Science.gov

Sample records for models atomic

  1. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  2. Computer Modeling Of Atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giridharan, M.; Ibrahim, E.; Przekwas, A.; Cheuch, S.; Krishnan, A.; Yang, H.; Lee, J.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mathematical models based on fundamental principles of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum developed for use in computer simulation of atomization of jets of liquid fuel in rocket engines. Models also used to study atomization in terrestrial applications; prove especially useful in designing improved industrial sprays - humidifier water sprays, chemical process sprays, and sprays of molten metal. Because present improved mathematical models based on first principles, they are minimally dependent on empirical correlations and better able to represent hot-flow conditions that prevail in rocket engines and are too severe to be accessible for detailed experimentation.

  3. Semiclassical model for atoms

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ralph G.

    1981-01-01

    The energies of several two- and three-electron atoms, in both ground states and excited states, are calculated by a very simple semiclassical model. The only change from Bohr's original method is to replace definite orbits by probability distribution functions based on classical dynamics. The energies are better than Hartree-Fock values. There is still a need for an exchange-energy correction. Images PMID:16593047

  4. Stochastic models for atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. A.; Jones, R. H.; Tryon, P. V.; Allan, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    For the atomic clocks used in the National Bureau of Standards Time Scales, an adequate model is the superposition of white FM, random walk FM, and linear frequency drift for times longer than about one minute. The model was tested on several clocks using maximum likelihood techniques for parameter estimation and the residuals were acceptably random. Conventional diagnostics indicate that additional model elements contribute no significant improvement to the model even at the expense of the added model complexity.

  5. A Quantum Model of Atoms (the Energy Levels of Atoms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafie, Francois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the model for all atoms which was developed on the same basis as Bohr's model for the hydrogen atom. Calculates the radii and the energies of the orbits. Demonstrates how the model obeys the de Broglie's hypothesis that the moving electron exhibits both wave and particle properties. (Author/ASK)

  6. "Electronium": A Quantum Atomic Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an alternative atomic model to the probability model, the descriptive quantum atomic model Electronium. Discusses the way in which it is intended to support students in learning quantum-mechanical concepts. (Author/MM)

  7. Can atom-surface potential measurements test atomic structure models?

    PubMed

    Lonij, Vincent P A; Klauss, Catherine E; Holmgren, William F; Cronin, Alexander D

    2011-06-30

    van der Waals (vdW) atom-surface potentials can be excellent benchmarks for atomic structure calculations. This is especially true if measurements are made with two different types of atoms interacting with the same surface sample. Here we show theoretically how ratios of vdW potential strengths (e.g., C₃(K)/C₃(Na)) depend sensitively on the properties of each atom, yet these ratios are relatively insensitive to properties of the surface. We discuss how C₃ ratios depend on atomic core electrons by using a two-oscillator model to represent the contribution from atomic valence electrons and core electrons separately. We explain why certain pairs of atoms are preferable to study for future experimental tests of atomic structure calculations. A well chosen pair of atoms (e.g., K and Na) will have a C₃ ratio that is insensitive to the permittivity of the surface, whereas a poorly chosen pair (e.g., K and He) will have a ratio of C₃ values that depends more strongly on the permittivity of the surface.

  8. Nagaoka's atomic model and hyperfine interactions.

    PubMed

    Inamura, Takashi T

    2016-01-01

    The prevailing view of Nagaoka's "Saturnian" atom is so misleading that today many people have an erroneous picture of Nagaoka's vision. They believe it to be a system involving a 'giant core' with electrons circulating just outside. Actually, though, in view of the Coulomb potential related to the atomic nucleus, Nagaoka's model is exactly the same as Rutherford's. This is true of the Bohr atom, too. To give proper credit, Nagaoka should be remembered together with Rutherford and Bohr in the history of the atomic model. It is also pointed out that Nagaoka was a pioneer of understanding hyperfine interactions in order to study nuclear structure.

  9. The Hydrogen Atom: The Rutherford Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Homer Benjamin

    1996-06-01

    Early this century Ernest Rutherford established the nuclear model of the hydrogen atom, presently taught as representing the best visual model after modification by Niels Bohr and Arnold Sommerfeld. It replaced the so-called "plum pudding" model of J. J. Thomson which held sway previously. While the Rutherford model represented a large step forward in our understanding of the hydrogen atom, questions remained, and still do.

  10. Modeling Atom Probe Tomography: A review.

    PubMed

    Vurpillot, F; Oberdorfer, C

    2015-12-01

    Improving both the precision and the accuracy of Atom Probe Tomography reconstruction requires a correct understanding of the imaging process. In this aim, numerical modeling approaches have been developed for 15 years. The injected ingredients of these modeling tools are related to the basic physic of the field evaporation mechanism. The interplay between the sample nature and structure of the analyzed sample and the reconstructed image artefacts have pushed to gradually improve and make the model more and more sophisticated. This paper reviews the evolution of the modeling approach in Atom Probe Tomography and presents some future potential directions in order to improve the method.

  11. Students' Mental Models of Atomic Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Mental modeling, which is a theory about knowledge organization, has been recently studied by science educators to examine students' understanding of scientific concepts. This qualitative study investigates undergraduate students' mental models of atomic spectra. Nine second-year physics students, who have already taken the basic chemistry and…

  12. Atomic Data Applications for Supernova Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    The modeling of supernovae (SNe) incorporates a variety of disciplines, including hydrodynamics, radiation transport, nuclear physics and atomic physics. These efforts require numerical simulation of the final stages of a star's life, the supernova explosion phase, and the radiation that is subsequently emitted by the supernova remnant, which can occur over a time span of tens of thousands of years. While there are several different types of SNe, they all emit radiation in some form. The measurement and interpretation of these spectra provide important information about the structure of the exploding star and the supernova engine. In this talk, the role of atomic data is highlighted as iit pertains to the modeling of supernova spectra. Recent applications [1,2] involve the Los Alamos OPLIB opacity database, which has been used to provide atomic opacities for modeling supernova plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. Ongoing work includes the application of atomic data generated by the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes under more complicated, non-LTE conditions [3]. As a specific, recent example, a portion of the x-ray spectrum produced by Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572) will be discussed [4]. [1] C.L. Fryer et al, Astrophys. J. 707, 193 (2009). [2] C.L. Fryer et al, Astrophys. J. 725, 296 (2009). [3] C.J. Fontes et al, Conference Proceedings for ICPEAC XXVII, J. of Phys: Conf. Series 388, 012022 (2012). [4] K.A. Eriksen et al, Presentation at the 2012 AAS Meeting (Austin, TX). (This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.)

  13. Atomic model of supersymmetric Hubbard operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, J.; Coleman, P.

    2003-02-01

    We apply the recently proposed supersymmetric Hubbard operators [P. Coleman, C. Pépin, and J. Hopkinson, Phys. Rev. B 63, 140411(R) (2001)] to an atomic model. In the limiting case of free spins, we derive exact results for the entropy which are compared with a mean-field + Gaussian corrections description. We show how these results can be extended to the case of charge fluctuations and calculate exact results for the partition function, free energy, and heat capacity of an atomic model for some simple examples. Wave-functions of possible states are listed. We compare the accuracy of large N expansions of the susy spin operators [P. Coleman, C. Pépin, and A. M. Tsvelik, Phys. Rev. B 62, 3852 (2000); Nucl. Phys. B 586, 641 (2000)] with those obtained using “Schwinger bosons” and “Abrikosov pseudofermions.” For the atomic model, we compare results of slave boson, slave fermion, and susy Hubbard operator approximations in the physically interesting but uncontrolled limiting case of N→2. For a mixed representation of spins, we estimate the accuracy of large N expansions of the atomic model. In the single box limit, we find that the lowest-energy susy saddle point reduces to simply either slave bosons or slave fermions, while for higher boxes this is not the case. The highest energy saddle point solution has the interesting feature that it admits a small region of a mixed representation, which bears a superficial resemblance to that observed experimentally close to an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.

  14. Atomic Data For Core And Edge Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mullane, M. G.; Foster, A. R.; Whiteford, A. D.; Summers, H. P.; Loch, S. D.; Lauro-Taroni, L.

    2009-09-10

    Future magnetic fusion energy devices, will have both very high Z (tungsten) and low Z (beryllium) plasma facing components, are setting the agenda for current atomic data needs. Data for the light species are in good shape but the heavy species present some challenges. We outline an approach for systematic heavy element data production for fusion applications in addition to techniques for handling the large amount of data in modeling codes efficiently.

  15. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    SciTech Connect

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition - Process Models and Metrologies

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, D.R. Jr.; Maslar, J.E.; Hurst, W.S.; Moore, E.F.; Kimes, W.A.; Fink, R.R.; Nguyen, N.V.

    2005-09-09

    We report on the status of a combined experimental and modeling study for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 and Al2O3. Hafnium oxide films were deposited from tetrakis(dimethylamino)hafnium and water. Aluminum oxide films from trimethyl aluminum and water are being studied through simulations. In this work, both in situ metrologies and process models are being developed. Optically-accessible ALD reactors have been constructed for in situ, high-sensitivity Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic measurements to monitor gas phase and surface species. A numerical model using computational fluid dynamics codes has been developed to simulate the gas flow and temperature profiles in the experimental reactor. Detailed chemical kinetic models are being developed with assistance from quantum chemical calculations to explore reaction pathways and energetics. This chemistry is then incorporated into the overall reactor models.

  17. Atom-Role-Based Access Control Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihong; Huang, Richeng; Hou, Xiaoli; Wei, Gang; Xiao, Shui; Chen, Yindong

    Role-based access control (RBAC) model has been widely recognized as an efficient access control model and becomes a hot research topic of information security at present. However, in the large-scale enterprise application environments, the traditional RBAC model based on the role hierarchy has the following deficiencies: Firstly, it is unable to reflect the role relationships in complicated cases effectively, which does not accord with practical applications. Secondly, the senior role unconditionally inherits all permissions of the junior role, thus if a user is under the supervisor role, he may accumulate all permissions, and this easily causes the abuse of permission and violates the least privilege principle, which is one of the main security principles. To deal with these problems, we, after analyzing permission types and role relationships, proposed the concept of atom role and built an atom-role-based access control model, called ATRBAC, by dividing the permission set of each regular role based on inheritance path relationships. Through the application-specific analysis, this model can well meet the access control requirements.

  18. Cumulative atomic multipole moments complement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate electrostatic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.

  19. Making It Visual: Creating a Model of the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Rose M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students construct Bohr's planetary model of the atom. Niels Bohr's atomic model provides a framework for discussing with middle and high school students the historical development of our understanding of the structure of the atom. The model constructed in this activity will enable students to visualize the…

  20. Big Atoms for Small Children: Building Atomic Models from Common Materials to Better Visualize and Conceptualize Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipolla, Laura; Ferrari, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    A hands-on approach to introduce the chemical elements and the atomic structure to elementary/middle school students is described. The proposed classroom activity presents Bohr models of atoms using common and inexpensive materials, such as nested plastic balls, colored modeling clay, and small-sized pasta (or small plastic beads).

  1. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  2. Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K

    2007-07-26

    We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.

  3. Atomic force microscopy of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Morandat, Sandrine; Azouzi, Slim; Beauvais, Estelle; Mastouri, Amira; El Kirat, Karim

    2013-02-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are biomimetic model systems that are now widely used to address the biophysical and biochemical properties of biological membranes. Two main methods are usually employed to form SLBs: the transfer of two successive monolayers by Langmuir-Blodgett or Langmuir-Schaefer techniques, and the fusion of preformed lipid vesicles. The transfer of lipid films on flat solid substrates offers the possibility to apply a wide range of surface analytical techniques that are very sensitive. Among them, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened new opportunities for determining the nanoscale organization of SLBs under physiological conditions. In this review, we first focus on the different protocols generally employed to prepare SLBs. Then, we describe AFM studies on the nanoscale lateral organization and mechanical properties of SLBs. Lastly, we survey recent developments in the AFM monitoring of bilayer alteration, remodeling, or digestion, by incubation with exogenous agents such as drugs, proteins, peptides, and nanoparticles.

  4. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  5. Project Physics Text 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Basic atomic theories are presented in this fifth unit of the Project Physics text for use by senior high students. Chemical basis of atomic models in the early years of the 18th Century is discussed n connection with Dalton's theory, atomic properties, and periodic tables. The discovery of electrons is described by using cathode rays, Millikan's…

  6. Atomic Oscillator Strengths for Stellar Atmosphere Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, Matthew; Pickering, Juliet C.

    2015-08-01

    In order to correctly model stellar atmospheres, fundamental atomic data must be available to describe atomic lines observed in their spectra. Accurate, laboratory-measured oscillator strengths (f-values) for Fe peak elements in neutral or low-ionisation states are particularly important for determining chemical abundances.However, advances in astronomical spectroscopy in recent decades have outpaced those in laboratory astrophysics, with the latter frequently being overlooked at the planning stages of new projects. As a result, numerous big-budget astronomy projects have been, and continue to be hindered by a lack of suitable, accurately-measured reference data to permit the analysis of expensive astronomical spectra; a problem only likely to worsen in the coming decades as spectrographs at new facilities increasingly move to infrared wavelengths.At Imperial College London - and in collaboration with NIST, Wisconsin University and Lund University - we have been working with the astronomy community in an effort to provide new accurately-measured f-values for a range of projects. In particular, we have been working closely with the Gaia-ESO (GES) and SDSS-III/APOGEE surveys, both of which have discovered that many lines that would make ideal candidates for inclusion in their analyses have poorly defined f-values, or are simply absent from the database. Using high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy (R ~ 2,000,000) to provide atomic branching fractions, and combining these with level lifetimes measured with laser induced fluorescence, we have provided new laboratory-measured f-values for a range of Fe-peak elements, most recently including Fe I, Fe II, and V I. For strong, unblended lines, uncertainties are as low as ±0.02 dex.In this presentation, I will describe how experimental f-values are obtained in the laboratory and present our recent work for GES and APOGEE. In particular, I will also discuss the strengths and limitations of current laboratory

  7. An atomic model for neutral and singly ionized uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maceda, E. L.; Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the atomic levels above ground state in neutral, U(0), and singly ionized, U(+), uranium is described based on identified atomic transitions. Some 168 states in U(0) and 95 in U(+) are found. A total of 1581 atomic transitions are used to complete this process. Also discussed are the atomic inverse lifetimes and line widths for the radiative transitions as well as the electron collisional cross sections.

  8. Perturbed atoms in molecules and solids: The PATMOS model.

    PubMed

    Røeggen, Inge; Gao, Bin

    2013-09-01

    A new computational method for electronic-structure studies of molecules and solids is presented. The key element in the new model - denoted the perturbed atoms in molecules and solids model - is the concept of a perturbed atom in a complex. The basic approximation of the new model is unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF). The UHF orbitals are localized by the Edmiston-Ruedenberg procedure. The perturbed atoms are defined by distributing the orbitals among the nuclei in such a way that the sum of the intra-atomic UHF energies has a minimum. Energy corrections with respect to the UHF energy, are calculated within the energy incremental scheme. The most important three- and four-electron corrections are selected by introducing a modified geminal approach. Test calculations are performed on N2, Li2, and parallel arrays of hydrogen atoms. The character of the perturbed atoms is illustrated by calculations on H2, CH4, and C6H6.

  9. Atomic level modeling of the HIV capsid

    PubMed Central

    Pornillos, Owen; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Yeager, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The mature capsids of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses are fullerene shells, composed of the viral CA protein, that enclose the viral genome and facilitate its delivery into new host cells1. Retroviral CA proteins contain independently-folded N-terminal and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) that are connected by a flexible linker2–4. The NTD forms either hexameric or pentameric rings, whereas the CTD forms symmetric homodimers that connect the rings into a hexagonal lattice3,5–13. We previously used a disulfide crosslinking strategy to enable isolation and crystallization of soluble HIV-1 CA hexamers11,14. By the same approach, we have now determined the X-ray structure of the HIV-1 CA pentamer at 2.5 Å resolution. Two mutant CA proteins with engineered disulfides at different positions (P17C/T19C and N21C/A22C) converged onto the same quaternary structure, indicating that the disulfide-crosslinked proteins recapitulate the structure of the native pentamer. Assembly of the quasi-equivalent hexamers and pentamers requires remarkably subtle rearrangements in subunit interactions, and appears to be controlled by an electrostatic switch that favors hexamers over pentamers. This study completes the gallery of sub-structures describing the components of the HIV-1 capsid and enables atomic level modeling of the complete capsid. Rigid-body rotations around two assembly interfaces appear sufficient to generate the full range of continuously varying lattice curvature in the fullerene cone. PMID:21248851

  10. "Piekara's Chair": Mechanical Model for Atomic Energy Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golab-Meyer, Zofia

    1991-01-01

    Uses the teaching method of models or analogies, specifically the model called "Piekara's chair," to show how teaching classical mechanics can familiarize students with the notion of energy levels in atomic physics. (MDH)

  11. Proposed reference models for atomic oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, E. J.; Mcdade, I. C.; Lockerbie, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    A provisional Atomic Oxygen Reference model was derived from average monthly ozone profiles and the MSIS-86 reference model atmosphere. The concentrations are presented in tabular form for the altitude range 40 to 130 km.

  12. The Quantum Atomic Model "Electronium": A Successful Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the quantum atomic model Electronium. Outlines the Bremen teaching approach in which this model is used, and analyzes the learning of two students as they progress through the teaching unit. (Author/MM)

  13. Developing Models: What is the Atom Really Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Records, Roger M.

    1982-01-01

    Five atomic theory activities feasible for high school students to perform are described based on the following models: (1) Dalton's Uniform Sphere Model; (2) Thomson's Raisin Pudding Model; (3) Rutherford's Nuclear Model; (4) Bohr's Energy Level Model, and (5) Orbital Model from quantum mechanics. (SK)

  14. Early atomic models - from mechanical to quantum (1904-1913)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baily, C.

    2013-01-01

    A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can be told by focusing on the relevant work of three great contributors to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. We first examine the origins of Thomson's mechanical atomic models, from his ethereal vortex atoms in the early 1880's, to the myriad "corpuscular" atoms he proposed following the discovery of the electron in 1897. Beyond qualitative predictions for the periodicity of the elements, the application of Thomson's atoms to problems in scattering and absorption led to quantitative predictions that were confirmed by experiments with high-velocity electrons traversing thin sheets of metal. Still, the much more massive and energetic α-particles being studied by Rutherford were better suited for exploring the interior of the atom, and careful measurements on the angular dependence of their scattering eventually allowed him to infer the existence of an atomic nucleus. Niels Bohr was particularly troubled by the radiative instability inherent to any mechanical atom, and succeeded in 1913 where others had failed in the prediction of emission spectra, by making two bold hypotheses that were in contradiction to the laws of classical physics, but necessary in order to account for experimental facts.

  15. 100th anniversary of Bohr's model of the atom.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, W H Eugen

    2013-11-18

    In the fall of 1913 Niels Bohr formulated his atomic models at the age of 27. This Essay traces Bohr's fundamental reasoning regarding atomic structure and spectra, the periodic table of the elements, and chemical bonding. His enduring insights and superseded suppositions are also discussed.

  16. Project Physics Tests 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 5 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 23 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of atomic model are examined on aspects of relativistic corrections, electron emission, photoelectric effects, Compton effect, quantum theories, electrolysis experiments, atomic number and mass,…

  17. 100th anniversary of Bohr's model of the atom.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, W H Eugen

    2013-11-18

    In the fall of 1913 Niels Bohr formulated his atomic models at the age of 27. This Essay traces Bohr's fundamental reasoning regarding atomic structure and spectra, the periodic table of the elements, and chemical bonding. His enduring insights and superseded suppositions are also discussed. PMID:24123759

  18. Molecule-specific determination of atomic polarizabilities with the polarizable atomic multipole model.

    PubMed

    Woo Kim, Hyun; Rhee, Young Min

    2012-07-30

    Recently, many polarizable force fields have been devised to describe induction effects between molecules. In popular polarizable models based on induced dipole moments, atomic polarizabilities are the essential parameters and should be derived carefully. Here, we present a parameterization scheme for atomic polarizabilities using a minimization target function containing both molecular and atomic information. The main idea is to adopt reference data only from quantum chemical calculations, to perform atomic polarizability parameterizations even when relevant experimental data are scarce as in the case of electronically excited molecules. Specifically, our scheme assigns the atomic polarizabilities of any given molecule in such a way that its molecular polarizability tensor is well reproduced. We show that our scheme successfully works for various molecules in mimicking dipole responses not only in ground states but also in valence excited states. The electrostatic potential around a molecule with an externally perturbing nearby charge also exhibits a near-quantitative agreement with the reference data from quantum chemical calculations. The limitation of the model with isotropic atoms is also discussed to examine the scope of its applicability.

  19. Modeling of atom-diatom scattering. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sindoni, J.M.

    1992-05-30

    This report entails the work performed on modeling atom-diatom scattering processes utilizing the Impulse Approach (IA). Results of the model, obtained with a computer code, have proven to be in remarkable agreement with laboratory measurements for several atom-diatom scattering systems. Two scattering systems, in particular, that were successfully modeled and compared to measurements were Ar-KBr and Ar-CsF. The IA model provided an explanation for the rapid deactivation evident in the Ar-KBr system. Experimental results in the Ar-CsF experiment that could not be explained by conventional models were also successfully modeled using the IA. Results fit the experimental observations.

  20. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Four-parameter analytical local model potential for atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Sun, Jiu-Xun; Tian, Rong-Gang; Yang, Wei

    2009-10-01

    Analytical local model potential for modeling the interaction in an atom reduces the computational effort in electronic structure calculations significantly. A new four-parameter analytical local model potential is proposed for atoms Li through Lr, and the values of four parameters are shell-independent and obtained by fitting the results of Xa method. At the same time, the energy eigenvalues, the radial wave functions and the total energies of electrons are obtained by solving the radial Schrödinger equation with a new form of potential function by Numerov's numerical method. The results show that our new form of potential function is suitable for high, medium and low Z atoms. A comparison among the new potential function and other analytical potential functions shows the greater flexibility and greater accuracy of the present new potential function.

  1. A liquid drop model for embedded atom method cluster energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, C. W.; Abel, P. B.; Ferrante, J.

    1996-01-01

    Minimum energy configurations for homonuclear clusters containing from two to twenty-two atoms of six metals, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt have been calculated using the Embedded Atom Method (EAM). The average energy per atom as a function of cluster size has been fit to a liquid drop model, giving estimates of the surface and curvature energies. The liquid drop model gives a good representation of the relationship between average energy and cluster size. As a test the resulting surface energies are compared to EAM surface energy calculations for various low-index crystal faces with reasonable agreement.

  2. Models for identification of erroneous atom-to-atom mapping of reactions performed by automated algorithms.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christophe; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Aires-de-Sousa, João; Varnek, Alexandre

    2012-12-21

    Machine learning (SVM and JRip rule learner) methods have been used in conjunction with the Condensed Graph of Reaction (CGR) approach to identify errors in the atom-to-atom mapping of chemical reactions produced by an automated mapping tool by ChemAxon. The modeling has been performed on the three first enzymatic classes of metabolic reactions from the KEGG database. Each reaction has been converted into a CGR representing a pseudomolecule with conventional (single, double, aromatic, etc.) bonds and dynamic bonds characterizing chemical transformations. The ChemAxon tool was used to automatically detect the matching atom pairs in reagents and products. These automated mappings were analyzed by the human expert and classified as "correct" or "wrong". ISIDA fragment descriptors generated for CGRs for both correct and wrong mappings were used as attributes in machine learning. The learned models have been validated in n-fold cross-validation on the training set followed by a challenge to detect correct and wrong mappings within an external test set of reactions, never used for learning. Results show that both SVM and JRip models detect most of the wrongly mapped reactions. We believe that this approach could be used to identify erroneous atom-to-atom mapping performed by any automated algorithm.

  3. Tokamak plasma modelling and atomic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, T.

    1986-06-01

    Topics addressed include: particle control in a tokomak device; ionizing and recombining plasmas; effects of data accuracy on tokamak impurity transport modeling; plasma modeling of tokamaks; and ultraviolet and X-ray spectroscopy of tokamak plasmas.

  4. Transferable Atomic Multipole Machine Learning Models for Small Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Andrienko, Denis; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2015-07-14

    Accurate representation of the molecular electrostatic potential, which is often expanded in distributed multipole moments, is crucial for an efficient evaluation of intermolecular interactions. Here we introduce a machine learning model for multipole coefficients of atom types H, C, O, N, S, F, and Cl in any molecular conformation. The model is trained on quantum-chemical results for atoms in varying chemical environments drawn from thousands of organic molecules. Multipoles in systems with neutral, cationic, and anionic molecular charge states are treated with individual models. The models' predictive accuracy and applicability are illustrated by evaluating intermolecular interaction energies of nearly 1,000 dimers and the cohesive energy of the benzene crystal.

  5. Nagaoka’s atomic model and hyperfine interactions

    PubMed Central

    INAMURA, Takashi T.

    2016-01-01

    The prevailing view of Nagaoka’s “Saturnian” atom is so misleading that today many people have an erroneous picture of Nagaoka’s vision. They believe it to be a system involving a ‘giant core’ with electrons circulating just outside. Actually, though, in view of the Coulomb potential related to the atomic nucleus, Nagaoka’s model is exactly the same as Rutherford’s. This is true of the Bohr atom, too. To give proper credit, Nagaoka should be remembered together with Rutherford and Bohr in the history of the atomic model. It is also pointed out that Nagaoka was a pioneer of understanding hyperfine interactions in order to study nuclear structure. PMID:27063182

  6. Surface Adsorption in Nonpolarizable Atomic Models.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, Jonathan K; Joshi, Abhijeet A; Carlton, Rebecca J; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2014-12-01

    Many ionic solutions exhibit species-dependent properties, including surface tension and the salting-out of proteins. These effects may be loosely quantified in terms of the Hofmeister series, first identified in the context of protein solubility. Here, our interest is to develop atomistic models capable of capturing Hofmeister effects rigorously. Importantly, we aim to capture this dependence in computationally cheap "hard" ionic models, which do not exhibit dynamic polarization. To do this, we have performed an investigation detailing the effects of the water model on these properties. Though incredibly important, the role of water models in simulation of ionic solutions and biological systems is essentially unexplored. We quantify this via the ion-dependent surface attraction of the halide series (Cl, Br, I) and, in so doing, determine the relative importance of various hypothesized contributions to ionic surface free energies. Importantly, we demonstrate surface adsorption can result in hard ionic models combined with a thermodynamically accurate representation of the water molecule (TIP4Q). The effect observed in simulations of iodide is commensurate with previous calculations of the surface potential of mean force in rigid molecular dynamics and polarizable density-functional models. Our calculations are direct simulation evidence of the subtle but sensitive role of water thermodynamics in atomistic simulations.

  7. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  8. Phenomenological model of spin crossover in molecular crystals as derived from atom-atom potentials.

    PubMed

    Sinitskiy, Anton V; Tchougréeff, Andrei L; Dronskowski, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The method of atom-atom potentials, previously applied to the analysis of pure molecular crystals formed by either low-spin (LS) or high-spin (HS) forms (spin isomers) of Fe(II) coordination compounds (Sinitskiy et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 10983), is used to estimate the lattice enthalpies of mixed crystals containing different fractions of the spin isomers. The crystals under study were formed by LS and HS isomers of Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), Fe(btz)(2)(NCS)(2) (btz = 5,5',6,6'-tetrahydro-4H,4'H-2,2'-bi-1,3-thiazine), and Fe(bpz)(2)(bipy) (bpz = dihydrobis(1-pyrazolil)borate, and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine). For the first time the phenomenological parameters Γ pertinent to the Slichter-Drickamer model (SDM) of several materials were independently derived from the microscopic model of the crystals with use of atom-atom potentials of intermolecular interaction. The accuracy of the SDM was checked against the numerical data on the enthalpies of mixed crystals. Fair semiquantitative agreement with the experimental dependence of the HS fraction on temperature was achieved with use of these values. Prediction of trends in Γ values as a function of chemical composition and geometry of the crystals is possible with the proposed approach, which opens a way to rational design of spin crossover materials with desired properties.

  9. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yalin

    Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the

  10. Modeling of Turbulence Effects on Liquid Jet Atomization and Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Chen, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations and physical modeling studies have indicated that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effects on the atomization process. For certain flow regimes, it has been observed that the liquid jet surface is highly turbulent. This turbulence characteristic plays a key role on the breakup of the liquid jet near to the injector exit. Other experiments also showed that the breakup length of the liquid core is sharply shortened as the liquid jet is changed from the laminar to the turbulent flow conditions. In the numerical and physical modeling arena, most of commonly used atomization models do not include the turbulence effect. Limited attempts have been made in modeling the turbulence phenomena on the liquid jet disintegration. The subject correlation and models treat the turbulence either as an only source or a primary driver in the breakup process. This study aims to model the turbulence effect in the atomization process of a cylindrical liquid jet. In the course of this study, two widely used models, Reitz's primary atomization (blob) and Taylor-Analogy-Break (TAB) secondary droplet breakup by O Rourke et al. are examined. Additional terms are derived and implemented appropriately into these two models to account for the turbulence effect on the atomization process. Since this enhancement effort is based on a framework of the two existing atomization models, it is appropriate to denote the two present models as T-blob and T-TAB for the primary and secondary atomization predictions, respectively. In the primary breakup model, the level of the turbulence effect on the liquid breakup depends on the characteristic time scales and the initial flow conditions. This treatment offers a balance of contributions of individual physical phenomena on the liquid breakup process. For the secondary breakup, an addition turbulence force acted on parent drops is modeled and integrated into the TAB governing equation. The drop size

  11. Atomic-scale modeling of cellulose nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiawa

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), the most abundant nanomaterials in nature, are recognized as one of the most promising candidates to meet the growing demand of green, bio-degradable and sustainable nanomaterials for future applications. CNCs draw significant interest due to their high axial elasticity and low density-elasticity ratio, both of which are extensively researched over the years. In spite of the great potential of CNCs as functional nanoparticles for nanocomposite materials, a fundamental understanding of CNC properties and their role in composite property enhancement is not available. In this work, CNCs are studied using molecular dynamics simulation method to predict their material' behaviors in the nanoscale. (a) Mechanical properties include tensile deformation in the elastic and plastic regions using molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics and nanoindentation methods. This allows comparisons between the methods and closer connectivity to experimental measurement techniques. The elastic moduli in the axial and transverse directions are obtained and the results are found to be in good agreement with previous research. The ultimate properties in plastic deformation are reported for the first time and failure mechanism are analyzed in details. (b) The thermal expansion of CNC crystals and films are studied. It is proposed that CNC film thermal expansion is due primarily to single crystal expansion and CNC-CNC interfacial motion. The relative contributions of inter- and intra-crystal responses to heating are explored. (c) Friction at cellulose-CNCs and diamond-CNCs interfaces is studied. The effects of sliding velocity, normal load, and relative angle between sliding surfaces are predicted. The Cellulose-CNC model is analyzed in terms of hydrogen bonding effect, and the diamond-CNC model compliments some of the discussion of the previous model. In summary, CNC's material properties and molecular models are both studied in this research, contributing to

  12. A model to predict image formation in Atom probe Tomography.

    PubMed

    Vurpillot, F; Gaillard, A; Da Costa, G; Deconihout, B

    2013-09-01

    A model devoted to the modelling of the field evaporation of a tip is presented in this paper. The influence of length scales from the atomic scale to the macroscopic scale is taken into account in this approach. The evolution of the tip shape is modelled at the atomic scale in a three dimensional geometry with cylindrical symmetry. The projection law of ions is determined using a realistic representation of the tip geometry including the presence of electrodes in the surrounding area of the specimen. This realistic modelling gives a direct access to the voltage required to field evaporate, to the evolving magnification in the microscope and to the understanding of reconstruction artefacts when the presence of phases with different evaporation fields and/or different dielectric permittivity constants are modelled. This model has been applied to understand the field evaporation behaviour in bulk dielectric materials. In particular the role of the residual conductivity of dielectric materials is addressed.

