher in nennenswertem Umfan verwertet. Auch heute...

  3. Ein mobiler und offener Kernspintomograph: Kernspintomographie für Medizin und Materialforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Kölker, Christian; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Felder, Jörg

    2005-09-01

    An der RWTH Aachen wurde der erste offene und mobile Kernspintomograph entwickelt. Anders als die normalerweise riesigen und unbeweglichen Geräte besitzt er keine enge Magnetröhre. So kann er auch in große Untersuchungsobjekte hinein schauen, ohne dass diese zerstört werden müssen. Wie eine Lupe erfasst er dabei ein begrenztes Volumen um den Aufsatzpunkt herum. Neben der Medizin ermöglicht der offene Tomograph viele neue Anwendungsgebiete, vor allem in der Materialprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle. Der Aachener Prototyp kann auch das Fließprofil und die Geschwindigkeitsverteilung strömender Flüssigkeiten sichtbar machen. Sein offenes Prinzip erforderte neue technische Komponenten und modifizierte bildgebende Verfahren. Die Messzeit pro Bild kann heute schon unter einer Viertelstunde liegen.

  4. Das Assessment von Vulnerabilitäten, Risiken und Unsicherheiten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Jörn; Greiving, Stefan; Serdeczny, Olivia Maria

    Die Risiken und möglichen Folgen des Klimawandels für Menschen, Produktions- und Ökosysteme sind eng mit sozioökonomischen Entwicklungen und Rahmenbedingungen verflochten. Die Schlüsselbegriffe "Vulnerabilität", "Risiko" und "Unsicherheit" werden näher beleuchtet, um u. a. deutlich zu machen, wie sie im neueren Risikoansatz des Fünften Sachstandsberichts (AR5) des Weltklimarats (IPCC) genutzt werden. Das Risikokonzept wird vom Vulnerabilitätskonzept unterschieden. In den Fokus rückt die Betrachtung von Gefahr und Exposition. Auch die Frage, was unter Unsicherheit und Bandbreiten möglicher Entwicklungen des Klimas und sogenannter sozioökonomischer Entwicklungspfade zu verstehen ist, spielt dabei eine wichtige Rolle. Bisherige Untersuchungsmethoden zu Risiken im Kontext des Klimawandels und darauf aufbauende Entscheidungsprozesse werden im Hinblick auf künftige Anpassungsmaßnahmen diskutiert.

  5. A Bayesian hierarchical model for multi-level repeated ordinal data: analysis of oral practice examinations in a large anaesthesiology training programme.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; Qu, Y; Mascha, E; Schubert, A

    1999-08-15

    Oral practice examinations (OPEs) are used in many anaesthesiology programmes to familiarize anaesthesiology residents with the format of the oral examination administered by the American Board of Anesthesiology. The OPE outcome (final grade) consists of 'Definite Not Pass', 'Probable Not Pass', 'Probable Pass' and 'Definite Pass'. In our study to assess the validity of the OPE, residents took an average of two (ranging from one to six) OPEs, each of which was evaluated by two board certified anaesthesiologists randomly selected from a pool of 12. A key question of interest was to identify factors, for example, the length of training, didactic experience and other characteristics, that most influence OPE outcome. In addition, we were interested in assessing the reliability of the final grade, that is, the covariance parameters are of interest as well. However, estimating variance components in multi-level data with an unequal number of repeated ordinal outcomes presents several statistical challenges, such as how to estimate high dimensional random effects parameters, especially for ordinal outcomes. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical proportional odds model for data with such complexity. The flexibility of such a model allows us to make inference on the association of OPE outcomes with other factors and to estimate the variance components as well.

  6. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  7. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  8. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  9. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  10. The use of mathematical models in the epidemiological study of infectious diseases and in the design of mass immunization programmes.

    PubMed

    Nokes, D J; Anderson, R M

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between the number of people vaccinated for an infectious disease and the resulting decrease in incidence of the disease is not straightforward and linear because many independent variables determine the course of infection. However, these variables are quantifiable and can therefore by used to model the course of an infectious disease and impact of mass vaccination. Before one can construct a model, one must know for any specific infectious disease the number of individuals in the community protected by maternally derived antibodies, the number susceptible to infectious the number infected but not yet infectious (i.e., with latent infection), the number of infectious individuals, and the number of recovered (i.e., immune) individuals. Compartmental models are sets of differential equations which describe the rates of flow of individuals between these categories. Several major epidemiologic concepts comprise the ingredients of the model: the net rate of infection (i.e., incidence), the per capita rate of infection, the Force of Infection, and the basic reproductive rate of infection. When a community attains a high level of vaccination coverage, it is no longer necessary to vaccinate everyone because the herd immunity of the population protects the unvaccinated because it lowers the likelihood of their coming into contact with an infectious individual. Many infections that confer lasting immunity tend to have interepidemic periods when the number of susceptibles is too low to sustain an epidemic. Mass vacination programs reduce the net rate of transmission of the infective organism; they also increase the length of the interepidemic period. Many diseases primawrily associated with children have much more serious consequences in older people and the question arises as to at what point childhood immunization will successfully prevent the more dangerous incidence of the disease in older cohorts. Mathematical models of disease transmission enable one

  11. Programmes for parents with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Reupert, A; Maybery, D

    2011-04-01

    Parents with a mental illness experience the same parenting stressors that other parents do, and at the same time need to manage their mental illness. However, few programmes are designed for parents who have a mental illness, with older children (as opposed to interventions for mothers with infants). This study identified the common components across six programmes developed for parents with a mental illness who have older children. Australian clinicians, responsible for six parenting programmes for those with a mental illness, participated in individual, semi-structured interviews, during 2008. Programme manuals and evaluation reports were also sourced. Analyses involved thematic analysis, inter-rater reliability and respondent validation. Data were organized in three main areas: (1) programme description (format, goals, length and participants' inclusion criteria); (2) theoretical framework (including clinicians' beliefs and evidence underpinning programmes); and (3) evaluation designs and methodologies. It was found that clinicians facilitated education and support via a peer intervention model for parents with various mental illness diagnoses, responsive to the needs of parents and in a time flexible manner. At the same time, clinicians found it difficult to articulate the theoretical framework of their programmes and employed mostly simplistic evaluation strategies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  12. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  13. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  14. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper.

  15. User manual and programmer reference manual for the ATS-6 navigation model AOIPS and McIDAS versions, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatters, G. C.; Kuhlow, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of a navigation system for a given satellite is reported. An algorithm for converting a satellite picture element location to earth location and vice versa was defined as well as a procedure for measuring the set of constants needed by the algorithm. A user manual briefly describing the current version of the navigation model and how to use the computer programs developed for it is presented.

  16. A Mixed Methods and Triangulation Model for Increasing the Accuracy of Adherence and Sexual Behaviour Data: The Microbicides Development Programme

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Robert; Montgomery, Catherine M.; Morar, Neetha S.; Mweemba, Oliver; Ssali, Agnes; Gafos, Mitzy; Lees, Shelley; Stadler, Jonathan; Crook, Angela; Nunn, Andrew; Hayes, Richard; McCormack, Sheena

    2010-01-01

    Background The collection of accurate data on adherence and sexual behaviour is crucial in microbicide (and other HIV-related) research. In the absence of a “gold standard” the collection of such data relies largely on participant self-reporting. After reviewing available methods, this paper describes a mixed method/triangulation model for generating more accurate data on adherence and sexual behaviour in a multi-centre vaginal microbicide clinical trial. In a companion paper some of the results from this model are presented [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected from a random subsample of 725 women (7.7% of the trial population) using structured interviews, coital diaries, in-depth interviews, counting returned gel applicators, focus group discussions, and ethnography. The core of the model was a customised, semi-structured in-depth interview. There were two levels of triangulation: first, discrepancies between data from the questionnaires, diaries, in-depth interviews and applicator returns were identified, discussed with participants and, to a large extent, resolved; second, results from individual participants were related to more general data emerging from the focus group discussions and ethnography. A democratic and equitable collaboration between clinical trialists and qualitative social scientists facilitated the success of the model, as did the preparatory studies preceding the trial. The process revealed some of the underlying assumptions and routinised practices in “clinical trial culture” that are potentially detrimental to the collection of accurate data, as well as some of the shortcomings of large qualitative studies, and pointed to some potential solutions. Conclusions/Significance The integration of qualitative social science and the use of mixed methods and triangulation in clinical trials are feasible, and can reveal (and resolve) inaccuracies in data on adherence and sensitive behaviours, as well as illuminating aspects

  17. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.

    PubMed

    Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis.

  18. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area

    PubMed Central

    Remme, J.; Ba, O.; Dadzie, K. Y.; Karam, M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis. PMID:3492300

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATURAL GAS SYSTEMS ANALYSIS MODEL (GSAM) VOLUME I - SUMMARY REPORT VOLUME II - USER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIA - RP PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIB - SRPM PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIIC - E&P PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE VOLUME IIID - D&I PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-02-01

    This report summarizes work completed on DOE Contract DE-AC21-92MC28138, Development of a Natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). The products developed under this project directly support the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in carrying out its natural gas R&D mission. The objective of this research effort has been to create a comprehensive, non-proprietary, microcomputer model of the North American natural gas market. GSAM has been developed to explicitly evaluate components of the natural gas system, including the entire in-place gas resource base, exploration and development technologies, extraction technology and performance parameters, transportation and storage factors, and end-use demand issues. The system has been fully tested and calibrated and has been used for multiple natural gas metrics analyses at NETL in which metric associated with NETL natural gas upstream R&D technologies and strategies under the direction of NETL has been evaluated. NETL's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that R&D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced natural gas. GSAM provides the capability to assess potential and on-going R&D projects using a full fuel cycle, cost-benefit approach. This method yields realistic, market-based assessments of benefits and costs of alternative or related technology advances. GSAM is capable of estimating both technical and commercial successes, quantifying the potential benefits to the market, as well as to other related research. GSAM, therefore, represents an integration of research activities and a method for planning and prioritizing efforts to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Without an analytical tool like GSAM, NETL natural gas upstream R&D activities cannot be appropriately ranked or focused on the most important aspects of natural gas extraction efforts or utilization considerations.

  20. Training model to institutionalize population education in the in-service education programme for elementary school teachers.

    PubMed

    Dugenia, M E

    1982-12-01

    The goal of the Philippine Population Education Program (PEP) since its inception in 1972 is to institutionalize population education in the formal educational system. The PEP Training Section views institutionalization of population education in the inservice education program for elementary school teachers as part of the process of making it an integral part of that program. In practice elementary school teachers periodically attend training programs organized by division or district supervisors and school principals. This is the usual modality through which teachers are updated on or informed about new thrusts and recent developments in teaching content, strategies, and methodologies. In this context, the PEP Training Section convened a seminar workshop in December 1981 for 10 subject area supervisors from the 3 large geographic island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. They represented 10 school divisions and subject areas where population education is integrated. The specific objectives of the 5 day activity were to: discuss existing inservice training programs in the school divisions; prepare a training model incorporating population education in the overall division inservice training program; and develop a content chart or a listing of topical areas on population education for the training model. 1 of the outputs of the seminar workshop was a training model incorporating population education in the regular inservice training programs using 3 delivery schemes, i.e., seminar workship on the teaching of specific subject areas; district staff meeting and/or echo seminars organized by district supervisors following division seminars; and regular teachers' meeting at the school level organized by school principals. Another output was a content chart listing suggested topics in population education classified according to subject areas into which they will be incorporated. The semninar workshop concluded with a plan to try out the model using the identified

  1. Ray Calculations of Ocean Sound Channels Using a Pocket Programmable Calculator and Extended Forms of the Hirsch-Carter Mathematical Model with Tables of the Incomplete Beta Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    pocket programmable calculator on two Sargasso Sea profiles, one from the center of a cold ring eddy are given. Necessary tables of the incomplete beta-function and calculator programs are included in a supplement.

  2. An innovative methodological approach in the frame of Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a statistical model based on ship detection SAR data for monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Pieralice, Francesca; Proietti, Raffaele; La Valle, Paola; Giorgi, Giordano; Mazzolena, Marco; Taramelli, Andrea; Nicoletti, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is focused on protection, preservation and restoration of the marine environment by achieving and maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. Within this context, this paper presents a methodological approach for a fast and repeatable monitoring that allows quantitative assessment of seabed abrasion pressure due to recreational boat anchoring. The methodology consists of two steps: a semi-automatic procedure based on an algorithm for the ship detection in SAR imagery and a statistical model to obtain maps of spatial and temporal distribution density of anchored boats. Ship detection processing has been performed on 36 ASAR VV-pol images of Liguria test site, for the three years 2008, 2009 and 2010. Starting from the pointwise distribution layer produced by ship detection in imagery, boats points have been subdivided into 4 areas where a constant distribution density has been assumed for the entire period 2008-2010. In the future, this methodology will be applied also to higher resolution data of Sentinel-1 mission, specifically designed for the operational needs of the European Programme Copernicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective use of simple computer programmes and clay models to demonstrate the planning and operative steps for teaching and presentations

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rahul Krishnarao; Malhotra, Gopal; Srinivasan, Venugopal; Abdul Hamid, Ahmed Osama; Cherian, Mahil; Koul, Ashok Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presenting and demonstrating a surgical procedure in the current era is difficult without good intraoperative pictures and videos. A long, complex, multi-staged surgery is better illustrated by detailed intraoperative images at various stages. Although desirable, it may be difficult due to various reasons. Material and Methods: A simple method of preparing illustrations with pictures/diagrams created on PowerPoint and clay models to recreate the missing links in clinical photographs has been proposed. Results: It is a simple technique with a moderate learning curve. Once familiar with technique, one can effectively use the technique to convey the details in much more clear manner. Conclusion: It is a simple and effective way of communicating through digital images, and gives the audience a 3 dimensional idea about the concept. PMID:27833280

  4. Improving ART programme retention and viral suppression are key to maximising impact of treatment as prevention - a modelling study.

    PubMed

    McCreesh, Nicky; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Strong, Mark; Vernon, Ian; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Oakley, Jeremy E; Goldstein, Michael; Hayes, Richard; White, Richard G

    2017-08-09

    UNAIDS calls for fewer than 500,000 new HIV infections/year by 2020, with treatment-as-prevention being a key part of their strategy for achieving the target. A better understanding of the contribution to transmission of people at different stages of the care pathway can help focus intervention services at populations where they may have the greatest effect. We investigate this using Uganda as a case study. An individual-based HIV/ART model was fitted using history matching. 100 model fits were generated to account for uncertainties in sexual behaviour, HIV epidemiology, and ART coverage up to 2015 in Uganda. A number of different ART scale-up intervention scenarios were simulated between 2016 and 2030. The incidence and proportion of transmission over time from people with primary infection, post-primary ART-naïve infection, and people currently or previously on ART was calculated. In all scenarios, the proportion of transmission by ART-naïve people decreases, from 70% (61%-79%) in 2015 to between 23% (15%-40%) and 47% (35%-61%) in 2030. The proportion of transmission by people on ART increases from 7.8% (3.5%-13%) to between 14% (7.0%-24%) and 38% (21%-55%). The proportion of transmission by ART dropouts increases from 22% (15%-33%) to between 31% (23%-43%) and 56% (43%-70%). People who are currently or previously on ART are likely to play an increasingly large role in transmission as ART coverage increases in Uganda. Improving retention on ART, and ensuring that people on ART remain virally suppressed, will be key in reducing HIV incidence in Uganda.