  13. Effective microscopic models for sympathetic cooling of atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofrio, Roberto; Sundaram, Bala

    2015-09-01

    Thermalization of a system in the presence of a heat bath has been the subject of many theoretical investigations especially in the framework of solid-state physics. In this setting, the presence of a large bandwidth for the frequency distribution of the harmonic oscillators schematizing the heat bath is crucial, as emphasized in the Caldeira-Leggett model. By contrast, ultracold gases in atomic traps oscillate at well-defined frequencies and therefore seem to lie outside the Caldeira-Leggett paradigm. We introduce interaction Hamiltonians which allow us to adapt the model to an atomic physics framework. The intrinsic nonlinearity of these models differentiates them from the original Caldeira-Leggett model and calls for a nontrivial stability analysis to determine effective ranges for the model parameters. These models allow for molecular-dynamics simulations of mixtures of ultracold gases, which is of current relevance for optimizing sympathetic cooling in degenerate Bose-Fermi mixtures.

  14. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-04-15

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H{sub ∞} control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  15. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M

    2015-04-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  16. Learning atomic human actions using variable-length Markov models.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Ming; Shih, Sheng-Wen; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark; Lin, Cheng-Chung

    2009-02-01

    Visual analysis of human behavior has generated considerable interest in the field of computer vision because of its wide spectrum of potential applications. Human behavior can be segmented into atomic actions, each of which indicates a basic and complete movement. Learning and recognizing atomic human actions are essential to human behavior analysis. In this paper, we propose a framework for handling this task using variable-length Markov models (VLMMs). The framework is comprised of the following two modules: a posture labeling module and a VLMM atomic action learning and recognition module. First, a posture template selection algorithm, based on a modified shape context matching technique, is developed. The selected posture templates form a codebook that is used to convert input posture sequences into discrete symbol sequences for subsequent processing. Then, the VLMM technique is applied to learn the training symbol sequences of atomic actions. Finally, the constructed VLMMs are transformed into hidden Markov models (HMMs) for recognizing input atomic actions. This approach combines the advantages of the excellent learning function of a VLMM and the fault-tolerant recognition ability of an HMM. Experiments on realistic data demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed system.

  17. Atmospheric turbulence optical model (ATOM) based on fractal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Scoggins, Jim; Carroll, Marvin P.

    1994-06-01

    An Atmospheric Turbulence Optical Model (ATOM) is presented that used cellular automata (CA) rules as the basis for modeling synthetic phase sheets. This method allows image fracture, scintillation and blur to be correctly models using the principle of convolution with a complex kernel derived from CA rules interaction. The model takes into account the changing distribution of turbules from micro-turbule domination at low altitudes to macro-domination at high altitudes. The wavelength of propagating images (such as a coherent laser beam) and the range are taken into account. The ATOM model is written in standard FORTRAN 77 and enables high-speed in-line calculation of atmospheric effects to be performed without resorting to computationally intensive solutions of Navier Stokes equations or Cn2 profiles.

  18. Modeling and optimizing of the random atomic spin gyroscope drift based on the atomic spin gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei; Lv, Lin; Liu, Baiqi

    2014-11-01

    In order to improve the atom spin gyroscope's operational accuracy and compensate the random error caused by the nonlinear and weak-stability characteristic of the random atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) drift, the hybrid random drift error model based on autoregressive (AR) and genetic programming (GP) + genetic algorithm (GA) technique is established. The time series of random ASG drift is taken as the study object. The time series of random ASG drift is acquired by analyzing and preprocessing the measured data of ASG. The linear section model is established based on AR technique. After that, the nonlinear section model is built based on GP technique and GA is used to optimize the coefficients of the mathematic expression acquired by GP in order to obtain a more accurate model. The simulation result indicates that this hybrid model can effectively reflect the characteristics of the ASG's random drift. The square error of the ASG's random drift is reduced by 92.40%. Comparing with the AR technique and the GP + GA technique, the random drift is reduced by 9.34% and 5.06%, respectively. The hybrid modeling method can effectively compensate the ASG's random drift and improve the stability of the system.

  19. Modeling and optimizing of the random atomic spin gyroscope drift based on the atomic spin gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Lv, Lin; Liu, Baiqi

    2014-11-01

    In order to improve the atom spin gyroscope's operational accuracy and compensate the random error caused by the nonlinear and weak-stability characteristic of the random atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) drift, the hybrid random drift error model based on autoregressive (AR) and genetic programming (GP) + genetic algorithm (GA) technique is established. The time series of random ASG drift is taken as the study object. The time series of random ASG drift is acquired by analyzing and preprocessing the measured data of ASG. The linear section model is established based on AR technique. After that, the nonlinear section model is built based on GP technique and GA is used to optimize the coefficients of the mathematic expression acquired by GP in order to obtain a more accurate model. The simulation result indicates that this hybrid model can effectively reflect the characteristics of the ASG's random drift. The square error of the ASG's random drift is reduced by 92.40%. Comparing with the AR technique and the GP + GA technique, the random drift is reduced by 9.34% and 5.06%, respectively. The hybrid modeling method can effectively compensate the ASG's random drift and improve the stability of the system.

  20. Modeling and optimizing of the random atomic spin gyroscope drift based on the atomic spin gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Wei; Lv, Lin Liu, Baiqi

    2014-11-15

    In order to improve the atom spin gyroscope's operational accuracy and compensate the random error caused by the nonlinear and weak-stability characteristic of the random atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) drift, the hybrid random drift error model based on autoregressive (AR) and genetic programming (GP) + genetic algorithm (GA) technique is established. The time series of random ASG drift is taken as the study object. The time series of random ASG drift is acquired by analyzing and preprocessing the measured data of ASG. The linear section model is established based on AR technique. After that, the nonlinear section model is built based on GP technique and GA is used to optimize the coefficients of the mathematic expression acquired by GP in order to obtain a more accurate model. The simulation result indicates that this hybrid model can effectively reflect the characteristics of the ASG's random drift. The square error of the ASG's random drift is reduced by 92.40%. Comparing with the AR technique and the GP + GA technique, the random drift is reduced by 9.34% and 5.06%, respectively. The hybrid modeling method can effectively compensate the ASG's random drift and improve the stability of the system.

  1. A Nonlinear Model for Fuel Atomization in Spray Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor); Ibrahim, Essam A.; Sree, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Most gas turbine combustion codes rely on ad-hoc statistical assumptions regarding the outcome of fuel atomization processes. The modeling effort proposed in this project is aimed at developing a realistic model to produce accurate predictions of fuel atomization parameters. The model involves application of the nonlinear stability theory to analyze the instability and subsequent disintegration of the liquid fuel sheet that is produced by fuel injection nozzles in gas turbine combustors. The fuel sheet is atomized into a multiplicity of small drops of large surface area to volume ratio to enhance the evaporation rate and combustion performance. The proposed model will effect predictions of fuel sheet atomization parameters such as drop size, velocity, and orientation as well as sheet penetration depth, breakup time and thickness. These parameters are essential for combustion simulation codes to perform a controlled and optimized design of gas turbine fuel injectors. Optimizing fuel injection processes is crucial to improving combustion efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and pollutants emissions.

  2. ATOMIC DATA AND SPECTRAL MODEL FOR Fe III

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, Manuel A.; Ballance, Connor P.; Quinet, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We present new atomic data (radiative transitions rates and collision strengths) from large-scale calculations and a non-LTE spectral model for Fe III. This model is in very good agreement with observed astronomical emission spectra, in contrast with previous models that yield large discrepancies in observations. The present atomic computations employ a combination of atomic physics methods, e.g., relativistic Hartree-Fock, the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential, and Dirac-Fock computation of A-values and the R-matrix with intermediate coupling frame transformation and the Dirac R-matrix. We study advantages and shortcomings of each method. It is found that the Dirac R-matrix collision strengths yield excellent agreement with observations, much improved over previously available models. By contrast, the transformation of the LS-coupling R-matrix fails to yield accurate effective collision strengths at around 10{sup 4} K, despite using very large configuration expansions, due to the limited treatment of spin-orbit effects in the near-threshold resonances of the collision strengths. The present work demonstrates that accurate atomic data for low-ionization iron-peak species are now within reach.

  3. Derivation of Distributed Models of Atomic Polarizability for Molecular Simulations.

    PubMed

    Soteras, Ignacio; Curutchet, Carles; Bidon-Chanal, Axel; Dehez, François; Ángyán, János G; Orozco, Modesto; Chipot, Christophe; Luque, F Javier

    2007-11-01

    The main thrust of this investigation is the development of models of distributed atomic polarizabilities for the treatment of induction effects in molecular mechanics simulations. The models are obtained within the framework of the induced dipole theory by fitting the induction energies computed via a fast but accurate MP2/Sadlej-adjusted perturbational approach in a grid of points surrounding the molecule. Particular care is paid in the examination of the atomic quantities obtained from models of implicitly and explicitly interacting polarizabilities. Appropriateness and accuracy of the distributed models are assessed by comparing the molecular polarizabilities recovered from the models and those obtained experimentally and from MP2/Sadlej calculations. The behavior of the models is further explored by computing the polarization energy for aromatic compounds in the context of cation-π interactions and for selected neutral compounds in a TIP3P aqueous environment. The present results suggest that the computational strategy described here constitutes a very effective tool for the development of distributed models of atomic polarizabilities and can be used in the generation of new polarizable force fields.

  4. Exactly solvable models for atom-molecule Hamiltonians.

    PubMed

    Dukelsky, J; Dussel, G G; Esebbag, C; Pittel, S

    2004-07-30

    We present a family of exactly solvable generalizations of the Jaynes-Cummings model involving the interaction of an ensemble of SU(2) or SU(1,1) quasispins with a single boson field. They are obtained from the trigonometric Richardson-Gaudin models by replacing one of the SU(2) or SU(1,1) degrees of freedom by an ideal boson. The application to a system of bosonic atoms and molecules is reported.

  5. Atomic Data and Modelling for Fusion: the ADAS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, H. P.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    The paper is an update on the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, ADAS, since ICAM-DATA06 and a forward look to its evolution in the next five years. ADAS is an international project supporting principally magnetic confinement fusion research. It has participant laboratories throughout the world, including ITER and all its partner countries. In parallel with ADAS, the ADAS-EU Project provides enhanced support for fusion research at Associated Laboratories and Universities in Europe and ITER. OPEN-ADAS, sponsored jointly by the ADAS Project and IAEA, is the mechanism for open access to principal ADAS atomic data classes and facilitating software for their use. EXTENDED-ADAS comprises a variety of special, integrated application software, beyond the purely atomic bounds of ADAS, tuned closely to specific diagnostic analyses and plasma models. The current scientific content and scope of these various ADAS and ADAS related activities are briefly reviewed. These span a number of themes including heavy element spectroscopy and models, charge exchange spectroscopy, beam emission spectroscopy and special features which provide a broad baseline of atomic modelling and support. Emphasis will be placed on `lifting the fundamental data baseline'—a principal ADAS task for the next few years. This will include discussion of ADAS and ADAS-EU coordinated and shared activities and some of the methods being exploited.

  6. A constructive model potential method for atomic interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottcher, C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1974-01-01

    A model potential method is presented that can be applied to many electron single centre and two centre systems. The development leads to a Hamiltonian with terms arising from core polarization that depend parametrically upon the positions of the valence electrons. Some of the terms have been introduced empirically in previous studies. Their significance is clarified by an analysis of a similar model in classical electrostatics. The explicit forms of the expectation values of operators at large separations of two atoms given by the model potential method are shown to be equivalent to the exact forms when the assumption is made that the energy level differences of one atom are negligible compared to those of the other.

  7. Modeling of Turbulence Effect on Liquid Jet Atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, H. P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effect on the atomization process. Such turbulent flow phenomena are encountered in most practical applications of common liquid spray devices. This research aims to model the effects of turbulence occurring inside a cylindrical liquid jet to its atomization process. The two widely used atomization models Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz and the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) of O'Rourke and Amsden portraying primary liquid jet disintegration and secondary droplet breakup, respectively, are examined. Additional terms are formulated and appropriately implemented into these two models to account for the turbulence effect. Results for the flow conditions examined in this study indicate that the turbulence terms are significant in comparison with other terms in the models. In the primary breakup regime, the turbulent liquid jet tends to break up into large drops while its intact core is slightly shorter than those without turbulence. In contrast, the secondary droplet breakup with the inside liquid turbulence consideration produces smaller drops. Computational results indicate that the proposed models provide predictions that agree reasonably well with available measured data.

  8. Atomic Data and the Modeling of Supernova Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Christopher

    2012-06-01

    The modeling of supernovae (SNe) incorporates a variety of disciplines, including hydrodynamics, radiation transport, nuclear physics and atomic physics. These efforts require numerical simulation of the final stages of a star's life, the supernova explosion phase, and the radiation that is subsequently emitted by the supernova remnant, which can occur over a time span of tens of thousands of years. While there are several different types of SNe, they all emit radiation in some form. The measurement and interpretation of these spectra provide important information about the structure of the exploding star and the supernova engine. In this talk, the role of atomic data is highlighted as it pertains to the modeling of supernova spectra. Recent applications [1,2] involve the Los Alamos OPLIB opacity database, which has been used to provide atomic opacities for modeling supernova plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. Ongoing work includes the application of atomic data generated by the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes under more complicated, non-LTE conditions [3]. As a specific, recent example, a portion of the x-ray spectrum produced by Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572) will be discussed [4].[4pt] [1] C.L. Fryer et al., Astrophys. J. 707, 193 (2009).[0pt] [2] C.L. Fryer et al., Astrophys. J. 725, 296 (2009).[0pt] [3] C.J. Fontes et al., Conference Proceedings for ICPEAC XXVII (Belfast, Northern Ireland), in press, (2011).[0pt] [4] K.A. Eriksen et al., Presentation at the 2012 AAS Meeting (Austin, TX).

  9. Semirelativistic model for ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Attaourti, Y.; Taj, S.; Manaut, B.

    2005-06-15

    We present a semirelativistic model for the description of the ionization process of atomic hydrogen by electron impact in the first Born approximation by using the Darwin wave function to describe the bound state of atomic hydrogen and the Sommerfeld-Maue wave function to describe the ejected electron. This model, accurate to first order in Z/c in the relativistic correction, shows that, even at low kinetic energies of the incident electron, spin effects are small but not negligible. These effects become noticeable with increasing incident electron energies. All analytical calculations are exact and our semirelativistic results are compared with the results obtained in the nonrelativistic Coulomb Born approximation both for the coplanar asymmetric and the binary coplanar geometries.

  10. Empirical model of atomic nitrogen in the upper thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Mauersberger, K.; Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.; Nier, A. O.

    1977-01-01

    Atomic nitrogen number densities in the upper thermosphere measured by the open source neutral mass spectrometer (OSS) on Atmosphere Explorer-C during 1974 and part of 1975 have been used to construct a global empirical model at an altitude of 375 km based on a spherical harmonic expansion. The most evident features of the model are large diurnal and seasonal variations of atomic nitrogen and only a moderate and latitude-dependent density increase during periods of geomagnetic activity. Maximum and minimum N number densities at 375 km for periods of low solar activity are 3.6 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm at 1500 LST (local solar time) and low latitude in the summer hemisphere and 1.5 x 10 to the 5th/cu cm at 0200 LST at mid-latitudes in the winter hemisphere.

  11. Extended Bose-Hubbard models with ultracold magnetic atoms.

    PubMed

    Baier, S; Mark, M J; Petter, D; Aikawa, K; Chomaz, L; Cai, Z; Baranov, M; Zoller, P; Ferlaino, F

    2016-04-01

    The Hubbard model underlies our understanding of strongly correlated materials. Whereas its standard form only comprises interactions between particles at the same lattice site, extending it to encompass long-range interactions is predicted to profoundly alter the quantum behavior of the system. We realize the extended Bose-Hubbard model for an ultracold gas of strongly magnetic erbium atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Controlling the orientation of the atomic dipoles, we reveal the anisotropic character of the onsite interaction and hopping dynamics and their influence on the superfluid-to-Mott insulator quantum phase transition. Moreover, we observe nearest-neighbor interactions, a genuine consequence of the long-range nature of dipolar interactions. Our results lay the groundwork for future studies of exotic many-body quantum phases. PMID:27124454

  12. Charged Neutrinos and Atoms in the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasugi, E.; Tanaka, M.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of the charge quantization in the standard model is examined in the absence of the ``generation as copies'' rule. It is shown that neutrinos and atoms can have mini-charges, while neutron is neutral. If a triplet Higgs boson is introduced, neutrinos have masses. Two neutrinos form a Konopinski-Mahmoud Dirac particle and the other becomes a Majorana particle due to the hidden local anomaly free U(1) symmetry.

  13. A Comprehensive X-Ray Absorption Model for Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorczyca, T. W.; Bautista, M. A.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Garcia, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Manson, S. T.; Mendoza, C.; Raassen, A. J. J.; de Vries, C. P.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical formula is developed to accurately represent the photoabsorption cross section of atomic Oxygen for all energies of interest in X-ray spectral modeling. In the vicinity of the K edge, a Rydberg series expression is used to fit R-matrix results, including important orbital relaxation effects, that accurately predict the absorption oscillator strengths below threshold and merge consistently and continuously to the above-threshold cross section. Further, minor adjustments are made to the threshold energies in order to reliably align the atomic Rydberg resonances after consideration of both experimental and observed line positions. At energies far below or above the K-edge region, the formulation is based on both outer- and inner-shell direct photoionization, including significant shake-up and shake-off processes that result in photoionization-excitation and double-photoionization contributions to the total cross section. The ultimate purpose for developing a definitive model for oxygen absorption is to resolve standing discrepancies between the astronomically observed and laboratory-measured line positions, and between the inferred atomic and molecular oxygen abundances in the interstellar medium from XSTAR and SPEX spectral models.

  14. Atomic Data and Spectral Model for Fe II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Manuel A.; Fivet, Vanessa; Ballance, Connor; Quinet, Pascal; Ferland, Gary; Mendoza, Claudio; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2015-08-01

    We present extensive calculations of radiative transition rates and electron impact collision strengths for Fe ii. The data sets involve 52 levels from the 3d7, 3d64s, and 3{d}54{s}2 configurations. Computations of A-values are carried out with a combination of state-of-the-art multiconfiguration approaches, namely the relativistic Hartree–Fock, Thomas–Fermi–Dirac potential, and Dirac–Fock methods, while the R-matrix plus intermediate coupling frame transformation, Breit–Pauli R-matrix, and Dirac R-matrix packages are used to obtain collision strengths. We examine the advantages and shortcomings of each of these methods, and estimate rate uncertainties from the resulting data dispersion. We proceed to construct excitation balance spectral models, and compare the predictions from each data set with observed spectra from various astronomical objects. We are thus able to establish benchmarks in the spectral modeling of [Fe ii] emission in the IR and optical regions as well as in the UV Fe ii absorption spectra. Finally, we provide diagnostic line ratios and line emissivities for emission spectroscopy as well as column densities for absorption spectroscopy. All atomic data and models are available online and through the AtomPy atomic data curation environment.

  15. Modeling of Turbulence Effects on Liquid Jet Atomization and Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Chen, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations and physical modeling studies have indicated that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effects on the atomization process. This study aims to model the turbulence effect in the atomization process of a cylindrical liquid jet. Two widely used models, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz (blob model) and the Taylor-Analogy-Breakup (TAB) secondary droplet breakup by O Rourke et al, are further extended to include turbulence effects. In the primary breakup model, the level of the turbulence effect on the liquid breakup depends on the characteristic scales and the initial flow conditions. For the secondary breakup, an additional turbulence force acted on parent drops is modeled and integrated into the TAB governing equation. The drop size formed from this breakup regime is estimated based on the energy balance before and after the breakup occurrence. This paper describes theoretical development of the current models, called "T-blob" and "T-TAB", for primary and secondary breakup respectivety. Several assessment studies are also presented in this paper.

  16. The Chocolate Shop and Atomic Orbitals: A New Atomic Model Created by High School Students to Teach Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Atomic orbital theory is a difficult subject for many high school and beginning undergraduate students, as it includes mathematical concepts not yet covered in the school curriculum. Moreover, it requires certain ability for abstraction and imagination. A new atomic orbital model "the chocolate shop" created "by" students…

  17. Chemical domain of QSAR models from atom-centered fragments.

    PubMed

    Kühne, Ralph; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2009-12-01

    A methodology to characterize the chemical domain of qualitative and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on the atom-centered fragment (ACF) approach is introduced. ACFs decompose the molecule into structural pieces, with each non-hydrogen atom of the molecule acting as an ACF center. ACFs vary with respect to their size in terms of the path length covered in each bonding direction starting from a given central atom and how comprehensively the neighbor atoms (including hydrogen) are described in terms of element type and bonding environment. In addition to these different levels of ACF definitions, the ACF match mode as degree of strictness of the ACF comparison between a test compound and a given ACF pool (such as from a training set) has to be specified. Analyses of the prediction statistics of three QSAR models with their training sets as well as with external test sets and associated subsets demonstrate a clear relationship between the prediction performance and the levels of ACF definition and match mode. The findings suggest that second-order ACFs combined with a borderline match mode may serve as a generic and at the same time a mechanistically sound tool to define and evaluate the chemical domain of QSAR models. Moreover, four standard categories of the ACF-based membership to a given chemical domain (outside, borderline outside, borderline inside, inside) are introduced that provide more specific information about the expected QSAR prediction performance. As such, the ACF-based characterization of the chemical domain appears to be particularly useful for QSAR applications in the context of REACH and other regulatory schemes addressing the safety evaluation of chemical compounds.

  18. Modeling exact exchange potential in spherically confined atoms.

    PubMed

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2015-10-15

    In this work, local exchange potentials corresponding to the Hartree-Fock (HF) electron density have been obtained using the Zhao-Morrison-Parr method for a number of closed-shell confined atoms and ions. The exchange potentials obtained and the resulting density were compared with those given by the Becke-Johnson (BJ) model potential. It is demonstrated that introducing a scaling factor to the BJ potential allows improving the quality of the resulting density. The optimum scaling factor increases with decreasing confinement radius. The performance of Karasiev and Ludeña's SCα-LDA method as well as of the Becke-88 exchange potential for reproducing the HF electron densities in confined atoms has been also examined.

  19. Bohr model and dimensional scaling analysis of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urtekin, Kerim

    It is generally believed that the old quantum theory, as presented by Niels Bohr in 1913, fails when applied to many-electron systems, such as molecules, and nonhydrogenic atoms. It is the central theme of this dissertation to display with examples and applications the implementation of a simple and successful extension of Bohr's planetary model of the hydrogenic atom, which has recently been developed by an atomic and molecular theory group from Texas A&M University. This "extended" Bohr model, which can be derived from quantum mechanics using the well-known dimentional scaling technique is used to yield potential energy curves of H2 and several more complicated molecules, such as LiH, Li2, BeH, He2 and H3, with accuracies strikingly comparable to those obtained from the more lengthy and rigorous "ab initio" computations, and the added advantage that it provides a rather insightful and pictorial description of how electrons behave to form chemical bonds, a theme not central to "ab initio" quantum chemistry. Further investigation directed to CH, and the four-atom system H4 (with both linear and square configurations), via the interpolated Bohr model, and the constrained Bohr model (with an effective potential), respectively, is reported. The extended model is also used to calculate correlation energies. The model is readily applicable to the study of molecular species in the presence of strong magnetic fields, as is the case in the vicinities of white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find that magnetic field increases the binding energy and decreases the bond length. Finally, an elaborative review of doubly coupled quantum dots for a derivation of the electron exchange energy, a straightforward application of Heitler-London method of quantum molecular chemistry, concludes the dissertation. The highlights of the research are (1) a bridging together of the pre- and post quantum mechanical descriptions of the chemical bond (Bohr-Sommerfeld vs. Heisenberg-Schrodinger), and

  20. Assessment of Some Atomization Models Used in Spray Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Bulzin, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a validation study undertaken as a part of the NASA s fundamental aeronautics initiative on high altitude emissions in order to assess the accuracy of several atomization models used in both non-superheat and superheat spray calculations. As a part of this investigation we have undertaken the validation based on four different cases to investigate the spray characteristics of (1) a flashing jet generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from cylindrical nozzle, (2) a liquid jet atomizing in a subsonic cross flow, (3) a Parker-Hannifin pressure swirl atomizer, and (4) a single-element Lean Direct Injector (LDI) combustor experiment. These cases were chosen because of their importance in some aerospace applications. The validation is based on some 3D and axisymmetric calculations involving both reacting and non-reacting sprays. In general, the predicted results provide reasonable agreement for both mean droplet sizes (D32) and average droplet velocities but mostly underestimate the droplets sizes in the inner radial region of a cylindrical jet.

  1. Revised Parameters for the AMOEBA Polarizable Atomic Multipole Water Model

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vijay S.; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Ponder, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    A set of improved parameters for the AMOEBA polarizable atomic multipole water model is developed. The protocol uses an automated procedure, ForceBalance, to adjust model parameters to enforce agreement with ab initio-derived results for water clusters and experimentally obtained data for a variety of liquid phase properties across a broad temperature range. The values reported here for the new AMOEBA14 water model represent a substantial improvement over the previous AMOEBA03 model. The new AMOEBA14 water model accurately predicts the temperature of maximum density and qualitatively matches the experimental density curve across temperatures ranging from 249 K to 373 K. Excellent agreement is observed for the AMOEBA14 model in comparison to a variety of experimental properties as a function of temperature, including the 2nd virial coefficient, enthalpy of vaporization, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient and dielectric constant. The viscosity, self-diffusion constant and surface tension are also well reproduced. In comparison to high-level ab initio results for clusters of 2 to 20 water molecules, the AMOEBA14 model yields results similar to the AMOEBA03 and the direct polarization iAMOEBA models. With advances in computing power, calibration data, and optimization techniques, we recommend the use of the AMOEBA14 water model for future studies employing a polarizable water model. PMID:25683601

  2. Revised Parameters for the AMOEBA Polarizable Atomic Multipole Water Model.

    PubMed

    Laury, Marie L; Wang, Lee-Ping; Pande, Vijay S; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Ponder, Jay W

    2015-07-23

    A set of improved parameters for the AMOEBA polarizable atomic multipole water model is developed. An automated procedure, ForceBalance, is used to adjust model parameters to enforce agreement with ab initio-derived results for water clusters and experimental data for a variety of liquid phase properties across a broad temperature range. The values reported here for the new AMOEBA14 water model represent a substantial improvement over the previous AMOEBA03 model. The AMOEBA14 model accurately predicts the temperature of maximum density and qualitatively matches the experimental density curve across temperatures from 249 to 373 K. Excellent agreement is observed for the AMOEBA14 model in comparison to experimental properties as a function of temperature, including the second virial coefficient, enthalpy of vaporization, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient, and dielectric constant. The viscosity, self-diffusion constant, and surface tension are also well reproduced. In comparison to high-level ab initio results for clusters of 2-20 water molecules, the AMOEBA14 model yields results similar to AMOEBA03 and the direct polarization iAMOEBA models. With advances in computing power, calibration data, and optimization techniques, we recommend the use of the AMOEBA14 water model for future studies employing a polarizable water model.

  3. Computer simulation of liquid cesium using embedded atom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashchenko, D. K.; Nikitin, N. Yu

    2008-02-01

    The new method is presented for the inventing an embedded atom potential (EAM potential) for liquid metals. This method uses directly the pair correlation function (PCF) of the liquid metal near the melting temperature. Because of the specific analytic form of this EAM potential, the pair term of potential can be calculated using the pair correlation function and, for example, Schommers algorithm. Other parameters of EAM potential may be found using the potential energy, module of compression and pressure at some conditions, mainly near the melting temperature, at very high temperature or in strongly compressed state. We used the simple exponential formula for effective EAM electronic density and a polynomial series for embedding energy. Molecular dynamics method was applied with L. Verlet algorithm. A series of models with 1968 atoms in the basic cube was constructed in temperature interval 323-1923 K. The thermodynamic properties of liquid cesium, structure data and self-diffusion coefficients are calculated. In general, agreement between the model data and known experimental ones is reasonable. The evaluation is given for the critical temperature of cesium models with EAM potential.

  4. Bounds on collapse models from cold-atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilardello, Marco; Donadi, Sandro; Vinante, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    The spontaneous localization mechanism of collapse models induces a Brownian motion in all physical systems. This effect is very weak, but experimental progress in creating ultracold atomic systems can be used to detect it. In this paper, we considered a recent experiment (Kovachy et al., 2015), where an atomic ensemble was cooled down to picokelvins. Any Brownian motion induces an extra increase of the position variance of the gas. We study this effect by solving the dynamical equations for the Continuous Spontaneous Localizations (CSL) model, as well as for its non-Markovian and dissipative extensions. The resulting bounds, with a 95 % of confidence level, are beaten only by measurements of spontaneous X-ray emission and by experiments with cantilever (in the latter case, only for rC ≥ 10-7 m, where rC is one of the two collapse parameters of the CSL model). We show that, contrary to the bounds given by X-ray measurements, non-Markovian effects do not change the bounds, for any reasonable choice of a frequency cutoff in the spectrum of the collapse noise. Therefore the bounds here considered are more robust. We also show that dissipative effects are unimportant for a large spectrum of temperatures of the noise, while for low temperatures the excluded region in the parameter space is the more reduced, the lower the temperature.

  5. A comprehensive X-ray absorption model for atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Gorczyca, T. W.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Hasoglu, M. F.; García, J.; Gatuzz, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Raassen, A. J. J.; De Vries, C. P.; Kallman, T. R.; Manson, S. T.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2013-12-10

    An analytical formula is developed to accurately represent the photoabsorption cross section of O I for all energies of interest in X-ray spectral modeling. In the vicinity of the K edge, a Rydberg series expression is used to fit R-matrix results, including important orbital relaxation effects, that accurately predict the absorption oscillator strengths below threshold and merge consistently and continuously to the above-threshold cross section. Further, minor adjustments are made to the threshold energies in order to reliably align the atomic Rydberg resonances after consideration of both experimental and observed line positions. At energies far below or above the K-edge region, the formulation is based on both outer- and inner-shell direct photoionization, including significant shake-up and shake-off processes that result in photoionization-excitation and double-photoionization contributions to the total cross section. The ultimate purpose for developing a definitive model for oxygen absorption is to resolve standing discrepancies between the astronomically observed and laboratory-measured line positions, and between the inferred atomic and molecular oxygen abundances in the interstellar medium from XSTAR and SPEX spectral models.

  6. Atomic modeling of cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions--joint refinement of model and imaging parameters.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Michael S; Trzynka, Andrew; Chapman, Brynmor K

    2013-04-01

    When refining the fit of component atomic structures into electron microscopic reconstructions, use of a resolution-dependent atomic density function makes it possible to jointly optimize the atomic model and imaging parameters of the microscope. Atomic density is calculated by one-dimensional Fourier transform of atomic form factors convoluted with a microscope envelope correction and a low-pass filter, allowing refinement of imaging parameters such as resolution, by optimizing the agreement of calculated and experimental maps. A similar approach allows refinement of atomic displacement parameters, providing indications of molecular flexibility even at low resolution. A modest improvement in atomic coordinates is possible following optimization of these additional parameters. Methods have been implemented in a Python program that can be used in stand-alone mode for rigid-group refinement, or embedded in other optimizers for flexible refinement with stereochemical restraints. The approach is demonstrated with refinements of virus and chaperonin structures at resolutions of 9 through 4.5 Å, representing regimes where rigid-group and fully flexible parameterizations are appropriate. Through comparisons to known crystal structures, flexible fitting by RSRef is shown to be an improvement relative to other methods and to generate models with all-atom rms accuracies of 1.5-2.5 Å at resolutions of 4.5-6 Å.

  7. Sublattice model of atomic scale pairing inhomogeneity in a superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vivek; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Barash, Yu. S.

    2008-10-01

    We study a toy model for a superconductor on a bipartite lattice where intrinsic pairing inhomogeneity is produced by two different coupling constants on the sublattices. The simplicity of the model allows for analytical solutions and tests of the consequences of atomic scale variations in pairing interactions, which have been considered recently in the cuprates. We present results for the transition temperature, density of states, and thermodynamics of the system over a phase diagram in the plane of two pairing coupling constants. For coupling constants of alternating sign, a gapless superconducting state is stable. Inhomogeneity is generally found to enhance the critical temperature, and at the same time the superfluid density is remarkably robust; at T=0 , it is suppressed only in the gapless phase.

  8. Beyond Modeling: All-Atom Olfactory Receptor Model Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peter C.; Crasto, Chiquito J.

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are a type of GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). These receptors are responsible for mediating the sense of smell through their interaction with odor ligands. OR-odorant interactions marks the first step in the process that leads to olfaction. Computational studies on model OR structures can generate focused and novel hypotheses for further bench investigation by providing a view of these interactions at the molecular level beyond inferences that are drawn merely from static docking. Here we have shown the specific advantages of simulating the dynamic environment associated with OR-odorant interactions. We present a rigorous protocol which ranges from the creation of a computationally derived model of an olfactory receptor to simulating the interactions between an OR and an odorant molecule. Given the ubiquitous occurrence of GPCRs in the membranes of cells, we anticipate that our OR-developed methodology will serve as a model for the computational structural biology of all GPCRs. PMID:22563330

  9. Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Antoine; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Gupta, Rashmi; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Goosmann, Christian; Griesinger, Christian; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2012-05-20

    Pathogenic bacteria using a type III secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate host cells cause many different infections including Shigella dysentery, typhoid fever, enterohaemorrhagic colitis and bubonic plague. An essential part of the T3SS is a hollow needle-like protein filament through which effector proteins are injected into eukaryotic host cells. Currently, the three-dimensional structure of the needle is unknown because it is not amenable to X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, as a result of its inherent non-crystallinity and insolubility. Cryo-electron microscopy combined with crystal or solution NMR subunit structures has recently provided a powerful hybrid approach for studying supramolecular assemblies, resulting in low-resolution and medium-resolution models. However, such approaches cannot deliver atomic details, especially of the crucial subunit-subunit interfaces, because of the limited cryo-electron microscopic resolution obtained in these studies. Here we report an alternative approach combining recombinant wild-type needle production, solid-state NMR, electron microscopy and Rosetta modelling to reveal the supramolecular interfaces and ultimately the complete atomic structure of the Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle. We show that the 80-residue subunits form a right-handed helical assembly with roughly 11 subunits per two turns, similar to that of the flagellar filament of S. typhimurium. In contrast to established models of the needle in which the amino terminus of the protein subunit was assumed to be α-helical and positioned inside the needle, our model reveals an extended amino-terminal domain that is positioned on the surface of the needle, while the highly conserved carboxy terminus points towards the lumen.

  10. Model of spacecraft atomic oxygen and solar exposure microenvironments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Pippin, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    Computer models of environmental conditions in Earth orbit are needed for the following reasons: (1) derivation of material performance parameters from orbital test data, (2) evaluation of spacecraft hardware designs, (3) prediction of material service life, and (4) scheduling spacecraft maintenance. To meet these needs, Boeing has developed programs for modeling atomic oxygen (AO) and solar radiation exposures. The model allows determination of AO and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposures for spacecraft surfaces (1) in arbitrary orientations with respect to the direction of spacecraft motion, (2) overall ranges of solar conditions, and (3) for any mission duration. The models have been successfully applied to prediction of experiment environments on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and for analysis of selected hardware designs for deployment on other spacecraft. The work on these models has been reported at previous LDEF conferences. Since publication of these reports, a revision has been made to the AO calculation for LDEF, and further work has been done on the microenvironments model for solar exposure.

  11. Monte Carlo modeling of atomic oxygen attack of polymers with protective coatings on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Auer, Bruce M.; Gebauer, Linda; Edwards, Jonathan L.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of the behavior of atomic oxygen interaction with materials on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) assists in understanding of the mechanisms involved. Thus the reliability of predicting in-space durability of materials based on ground laboratory testing should be improved. A computational model which simulates atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers was developed using Monte Carlo techniques. Through the use of an assumed mechanistic behavior of atomic oxygen interaction based on in-space atomic oxygen erosion of unprotected polymers and ground laboratory atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers, prediction of atomic oxygen interaction with protected polymers on LDEF was accomplished. However, the results of these predictions are not consistent with the observed LDEF results at defect sites in protected polymers. Improved agreement between observed LDEF results and predicted Monte Carlo modeling can be achieved by modifying of the atomic oxygen interactive assumptions used in the model. LDEF atomic oxygen undercutting results, modeling assumptions, and implications are presented.

  12. Improving ranking of models for protein complexes with side chain modeling and atomic potentials.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Shruthi; Ravikant, D V S; Elber, Ron

    2013-04-01

    An atomically detailed potential for docking pairs of proteins is derived using mathematical programming. A refinement algorithm that builds atomically detailed models of the complex and combines coarse grained and atomic scoring is introduced. The refinement step consists of remodeling the interface side chains of the top scoring decoys from rigid docking followed by a short energy minimization. The refined models are then re-ranked using a combination of coarse grained and atomic potentials. The docking algorithm including the refinement and re-ranking, is compared favorably to other leading docking packages like ZDOCK, Cluspro, and PATCHDOCK, on the ZLAB 3.0 Benchmark and a test set of 30 novel complexes. A detailed analysis shows that coarse grained potentials perform better than atomic potentials for realistic unbound docking (where the exact structures of the individual bound proteins are unknown), probably because atomic potentials are more sensitive to local errors. Nevertheless, the atomic potential captures a different signal from the residue potential and as a result a combination of the two scores provides a significantly better prediction than each of the approaches alone.

  13. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  14. Atomic scale modelling of hexagonal structured metallic fission product alloys.

    PubMed

    Middleburgh, S C; King, D M; Lumpkin, G R

    2015-04-01

    Noble metal particles in the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc system have been simulated on the atomic scale using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The composition and behaviour of the epsilon phases are consistent with high-entropy alloys (or multi-principal component alloys)-making the epsilon phase the only hexagonally close packed high-entropy alloy currently described. Configurational entropy effects were considered to predict the stability of the alloys with increasing temperatures. The variation of Mo content was modelled to understand the change in alloy structure and behaviour with fuel burnup (Mo molar content decreases in these alloys as burnup increases). The predicted structures compare extremely well with experimentally ascertained values. Vacancy formation energies and the behaviour of extrinsic defects (including iodine and xenon) in the epsilon phase were also investigated to further understand the impact that the metallic precipitates have on fuel performance.

  15. Simulating and Modeling Transport Through Atomically Thin Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Joseph; Eaves, Joel

    2014-03-01

    The world is running out of clean portable water. The efficacy of water desalination technologies using porous materials is a balance between membrane selectivity and solute throughput. These properties are just starting to be understood on the nanoscale, but in the limit of atomically thin membranes it is unclear whether one can apply typical continuous time random walk models. Depending on the size of the pore and thickness of the membrane, mass transport can range from single stochastic passage events to continuous flow describable by the usual hydrodynamic equations. We present a study of mass transport through membranes of various pore geometries using reverse nonequilibrium simulations, and analyze transport rates using stochastic master equations.

  16. SLIMP: Strong laser interaction model package for atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2015-07-01

    We present the SLIMP package, which provides an efficient way for the calculation of strong-field ionization rate and high-order harmonic spectra based on the single active electron approximation. The initial states are taken as single-particle orbitals directly from output files of the general purpose quantum chemistry programs GAMESS, Firefly and Gaussian. For ionization, the molecular Ammosov-Delone-Krainov theory, and both the length gauge and velocity gauge Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss theories are implemented, while the Lewenstein model is used for harmonic spectra. Furthermore, it is also efficient for the evaluation of orbital coordinates wavefunction, momentum wavefunction, orbital dipole moment and calculation of orbital integrations. This package can be applied to quite large basis sets and complex molecules with many atoms, and is implemented to allow easy extensions for additional capabilities.

  17. Atomic scale modelling of hexagonal structured metallic fission product alloys

    PubMed Central

    Middleburgh, S. C.; King, D. M.; Lumpkin, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal particles in the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc system have been simulated on the atomic scale using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The composition and behaviour of the epsilon phases are consistent with high-entropy alloys (or multi-principal component alloys)—making the epsilon phase the only hexagonally close packed high-entropy alloy currently described. Configurational entropy effects were considered to predict the stability of the alloys with increasing temperatures. The variation of Mo content was modelled to understand the change in alloy structure and behaviour with fuel burnup (Mo molar content decreases in these alloys as burnup increases). The predicted structures compare extremely well with experimentally ascertained values. Vacancy formation energies and the behaviour of extrinsic defects (including iodine and xenon) in the epsilon phase were also investigated to further understand the impact that the metallic precipitates have on fuel performance. PMID:26064629

  18. Atomic-level models of the bacterial carboxysome shell

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.; Kerfeld, C.A.; Sawaya, M.R.; Cai, F.; Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G.C.; Yeates, T.O.

    2008-06-03

    The carboxysome is a bacterial microcompartment that functions as a simple organelle by sequestering enzymes involved in carbon fixation. The carboxysome shell is roughly 800 to 1400 angstroms in diameter and is assembled from several thousand protein subunits. Previous studies have revealed the three-dimensional structures of hexameric carboxysome shell proteins, which self-assemble into molecular layers that most likely constitute the facets of the polyhedral shell. Here, we report the three-dimensional structures of two proteins of previously unknown function, CcmL and OrfA (or CsoS4A), from the two known classes of carboxysomes, at resolutions of 2.4 and 2.15 angstroms. Both proteins assemble to form pentameric structures whose size and shape are compatible with formation of vertices in an icosahedral shell. Combining these pentamers with the hexamers previously elucidated gives two plausible, preliminary atomic models for the carboxysome shell.

  19. Atomic-scale simulations of atomic and molecular mobility in models of interstellar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Stefan

    The mobility of atoms and molecular radicals at ice-covered dust particles controls the surprisingly rich chemistry of circumstellar and interstellar environments, where a large number of different organic molecules have been observed. Both thermal and non-thermal processes, for instance caused by UV radiation, have been inferred to play important roles in this chemistry. A growing number of experimental studies support previously suggested mechanisms and add to the understanding of possible astrochemical processes. Simulations, of both experiments and astrophysical environments, aid in interpreting experiments and suggesting important mechanisms. Still, the exact mechanisms behind the mobility of species in interstellar ice are far from fully understood. We have performed calculations at the molecular level on the mobility of H atoms and OH radicals at water ice surfaces of varying morphology. Calculations of binding energies and diffusion barriers of H atoms at crystalline and amorphous ice surfaces show that the experimentally observed slower diffusion at amorphous ice is due to considerably stronger binding energies and higher diffusion barriers than at crystalline ice. These results are in excellent agreement with recent experiments. It was also found that quantum tunneling is important for H atom mobility below 10 K. The binding energies and diffusion barriers of OH radicals at crystalline ice have been studied using the ONIOM(QM:AMOEBA) approach. Results indicate that OH diffusion over crystalline ice, contrary to the case of H atoms, might be slower at crystalline ice than at amorphous ice, due to a higher surface density of stronger binding sites at crystalline ice. We have also performed molecular dynamics simulations of the photoexcitation of vapor-deposited water at a range of surface temperatures. These results support that the experimentally observed desorption of H atoms following UV excitation is best explained by release of H atoms from

  20. Atomic Models of Strong Solids Interfaces Viewed as Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffell, I.; Shang, J. L.; Kendall, K.

    2014-02-01

    This paper looks back through the 1960s to the invention of carbon fibres and the theories of Strong Solids. In particular it focuses on the fracture mechanics paradox of strong composites containing weak interfaces. From Griffith theory, it is clear that three parameters must be considered in producing a high strength composite:- minimising defects; maximising the elastic modulus; and raising the fracture energy along the crack path. The interface then introduces two further factors:- elastic modulus mismatch causing crack stopping; and debonding along a brittle interface due to low interface fracture energy. Consequently, an understanding of the fracture energy of a composite interface is needed. Using an interface model based on atomic interaction forces, it is shown that a single layer of contaminant atoms between the matrix and the reinforcement can reduce the interface fracture energy by an order of magnitude, giving a large delamination effect. The paper also looks to a future in which cars will be made largely from composite materials. Radical improvements in automobile design are necessary because the number of cars worldwide is predicted to double. This paper predicts gains in fuel economy by suggesting a new theory of automobile fuel consumption using an adaptation of Coulomb's friction law. It is demonstrated both by experiment and by theoretical argument that the energy dissipated in standard vehicle tests depends only on weight. Consequently, moving from metal to fibre construction can give a factor 2 improved fuel economy performance, roughly the same as moving from a petrol combustion drive to hydrogen fuel cell propulsion. Using both options together can give a factor 4 improvement, as demonstrated by testing a composite car using the ECE15 protocol.

  1. Secondary Students' Mental Models of Atoms and Molecules: Implications for Teaching Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allan G.; Treagust, David F.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the reasoning behind views of atoms and molecules held by students (n=48) and investigates how mental models may assist or hamper further instruction in chemistry. Reports that students prefer models of atoms and molecules that depict them as discrete, concrete structures. Recommends that teachers develop student modeling skills and…

  2. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  3. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Model Potential Calculations of Oscillator Strength Spectra of Rydberg Li Atoms in External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui-Yan; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2009-08-01

    By combining the B-spline basis set with model potential (B-spline + MP), we present oscillator strength spectra of Rydberg Li atoms in external fields. The photoabsorption spectra are analyzed. Over the narrow energy ranges considered in this paper, the structure of the spectra can be independent of the initial state chosen for a given atom. Our results are in good agreement with previous high-precision experimental data and theoretical calculations, where the R-matrix approach together with multichannel quantum defect theory (R-matrix+MQDT) was used. It is suggested that the present methods can be applied to deal with the oscillator strength spectra of Rydberg atoms in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  4. Atomic forces for geometry-dependent point multipole and gaussian multipole models.

    PubMed

    Elking, Dennis M; Perera, Lalith; Duke, Robert; Darden, Thomas; Pedersen, Lee G

    2010-11-30

    In standard treatments of atomic multipole models, interaction energies, total molecular forces, and total molecular torques are given for multipolar interactions between rigid molecules. However, if the molecules are assumed to be flexible, two additional multipolar atomic forces arise because of (1) the transfer of torque between neighboring atoms and (2) the dependence of multipole moment on internal geometry (bond lengths, bond angles, etc.) for geometry-dependent multipole models. In this study, atomic force expressions for geometry-dependent multipoles are presented for use in simulations of flexible molecules. The atomic forces are derived by first proposing a new general expression for Wigner function derivatives partial derivative D(m'm)(l)/partial derivative Omega. The force equations can be applied to electrostatic models based on atomic point multipoles or gaussian multipole charge density. Hydrogen-bonded dimers are used to test the intermolecular electrostatic energies and atomic forces calculated by geometry-dependent multipoles fit to the ab initio electrostatic potential. The electrostatic energies and forces are compared with their reference ab initio values. It is shown that both static and geometry-dependent multipole models are able to reproduce total molecular forces and torques with respect to ab initio, whereas geometry-dependent multipoles are needed to reproduce ab initio atomic forces. The expressions for atomic force can be used in simulations of flexible molecules with atomic multipoles. In addition, the results presented in this work should lead to further development of next generation force fields composed of geometry-dependent multipole models.

  5. Multipole correction of atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution. I. Peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Keller, D. A.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The defects in atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution have been analyzed for several model-blocked peptides and compared with accurate quantum chemical values. The results indicate that the angular characteristics of the molecular electrostatic potential around functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds can be considerably distorted within various models relying upon isotropic atomic charges only. It is shown that these defects can be corrected by augmenting the atomic point charge models by cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMMs). Alternatively, sets of off-center atomic point charges could be automatically derived from respective multipoles, providing approximately equivalent corrections. For the first time, correlated atomic multipoles have been calculated for N-acetyl, N'-methylamide-blocked derivatives of glycine, alanine, cysteine, threonine, leucine, lysine, and serine using the MP2 method. The role of the correlation effects in the peptide molecular charge distribution are discussed.

  6. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-08-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  7. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  8. Improving the Ni I atomic model for solar and stellar atmospheric models

    SciTech Connect

    Vieytes, M. C.; Fontenla, J. M. E-mail: johnf@digidyna.com

    2013-06-01

    Neutral nickel (Ni I) is abundant in the solar atmosphere and is one of the important elements that contribute to the emission and absorption of radiation in the spectral range between 1900 and 3900 Å. Previously, the Solar Radiation Physical Modeling (SRPM) models of the solar atmosphere only considered a few levels of this species. Here, we improve the Ni I atomic model by taking into account 61 levels and 490 spectral lines. We compute the populations of these levels in full NLTE using the SRPM code and compare the resulting emerging spectrum with observations. The present atomic model significantly improves the calculation of the solar spectral irradiance at near-UV wavelengths, which is important for Earth atmospheric studies, and particularly for ozone chemistry.

  9. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  10. 'Bubble chamber model' of fast atom bombardment induced processes.

    PubMed

    Kosevich, Marina V; Shelkovsky, Vadim S; Boryak, Oleg A; Orlov, Vadim V

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis concerning FAB mechanisms, referred to as a 'bubble chamber FAB model', is proposed. This model can provide an answer to the long-standing question as to how fragile biomolecules and weakly bound clusters can survive under high-energy particle impact on liquids. The basis of this model is a simple estimation of saturated vapour pressure over the surface of liquids, which shows that all liquids ever tested by fast atom bombardment (FAB) and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were in the superheated state under the experimental conditions applied. The result of the interaction of the energetic particles with superheated liquids is known to be qualitatively different from that with equilibrium liquids. It consists of initiation of local boiling, i.e., in formation of vapour bubbles along the track of the energetic particle. This phenomenon has been extensively studied in the framework of nuclear physics and provides the basis for construction of the well-known bubble chamber detectors. The possibility of occurrence of similar processes under FAB of superheated liquids substantiates a conceptual model of emission of secondary ions suggested by Vestal in 1983, which assumes formation of bubbles beneath the liquid surface, followed by their bursting accompanied by release of microdroplets and clusters as a necessary intermediate step for the creation of molecular ions. The main distinctive feature of the bubble chamber FAB model, proposed here, is that the bubbles are formed not in the space and time-restricted impact-excited zone, but in the nearby liquid as a 'normal' boiling event, which implies that the temperature both within the bubble and in the droplets emerging on its burst is practically the same as that of the bulk liquid sample. This concept can resolve the paradox of survival of intact biomolecules under FAB, since the part of the sample participating in the liquid-gas transition via the bubble mechanism has an ambient temperature

  11. Uncertainties in Atomic Data and Their Propagation Through Spectral Models. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, M. A.; Fivet, V.; Quinet, P.; Dunn, J.; Gull, T. R.; Kallman, T. R.; Mendoza, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for computing uncertainties in spectral models, i.e., level populations, line emissivities, and emission line ratios, based upon the propagation of uncertainties originating from atomic data.We provide analytic expressions, in the form of linear sets of algebraic equations, for the coupled uncertainties among all levels. These equations can be solved efficiently for any set of physical conditions and uncertainties in the atomic data. We illustrate our method applied to spectral models of Oiii and Fe ii and discuss the impact of the uncertainties on atomic systems under different physical conditions. As to intrinsic uncertainties in theoretical atomic data, we propose that these uncertainties can be estimated from the dispersion in the results from various independent calculations. This technique provides excellent results for the uncertainties in A-values of forbidden transitions in [Fe ii]. Key words: atomic data - atomic processes - line: formation - methods: data analysis - molecular data - molecular processes - techniques: spectroscopic

  12. Modeling three-dimensional network formation with an atomic lattice model: application to silicic acid polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lin; Auerbach, Scott M; Monson, Peter A

    2011-04-01

    We present an atomic lattice model for studying the polymerization of silicic acid in sol-gel and related processes for synthesizing silica materials. Our model is based on Si and O atoms occupying the sites of a body-centered-cubic lattice, with all atoms arranged in SiO(4) tetrahedra. This is the simplest model that allows for variation in the Si-O-Si angle, which is largely responsible for the versatility in silica polymorphs. The model describes the assembly of polymerized silica structures starting from a solution of silicic acid in water at a given concentration and pH. This model can simulate related materials-chalcogenides and clays-by assigning energy penalties to particular ring geometries in the polymerized structures. The simplicity of this approach makes it possible to study the polymerization process to higher degrees of polymerization and larger system sizes than has been possible with previous atomistic models. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of the model at two concentrations: a low density state similar to that used in the clear solution synthesis of silicalite-1, and a high density state relevant to experiments on silica gel synthesis. For the high concentration system where there are NMR data on the temporal evolution of the Q(n) distribution, we find that the model gives good agreement with the experimental data. The model captures the basic mechanism of silica polymerization and provides quantitative structural predictions on ring-size distributions in good agreement with x-ray and neutron diffraction data.

  13. Project Physics Reader 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 5, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Nine excerpts are given under the following headings: failure and success, Einstein, Mr. Tompkins and simultaneity, parable of the surveyors, outside and inside the elevator, the teacher and the Bohr theory of atom, Dirac and Born,…

  14. Resolution-Adapted All-Atomic and Coarse-Grained Model for Biomolecular Simulations.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lin; Hu, Hao

    2014-06-10

    We develop here an adaptive multiresolution method for the simulation of complex heterogeneous systems such as the protein molecules. The target molecular system is described with the atomistic structure while maintaining concurrently a mapping to the coarse-grained models. The theoretical model, or force field, used to describe the interactions between two sites is automatically adjusted in the simulation processes according to the interaction distance/strength. Therefore, all-atomic, coarse-grained, or mixed all-atomic and coarse-grained models would be used together to describe the interactions between a group of atoms and its surroundings. Because the choice of theory is made on the force field level while the sampling is always carried out in the atomic space, the new adaptive method preserves naturally the atomic structure and thermodynamic properties of the entire system throughout the simulation processes. The new method will be very useful in many biomolecular simulations where atomistic details are critically needed.

  15. Symmetric eikonal model for projectile-electron excitation and loss in relativistic ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Voitkiv, A. B.; Najjari, B.; Shevelko, V. P.

    2010-08-15

    At impact energies > or approx. 1 GeV/u the projectile-electron excitation and loss occurring in collisions between highly charged ions and neutral atoms is already strongly influenced by the presence of atomic electrons. To treat these processes in collisions with heavy atoms we generalize the symmetric eikonal model, used earlier for considerations of electron transitions in ion-atom collisions within the scope of a three-body Coulomb problem. We show that at asymptotically high collision energies this model leads to an exact transition amplitude and is very well suited to describe the projectile-electron excitation and loss at energies above a few GeV/u. In particular, by considering a number of examples we demonstrate advantages of this model over the first Born approximation at impact energies of {approx}1-30 GeV/u, which are of special interest for atomic physics experiments at the future GSI facilities.

  16. Identifying Atomic Structure as a Threshold Concept: Student Mental Models and Troublesomeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Jung; Light, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Atomic theory or the nature of matter is a principal concept in science and science education. This has, however, been complicated by the difficulty students have in learning the concept and the subsequent construction of many alternative models. To understand better the conceptual barriers to learning atomic structure, this study explores the…

  17. Atomic charges for modeling metal–organic frameworks: Why and how

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, Said Balestra, Salvador R.G.; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Calero, Sofia; Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel

    2015-03-15

    Atomic partial charges are parameters of key importance in the simulation of Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs), since Coulombic interactions decrease with the distance more slowly than van der Waals interactions. But despite its relevance, there is no method to unambiguously assign charges to each atom, since atomic charges are not quantum observables. There are several methods that allow the calculation of atomic charges, most of them starting from the electronic wavefunction or the electronic density or the system, as obtained with quantum mechanics calculations. In this work, we describe the most common methods employed to calculate atomic charges in MOFs. In order to show the influence that even small variations of structure have on atomic charges, we present the results that we obtained for DMOF-1. We also discuss the effect that small variations of atomic charges have on the predicted structural properties of IRMOF-1. - Graphical abstract: We review the different method with which to calculate atomic partial charges that can be used in force field-based calculations. We also present two examples that illustrate the influence of the geometry on the calculated charges and the influence of the charges on structural properties. - Highlights: • The choice of atomic charges is crucial in modeling adsorption and diffusion in MOFs. • Methods for calculating atomic charges in MOFs are reviewed. • We discuss the influence of the framework geometry on the calculated charges. • We discuss the influence of the framework charges on structural the properties.

  18. Mg I as a probe of the solar chromosphere - The atomic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauas, Pablo J.; Avrett, Eugene H.; Loeser, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a complete atomic model for Mg I line synthesis, where all the atomic parameters are based on recent experimental and theoretical data. It is shown how the computed profiles at 4571 A and 5173 A are influenced by the choice of these parameters and the number of levels included in the model atom. In addition, observed profiles of the 5173 A b2 line and theoretical profiles for comparison (based on a recent atmospheric model for the average quiet sun) are presented.

  19. Atomic Forces for Geometry-Dependent Point Multipole and Gaussian Multipole Models

    PubMed Central

    Elking, Dennis M.; Perera, Lalith; Duke, Robert; Darden, Thomas; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2010-01-01

    In standard treatments of atomic multipole models, interaction energies, total molecular forces, and total molecular torques are given for multipolar interactions between rigid molecules. However, if the molecules are assumed to be flexible, two additional multipolar atomic forces arise due to 1) the transfer of torque between neighboring atoms, and 2) the dependence of multipole moment on internal geometry (bond lengths, bond angles, etc.) for geometry-dependent multipole models. In the current study, atomic force expressions for geometry-dependent multipoles are presented for use in simulations of flexible molecules. The atomic forces are derived by first proposing a new general expression for Wigner function derivatives ∂Dlm′m/∂Ω. The force equations can be applied to electrostatic models based on atomic point multipoles or Gaussian multipole charge density. Hydrogen bonded dimers are used to test the inter-molecular electrostatic energies and atomic forces calculated by geometry-dependent multipoles fit to the ab initio electrostatic potential (ESP). The electrostatic energies and forces are compared to their reference ab initio values. It is shown that both static and geometry-dependent multipole models are able to reproduce total molecular forces and torques with respect to ab initio, while geometry-dependent multipoles are needed to reproduce ab initio atomic forces. The expressions for atomic force can be used in simulations of flexible molecules with atomic multipoles. In addition, the results presented in this work should lead to further development of next generation force fields composed of geometry-dependent multipole models. PMID:20839297

  20. A hierarchy of local electron correlation models based on atomic truncations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head-Gordon, Martin; Lee, Michael S.; Maslen, Paul E.

    1999-11-01

    While wavefunction-based treatments of electron correlation have been very successful for the study of small molecules, they cannot be readily applied to large molecules because their computational cost rises too steeply with molecular size. For example, second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), the simplest such method, involves computational costs that asymptotically increase with the 5th power of molecular size. In this article we discuss the development of new local electron correlation models that ameliorate this problem, by truncating the number of substituted determinants that are included in the correlation treatment. Using atom-centered functions to span the occupied and virtual subspaces permits the truncations to be made by an atomic criterion, that satisfies all of the requirements of a well-defined theoretical model chemistry. The double substitutions that arise in MP2 theory generally involve promoting electrons from occupied orbitals on two atoms to unoccupied (virtual) orbitals on two other atoms, or tetra-atomics in molecules. The simplest restriction is to require one occupied and one virtual orbital to be on a common atom, leading to a triatomics in molecules (TRIM) model. A stronger approximation is to model double substitutions by the direct product of two such atomic excitations, which is a diatomics in molecules (DIM) model of electron correlation. The still more drastic approximation of forcing all double substitutions to be centered on single atoms, cannot describe dispersion interactions, and is not considered here. The theory of the DIM and TRIM models is outlined, and methods for obtaining the atom-centered functions spanning the occupied and virtual subspaces are discussed. Some numerical results are provided to compare the performance of the DIM and TRIM models against untruncated MP2 theory. Finally the outlook for the application of these methods to large molecules is discussed.

  1. Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

    2014-04-01

    Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. PMID:24734699

  2. Monte Carlo Computational Modeling of the Energy Dependence of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Norris, Mary Jo

    1998-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computational model has been developed which simulates atomic oxygen attack of protected polymers at defect sites in the protective coatings. The parameters defining how atomic oxygen interacts with polymers and protective coatings as well as the scattering processes which occur have been optimized to replicate experimental results observed from protected polyimide Kapton on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. Computational prediction of atomic oxygen undercutting at defect sites in protective coatings for various arrival energies was investigated. The atomic oxygen undercutting energy dependence predictions enable one to predict mass loss that would occur in low Earth orbit, based on lower energy ground laboratory atomic oxygen beam systems. Results of computational model prediction of undercut cavity size as a function of energy and defect size will be presented to provide insight into expected in-space mass loss of protected polymers with protective coating defects based on lower energy ground laboratory testing.

  3. Computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy: energy dissipation of cantilever.

    PubMed

    Senda, Yasuhiro; Blomqvist, Janne; Nieminen, Risto M

    2016-09-21

    We propose a computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) in which the atomic force between the cantilever tip and the surface is calculated using a molecular dynamics method, and the macroscopic motion of the cantilever is modeled by an oscillating spring. The movement of atoms in the tip and surface is connected with the oscillating spring using a recently developed coupling method. In this computational model, the oscillation energy is dissipated, as observed in AFM experiments. We attribute this dissipation to the hysteresis and nonconservative properties of the interatomic force that acts between the atoms in the tip and sample surface. The dissipation rate strongly depends on the parameters used in the computational model. PMID:27420398

  4. Computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy: energy dissipation of cantilever.

    PubMed

    Senda, Yasuhiro; Blomqvist, Janne; Nieminen, Risto M

    2016-09-21

    We propose a computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) in which the atomic force between the cantilever tip and the surface is calculated using a molecular dynamics method, and the macroscopic motion of the cantilever is modeled by an oscillating spring. The movement of atoms in the tip and surface is connected with the oscillating spring using a recently developed coupling method. In this computational model, the oscillation energy is dissipated, as observed in AFM experiments. We attribute this dissipation to the hysteresis and nonconservative properties of the interatomic force that acts between the atoms in the tip and sample surface. The dissipation rate strongly depends on the parameters used in the computational model.

  5. Modeling Atoms and Molecules: A New Lesson for Upper Elementary and Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwaner, Terry D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study involving 86 fifth-grade science students to enhance their understandings of basic biological chemistry. Contains a lesson that allows students to build models of atoms and molecules. (ZWH)

  6. Computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy: energy dissipation of cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Yasuhiro; Blomqvist, Janne; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) in which the atomic force between the cantilever tip and the surface is calculated using a molecular dynamics method, and the macroscopic motion of the cantilever is modeled by an oscillating spring. The movement of atoms in the tip and surface is connected with the oscillating spring using a recently developed coupling method. In this computational model, the oscillation energy is dissipated, as observed in AFM experiments. We attribute this dissipation to the hysteresis and nonconservative properties of the interatomic force that acts between the atoms in the tip and sample surface. The dissipation rate strongly depends on the parameters used in the computational model.

  7. Anisotropy modeling of terahertz metamaterials: polarization dependent resonance manipulation by meta-atom cluster.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunseung; In, Chihun; Choi, Hyunyong; Lee, Hojin

    2014-06-09

    Recently metamaterials have inspired worldwide researches due to their exotic properties in transmitting, reflecting, absorbing or refracting specific electromagnetic waves. Most metamaterials are known to have anisotropic properties, but existing anisotropy models are applicable only to a single meta-atom and its properties. Here we propose an anisotropy model for asymmetrical meta-atom clusters and their polarization dependency. The proposed anisotropic meta-atom clusters show a unique resonance property in which their frequencies can be altered for parallel polarization, but fixed to a single resonance frequency for perpendicular polarization. The proposed anisotropic metamaterials are expected to pave the way for novel optical systems.

  8. Anisotropy Modeling of Terahertz Metamaterials: Polarization Dependent Resonance Manipulation by Meta-Atom Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyunseung; in, Chihun; Choi, Hyunyong; Lee, Hojin

    2014-06-01

    Recently metamaterials have inspired worldwide researches due to their exotic properties in transmitting, reflecting, absorbing or refracting specific electromagnetic waves. Most metamaterials are known to have anisotropic properties, but existing anisotropy models are applicable only to a single meta-atom and its properties. Here we propose an anisotropy model for asymmetrical meta-atom clusters and their polarization dependency. The proposed anisotropic meta-atom clusters show a unique resonance property in which their frequencies can be altered for parallel polarization, but fixed to a single resonance frequency for perpendicular polarization. The proposed anisotropic metamaterials are expected to pave the way for novel optical systems.

  9. Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Judah

    2012-02-15

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.

  10. Invited review article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales.

    PubMed

    Levine, Judah; Ibarra-Manzano, O

    2012-02-01

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.