  5. A proposed adaptation of the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model to physical activity programmes for the elderly - development of a quality self-assessment tool using a modified Delphi process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, since evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Complete programme evaluations are a necessary prerequisite to continuous quality improvements. Being able to refine, adapt and create tools that are suited to the realities and contexts of PA programmes for the elderly in order to support its continuous improvement is, therefore, crucial. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a self-assessment tool for PA programmes for the elderly. Methods A 3-round Delphi process was conducted via the Internet with 43 national experts in PA for the elderly, management and delivery of PA programmes for the elderly, sports management, quality management and gerontology, asking experts to identify the propositions that they considered relevant for inclusion in the self-assessment tool. Experts reviewed a list of proposed statements, based on the criteria and sub-criteria from the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model (EFQM) and PA guidelines for older adults and rated each proposition from 1 to 8 (disagree to agree) and modified and/or added propositions. Propositions receiving either bottom or top scores of greater than 70% were considered to have achieved consensus to drop or retain, respectively. Results In round 1, of the 196 originally-proposed statements (best practice principles), the experts modified 41, added 1 and achieved consensus on 93. In round 2, a total of 104 propositions were presented, of which experts modified 39 and achieved consensus on 53. In the last round, of 51 proposed statements, the experts achieved consensus on 19. After 3 rounds of rating, experts had not achieved consensus on 32 propositions. The resulting tool consisted of 165 statements that assess nine management areas involved in the development of PA programmes for the elderly. Conclusion

  6. Hochwasser und Sturzfluten an Flüssen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstert, Axel; Bormann, Helge; Bürger, Gerd; Haberlandt, Uwe; Hattermann, Fred; Heistermann, Maik; Huang, Shaochun; Kolokotronis, Vassilis; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Menzel, Lucas; Meon, Günter; Merz, Bruno; Meuser, Andreas; Paton, Eva Nora; Petrow, Theresia

    Flusshochwasser werden in lokale und plötzliche Sturzfluten und in Hochwasser an größeren Flüssen unterschieden. Für verschiedene Hochwasserindikatoren und Flusseinzugsgebiete ergeben sich erhebliche Unterschiede, wobei sowohl überwiegend aus Regen als auch überwiegend aus Schmelzwasser gespeiste Hochwasserereignisse betrachtet werden. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit finden Hochwasserereignisse an Rhein, Elbe, Weser und Ems sowie die Entwicklung von Sturzfluten infolge von Extremniederschlägen kurzer Dauer, wobei die Beobachtungen und Trends zu Modellierungsergebnissen in Beziehung gesetzt werden. Auch die Notwendigkeit von Anpassungsmaßnahmen aufgrund überwiegend positiver Trends wird diskutiert.

  7. [Disease management programmes in Germany: first reactions by patients suffering from diabetes].

    PubMed

    Eller, M; Satzinger, W; Holle, R; Meisinger, C; Thorand, B

    2005-08-01

    The performance of health delivery for chronic diseases in Germany has been considered deficient for a long time and in need of improvement. The launch of Disease Management Programmes (DMP) for type 2 diabetes in the summer of 2002 can be seen as an attempt to optimise health care for the chronically ill. The aim of our study was to find out at an early stage of DMP development which factors, personal or otherwise, would have an influence on whether diabetic patients know of, and are willing to participate in, such a programme. The data of 679 diabetic patients, collected between late 2002 and the end of 2003, presented here have been extracted from a written follow-up study to the three baseline surveys S1 (1984/85), S2 (1989/90) und S3 (1994/95) in Augsburg as part of the WHO-MONICA project with more than 13,000 participants. The study population is characterised by a rather high age (mean: 67.4 years), a long duration of the disease (mean: 9.8 years) as well as a high intensity of contacts with physicians. Only 28 % of the diabetic patients had heard of the DMP, but a majority of the participants (54 %) stated their readiness to participate in DMP once offered. Higher age, low education as well as no participation in diabetes education have been identified in logistic regression models as impeding factors both for the knowing of and the participation in DMP. As a consequence, promotion of the DMP should be directed to those sections of the diabetic population outside the effective reach of the traditional diabetes care organisations.

  8. Topologie und Dynamische Netzwerke: Anwendungen Der Optimierung MIT Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leugering, Günter; Martin, Alexander; Stingl, Michael

    Die optimale Auslegung von Infrastrukturen z. B. bei der Verkehrsplanung und bei der Planung von Versorgungssystemen, die optimale Strukturierung bzw. Formgebung von Materialien und Werkstücken z. B. im Leichtbau sind aktuelle Themen angewandter Forschung. In beiden Bereichen wurde bis in die jüngste Zeit vornehmlich eine simulationsbasierte Optimierung auf der Grundlage einer Parameterjustierung vorgenommen, die oft wenig systematisch und zeit- und kostenintensiv ist. Stattdessen erweisen sich modellbasierte mathematische Optimierungsalgorithmen zusammen mit moderner numerischer Simulations-und Visualisierungstechnologie zunehmend als Katalysator neuer Technologien. Eine so verstandene Mathematische Optimierung kann bereits auf beeindruckende Erfolgsgeschichten verweisen und so den Anspruch als eine Zukunftsdisziplin behaupten. Diesem Anspruch trägt die Einrichtung des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1253, Optimierung mit partiellen Differentialgleichungen’ im Jahre 2006 Rechnung, in dem über 25 Projekte im Bundesgebiet sowohl auf die theoretische Fundierung, als auch und insbesondere auf die Verzahnung zwischen Methodenentwicklung und numerischer Realisierung fokussieren. Forschung im Bereich der mathematischen Optimierung und Steuerung von Prozessen bzw. Eigenschaften, die mit Hilfe partieller Differentialgleichungen, so genannten, verteilten Systemen’, beschrieben werden, erfolgt im Kontext konkreter und exemplarischer Anwendungssituationen, die neue mathematische Herausforderungen markieren: Sicherheitsvorgaben etwa bei der Belastung von Gas- und Frischwasserleitungen oder solche für die Belastbarkeit von Verkehrsflugzeugen führen auf Druckbeschränkungen bzw.

  9. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  10. Delivering a sustainable trauma management training programme tailored for low-resource settings in East, Central and Southern African countries using a cascading course model.

    PubMed

    Peter, N A; Pandit, H; Le, G; Nduhiu, M; Moro, E; Lavy, C

    2016-05-01

    Injuries cause five million deaths and 279 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS) each year worldwide. The COSECSA Oxford Orthopaedic Link (COOL) is a multi-country partnership programme that has delivered training in trauma management to nine sub-Saharan countries across a wide-cadre of health-workers using a model of "primary" courses delivered by UK instructors, followed by "cascading" courses led by local faculty. This study examines the impact on knowledge and clinical confidence among health-workers, and compares the performance of "cascading" and "primary" courses delivered in low-resource settings. Data was collated from 1030 candidates (119 Clinical Officers, 540 Doctors, 260 Nurses and 111 Medical Students) trained over 28 courses (9 "primary" and 19 "cascading" courses) in nine sub-Saharan countries between 2012 and 2013. Knowledge and clinical confidence of candidates were assessed using pre- and post-course MCQs and confidence matrix rating of clinical scenarios. Changes were measured in relation to co-variants of gender, job roles and primary versus cascading courses. Multivariate regression modelling and cost analysis was performed to examine the impact of primary versus cascading courses on candidates' performance. There was a significant improvement in knowledge (58% to 77%, p<0.05) and clinical confidence (68% to 90%, p<0.05) post-course. "Non-doctors" demonstrated a greater improvement in knowledge (22%) and confidence (24%) following the course (p<0.05). The degree of improvement of MCQ scores differed significantly, with the cascading courses (21%) outperforming primary courses (15%) (p<0.002). This is further supported by multivariate regression modelling where cascading courses are a strong predictor for improvement in MCQ scores (Coef=4.83, p<0.05). Trauma management training of health-workers plays a pivotal role in tackling the ever-growing trauma burden in Africa. Our study suggests cascading PTC courses may be an effective model in

  11. Protocol for a process-oriented qualitative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme using the Researcher-in-Residence model

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Laura; George, Bethan; Marshall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The integration of health and social care in England is widely accepted as the answer to fragmentation, financial concerns and system inefficiencies, in the context of growing and ageing populations with increasingly complex needs. Despite an expanding body of literature, there is little evidence yet to suggest that integrated care can achieve the benefits that its advocates claim for it. Researchers have often adopted rationalist and technocratic approaches to evaluation, treating integration as an intervention rather than a process. Results have usually been of limited use to practitioners responsible for health and social care integration. There is, therefore, a need to broaden the evidence base, exploring not only what works but also how integrated care can most successfully be implemented and delivered. For this reason, we are carrying out a formative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme. Our expectation is that this will add value to the literature by focusing on the processes by which the vision and objectives of integrated care are translated through phases of development, implementation and delivery from a central to a local perspective, and from a strategic to an operational perspective. Methods and analysis The qualitative and process-oriented evaluation uses an innovative participative approach—the Researcher-in-Residence model. The evaluation is underpinned by a critical ontology, an interpretive epistemology and a critical discourse analysis methodology. Data will be generated using interviews, observations and documentary gathering. Ethics and dissemination Emerging findings will be interpreted and disseminated collaboratively with stakeholders, to enable the research to influence and optimise the effective implementation of integrated care across WELC. Presentations and publications will ensure that learning is shared as widely as possible. The study has received

  12. Protocol for a process-oriented qualitative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme using the Researcher-in-Residence model.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Laura; George, Bethan; Marshall, Martin

    2015-11-06

    The integration of health and social care in England is widely accepted as the answer to fragmentation, financial concerns and system inefficiencies, in the context of growing and ageing populations with increasingly complex needs. Despite an expanding body of literature, there is little evidence yet to suggest that integrated care can achieve the benefits that its advocates claim for it. Researchers have often adopted rationalist and technocratic approaches to evaluation, treating integration as an intervention rather than a process. Results have usually been of limited use to practitioners responsible for health and social care integration. There is, therefore, a need to broaden the evidence base, exploring not only what works but also how integrated care can most successfully be implemented and delivered. For this reason, we are carrying out a formative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme. Our expectation is that this will add value to the literature by focusing on the processes by which the vision and objectives of integrated care are translated through phases of development, implementation and delivery from a central to a local perspective, and from a strategic to an operational perspective. The qualitative and process-oriented evaluation uses an innovative participative approach-the Researcher-in-Residence model. The evaluation is underpinned by a critical ontology, an interpretive epistemology and a critical discourse analysis methodology. Data will be generated using interviews, observations and documentary gathering. Emerging findings will be interpreted and disseminated collaboratively with stakeholders, to enable the research to influence and optimise the effective implementation of integrated care across WELC. Presentations and publications will ensure that learning is shared as widely as possible. The study has received ethical approval from University College London's Research Ethics

  13. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  14. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  16. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  17. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  18. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  19. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  20. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  1. Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The Farmers Training and Functional Literacy Programme, initiated by the government of India in 1968, was an effort to translate into practice the concept of linking education (not only vocational training) to development, particularly for increasing production. The project, a joint enterprise of three government ministries, provides participating…

  2. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  3. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  4. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  5. The practice of physicians and nurses in the Brazilian Family Health Programme – evidences of change in the delivery health care model

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Ellen M; Andrade, Ana M; Dal Poz, Mario R; Grande, Nuno R

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the practice of physicians and nurses working on the Family Health Programme (Programa de Saúde da Família or PSF, in Portuguese). A questionnaire was used to assess the evidences of assimilation of the new values and care principles proposed by the programme. The results showed that a great number of professionals seem to have incorporated the practice of home visits, health education actions and planning of the teams' work agenda to their routine labour activities. PMID:17107622

  6. A model for integrating strategic planning and competence-based curriculum design in establishing a public health programme: the UNC Charlotte experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael E; Harver, Andrew; Eure, Marquis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a doctoral/research-intensive university, is the largest institution of higher education in the Charlotte region. The university currently offers 18 doctoral, 62 master's and 90 baccalaureate programmes. Fall 2008 enrolment exceeded 23 300 students, including more than 4900 graduate students. The university's Department of Health Behavior and Administration was established on 1 July 2002 as part of a transformed College of Health & Human Services. Case description In 2003, the Department initiated a series of stakeholder activities as part of its strategic planning and programmatic realignment efforts. The Department followed an empirically derived top-down/bottom-up strategic planning process that fostered community engagement and coordination of efforts across institutional levels. This process culminated in a vision to transform the unit into a Council on Education for Public Health accredited programme in public health and, eventually, an accredited school of public health. To date, the Department has revised its Master of Science in health promotion into an Master of Science in Public Health programme, renamed itself the Department of Public Health Sciences, launched a Bachelor of Science in Public Health major, laid plans for a doctoral programme, and received accreditation from the Council on Education for Public Health as a public health programme. Furthermore, the campus has endorsed the programme's growth into a school of public health as one of its priorities. Discussion and Evaluation It is only through this rigorous and cyclical process of determining what society needs, designing a curriculum specifically to prepare graduates to meet those needs, ensuring that those graduates meet those needs, and reassessing society's needs that we can continue to advance the profession and ensure the public's health. Community stakeholders should be active contributors to programme innovation. Lessons

  7. A model for integrating strategic planning and competence-based curriculum design in establishing a public health programme: the UNC Charlotte experience.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael E; Harver, Andrew; Eure, Marquis

    2009-08-11

    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a doctoral/research-intensive university, is the largest institution of higher education in the Charlotte region. The university currently offers 18 doctoral, 62 master's and 90 baccalaureate programmes. Fall 2008 enrolment exceeded 23,300 students, including more than 4900 graduate students. The university's Department of Health Behavior and Administration was established on 1 July 2002 as part of a transformed College of Health & Human Services. In 2003, the Department initiated a series of stakeholder activities as part of its strategic planning and programmatic realignment efforts. The Department followed an empirically derived top-down/bottom-up strategic planning process that fostered community engagement and coordination of efforts across institutional levels. This process culminated in a vision to transform the unit into a Council on Education for Public Health accredited programme in public health and, eventually, an accredited school of public health. To date, the Department has revised its Master of Science in health promotion into an Master of Science in Public Health programme, renamed itself the Department of Public Health Sciences, launched a Bachelor of Science in Public Health major, laid plans for a doctoral programme, and received accreditation from the Council on Education for Public Health as a public health programme. Furthermore, the campus has endorsed the programme's growth into a school of public health as one of its priorities. It is only through this rigorous and cyclical process of determining what society needs, designing a curriculum specifically to prepare graduates to meet those needs, ensuring that those graduates meet those needs, and reassessing society's needs that we can continue to advance the profession and ensure the public's health. Community stakeholders should be active contributors to programme innovation. Lessons learnt from this process include: being connected to your

  8. Unde venis? Amebiasis presenting as appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dennis A; Wilson, Gerald A; Bryan, Charles S

    2013-06-01

    A returning traveler presenting with fever accompanied by abdominal "pressure" and pain proved to have amebic appendicitis, amebic liver abscess, and probable recent amebic dysentery--a rare combination of findings amply illustrating the value of asking "Unde venis--from where do you come?"

  9. Bilingual Education in Rural Schools with Native and Non-Native Students: Indigenous-Language Programme Elements for an Inclusive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Phyllis Bo-yuen

    2007-01-01

    The inclusive bilingual-education programme suggestions and insights presented here are derived from grassroots input on the Flathead Reservation. This study focuses on the emic point of view. Views from the inside are valuable because they provide authoritative interpretations of local conditions. The author conducted 101 interviews with 89…

  10. Programmable synchronization unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.

    1984-10-01

    A Programmable Synchronization Unit (PSU, 135-726) has been designed as an element of the new timing system for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) project to provide synchronization signals needed for various apparatus in the SLC Damping Ring, or anywhere it is necessary to monitor longer than the fiducial period (approx. = 2.8 ..mu..s). A 119 MHz pulse train derived from the 476 MHz main drive line and superimposed with 360 Hz fiducial signal is the frequency source. Following a programmable delay D of up to 4.4 ..mu..s, the PSU can deliver N pulses of width W (in increments of 8.4 ns) with a pulse period of P (in increments of 58.8 ns, the damping ring half period). The device may be programmed at any time during the interfiducial period.

  11. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  12. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  13. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  14. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  15. Kommunale Energieversorger als wesentliche Akteure der Digitalisierung - Strategien und Handlungsoptionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Katherina

    Die Digitalisierung erfasst sämtliche Bereiche des Lebens und Wirtschaftens. Auch die Kommunalwirtschaft - insbesondere die kommunale Energiewirtschaft - sieht sich perspektivisch disruptiven Entwicklungen gegenüber. Stadtwerke haben bereits viele Herausforderungen erfolgreich gemeistert und stehen auch der Digitalisierung positiv gegenüber. Vielerorts gestalten kommunale Unternehmen den digitalen Wandel bereits aktiv mit. Dieser Artikel arbeitet die Assets kommunaler Unternehmen heraus und zeigt Strategien und Handlungsoptionen zum Umgang mit der digitalen Transformation für kommunale Energieversorgungsunternehmen auf. Dabei zeigt sich, dass das politische und regulatorische Umfeld für das positive Gelingen der Digitalisierung entscheidend sind. Kommunale Unternehmen benötigen die gleichen Marktzugangsbedingungen wie andere Akteure. Ferner profitieren kommunale Unternehmen von einigen Wettbewerbsvorteilen, etwa hohen Vertrauenswerten ihrer Kunden und umfangreiches Know-how im Datenmanagement.

  16. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  17. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  18. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  19. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology.

  20. Transrapid und Rad-Schiene-Hochgeschwindigkeitsbahn: Ein gesamtheitlicher Systemvergleich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schach, R.; Jehle, P.; Naumann, R.

    Der Transrapid bietet im Hochgeschwindigkeitsbereich eine sehr interessante Alternative. Über Vor-und Nachteile des Transrapid im Vergleich mit konventionellen Rad-Schiene-Systemen, im Hochgeschwindigkeitsbereich auf Strecken zwischen 150 und 800 Kilometernund als peer-to-peer-Verbindung im Kurzstreckenbereich, wurden viele einze lne Aspekte behandelt, darunter sachliche wie politische Statements. Ein Systemvergleich muß aber alle technischen, wirtschaftlichen und ökologischen Faktoren einschließen.

  1. Rahmen, Herausforderungen und Visionen für die Unternehmensorganisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westkämper, Engelbert; Seidel, Bernhard; Bruhn, Manfred; Bahke, Torsten; Klotz, Ulrich; Buck, Hartmut

    Die Produktion trägt entscheidend zur gesamten Wertschöpfung des Landes mit mehr als einem Drittel aller Beschäftigten bei. Die direkte Wertschöpfung ist dabei für ein rohstoff- und energiearmes Land allein durch Veredelung und technisches Know-how sowie durch die Herstellung von Produkten für den Binnen- und Weltmarkt möglich.

  2. We Are the Game Changers: An Open Gaming Literacy Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnab, Sylvester; Morini, Luca; Green, Kate; Masters, Alex; Bellamy-Woods, Tyrone

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the first iteration of Game Changers Programme hosted by Coventry University's Disruptive Media Learning Lab (DMLL), an open game design initiative. The Programme had the goal of facilitating new models of teaching and learning, new practices in cross-faculty learning/ collaboration to make game design and development more…

  3. What Makes a Good Educator? The Relevance of Meta Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study which explores the relevance of meta programmes to students' perceptions of teaching quality. Meta programmes are a model of personality preferences from the discipline of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). Research into teaching effectiveness indicates that students rate as important "hygiene…

  4. What Makes a Good Educator? The Relevance of Meta Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study which explores the relevance of meta programmes to students' perceptions of teaching quality. Meta programmes are a model of personality preferences from the discipline of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). Research into teaching effectiveness indicates that students rate as important "hygiene…

  5. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  6. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  7. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  8. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  9. Ökologische Grundlagen und limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzel, N.; Rebele, F.; Rosenthal, G.; Eichberg, C.

    In den dicht besiedelten und agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- und Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung und Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume und Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker und Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer und Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen und die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough und Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).

  10. Modellgestützte Hybrid Systementwicklung - Modellierung und Optimierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Thomas

    Im Bereich der Hybridfahrzeugentwicklung wird nach wie vor intensiv an Konzepten zur Verbrauchseinsparung und Reduzierung von Emissionen gearbeitet. Gleichzeitig sollen "Fahrspaß" und Komfort solcher Fahrzeuge verbessert werden. Für verschiedene Anwendungen sind unterschiedlichste Hybridkonzepte denkbar und sinnvoll. Trotz dieser Variantenvielfalt und den daraus resultierenden technischen Anforderungen sind die Kosten eines Hybridfahrzeugs zu minimieren, wobei ein wesentlicher Aspekt bei der Kostenreduzierung die Stückzahl ist. Bei der Entwicklung von Komponenten steht daher, neben den technischen Anforderungen, deren vielseitige Einsetzbarkeit im Vordergrund.

  11. Methodisches Vorgehen zur integralen Auslegung von Produkt und Montage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, André; Grauer, Matthias; Rittner, Martin; Zeltner, Stefan; März, Martin; Egelkraut, Sven; Birkner, Klaus; Braun, Steven

    Die Produktlebenszyklen werden durch den steigenden Wettbewerbsdruck stetig kürzer. Dies veranlasst Unternehmen, Produktinnovationen in immer geringeren Zeitabständen auf den Markt zu bringen und Produktentwicklungszeiten zu verkürzen. Zusätzlich wirken sich erhöhte Anforderungen bezüglich Produktzuverlässigkeit und -lebensdauer erschwerend aus. Um dieser Herausforderung zu begegnen ist eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen Entwicklung, Konstruktion, Fertigungsplanung und Prozessentwicklung unabdingbar, denn nur durch eine optimale Abstimmung von Konstruktion und Fertigungsprozess lassen sich die hohen Qualitätsanforderungen erfüllen.

  12. Toward effective school-based substance abuse prevention "breaking the cycle" programme in Antigua and Barbuda.

    PubMed

    Martin, T C; Josiah-Martin, J A; Roberts, C W; Henry, H P

    2008-09-01

    The "Breaking the Cycle" programme, based on the Project Charlie programme, was developed for Antigua and Barbuda third grade students and was implemented in 2001. Aspects of the programme are compared with aspects recently proven effective in randomized studies in developed countries. The "Breaking the Cycle" programme includes life-skills training, teaches decision making skills, includes peer resistance training, uses trained teachers, interactive teaching methods, effective content and delivery, targets students prior to onset of drug use, teaches drug harm, teaches community values and is culturally sensitive, all aspects of successful programmes overseas. The cost of about $7 US per student would suggests cost-benefit effectiveness compared with overseas programmes. The "Breaking the Cycle" school-based drug and alcohol use prevention programme includes most aspects of evidence-based successful programmes overseas, appears cost effective and could serve as a model for programmes in the Caribbean region.

  13. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  14. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  16. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  17. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  18. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  19. Implantate und Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhann, Tobias H.

    Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg und Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen und im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].

  20. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  1. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  2. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  3. The Sheffield outreach teaching programme.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Lennon, M A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-27

    Sheffield's School of Clinical Dentistry has developed a year-round dental outreach teaching programme of 20 weeks for each student in two or three of six already established general practices and five PCT clinics. On the programme, under local supervision, students provide comprehensive care for patients and complete associated projectwork. This paper first describes the development and management of the programme then the learning experiences of recent students.

  4. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  5. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  6. The NATA code; theory and analysis. Volume 3: Programmer's manual. [for calculating flow in arc-heated wind tunnels and conditions on models tested in reentry simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bade, W. L.; Yos, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present, third volume of the final report is a programmer's manual for the code. It provides a listing of the FORTRAN 4 source program; a complete glossary of FORTRAN symbols; a discussion of the purpose and method of operation of each subroutine (including mathematical analyses of special algorithms); and a discussion of the operation of the code on IBM/360 and UNIVAC 1108 systems, including required control cards and the overlay structure used to accommodate the code to the limited core size of the 1108. In addition, similar information is provided to document the programming of the NOZFIT code, which is employed to set up nozzle profile curvefits for use in NATA.

  7. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  8. Rekonfigurationstechniken und Anwendungsgebiete für ein programmierbares Gm-C Analog-Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2006-09-01

    FPAAs (Field Programmable Analog Arrays) erlauben es, analoge Signalübertragungsfunktionen auf Hardware abzubilden, die von veränderbaren digitalen Konfigurationsdaten abhängen. Sowohl für das Design von Filterstrukturen auf Systemebene als auch für die genaue Simulation ihrer analogen Übertragungsfunktion auf Transistorebene ist es dabei notwendig, die entsprechenden Konfigurationsdaten einzugeben bevor die Phasen/Betragsanalyse durchgeführt werden kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt ein graphisches Entwurfsprogramm zur Instantiierung von analogen Filtern für ein FPAA mit 17 gm-C Blöcken vor. Es wird über erste Simulationsergebnisse berichtet, die die Machbarkeit mit Eckfrequenzen bis zu hundert Mhz bestätigen. Simulierte Übertragungsfunktionen von grundlegenden Bausteinen werden mit der Theorie verglichen und zu einer exemplarischen Instantiierung eines Butterworth-Filters der vierten Ordnung weitergeführt.

  9. Die Einzelhandelsakteure im Spannungsfeld des Wettbewerbs und öffentlicher Vorgaben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleyer, Burkhard

    2002-03-01

    Vielfältige, unterschiedlich starke und oft auch gegenläufig agierende Akteure und Interessenvertreter wirken auf das spezifische Standortmuster des Einzelhandels ein. Wie hat sich der Einzelhandel auf der Anbieter- und Nachfragerseite geändert? Es fehlt nicht an Regelungswerken für den großflächigen Einzelhandel und Konzepten für einen gleichrangigen Standortwettbewerb zwischen den traditionellen Einkaufslagen und denen auf der Grünen Wiese. Wer sind die Standortakteure und wie stimmen sie sich ab? Wie lösen sie die Standortkonflikte angesichts der Wettbewerbssituation? Welchen Beitrag leisten dazu staatliche und kommunale Vorgaben?

  10. Prä- und perioperative Aspekte der Versorgung dermatochirurgischer Patienten.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Hubner, Wakiko; Thieme-Ruffing, Sigrid; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas; Volk, Thomas; Gärtner, Barbara C; Bialas, Patric

    2017-02-01

    Die Dermatochirurgie nimmt hinsichtlich vieler Punkte eine Sonderstellung unter den operativen Fächern ein. Hierzu gehört in erster Linie die Tatsache, dass bis auf wenige Ausnahmen fast alle Eingriffe traditionell in Lokal- bzw. Regionalanästhesie und oft auch in räumlich-infrastruktureller Trennung von den großen Zentral-Operationssälen stattfinden können. Die peri- und postoperative Überwachung obliegt dabei dem dermatochirurgischen Operationsteam. Das sui generis kleinere OP-Team hat somit eine ganze Reihe perioperativer Notwendigkeiten zu beachten, um die sich in den "großen" chirurgischen Fächern eine Vielzahl verschiedener beteiligter Fachgruppen gemeinsam kümmern. Hierzu gehören neben Hygieneaspekten, Kenntnissen in der Überwachung der Patienten sowie dem Aspekt der surgical site infections auch Fragen zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie sowie detailliertes pharmakologisches Wissen über die zur Anwendung kommenden Lokalanästhetika und das Handling der damit assoziierten toxischen und allergischen Reaktionen. Eine interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und Verantwortung für den Patienten ist notwendig und erfordert die Erarbeitung und Umsetzung qualitätsorientierter und evidenzbasierter Handlungsanweisungen, die im dermatochirurgischen OP-Setting meist weit über das eigentliche Fach hinausgehen. Ziel dieses Weiterbildungsartikels soll die komprimierte Darstellung der genannten fachübergreifenden Standpunkte bezüglich der wichtigsten perioperativen Aspekte sein. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  12. Experimentalphysik 3: Atome, Moleküle und Festkörper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Pressestimmen: "...Die Kapitel über Molekülphysik und die experimentellen Methoden der Atom- und Molekülphysik sind aus meiner Sicht einmalig, da sie sehr überschaubar und kompetent eine große Stoff-Fülle vermitteln... Der ansprechende äußere Aufbau, die hohe graphische Qualität und viele sinnvolle Tabellen und Zusammenfassungen lassen das Studium dieses Lehrbuches zum Vergnügen werden...

  13. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  14. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  15. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  16. Programmable multimode quantum networks

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-François; Janousek, Jiri; Hage, Boris; Treps, Nicolas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-A.

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement between large numbers of quantum modes is the quintessential resource for future technologies such as the quantum internet. Conventionally, the generation of multimode entanglement in optics requires complex layouts of beamsplitters and phase shifters in order to transform the input modes into entangled modes. Here we report the highly versatile and efficient generation of various multimode entangled states with the ability to switch between different linear optics networks in real time. By defining our modes to be combinations of different spatial regions of one beam, we may use just one pair of multi-pixel detectors in order to measure multiple entangled modes. We programme virtual networks that are fully equivalent to the physical linear optics networks they are emulating. We present results for N=2 up to N=8 entangled modes here, including N=2, 3, 4 cluster states. Our approach introduces the highly sought after attributes of flexibility and scalability to multimode entanglement. PMID:22929783

  17. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim L A; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-04-01

    Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players' end-of-season views about the programme variants. This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players' views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future.

  19. Strahlen-und kinetische Waffen: Neue Waffentechniken und Rüstungskontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    Laserstrahlen, Mikrowellen oder elektromagnetische Beschleuniger lassen sich nicht nur für zivile, sondern für militärische Zwecke einsetzen. Die Aufgabe einer vorbeugenden Rüstungskontrolle wäre es, diese wie andere künftige Waffentechnologien auf ihren destabilisierenden Charakter hin zu untersuchen und ihre Stationierung zu beschränken oder zu verhindern.

  20. A new framework for designing programmes of assessment.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Schuwirth, L W T

    2010-08-01

    Research on assessment in medical education has strongly focused on individual measurement instruments and their psychometric quality. Without detracting from the value of this research, such an approach is not sufficient to high quality assessment of competence as a whole. A programmatic approach is advocated which presupposes criteria for designing comprehensive assessment programmes and for assuring their quality. The paucity of research with relevance to programmatic assessment, and especially its development, prompted us to embark on a research project to develop design principles for programmes of assessment. We conducted focus group interviews to explore the experiences and views of nine assessment experts concerning good practices and new ideas about theoretical and practical issues in programmes of assessment. The discussion was analysed, mapping all aspects relevant for design onto a framework, which was iteratively adjusted to fit the data until saturation was reached. The overarching framework for designing programmes of assessment consists of six assessment programme dimensions: Goals, Programme in Action, Support, Documenting, Improving and Accounting. The model described in this paper can help to frame programmes of assessment; it not only provides a common language, but also a comprehensive picture of the dimensions to be covered when formulating design principles. It helps identifying areas concerning assessment in which ample research and development has been done. But, more importantly, it also helps to detect underserved areas. A guiding principle in design of assessment programmes is fitness for purpose. High quality assessment can only be defined in terms of its goals.