  11. Invited review article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales.

    PubMed

    Levine, Judah; Ibarra-Manzano, O

    2012-02-01

    I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed. PMID:22380071

  12. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions. Addenda and corrigendum

    PubMed Central

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Researcher feedback has indicated that in Urzhumtsev et al. [(2015) Acta Cryst. D71, 1668–1683] clarification of key parts of the algorithm for interpretation of TLS matrices in terms of elemental atomic motions and corresponding ensembles of atomic models is required. Also, it has been brought to the attention of the authors that the incorrect PDB code was reported for one of test models. These issues are addressed in this article. PMID:27599739

  13. Atomic bomb survivors and the sigmoidal response model

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiological data on health effects of low-level radiation based on 40-yr followup studies of 75000 atomic bomb survivors and 35000 control people show that there were no measurable risks from low-level radiation in regard to noncancer diseases, genetic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. However, seemingly sigmoidal responses of bomb radiation-induced cancers, which must have been caused by tumorigenic mutations contradict experimental results that mutations linearly increase with increase in radiation dose. An explanation is proposed for this superficial contradiction.

  14. Nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model for two interacting two-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Santos-Sánchez, O.; González-Gutiérrez, C.; Récamier, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we examine a nonlinear version of the Jaynes–Cummings model for two identical two-level atoms allowing for Ising-like and dipole–dipole interplays between them. The model is said to be nonlinear in the sense that it can incorporate both a general intensity-dependent interaction between the atomic system and the cavity field and/or the presence of a nonlinear medium inside the cavity. As an example, we consider a particular type of atom-field coupling based upon the so-called Buck–Sukumar model and a lossless Kerr-like cavity. We describe the possible effects of such features on the evolution of some quantities of current interest, such as atomic excitation, purity, concurrence, the entropy of the field and the evolution of the latter in phase space.

  15. Three-dimensional time-dependent computer modeling of the electrothermal atomizers for analytical spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsivilskiy, I. V.; Nagulin, K. Yu.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2016-02-01

    A full three-dimensional nonstationary numerical model of graphite electrothermal atomizers of various types is developed. The model is based on solution of a heat equation within solid walls of the atomizer with a radiative heat transfer and numerical solution of a full set of Navier-Stokes equations with an energy equation for a gas. Governing equations for the behavior of a discrete phase, i.e., atomic particles suspended in a gas (including gas-phase processes of evaporation and condensation), are derived from the formal equations molecular kinetics by numerical solution of the Hertz-Langmuir equation. The following atomizers test the model: a Varian standard heated electrothermal vaporizer (ETV), a Perkin Elmer standard THGA transversely heated graphite tube with integrated platform (THGA), and the original double-stage tube-helix atomizer (DSTHA). The experimental verification of computer calculations is carried out by a method of shadow spectral visualization of the spatial distributions of atomic and molecular vapors in an analytical space of an atomizer.

  16. Kinetic modeling of primary and secondary oxygen atom fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyukin, Igor; Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    The first quantitative measurements of the interstellar heavy (oxygen and neon) neutral atoms obtained on the IBEX spacecraft were presented in Park et al. (ApJS, 2015). Qualitative analysis of these data shows that the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen atoms was also measured along with the primary interstellar atoms. This component is formed near the heliopause due to process of charge exchange of interstellar oxygen ions with hydrogen atoms and its existence in the heliosphere was previously predicted theoretically (Izmodenov et al, 1997, 1999, 2001). Quantitative analysis of fluxes of interstellar heavy neutral atoms is only possible with the help of a model which takes into account both filtration of the primary and origin of the secondary interstellar oxygen in the region of interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium as well as a detailed simulation of the motion of interstellar atoms inside the heliosphere. This simulation must take into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal dependences of ionization, the process of charge exchange with the protons of the solar wind and the effect of the solar gravitational attraction. This paper presents the results of modeling interstellar oxygen and neon atoms in the heliospheric shock layer and inside the heliosphere based on a new three-dimensional kinetic-MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (Izmodenov and Alexashov, ApJS, 2015) and the comparison of this results with the data obtained on the IBEX spacecraft.

  17. YUP.SCX: coaxing atomic models into medium resolution electron density maps.

    PubMed

    Tan, Robert K-Z; Devkota, Batsal; Harvey, Stephen C

    2008-08-01

    The structures of large macromolecular complexes in different functional states can be determined by cryo-electron microscopy, which yields electron density maps of low to intermediate resolutions. The maps can be combined with high-resolution atomic structures of components of the complex, to produce a model for the complex that is more accurate than the formal resolution of the map. To this end, methods have been developed to dock atomic models into density maps rigidly or flexibly, and to refine a docked model so as to optimize the fit of the atomic model into the map. We have developed a new refinement method called YUP.SCX. The electron density map is converted into a component of the potential energy function to which terms for stereochemical restraints and volume exclusion are added. The potential energy function is then minimized (using simulated annealing) to yield a stereochemically-restrained atomic structure that fits into the electron density map optimally. We used this procedure to construct an atomic model of the 70S ribosome in the pre-accommodation state. Although some atoms are displaced by as much as 33A, they divide themselves into nearly rigid fragments along natural boundaries with smooth transitions between the fragments.

  18. Continuous vs. discrete models for the quantum harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, Miguel

    2001-07-01

    The Kravchuk and Meixner polynomials of discrete variable are introduced for the discrete models of the harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom. Starting from Rodrigues formula we construct raising and lowering operators, commutation and anticommutation relations. The physical properties of discrete models are figured out through the equivalence with the continuous models obtained by limit process.

  19. Some reflections on the role of semi-classical atomic models in the teaching and learning of introductory quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Colm

    2016-03-01

    The role of "semi-classical" (Bohr-Sommerfeld) and "semi-quantum-mechanical" (atomic orbital) models in the context of the teaching of atomic theory is considered. It is suggested that an appropriate treatment of such models can serve as a useful adjunct to quantum mechanical study of atomic systems.

  20. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-06-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in J Chem Educ 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by considering which atomic models are used in pre-service teachers' explanations and how that relates to the causality ideas expressed. Thirty-one pre-service teachers were interviewed. Each was asked to describe and explain four different atomic representations (Rutherford, Electron cloud micrograph, Bohr and Schrödinger types) in as much detail as they could. They also provided an explanation for the subsequent ionisation energy values for an oxygen atom and identified which representations were helpful in explaining the values. Significantly, when pre-service teachers only used Bohr type representations, they did not use repelling electron ideas in their explanations. However, arguments that were based on electron-electron repulsion used features from Schrödinger type atoms. These findings suggest that many pre-service teachers need to develop their atomic modelling skills so that they select and use models more expertly and that subsequent ionisation explanations offer a context in which to explore different atomic models' limitations and their deployment as explanatory resources.

  1. Hydrogen ADPs with Cu Kα data? Invariom and Hirshfeld atom modelling of fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Orben, Claudia M; Dittrich, Birger

    2014-06-01

    For the structure of fluconazole [systematic name: 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,3-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol] monohydrate, C13H12F2N6O·H2O, a case study on different model refinements is reported, based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data measured at 100 K with Cu Kα radiation to a resolution of sin θ/λ of 0.6 Å(-1). The structure, anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) and figures of merit from the independent atom model are compared to `invariom' and `Hirshfeld atom' refinements. Changing from a spherical to an aspherical atom model lowers the figures of merit and improves both the accuracy and the precision of the geometrical parameters. Differences between results from the two aspherical-atom refinements are small. However, a refinement of ADPs for H atoms is only possible with the Hirshfeld atom density model. It gives meaningful results even at a resolution of 0.6 Å(-1), but requires good low-order data.

  2. Efficient Nonlinear Atomization Model for Thin 3D Free Liquid Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehring, Carsten

    2007-03-01

    Reviewed is a nonlinear reduced-dimension thin-film model developed by the author and aimed at the prediction of spray formation from thin films such as those found in gas-turbine engines (e.g., prefilming air-blast atomizers), heavy-fuel-oil burners (e.g., rotary-cup atomizers) and in the paint industry (e.g., flat-fan atomizers). Various implementations of the model focusing on different model-aspects, i.e., effect of film geometry, surface tension, liquid viscosity, coupling with surrounding gas-phase flow, influence of long-range intermolecular forces during film rupture are reviewed together with a validation of the nonlinear wave propagation characteristics predicted by the model for inviscid planar films using a two-dimensional vortex- method. An extension and generalization of the current nonlinear film model for implementation into a commercial flow- solver is outlined.

  3. Putting structure into context: fitting of atomic models into electron microscopic and electron tomographic reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Niels

    2012-02-01

    A complete understanding of complex dynamic cellular processes such as cell migration or cell adhesion requires the integration of atomic level structural information into the larger cellular context. While direct atomic-level information at the cellular level remains inaccessible, electron microscopy, electron tomography and their associated computational image processing approaches have now matured to a point where sub-cellular structures can be imaged in three dimensions at the nanometer scale. Atomic-resolution information obtained by other means can be combined with this data to obtain three-dimensional models of large macromolecular assemblies in their cellular context. This article summarizes some recent advances in this field.

  4. Influence of atomic modeling on integrated simulations of laser-produced Au plasmas.

    PubMed

    Frank, Yechiel; Raicher, Erez; Ehrlich, Yosi; Hurvitz, Gilad; Shpilman, Zeev; Fraenkel, Moshe; Zigler, Arie; Henis, Zohar

    2015-11-01

    Time-integrated x-ray emission spectra of laser-irradiated Au disks were recorded using transmission grating spectrometry, at laser intensities of 10(13) to 10(14) W/cm(2). Radiation-hydrodynamics and atomic physics calculations were used to simulate the emitted spectra. Three major plasma regions can be recognized: the heat wave, the corona, and an intermediate region connecting them. An analysis of the spectral contribution of these three plasma regions to the integrated recorded spectrum is presented. The importance of accurate atomic modeling of the intermediate plasma region, between the corona and the heat wave, is highlighted. The influence of several aspects of the atomic modeling is demonstrated, in particular multiply-excited atomic configurations and departure from local thermal equilibrium.

  5. UNCERTAINTIES IN ATOMIC DATA AND THEIR PROPAGATION THROUGH SPECTRAL MODELS. I

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, M. A.; Fivet, V.; Quinet, P.; Dunn, J.; Gull, T. R.; Kallman, T. R.; Mendoza, C.

    2013-06-10

    We present a method for computing uncertainties in spectral models, i.e., level populations, line emissivities, and emission line ratios, based upon the propagation of uncertainties originating from atomic data. We provide analytic expressions, in the form of linear sets of algebraic equations, for the coupled uncertainties among all levels. These equations can be solved efficiently for any set of physical conditions and uncertainties in the atomic data. We illustrate our method applied to spectral models of O III and Fe II and discuss the impact of the uncertainties on atomic systems under different physical conditions. As to intrinsic uncertainties in theoretical atomic data, we propose that these uncertainties can be estimated from the dispersion in the results from various independent calculations. This technique provides excellent results for the uncertainties in A-values of forbidden transitions in [Fe II].

  6. Modeling viscoelasticity through spring-dashpot models in intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    López-Guerra, Enrique A; Solares, Santiago D

    2014-01-01

    We examine different approaches to model viscoelasticity within atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulation. Our study ranges from very simple linear spring-dashpot models to more sophisticated nonlinear systems that are able to reproduce fundamental properties of viscoelastic surfaces, including creep, stress relaxation and the presence of multiple relaxation times. Some of the models examined have been previously used in AFM simulation, but their applicability to different situations has not yet been examined in detail. The behavior of each model is analyzed here in terms of force-distance curves, dissipated energy and any inherent unphysical artifacts. We focus in this paper on single-eigenmode tip-sample impacts, but the models and results can also be useful in the context of multifrequency AFM, in which the tip trajectories are very complex and there is a wider range of sample deformation frequencies (descriptions of tip-sample model behaviors in the context of multifrequency AFM require detailed studies and are beyond the scope of this work).

  7. Optical Pattern Formation in Spatially Bunched Atoms: A Self-Consistent Model and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The nonlinear optics and optomechanical physics communities use different theoretical models to describe how optical fields interact with a sample of atoms. There does not yet exist a model that is valid for finite atomic temperatures but that also produces the zero temperature results that are generally assumed in optomechanical systems. We present a self-consistent model that is valid for all atomic temperatures and accounts for the back-action of the atoms on the optical fields. Our model provides new insights into the competing effects of the bunching-induced nonlinearity and the saturable nonlinearity. We show that it is crucial to keep the fifth and seventh-order nonlinearities that arise when there exists atomic bunching, even at very low optical field intensities. We go on to apply this model to the results of our experimental system where we observe spontaneous, multimode, transverse optical pattern formation at ultra-low light levels. We show that our model accurately predicts our experimentally observed threshold for optical pattern formation, which is the lowest threshold ever reported for pattern formation. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant #PHY-1206040.

  8. Interactions between C and Cu atoms in single-layer graphene: direct observation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Emi; Hashimoto, Ayako; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene.Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Three TEM movies, additional TEM data corresponding to movies, calculated models, and lifetime results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05913e

  9. [Application of model 4650 type I compressor atomizer in bronchial challenge test].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; He, T

    2000-06-01

    This study was directed to the feasibility of applying a simple atomizer-model 4650 type I (abbrev. M)-to bronchial challenge test. 92 cases of asthma were divided into 3 groups randomly. All of them were subjected to the bronchial challenge test by M atomizer, and by standard Dosimeter atomizer (abbrev. D) as a comparison. In the test by M atomizer, the times for inspiring challenging medicine were 1, 1.5 and 2 minutes for the 3 groups respectively, while the time for D atomizer was 1 minute for all. The results showed no significant differences (P > 0.2-0.5) between the two atomizers in the 3 groups, their values were linear correlated. When the inspiring time was 1 minute for both M and D, the test needed a higher concentration of challenging medicine for M than for D, their coefficient of correlation (r = 0.285) was relatively low. When inspiring time postponed to 1.5 minute for M, the difference in medicine concentration between M and D was smallest (-0.075 g/L), r = 0.665. However, a further postponed inspiring time to 2 minute for M reversely broadened their difference. These results indicated that the efficiency of M atomizer was a little lower than that of D, postponing the inspiring time for M could make up this weakness. A 1.5 minute inspiring time for M atomizer was the suggestion. Some modifications on M atomizer were done by us for a better efficiency, and the cheap and popular M atomizer could be a good replacement in bronchial challenge test.

  10. An atomic-scale model of fcc crystal-growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Waal, B. W.

    1991-03-01

    Nearly perfect fcc growth may be simulated by the application of a simple growth-algorithm — only sites that are at least 4-coordinated are occupied — to a selected seed. The seed is a 22-atom cluster, being the smallest close-packed structure with two crossing stacking-faults. The stacking-faults produce active surface-sites, that can not be exhausted by occupation; they are arranged in non-vanishing steps, similar to those produced by screw-dislocations. The algorithm prevents further stacking-faults, and ensures ABC-stacking of close-packed (111)-layers, characteristic of the fcc structure. The same algorithm would not produce further growth of perfect fcc clusters or of Mackay icosahedra. It is proposed that the ability to grow fast under near-equilibrium conditions is a better criterion to select clusters as precursors of the bulk-structure than their cohesive energy. The crystal structure problem of the rare gases — why fcc, not hcp? — is discussed in connection with the apparent impossibility to simulate hcp growth by an analogous procedure.

  11. Student perception and conceptual development as represented by student mental models of atomic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Jung

    The nature of matter based upon atomic theory is a principal concept in science; hence, how to teach and how to learn about atoms is an important subject for science education. To this end, this study explored student perceptions of atomic structure and how students learn about this concept by analyzing student mental models of atomic structure. Changes in student mental models serve as a valuable resource for comprehending student conceptual development. Data was collected from students who were taking the introductory chemistry course. Responses to course examinations, pre- and post-questionnaires, and pre- and post-interviews were used to analyze student mental models of atomic structure. First, this study reveals that conceptual development can be achieved, either by elevating mental models toward higher levels of understanding or by developing a single mental model. This study reinforces the importance of higher-order thinking skills to enable students to relate concepts in order to construct a target model of atomic structure. Second, Bohr's orbital structure seems to have had a strong influence on student perceptions of atomic structure. With regard to this finding, this study suggests that it is instructionally important to teach the concept of "orbitals" related to "quantum theory." Third, there were relatively few students who had developed understanding at the level of the target model, which required student understanding of the basic ideas of quantum theory. This study suggests that the understanding of atomic structure based on the idea of quantum theory is both important and difficult. Fourth, this study included different student assessments comprised of course examinations, questionnaires, and interviews. Each assessment can be used to gather information to map out student mental models. Fifth, in the comparison of the pre- and post-interview responses, this study showed that high achieving students moved toward more improved models or to advanced

  12. Folding of proteins with an all-atom Go-model.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, J; Qin, M; Liu, F; Wang, W

    2008-06-21

    The Go-like potential at a residual level has been successfully applied to the folding of proteins in many previous works. However, taking into consideration more detailed structural information in the atomic level, the definition of contacts used in these traditional Go-models may not be suitable for all-atom simulations. Here, in this work, we develop a rational definition of contacts considering the screening effect in the crowded intramolecular environment. In such a scheme, a large amount of screened atom pairs are excluded and the number of contacts is decreased compared to the case of the traditional definition. These contacts defined by such a new definition are compatible with the all-atom representation of protein structures. To verify the rationality of the new definition of contacts, the folding of proteins CI2 and SH3 is simulated by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. A high folding cooperativity and good correlation of the simulated Phi-values with those obtained experimentally, especially for CI2, are found. This suggests that the all-atom Go-model is improved compared to the traditional Go-model. Based on the comparison of the Phi-values, the roles of side chains in the folding are discussed, and it is concluded that the side-chain structures are more important for local contacts in determining the transition state structures. Moreover, the relations between side chain and backbone orderings are also discussed.

  13. Fast Three-Dimensional Method of Modeling Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented to model atomic oxygen erosion of protected polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO). Undercutting of protected polymers by atomic oxygen occurs in LEO due to the presence of scratch, crack or pin-window defects in the protective coatings. As a means of providing a better understanding of undercutting processes, a fast method of modeling atomic-oxygen undercutting of protected polymers has been developed. Current simulation methods often rely on computationally expensive ray-tracing procedures to track the surface-to-surface movement of individual "atoms." The method introduced in this paper replaces slow individual particle approaches by substituting a model that utilizes both a geometric configuration-factor technique, which governs the diffuse transport of atoms between surfaces, and an efficient telescoping series algorithm, which rapidly integrates the cumulative effects stemming from the numerous atomic oxygen events occurring at the surfaces of an undercut cavity. This new method facilitates the systematic study of three-dimensional undercutting by allowing rapid simulations to be made over a wide range of erosion parameters.

  14. Reasoning with Atomic-Scale Molecular Dynamic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Tinker, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    The studies reported in this paper are an initial effort to explore the applicability of computational models in introductory science learning. Two instructional interventions are described that use a molecular dynamics model embedded in a set of online learning activities with middle and high school students in 10 classrooms. The studies indicate…

  15. Modeling STM tips by single absorbed atoms on W(100) films: 3d and 4d transition-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, W. A.; Redinger, J.; Podloucky, R.

    2001-09-01

    In order to provide comprehensive data on the electronic structure of realistic STM tips we have studied tungsten (100) films with adsorbed single 3d and 4d transition-metal atoms by ab initio molecular-dynamics and full potential methods. Molecular dynamics using ultrasoft pseudopotentials has been used to determine the relaxation of adsorbate and surface layers. Subsequently the electronic structure of the relaxed model tip has been calculated with an all-electron full potential method. The results suggest that the chemical nature of the tip apex to a high degree determines achievable corrugations and that results for current and corrugation values in a perturbation approach might be considerably improved by including the electronic structure of the tip.

  16. Relativistic Corrections to the Bohr Model of the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, David W.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a simple means for extending the Bohr model to include relativistic corrections using a derivation similar to that for the non-relativistic case, except that the relativistic expressions for mass and kinetic energy are employed. (Author/GS)

  17. Mathematical modelling of the liquid atomization process by cocurrent gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Boiko, V. M.; Goldin, V. D.; Maslov, E. A.; Orlov, S. E.; Poplavskiy, S. V.; Usanina, A. S.; Zharova, I. K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the physical-mathematical model of liquid atomization in the spray pattern of an ejection nozzle. A flow field of a gas phase behind the nozzle section is computed using the Ansys Fluent package. Dynamics of molten metal droplets in the gas phase within a trajectory approach is calculated. Using the presented model, numerical calculation results are given.

  18. Giant Atomic and Molecular Models and Other Lecture Demonstration Devices Designed for Concrete Operational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1983-01-01

    Describes the design, construction, and use of oversize lecture-demonstration atomic/molecular models. These models appeal to both concrete and formal operational students. Also describes construction and use of an "spdf" sandwich board and an experiment using attribute blocks. (JN)

  19. Everyone Wants to Be a Model Teacher: Part III: Extensions to Atomic Structures and Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes activities in which students: (1) propose creative atomic models that account for observed properties and predict additional experimental data; (2) calculate empirical formulas for 27 binary compounds; (3) propose a model to explain why certain elements have certain valences; and (4) arrange hypothetical elements into a periodic chart.…

  20. A simple and transferable all-atom/coarse-grained hybrid model to study membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Genheden, Samuel; Essex, Jonathan W

    2015-10-13

    We present an efficient all-atom/coarse-grained hybrid model and apply it to membrane processes. This model is an extension of the all-atom/ELBA model applied previously to processes in water. Here, we improve the efficiency of the model by implementing a multiple-time step integrator that allows the atoms and the coarse-grained beads to be propagated at different timesteps. Furthermore, we fine-tune the interaction between the atoms and the coarse-grained beads by computing the potential of mean force of amino acid side chain analogs along the membrane normal and comparing to atomistic simulations. The model was independently validated on the calculation of small-molecule partition coefficients. Finally, we apply the model to membrane peptides. We studied the tilt angle of the Walp23 and Kalp23 helices in two different model membranes and the stability of the glycophorin A dimer. The model is efficient, accurate, and straightforward to use, as it does not require any extra interaction particles, layers of atomistic solvent molecules or tabulated potentials, thus offering a novel, simple approach to study membrane processes. PMID:26574264

  1. Supporting Students in Learning with Multiple Representation to Improve Student Mental Models on Atomic Structure Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunyono; Yuanita, L.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is identify the effectiveness of a multiple representation-based learning model, which builds a mental model within the concept of atomic structure. The research sample of 108 students in 3 classes is obtained randomly from among students of Mathematics and Science Education Studies using a stratified random sampling…

  2. Re-examination of an early model of two-electron atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesenberg, G. E.; Noid, D. W.; Delos, J. B.

    1985-07-01

    A classical model for the helium atom, originally proposed in 1920 by Irving Langmuir, is re-examined. This model gives surprisingly good energies over a wide range of nuclear charges. In the limit of very large nuclear charge, agreement with the Wilson-Sommerfeld quantization rules is seen. A discussion of stable and unstable orbits is given.

  3. Nano Goes to School: A Teaching Model of the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Kovac, Janez

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a teaching model of the atomic force microscope (AFM), which proved to be successful in the role of an introduction to nanoscience in high school. The model can demonstrate the two modes of operation of the AFM (contact mode and oscillating mode) as well as some basic principles that limit the resolution of the method. It can…

  4. Comparison of kinetic models for atom recombination on high-temperature reusable surface insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Five kinetic models are compared for their ability to predict recombination coefficients for oxygen and nitrogen atoms over high-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI). Four of the models are derived using Rideal-Eley or Langmuir-Hinshelwood catalytic mechanisms to describe the reaction sequence. The fifth model is an empirical expression that offers certain features unattainable through mechanistic description. The results showed that a four-parameter model, with temperature as the only variable, works best with data currently available. The model describes recombination coefficients for oxygen and nitrogen atoms for temperatures from 300 to 1800 K. Kinetic models, with atom concentrations, demonstrate the influence of atom concentration on recombination coefficients. These models can be used for the prediction of heating rates due to catalytic recombination during re-entry or aerobraking maneuvers. The work further demonstrates a requirement for more recombination experiments in the temperature ranges of 300-1000 K, and 1500-1850 K, with deliberate concentration variation to verify model requirements.

  5. Monte Carlo Technique Used to Model the Degradation of Internal Spacecraft Surfaces by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is one of the predominant constituents of Earth's upper atmosphere. It is created by the photodissociation of molecular oxygen (O2) into single O atoms by ultraviolet radiation. It is chemically very reactive because a single O atom readily combines with another O atom or with other atoms or molecules that can form a stable oxide. The effects of atomic oxygen on the external surfaces of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can have dire consequences for spacecraft life, and this is a well-known and much studied problem. Much less information is known about the effects of atomic oxygen on the internal surfaces of spacecraft. This degradation can occur when openings in components of the spacecraft exterior exist that allow the entry of atomic oxygen into regions that may not have direct atomic oxygen attack but rather scattered attack. Openings can exist because of spacecraft venting, microwave cavities, and apertures for Earth viewing, Sun sensors, or star trackers. The effects of atomic oxygen erosion of polymers interior to an aperture on a spacecraft were simulated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by using Monte Carlo computational techniques. A two-dimensional model was used to provide quantitative indications of the attenuation of atomic oxygen flux as a function of the distance into a parallel-walled cavity. The model allows the atomic oxygen arrival direction, the Maxwell Boltzman temperature, and the ram energy to be varied along with the interaction parameters of the degree of recombination upon impact with polymer or nonreactive surfaces, the initial reaction probability, the reaction probability dependence upon energy and angle of attack, degree of specularity of scattering of reactive and nonreactive surfaces, and the degree of thermal accommodation upon impact with reactive and non-reactive surfaces to be varied to allow the model to produce atomic oxygen erosion geometries that replicate actual experimental results from space. The degree of

  6. New recycling model for light ions and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, C.E.; Mann, K.; Rauh, K.; Heifetz, D.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies and experimental results suggest a revision of light-ion reflection models used in simulation codes. Surface impenetrability leads to large reflection coefficients for hydrogen isotopes incident below 5 to 20 eV. Adsorption below 5 to 10 eV also depends on saturation of the surfaces. An effective surface roughness is included for all energy regimes. The fraction of nonreflected particles reemitted as molecules depends on the previous exposure of the surface and the incident flux. Simple models of these processes are collected in a form usable in neutral transport codes. The relevance of such models to tokamak design and of interpreting divertor tokamak data is discussed and illustrated by numerical computation.

  7. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Xie, Ping; Xue, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2009-11-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage phi29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the phi29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  8. Cold-atom quantum simulation of U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Kuno, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Yoshiro; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the possible methods to construct a quantum simulator of the U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model using cold atoms in an optical lattice. These methods require no severe fine tunings of parameters of atomic-interactions in contrast with the other previous literature. We propose some realistic experimental setups to realize the atomic quantum simulator of the U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model in a two-dimensional optical lattice. Our target gauge-Higgs model has a nontrivial phase structure, i.e., existence of the phase boundary between confinement and Higgs phases, and this phase boundary is to be observed by cold-atom experiments. As a reference to such experiments, we make numerical simulations of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation and observe the real-time dynamics of the atomic simulators. Clarification of the dynamics of this gauge-Higgs model sheds some lights upon various unsolved problems including the inflation process of the early universe.

  9. An independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions including geometric screening corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdde, Hans Jürgen; Achenbach, Alexander; Kalkbrenner, Thilo; Jankowiak, Hans-Christian; Kirchner, Tom

    2016-04-01

    A new model to account for geometric screening corrections in an independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions is introduced. The ion-molecule cross sections for net capture and net ionization are represented as weighted sums of atomic cross sections with weight factors that are determined from a geometric model of overlapping cross section areas. Results are presented for proton collisions with targets ranging from diatomic to complex polyatomic molecules. Significant improvement compared to simple additivity rule results and in general good agreement with experimental data are found. The flexibility of the approach opens up the possibility to study more detailed observables such as orientation-dependent and charge-state-correlated cross sections for a large class of complex targets ranging from biomolecules to atomic clusters.

  10. Modelling the atomic structure of Al92U8 metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Michalik, S; Bednarcik, J; Jóvári, P; Honkimäki, V; Webb, A; Franz, H; Fazakas, E; Varga, L K

    2010-10-13

    The local atomic structure of the glassy Al(92)U(8) alloy was modelled by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method, fitting x-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) signals. The final structural model was analysed by means of partial pair correlation functions, coordination number distributions and Voronoi tessellation. In our study we found that the most probable atomic separations between Al-Al and U-Al pairs in the glassy Al(92)U(8) alloy are 2.7 Å and 3.1 Å with coordination numbers 11.7 and 17.1, respectively. The Voronoi analysis did not support evidence of the existence of well-defined building blocks directly embedded in the amorphous matrix. The dense-random-packing model seems to be adequate for describing the connection between solvent and solute atoms. PMID:21386570

  11. Two-channel emission model for collective quantum jumps in Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayayan, Lyndon; Clemens, James

    2016-05-01

    We consider a system of driven, damped Rydberg atoms with dipole-dipole energy shifts which can give rise to a Rydberg blockade when the atoms are driven on resonance and collective quantum jumps when the atoms are driven off resonance. For the damping we consider a two-channel emission model with competition between fully independent and fully collective spontaneous emission. For independent emission a quasiclassical model predicts a bistable steady state and quantum fluctuations drive collective jumps between the two bistable branches. We show that the collective emission is enhanced, relative to the independent emission, which shifts the total effective spontaneous emission rate and impacts the presence or absence of bistability predicted by the quasiclassical model.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Turbulence Effects within an Evaporating Droplet in Atomizing Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.; Trinh, H. P.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to account for finite thermal conductivity and turbulence effects within atomizing liquid sprays is presented in this paper. The model is an extension of the T-blob and T-TAB atomization/spray model of Trinh and Chen (2005). This finite conductivity model is based on the two-temperature film theory, where the turbulence characteristics of the droplet are used to estimate the effective thermal diffhsivity within the droplet phase. Both one-way and two-way coupled calculations were performed to investigate the performance of this model. The current evaporation model is incorporated into the T-blob atomization model of Trinh and Chen (2005) and implemented in an existing CFD Eulerian-Lagrangian two-way coupling numerical scheme. Validation studies were carried out by comparing with available evaporating atomization spray experimental data in terms of jet penetration, temperature field, and droplet SMD distribution within the spray. Validation results indicate the superiority of the finite-conductivity model in low speed parallel flow evaporating spray.

  13. Modelling the atom by rotating and vibrating soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rämme, Göran

    1994-09-01

    Demonstrations of rotating and vibrating soap bubbles are described. The vibrational patterns observed are similar to those obtained by vibrating liquid droplets. The resonance structure of a vibrating soap bubble can be used as a model to discuss certain fundamental aspects of introductory quantum chemistry.

  14. Masses of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Satpathy, L.; Nayak, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    We present mass excesses of 3481 nuclei in the range 18less than or equal toAless than or equal to267 using the infinite nuclear matter model based on the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem. In this model the ground-state energy of a nucleus of asymmetry ..beta.. is considered equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of the infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus the residual energy due to shell effects, deformation, etc., called the local energy eta. In this model there are two kinds of parameters: global and local. The five global parameters characterizing the properties of the above sphere are determined by fitting the mass of all nuclei (756) in the recent mass table of Wapstra et al. having error bar less than 30 keV. The local parameters are determined for 25 regions each spanning 8 or 10 A values. The total number of parameters including the five global ones is 238. The root-mean-square deviation for the calculated masses from experiment is 397 keV for the 1572 nuclei used in the least-squares fit. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  15. The contribution of atom accessibility to site of metabolism models for cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Patrik; Rostkowski, Michal; Gloriam, David E; Olsen, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Three different types of atom accessibility descriptors are investigated in relation to site of metabolism predictions. To enable the integration of local accessibility we have constructed 2DSASA, a method for the calculation of the atomic solvent accessible surface area that is independent of 3D coordinates. The method was implemented in the SMARTCyp site of metabolism prediction models and improved the results by up to 4 percentage points for nine cytochrome P450 isoforms. The final models are made available at http://www.farma.ku.dk/smartcyp.