  1. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  2. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  3. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  4. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  5. Feasibility and impact of an intensified antibiotic stewardship programme targeting cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone use in a tertiary care university medical center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    intensified ABS programme targeting cephalosporin und fluoroquinolone use in the setting of a large academic hospital is feasible and effective. The intervention may serve as a model for other services and hospitals with a similar structure and baseline situation. PMID:24731220

  6. Feasibility and impact of an intensified antibiotic stewardship programme targeting cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone use in a tertiary care university medical center.

    PubMed

    Borde, Johannes P; Kaier, Klaus; Steib-Bauert, Michaela; Vach, Werner; Geibel-Zehender, Annette; Busch, Hansjörg; Bertz, Hartmut; Hug, Martin; de With, Katja; Kern, Winfried V

    2014-04-15

    cephalosporin und fluoroquinolone use in the setting of a large academic hospital is feasible and effective. The intervention may serve as a model for other services and hospitals with a similar structure and baseline situation.

  7. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self

  8. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  9. Using the Global Environment Facility for developing Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) models -- Papua New Guinea`s Biodiversity Conservation Management Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, G.; Jefferies, B.

    1995-03-01

    The unprecedented level of support that has been pledged to strengthen Government of Papua New Guinea (GoPNG) biodiversity conservation initiatives has re-identified an important fact that technical and infrastructure support must be complemented by programs that provide realistic opportunities for developing national capacity. Indications are that the next five years will present a range of challenging opportunities for the department to move from the intensive period of planning, which has been the focus of attention during the first phase of the National Forestry and Conservation Action Programme (NFCAP), into a sustained period of policy and project application. This paper examines processes under which strengthening programs contribute to national development objectives and complement accomplishment of the Department of Environment and Conservation Strategic Plan. An overview of the Global Environment Facility-Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) Project and coordination effort that are being made for biodiversity conservation projects in Papua New Guinea, are addressed.

  10. RELBET 4.0 programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huysman, B. P.; Kwong, P. S.; Pieniazek, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    The RELBET 4.0 System as implemented on the Hewlett Packard model 9000 computer system is described. The manual is directed toward programmers and system maintenance personnel. It is intended to serve both as a reference and as a introductory guide to the software. The body of the manual provides an overview of major features and indicates where to look for further information. Full details are left to Appendices.

  11. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  12. Entwicklungsperspektiven von Social Software und dem Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Alexander

    Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit dem derzeitigen und zukünftigen Einsatz von Social Software in Unternehmen. Nach dem großen Erfolg von Social Software im Web beginnen viele Unternehmen eigene Social Software-Initiativen zu entwickeln. Der Artikel zeigt die derzeit wahrgenommenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Social Software im Unternehmen auf, erörtert Erfolgsfaktoren für die Einführung und präsentiert mögliche Wege für die Zukunft. Nach der Diskussion des Spezialfalles Social Software in Unternehmen werden anschließend die globalen Trends und Zukunftsperspektiven des Web 2.0 in ihren technischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Dimensionen dargestellt. Wie aus den besprochenen Haupttrends hervorgeht, wird die Masse an digital im Web verfügbaren Informationen stetig weiterwachsen. So stellt sich die Frage, wie es in Zukunft möglich sein wird, die Qualität der Informationssuche und der Wissensgenerierung zu verbessern. Mit dem Einsatz von semantischen Technologien im Web wird hier eine revolutionäre Möglichkeit geboten, Informationen zu filtern und intelligente, gewissermaßen verstehende" Anwendungen zu entwerfen. Auf dem Weg zu einem intelligenten Web werden sich das Semantic Web und Social Software annähern: Anwendungen wie Semantic Wikis, Semantic Weblogs, lightweight Semantic Web-Sprachen wie Microformats oder auch kommerzielle Angebote wie Freebase von Metaweb werden die ersten Vorzeichen einer dritten Generation des Webs sein.

  13. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  14. Shape-programmable macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Schafmeister, Christian E; Brown, Zachary Z; Gupta, Sharad

    2008-10-01

    Proteins catalyze specific chemical reactions and carry out highly selective molecular recognition because they adopt well-defined three-dimensional structures and position chemically reactive functional groups in specific constellations. Proteins attain these well-defined structures through the complex process of protein folding. We seek to emulate these protein functions by constructing macromolecules that are easier to engineer by avoiding folding altogether. Toward that goal, we have developed an approach for the synthesis of macromolecules with programmable shapes. As described in this Account, we have constructed synthetic building blocks called bis-amino acids that we then couple through pairs of amide bonds to create water-soluble, spiroladder oligomers (bis-peptides) with well-defined three-dimensional structures. Bis-peptides use the conformational preferences of fused rings, stereochemistry, and strong covalent bonds to define their shape, unlike natural proteins and synthetic foldamers, which depend on noncovalent interactions and an unpredictable folding process to attain structure. Using these bis-amino acid monomers, we have built and characterized a number of bis-peptide nanostructures. We also constructed a molecular actuator that undergoes a large change in conformation under the control of metal exchange; the first application of bis-peptides. We are currently developing further approaches to functionalize bis-peptides as scaffolds to present well-defined constellations of functional groups. Such macromolecules could facilitate multifunctional catalysis and molecular recognition and lead to nanoscale molecular devices.

  15. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  16. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  17. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  18. Expertise bewerben und finden im Social Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polleres, Axel; Mochol, Malgorzata

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag diskutieren wir Rahmenbedingungen zur Kombination, Wiederverwendung und Erweiterung bestehender RDFVokabulare im Social Semantic Web. Hierbei konzentrieren wir uns auf das Anwendungsszenario des Auffindens und Bewerbens von Experten im Web oder Intranet. Wir präsentieren, wie RDF-Vokabulare einerseits und de facto Standardformate andererseits, die von täglich verwendeten Applikationen benutzt werden (z. B. vCard, iCal oder Dublin Core), kombiniert werden können, um konkrete Anwendungsfälle der Expertensuche und zum Management von Expertise zu lösen. Unser Fokus liegt darauf aufzuzeigen, dass für praktische Anwendungsszenarien nicht notwendigerweise neue Ontologien entwickelt werden müssen, sondern der Schlüssel vielmehr in der Integration von bestehenden, weit verbreiteten und sich ergänzenden Formaten zu einem kohärenten Netzwerk von Ontologien liegt. Dieser Ansatz garantiert sowohl direkte Anwendbarkeit von als auch niedrige Einstiegsbarrieren in Semantic Web-Technologien sowie einfache Integrierbarkeit in bestehende Applikationen. Die im Web verfügbaren und verwendeten RDFFormate decken zwar einen großen Bereich der Aspekte zur Beschreibung von Personen und Expertisen ab, zeigen aber auch signifikante Überlappungen. Bisher gibt es wenig systematische Ansätze, um diese Vokabulare zu verbinden, sei es in Form von allgemeingültigen Praktiken, die definieren, wann welches Format zu benutzen ist, oder in Form von Regeln, die Überlappungen zwischen einzelnen Formaten formalisieren. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert, wie bestehende Formate zur Beschreibung von Personen, Organisationen und deren Expertise kombiniert und, wo nötig, erweitert werden können. Darüber hinaus diskutieren wir Regelsprachen zur Beschreibung von Formatüberlappungen sowie deren praktische Verwendbarkeit zur Erstellung eines Ontologie-Netzwerks zur Beschreibung von Experten.

  19. Programme costing of a physical activity programme in primary prevention: should the costs of health asset assessment and participatory programme development count?

    PubMed

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B; Schweikert, Bernd; John, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the "health asset concept", introduced by the WHO, and the "investment for health model" requiring a "participatory approach" of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance.

  20. Overview of noncommunicable disease prevention and control programmes in WHO.

    PubMed

    Chigan, E N

    1991-01-01

    In this plenary symposium paper, the director of WHO's division of noncommunicable diseases reviews the steps taken to organize programmes for the prevention and control of these NCDs. The programmes are either disease oriented, e.g. cancer, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, or factor oriented, e.g. nutritional, anti-tobacco, anti-alcohol. Special attention is paid to the determination of risk factors in a given disease, to the construction of programme models and their initial field testing, and to the recruitment of other international organizations, laboratories and scientists in the drive against NCDs.

  1. Anwendungsgebiete und Nutzen der RFID-Technologie in der Instandhaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Gerhard; Plate, Cathrin

    Im Vergleich zu Fertigungsbereichen, in denen eine Vielzahl von Terminals den Zugriff auf Fertigungsinformationen und Produktionsdaten ermöglichen, sind viele Instandhaltungsbereiche dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Zugriff auf Anlagendaten, Planungs- und operative Informationen nur an wenigen Stationen des Instandhaltungsplanungs- und Steuerungssystems (IPS-System) vollzogen werden kann. Das IPS-System-Spektrum reicht von einfachen MS-Office Produkten über Stand-Alone-Applikationen der Instandhaltung (z. B. IPS-Systeme wie ApiPro oder WartMan) bis hin zu in Warenwirtschaftssysteme integrierten Instandhaltungsmodulen (z. B. SAP-PM).

  2. Digital Transformation Canvas - Übersicht behalten und Handlungsfelder gestalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Michael; Mache, Tobias

    Im Beitrag "Digital Transformation Canvas - Übersicht behalten und Handlungsfelder gestalten" wird zunächst grob auf die wesentlichen Herausforderungen, die mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung einhergehen, eingegangen. Anschließend werden ausgewählte Konzepte des Business Transformation Management vorgestellt, die sich mit der grundlegenden Weiterentwicklung von Organisationen - wie es die Digitalisierung erfordert - auseinandersetzen. Eine detaillierte Einführung in die Methodik des Business Transformation Canvas, der sich mit den unterschiedlichsten Gestaltungsfeldern der Transformation auseinandersetzt und ein Framework für Transformationsprojekte darstellt, rundet den Beitrag ab. Er schließt mit einem Fazit und Ausblick.

  3. Grundlagen und Vollzug der amtlichen Lebensmittelkontrolle in der Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Philipp; Spinner, Christoph

    In der Schweiz wird die Mehrheit der hoheitlichen Aufgaben von den 26 Kantonen, die zusammen die schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft bilden, autonom vollzogen. So liegt zum Beispiel die Kompetenz in den Bereichen Steuern, Gesundheit, Schulen oder Polizei grundsätzlich bei den Kantonen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist die Lebensmittelgesetzgebung national durch eidgenössische Erlasse harmonisiert. Die Vollzugsaufgaben liegen aber auch in diesem Bereich, abgesehen vom Vollzug an der Grenze und von einer nationalen Vollzugsaufsicht und Weisungsberechtigung, in kantonaler Kompetenz. Die Kantone können anhand kantonaler Erlasse das Bundesrecht präzisieren - insbesondere die organisatorischen Aspekte - und Regelungen im nicht harmonisierten Bereich treffen.

  4. [Leben im Eismeer - Tauchuntersuchungen zur Biologie arktischer Meerespflanzen und Meerestiere

    PubMed

    Lippert; Karsten; Wiencke

    2000-01-01

    Die Maske wird nochmals auf Dichtigkeit überprüft, der Knoten der Sicherungsleine mit zwei halben Schlägen fixiert, dann rutscht die Taucherin von der Eiskante in das kalte Wasser. Eine halbe Stunde vergeht, bevor ihr Kopf wieder aus dem Eisloch auftaucht und sie ein großes Sammelnetz nach oben reicht, gefüllt mit verschiedenen Arten von Makroalgen. Obwohl noch große Flächen des Kongsfjordes im arktischen Spitzbergen zugefroren sind und das Festland von einer dicken Schneedecke bedeckt ist, hat unter Wasser in den Algenwäldern bereits der Sommer und damit die Saison der Meeresbiologen begonnen.

  5. Planungsmodelle und Planungsmethoden. Anhaltspunkte zur Strukturierung und Gestaltung von Planungsprozessen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diller, Christian; Karic, Sarah; Oberding, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    The topic of this article ist the question, in which phases oft he political planning process planners apply their methodological set of tools. That for the results of a research-project are presented, which were gained by an examination of planning-cases in learned journals. Firstly it is argued, which model oft he planning-process is most suitable to reflect the regarded cases and how it is positioned to models oft he political process. Thereafter it is analyzed, which types of planning methods are applied in the several stages oft he planning process. The central findings: Although complex, many planning processes can be thouroughly pictured by a linear modell with predominantly simple feedback loops. Even in times of he communicative turn, concerning their set of tools, planners should pay attention to apply not only communicative methods but as well the classical analytical-rational methods. They are helpful especially for the understanding of the political process before and after the actual planning phase.

  6. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  7. Brainstorming: an application for programme planning in family welfare planning.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, T V

    1985-01-01

    There have been many participatory devices developed and applied for programme planning in a variety of fields by the social scientists in the recent past, of which brainstorming is one. This device has been widely used in interpretive structural modelling to higher education programme planning, programme planning for housing in urban development, etc. Following these studies, application of brainstorming to develop a preliminary operational value system as a structural model for programme planning in Family planning was attempted. The products of a sequence of three sessions of approximately 5 hours each generated 39 needs, 28 alterables, and 22 constraints, all of which were used to set Family Planning objectives /34/. The objectives thus derived were used in building an intent structure to understand their priorities in plan formulation and eventual implementation.

  8. Glaucoma expert patient programme and ocular hypotensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Amro, Raed; Cox, Carol L; Waddington, Kathryn; Siriwardena, Dilani

    Expert patient programmes (EPPs) are becoming an increasingly important aspect of chronic disease management, resulting in improved health outcomes for patients. Patients with chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) require lifelong therapy. However, to date, no EPPs have been designed specifically for patients with chronic eye conditions like COAG. This article describes the development and implementation of the Glaucoma Expert Patient Programme (GEPP), a glaucoma-specific educational self-management programme which aims to improve glaucoma patients' knowledge, self-management skills, expectations and adherence to treatment. A review of theoretical frameworks and models which underpin the design, use and conduct of EPPs was undertaken, and the GEPP was designed based on the model by Kate Lorig (2003). The result is an educational programme which offers COAG patients a different perspective on their condition and supports them with knowledge, skills and strategies to better manage their condition on a daily basis.

  9. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  10. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  11. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  12. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    antigenpräsentierender Zellen verantwortlich sein. Durch die Modifikation einer Methode zur intrazellulären IFN-gamma Färbung konnten in vakzinierten Mäusen tumorantigenspezifische CTL sensitiv und quantitativ detektiert werden. Die so bestimmte CTL-Frequenz, nicht jedoch die humorale Antwort, korrelierte mit der in vivo Wirksamkeit der verschiedenen Vakzinen: DNA vakzinierte Tiere entwickeln starke tumorantigenspezifische CTL-Antworten, wohingegen in MVA-vakzinierten Tieren überwiegend gegen virale Epitope gerichtete CD4 und CD8-T-Zellen detektiert wurden. Die Wirksamkeit der pCI-DNA-Vakzine spricht für die Weiterentwicklung in weiteren präklinischen Mausmodellen, beispielsweise unter Verwendung von MUC1 oder HLA-A2 transgenen Mäusen. Die Methoden zur Detektion Tumorantigen-spezifischer CTL in 96-Loch-Mikrotiterplatten können dabei zur systematischen Suche nach im Menschen immundominanten T-Zell-Epitopen im Muzin-Molekül genutzt werden. Der durchgeführte Vergleich der auf den Vektoren pCI und MVA basierenden Vakzinen und die Analyse neuerer Publikationen führen zu dem Ergebniss, daß vor allem DNA-Vakzinen in Zukunft eine wichtige Rolle bei der Entwicklung von aktiven Tumorimpfstoffen spielen werden. Rekombinante MVA-Viren, eventuell in Kombination mit DNA- oder anderen Vektoren, haben sich dagegen in zahlreichen Studien als wirksame Impfstoffe zur Kontrolle von durch Pathogene hervorgerufenen Infektionserkrankungen erwiesen. In this study, tumor vaccines based on the plasmid pCI, the attenuated vaccinia virus strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and MVA-infected dendritic cells were constructed and characterized by sequencing, Western blot and flow cytometric analysis. The efficiency to induce tumor immunity in vivo was compared in several C57BL/6 mouse tumor models. Naked DNA Vaccination based on the eukaryotic expression vector pCI did induce very effective, antigen-specific and long-term protection against tumor cell lines expressing mucin, CEA or

  13. Wesentliche Geräuschquellen im Fahrzeug und deren Charakterisierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Klaus; Snitil, Bernhard; Wolff, Klaus; Handel, Rainer; Krüger, Jan; Gauterin, Frank; Helfer, Martin; Brass, Otto

    Der Motor ist die Kraftquelle des Fahrzeugs. Leider klingt er nicht immer so. Viele Funktionsgeräusche dieses maschinenbaulichen Konstrukts gilt es zu besänftigen und das psychoakustisch wirksame Potential an die Fahrgastzelle anzubinden.

  14. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  15. Konstruieren von Pkw-Karosserien: Grundlagen, Elemente und Baugruppen, Vorschriftenübersicht, Beispiele mit CATIA V4 und V5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Jörg; Nothhaft, Richard

    Die Faszination, die vom Auto ausgeht, ist und bleibt ungebrochen. Entsprechend interessant ist es, sich vor dem Hintergrund konventioneller Konstruktionstechniken über die virtuelle Produktentwicklung von Pkw-Karosserien an modernen CAD-Arbeitsplätzen informieren zu können. Die Autoren führen in die Grundlagen ein und zeigen anhand von Beispielen und zahlreichen Abbildungen, wie mit dem System CATIA der Rohbau sowie die Ausstattung innen und au=C3=9Fen konstruiert werden. Darüber hinaus wird das so genannte "Package" an Beispielen beschrieben, also das Management und die Harmonisierung der Anforderungen an die Bauräume (z.

  16. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  17. [Programmes against depression].

    PubMed

    Taleb, M; Rouillon, F; Hegerl, U; Hamdani, N; Gorwood, Ph

    2006-01-01

    frequently criticized, as this may reduce efficacy. A multilevel approach is crucial for the success of action programmes against depression, because synergistic effects can be expected. In Germany, the "Nürnberger Bündnis gegen Depression" project was based on four levels, and effectively reduced the suicide rate. These levels of action included "cooperation with GPs", such as training sessions based on video, and presence of a phone hotline, "public relations activities", "training sessions for multipliers", such as priests, social workers and media, and "special offers for high risk groups and self-help activities". In France, such a program is clearly required.

  18. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  19. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  20. PMD basierte Fahrspurerkennung und -Verfolgung für Fahrerassistenzsysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumpp, T.; Schamm, T.; Bergmann, S.; Zöllner, J. M.; Dillmann, R.

    In diesem Artikel wird ein System zur Verfolgung von Fahrspuren unter Verwendung von PMD-Kameras vorgestellt. Er gibt einen überblick über die Auswertung der Intensitäts- und Tiefenbilder dieses Sensors in einem System zur fremdlichtunabhängigen Fahrspurverfolgung. Ein Kaiman-Filter wird verwendet, um neben den Fahrspurparametern auch die Position und Orientierung des Fahrzeugs relativ zur Fahrspur zu schätzten.

  1. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  2. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  3. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  4. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen. © 2016 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  5. Modifications of und rbcS in und Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 resulted in high CO sub 2 requiring mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.; Liehman-Hurwitz, J.; Martinez, F.; Reinhold, L.; Kaplan, A. )

    1990-05-01

    High CO{sub 2} requiring mutants (HCR), capable of growing in the presence of kanamycin, were obtained following transformation with a construct containing {und nptII} in the coding region of rbcS (encoding for the small subunit (SS) of Rubisco). The apparent photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon was very low in mutant EK6 whereas in mutant JR12 it was only slightly lower than in high-CO{sub 2}-grown wild type. Southern analysis indicated double crossing over in the case of EK6. In mutant JR12 Southern analysis revealed some rearrangement and a deletion of a region downstream fro {und rbcS}. Western analysis demonstrated normal SS in JR12 but a larger (by about 3 kD) SS in EK6. Sequence analysis indicated that the latter was the result of fusion between {und rbcS} and the flanking region of {und nptII}.

  6. Study of radiation induced cancers in a breast screening programme.

    PubMed

    León, A; Verdú, G; Cuevas, M D; Salas, M D; Villaescusa, J I; Bueno, F

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk, the most important being the late somatic effect of the induction of cancer. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the risk to the population produced by the Comunidad Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriments are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X ray equipment. On the other hand the radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains in the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography units' doses and average compression breast thickness. Finally, risk comparison between a screening programme starting at 45 years old and another one starting at 50 years old is made.

  7. Hospital simulated patient programme: a guide.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jenny; Hodgson, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Many university courses employ simulated patients to work with students in the development of communication skills. Our challenge was to build a sustainable programme that could be adapted for medical, nursing and allied health staff, and groups of students, on our hospital campus. In recognition of the need to provide practice opportunities for junior medical staff to hone their capacity to communicate effectively with parents, we employed professional actors who are also qualified teachers. Junior doctors have multiple opportunities over their training time to work one-to-one with an actor-tutor in the role of simulated parent. The simulated parents are skilled in helping the trainees reflect on the conversation, and the trainees are given a recording of their sessions for further reflection and feedback from a colleague. This model has been adapted to meet the 'topic' needs and scheduling requirements of other staff and hospital-based student groups. In adapting the original medical staff programme, we came to appreciate not only the logistical but also the ethical considerations inherent in a simulated parent/patient programme. Our guide highlights the importance of safeguarding the educational integrity of the design, maintaining the fidelity of the simulations and ensuring the safety of all involved. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  8. THORPEX: A Global Atmospheric Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A.; Shapiro, M.

    2003-04-01

    THORPEX: A Global Atmospheric Research Programme is a ten-year international programme designed to accelerate improvements in short-range (up to 3 days), medium-range (3 to 7 days) and extended-range (week two) weather predictions, and to establish the societal &economic value of advanced forecast products. The programme builds upon ongoing advances within the basic-research and operational-forecasting and communities. These include: advances in the science of atmospheric predictability; new observing and data assimilation techniques; relentless advances in computational technology; improved models; increasing needs of society for weather forecast information. The integration of these advances, together with the concept of using the weather prediction system to determine when, where and what observations will lead to the greatest improvement in forecasts, offers a new paradigm in weather prediction; namely a dynamically controlled, two-way interactive, process encompassing the forecast system and societal needs. This is the THORPEX Paradigm. It applies to weather predictions out to two weeks and beyond, for which the prediction of local high-impact weather is strongly dependent on global-to-regional atmospheric and oceanic structure and the associated dynamical processes. THORPEX plans and ongoing research will be presented.

  9. Strömungs- und Tracer-Transportmodellierung am Natural Attenuation-Standort Zeitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gödeke, Stefan; Weiß, Holger; Geistlinger, Helmut; Fischer, Anko; Richnow, Hans Herrmann; Schirmer, Mario

    Kurzfassung Numerische Modelle spielen bei der Bewertung von Natural-Attenuation-Prozessen an Feldstandorten eine bedeutende Rolle. Daher ist es wichtig diese mit Felddaten zu überprüfen und gegebenenfalls erneut zu kalibrieren. Die Modellierung des Transports eines konservativen Tracers auf der Grundlage von Felddaten ergab eine zuverlässigere Abschätzung der Kf-Werte des numerischen Strömungsmodells für den Standort, als es mit anderen Methoden (z. B. Analyse der Siebwerte) möglich war. Die Kf-Werte berechnet aus Siebanalysen führten zu einer deutlichen Unterschätzung der Tracerausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit. Zwischen beobachteten und berechneten Durchbruchskurven wurde eine gute Übereinstimmung erzielt, sodass das Modell für die Planung weiterer Feldexperimente und als Grundlage für eine reaktive Transportmodellierung genutzt werden kann. Die hydraulischen Leitfähigkeiten im Untersuchungsgebiet ändern sich in vertikaler und horizontaler Richtung im Bereich weniger Dezimeter z. T. stark, was von dem numerischen Modell nur begrenzt wiedergegeben werden kann. Für die Modellierung der Tracerausbreitung ist die Kenntnis der Kf-Wert-Verteilung im Bereich des Infiltrationsbrunnens besonders wichtig, weil sie die Struktur der Tracerfahne im Abstrom wesentlich beeinflusst. Die Wahl des numerischen Verfahrens für die Lösung der Transportgleichung hatte bei der Kalibrierung des Strömungsmodells einen großen Einfluss. Während mit dem in MT3DMS vorhandenen TVD (〝Total Variation Diminishing``)-Algorithmus eine akzeptable Lösung gefunden wurde, zeigten sich bei der Verwendung des MOC (〝Method of Characteristics``)-Verfahrens signifikante Fehler in der Massenbilanz. Reliable numerical models are of primary importance for the evaluation of Natural-Attenuation processes at field sites. Modelling the flow and transport of a conservative tracer, a more realistic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity values for the numerical model was achieved and a good

  10. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  11. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  12. The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: New Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, D. E.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme, one of the tree research Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GAW) is the only existing long-term international global programme that coordinates observations and analysis of atmospheric composition changes. The GAW Programme builds on a partnership of more than 100 countries. Within its 25 years of existence WMO/GAW has matured to the system that provides reliable long-term high quality observations in support of international policy making. WMO/GAW includes globally coordinated observational network, complemented by a comprehensive quality assurance system and capacity development. In spite of the fact that GAW has embraced the IGACO strategy (Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations), the programme in its current form still has a strong observational bias. Future development of WMO/GAW requires the further evolution of the programme concept toward "science for services". New challenges call for the changes in the GAW station requirements and data managements, for new approaches to collaboration with the contributing networks and better involvement of the modelling community. The programme structure is evolving to streamline better to user requirements with the move from precipitation chemistry to total deposition and from near-real-time data delivery to applications (modeling) requiring such data delivery. The updated concept of GAW will include more cross-cutting applications. A new category of local station is introduced to help with the verification of some applications including those related to urban areas and the impacts of urban complexes regionally and globally. The evolution of the GAW Programme towards user driven cross-cutting applications provides a new opportunity to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in partnership with other science - based institutions to increase their relevance to society.

  13. [Introduction of a centralised system (Service) for collecting clinical data in cancer screening programmes in Piedmont (Northern Italy): a pre-post assessment of a hub&spoke model].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Federica; Giubilato, Pamela; Larato, Cristina; Caprioglio, Adele; Tomatis, Mariano; Calcagno, Marco; Casella, Denise; Di Leo, Aurora; Ponti, Antonio; Ronco, Guglielmo; Segnan, Nereo; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    evaluation of a centralised collection of clinical data (Service) within cancer screening programmes in Piedmont based on a hub&spoke model and its impact on process indicators. assessment of an organisational intervention, through a non-controlled pre-post design. organised screening programmes within the Piedmont Region, divided into 9 departments. clinical data (extracted from medical charts for mammography screening and from excision histology reports for cervical screening) obtained through the Service were quantified and their completeness was assessed. The Service impact on the detection rate (DR) was evaluated, comparing the DR pre- (2005-2008) and post-Service (2009- 2012) within breast screening; the DR was computed through histological diagnosis made during colposcopy (pre-Service method) or through the worst diagnosis between the latter and that reported from excision histology (post-Service method) within cervical screening (data available for department 1, year 2013). Some hints on human resources employed in pre- and post-Service periods were reported. within mammography screening, the Service obtained 53.1% of extra-department medical charts and 45.8% of extra-region ones; the percentage of missing diagnoses changed from 5.5% (pre- Service) to 3.7% (post-Service). The age standardised DR for malignant tumours in the post-Service period is 1.3 times the DR of the pre-Service period per 1,000 screening tests. Within cervical screening, 51.7% of histological reports was recorded. Crude DR for high-grade lesions changed from 3.9 (pre-Service) to 4.7 (post-Service) per 1,000 screened women. The system centralisation did not imply an increase in the dedicated personnel. the Service is an operational core which coordinates the collection of clinical data, impacting on process indicators without an increase in human resources at departmental level.

  14. Graduates' satisfaction with and attitudes towards a master programme in dental public health.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Jaskiran; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa Karina; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-03-26

    Monitoring graduates' views of their learning experiences is important to ensure programme standards and further improvement. This study evaluated graduates' satisfaction with and attitudes towards a Master programme in Dental Public Health. An online questionnaire was sent to individuals who completed successfully the Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health at King's College London Dental Institute and had a valid email address. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, satisfaction with and attitudes towards the programme. Satisfaction and attitudes scores were compared by demographic characteristics using multiple linear regression models. Satisfaction scores with the programme were high, with 92% of respondents reporting the programme had met or exceeded their expectations. Learning resources and quality of teaching and learning were the aspects of the programme graduates were most satisfied with. The main motivations for taking the programme were to progress in career path and improve employment prospects. As for attitudes, 70.7% of respondents would recommend this course to a colleague or a friend. There were no significant differences in satisfaction and attitude scores by graduates' demographic background. Graduates were satisfied with most aspects of the programme and reported positive attitudes towards it. This study highlights the value of using graduates' views for programme's improvement and the need for a regular monitoring of the programme.

  15. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  16. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  17. [Standardised primary care of multiple trauma patients. Prehospital Trauma Life Support und Advanced Trauma Life Support].

    PubMed

    Wölfl, C G; Gliwitzky, B; Wentzensen, A

    2009-10-01

    Standardised management improves treatment results in seriously injured patients. For conditions like stroke or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) there are set treatment pathways which have been established for prehospital and primary hospital care. The treatment of critical trauma patients, however, follows varying procedures in both the prehospital and primary hospital phases. From an analysis of the trauma register of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU), we know that a seriously injured patient remains on the road for 70 min on average before transferral to hospital. This requires improvement. With the 2003 introduction of the ATLS programme in Germany, the initial clinical phase could be improved upon simply by means of standardised training. PHTLS und ATLS complement one another. PHTLS und ATLS represent training concepts which teach standardised, priority-based prehospital and hospital trauma management. The aim is to make an initial rapid and accurate assessment of the patient's condition, thereby identifying the"critical" patient. The concepts also make priority-based treatment possible and facilitate decision-making as to whether patients can receive further on-the-spot treatment or whether immediate transport is necessary. The procedure is identical in the shock room. The primary consideration is to prevent secondary damage, not to lose track of time and to ensure consistent quality of care. The courses teach systematic knowledge, techniques, skills and conduct in diagnosis and therapy. The courses are oriented to all medical specialities associated with trauma care. With the support of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU) and the German Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine (DGAI), the German Professional Organisation of Rescue Services (DBRD) has adopted the PHTLS course system on licence from the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) and the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and has been offering it in

  18. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-01-01

    base. Prospectively articulating theory aided by existing models and mid-range implementation theories may strengthen guideline adoption efforts by prompting planners to scrutinise implementation methods. Benefits of deriving programme theory, with or without the aid of mid-range implementation theories, however, may be limited when the evidence underpinning guidelines is flawed.