  16. An atomic model of brome mosaic virus using direct electron detection and real-space optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Hryc, Corey F; Bammes, Benjamin; Afonine, Pavel V; Jakana, Joanita; Chen, Dong-Hua; Liu, Xiangan; Baker, Matthew L; Kao, Cheng; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Adams, Paul D; Chiu, Wah

    2014-09-04

    Advances in electron cryo-microscopy have enabled structure determination of macromolecules at near-atomic resolution. However, structure determination, even using de novo methods, remains susceptible to model bias and overfitting. Here we describe a complete workflow for data acquisition, image processing, all-atom modelling and validation of brome mosaic virus, an RNA virus. Data were collected with a direct electron detector in integrating mode and an exposure beyond the traditional radiation damage limit. The final density map has a resolution of 3.8 Å as assessed by two independent data sets and maps. We used the map to derive an all-atom model with a newly implemented real-space optimization protocol. The validity of the model was verified by its match with the density map and a previous model from X-ray crystallography, as well as the internal consistency of models from independent maps. This study demonstrates a practical approach to obtain a rigorously validated atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure.

  17. An atomic model of brome mosaic virus using direct electron detection and real-space optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Hryc, Corey F; Bammes, Benjamin; Afonine, Pavel V; Jakana, Joanita; Chen, Dong-Hua; Liu, Xiangan; Baker, Matthew L; Kao, Cheng; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Adams, Paul D; Chiu, Wah

    2014-01-01

    Advances in electron cryo-microscopy have enabled structure determination of macromolecules at near-atomic resolution. However, structure determination, even using de novo methods, remains susceptible to model bias and overfitting. Here we describe a complete workflow for data acquisition, image processing, all-atom modelling and validation of brome mosaic virus, an RNA virus. Data were collected with a direct electron detector in integrating mode and an exposure beyond the traditional radiation damage limit. The final density map has a resolution of 3.8 Å as assessed by two independent data sets and maps. We used the map to derive an all-atom model with a newly implemented real-space optimization protocol. The validity of the model was verified by its match with the density map and a previous model from X-ray crystallography, as well as the internal consistency of models from independent maps. This study demonstrates a practical approach to obtain a rigorously validated atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure. PMID:25185801

  18. Exact theory and numeric results for short pulse ionization of simple model atom in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    Our exact theory for continuous harmonic perturbation of a one dimensional model atom by parametric variations of its potential is generalized for the cases when (a) the atom is exposed to short pulses of an external harmonic electric field and (b) the forcing is represented by short bursts of different shape changing the strength of the binding potential. This work is motivated not only by the wide use of laser pulses for atomic ionization, but also by our earlier study of the same model which successfully described the ionization dynamics in all orders, i.e., the multi-photon processes, though being treated by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. In particular, it was shown that the bound atom cannot survive the excitation of its potential caused by any non-zero frequency and amplitude of the continuous harmonic forcing. Our present analysis found important laws of the atomic ionization by short pulses, in particular the efficiency of ionizing this model system and presumably real ones as well.

  19. Sublattice model of atomic scale pairing inhomogeneity in a superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vivek; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Barash, Yuri S.

    2008-03-01

    We study a toy model for a superconductor on a bipartite lattice, where intrinsic microscopic inhomogeneity is produced by two different pairing coupling constants on each sublattice. We consider effects of the inhomogeneity on the transition temperature, the density of states, the specific heat and superfluid density in the framework of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, which may be solved analytically in several interesting cases. The phase diagram in the plane of two pairing coupling constants is found to include a state of gapless superconductivity.

  20. The LANL atomic kinetics modeling effort and its application to W plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James; Abdallah, Joseph; Fontes, Christopher; Zhang, Honglin

    2010-12-10

    This is the work of the LANL group on atomic kinetics modelling. There are various levels of detail in the LANL suite of atomic physics codes: (1) Non-relativistic configuration average kinetics (nl{sup w}) + UTA spectra, (2) Relativistic configuration average kinetics (nlj{sup w}) + UTA spectra, (3) Mixed UTA (MUTA) - configuration average kinetics and spectra composed of mixture of UTAs and fine-structure features and (4) Fine-structure levels. The LANL suite of atomic physics codes consists of 5 codes: (1) CATS/RATS atomic structure codes (semi-relativistic Cowan code or Dirac-Fock-Slater code), (2) ACE collisional excitation code (Plane-wave Born, Columb-Born and distorted-wave methods) and (3) GIPPER ionization code (scaled-hydrogenic and distorted-wave methods). An on-line version of the codes is available at http://aphysics2.lanl.gov/tempweb. ATOMIC kinetics modelling code uses the atomic data for LTE or NLTE population kinetics models and spectral modelling of a broad range of plasma applications. The mixed UTA (MUTA) approach was developed for the spectra of complex ions and the results are in very good agreement with the Sandia-Z Iron opacity experiments. The LANL configuration-average/MUTA calculations were applied to tungsten problems of the non-LTE kinetics code comparison workshops. The LANL group plans to perform much larger calculations to assess the accuracy of the older results and to investigate low-temperature tungsten processes relevant to the divertor modelling.

  1. Hardness of Al-based quasicrystals evaluated via cluster-plus-glue-atom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Luo, Lingjie; Qiang, Jianbing; Wang, Yingmin; Dong, Chuang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the hardness of ternary Al-based quasicrystals was assessed through an application of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is decomposed into a first-neighbour strongly bonded cluster part and second-neighbour weakly bonded glue-atom part so that the overall structural information is condensed into a local structural unit [cluster](glue atom)x. For quasicrystals, the averaged local units are formulated as [icosahedron] TM0,1(Transition Metal) and could be visualized as single icosahedron packing. Then, the hardness of quasicrystals was related to the rupture of weak inter-cluster bonds. Typically, theoretical hardness values of 8-9 GPa were obtained using 19 broken inter-cluster bonds, which accounts for about half of all the surface bonds of an icosahedron in the Mackay-type environment. The unit cluster formulas would act as rigid units during deformation and cracking.

  2. Spin-splitting calculation for zincblende semiconductors using an atomic bond-orbital model.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsiu-Fen; Lo, Ikai; Chiang, Jih-Chen; Chen, Chun-Nan; Wang, Wan-Tsang; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Ren, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Meng-En; Wu, Chieh-Lung; Gau, Ming-Hong

    2012-10-17

    We develop a 16-band atomic bond-orbital model (16ABOM) to compute the spin splitting induced by bulk inversion asymmetry in zincblende materials. This model is derived from the linear combination of atomic-orbital (LCAO) scheme such that the characteristics of the real atomic orbitals can be preserved to calculate the spin splitting. The Hamiltonian of 16ABOM is based on a similarity transformation performed on the nearest-neighbor LCAO Hamiltonian with a second-order Taylor expansion k at the Γ point. The spin-splitting energies in bulk zincblende semiconductors, GaAs and InSb, are calculated, and the results agree with the LCAO and first-principles calculations. However, we find that the spin-orbit coupling between bonding and antibonding p-like states, evaluated by the 16ABOM, dominates the spin splitting of the lowest conduction bands in the zincblende materials.

  3. A model of optical trapping cold atoms using a metallic nano wire with surface plasmon effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Phuong Lan, Nguyen; Thi Nga, Do; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we construct a new model of optical trapping cold atoms with a metallic nano wire by using surface plasmon effect generated by strong field of laser beams. Using the skin effect, we send a strong oscillated electromagnetic filed through the surface of a metallic nano wire. The local field generated by evanescent effect creates an effective attractive potential near the surface of metallic nano wires. The consideration of some possible boundary and frequency conditions might lead to non-trivial bound state solution for a cold atom. We discus also the case of the laser reflection optical trap with shell-core design, and compare our model with another recent schemes of cold atom optical traps using optical fibers and carbon nanotubes.

  4. Building a pseudo-atomic model of the anaphase-promoting complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Zhang, Ziguo; Chang, Leifu; Yang, Jing; Fonseca, Paula C. A. da; Barford, David

    2013-11-01

    This article describes an example of molecular replacement in which atomic models are used to interpret electron-density maps determined using single-particle electron-microscopy data. The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through specific stages of the cell cycle by coordinating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Depending on the species, the active form of the APC/C consists of 14–15 different proteins that assemble into a 20-subunit complex with a mass of approximately 1.3 MDa. A hybrid approach of single-particle electron microscopy and protein crystallography of individual APC/C subunits has been applied to generate pseudo-atomic models of various functional states of the complex. Three approaches for assigning regions of the EM-derived APC/C density map to specific APC/C subunits are described. This information was used to dock atomic models of APC/C subunits, determined either by protein crystallography or homology modelling, to specific regions of the APC/C EM map, allowing the generation of a pseudo-atomic model corresponding to 80% of the entire complex.

  5. Predicting transcription factor specificity with all-atom models.

    PubMed

    Jamal Rahi, Sahand; Virnau, Peter; Mirny, Leonid A; Kardar, Mehran

    2008-11-01

    The binding of a transcription factor (TF) to a DNA operator site can initiate or repress the expression of a gene. Computational prediction of sites recognized by a TF has traditionally relied upon knowledge of several cognate sites, rather than an ab initio approach. Here, we examine the possibility of using structure-based energy calculations that require no knowledge of bound sites but rather start with the structure of a protein-DNA complex. We study the PurR Escherichia coli TF, and explore to which extent atomistic models of protein-DNA complexes can be used to distinguish between cognate and noncognate DNA sites. Particular emphasis is placed on systematic evaluation of this approach by comparing its performance with bioinformatic methods, by testing it against random decoys and sites of homologous TFs. We also examine a set of experimental mutations in both DNA and the protein. Using our explicit estimates of energy, we show that the specificity for PurR is dominated by direct protein-DNA interactions, and weakly influenced by bending of DNA.

  6. Partial Atomic Charges and Screened Charge Models of the Electrostatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-06-12

    We propose a new screened charge method for calculating partial atomic charges in molecules by electrostatic potential (ESP) fitting. The model, called full density screening (FDS), is used to approximate the screening effect of full charge densities of atoms in molecules. The results are compared to the conventional ESP fitting method based on point charges and to our previously proposed outer density screening (ODS) method, in which the parameters are reoptimized for the present purpose. In ODS, the charge density of an atom is represented by the sum of a point charge and a smeared negative charge distributed in a Slater-type orbital (STO). In FDS, the charge density of an atom is taken to be the sum of the charge density of the neutral atom and a partial atomic charge (of either sign) distributed in an STO. The ζ values of the STOs used in these two models are optimized in the present study to best reproduce the electrostatic potentials. The quality of the fit to the electrostatics is improved in the screened charge methods, especially for the regions that are within one van der Waals radius of the centers of atoms. It is also found that the charges derived by fitting electrostatic potentials with screened charges are less sensitive to the positions of the fitting points than are those derived with conventional electrostatic fitting. Moreover, we found that the electrostatic-potential-fitted (ESP) charges from the screened charge methods are similar to those from the point-charge method except for molecules containing the methyl group, where we have explored the use of restraints on nonpolar H atoms. We recommend the FDS model if the only goal is ESP fitting to obtain partial atomic charges or a fit to the ESP field. However, the ODS model is more accurate for electronic embedding in combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) modeling and is more accurate than point-charge models for ESP fitting, and it is recommended for applications

  7. Dynamic decoupling and local atomic order of a model multicomponent metallic glass-former

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of multicomponent metallic alloys is spatially heterogeneous near glass transition. The diffusion coefficient of one component of the metallic alloys may also decouple from those of other components, i.e., the diffusion coefficient of each component depends differently on the viscosity of metallic alloys. In this work we investigate the dynamic heterogeneity and decoupling of a model system for multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts by using a hard sphere model that considers the size disparity of alloys but does not take chemical effects into account. We also study how such dynamic behaviors would relate to the local atomic structure of metallic alloys. We find, from molecular dynamics simulations, that the smallest component P of multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts becomes dynamically heterogeneous at a translational relaxation time scale and that the largest major component Pd forms a slow subsystem, which has been considered mainly responsible for the stabilization of amorphous state of alloys. The heterogeneous dynamics of P atoms accounts for the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation and also leads to the dynamic decoupling of P and Pd atoms. The dynamically heterogeneous P atoms decrease the lifetime of the local short-range atomic orders of both icosahedral and close-packed structures by orders of magnitude.

  8. Dynamic decoupling and local atomic order of a model multicomponent metallic glass-former.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2015-06-17

    The dynamics of multicomponent metallic alloys is spatially heterogeneous near glass transition. The diffusion coefficient of one component of the metallic alloys may also decouple from those of other components, i.e., the diffusion coefficient of each component depends differently on the viscosity of metallic alloys. In this work we investigate the dynamic heterogeneity and decoupling of a model system for multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts by using a hard sphere model that considers the size disparity of alloys but does not take chemical effects into account. We also study how such dynamic behaviors would relate to the local atomic structure of metallic alloys. We find, from molecular dynamics simulations, that the smallest component P of multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts becomes dynamically heterogeneous at a translational relaxation time scale and that the largest major component Pd forms a slow subsystem, which has been considered mainly responsible for the stabilization of amorphous state of alloys. The heterogeneous dynamics of P atoms accounts for the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation and also leads to the dynamic decoupling of P and Pd atoms. The dynamically heterogeneous P atoms decrease the lifetime of the local short-range atomic orders of both icosahedral and close-packed structures by orders of magnitude.

  9. Modelling of liquid flow after a hydraulic jump on a rotating disk prior to centrifugal atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. Y.; Dowson, A. L.; Jacobs, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a simplified numerical model which is used to calculate the height distribution, and the radial and tangential velocities of a liquid on a rotating disk after a hydraulic jump and prior to centrifugal atomization. The results obtained from this numerical model are compared with predictions made using previously derived `hydraulic jump' and `analytical' models. Calculations, in conjunction with experimental measurements relating to the trajectory of liquid flow on the atomizing disk, have shown that the numerical model can not only give a reasonable prediction of the hydraulic jump location, but also yields more accurate information regarding the variations in liquid height, and radial and tangential velocities. The model is ideally suited for engineering applications.

  10. UROX 2.0: an interactive tool for fitting atomic models into electron-microscopy reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Xavier; Navaza, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    Electron microscopy of a macromolecular structure can lead to three-dimensional reconstructions with resolutions that are typically in the 30-10 A range and sometimes even beyond 10 A. Fitting atomic models of the individual components of the macromolecular structure (e.g. those obtained by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance) into an electron-microscopy map allows the interpretation of the latter at near-atomic resolution, providing insight into the interactions between the components. Graphical software is presented that was designed for the interactive fitting and refinement of atomic models into electron-microscopy reconstructions. Several characteristics enable it to be applied over a wide range of cases and resolutions. Firstly, calculations are performed in reciprocal space, which results in fast algorithms. This allows the entire reconstruction (or at least a sizeable portion of it) to be used by taking into account the symmetry of the reconstruction both in the calculations and in the graphical display. Secondly, atomic models can be placed graphically in the map while the correlation between the model-based electron density and the electron-microscopy reconstruction is computed and displayed in real time. The positions and orientations of the models are refined by a least-squares minimization. Thirdly, normal-mode calculations can be used to simulate conformational changes between the atomic model of an individual component and its corresponding density within a macromolecular complex determined by electron microscopy. These features are illustrated using three practical cases with different symmetries and resolutions. The software, together with examples and user instructions, is available free of charge at http://mem.ibs.fr/UROX/.

  11. Atomic Dipole Squeezing in the Correlated Two-Mode Two-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhao, Yonglin

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we study the atomic dipole squeezing in the correlated two-mode two-photon JC model with the field initially in the correlated two-mode SU(1,1) coherent state. The effects of detuning, field intensity and number difference between the two field modes are investigated through numerical calculation.

  12. Note: curve fit models for atomic force microscopy cantilever calibration in water.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Scott J; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy stiffness calibrations performed on commercial instruments using the thermal noise method on the same cantilever in both air and water can vary by as much as 20% when a simple harmonic oscillator model and white noise are used in curve fitting. In this note, several fitting strategies are described that reduce this difference to about 11%.

  13. Assessment of Atomic Charge Models for Gas-Phase Computations on Polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Toon; Pauwels, Ewald; De Proft, Frank; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Geerlings, Paul; Waroquier, Michel

    2012-02-14

    The concept of the atomic charge is extensively used to model the electrostatic properties of proteins. Atomic charges are not only the basis for the electrostatic energy term in biomolecular force fields but are also derived from quantum mechanical computations on protein fragments to get more insight into their electronic structure. Unfortunately there are many atomic charge schemes which lead to significantly different results, and it is not trivial to determine which scheme is most suitable for biomolecular studies. Therefore, we present an extensive methodological benchmark using a selection of atomic charge schemes [Mulliken, natural, restrained electrostatic potential, Hirshfeld-I, electronegativity equalization method (EEM), and split-charge equilibration (SQE)] applied to two sets of penta-alanine conformers. Our analysis clearly shows that Hirshfeld-I charges offer the best compromise between transferability (robustness with respect to conformational changes) and the ability to reproduce electrostatic properties of the penta-alanine. The benchmark also considers two charge equilibration models (EEM and SQE), which both clearly fail to describe the locally charged moieties in the zwitterionic form of penta-alanine. This issue is analyzed in detail because charge equilibration models are computationally much more attractive than the Hirshfeld-I scheme. Based on the latter analysis, a straightforward extension of the SQE model is proposed, SQE+Q(0), that is suitable to describe biological systems bearing many locally charged functional groups.

  14. Modeling Mechanism and Growth Reactions for New Nanofabrication Processes by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Simon D; Dey, Gangotri; Maimaiti, Yasheng; Ablat, Hayrensa; Filatova, Ekaterina A; Fomengia, Glen N

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in the simulation of the chemistry of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented for technologically important materials such as alumina, silica, and copper metal. Self-limiting chemisorption of precursors onto substrates is studied using density functional theory so as to determine reaction pathways and aid process development. The main challenges for the future of ALD modeling are outlined.

  15. Construction of an E. Coli genome-scale atom mapping model for MFA calculations.

    PubMed

    Ravikirthi, Prabhasa; Suthers, Patrick F; Maranas, Costas D

    2011-06-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has so far been restricted to lumped networks lacking many important pathways, partly due to the difficulty in automatically generating isotope mapping matrices for genome-scale metabolic networks. Here we introduce a procedure that uses a compound matching algorithm based on the graph theoretical concept of pattern recognition along with relevant reaction information to automatically generate genome-scale atom mappings which trace the path of atoms from reactants to products for every reaction. The procedure is applied to the iAF1260 metabolic reconstruction of Escherichia coli yielding the genome-scale isotope mapping model imPR90068. This model maps 90,068 non-hydrogen atoms that span all 2,077 reactions present in iAF1260 (previous largest mapping model included 238 reactions). The expanded scope of the isotope mapping model allows the complete tracking of labeled atoms through pathways such as cofactor and prosthetic group biosynthesis and histidine metabolism. An EMU representation of imPR90068 is also constructed and made available.

  16. Atom counting in HAADF STEM using a statistical model-based approach: methodology, possibilities, and inherent limitations.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; Martinez, G T; Rosenauer, A; Van Aert, S

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, a statistical model-based method to count the number of atoms of monotype crystalline nanostructures from high resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images is discussed in detail together with a thorough study on the possibilities and inherent limitations. In order to count the number of atoms, it is assumed that the total scattered intensity scales with the number of atoms per atom column. These intensities are quantitatively determined using model-based statistical parameter estimation theory. The distribution describing the probability that intensity values are generated by atomic columns containing a specific number of atoms is inferred on the basis of the experimental scattered intensities. Finally, the number of atoms per atom column is quantified using this estimated probability distribution. The number of atom columns available in the observed STEM image, the number of components in the estimated probability distribution, the width of the components of the probability distribution, and the typical shape of a criterion to assess the number of components in the probability distribution directly affect the accuracy and precision with which the number of atoms in a particular atom column can be estimated. It is shown that single atom sensitivity is feasible taking the latter aspects into consideration.

  17. Theoretical Modeling of Radiation-driven Atomic Kinetics of a Neon Photoionized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmaz, Tunay

    We report on a theoretical study on atomic kinetics modeling of a photoionized neon plasma at conditions relevant to laboratory experiments performed at the Z-machine in Sandia National Laboratories. We describe an atomic kinetics model and code, ATOKIN, that was developed and used to compute the atomic level population distribution. The study includes atomic level sensitivity with respect to energy level structure, radiation and transient effects, electron temperature and x-ray drive sensitivity and an idea for electron temperature extraction from a level population ratio. The neon atomic model considers several ionization stages of highly-charged neon ions as well as a detailed structure of non-autoionizing and autoionizing energy levels in each ion. In the energy level sensitivity study, the atomic model was changed by adding certain types of energy levels such as singly-excited, auto-ionizing doubly-excited states. Furthermore, these levels were added ion by ion for the most populated ions. Atomic processes populating and de-populating the energy levels consider photoexcitation and photoionization due to the external radiation flux, and spontaneous and collisional atomic processes including plasma radiation trapping. Relevant atomic cross sections and rates were computed with the atomic structure and scattering FAC code. The calculations were performed at constant particle number density and driven by the time-histories of temperature and external radiation flux. These conditions were selected in order to resemble those achieved in photoionized plasma experiments at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories. For the same set of time histories, calculations were done in a full time-dependent mode and also as a sequence of instantaneous, steady states. Differences between both calculations are useful to identify transient effects in the ionization and atomic kinetics of the photoionized plasma, and its dependence on the atomic model and plasma environmental

  18. Simulations of Edge Effect in 1D Spin Crossover Compounds by Atom-Phonon Coupling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, J.; Chiruta, D.; Jureschi, C. M.; Alayli, Y.; Turcu, C. O.; Dahoo, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    We used the atom-phonon coupling model to explain and illustrate the behaviour of a linear nano-chain of molecules. The analysis of the system's behaviour was performed using Free Energy method, and by applying Monte Carlo Metropolis (MCM) method which take into account the phonon contribution. In particular we tested both the MCM algorithm and the dynamic-matrix method and we expose how the thermal behaviour of a 1D spin crossover system varies as a function of different factors. Furthermore we blocked the edge atoms of the chain in its high spin state to study the effect on the system's behaviour.

  19. Aspherical-atom modeling of coordination compounds by single-crystal X-ray diffraction allows the correct metal atom to be identified.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed. PMID:25393218

  20. Aspherical-atom modeling of coordination compounds by single-crystal X-ray diffraction allows the correct metal atom to be identified.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed.

  1. Kinetic model of atomic and molecular emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    A kinetic model previously developed to predict the relative intensities of atomic emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been extended to include processes related to CN and C(2) molecular emissions. Simulations with this model were performed to predict the relative excited-state populations. The results from the simulations are compared with experimentally determined excited-state populations from 1,064 nm laser irradiation of organic residues on aluminum foil. The model reasonably predicts the relative intensity of the molecular emissions. Significantly, the model reproduces the vastly different temporal profiles of the atomic and molecular emissions. The latter are found to extend to much longer times after the laser pulse, and this appears to be due to the increasing concentration of the molecules versus time. From the simulations, the important processes affecting the CN and C(2) concentrations are identified.

  2. Modeling the formation of tropical rings of atomic bromine and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Gomez Martin, Juan Carlos; Salawitch, Ross; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

    2015-04-01

    Very short-lived (VSL) bromo- and iodocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we investigate the partitioning and loading of reactive inorganic halogens within the TTL. The specific low ozone and low temperature conditions of this region of the atmosphere changes the steady-state between halogen atoms and oxides, making the atoms the dominant species. We suggest that this leads to the formation of two daytime "tropical rings" of both atomic bromine and iodine that circle the tropics with the sun. In addition to a description of this photochemical phenomenon, this communication the partitioning of inorganic halogen reservoirs within the TTL and assess its relevance for the injection of bromine to stratosphere.

  3. Effect of atomic spontaneous decay on entanglement in the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessian, H.A. Obada, A.-S.F.; Mohamed, A.-B.A.

    2010-03-15

    Some aspects of the irreversible dynamics of a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model are addressed. By working in the dressed-state representation, it is possible to split the dynamics of the entanglement and coherence. The exact solution of the master equation in the case of a high-Q cavity with atomic decay is found. Effects of the atomic spontaneous decay on the temporal evolution of partial entropies of the atom or the field and the total entropy as a quantitative measure entanglement are elucidated. The degree of entanglement, through the sum of the negative eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix and the negative mutual information has been studied and compared with other measures.

  4. Modeling the Formation of Tropical Rings of Atomic Bromine and Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Ordoñez, C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Tilmes, S.

    2014-12-01

    Very short-lived (VSL) bromo- and iodocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we investigate the partitioning and loading of reactive inorganic halogens within the TTL. The specific low ozone and low temperature conditions of this region of the atmosphere changes the steady-state between halogen atoms and oxides, making the atoms the dominant species. We suggest that this leads to the formation of two daytime "tropical rings" of both atomic bromine and iodine that circle the tropics with the sun. In addition to a description of this photochemical phenomenon, this communication the partitioning of inorganic halogen reservoirs within the TTL and assess its relevance for the injection of bromine to stratosphere.

  5. Estimation of the adequacy of the fractal model of the atomic structure of amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Golodenko, A. B.

    2010-01-15

    A method of constructing a fractal model of noncrystalline solid substance is considered using the example of amorphous silicon. In systems of iteration functions, the physical meaning of dihedral and valence angles of the elementary crystallographic cell is assigned to arguments. The model adequacy is estimated by the radial distribution function, the atomic structure density, the distribution of valence and dihedral angles, and the density of dangling interatomic bonds.

  6. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  7. A robust all-atom model for LCAT generated by homology modeling[S

    PubMed Central

    Segrest, Jere P.; Jones, Martin K.; Catte, Andrea; Thirumuruganandham, Saravana P.

    2015-01-01

    LCAT is activated by apoA-I to form cholesteryl ester. We combined two structures, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of oxidized (short) acyl chains of phospholipid, and bacteriophage tubulin PhuZ, as C- and N-terminal templates, respectively, to create a novel homology model for human LCAT. The juxtaposition of multiple structural motifs matching experimental data is compelling evidence for the general correctness of many features of the model: i) The N-terminal 10 residues of the model, required for LCAT activity, extend the hydrophobic binding trough for the sn-2 chain 15–20 Å relative to PLA2. ii) The topography of the trough places the ester bond of the sn-2 chain less than 5 Å from the hydroxyl of the catalytic nucleophile, S181. iii) A β-hairpin resembling a lipase lid separates S181 from solvent. iv) S181 interacts with three functionally critical residues: E149, that regulates sn-2 chain specificity, and K128 and R147, whose mutations cause LCAT deficiency. Because the model provides a novel explanation for the complicated thermodynamic problem of the transfer of hydrophobic substrates from HDL to the catalytic triad of LCAT, it is an important step toward understanding the antiatherogenic role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:25589508

  8. Modeling the heating and atomic kinetics of a photoionized neon plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockard, Tom E.

    Motivated by gas cell photoionized plasma experiments performed by our group at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories, we discuss in this dissertation a modeling study of the heating and ionization of the plasma for conditions characteristic of these experiments. Photoionized plasmas are non-equilibrium systems driven by a broadband x-ray radiation flux. They are commonly found in astrophysics but rarely seen in the laboratory. Several modeling tools have been employed: (1) a view-factor computer code constrained with side x-ray power and gated monochromatic image measurements of the z-pinch radiation, to model the time-history of the photon-energy resolved x-ray flux driving the photoionized plasma, (2) a Boltzmann self-consistent electron and atomic kinetics model to simulate the electron distribution function and configuration-averaged atomic kinetics, (3) a radiation-hydrodynamics code with inline non-equilibrium atomic kinetics to perform a comprehensive numerical simulation of the experiment and plasma heating, and (4) steady-state and time-dependent collisional-radiative atomic kinetics calculations with fine-structure energy level description to assess transient effects in the ionization and charge state distribution of the plasma. The results indicate that the photon-energy resolved x-ray flux impinging on the front window of the gas cell is very well approximated by a linear combination of three geometrically-diluted Planckian distributions. Knowledge of the spectral details of the x-ray drive turned out to be important for the heating and ionization of the plasma. The free electrons in the plasma thermalize quickly relative to the timescales associated with the time-history of the x-ray drive and the plasma atomic kinetics. Hence, electrons are well described by a Maxwellian energy distribution of a single temperature. This finding is important to support the application of a radiation-hydrodynamic model to simulate the experiment. It is found

  9. A Comparison between Elementary School Students' Mental Models and Visualizations in Textbooks for the Concept of Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat-Yaseen, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed for two major goals, which are to describe students' mental models about atom concept from 6th to 8th grade and to compare students' mental models with visual representations of atom in textbooks. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected with 4 open-ended questions including drawings which were quantified using the…

  10. Influence of the plasma environment on atomic structure using an ion-sphere model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Belkhiri, Madeny Jean; Fontes, Christopher John; Poirier, Michel

    2015-09-03

    Plasma environment effects on atomic structure are analyzed using various atomic structure codes. To monitor the effect of high free-electron density or low temperatures, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are compared. After a discussion of the implementation of the Fermi-Dirac approach within the ion-sphere model, several applications are considered. In order to check the consistency of the modifications brought here to extant codes, calculations have been performed using the Los Alamos Cowan Atomic Structure (cats) code in its Hartree-Fock or Hartree-Fock-Slater form and the parametric potential Flexible Atomic Code (fac). The ground-state energy shifts due to the plasma effects for themore » six most ionized aluminum ions have been calculated using the fac and cats codes and fairly agree. For the intercombination resonance line in Fe22+, the plasma effect within the uniform electron gas model results in a positive shift that agrees with the MCDF value of B. Saha et al.« less

  11. Coupled molecular and cantilever dynamics model for frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Klocke, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich E

    2016-01-01

    A molecular dynamics model is presented, which adds harmonic potentials to the atomic interactions to mimic the elastic properties of an AFM cantilever. It gives new insight into the correlation between the experimentally monitored frequency shift and cantilever damping due to the interaction between tip atoms and scanned surface. Applying the model to ionic crystals with rock salt structure two damping mechanisms are investigated, which occur separately or simultaneously depending on the tip position. These mechanisms are adhesion hysteresis on the one hand and lateral excitations of the cantilever on the other. We find that the short range Lennard-Jones part of the atomic interaction alone is sufficient for changing the predominant mechanism. When the long range ionic interaction is switched off, the two damping mechanisms occur with a completely different pattern, which is explained by the energy landscape for the apex atom of the tip. In this case the adhesion hysteresis is always associated with a distinct lateral displacement of the tip. It is shown how this may lead to a systematic shift between the periodic patterns obtained from the frequency and from the damping signal, respectively. PMID:27335760

  12. Coupled molecular and cantilever dynamics model for frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Klocke, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich E

    2016-01-01

    A molecular dynamics model is presented, which adds harmonic potentials to the atomic interactions to mimic the elastic properties of an AFM cantilever. It gives new insight into the correlation between the experimentally monitored frequency shift and cantilever damping due to the interaction between tip atoms and scanned surface. Applying the model to ionic crystals with rock salt structure two damping mechanisms are investigated, which occur separately or simultaneously depending on the tip position. These mechanisms are adhesion hysteresis on the one hand and lateral excitations of the cantilever on the other. We find that the short range Lennard-Jones part of the atomic interaction alone is sufficient for changing the predominant mechanism. When the long range ionic interaction is switched off, the two damping mechanisms occur with a completely different pattern, which is explained by the energy landscape for the apex atom of the tip. In this case the adhesion hysteresis is always associated with a distinct lateral displacement of the tip. It is shown how this may lead to a systematic shift between the periodic patterns obtained from the frequency and from the damping signal, respectively.

  13. Coupled molecular and cantilever dynamics model for frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klocke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary A molecular dynamics model is presented, which adds harmonic potentials to the atomic interactions to mimic the elastic properties of an AFM cantilever. It gives new insight into the correlation between the experimentally monitored frequency shift and cantilever damping due to the interaction between tip atoms and scanned surface. Applying the model to ionic crystals with rock salt structure two damping mechanisms are investigated, which occur separately or simultaneously depending on the tip position. These mechanisms are adhesion hysteresis on the one hand and lateral excitations of the cantilever on the other. We find that the short range Lennard-Jones part of the atomic interaction alone is sufficient for changing the predominant mechanism. When the long range ionic interaction is switched off, the two damping mechanisms occur with a completely different pattern, which is explained by the energy landscape for the apex atom of the tip. In this case the adhesion hysteresis is always associated with a distinct lateral displacement of the tip. It is shown how this may lead to a systematic shift between the periodic patterns obtained from the frequency and from the damping signal, respectively. PMID:27335760

  14. Influence of the plasma environment on atomic structure using an ion-sphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Belkhiri, Madeny Jean; Fontes, Christopher John; Poirier, Michel

    2015-09-03

    Plasma environment effects on atomic structure are analyzed using various atomic structure codes. To monitor the effect of high free-electron density or low temperatures, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are compared. After a discussion of the implementation of the Fermi-Dirac approach within the ion-sphere model, several applications are considered. In order to check the consistency of the modifications brought here to extant codes, calculations have been performed using the Los Alamos Cowan Atomic Structure (cats) code in its Hartree-Fock or Hartree-Fock-Slater form and the parametric potential Flexible Atomic Code (fac). The ground-state energy shifts due to the plasma effects for the six most ionized aluminum ions have been calculated using the fac and cats codes and fairly agree. For the intercombination resonance line in Fe22+, the plasma effect within the uniform electron gas model results in a positive shift that agrees with the MCDF value of B. Saha et al.