  19. Verbesserte Ausbildung für neue Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure - eine wichtige Investition in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Oliver

    Bedingt durch die Globalisierung und die damit einhergehende Verschärfung des Wettbewerbs befinden sich die Produktionsbetriebe der chemischen Industrie in stetigem Wandel. Für Betriebsleiter und Betriebsingenieure werden damit Fähigkeiten wie Kostenmanagement, Sozial- und Organisationskompetenz, Führungsqualifikationen und unternehmerisches Handeln immer wichtiger. Neben den Anforderungsprofilen bei Neueinstellungen ist dies auch bei der Fortbildung zu berücksichtigen. Das Trainingsprogramm der Evonik Degussa wurde daher durch die Konzeption neuer Seminare und die Anpassung bestehender Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen weiterentwickelt. Neben Vorträgen und Fallbeispielen sind ebenfalls die Durchführung von Planspielen sowie das Kennenlernen eines Produktionsbetriebes einer anderen Organisationseinheit enthalten. Ziel ist es vor allem die unternehmerische Orientierung neuer Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure zu fördern, die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit zu erhöhen und durch Kenntnis und Nutzung bereits anderweitig entwickelter Lösungen und Methoden die Produktivität zu steigern. Die Produktionsmeister werden aufgrund der Bedeutung dieser Funktion für die Führung der Mitarbeiter und bei der Umsetzung von Veränderungsprojekten in das Ausbildungsprogramm einbezogen. Der Erfolg des Trainingsprogramms zeigt sich an den Teilnehmerzahlen und den ausgesprochen positiven Rückmeldungen.

  20. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Band VI/1. Documenta Copernicana: Briefe (Texte und Übersetzungen).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, A.

    Im Auftrage der Kommission für die Copernicus-Gesamtausgabe, herausgegeben von H. M. Nobis und M. Folkerts. Band VI/1 wurde bearbeitet von A. Kühne unter Mitarbeit von F. Boockmann und S. Kirschner und Verwendung der Vorarbeiten von H. M. Nobis.

  1. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  2. Klein's programme and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Gallardo, Jesús; Marmo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    We review the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics to identify, according to Klein's programme, the corresponding group of transformations. For closed systems, it is the unitary group. For open quantum systems, the semigroup of Kraus maps contains, as a maximal subgroup, the general linear group. The same group emerges as the exponentiation of the C*-algebra associated with the quantum system, when thought of as a Lie algebra. Thus, open quantum systems seem to identify the general linear group as associated with quantum mechanics and moreover suggest to extend the Klein programme also to groupoids. The usual unitary group emerges as a maximal compact subgroup of the general linear group.

  3. NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

  4. Rethinking programme evaluation in health professions education: beyond 'did it work?'.

    PubMed

    Haji, Faizal; Morin, Marie-Paule; Parker, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    For nearly 40 years, outcome-based models have dominated programme evaluation in health professions education. However, there is increasing recognition that these models cannot address the complexities of the health professions context and studies employing alternative evaluation approaches that are appearing in the literature. A similar paradigm shift occurred over 50 years ago in the broader discipline of programme evaluation. Understanding the development of contemporary paradigms within this field provides important insights to support the evolution of programme evaluation in the health professions. In this discussion paper, we review the historical roots of programme evaluation as a discipline, demonstrating parallels with the dominant approach to evaluation in the health professions. In tracing the evolution of contemporary paradigms within this field, we demonstrate how their aim is not only to judge a programme's merit or worth, but also to generate information for curriculum designers seeking to adapt programmes to evolving contexts, and researchers seeking to generate knowledge to inform the work of others. From this evolution, we distil seven essential elements of educational programmes that should be evaluated to achieve the stated goals. Our formulation is not a prescriptive method for conducting programme evaluation; rather, we use these elements as a guide for the development of a holistic 'programme of evaluation' that involves multiple stakeholders, uses a combination of available models and methods, and occurs throughout the life of a programme. Thus, these elements provide a roadmap for the programme evaluation process, which allows evaluators to move beyond asking whether a programme worked, to establishing how it worked, why it worked and what else happened. By engaging in this process, evaluators will generate a sound understanding of the relationships among programmes, the contexts in which they operate, and the outcomes that result from them

  5. Peer mentoring: evaluation of a novel programme in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Sarah; Sukhani, Seema; Brightwell, Alex; Stoneham, Sara; Long, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Mentoring is important for personal and professional development of doctors. Peer mentoring is a core skill in the UK paediatric postgraduate curriculum. However, there is a paucity of peer mentoring programmes aimed at postgraduate doctors in training (postgraduate trainees), and there are no such schemes within paediatrics described in the literature. We developed a regional peer mentoring programme for postgraduate trainees in paediatrics to assess demand and need for peer mentoring and to explore the benefits for both peer mentees and mentors. Junior postgraduate trainees, randomly selected from volunteers, received peer mentoring from more senior trainees for 1 year. Peer mentors were selected by competitive application and undertook tailored training followed by an experiential learning programme. The programme was evaluated using structured questionnaires. 90% (76/84) of first-year postgraduate trainees in paediatrics applied to participate, demonstrating high demand. 18 peer mentor-mentee pairs were matched. Peer mentors and mentees reported high satisfaction rates, acquisition of new and transferable skills and changed behaviours. All peer mentors intended to use the skills in their workplace and, later, as an educational supervisor. Our programme represents a novel approach to meeting the demonstrated demand and the curriculum requirement for peer mentoring, and enabled peer mentors and mentees to develop a valuable and versatile skill set. To our knowledge, it is the first such programme in paediatrics and provides a feasibility model that may be adapted locally to allow education providers to offer this important experience to postgraduate trainees.

  6. Translating the family medicine vision into educational programmes in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Teck Yee; Cheong, Seng Kwing; Koh, Gerald Ch; Goh, Lee Gan

    2008-05-01

    The core of the Family Medicine (FM) vision is patient-centred care, requiring specific education and vocational training. We traced how FM education started and what have been achieved. FM training began in 1971 with the formation of the College of General Practitioners Singapore. Previously, training consisted of self-directed learning, lunchtime talks and examination preparation courses run by hospital specialists. Formal FM vocational training programmes in the United Kingdom and Australia provided the model for a 3-year programme in 1988. The tripartite relationship between the local university, College of Family Physicians and Ministry of Health, together with a structured training programme, contributed to its success. To date, more than 240 Family Physicians in Singapore have been awarded the Masters in Medicine (FM) degree. The Graduate Diploma in Family Medicine programme (GDFM) was introduced in 2000 for Family Physicians who wished to practice at an enhanced level. This programme has trained 194 doctors since then. Behind the scenes, the following were important developments: counterculture with a difference, tripartite stake-holding, training the trainers and learning from others. For the FM undergraduate programme, our aim is to develop the knowledge base, core values and roles of the Family Physician. Sustaining the value of Family Medicine as a career choice is the enduring vision.

  7. Stretch not flex: programmable rubber keyboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daniel; Tairych, Andreas; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    Stretchability is a property that brings versatility and design freedom to human interface devices. We present a soft, flexible and stretchable keyboard made from a dielectric elastomer sensor sheet. Using a multi-frequency capacitance sensing technique based on a transmission line model, we demonstrate how this keyboard can detect touch in two dimensions, programmable to increase the number of keys and into different layouts, all without adding any new wires, connections or modifying the hardware. The method is efficient and scalable for large sensing systems with multiple degrees of freedom.

  8. Toward Understanding the Cognitive Processes of Software Design in Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    This study provides insights with regard to the types of cognitive processes that are involved in the formation of mental models and the way those models change over the course of a semester in novice programmers doing a design task. Eight novice programmers participated in this study for three distinct software design sessions, using the same…

  9. Toward Understanding the Cognitive Processes of Software Design in Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    This study provides insights with regard to the types of cognitive processes that are involved in the formation of mental models and the way those models change over the course of a semester in novice programmers doing a design task. Eight novice programmers participated in this study for three distinct software design sessions, using the same…

  10. Classification of Staff Development Programmes and Effects Perceived by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rijdt, Catherine; Dochy, Filip; Bamelis, Sofie; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions offer diverse staff development programmes to allow staff members to keep up with educational innovations and to guarantee educational quality. The current study investigates by means of a survey and semi-structured interviews whether the teacher perceives staff development as a management model, a shop-floor model or a…

  11. Classification of Staff Development Programmes and Effects Perceived by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rijdt, Catherine; Dochy, Filip; Bamelis, Sofie; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions offer diverse staff development programmes to allow staff members to keep up with educational innovations and to guarantee educational quality. The current study investigates by means of a survey and semi-structured interviews whether the teacher perceives staff development as a management model, a shop-floor model or a…

  12. Simulation of Population Processes with a Programmable Pocket Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, N. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a set of simulation models for use in teaching population dynamics. These models are designed specifically for use with a programmable pocket calculator, and can be used to demonstrate growth of populations with discrete or overlapping generations and also to explore effects of density-dependent and -independent mortality. (Author/CS)

  13. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  14. Establishing a workplace antiretroviral therapy programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, S; Grant, A D; Day, J H; Pemba, L; Chaisson, R E; Kruger, P; Martin, D; Wood, R; Brink, B; Churchyard, G J

    2007-01-01

    Ways to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low income settings are being sought. We describe an HIV care programme including ART in an industrial setting in South Africa. The programme uses guidelines derived from local and international best practice. The training component aims to build capacity among health care staff. Nurses and doctors are supported by experienced HIV clinicians through telephone consultation and site visits. Patients undergo a three-stage counselling procedure prior to starting ART. Drug regimens and monitoring are standardised and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (isoniazid and cotrimoxazole) is offered routinely. Laboratory and pharmacy services, using named-patient dispensing, are centralized. The programme is designed to ensure that data on clinical and economic outcomes will be available for programme evaluation. Between November 2002-December 2004, ART delivery has been established at 70 ART workplace ART sites. The sites range from 200 to 12000 employees, and from small occupational health clinics and general practitioner rooms to larger hospital clinics. During this period, 2456 patients began ART. Of those on treatment for at least three months, 1728 (78%) have been retained on the programme and only 38 (1.7%) patients have failed the first-line ART regimen. This model for delivery of ART is feasible and successful in an industrial setting. The model may be generalizable to other employment health services in settings of high HIV prevalence, and as a model for implementing ART in other types of health-care settings.

  15. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models: Global and Arctic Black Carbon Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, Rashed; von Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin

    2016-06-22

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region while Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with CanAM (NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. The relative contribution of wet and dry deposition rates in removing BC varies seasonally and is one of the major factors causing seasonal variations in BC burdens in the Arctic. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform (layer) clouds whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  16. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Yang, Shu; Yi, Yun Kyu; Kamien, Randall D; Yin, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy-saving buildings, is discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes

    PubMed Central

    Ovretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-01-01

    

 In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994

  18. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  19. STALK programmers guide

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Hallstrom, P.; Reeder, G.; Walenz, B.; Stevens, F.; Facello, M.

    1996-07-01

    STALK is a system that models molecular docking between two proteins. A problem is posed as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the intermolecular interaction energy between the two molecules. The possible number of conformations between the two molecules can be very large. A parallel genetic algorithm (GA) is used to explore the conformation space and identify the low-energy molecular configurations. The CAVE, a virtual reality environment, can be used to visualize and interact with the system while it is executing. STALK consists of two programs: stalk.ga, the docking program that runs the GA, and stalk. cave, the visualization program. The visualization component is optional.

  20. Modeling, Simulation and Implementation of a Non-Coherent Binary-Frequency-Shift-Keying (BFSK) Receiver-Transmitter into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    software, which inter- faces with the Altera Quartus® II design software to program the FPGA . Chapter II gives a brief history of FPGAs , discusses the...Figure 14. Square Wave Source . In order for a Simulink model design to be con- verted to VHDL , the model has to establish the input and output...than the modulation. The only re- source that was more than 10% used was the M4K memory blocks at 37%. The board can easily hold the coding and even

  1. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  2. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  3. Anti-bullying interventions at school: aspects of programme adaptation and critical issues for further programme development.

    PubMed

    Stevens, V; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Van Oost, P

    2001-06-01

    Recently, a growing interest in problems at school of peer aggression and victimization was observed. As a result, intervention strategies appropriate for this kind of problem were required. The Norwegian anti-bullying intervention that was developed and evaluated by Olweus (1992) in the region of Bergen was considered to be a good model for other countries to implement interventions against peer aggression within the school environment. It was therefore adapted to the educational settings of other countries. This paper aims to discuss the adaptation processes of the Bergen anti-bullying programme and to give guidelines to advance further programme development. For this, the DFE Sheffield Bullying Project (Smith and Sharp, 1994), the Anti-bullying Intervention in Toronto schools (Pepler et al., 1994) and the Flemish anti-bullying project (Stevens and Van Oost, 1994) were considered in the analyses. Discussion of the adaptation processes of the Bergen model programme revealed that the adapted interventions largely succeeded in incorporating the core components of the Bergen model programme, taking into account the characteristics of the implementation environment. This suggests that for bully/victim interventions, the dilemma of programme fidelity and programme adaptation could be solved adequately. However, from a health promotion perspective, some critical issues for programme improvement were observed. Three suggestions for change were made, indicating that anti-bullying actions at schools may benefit from: (i) a clear overview of the learning objectives, specified per target population; (ii) more attention to parental involvement and family interventions; and (iii) additional information about the adoption processes of the anti-bullying interventions within schools.

  4. Principles of Development of Model Health Care Programmes. Report on a WHO Meeting. (Turku, Finland, May 3-6, 1982). EURO Reports and Studies 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A report is given of the work of a group convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the issues related to the development of Model Health Care Programs (MHCPs), and to apply the principles thus identified to the case of a specific health problem--low back pain. A discussion of the principles of the development of MHCPs includes…

  5. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  6. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  7. Principles of Development of Model Health Care Programmes. Report on a WHO Meeting. (Turku, Finland, May 3-6, 1982). EURO Reports and Studies 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    A report is given of the work of a group convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the issues related to the development of Model Health Care Programs (MHCPs), and to apply the principles thus identified to the case of a specific health problem--low back pain. A discussion of the principles of the development of MHCPs includes…

  8. Planning and Implementation Framework for a Hybrid E-Learning Model: The Context of a Part-Time LIS Postgraduate Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Leelien Ken

    2010-01-01

    E-learning and traditional classroom learning have been combined to deliver library and information science (LIS) education. However, the framework for planning and implementing a hybrid e-learning model is unclear in the literature. Using a routines-based perspective, e-learning opportunities were explored through identifying the internal…

  9. Heart failure management programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, T; Strömberg, A; De Geest, S; Fridlund, B; Heikkila, J; Mårtensson, J; Moons, P; Scholte op Reimer, W; Smith, K; Stewart, S; Thompson, D R

    2006-09-01

    The ESC guidelines recommend that an organised system of specialist heart failure (HF) care should be established to improve outcomes of HF patients. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the number and the content of HF management programmes in Europe. A two-phase descriptive study was conducted: an initial screening to identify the existence of HF management programmes; and a survey to describe the content in countries where at least 30% of the hospitals had a programme. Of the 43 European countries approached, 26 (60%) estimated the percentage of HF management programmes. Seven countries reported that they had such programmes in more than 30% of their hospitals. Of the 673 hospitals responding to the questionnaire, 426 (63%) had a HF management programme. Half of the programmes (n = 205) were located in an outpatient clinic. In the UK a combination of hospital and home-based programmes was common (75%). The most programmes included physical examination, telephone consultation, patient education, drug titration and diagnostic testing. Most (89%) programmes involved nurses and physicians. Multi-disciplinary teams were active in 56% of the HF programmes. The most prominent differences between the 7 countries were the degree of collaboration with home care and GP's, the role in palliative care and the funding. Only a few European countries have a large number of organised programmes for HF care and follow up. To improve outcomes of HF patients throughout Europe more effort should be taken to increase the number of these programmes in all countries.

  10. Aufnahme, Analyse und Visualisierung von Bewegungen nativer Herzklappen in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Oliver; Friedl, Sven; Kondruweit, Markus; Wittenberg, Thomas

    Die hohe Zahl an Transplantationen von Herzklappen und viele nötige Re-Operationen machen eine detaillierte Analyse der Strömungen und Klappenbewegungen klinisch interessant. Ein neuer Ansatz ist hierbei der Einsatz von Hochgeschwindigkeitskameras um Bewegungsabl äufe der Herzklappen beobachten und auswerten zu können. Die hohen Datenraten erfordern allerdings eine möglichst automatisierte Analyse und möglichst komprimierte Darstellung des Schwingungsverhaltens. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, bei dem Bewegungen nativer Herzklappen in-vitro aufgenommen, analysiert und kompakt visualisiert werden.

  11. Modellgestützte Ladedruck- und Abgasrückführ-Regelung von Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Pfeil, Karl

    Zur Erfüllung der Abgasgesetzgebung bei gleichzeitiger hoher Fahrleistung und Beschleunigung sind moderne Pkw-Dieselmotoren mit externer Abgasrückführung (AGR) und mit Abgasturbolader mit variabler Turbinengeometrie (VTG) ausgestattet, siehe Bild 10-1. Der über ein Ventil stellbare AGR-Massenstrom wird zur Senkung der Stickoxidemissionen eingesetzt und der Turbolader wird hauptsächlich zur Steigerung des Ladedrucks und damit zur Leistungssteigerung verwendet. Mittels VTG wird der Turbolader an den Motorbetriebspunkt angepasst. Hierzu wird über einen elektrisch oder pneumatisch betätigten Aktor die Turbinenleitschaufelstellung und damit die wirksame Turbinenströmung verstellt.

  12. Wie LCC-Management die Produktionstechnik und die Instandhaltung verändert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Manfred

    Die zunehmende Komplexität von Produktionsanlagen und deren steigende Investitionssummen erfordern eine intensive Nutzung und überschaubare Folgekosten, zum Beispiel in der Instandhaltung. Um diese Ziele beim Investitionsvorgang von Anlagen effizienter als in der Vergangenheit zu gestalten sind Organisationsverfahren wie Life Cycle Cost Management (LCC-Management) bzw. Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) sinnvoll. Dieser Beitrag zeigt, wie Hersteller und Betreiber bis heute mit diesen Verfahren die Auslegung und das Betriebsverhalten von Anlagen entwickeln, deren reduzierten Instandhaltungsaufwand prognostizieren und die Leistungen zum Vorteil beider Vertragspartner steigern.

  13. Global Geospace Science Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  14. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  15. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  16. [Epidemiological methods for evaluating screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jørn

    2014-06-09

    The effect of screening programmes must be estimated before the programmes are implemented. Usually, the evaluation includes randomized trials if possible but even a large randomized trial will have limitations and need not estimate effects properly under routine conditions.

  17. Evaluation of kidney transplantation programmes using system simulation.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Prasanna; Kumar, S Saravana; Rao, K Suryaprakasa

    2012-06-01

    In the case of kidney transplantations, there is always a serious imbalance between the number of kidneys donated for transplantation and the number of persons wishing to receive a transplant. This not only affects the quality of life of those unable to obtain a transplant, but it also has important repercussions on the treatment of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) by transplantation and dialysis. Also there are a number of ways in which the kidney transplantation can be achieved, such as the cadaveric kidney transplantation, live donor kidney transplantation, kidney paired donation and list exchange. A simulation study of all the referred programmes is performed using simulation models developed for each programme to obtain the better estimate of the average waiting time of a patient per year. With the estimates given by the simulation models, the best serving programme for each blood type patient is selected, declared and recommended.

  18. Stated Uptake of Physical Activity Rewards Programmes Among Active and Insufficiently Active Full-Time Employees.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Semra; Bilger, Marcel; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2017-04-22

    Employers are increasingly relying on rewards programmes in an effort to promote greater levels of activity among employees; however, if enrolment in these programmes is dominated by active employees, then they are unlikely to be a good use of resources. This study uses a stated-preference survey to better understand who participates in rewards-based physical activity programmes, and to quantify stated uptake by active and insufficiently active employees. The survey was fielded to a national sample of 950 full-time employees in Singapore between 2012 and 2013. Participants were asked to choose between hypothetical rewards programmes that varied along key dimensions and whether or not they would join their preferred programme if given the opportunity. A mixed logit model was used to analyse the data and estimate predicted uptake for specific programmes. We then simulated employer payments based on predictions for the percentage of each type of employee likely to meet the activity goal. Stated uptake ranged from 31 to 67% of employees, depending on programme features. For each programme, approximately two-thirds of those likely to enrol were insufficiently active. Results showed that insufficiently active employees, who represent the majority, are attracted to rewards-based physical activity programmes, and at approximately the same rate as active employees, even when enrolment fees are required. This suggests that a programme with generous rewards and a modest enrolment fee may have strong employee support and be within the range of what employers may be willing to spend.

  19. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  20. Technology transfer trends in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Shoba, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    Indian space programme, whose objectives involve acceleration of economic and social development through applications of space technology, has been engaged in the development of state-of-the-art satellite systems, launch vehicles and equipment necessary for applications. Even during the early phase of evolution of this Programme, deliberate policies have been adopted by the national space agency, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), to promote spin-off benefit from the technologies developed for the use of space projects. Consistently adhering to this policy, ISRO has transferred over 280 technologies till date, spanning a wide spectrum of disciplines. This has resulted in a fruitful two-way cooperation between a number of SMEs and the ISRO. In order to make the technology transfer process effective, ISRO has adopted a variety of functional and organizational policies that included awareness building measures, licensee selection methods, innovative contract systems, diverse transfer processes, post licencing services and feedback mechanisms. Besides analyzing these policies and their evolution, the paper discusses various models adopted for technology transfer and their impact on assessment. It also touches upon relevant issues relating to creating interface between public funded R&D and the private commercial enterprises. It suggests few models in which international cooperation could be pursued in this field.

  1. Methodologies for optimal resource allocation to the national space program and new space utilizations. Volume 2: Resource allocation and smoothing model, programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Appendixes are presented that provide model input requirements, a sample case, flow charts, and a program listing. At the beginning of each appendix, descriptive details and technical comments are provided to indicate any special instructions applicable to the use of that appendix. In addition, the program listing includes comment cards that state the purpose of each subroutine in the complete program and describe operations performed within that subroutine. The input requirements includes details on the many options that adapt the program to the specific needs of the analyst for a particular problem.

  2. Modelling Anti-Ov16 IgG4 Antibody Prevalence as an Indicator for Evaluation and Decision Making in Onchocerciasis Elimination Programmes.

    PubMed

    Lont, Yvonne L; Coffeng, Luc E; de Vlas, Sake J; Golden, Allison; de Los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Stolk, Wilma A

    2017-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination in Africa through annual or biannual ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA). An immunodiagnostic test, based on the detection of human IgG4 antibodies in the blood to the Onchocerca volvulus-specific antigen Ov16, is one of the recommended tools for determining whether transmission is interrupted and mass treatment can stop. For different transmission settings, the relationship between post-MDA Ov16 antibody prevalence in children (measured 1 year after the last round of MDA) and the duration and coverage of MDA, the mf prevalence in the population, and the probability that onchocerciasis is eventually eliminated is explored through mathematical modelling. The ONCHOSIM model was extended with new output on the Ov16 antibody serostatus of individuals. Seroconversion was assumed to be triggered by the first worm establishing in the host, with seroconversion occurring either before maturation, after maturation or only after the start of mf production. We are mainly interested in seroconversion rates in children, and for now ignore the possibility of seroreversion to simplify the model. Yearly repeated MDA leads to a strong reduction in the parasite acquisition rate in humans. This reduces the seroconversion rate in newborns and young children, while those who seroconverted before the start of control remain antibody positive. Both the microfiladermia prevalence in the population aged 5 years and above and the Ov16 antibody prevalence in children under 10 declined with increasing duration of MDA. The association between either of these indicators and the model-predicted probability of elimination was not influenced much by the assumed treatment coverage levels, but was found to depend on baseline endemicity levels, assumptions regarding the trigger of seroconversion, and diagnostic test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). Better understanding of the dynamics of Ov16 antibody responses is required for accurate

  3. Modelling Anti-Ov16 IgG4 Antibody Prevalence as an Indicator for Evaluation and Decision Making in Onchocerciasis Elimination Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Lont, Yvonne L.; Coffeng, Luc E.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Golden, Allison; de los Santos, Tala

    2017-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination in Africa through annual or biannual ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA). An immunodiagnostic test, based on the detection of human IgG4 antibodies in the blood to the Onchocerca volvulus-specific antigen Ov16, is one of the recommended tools for determining whether transmission is interrupted and mass treatment can stop. For different transmission settings, the relationship between post-MDA Ov16 antibody prevalence in children (measured 1 year after the last round of MDA) and the duration and coverage of MDA, the mf prevalence in the population, and the probability that onchocerciasis is eventually eliminated is explored through mathematical modelling. Methodology The ONCHOSIM model was extended with new output on the Ov16 antibody serostatus of individuals. Seroconversion was assumed to be triggered by the first worm establishing in the host, with seroconversion occurring either before maturation, after maturation or only after the start of mf production. We are mainly interested in seroconversion rates in children, and for now ignore the possibility of seroreversion to simplify the model. Principal findings Yearly repeated MDA leads to a strong reduction in the parasite acquisition rate in humans. This reduces the seroconversion rate in newborns and young children, while those who seroconverted before the start of control remain antibody positive. Both the microfiladermia prevalence in the population aged 5 years and above and the Ov16 antibody prevalence in children under 10 declined with increasing duration of MDA. The association between either of these indicators and the model-predicted probability of elimination was not influenced much by the assumed treatment coverage levels, but was found to depend on baseline endemicity levels, assumptions regarding the trigger of seroconversion, and diagnostic test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). Conclusions Better understanding of the dynamics

  4. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  5. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  9. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  10. The ECDL Programme in Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzarossa, Maria Carla; Ciancarini, Paolo; Maresca, Paolo; Mich, Luisa; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2007-01-01

    The European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) programme aims at testing practical skills and competences in using ICT tools. This paper presents the results of a monitoring exercise aimed at analyzing the impact of the ECDL programme in the Italian Universities. The ECDL programme, adopted in most Italian Universities since the year 2000, has…

  11. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  12. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  13. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  14. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  15. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  17. Quantitative skills as a graduate learning outcome of university science degree programmes: student performance explored through theplanned-enacted-experiencedcurriculum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Adams, Peter; Goos, Merrilyn

    2016-07-01

    Application of mathematical and statistical thinking and reasoning, typically referred to as quantitative skills, is essential for university bioscience students. First, this study developed an assessment task intended to gauge graduating students' quantitative skills. The Quantitative Skills Assessment of Science Students (QSASS) was the result, which examined 10 mathematical and statistical sub-topics. Second, the study established an evidential baseline of students' quantitative skills performance and confidence levels by piloting the QSASS with 187 final-year biosciences students at a research-intensive university. The study is framed within the planned-enacted-experienced curriculum model and contributes to science reform efforts focused on enhancing the quantitative skills of university graduates, particularly in the biosciences. The results found, on average, weak performance and low confidence on the QSASS, suggesting divergence between academics' intentions and students' experiences of learning quantitative skills. Implications for curriculum design and future studies are discussed.

  18. Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Estill, Janne; Tweya, Hannock; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles; Feldacker, Caryl; Johnson, Leigh F.; Blaser, Nello; Vizcaya, Luisa Salazar; Phiri, Sam; Keiser, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment as prevention depends on retaining HIV-infected patients in care. We investigated the effect on HIV transmission of bringing patients lost to follow up (LTFU) back into care. Design Mathematical model. Methods Stochastic mathematical model of cohorts of 1000 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), based on data from two clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. We calculated cohort viral load (CVL; sum of individual mean viral loads each year) and used a mathematical relationship between viral load and transmission probability to estimate the number of new HIV infections. We simulated four scenarios: ‘no LTFU’ (all patients stay in care); ‘no tracing’ (patients LTFU are not traced); ‘immediate tracing’ (after missed clinic appointment); and, ‘delayed tracing’ (after six months). Results About 440 of 1000 patients were LTFU over five years. CVL (million copies/ml per 1000 patients) were 3.7 (95% prediction interval [PrI] 2.9-4.9) for no LTFU, 8.6 (95% PrI 7.3-10.0) for no tracing, 7.7 (95% PrI 6.2-9.1) for immediate, and 8.0 (95% PrI 6.7-9.5) for delayed tracing. Comparing no LTFU with no tracing the number of new infections increased from 33 (95% PrI 29-38) to 54 (95% PrI 47-60) per 1000 patients. Immediate tracing prevented 3.6 (95% PrI -3.3-12.8) and delayed tracing 2.5 (95% PrI -5.8-11.1) new infections per 1000. Immediate tracing was more efficient than delayed tracing: 116 and to 142 tracing efforts, respectively, were needed to prevent one new infection. Conclusion Tracing of patients LTFU enhances the preventive effect of ART, but the number of transmissions prevented is small. PMID:24326599

  19. Effect on child cognitive function of increasing household expenditure in Indonesia: application of a marginal structural model and simulation of a cash transfer programme.

    PubMed

    Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brinkman, Sally; Lynch, John

    2015-02-01

    Parental investments in children are an important determinant of human capability formation. We investigated the causal effect of household expenditure on Indonesian children's cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. We also investigated the effect of change in mean cognitive function from a simulation of a hypothetical cash transfer intervention. A longitudinal analysis using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) was conducted including 6136 children aged 7 to 14 years in 2000 and still alive in 2007. We used the inverse probability of treatment weighting of a marginal structural model to estimate the causal effect of household expenditure on children's cognitive function. Cumulative household expenditure was positively associated with cognitive function z-score. From the marginal structural model, a 74534 rupiah/month (about US$9) increase in household expenditure resulted in a 0.03 increase in cognitive function z-score [β=0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.35] Based on our simulations, among children in the poorest households in 2000 an additional ≈ US$6-10 of cash transfer resulted in a 0.01 unit increase in cognitive function z-score, equivalent to about 6% increase from the mean z-score prior to cash transfer. In contrast, children in the poorest household in 2007 did not benefit from an additional ≈ US$10 cash transfer. We found no overall effect of cash transfers at the total population level. Greater household expenditure had a small causal effect on children's cognitive function. Although cash transfer interventions had a positive effect for poor children, this effect was quite small. Multi-faceted interventions that combine nutrition, cash transfer, improved living conditions and women's education are required to benefit children's cognitive development in Indonesia. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  1. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  2. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.