  15. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models.

    PubMed

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2016-06-30

    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.

  16. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.

  17. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models.

    PubMed

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2016-06-30

    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism. PMID:27281203

  18. Why has the bohr-sommerfeld model of the atom been ignoredby general chemistry textbooks?

    PubMed

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-12-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A major shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. In order to increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study has the following objectives: 1) Formulation of criteria based on a history and philosophy of science framework; and 2) Evaluation of university-level general chemistry textbooks based on the criteria, published in Italy and U.S.A. Presentation of a textbook was considered to be "satisfactory" if it included a description of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model along with diagrams of the elliptical orbits. Of the 28 textbooks published in Italy that were analyzed, only five were classified as "satisfactory". Of the 46 textbooks published in U.S.A., only three were classified as "satisfactory". This study has the following educational implications: a) Sommerfeld's innovation (auxiliary hypothesis) by introducing elliptical orbits, helped to restore the viability of Bohr's model; b) Bohr-Sommerfeld's model went no further than the alkali metals, which led scientists to look for other models; c) This clearly shows that scientific models are tentative in nature; d) Textbook authors and chemistry teachers do not consider the tentative nature of scientific knowledge to be important; e) Inclusion of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model in textbooks can help our students to understand how science progresses.

  19. Observation of antiferromagnetic correlations in the Hubbard model with ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Hart, Russell A; Duarte, Pedro M; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Liu, Xinxing; Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Scalettar, Richard T; Trivedi, Nandini; Huse, David A; Hulet, Randall G

    2015-03-12

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have great potential to contribute to a better understanding of some of the most important issues in many-body physics, such as high-temperature superconductivity. The Hubbard model--a simplified representation of fermions moving on a periodic lattice--is thought to describe the essential details of copper oxide superconductivity. This model describes many of the features shared by the copper oxides, including an interaction-driven Mott insulating state and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. Optical lattices filled with a two-spin-component Fermi gas of ultracold atoms can faithfully realize the Hubbard model with readily tunable parameters, and thus provide a platform for the systematic exploration of its phase diagram. Realization of strongly correlated phases, however, has been hindered by the need to cool the atoms to temperatures as low as the magnetic exchange energy, and also by the lack of reliable thermometry. Here we demonstrate spin-sensitive Bragg scattering of light to measure AFM spin correlations in a realization of the three-dimensional Hubbard model at temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition. This temperature regime is beyond the range of validity of a simple high-temperature series expansion, which brings our experiment close to the limit of the capabilities of current numerical techniques, particularly at metallic densities. We reach these low temperatures using a compensated optical lattice technique, in which the confinement of each lattice beam is compensated by a blue-detuned laser beam. The temperature of the atoms in the lattice is deduced by comparing the light scattering to determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations and numerical linked-cluster expansion calculations. Further refinement of the compensated lattice may produce even lower temperatures which, along with light scattering thermometry, would open avenues for producing and characterizing other novel quantum states of

  20. Observation of antiferromagnetic correlations in the Hubbard model with ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Hart, Russell A; Duarte, Pedro M; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Liu, Xinxing; Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Scalettar, Richard T; Trivedi, Nandini; Huse, David A; Hulet, Randall G

    2015-03-12

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have great potential to contribute to a better understanding of some of the most important issues in many-body physics, such as high-temperature superconductivity. The Hubbard model--a simplified representation of fermions moving on a periodic lattice--is thought to describe the essential details of copper oxide superconductivity. This model describes many of the features shared by the copper oxides, including an interaction-driven Mott insulating state and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. Optical lattices filled with a two-spin-component Fermi gas of ultracold atoms can faithfully realize the Hubbard model with readily tunable parameters, and thus provide a platform for the systematic exploration of its phase diagram. Realization of strongly correlated phases, however, has been hindered by the need to cool the atoms to temperatures as low as the magnetic exchange energy, and also by the lack of reliable thermometry. Here we demonstrate spin-sensitive Bragg scattering of light to measure AFM spin correlations in a realization of the three-dimensional Hubbard model at temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition. This temperature regime is beyond the range of validity of a simple high-temperature series expansion, which brings our experiment close to the limit of the capabilities of current numerical techniques, particularly at metallic densities. We reach these low temperatures using a compensated optical lattice technique, in which the confinement of each lattice beam is compensated by a blue-detuned laser beam. The temperature of the atoms in the lattice is deduced by comparing the light scattering to determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations and numerical linked-cluster expansion calculations. Further refinement of the compensated lattice may produce even lower temperatures which, along with light scattering thermometry, would open avenues for producing and characterizing other novel quantum states of

  1. Atomic-level structural and functional model of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Şener, Melih K.; Olsen, John D.; Hunter, C. Neil; Schulten, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The photosynthetic unit (PSU) of purple photosynthetic bacteria consists of a network of bacteriochlorophyll–protein complexes that absorb solar energy for eventual conversion to ATP. Because of its remarkable simplicity, the PSU can serve as a prototype for studies of cellular organelles. In the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides the PSU forms spherical invaginations of the inner membrane, ≈70 nm in diameter, composed mostly of light-harvesting complexes, LH1 and LH2, and reaction centers (RCs). Atomic force microscopy studies of the intracytoplasmic membrane have revealed the overall spatial organization of the PSU. In the present study these atomic force microscopy data were used to construct three-dimensional models of an entire membrane vesicle at the atomic level by using the known structure of the LH2 complex and a structural model of the dimeric RC–LH1 complex. Two models depict vesicles consisting of 9 or 18 dimeric RC–LH1 complexes and 144 or 101 LH2 complexes, representing a total of 3,879 or 4,464 bacteriochlorophylls, respectively. The in silico reconstructions permit a detailed description of light absorption and electronic excitation migration, including computation of a 50-ps excitation lifetime and a 95% quantum efficiency for one of the model membranes, and demonstration of excitation sharing within the closely packed RC–LH1 dimer arrays. PMID:17895378

  2. Atomic density functional and diagram of structures in the phase field crystal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankudinov, V. E.; Galenko, P. K.; Kropotin, N. V.; Krivilyov, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    The phase field crystal model provides a continual description of the atomic density over the diffusion time of reactions. We consider a homogeneous structure (liquid) and a perfect periodic crystal, which are constructed from the one-mode approximation of the phase field crystal model. A diagram of 2D structures is constructed from the analytic solutions of the model using atomic density functionals. The diagram predicts equilibrium atomic configurations for transitions from the metastable state and includes the domains of existence of homogeneous, triangular, and striped structures corresponding to a liquid, a body-centered cubic crystal, and a longitudinal cross section of cylindrical tubes. The method developed here is employed for constructing the diagram for the homogeneous liquid phase and the body-centered iron lattice. The expression for the free energy is derived analytically from density functional theory. The specific features of approximating the phase field crystal model are compared with the approximations and conclusions of the weak crystallization and 2D melting theories.

  3. Building a pseudo-atomic model of the anaphase-promoting complex.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Zhang, Ziguo; Chang, Leifu; Yang, Jing; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Barford, David

    2013-11-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through specific stages of the cell cycle by coordinating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Depending on the species, the active form of the APC/C consists of 14-15 different proteins that assemble into a 20-subunit complex with a mass of approximately 1.3 MDa. A hybrid approach of single-particle electron microscopy and protein crystallography of individual APC/C subunits has been applied to generate pseudo-atomic models of various functional states of the complex. Three approaches for assigning regions of the EM-derived APC/C density map to specific APC/C subunits are described. This information was used to dock atomic models of APC/C subunits, determined either by protein crystallography or homology modelling, to specific regions of the APC/C EM map, allowing the generation of a pseudo-atomic model corresponding to 80% of the entire complex.

  4. Improving the physical realism and structural accuracy of protein models by a two-step atomic-level energy minimization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang

    2011-11-16

    Most protein structural prediction algorithms assemble structures as reduced models that represent amino acids by a reduced number of atoms to speed up the conformational search. Building accurate full-atom models from these reduced models is a necessary step toward a detailed function analysis. However, it is difficult to ensure that the atomic models retain the desired global topology while maintaining a sound local atomic geometry because the reduced models often have unphysical local distortions. To address this issue, we developed a new program, called ModRefiner, to construct and refine protein structures from Cα traces based on a two-step, atomic-level energy minimization. The main-chain structures are first constructed from initial Cα traces and the side-chain rotamers are then refined together with the backbone atoms with the use of a composite physics- and knowledge-based force field. We tested the method by performing an atomic structure refinement of 261 proteins with the initial models constructed from both ab initio and template-based structure assemblies. Compared with other state-of-art programs, ModRefiner shows improvements in both global and local structures, which have more accurate side-chain positions, better hydrogen-bonding networks, and fewer atomic overlaps. ModRefiner is freely available at http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/ModRefiner.

  5. Atom-field entanglement in the Jaynes-Cummings model without rotating wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, M.; Batavani, M.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a structure for obtaining the exact eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) without the rotating wave approximation (RWA). We study the evolution of the system in the strong coupling region using the time evolution operator without RWA. The entanglement of the system without RWA is investigated using the Von Neumann entropy as an entanglement measure. It is interesting that in the weak coupling regime, the population of the atomic levels and Von Neumann entropy without RWA model shows a good agreement with the RWA whereas in strong coupling domain, the results of these two models are quite different.

  6. Spatial Distributions of Metal Atoms During Carbon SWNTs Formation: Measurements and Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cau, M.; Dorval, N.; Attal-Tretout, B.; Cochon, J. L.; Loiseau, A.; Farhat, S.; Hinkov, I.; Scott, C. D.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and modelling have been undertaken to clarify the role of metal catalysts during single-wall carbon nanotube formation. For instance, we wonder whether the metal catalyst is active as an atom, a cluster, a liquid or solid nanoparticle [1]. A reactor has been developed for synthesis by continuous CO2-laser vaporisation of a carbon-nickel-cobalt target in laminar helium flow. The laser induced fluorescence technique [2] is applied for local probing of gaseous Ni, Co and CZ species throughout the hot carbon flow of the target heated up to 3500 K. A rapid depletion of C2 in contrast to the spatial extent of metal atoms is observed in the plume (Fig. 1). This asserts that C2 condenses earlier than Ni and Co atoms.[3, 4]. The depletion is even faster when catalysts are present. It may indicate that an interaction between metal atoms and carbon dimers takes place in the gas as soon as they are expelled from the target surface. Two methods of modelling are used: a spatially I-D calculation developed originally for the arc process [5], and a zero-D time dependent calculation, solving the chemical kinetics along the streamlines [6]. The latter includes Ni cluster formation. The peak of C2 density is calculated close to the target surface where the temperature is the highest. In the hot region, C; is dominant. As the carbon products move away from the target and mix with the ambient helium, they recombine into larger clusters, as demonstrated by the peak of C5 density around 1 mm. The profile of Ni-atom density compares fairly well with the measured one (Fig. 2). The early increase is due to the drop of temperature, and the final decrease beyond 6 mm results from Ni cluster formation at the eutectic temperature (approx.1600 K).

  7. New model for electron-impact ionization cross sections of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-K.; Hwang, W.; Rudd, M. E.

    1996-07-01

    A new theoretical model for electron-impact ionization cross sections for atoms and molecules is presented. The new model combines the binary-encounter theory and the Bethe theory for electron-impact ionization, and uses minimal theoretical data for the ground state of the target atom or molecule. Two versions of the model are presented. The first one, the Binary-Encounter-Dipole (BED) model, requires the knowledge of continuum oscillator strengths and produces the differential ionization cross section, i.e., energy distribution of ejected electrons. The differential cross section is then integrated over the ejected electron energy to obtain the total ionization cross section. The second version, the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, assumes a simple form of the continuum oscillator strength to obtain a compact and analytic form of the total ionization cross section. We found that both the BED and BEB models provide total ionization cross sections from threshold to several keV in incident energy within 5% to 15% of known experimental data for many neutral targets. The total ionization cross sections are expressed in compact analytic expressions suitable for use in modeling, e.g., of plasmas and radiation effects. We found that the BEB model is particularly effective in estimating total ionization cross sections of complex molecules.

  8. Ion-biomolecule collisions studied within the independent atom model including geometric screening corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdde, H. J.; Achenbach, A.; Kalkbrenner, T.; Jankowiak, H. C.; Kirchner, T.

    2016-05-01

    A recently introduced model to account for geometric screening corrections in an independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions is applied to proton collisions from amino acids and DNA and RNA nucleobases. The correction coefficients are obtained from using a pixel counting method (PCM) for the exact calculation of the effective cross sectional area that emerges when the molecular cross section is pictured as a structure of (overlapping) atomic cross sections. This structure varies with the relative orientation of the molecule with respect to the projectile beam direction and, accordingly, orientation-independent total cross sections are obtained from averaging the pixel count over many orientations. We present net capture and net ionization cross sections over wide ranges of impact energy and analyze the strength of the screening effect by comparing the PCM results with Bragg additivity rule cross sections and with experimental data where available. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.

  9. Ab initio thermochemistry using optimal-balance models with isodesmic corrections: The ATOMIC protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakowies, Dirk

    2009-04-01

    A theoretical composite approach, termed ATOMIC for Ab initio Thermochemistry using Optimal-balance Models with Isodesmic Corrections, is introduced for the calculation of molecular atomization energies and enthalpies of formation. Care is taken to achieve optimal balance in accuracy and cost between the various components contributing to high-level estimates of the fully correlated energy at the infinite-basis-set limit. To this end, the energy at the coupled-cluster level of theory including single, double, and quasiperturbational triple excitations is decomposed into Hartree-Fock, low-order correlation (MP2, CCSD), and connected-triples contributions and into valence-shell and core contributions. Statistical analyses for 73 representative neutral closed-shell molecules containing hydrogen and at least three first-row atoms (CNOF) are used to devise basis-set and extrapolation requirements for each of the eight components to maintain a given level of accuracy. Pople's concept of bond-separation reactions is implemented in an ab initio framework, providing for a complete set of high-level precomputed isodesmic corrections which can be used for any molecule for which a valence structure can be drawn. Use of these corrections is shown to lower basis-set requirements dramatically for each of the eight components of the composite model. A hierarchy of three levels is suggested for isodesmically corrected composite models which reproduce atomization energies at the reference level of theory to within 0.1 kcal/mol (A), 0.3 kcal/mol (B), and 1 kcal/mol (C). Large-scale statistical analysis shows that corrections beyond the CCSD(T) reference level of theory, including coupled-cluster theory with fully relaxed connected triple and quadruple excitations, first-order relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections can normally be dealt with using a greatly simplified model that assumes thermoneutral bond-separation reactions and that reduces the estimate of these

  10. Ab initio thermochemistry using optimal-balance models with isodesmic corrections: the ATOMIC protocol.

    PubMed

    Bakowies, Dirk

    2009-04-14

    A theoretical composite approach, termed ATOMIC for Ab initio Thermochemistry using Optimal-balance Models with Isodesmic Corrections, is introduced for the calculation of molecular atomization energies and enthalpies of formation. Care is taken to achieve optimal balance in accuracy and cost between the various components contributing to high-level estimates of the fully correlated energy at the infinite-basis-set limit. To this end, the energy at the coupled-cluster level of theory including single, double, and quasiperturbational triple excitations is decomposed into Hartree-Fock, low-order correlation (MP2, CCSD), and connected-triples contributions and into valence-shell and core contributions. Statistical analyses for 73 representative neutral closed-shell molecules containing hydrogen and at least three first-row atoms (CNOF) are used to devise basis-set and extrapolation requirements for each of the eight components to maintain a given level of accuracy. Pople's concept of bond-separation reactions is implemented in an ab initio framework, providing for a complete set of high-level precomputed isodesmic corrections which can be used for any molecule for which a valence structure can be drawn. Use of these corrections is shown to lower basis-set requirements dramatically for each of the eight components of the composite model. A hierarchy of three levels is suggested for isodesmically corrected composite models which reproduce atomization energies at the reference level of theory to within 0.1 kcal/mol (A), 0.3 kcal/mol (B), and 1 kcal/mol (C). Large-scale statistical analysis shows that corrections beyond the CCSD(T) reference level of theory, including coupled-cluster theory with fully relaxed connected triple and quadruple excitations, first-order relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections can normally be dealt with using a greatly simplified model that assumes thermoneutral bond-separation reactions and that reduces the estimate of these

  11. Classical and quantum dynamics of a model for atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, G.; Tonel, A.; Foerster, A.; Links, J.

    2006-02-15

    We study a model for a two-mode atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensate. Starting with a classical analysis we determine the phase space fixed points of the system. It is found that bifurcations of the fixed points naturally separate the coupling parameter space into four regions. The different regions give rise to qualitatively different dynamics. We then show that this classification holds true for the quantum dynamics.

  12. Quantum phase transitions in an interacting atom-molecule boson model

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, G.; Foerster, A.; Mattei, E.; Dahmen, S. R.; Links, J.

    2010-06-15

    We study the quantum phase transitions of a model that describes the interconversion of interacting bosonic atoms and molecules. Using a classical analysis, we identify a threshold coupling line separating a molecular phase and a mixed phase. Through studies of the energy gap, von Neumann entanglement entropy, and fidelity, we give evidence that this line is associated with a boundary line in the ground-state phase diagram of the quantum system.

  13. Bridging between NMA and Elastic Network Models: Preserving All-Atom Accuracy in Coarse-Grained Models

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyuntae; Jernigan, Robert L.; Song, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics can provide deep insights into the functional mechanisms of proteins and protein complexes. For large protein complexes such as GroEL/GroES with more than 8,000 residues, obtaining a fine-grained all-atom description of its normal mode motions can be computationally prohibitive and is often unnecessary. For this reason, coarse-grained models have been used successfully. However, most existing coarse-grained models use extremely simple potentials to represent the interactions within the coarse-grained structures and as a result, the dynamics obtained for the coarse-grained structures may not always be fully realistic. There is a gap between the quality of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures given by all-atom models and that by coarse-grained models. In this work, we resolve an important question in protein dynamics computations—how can we efficiently construct coarse-grained models whose description of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures remains as accurate as that given by all-atom models? Our method takes advantage of the sparseness of the Hessian matrix and achieves a high efficiency with a novel iterative matrix projection approach. The result is highly significant since it can provide descriptions of normal mode motions at an all-atom level of accuracy even for the largest biomolecular complexes. The application of our method to GroEL/GroES offers new insights into the mechanism of this biologically important chaperonin, such as that the conformational transitions of this protein complex in its functional cycle are even more strongly connected to the first few lowest frequency modes than with other coarse-grained models. PMID:26473491

  14. Bridging between NMA and Elastic Network Models: Preserving All-Atom Accuracy in Coarse-Grained Models.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Jernigan, Robert L; Song, Guang

    2015-10-01

    Dynamics can provide deep insights into the functional mechanisms of proteins and protein complexes. For large protein complexes such as GroEL/GroES with more than 8,000 residues, obtaining a fine-grained all-atom description of its normal mode motions can be computationally prohibitive and is often unnecessary. For this reason, coarse-grained models have been used successfully. However, most existing coarse-grained models use extremely simple potentials to represent the interactions within the coarse-grained structures and as a result, the dynamics obtained for the coarse-grained structures may not always be fully realistic. There is a gap between the quality of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures given by all-atom models and that by coarse-grained models. In this work, we resolve an important question in protein dynamics computations--how can we efficiently construct coarse-grained models whose description of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures remains as accurate as that given by all-atom models? Our method takes advantage of the sparseness of the Hessian matrix and achieves a high efficiency with a novel iterative matrix projection approach. The result is highly significant since it can provide descriptions of normal mode motions at an all-atom level of accuracy even for the largest biomolecular complexes. The application of our method to GroEL/GroES offers new insights into the mechanism of this biologically important chaperonin, such as that the conformational transitions of this protein complex in its functional cycle are even more strongly connected to the first few lowest frequency modes than with other coarse-grained models.

  15. New modeling of scattering behaviors of argon atoms on tungsten substrate.

    PubMed

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Cheng, Chin-Hsiang; Ozhgibesov, Mikhail Sergeevich

    2011-11-01

    In this study argon beam-tungsten surface scattering processes were investigated numerically by applying molecular dynamics simulations. Energy transfer, momentum change and the scattering processes of argon gas atoms from the W(110) surface were discussed. The molecular dynamics results showed that Maxwell boundary conditions fail to describe the behaviors of a high mean kinetic energy argon beam impinging on a tungsten surface. A new three-dimensional model of argon-tungsten interaction was thus proposed, and its results proved to be in line with experimental and theoretical results that have been obtained previously by other researchers. Specifically, we developed a method for the normalization of the parameters of a gas beam scattered by a metal surface. We found that the ratio of the average velocity of the scattered beam to the appropriate root mean square deviation (RMSD) allowed us to determine whether the distribution of the scattered atoms was Maxwellian or not. We found that the shape of the functions representing the angular distributions of the scattered Ar atoms could be determined using the ratio of the RMSD of an angle (azimuthal or polar) of the scattered beam to the RMSD of a uniform distribution. The distribution of the azimuthal angle of the scattered atoms was found to be uniform regardless of the incident's kinetic energy, when the incident of the beam on the surface was normal.

  16. Atomic supersymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic supersymmetry is a quantum-mechanical supersymmetry connecting the properties of different atoms and ions. A short description of some established results in the subject are provided and a few recent developments are discussed including the extension to parabolic coordinates and the calculation of Stark maps using supersymmetry-based models.

  17. Mathematical modeling of chemical composition modification and etching of polymers under the atomic oxygen influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirskaia, Natalia; Novikov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina

    2016-07-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) of the upper atmosphere is one of the most important space factors that can cause degradation of spacecraft surface. In our previous mathematical model the Monte Carlo method and the "large particles" approximation were used for simulating processes of polymer etching under the influence of AO [1]. The interaction of enlarged AO particles with the polymer was described in terms of probabilities of reactions such as etching of polymer and specular and diffuse scattering of the AO particles on polymer. The effects of atomic oxygen on protected polymers and microfiller containing composites were simulated. The simulation results were in quite good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments on magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator of the oxygen plasma of SINP MSU [2]. In this paper we present a new model that describes the reactions of AO interactions with polymeric materials in more detail. Reactions of formation and further emission of chemical compounds such as CO, CO _{2}, H _{2}O, etc. cause the modification of the chemical composition of the polymer and change the probabilities of its consequent interaction with the AO. The simulation results are compared with the results of previous simulation and with the results of laboratory experiments. The reasons for the differences between the results of natural experiments on spacecraft, laboratory experiments and simulations are discussed. N. Chirskaya, M. Samokhina, Computer modeling of polymer structures degradation under the atomic oxygen exposure, WDS'12 Proceedings of Contributed Papers: Part III - Physics, Matfyzpress Prague, 2012, pp. 30-35. E. Voronina, L. Novikov, V. Chernik, N. Chirskaya, K. Vernigorov, G. Bondarenko, and A. Gaidar, Mathematical and experimental simulation of impact of atomic oxygen of the earth's upper atmosphere on nanostructures and polymer composites, Inorganic Materials: Applied Research, 2012, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95-101.

  18. Atomic-scale modeling of particle size effects for the oxygen reduction reaction on Pt.

    SciTech Connect

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Greeley, J.; Rossmeisl, J.; Norskov, J. K.

    2011-07-01

    We estimate the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction on platinum nanoparticles of sizes of practical importance. The proposed model explicitly accounts for surface irregularities and their effect on the activity of neighboring sites. The model reproduces the experimentally observed trends in both the specific and mass activities for particle sizes in the range between 2 and 30 nm. The mass activity is calculated to be maximized for particles of a diameter between 2 and 4 nm. Our study demonstrates how an atomic-scale description of the surface microstructure is a key component in understanding particle size effects on the activity of catalytic nanoparticles.

  19. Error analysis for momentum conservation in Atomic-Continuum Coupled Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yantao; Cui, Junzhi; Han, Tiansi

    2016-08-01

    Atomic-Continuum Coupled Model (ACCM) is a multiscale computation model proposed by Xiang et al. (in IOP conference series materials science and engineering, 2010), which is used to study and simulate dynamics and thermal-mechanical coupling behavior of crystal materials, especially metallic crystals. In this paper, we construct a set of interpolation basis functions for the common BCC and FCC lattices, respectively, implementing the computation of ACCM. Based on this interpolation approximation, we give a rigorous mathematical analysis of the error of momentum conservation equation introduced by ACCM, and derive a sequence of inequalities that bound the error. Numerical experiment is carried out to verify our result.

  20. Atomically thin spherical shell-shaped superscatterers based on a Bohr model.

    PubMed

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Lin, Shisheng; Liu, Xu; Chen, Hongsheng

    2015-12-18

    Graphene monolayers can be used for atomically thin three-dimensional shell-shaped superscatterer designs. Due to the excitation of the first-order resonance of transverse magnetic (TM) graphene plasmons, the scattering cross section of the bare subwavelength dielectric particle is enhanced significantly by five orders of magnitude. The superscattering phenomenon can be intuitively understood and interpreted with a Bohr model. In addition, based on the analysis of the Bohr model, it is shown that contrary to the TM case, superscattering is hard to achieve by exciting the resonance of transverse electric (TE) graphene plasmons due to their poor field confinements.

  1. Atomically thin spherical shell-shaped superscatterers based on a Bohr model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Lin, Shisheng; Liu, Xu; Chen, Hongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Graphene monolayers can be used for atomically thin three-dimensional shell-shaped superscatterer designs. Due to the excitation of the first-order resonance of transverse magnetic (TM) graphene plasmons, the scattering cross section of the bare subwavelength dielectric particle is enhanced significantly by five orders of magnitude. The superscattering phenomenon can be intuitively understood and interpreted with a Bohr model. In addition, based on the analysis of the Bohr model, it is shown that contrary to the TM case, superscattering is hard to achieve by exciting the resonance of transverse electric (TE) graphene plasmons due to their poor field confinements.

  2. High precision measurements of atom column positions using model-based exit wave reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; Van Aert, S; Van Dyck, D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, it has been investigated how to measure atom column positions as accurately and precisely as possible using a focal series of images. In theory, it is expected that the precision would considerably improve using a maximum likelihood estimator based on the full series of focal images. As such, the theoretical lower bound on the variances of the unknown atom column positions can be attained. However, this approach is numerically demanding. Therefore, maximum likelihood estimation has been compared with the results obtained by fitting a model to a reconstructed exit wave rather than to the full series of focal images. Hence, a real space model-based exit wave reconstruction technique based on the channelling theory is introduced. Simulations show that the reconstructed complex exit wave contains the same amount of information concerning the atom column positions as the full series of focal images. Only for thin samples, which act as weak phase objects, this information can be retrieved from the phase of the reconstructed complex exit wave.

  3. Yang-Baxter integrable models in experiments: from condensed matter to ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Murray T.; Foerster, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation has long been recognised as the masterkey to integrability, providing the basis for exactly solved models which capture the fundamental physics of a number of realistic classical and quantum systems. In this article we provide an introductory survey of the impact of Yang-Baxter integrable models on experiments in condensed matter physics and ultracold atoms. A number of prominent examples are covered, including the hard-hexagon model, the Heisenberg spin chain, the transverse quantum Ising chain, a spin ladder model, the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the Gaudin-Yang Fermi gas and the two-site Bose-Hubbard model. The review concludes by pointing to some other recent developments with promise for further progress.

  4. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included.

  5. Fullerene film on metal surface: Diffusion of metal atoms and interface model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen-jie; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Wang, Jia-Ou; Wu, Rui; Qian, Hai-Jie; Ibrahim, Kurash

    2014-05-12

    We try to understand the fact that fullerene film behaves as n-type semiconductor in electronic devices and establish a model describing the energy level alignment at fullerene/metal interfaces. The C{sub 60}/Ag(100) system was taken as a prototype and studied with photoemission measurements. The photoemission spectra revealed that the Ag atoms of the substrate diffused far into C{sub 60} film and donated electrons to the molecules. So the C{sub 60} film became n-type semiconductor with the Ag atoms acting as dopants. The C{sub 60}/Ag(100) interface should be understood as two sub-interfaces on both sides of the molecular layer directly contacting with the substrate. One sub-interface is Fermi level alignment, and the other is vacuum level alignment.

  6. Unraveling lipid/protein interaction in model lipid bilayers by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Andrea; Facci, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The current view of the biological membrane is that in which lipids and proteins mutually interact to accomplish membrane functions. The lateral heterogeneity of the lipid bilayer can induce partitioning of membrane-associated proteins, favoring protein-protein interaction and influence signaling and trafficking. The Atomic Force Microscope allows to study the localization of membrane-associated proteins with respect to the lipid organization at the single molecule level and without the need for fluorescence staining. These features make AFM a technique of choice to study lipid/protein interactions in model systems or native membranes. Here we will review the technical aspects inherent to and the main results obtained by AFM in the study of protein partitioning in lipid domains concentrating in particular on GPI-anchored proteins, lipidated proteins, and transmembrane proteins. Whenever possible, we will also discuss the functional consequences of what has been imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy.

  7. An atomic charge model for graphene oxide for exploring its bioadhesive properties in explicit water.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, D; Dragneva, N; Floriano, W B; Mawhinney, R C; Fanchini, G; French, S; Rubel, O

    2014-07-28

    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been shown to exhibit properties that are useful in applications such as biomedical imaging, biological sensors, and drug delivery. The binding properties of biomolecules at the surface of GO can provide insight into the potential biocompatibility of GO. Here we assess the intrinsic affinity of amino acids to GO by simulating their adsorption onto a GO surface. The simulation is done using Amber03 force-field molecular dynamics in explicit water. The emphasis is placed on developing an atomic charge model for GO. The adsorption energies are computed using atomic charges obtained from an ab initio electrostatic potential based method. The charges reported here are suitable for simulating peptide adsorption to GO.

  8. An atomic charge model for graphene oxide for exploring its bioadhesive properties in explicit water.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, D; Dragneva, N; Floriano, W B; Mawhinney, R C; Fanchini, G; French, S; Rubel, O

    2014-07-28

    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been shown to exhibit properties that are useful in applications such as biomedical imaging, biological sensors, and drug delivery. The binding properties of biomolecules at the surface of GO can provide insight into the potential biocompatibility of GO. Here we assess the intrinsic affinity of amino acids to GO by simulating their adsorption onto a GO surface. The simulation is done using Amber03 force-field molecular dynamics in explicit water. The emphasis is placed on developing an atomic charge model for GO. The adsorption energies are computed using atomic charges obtained from an ab initio electrostatic potential based method. The charges reported here are suitable for simulating peptide adsorption to GO. PMID:25084935

  9. Hidden electronic rule in the "cluster-plus-glue-atom" model.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinglian; Dong, Chuang; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Electrons and their interactions are intrinsic factors to affect the structure and properties of materials. Based on the "cluster-cluster-plus-glue-atom" model, an electron counting rule for complex metallic alloys (CMAs) has been revealed in this work (i. e. the CPGAMEC rule). Our results on the cluster structure and electron concentration of CMAs with apparent cluster features, indicate that the valence electrons' number per unit cluster formula for these CMAs are specific constants of eight-multiples and twelve-multiples. It is thus termed as specific electrons cluster formula. This CPGAMEC rule has been demonstrated as a useful guidance to direct the design of CMAs with desired properties, while its practical applications and underlying mechanism have been illustrated on the basis of CMAs' cluster structural features. Our investigation provides an aggregate picture with intriguing electronic rule and atomic structural features of CMAs. PMID:27642002

  10. Atomic coherence in the nonresonant Jaynes-Cummings model with thermocoherent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, N.; Baghshahi, H. R.; Mirafzali, S. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Using relative entropy of coherence, we study the atomic coherence (AC) in the nonresonant Jaynes-Cummings model, when the atom is initially prepared in an incoherent mixed state and the quantized field is in a thermocoherent (Glauber-Lachs) state. The influence of the increasing average number of thermal photons, average number of coherent photons and detuninig parameter on the AC are examined, separately in detail. We found that increasing the mean number of thermal (coherent) photons over a fixed mean number of the coherent (thermal) field has a destructive (constructive) effect on the AC. In addition, we see that the increment of detuning parameter leads to decrement of AC. Remarkably, we observe that in the particular case of thermal field, the AC cannot be created.

  11. Hidden electronic rule in the "cluster-plus-glue-atom" model.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinglian; Dong, Chuang; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Electrons and their interactions are intrinsic factors to affect the structure and properties of materials. Based on the "cluster-cluster-plus-glue-atom" model, an electron counting rule for complex metallic alloys (CMAs) has been revealed in this work (i. e. the CPGAMEC rule). Our results on the cluster structure and electron concentration of CMAs with apparent cluster features, indicate that the valence electrons' number per unit cluster formula for these CMAs are specific constants of eight-multiples and twelve-multiples. It is thus termed as specific electrons cluster formula. This CPGAMEC rule has been demonstrated as a useful guidance to direct the design of CMAs with desired properties, while its practical applications and underlying mechanism have been illustrated on the basis of CMAs' cluster structural features. Our investigation provides an aggregate picture with intriguing electronic rule and atomic structural features of CMAs.

  12. Paramagnetic particle assemblies as colloidal models for atomic and molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dichuan

    2011-12-01

    Colloidal particles are ideal models for studying the behavior of atomic and molecular systems. They resemble their atomic and molecular analogues in that their dynamics are driven by thermal energy and their equilibrium properties are controlled by inter-particle interactions. Based on this analogy, it is reasonable to construct colloidal chains, where each particle represents a repeat unit, as models for polymers. The advantages of this system over molecular systems are its controllable rigidity, contour length and diameter, as well as the convenience to capture its instantaneous shape and position via video microscopy, which are not trivial to realize in molecular systems. By utilizing the dipolar properties of magnetic colloids, a number of groups have assembled semiflexible and rigid colloidal chains by cross-linking magnetic beads under a magnetic field using polymer linkers. Recently, efforts in constructing colloidal chains led even to anisotropic magnetic colloidal chains that mimic the detailed atomic arrangements of polymers. These properties make colloidal chains possible candidates for the classic bead-spring or bead-rod model systems for semiflexible and rigid polymers. In my thesis, I present a method for generating linear colloidal chain structures by linking surface functionalized paramagnetic particles using DNA. First, I investigate the force interactions between individual magnetic particles under different conditions to optimize the resulting chain stability. A systematic study the bending and rotational diffusion dynamics of the chains and their relationship with the DNA linking chemistry is presented. I then demonstrate their use as a ideal model system to study polymer dynamics In addition, a technique to measure short-range repulsive surface forces between these colloids with high precision was developed. Building on these repulsive force studies, a colloidal system to study 2-D phase transitions was created. This thesis provides insights

  13. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  14. What is the "best" atomic charge model to describe through-space charge-transfer excitations?

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Denis; Le Bahers, Tangui; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2012-04-28

    We investigate the efficiency of several partial atomic charge models (Mulliken, Hirshfeld, Bader, Natural, Merz-Kollman and ChelpG) for investigating the through-space charge-transfer in push-pull organic compounds with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory approaches. The results of these models are compared to benchmark values obtained by determining the difference of total densities between the ground and excited states. Both model push-pull oligomers and two classes of "real-life" organic dyes (indoline and diketopyrrolopyrrole) used as sensitisers in solar cell applications have been considered. Though the difference of dipole moments between the ground and excited states is reproduced by most approaches, no atomic charge model is fully satisfactory for reproducing the distance and amount of charge transferred that are provided by the density picture. Overall, the partitioning schemes fitting the electrostatic potential (e.g. Merz-Kollman) stand as the most consistent compromises in the framework of simulating through-space charge-transfer, whereas the other models tend to yield qualitatively inconsistent values.

  15. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite.

  16. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  17. Sound speed and oscillation frequencies for a solar model evolved with Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Fontes, Christopher; Walczak, Przemyslaw; Wood, Suzannah R.; Mussack, Katie

    2015-08-01

    Los Alamos has calculated a new generation of radiative opacities for elements with atomic number Z=1-30 with improved physics input, updated atomic data, and finer temperature grid to replace the Los Alamos LEDCOP opacities released in the year 2000. We calculate the evolution of a standard solar model including these new opacities, and compare with a model evolved using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OPAL opacities released about 1996. We use the solar abundance mixture of Asplund, Grevesse, Sauval, and Scott (2009), including 2015 updates. The Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities (Colgan et al. 2013a,b) are somewhat higher than those of OPAL for temperatures and densities near the base of the solar convection zone. We compare the calculated nonadiabatic solar oscillation frequencies and solar interior sound speed to observed frequencies and helioseismic inferences. We discuss the potential for increased opacities to partially mitigate the ‘solar abundance problem’.References:J. Colgan, D.P. Kilcrease, N.H. Magee, Jr., G.S.J. Armstrong, J. Abdallah, Jr., M.E. Sherrill, C.J. Fontes, H.L. Zhang and P. Hakel, Eighth International Conference on Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications: ICAMDATA, Gaithersburg, MD 2012, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1545, (AIP, New York, 2013a), pp. 17-26.J. Colgan, D.P. Kilcrease, N.H. Magee, Jr, G.S.J. Armstrong, J. Abdallah, Jr., M.E. Sherrill, C.J. Fontes, H.L. Zhang and P. Hakel, High Energy Density Physics 9, 369 (2013b).

  18. Reduced atomic pair-interaction design (RAPID) model for simulations of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boris; Baumketner, Andrij

    2013-02-14

    Increasingly, theoretical studies of proteins focus on large systems. This trend demands the development of computational models that are fast, to overcome the growing complexity, and accurate, to capture the physically relevant features. To address this demand, we introduce a protein model that uses all-atom architecture to ensure the highest level of chemical detail while employing effective pair potentials to represent the effect of solvent to achieve the maximum speed. The effective potentials are derived for amino acid residues based on the condition that the solvent-free model matches the relevant pair-distribution functions observed in explicit solvent simulations. As a test, the model is applied to alanine polypeptides. For the chain with 10 amino acid residues, the model is found to reproduce properly the native state and its population. Small discrepancies are observed for other folding properties and can be attributed to the approximations inherent in the model. The transferability of the generated effective potentials is investigated in simulations of a longer peptide with 25 residues. A minimal set of potentials is identified that leads to qualitatively correct results in comparison with the explicit solvent simulations. Further tests, conducted for multiple peptide chains, show that the transferable model correctly reproduces the experimentally observed tendency of polyalanines to aggregate into β-sheets more strongly with the growing length of the peptide chain. Taken together, the reported results suggest that the proposed model could be used to succesfully simulate folding and aggregation of small peptides in atomic detail. Further tests are needed to assess the strengths and limitations of the model more thoroughly.

  19. Reduced atomic pair-interaction design (RAPID) model for simulations of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Boris; Baumketner, Andrij

    2013-02-01

    Increasingly, theoretical studies of proteins focus on large systems. This trend demands the development of computational models that are fast, to overcome the growing complexity, and accurate, to capture the physically relevant features. To address this demand, we introduce a protein model that uses all-atom architecture to ensure the highest level of chemical detail while employing effective pair potentials to represent the effect of solvent to achieve the maximum speed. The effective potentials are derived for amino acid residues based on the condition that the solvent-free model matches the relevant pair-distribution functions observed in explicit solvent simulations. As a test, the model is applied to alanine polypeptides. For the chain with 10 amino acid residues, the model is found to reproduce properly the native state and its population. Small discrepancies are observed for other folding properties and can be attributed to the approximations inherent in the model. The transferability of the generated effective potentials is investigated in simulations of a longer peptide with 25 residues. A minimal set of potentials is identified that leads to qualitatively correct results in comparison with the explicit solvent simulations. Further tests, conducted for multiple peptide chains, show that the transferable model correctly reproduces the experimentally observed tendency of polyalanines to aggregate into β-sheets more strongly with the growing length of the peptide chain. Taken together, the reported results suggest that the proposed model could be used to succesfully simulate folding and aggregation of small peptides in atomic detail. Further tests are needed to assess the strengths and limitations of the model more thoroughly.

  20. Model for atomic dielectric response in strong, time-dependent laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensink, T. C.; Antonsen, T. M.; Palastro, J. P.; Gordon, D. F.

    2014-03-01

    A nonlocal quantum-mechanical model is presented for calculating the atomic dielectric response to a strong laser electric field. By replacing the Coulomb potential with a nonlocal potential in the Schrödinger equation, a 3 + 1-dimensional calculation of the time-dependent electric dipole moment can be reformulated as a 0 + 1-dimensional integral equation that retains the three-dimensional dynamics, while offering significant computational savings. The model is benchmarked against an established ionization model and ab initio simulation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The reduced computational overhead makes the model a promising candidate to incorporate full quantum-mechanical time dynamics in laser pulse propagation simulations.

  1. Multiple-cascade model for the filling of hollow Ne atoms moving below an Al surface

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Arnau, A.; Grether, M.; Koehrbrueck, R.; Spieler, A.; Page, R.; Saal, A.; Thomaschewski, J.; Bleck-Neuhaus, J.

    1995-07-01

    Analytic expressions for a multiple-cascade model were derived to study the filling of {ital L} and {ital K} vacancies of hollow Ne atoms moving in shallow layers of an Al surface. The model requires cross sections for charge transfer into the {ital L} shell of the projectile that were determined from molecular-orbital calculations including screening effects of hollow atoms and asymptotic solid-state energies. The analysis accounts for mechanisms of Landau-Zener curve crossing and Fano-Lichten promotion. To describe the transport of the electrons within the solid, absorption and buildup effects were taken into account. The results from the cascade model show good agreement with angular distributions of Ne {ital K} Auger electrons recently measured. Attenuation effects were found to produce shifts in the {ital K} Auger spectra at varying observation angles. The significant difference previously observed for the mean {ital L}-shell occupation numbers during {ital L} and {ital K} Auger emission is explained by the present model.

  2. Extended Bose Hubbard model of interacting bosonic atoms in optical lattices: From superfluidity to density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarella, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2006-01-15

    For systems of interacting, ultracold spin-zero neutral bosonic atoms, harmonically trapped and subject to an optical lattice potential, we derive an Extended Bose Hubbard (EBH) model by developing a systematic expansion for the Hamiltonian of the system in powers of the lattice parameters and of a scale parameter, the lattice attenuation factor. We identify the dominant terms that need to be retained in realistic experimental conditions, up to nearest-neighbor interactions and nearest-neighbor hoppings conditioned by the on-site occupation numbers. In the mean field approximation, we determine the free energy of the system and study the phase diagram both at zero and at finite temperature. At variance with the standard on site Bose Hubbard model, the zero-temperature phase diagram of the EBH model possesses a dual structure in the Mott insulating regime. Namely, for specific ranges of the lattice parameters, a density wave phase characterizes the system at integer fillings, with domains of alternating mean occupation numbers that are the atomic counterparts of the domains of staggered magnetizations in an antiferromagnetic phase. We show as well that in the EBH model, a zero-temperature quantum phase transition to pair superfluidity is, in principle, possible, but completely suppressed at the lowest order in the lattice attenuation factor. Finally, we determine the possible occurrence of the different phases as a function of the experimentally controllable lattice parameters.

  3. Pairwise energies for polypeptide coarse-grained models derived from atomic force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, Marcos R.; Omovie, Sheyore J.

    2009-05-01

    The energy parametrization of geometrically simplified versions of polypeptides, better known as polypeptide or protein coarse-grained models, is obtained from molecular dynamics and statistical methods. Residue pairwise interactions are derived by performing atomic-level simulations in explicit water for all 210 pairs of amino acids, where the amino acids are modified to closer match their structure and charges in polypeptides. Radial density functions are computed from equilibrium simulations for each pair of residues, from which statistical energies are extracted using the Boltzmann inversion method. The resulting models are compared to similar potentials obtained by knowledge based methods and to hydrophobic scales, resulting in significant similarities in spite of the model simplicity. However, it was found that glutamine, asparagine, lysine, and arginine are more attractive to other residues than anticipated, in part, due to their amphiphilic nature. In addition, equally charged residues appear more repulsive than expected. Difficulties in the calculation of knowledge based potentials and hydrophobicity scale for these cases, as well as sensitivity of the force field to polarization effects are suspected to cause this discrepancy. It is also shown that the coarse-grained model can identify native structures in decoy databases nearly as well as more elaborate knowledge based methods, in spite of its resolution limitations. In a test conducted with several proteins and corresponding decoys, the coarse-grained potential was able to identify the native state structure but not the original atomic force field.

  4. Partial ionization in dense plasmas: comparisons among average-atom density functional models.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Michael S; Weisheit, Jon; Hansen, Stephanie B; Dharma-wardana, M W C

    2013-06-01

    Nuclei interacting with electrons in dense plasmas acquire electronic bound states, modify continuum states, generate resonances and hopping electron states, and generate short-range ionic order. The mean ionization state (MIS), i.e, the mean charge Z of an average ion in such plasmas, is a valuable concept: Pseudopotentials, pair-distribution functions, equations of state, transport properties, energy-relaxation rates, opacity, radiative processes, etc., can all be formulated using the MIS of the plasma more concisely than with an all-electron description. However, the MIS does not have a unique definition and is used and defined differently in different statistical models of plasmas. Here, using the MIS formulations of several average-atom models based on density functional theory, we compare numerical results for Be, Al, and Cu plasmas for conditions inclusive of incomplete atomic ionization and partial electron degeneracy. By contrasting modern orbital-based models with orbital-free Thomas-Fermi models, we quantify the effects of shell structure, continuum resonances, the role of exchange and correlation, and the effects of different choices of the fundamental cell and boundary conditions. Finally, the role of the MIS in plasma applications is illustrated in the context of x-ray Thomson scattering in warm dense matter.

  5. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    PubMed Central

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project. PMID:26249348

  6. Pairwise energies for polypeptide coarse-grained models derived from atomic force fields.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Marcos R; Omovie, Sheyore J

    2009-05-21

    The energy parametrization of geometrically simplified versions of polypeptides, better known as polypeptide or protein coarse-grained models, is obtained from molecular dynamics and statistical methods. Residue pairwise interactions are derived by performing atomic-level simulations in explicit water for all 210 pairs of amino acids, where the amino acids are modified to closer match their structure and charges in polypeptides. Radial density functions are computed from equilibrium simulations for each pair of residues, from which statistical energies are extracted using the Boltzmann inversion method. The resulting models are compared to similar potentials obtained by knowledge based methods and to hydrophobic scales, resulting in significant similarities in spite of the model simplicity. However, it was found that glutamine, asparagine, lysine, and arginine are more attractive to other residues than anticipated, in part, due to their amphiphilic nature. In addition, equally charged residues appear more repulsive than expected. Difficulties in the calculation of knowledge based potentials and hydrophobicity scale for these cases, as well as sensitivity of the force field to polarization effects are suspected to cause this discrepancy. It is also shown that the coarse-grained model can identify native structures in decoy databases nearly as well as more elaborate knowledge based methods, in spite of its resolution limitations. In a test conducted with several proteins and corresponding decoys, the coarse-grained potential was able to identify the native state structure but not the original atomic force field.

  7. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions.

    PubMed

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V; Van Benschoten, Andrew H; Fraser, James S; Adams, Paul D

    2015-08-01

    The translation-libration-screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.

  8. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-07-28

    The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.

  9. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-07-28

    The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy severalmore » conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.« less

  10. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-07-28

    Procedures are described for extracting the vibration and libration parameters corresponding to a given set of TLS matrices and their simultaneous validation. Knowledge of these parameters allows the generation of structural ensembles corresponding to these matrices. The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.

  11. Development of polarizable models for molecular mechanical calculations I: parameterization of atomic polarizability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Hou, Tingjun; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

    2011-03-31

    In this work, four types of polarizable models have been developed for calculating interactions between atomic charges and induced point dipoles. These include the Applequist, Thole linear, Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like. The polarizability models have been optimized to reproduce the experimental static molecular polarizabilities obtained from the molecular refraction measurements on a set of 420 molecules reported by Bosque and Sales. We grouped the models into five sets depending on the interaction types, that is, whether the interactions of two atoms that form the bond, bond angle, and dihedral angle are turned off or scaled down. When 1-2 (bonded) and 1-3 (separated by two bonds) interactions are turned off, 1-4 (separated by three bonds) interactions are scaled down, or both, all models including the Applequist model achieved similar performance: the average percentage error (APE) ranges from 1.15 to 1.23%, and the average unsigned error (AUE) ranges from 0.143 to 0.158 Å(3). When the short-range 1-2, 1-3, and full 1-4 terms are taken into account (set D models), the APE ranges from 1.30 to 1.58% for the three Thole models, whereas the Applequist model (DA) has a significantly larger APE (3.82%). The AUE ranges from 0.166 to 0.196 Å(3) for the three Thole models, compared with 0.446 Å(3) for the Applequist model. Further assessment using the 70-molecule van Duijnen and Swart data set clearly showed that the developed models are both accurate and highly transferable and are in fact have smaller errors than the models developed using this particular data set (set E models). The fact that A, B, and C model sets are notably more accurate than both D and E model sets strongly suggests that the inclusion of 1-2 and 1-3 interactions reduces the transferability and accuracy.

  12. Why Do We Believe that an Atom Is Colourless? Reflections about the Teaching of the Particle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Alessandro; Vicentini, Matilde

    1997-01-01

    Highlights students' ideas about the particle model of matter and its use. Discusses the atomic model in teaching and the rules of the particle modeling game. Demonstrates how a complete understanding of the rules of the model construction yields guidelines for didactic practice. Focuses on problems connected with visual communication through…

  13. Structural models and atomic distribution of bimetallic nanoparticles as investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Chen, Jiun-Ming; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Shou-Chu; Wang, Guo-Rung; Liu, Din-Goa; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Tang, Mau-Tsu

    2005-08-10

    In this report, we describe a general methodology to determine the extent of alloying or atomic distribution quantitatively in bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The structural parameters determined in these studies serve as a quantitative index and provide a general route to determine the structural aspects of the bimetallic NPs. We have derived various types of possible structural models based on the extent of alloying and coordination number parameters of bimetallic NPs. We also discussed the nature of homo- and heterometallic interactions in bimetallic NPs based on the extent of alloying. Herein, we use carbon-supported platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles to demonstrate the proposed methodology, and this can be extended further to get more insights into the alloying extent or atomic distribution of other bimetallic systems. The results demonstrated in this paper open up methods to determine the atomic distribution of bimetallic NPs, which is an extremely important parameter that strongly influences the physicochemical properties of NPs and their applications.

  14. Quantum simulation of the Hubbard model with dopant atoms in silicon

    PubMed Central

    Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.

    2016-01-01

    In quantum simulation, many-body phenomena are probed in controllable quantum systems. Recently, simulation of Bose–Hubbard Hamiltonians using cold atoms revealed previously hidden local correlations. However, fermionic many-body Hubbard phenomena such as unconventional superconductivity and spin liquids are more difficult to simulate using cold atoms. To date the required single-site measurements and cooling remain problematic, while only ensemble measurements have been achieved. Here we simulate a two-site Hubbard Hamiltonian at low effective temperatures with single-site resolution using subsurface dopants in silicon. We measure quasi-particle tunnelling maps of spin-resolved states with atomic resolution, finding interference processes from which the entanglement entropy and Hubbard interactions are quantified. Entanglement, determined by spin and orbital degrees of freedom, increases with increasing valence bond length. We find separation-tunable Hubbard interaction strengths that are suitable for simulating strongly correlated phenomena in larger arrays of dopants, establishing dopants as a platform for quantum simulation of the Hubbard model. PMID:27094205

  15. Atomic oxygen dynamics in an air dielectric barrier discharge: a combined diagnostic and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldus, Sabrina; Schröder, Daniel; Bibinov, Nikita; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Awakowicz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are a promising alternative therapy for treatment of chronic wounds, as they have already shown in clinical trials. In this study an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) developed for therapeutic use in dermatology is characterized with respect to the plasma produced reactive oxygen species, namely atomic oxygen and ozone, which are known to be of great importance to wound healing. To understand the plasma chemistry of the applied DBD, xenon-calibrated two-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy are applied. The measured spatial distributions are shown and compared to each other. A model of the afterglow chemistry based on optical emission spectroscopy is developed to cross-check the measurement results and obtain insight into the dynamics of the considered reactive oxygen species. The atomic oxygen density is found to be located mostly between the electrodes with a maximum density of {{n}\\text{O}}=6× {{10}16} cm-3 . Time resolved measurements reveal a constant atomic oxygen density between two high voltage pulses. The ozone is measured up to 3 mm outside the active plasma volume, reaching a maximum value of {{n}{{\\text{O}3}}}=3× {{10}16} cm-3 between the electrodes.

  16. Electron crystallography of ultrathin 3D protein crystals: atomic model with charges.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Koji; Kato, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Mitsuo; Tomita, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2015-03-17

    Membrane proteins and macromolecular complexes often yield crystals too small or too thin for even the modern synchrotron X-ray beam. Electron crystallography could provide a powerful means for structure determination with such undersized crystals, as protein atoms diffract electrons four to five orders of magnitude more strongly than they do X-rays. Furthermore, as electron crystallography yields Coulomb potential maps rather than electron density maps, it could provide a unique method to visualize the charged states of amino acid residues and metals. Here we describe an attempt to develop a methodology for electron crystallography of ultrathin (only a few layers thick) 3D protein crystals and present the Coulomb potential maps at 3.4-Å and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, obtained from Ca(2+)-ATPase and catalase crystals. These maps demonstrate that it is indeed possible to build atomic models from such crystals and even to determine the charged states of amino acid residues in the Ca(2+)-binding sites of Ca(2+)-ATPase and that of the iron atom in the heme in catalase.

  17. Coqblin-Schrieffer model for an ultracold gas of ytterbium atoms with metastable state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Igor; Kuzmenko, Tetyana; Avishai, Yshai; Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the impressive recent advance in manipulating cold ytterbium atoms, we explore and substantiate the feasibility of realizing the Coqblin-Schrieffer model in a gas of cold fermionic 173Yb atoms. Making use of different AC polarizabillity of the electronic ground state (electronic configuration S10) and the long lived metastable state (electronic configuration P30), it is substantiated that the latter can be localized and serve as a magnetic impurity while the former remains itinerant. The exchange mechanism between the itinerant S10 and the localized P30 atoms is analyzed and shown to be antiferromagnetic. The ensuing SU(6) symmetric Coqblin-Schrieffer Hamiltonian is constructed, and, using the calculated exchange constant J , perturbative renormalization group (RG) analysis yields the Kondo temperature TK that is experimentally accessible. A number of thermodynamic measurable observables are calculated in the weak-coupling regime T >TK (using perturbative RG analysis) and in the strong-coupling regime T

  18. Atomic spin-chain realization of a model for quantum criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toskovic, R.; van den Berg, R.; Spinelli, A.; Eliens, I. S.; van den Toorn, B.; Bryant, B.; Caux, J.-S.; Otte, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The ability to manipulate single atoms has opened up the door to constructing interesting and useful quantum structures from the ground up. On the one hand, nanoscale arrangements of magnetic atoms are at the heart of future quantum computing and spintronic devices; on the other hand, they can be used as fundamental building blocks for the realization of textbook many-body quantum models, illustrating key concepts such as quantum phase transitions, topological order or frustration as a function of system size. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy to construct arrays of magnetic atoms on a surface, designed to behave like spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chains in a transverse field, for which a quantum phase transition from an antiferromagnetic to a paramagnetic phase is predicted in the thermodynamic limit. Site-resolved measurements on these finite-size realizations reveal a number of sudden ground state changes when the field approaches the critical value, each corresponding to a new domain wall entering the chains. We observe that these state crossings become closer for longer chains, suggesting the onset of critical behaviour. Our results present opportunities for further studies on quantum behaviour of many-body systems, as a function of their size and structural complexity.

  19. Electron crystallography of ultrathin 3D protein crystals: Atomic model with charges

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura, Koji; Kato, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Mitsuo; Tomita, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins and macromolecular complexes often yield crystals too small or too thin for even the modern synchrotron X-ray beam. Electron crystallography could provide a powerful means for structure determination with such undersized crystals, as protein atoms diffract electrons four to five orders of magnitude more strongly than they do X-rays. Furthermore, as electron crystallography yields Coulomb potential maps rather than electron density maps, it could provide a unique method to visualize the charged states of amino acid residues and metals. Here we describe an attempt to develop a methodology for electron crystallography of ultrathin (only a few layers thick) 3D protein crystals and present the Coulomb potential maps at 3.4-Å and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, obtained from Ca2+-ATPase and catalase crystals. These maps demonstrate that it is indeed possible to build atomic models from such crystals and even to determine the charged states of amino acid residues in the Ca2+-binding sites of Ca2+-ATPase and that of the iron atom in the heme in catalase. PMID:25730881

  20. Ultracold atomic collisions in tight harmonic traps: Quantum-defect model and application to metastable helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Gillian; Whittingham, Ian B.; Beams, Timothy J.

    2004-09-01

    We analyze a system of two colliding ultracold atoms under strong harmonic confinement from the viewpoint of quantum defect theory and formulate a generalized self-consistent method for determining the allowed energies. We also present two highly efficient computational methods for determining the bound state energies and eigenfunctions of such systems. The perturbed harmonic oscillator problem is characterized by a long asymptotic region beyond the effective range of the interatomic potential. The first method, which is based on quantum defect theory and is an adaptation of a technique developed by one of the authors (G.P.) for highly excited states in a modified Coulomb potential, is very efficient for integrating through this outer region. The second method is a direct numerical solution of the radial Schroedinger equation using a discrete variable representation of the kinetic energy operator and a scaled radial coordinate grid. The methods are applied to the case of trapped spin-polarized metastable helium atoms. The calculated eigenvalues agree very closely for the two methods, and with the eigenvalues computed using the generalized self-consistent method.

  1. Observation of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in the Hubbard Model with Ultracold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulet, Randall

    2015-03-01

    Ultracold atoms on optical lattices form a versatile platform for studying many-body physics, with the potential of addressing some of the most important issues in strongly correlated matter. Progress, however, has been stymied by an inability to create sufficiently low temperatures in an optical lattice. In this talk, I will present our experimental results on the characterization of the three-dimensional Hubbard model near half-filling, realized using two spin-states of fermionic atomic lithium (6Li). We have developed a compensated optical lattice that has enabled, for the first time, the achievement of temperatures that are below the tunneling energy, t. We use in-situ imaging to extract the central density of the gas, and to determine its local compressibility. For intermediate to strong interactions, we observe the emergence of a density plateau and a reduction of the compressibility, indicative of the formation of a Mott insulator. Comparisons to state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the Hubbard model over a wide range of interactions set an upper limit for the temperature T < t. The Hubbard model is known to exhibit antiferromagnetism at temperatures below the Néel temperature TN. We have detected antiferromagnetic correlations in this system by spin-sensitive Bragg scattering of light. We deduce the temperature of the atoms in the lattice by comparing the light scattering to determinantal quantum Monte Carlo and numerical linked-cluster expansion calculations to find that T / t = 0 . 51 +/- 0 . 06 , corresponding to 1 . 4TN. Further refinement of the compensated lattice may produce even lower temperatures which, along with light scattering thermometry, have important implications for achieving other novel quantum states of matter. Supported by DARPA/ARO, ONR, NSF.

  2. Temperature dependence of elastic constants of embedded-atom models of palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Ralph J.; Mansour, Khalid A.; Lee, Myung W.; Ray, John R.

    1992-10-01

    The elastic constants of fcc palladium are calculated as a function of temperature for four different embedded-atom-method (EAM) models and compared to experimental values. Two of these EAM models have been derived by other workers whereas two of the models are new. Because of the elastic anomaly near 120 K, in the shear constant C44 of Pd, the use of this zero-temperature elastic constant to determine the Pd EAM potential leads to errors in the calculated C44 above the Debye temperature of 280 K where the potentials are to be used. To correct this behavior we determine the EAM potential in the two new EAM models so that C44 is in much better agreement with the experimental value above the Debye temperature. Interestingly in both of these new models the melting temperature is significantly higher and in better agreement with the experimental value of 1825 K. One of our models uses a conventional EAM third-neighbor interaction model whereas our other model is a fifth-neighbor interaction model.

  3. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Jan B; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter; Bottaro, Sandro; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Frellsen, Jes; Mardia, Kanti V; Tian, Pengfei; Hamelryck, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length scale, which concern the dihedral angles in main chain and side chains, respectively. Conceptually, this constitutes a probabilistic and continuous alternative to the use of discrete fragment and rotamer libraries. The local model is combined with a nonlocal model that involves a small number of energy terms according to a physical force field, and some information on the overall secondary structure content. In this initial study we focus on the formulation of the joint model and the evaluation of the use of an energy vector as a descriptor of a protein's nonlocal structure; hence, we derive the parameters of the nonlocal model from the native structure without loss of generality. The local and nonlocal models are combined using the reference ratio method, which is a well-justified probabilistic construction. For evaluation, we use the resulting joint models to predict the structure of four proteins. The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications.

  4. Ab Initio Atom-Atom Potentials Using CamCASP: Theory and Application to Many-Body Models for the Pyridine Dimer.

    PubMed

    Misquitta, Alston J; Stone, Anthony J

    2016-09-13

    Creating accurate, analytic atom-atom potentials for small organic molecules from first principles can be a time-consuming and computationally intensive task, particularly if we also require them to include explicit polarization terms, which are essential in many systems. We describe how the CamCASP suite of programs can be used to generate such potentials using some of the most accurate electronic structure methods currently applicable. We derive the long-range terms from monomer properties and determine the short-range anisotropy parameters by a novel and robust method based on the iterated stockholder atom approach. Using these techniques, we develop distributed multipole models for the electrostatic, polarization, and dispersion interactions in the pyridine dimer and develop a series of many-body potentials for the pyridine system. Even the simplest of these potentials exhibits root mean square errors of only about 0.6 kJ mol(-1) for the low-energy pyridine dimers, significantly surpassing the best empirical potentials. Our best model is shown to support eight stable minima, four of which have not been reported before in the literature. Further, the functional form can be made systematically more elaborate so as to improve the accuracy without a significant increase in the human-time spent in their generation. We investigate the effects of anisotropy, rank of multipoles, and choice of polarizability and dispersion models.