  3. Programmable spectroscopy enabled by DLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Michael; Herholdt-Rasmussen, Nicolai; Jespersen, Ole

    2015-03-01

    Ibsen Photonics has since 2012 worked to deploy Texas Instruments DLP® technology to high efficiency, fused silica transmission grating based spectrometers and programmable light sources. The use of Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) in spectroscopy, allows for replacement of diode array detectors by single pixel detectors, and for the design of a new generation of programmable light sources, where you can control the relative power, exposure time and resolution independently for each wavelength in your spectrum. We present the special challenges presented by DMD's in relation to stray light and optical throughput, and we comment on the possibility for instrument manufacturers to generate new, dynamic measurement schemes and algorithms for increased speed, higher accuracy, and greater sample protection. We compare DMD based spectrometer designs with competing, diode array based designs, and provide suggestions for target applications of the technology.

  4. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  5. Programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Choe, Hwan Sung; Nam, SungWoo; Hu, Yongjie; Das, Shamik; Klemic, James F; Ellenbogen, James C; Lieber, Charles M

    2011-02-10

    A nanoprocessor constructed from intrinsically nanometre-scale building blocks is an essential component for controlling memory, nanosensors and other functions proposed for nanosystems assembled from the bottom up. Important steps towards this goal over the past fifteen years include the realization of simple logic gates with individually assembled semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes, but with only 16 devices or fewer and a single function for each circuit. Recently, logic circuits also have been demonstrated that use two or three elements of a one-dimensional memristor array, although such passive devices without gain are difficult to cascade. These circuits fall short of the requirements for a scalable, multifunctional nanoprocessor owing to challenges in materials, assembly and architecture on the nanoscale. Here we describe the design, fabrication and use of programmable and scalable logic tiles for nanoprocessors that surmount these hurdles. The tiles were built from programmable, non-volatile nanowire transistor arrays. Ge/Si core/shell nanowires coupled to designed dielectric shells yielded single-nanowire, non-volatile field-effect transistors (FETs) with uniform, programmable threshold voltages and the capability to drive cascaded elements. We developed an architecture to integrate the programmable nanowire FETs and define a logic tile consisting of two interconnected arrays with 496 functional configurable FET nodes in an area of ∼960 μm(2). The logic tile was programmed and operated first as a full adder with a maximal voltage gain of ten and input-output voltage matching. Then we showed that the same logic tile can be reprogrammed and used to demonstrate full-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer and clocked D-latch functions. These results represent a significant advance in the complexity and functionality of nanoelectronic circuits built from the bottom up with a tiled architecture that could be cascaded to realize fully integrated

  6. A programmable video image remapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Timothy E.; Juday, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) has created the specifications for a new kind of image processing machine, a video-rate coordinate remapper. Previous image-processing machines for machine vision typically have done point operations without changing the geometry of the image. The JSC Programmable Remapper offers complete flexibility in changing the coordinates of an input image at video rates. Presented here are the main capabilities and some of the applications of such a device.

  7. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  8. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  9. `Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer': Effectiveness of an intervention programme to motivate students for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.

  10. Self-management education programmes for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Féline P B; van der Burg, Lennart R A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Johnston, Renea V; Pitt, Veronica

    2014-01-15

    importance.Further studies investigating the effects of self-management education programmes, as delivered in the trials in this review, are unlikely to change our conclusions substantially, as confounding from biases across studies would have likely favoured self-management. However, trials assessing other models of self-management education programme delivery may be warranted. These should adequately describe the intervention they deliver and consider the expanded PROGRESS-Plus framework and health literacy, to explore issues of health equity for recipients.

  11. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    als bei V79-r1B1/A. Die zytosolische Fraktion aus V79-r1B1/B-Zellen enthielt in etwa die dreifache Menge an r1B1-Protein wie die aus Colonmucosa der Ratte. Da zumindest für die humane Mukosa gezeigt wurde, da die 1B1 nur im einschichtigen Epithel, nicht aber in allen Zellen der Mukosa exprimiert wird, repräsentiert die zytosolische Fraktion aus der Mukosa nur bedingt die Expression in den Epithelzellen und der Vergleich mit den V79-1B1-Zellen ist grob. Im Gegensatz zu V79-r1B1/B war die Zellinie V79-h1B1, die ebenfalls nur mit Darm und Leber vergleichbare Mengen an h1B1 exprimierte, in der Lage, beide benzylischen Alkohole zu aktivieren. Der Erhöhung der Mutantenfrequenz im Vergleich zur KontrollZellinie war ähnlich wie bei der stark exprimierenden Zellinie V79-r1B1/A, erforderte aber 10fach höhere Konzentrationen. Somit unterscheiden sich Mensch und Ratte nicht nur insgesamt in ihrer Ausstattung des Gastrointestinaltrakts mit Sulfotransferasen, auch bei Betrachtung einer einzelnen Form zeigten sich deutliche Unterschiede in der Aktivierung von zwei Promutagenen. Die Ratte ist daher ein ungeeignetes Modell, um die Rolle von Sulfotransferasen bei tumorinitiierenden Prozessen im Darm zu untersuchen. Dies unterstreicht die Bedeutung von rekombinanten in-vitro-Systemen für die Erfassung des humanen Metabolismus von Fremdstoffen. Insgesamt kennt man nur eine geringe Anzahl von Substanzen, die im Tierexperiment Colontumore erzeugen, und mit Ausnahme der heterozyklischen aromatischen Amine sind diese lediglich von experimenteller Bedeutung. Dies spricht für effiziente Schutzmechanismen der Darmmukosa gegenüber Mutagenen und lät die Frage nach der hohen Inzidenz des Kolorektalkarzinoms offen. Cytosolic fractions of human and rat gastro-intestinal mucosa were electrophoresed, blotted and probed with six antibodies with differing specificities for sulfotransferase (SULT) forms. Using SULTs heterologously expressed in bacteria for comparison of electrophoretic and

  12. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  13. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme.

    PubMed

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. During 2005-2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K- or k- donors aged 18-55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region, which were transfused to 2,365 patients with no

  14. The Impact of School Leadership Development: Evidence from the "New Visions" Programme for Early Headship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Briggs, Ann R. J.; Middlewood, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of one leadership development programme, drawing on a model developed by Leithwood and Levin (2004) for the Department of Education and Skills. The New Visions programme, offered by the National College for School Leadership, is aimed at new headteachers and adopts a process rich approach to leadership development.…

  15. Developing Everyone's Learning and Thinking Abilities: A Parenting Programme the Southern Area Experience--10 Years on!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Liz

    2006-01-01

    The Developing Everyone's Learning and Thinking Abilities (DELTA) parenting programme aims to promote both the holistic development of children and their parent's self-esteem in order to enhance the parent/carer and child relationship. DELTA operates on a multidisciplinary basis using a "Parents as Partners" model. The programme was…

  16. Diving in and Exploring Curricular Frameworks: The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; MacIntyre, Bill; Bicknell, Brenda; Cutler, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre has developed a programme for secondary gifted and talented students offering hands-on science in the real world. These programmes are designed to include elements of the Enrichment Triad Model (ETM), specifically the three types of enrichment, and, to a lesser degree, some aspects of the Schoolwide Enrichment…

  17. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  18. Developing Everyone's Learning and Thinking Abilities: A Parenting Programme the Southern Area Experience--10 Years on!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Liz

    2006-01-01

    The Developing Everyone's Learning and Thinking Abilities (DELTA) parenting programme aims to promote both the holistic development of children and their parent's self-esteem in order to enhance the parent/carer and child relationship. DELTA operates on a multidisciplinary basis using a "Parents as Partners" model. The programme was…

  19. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  20. Diving in and Exploring Curricular Frameworks: The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; MacIntyre, Bill; Bicknell, Brenda; Cutler, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre has developed a programme for secondary gifted and talented students offering hands-on science in the real world. These programmes are designed to include elements of the Enrichment Triad Model (ETM), specifically the three types of enrichment, and, to a lesser degree, some aspects of the Schoolwide Enrichment…

  1. Programmable Analog Memory Resistors For Electronic Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Thakoor, Sarita; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1990-01-01

    Electrical resistance of new solid-state device altered repeatedly by suitable control signals, yet remains at steady value when control signal removed. Resistance set at low value ("on" state), high value ("off" state), or at any convenient intermediate value and left there until new value desired. Circuits of this type particularly useful in nonvolatile, associative electronic memories based on models of neural networks. Such programmable analog memory resistors ideally suited as synaptic interconnects in "self-learning" neural nets. Operation of device depends on electrochromic property of WO3, which when pure is insulator. Potential uses include nonvolatile, erasable, electronically programmable read-only memories.

  2. Evaluation of Formal Training Programmes in Greek Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to highlight the training factors that mostly affect trainees' perception of learning and training usefulness. Design/methodology/approach: A new research model is proposed exploring the relationships between a trainer's performance, training programme components, outcomes of the learning process and training…

  3. Illuminating the Black Box of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritz, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a justified, legitimate and validated model on entrepreneurship education programmes (EEPs), by combining recent research and scholarship in leading edge entrepreneurship education (EE). Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review of recent EE research and scholarship is followed by…

  4. Generative Adaptation and Reuse of Competence Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodero, Juan Manuel; Zarraonandia, Telmo; Fernandez, Camino; Diez, David

    2007-01-01

    Instructional engineering provides methods to conduct the design and adaptation of competence development programmes by the combination of diverse learning components (i.e. units of learning, learning activities, learning resources and learning services). It occurs through an established process workflow in which models with diverse levels of…

  5. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  6. Evaluation of Formal Training Programmes in Greek Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to highlight the training factors that mostly affect trainees' perception of learning and training usefulness. Design/methodology/approach: A new research model is proposed exploring the relationships between a trainer's performance, training programme components, outcomes of the learning process and training…

  7. Sustaining and Scaling up the Impact of Professional Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehetmeier, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a crucial topic: which factors influence the sustainability and scale-up of a professional development programme's impact? Theoretical models and empirical findings from impact research (e.g. Zehetmeier and Krainer, "ZDM Int J Math" 43(6/7):875-887, 2011) and innovation research (e.g. Cobb and Smith,…

  8. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  9. Teaching Advocacy in Early Years Initial Teacher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebovich, Betty J.; Matoba Adler, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Teacher education programmes in the United States and in England with early childhood certification usually include courses with topics such as early childhood theory and curriculum, child development, model programs, and history of early childhood education but less often include courses with content focused specifically on advocacy. This article…

  10. Apples to Oranges: Benchmarking Vocational Education and Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wittrup, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for benchmarking vocational education and training colleges and presents results from a number of models. It is conceptually difficult to benchmark vocational colleges. The colleges typically offer a wide range of course programmes, and the students come from different socioeconomic backgrounds. We solve the…

  11. Multicompartment pharmacokinetic analysis and simulations using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Niazi, S

    1979-05-01

    This paper describes the use of a programmable calculator (HP-97), for fitting plasma concentration profiles to 1 and 2 compartment open models and calculating fitted and derived parameters together with estimates of steady state plasma drug levels following various dosage regimens in clinical settings.

  12. Diorganostyrylzinndiorganophosphine und Ihre Tricarbonylnickelkomplexe (Diorganostyryltin Phosphines and its Tricarbonylnickel Complexes).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Umkristallisieren aus Pentan/Benzol/Toluol gereinigt werden konnen; IVb zeigt bereits ab 0°C Polym erisationserschei- nungen. Vb und VIb werden als heligelbe...einem Rar.ger Engeneering M6ssbauer Spectrometer benutzt wurde. in C 6 D 6c) die Ha lbwertsbreiten wurden als glei~h vorausgesetzt , um dos Si gnal als

  13. Denken in Wertschöpfung und Verschwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Michael

    Eine Antwort auf die Frage welche Arbeitsschritte, Aktivitäten und Prozesse als wertschöpfend betrachtet werden können, erhält man durch die Überlegung, ob der Kunde bereit ist dafür zu zahlen. Kunden sind sicher bereit dafür zu zahlen, dass z.B. die Räder an ihrem neuen PKW sicher montiert sind. Die im Unternehmen notwendigen logistischen Prozesse, die die Räder zu ihrem Montageort transportieren, sind aus Sicht des Kunden dagegen mit keinem Wert verbunden. Insofern ist er nicht bereit dafür zu zahlen und sämtliche internen logistischen Aktivitäten sind entsprechend nicht wertschöpfend. Verschwendung bzw. nicht wertschöpfende Arbeit umfasst alle Aktivitäten, Tätigkeiten und Prozesse, die Zeit, Ressourcen und/oder Raum kosten, aber nicht zur Erfüllung der Kundenanforderungen beitragen. Verschwendung ist damit der Teil der Arbeit, für den der Kunde nicht zahlt, z.B. den internen Transport von Bauteilen zum Montageort.

  14. Increasing Pragmatic Awareness: Die Vagheit der Sprache "und so"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Tran, Jennie; Zietze, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a description of some pragmatic expressions ("oder so," "und so," "oder wie") rarely found in textbooks, but common in everyday conversation. Though often treated as vague or superfluous, these expressions perform important functions in interpersonal communication. Focusing on these easily identifiable phrases can help…

  15. Increasing Pragmatic Awareness: Die Vagheit der Sprache "und so"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Tran, Jennie; Zietze, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a description of some pragmatic expressions ("oder so," "und so," "oder wie") rarely found in textbooks, but common in everyday conversation. Though often treated as vague or superfluous, these expressions perform important functions in interpersonal communication. Focusing on these easily identifiable phrases can help…

  16. Developing a generic, individualised adherence programme for chronic medication users

    PubMed Central

    Herborg, Hanne; Haugbølle, Lotte S.; Sørensen, Lene; Rossing, Charlotte; Dam, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Objective The scope of this article is to describe the background for and content of an adherence counselling programme with a specific focus on an individualised, multi-dimensional adherence model for patients with a potential adherence problem (a so-called ‘individualised systems model’). Methods An intervention programme based on WHO’s systems model for adherence was developed for implementation in primary health care and tested in a development project in Danish pharmacies in 2004-2005 in three pharmacies and 4 GP practices by 27 patients. Data were collected from the participants by registration forms, questionnaires, and focus groups. Since the programme was to support patients in the self-management process regarding choice and implementation of medication treatment, various strategies were used and different theoretical assumptions and choices made prior to setting up the study. These strategies include distinguishing between different types of non-adherence, a model for stages of change, self-efficacy, narratives, motivating interviewing strategies and coaching techniques. These strategic and theoretical choices are described in the article. Results The strategies and theoretical reflections formed the platform for the creation of a counselling programme, which was tested in two forms, a basic and an extended version - provided by either a pharmaconomist or a pharmacist. The result section also describes a toolbox of instruments to enable pharmacy staff and GPs to tailor a counselling programme for patients individually called ‘Safe and effective use of medicines’. Besides, the results include a description of how the WHO-model is transformed into an individualised counselling model. PMID:25177406

  17. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Drocourt, Yoann; Ferré, Hélène; Henriot, Nicolas; Ramage, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology…) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  18. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  19. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  20. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using