  5. Ab Initio Atom-Atom Potentials Using CamCASP: Theory and Application to Many-Body Models for the Pyridine Dimer.

    PubMed

    Misquitta, Alston J; Stone, Anthony J

    2016-09-13

    Creating accurate, analytic atom-atom potentials for small organic molecules from first principles can be a time-consuming and computationally intensive task, particularly if we also require them to include explicit polarization terms, which are essential in many systems. We describe how the CamCASP suite of programs can be used to generate such potentials using some of the most accurate electronic structure methods currently applicable. We derive the long-range terms from monomer properties and determine the short-range anisotropy parameters by a novel and robust method based on the iterated stockholder atom approach. Using these techniques, we develop distributed multipole models for the electrostatic, polarization, and dispersion interactions in the pyridine dimer and develop a series of many-body potentials for the pyridine system. Even the simplest of these potentials exhibits root mean square errors of only about 0.6 kJ mol(-1) for the low-energy pyridine dimers, significantly surpassing the best empirical potentials. Our best model is shown to support eight stable minima, four of which have not been reported before in the literature. Further, the functional form can be made systematically more elaborate so as to improve the accuracy without a significant increase in the human-time spent in their generation. We investigate the effects of anisotropy, rank of multipoles, and choice of polarizability and dispersion models. PMID:27467814

  6. A Strongly-Coupled Average Atom Model for Warm Dense Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Liam; Murillo, Michael; Cimarron Project Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    We present a new average atom model to determine the properties of dense, multi-component plasmas. Strong ion correlations are taken into account through the quantum Ornstein-Zernike relations and hypernetted-chain closures, while an orbital-free density functional theory is employed to calculate electronic structure. The formalism is derived without reference to a mean ionization state of the system which allows for a more consistent generalization to mixtures. Applications to EOS and XRTS are discussed, and numerical simulations are compared with other methods and experimental data. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Model for atomic oxygen visible line emissions in Comet C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuram, Susarla; Bhardwaj, Anil

    2013-03-01

    We have recently developed a coupled chemistry-emission model for the green (5577 Å) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Å) emissions of atomic oxygen on Comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. In the present work we applied our model to Comet C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp, which had an order of magnitude higher H2O production rate than Comet Hyakutake, to evaluate the photochemistry associated with the production and loss of O(1S) and O(1D) atoms and emission processes of green and red-doublet lines. We present the wavelength-dependent photo-attenuation rates for different photodissociation processes forming O(1S) and O(1D). The calculated radiative efficiency profiles of O(1S) and O(1D) atoms show that in Comet Hale-Bopp the green and red-doublet emissions are emitted mostly above radial distances of 103 and 104 km, respectively. The model calculated [OI] 6300 Å emission surface brightness and average intensity over the Fabry-Pérot spectrometer field of view are consistent with the observation of Morgenthaler et al. (Morgenthaler, J.P. et al. [2001]. Astrophys. J. 563, 451-461), while the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet emission is in agreement with the observation of Zhang et al. (Zhang, H.W., Zhao, G., Hu, J.Y. [2001]. Astron. Astophys. 367 (3), 1049-1055). In Comet Hale-Bopp, for cometocentric distances less than 105 km, the intensity of [OI] 6300 Å line is mainly governed by photodissociation of H2O. Beyond 105 km, O(1D) production is dominated by photodissociation of the water photochemical daughter product OH. Whereas the [OI] 5577 Å emission line is controlled by photodissociation of both H2O and CO2. The calculated mean excess energy in various photodissociation processes show that the photodissociation of CO2 can produce O(1S) atoms with higher excess velocity compared to the photodissociation of H2O. Thus, our model calculations suggest that involvement of multiple sources in the formation of O(1S) could be a reason for the larger width of green line than that of red

  8. Kinetic modeling of α-hydrogen abstractions from unsaturated and saturated oxygenate compounds by hydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos G; Marin, Guy B

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen-abstraction reactions play a significant role in thermal biomass conversion processes, as well as regular gasification, pyrolysis, or combustion. In this work, a group additivity model is constructed that allows prediction of reaction rates and Arrhenius parameters of hydrogen abstractions by hydrogen atoms from alcohols, ethers, esters, peroxides, ketones, aldehydes, acids, and diketones in a broad temperature range (300-2000 K). A training set of 60 reactions was developed with rate coefficients and Arrhenius parameters calculated by the CBS-QB3 method in the high-pressure limit with tunneling corrections using Eckart tunneling coefficients. From this set of reactions, 15 group additive values were derived for the forward and the reverse reaction, 4 referring to primary and 11 to secondary contributions. The accuracy of the model is validated upon an ab initio and an experimental validation set of 19 and 21 reaction rates, respectively, showing that reaction rates can be predicted with a mean factor of deviation of 2 for the ab initio and 3 for the experimental values. Hence, this work illustrates that the developed group additive model can be reliably applied for the accurate prediction of kinetics of α-hydrogen abstractions by hydrogen atoms from a broad range of oxygenates. PMID:25209711

  9. An All-Atom Model of the Structure of Human Copper Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Sharikov, Yuriy; Greenberg, Jerry P.; Miller, Mark A.; Kouznetsova, Valentina L.; Larson, Christopher A.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) is the major high affinity copper influx transporter in mammalian cells that also mediates uptake of the cancer chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. A low resolution structure of hCTR1 determined by cryoelectron microscopy was recently published. Several protein structure simulation techniques were used to create an all-atom model of this important transporter using the low resolution structure as a starting point. The all-atom model provides new insights into the roles of specific residues of the N-terminal extracellular domain, the intracellular loop, and C-terminal region in metal ion transport. In particular, the model demonstrates that the central region of the pore contains four sets of methionine triads in the intramembranous region. The structure confirms that two triads of methionine residues delineate the intramembranous region of the transporter, and further identifies two additional methionine triads that are located in the extracellular N-terminal part of the transporter. Together, the four triads create a structure that promotes stepwise transport of metal ions into and then through the intramembranous channel of the transporter via transient thioether bonds to methionine residues. Putative copper-binding sites in the hCTR1 trimer were identified by a program developed by us for prediction of metal-binding sites. These sites correspond well with the known effects of mutations on the ability of the protein to transport copper and cisplatin. PMID:22569840

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Damage Processes in fcc Aluminum: From Atoms to Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Saether, E.; Yamakov, V.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) methods are opening new opportunities for simulating the fundamental processes of material behavior at the atomistic level. However, current analysis is limited to small domains and increasing the size of the MD domain quickly presents intractable computational demands. A preferred approach to surmount this computational limitation has been to combine continuum mechanics-based modeling procedures, such as the finite element method (FEM), with MD analyses thereby reducing the region of atomic scale refinement. Such multiscale modeling strategies can be divided into two broad classifications: concurrent multiscale methods that directly incorporate an atomistic domain within a continuum domain and sequential multiscale methods that extract an averaged response from the atomistic simulation for later use as a constitutive model in a continuum analysis.

  11. Transport and dielectric properties of dense ionized matter from the average-atom RESEOS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovechkin, A. A.; Loboda, P. A.; Falkov, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Electron transport properties of warm and hot dense matter are calculated using two versions of the average-atom approach: Liberman's model and the neutral Wigner-Seitz-sphere model. Electrical conductivity calculations employed the extended Ziman formula, the relaxation-time approximation, the Zubarev method, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula. Thermal conductivities were evaluated in the relaxation-time approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data and ab initio calculations. The origin of nonphysical features appearing in the DC electrical and thermal conductivities calculated with the relaxation-time approximation and the Zubarev method is analyzed. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of dense ionized matter are obtained from the radiative opacity data calculated using the RESEOS model.

  12. Atomic quantum simulation of the lattice gauge-Higgs model: Higgs couplings and emergence of exact local gauge symmetry.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo

    2013-09-13

    Recently, the possibility of quantum simulation of dynamical gauge fields was pointed out by using a system of cold atoms trapped on each link in an optical lattice. However, to implement exact local gauge invariance, fine-tuning the interaction parameters among atoms is necessary. In the present Letter, we study the effect of violation of the U(1) local gauge invariance by relaxing the fine-tuning of the parameters and showing that a wide variety of cold atoms is still a faithful quantum simulator for a U(1) gauge-Higgs model containing a Higgs field sitting on sites. The clarification of the dynamics of this gauge-Higgs model sheds some light upon various unsolved problems, including the inflation process of the early Universe. We study the phase structure of this model by Monte Carlo simulation and also discuss the atomic characteristics of the Higgs phase in each simulator.

  13. Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of natural and model soil particles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S; Bryant, R; Doerr, S H; Rhodri Williams, P; Wright, C J

    2008-09-01

    The structure and surface chemistry of soil particles has extensive impact on many bulk scale properties and processes of soil systems and consequently the environments that they support. There are a number of physiochemical mechanisms that operate at the nanoscale which affect the soil's capability to maintain native vegetation and crops; this includes soil hydrophobicity and the soil's capacity to hold water and nutrients. The present study used atomic force microscopy in a novel approach to provide unique insight into the nanoscale properties of natural soil particles that control the physiochemical interaction of material within the soil column. There have been few atomic force microscopy studies of soil, perhaps a reflection of the heterogeneous nature of the system. The present study adopted an imaging and force measurement research strategy that accounted for the heterogeneity and used model systems to aid interpretation. The surface roughness of natural soil particles increased with depth in the soil column a consequence of the attachment of organic material within the crevices of the soil particles. The roughness root mean square calculated from ten 25 microm(2) images for five different soil particles from a Netherlands soil was 53.0 nm, 68.0 nm, 92.2 nm and 106.4 nm for the respective soil depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm. A novel analysis method of atomic force microscopy phase images based on phase angle distribution across a surface was used to interpret the nanoscale distribution of organic material attached to natural and model soil particles. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of model surfaces were found to be bimodal, indicating multiple layers of material, which changed with the concentration of adsorbed humic acid. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of natural soil particles indicated a trend of decreasing surface coverage with increasing depth in the soil column. This was consistent with

  14. Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine infrared CH intensities of hydrocarbons: a quantum theory of atoms in molecules model.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arnaldo F; Richter, Wagner E; Meneses, Helen G C; Bruns, Roy E

    2014-11-14

    Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine most of the infrared fundamental CH intensities of simple hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene, ethane, propyne, cyclopropane and allene. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules/charge-charge flux-dipole flux model predicted the values of 30 CH intensities ranging from 0 to 123 km mol(-1) with a root mean square (rms) error of only 4.2 km mol(-1) without including a specific equilibrium atomic charge term. Sums of the contributions from terms involving charge flux and/or dipole flux averaged 20.3 km mol(-1), about ten times larger than the average charge contribution of 2.0 km mol(-1). The only notable exceptions are the CH stretching and bending intensities of acetylene and two of the propyne vibrations for hydrogens bound to sp hybridized carbon atoms. Calculations were carried out at four quantum levels, MP2/6-311++G(3d,3p), MP2/cc-pVTZ, QCISD/6-311++G(3d,3p) and QCISD/cc-pVTZ. The results calculated at the QCISD level are the most accurate among the four with root mean square errors of 4.7 and 5.0 km mol(-1) for the 6-311++G(3d,3p) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. These values are close to the estimated aggregate experimental error of the hydrocarbon intensities, 4.0 km mol(-1). The atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effect is much larger than the charge effect for the results of all four quantum levels. Charge transfer-counter polarization effects are expected to also be important in vibrations of more polar molecules for which equilibrium charge contributions can be large.

  15. Atomic models of de novo designed cc beta-Met amyloid-like fibrils.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Michel O; Gattin, Zrinka; Verel, Rene; Ciani, Barbara; Stromer, Thusnelda; Green, Janelle M; Tittmann, Peter; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Gross, Heinz; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Meier, Beat H; Serpell, Louise C; Müller, Shirley A; Kammerer, Richard A

    2008-02-22

    The common characteristics of amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils from disease- and non-disease-associated proteins offer the prospect that well-defined model systems can be used to systematically dissect the driving forces of amyloid formation. We recently reported the de novo designed cc beta peptide model system that forms a native-like coiled-coil structure at low temperatures and which can be switched to amyloid-like fibrils by increasing the temperature. Here, we report a detailed molecular description of the system in its fibrillar state by characterizing the cc beta-Met variant using several microscopic techniques, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and molecular dynamics calculations. We show that cc beta-Met forms amyloid-like fibrils of different morphologies on both the macroscopic and atomic levels, which can be controlled by variations of assembly conditions. Interestingly, heterogeneity is also observed along single fibrils. We propose atomic models of the cc beta-Met amyloid-like fibril, which are in good agreement with all experimental data. The models provide a rational explanation why oxidation of methionine residues completely abolishes cc beta-Met amyloid fibril formation, indicating that a small number of site-specific hydrophobic interactions can play a major role in the packing of polypeptide-chain segments within amyloid fibrils. The detailed structural information available for the cc beta model system provides a strong molecular basis for understanding the influence and relative contribution of hydrophobic interactions on native-state stability, kinetics of fibril formation, fibril packing, and polymorphism.

  16. A cluster expansion model for predicting activation barrier of atomic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehman, Tafizur; Jaipal, M.; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2013-06-15

    We introduce a procedure based on cluster expansion models for predicting the activation barrier of atomic processes encountered while studying the dynamics of a material system using the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method. Starting with an interatomic potential description, a mathematical derivation is presented to show that the local environment dependence of the activation barrier can be captured using cluster interaction models. Next, we develop a systematic procedure for training the cluster interaction model on-the-fly, which involves: (i) obtaining activation barriers for handful local environments using nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations, (ii) identifying the local environment by analyzing the NEB results, and (iii) estimating the cluster interaction model parameters from the activation barrier data. Once a cluster expansion model has been trained, it is used to predict activation barriers without requiring any additional NEB calculations. Numerical studies are performed to validate the cluster expansion model by studying hop processes in Ag/Ag(100). We show that the use of cluster expansion model with KMC enables efficient generation of an accurate process rate catalog.

  17. Learning about Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds: A Case Study of Multiple-Model Use in Grade 11 Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allan G.; Treagust, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Reports in detail on a year-long case study of multiple-model use at grade 11. Suggests that students who socially negotiated the shared and unshared attributes of common analogical models for atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds used these models more consistently in their explanations. (Author/CCM)

  18. Ion-reversibility studies in amorphous solids using the two-atom scattering model. [Rutherford backscattering from disordered solids

    SciTech Connect

    Oen, O.S.

    1981-06-01

    An analytical two-atom scattering model has been developed to treat the recent discovery of the enhancement near 180/sup 0/ of Rutherford backscattering yields from disordered solids. In contrast to conventional calculations of Rutherford backscattering that treat scattering from a single atom only (the backscattering atom), the present model includes the interaction of a second atom lying between the target surface and the backscattering plane. The projectile ion makes a glancing collision with this second atom both before and after it is backscattered. The model predicts an enhancement effect whose physical origin arises from the tolerance of path for those ions whose inward and outward trajectories lie in the vicinity of the critical impact parameter. Results using Moliere scattering show how the yield enhancement depends on ion energy, backscattering depth, exit angle, scattering potential, atomic numbers of the projectile and target, and target density. In the model the critical impact parameter and critical angle play important roles. It is shown that these quantities depend on a single dimensionless parameter and analytical expressions for them are given which are accurate to better than 1%.

  19. An analytic technique for statistically modeling random atomic clock errors in estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Minimum variance estimation requires that the statistics of random observation errors be modeled properly. If measurements are derived through the use of atomic frequency standards, then one source of error affecting the observable is random fluctuation in frequency. This is the case, for example, with range and integrated Doppler measurements from satellites of the Global Positioning and baseline determination for geodynamic applications. An analytic method is presented which approximates the statistics of this random process. The procedure starts with a model of the Allan variance for a particular oscillator and develops the statistics of range and integrated Doppler measurements. A series of five first order Markov processes is used to approximate the power spectral density obtained from the Allan variance.

  20. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa; Park, Hyung Gyu; Utke, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays.

  1. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, H. M.; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Fontes, C. J.; Perry, T. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Brown, C. R. D.; Morton, J. W.; Hager, J. D.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi6O12 at 75 mg/cm3 density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV Te range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for Te = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectral sensitivity to Te changes of ˜3 eV.

  2. 3D electron tomography of pretreated biomass informs atomic modeling of cellulose microfibrils.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Peter N; Matthews, James F; Tucker, Melvin P; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F; Himmel, Michael E; Donohoe, Bryon S

    2013-09-24

    Fundamental insights into the macromolecular architecture of plant cell walls will elucidate new structure-property relationships and facilitate optimization of catalytic processes that produce fuels and chemicals from biomass. Here we introduce computational methodology to extract nanoscale geometry of cellulose microfibrils within thermochemically treated biomass directly from electron tomographic data sets. We quantitatively compare the cell wall nanostructure in corn stover following two leading pretreatment strategies: dilute acid with iron sulfate co-catalyst and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). Computational analysis of the tomographic data is used to extract mathematical descriptions for longitudinal axes of cellulose microfibrils from which we calculate their nanoscale curvature. These nanostructural measurements are used to inform the construction of atomistic models that exhibit features of cellulose within real, process-relevant biomass. By computational evaluation of these atomic models, we propose relationships between the crystal structure of cellulose Iβ and the nanoscale geometry of cellulose microfibrils. PMID:23988022

  3. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays. PMID:24778944

  4. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa; Park, Hyung Gyu; Utke, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays. PMID:24778944

  5. Finite element modeling of atomic force microscopy cantilever dynamics during video rate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Howard-Knight, J. P.; Hobbs, J. K.

    2011-04-01

    A dynamic finite element model has been constructed to simulate the behavior of low spring constant atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers used for imaging at high speed without active feedback as in VideoAFM. The model is tested against experimental data collected at 20 frame/s and good agreement is found. The complex dynamics of the cantilever, consisting of traveling waves coming from the tip sample interaction, reflecting off the cantilever-substrate junction, and interfering with new waves created at the tip, are revealed. The construction of the image from this resulting nonequilibrium cantilever deflection is also examined. Transient tip-sample forces are found to reach values up to 260 nN on a calibration grid sample, and the maximum forces do not always correspond to the position of steepest features as a result of energy stored in the cantilever.

  6. Point defect dynamics in MOSFETs -- From atomic-scale physics to engineering models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2003-03-01

    Dopant impurities are the key ingredient that makes semiconductors so useful in microelectronics. Other point defects, e.g., vacancies and self-interstitial, play major roles in mediating diffusion, which can be both good and bad. Hydrogen is another element that is very useful in passivating point defects at the Si-SiO2 interface of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), but it also lurks dormant in all kinds of places. Oxygen vacancies also abound dormant and benign in the SiO2 gate layer, but both hydrogen and oxygen vacancies reveal sinister personas when radiation strikes (as in space electronics). This talk will give a brief account of how, over the last few decades, atomic-scale quantum mechanical calculations have impacted the process of constructing engineering models that are used in technology development and then focus on recent results on point defect dynamics in MOSFETs, some of which have been fed into engineering models.

  7. Modeling of the Deformation of Living Cells Induced by Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M; Baesu, E; Balhorn, R; Allen, M J; Belak, J

    2001-12-21

    We describe finite element modeling of the deformation of living cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells are soft systems, susceptible to large deformations in the course of an AFM measurement. Often the local properties, the subject of the measurement, are obscured by the response of the cell as a whole. The Lagrangian finite deformation model we have developed and implemented in finite elements analysis offers a solution to this problem. The effect of the gross deformation of the cell can be subtracted from the experimentally measured data in order to give a reproducible value for local properties. This facilitates concurrent experimental efforts to measure the mechanical properties at specific receptor sites on the membrane of a living cell.

  8. Refined Dummy Atom Model of Mg(2+) by Simple Parameter Screening Strategy with Revised Experimental Solvation Free Energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Haiyang; Feng, Wei; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-12-28

    Metal ions play an important role in the catalysis of metalloenzymes. To investigate metalloenzymes via molecular modeling, a set of accurate force field parameters for metal ions is highly imperative. To extend its application range and improve the performance, the dummy atom model of metal ions was refined through a simple parameter screening strategy using the Mg(2+) ion as an example. Using the AMBER ff03 force field with the TIP3P model, the refined model accurately reproduced the experimental geometric and thermodynamic properties of Mg(2+). Compared with point charge models and previous dummy atom models, the refined dummy atom model yields an enhanced performance for producing reliable ATP/GTP-Mg(2+)-protein conformations in three metalloenzyme systems with single or double metal centers. Similar to other unbounded models, the refined model failed to reproduce the Mg-Mg distance and favored a monodentate binding of carboxylate groups, and these drawbacks needed to be considered with care. The outperformance of the refined model is mainly attributed to the use of a revised (more accurate) experimental solvation free energy and a suitable free energy correction protocol. This work provides a parameter screening strategy that can be readily applied to refine the dummy atom models for metal ions.

  9. An atomic model of the tropomyosin cable on F-actin.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Marek; Li, Xiaochuan Edward; Fischer, Stefan; Lehman, William

    2014-08-01

    Tropomyosin regulates a wide variety of actin filament functions and is best known for the role that it plays together with troponin in controlling muscle activity. For effective performance on actin filaments, adjacent 42-nm-long tropomyosin molecules are joined together by a 9- to 10-residue head-to-tail overlapping domain to form a continuous cable that wraps around the F-actin helix. Yet, despite the apparent simplicity of tropomyosin's coiled-coil structure and its well-known periodic association with successive actin subunits along F-actin, the structure of the tropomyosin cable on actin is uncertain. This is because the conformation of the overlap region that joins neighboring molecules is poorly understood, thus leaving a significant gap in our understanding of thin-filament structure and regulation. However, recent molecular-dynamics simulations of overlap segments defined their overall shape and provided unique and sufficient cues to model the whole actin-tropomyosin filament assembly in atomic detail. In this study, we show that these MD structures merge seamlessly onto the ends of tropomyosin coiled-coils. Adjacent tropomyosin molecules can then be joined together to provide a comprehensive model of the tropomyosin cable running continuously on F-actin. The resulting complete model presented here describes for the first time (to our knowledge) an atomic-level structure of αα-striated muscle tropomyosin bound to an actin filament that includes the critical overlap domain. Thus, the model provides a structural correlate to evaluate thin-filament mechanics, self-assembly mechanisms, and the effect of disease-causing mutations.

  10. Modeling peptide mass fingerprinting data using the atomic composition of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gay, S; Binz, P A; Hochstrasser, D F; Appel, R D

    1999-12-01

    The peptide mass fingerprinting technique is commonly used for identifying proteins analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) after enzymatic digestion. Our goal is to build a theoretical model that predicts the mass spectra of such digestion products in order to improve the identification and characterization of proteins using this technique. We present here the first step towards a full MS model. We have modeled MS spectra using the atomic composition of peptides and evaluated the influence that this composition may have on the MS signals. Peptides deduced from the SWISS-PROT protein sequence database were used for the calculation. To validate the model, the variability of the peptide mass distribution in SWISS-PROT was compared to two theoretical, randomly generated databases. Functions have been built that describe the behavior of the isotopic distribution according to the mass of peptides. The variability of these functions was analyzed. In particular, the influence of sulfur was studied. This work, while representing only a first step in the construction of an MS model, yields immediate practical results, as the new isotopic distribution model significantly improves peak detection in MS spectra used by protein identification algorithms.

  11. Mathematical Model of the Information Factor of the Evolution of the Lemaitre-Friedmann Primordial Atoms in Superspace-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasukov, V. V.; Rozhkova, S. V.; Abdrashitova, M. O.; Il'kin, E. E.; Novoselov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the regular growth of the population of an aggregation of the Lemaitre-Friedmann primordial atoms has been investigated. It is analytically shown that there exists an asymptotic limit to the growth of the population of an aggregation of primordial atoms / galaxies. The nonlinear model, developed in this paper, of the information factor of the evolution of these primordial atoms can find wide application in biology, biological electronics, synthetic biology, in the mathematical history of the driving force of the noosphere, in cosmology, and in other areas of science and technology.

  12. Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph J

    2009-08-07

    This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have: Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2]. Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas. Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables. Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies. Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP. Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments. Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments. Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output. Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP. Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for

  13. Transferable aspherical atom model refinement of protein and DNA structures against ultrahigh-resolution X-ray data.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to the independent-atom model (IAM), in which all atoms are assumed to be spherical and neutral, the transferable aspherical atom model (TAAM) takes into account the deformed valence charge density resulting from chemical bond formation and the presence of lone electron pairs. Both models can be used to refine small and large molecules, e.g. proteins and nucleic acids, against ultrahigh-resolution X-ray diffraction data. The University at Buffalo theoretical databank of aspherical pseudo-atoms has been used in the refinement of an oligopeptide, of Z-DNA hexamer and dodecamer duplexes, and of bovine trypsin. The application of the TAAM to these data improves the quality of the electron-density maps and the visibility of H atoms. It also lowers the conventional R factors and improves the atomic displacement parameters and the results of the Hirshfeld rigid-bond test. An additional advantage is that the transferred charge density allows the estimation of Coulombic interaction energy and electrostatic potential.

  14. Atomic Resolution Modeling of the Ferredoxin:[FeFe] Hydrogenase Complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C. H.; King, P. W.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Kim, K.

    2007-11-01

    The [FeFe] hydrogenases HydA1 and HydA2 in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii catalyze the final reaction in a remarkable metabolic pathway allowing this photosynthetic organism to produce H2 from water in the chloroplast. A [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin is a critical branch point in electron flow from Photosystem I toward a variety of metabolic fates, including proton reduction by hydrogenases. To better understand the binding determinants involved in ferredoxin:hydrogenase interactions, we have modeled Chlamydomonas PetF1 and HydA2 based on amino-acid sequence homology, and produced two promising electron-transfer model complexes by computational docking. To characterize these models, quantitative free energy calculations at atomic resolution were carried out, and detailed analysis of the interprotein interactions undertaken. The protein complex model we propose for ferredoxin:HydA2 interaction is energetically favored over the alternative candidate by 20kcal/mol. This proposed model of the electron-transfer complex between PetF1 and HydA2 permits a more detailed view of the molecular events leading up to H2 evolution, and suggests potential mutagenic strategies to modulate electron flow to HydA2.

  15. A computer code for calculations in the algebraic collective model of the atomic nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, T. A.; Rowe, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    A Maple code is presented for algebraic collective model (ACM) calculations. The ACM is an algebraic version of the Bohr model of the atomic nucleus, in which all required matrix elements are derived by exploiting the model's SU(1 , 1) × SO(5) dynamical group. This paper reviews the mathematical formulation of the ACM, and serves as a manual for the code. The code enables a wide range of model Hamiltonians to be analysed. This range includes essentially all Hamiltonians that are rational functions of the model's quadrupole moments qˆM and are at most quadratic in the corresponding conjugate momenta πˆN (- 2 ≤ M , N ≤ 2). The code makes use of expressions for matrix elements derived elsewhere and newly derived matrix elements of the operators [ π ˆ ⊗ q ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] 0 and [ π ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] LM. The code is made efficient by use of an analytical expression for the needed SO(5)-reduced matrix elements, and use of SO(5) ⊃ SO(3)  Clebsch-Gordan coefficients obtained from precomputed data files provided with the code.

  16. Comparison of thermodynamic properties of coarse-grained and atomic-level simulation models.

    PubMed

    Baron, Riccardo; Trzesniak, Daniel; de Vries, Alex H; Elsener, Andreas; Marrink, Siewert J; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2007-02-19

    Thermodynamic data are often used to calibrate or test amomic-level (AL) force fields for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In contrast, the majority of coarse-grained (CG) force fields do not rely extensively on thermodynamic quantities. Recently, a CG force field for lipids, hydrocarbons, ions, and water, in which approximately four non-hydrogen atoms are mapped onto one interaction site, has been proposed and applied to study various aspects of lipid systems. To date, no extensive investigation of its capability to describe salvation thermodynamics has been undertaken. In the present study, a detailed picture of vaporization, solvation, and phase-partitioning thermodynamics for liquid hydrocarbons and water was obtained at CG and AL resolutions, in order to compare the two types or models and evaluate their ability to describe thermodynamic properties in the temperature range between 263 and 343 K. Both CG and AL models capture the experimental dependence of the thermodynamic properties on the temperature, albeit a systematically weaker dependence is found for the CG model. Moreover, deviations are found for solvation thermodynamics and for the corresponding enthalpy-entropy compensation for the CG model. Particularly water/oil repulsion seems to be overestimated. However, the results suggest that the thermodynamic properties considered should be reproducible by a CG model provided it is reparametrized on the basis of these liquid-phase properties.

  17. A computer code for calculations in the algebraic collective model of the atomic nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, T. A.; Rowe, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    A Maple code is presented for algebraic collective model (ACM) calculations. The ACM is an algebraic version of the Bohr model of the atomic nucleus, in which all required matrix elements are derived by exploiting the model's SU(1 , 1) × SO(5) dynamical group. This paper reviews the mathematical formulation of the ACM, and serves as a manual for the code. The code enables a wide range of model Hamiltonians to be analysed. This range includes essentially all Hamiltonians that are rational functions of the model's quadrupole moments qˆM and are at most quadratic in the corresponding conjugate momenta πˆN (- 2 ≤ M , N ≤ 2). The code makes use of expressions for matrix elements derived elsewhere and newly derived matrix elements of the operators [ π ˆ ⊗ q ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] 0 and [ π ˆ ⊗ π ˆ ] LM. The code is made efficient by use of an analytical expression for the needed SO(5)-reduced matrix elements, and use of SO(5) ⊃ SO(3) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients obtained from precomputed data files provided with the code.

  18. Non-local correlation and quantum discord in two atoms in the non-degenerate model

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.-B.A.

    2012-12-15

    By using geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN), quantum correlation is investigated for two atoms in the non-degenerate two-photon Tavis-Cummings model. It is shown that there is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. The evolvement period of quantum correlation gets shorter with the increase in the dipole-dipole parameter. It is found that there exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also quantum nonlocality without quantum discord. Also, the MIN and GQD are raised rather than entanglement, and also with weak initial entanglement, there are MIN and entanglement in a interval of death quantum discord. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) are used to investigate the correlations of two two-level atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also without discord. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak initial entanglement leads to MIN and entanglement in intervals of death discord.

  19. How Sommerfeld extended Bohr's model of the atom (1913-1916)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Sommerfeld's extension of Bohr's atomic model was motivated by the quest for a theory of the Zeeman and Stark effects. The crucial idea was that a spectral line is made up of coinciding frequencies which are decomposed in an applied field. In October 1914 Johannes Stark had published the results of his experimental investigation on the splitting of spectral lines in hydrogen (Balmer lines) in electric fields, which showed that the frequency of each Balmer line becomes decomposed into a multiplet of frequencies. The number of lines in such a decomposition grows with the index of the line in the Balmer series. Sommerfeld concluded from this observation that the quantization in Bohr's model had to be altered in order to allow for such decompositions. He outlined this idea in a lecture in winter 1914/15, but did not publish it. The First World War further delayed its elaboration. When Bohr published new results in autumn 1915, Sommerfeld finally developed his theory in a provisional form in two memoirs which he presented in December 1915 and January 1916 to the Bavarian Academy of Science. In July 1916 he published the refined version in the Annalen der Physik. The focus here is on the preliminary Academy memoirs whose rudimentary form is better suited for a historical approach to Sommerfeld's atomic theory than the finished Annalen-paper. This introductory essay reconstructs the historical context (mainly based on Sommerfeld's correspondence). It will become clear that the extension of Bohr's model did not emerge in a singular stroke of genius but resulted from an evolving process.

  20. Tools for Model Building and Optimization into Near-Atomic Resolution Electron Cryo-Microscopy Density Maps.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, F; Chiu, W

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) has advanced dramatically to become a viable tool for high-resolution structural biology research. The ultimate outcome of a cryoEM study is an atomic model of a macromolecule or its complex with interacting partners. This chapter describes a variety of algorithms and software to build a de novo model based on the cryoEM 3D density map, to optimize the model with the best stereochemistry restraints and finally to validate the model with proper protocols. The full process of atomic structure determination from a cryoEM map is described. The tools outlined in this chapter should prove extremely valuable in revealing atomic interactions guided by cryoEM data. PMID:27572730

  1. Tools for Model Building and Optimization into Near-Atomic Resolution Electron Cryo-Microscopy Density Maps.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, F; Chiu, W

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) has advanced dramatically to become a viable tool for high-resolution structural biology research. The ultimate outcome of a cryoEM study is an atomic model of a macromolecule or its complex with interacting partners. This chapter describes a variety of algorithms and software to build a de novo model based on the cryoEM 3D density map, to optimize the model with the best stereochemistry restraints and finally to validate the model with proper protocols. The full process of atomic structure determination from a cryoEM map is described. The tools outlined in this chapter should prove extremely valuable in revealing atomic interactions guided by cryoEM data.

  2. The Pre-Service Science Teachers' Mental Models for Concept of Atoms and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…

  3. Multiple scattering of matter waves: An analytic model of the refractive index for atomic and molecular gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2010-08-15

    We present an analytic model of the refractive index for matter waves propagating through atomic or molecular gases. The model, which combines the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) treatment of the long-range attraction with the Fraunhofer model treatment of the short-range repulsion, furnishes a refractive index in compelling agreement with recent experiments of Jacquey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240405 (2007)] on Li atom matter waves passing through dilute noble gases. We show that the diffractive contribution, which arises from scattering by a two-dimensional 'hard core' of the potential, is essential for obtaining a correct imaginary part of the refractive index.

  4. Is the Oxygen Atom Static or Dynamic? The Effect of Generating Animations on Students' Mental Models of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akaygun, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing the chemical structure and dynamics of particles has been challenging for many students; therefore, various visualizations and tools have been used in chemistry education. For science educators, it has been important to understand how students visualize and represent particular phenomena--i.e., their mental models-- to design more…

  5. Energetic neutral atom imaging with the Polar CEPPAD/IPS instrument: Initial forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Moore, K.R.; Spence, H.E.; Jorgensen, A.M.; Fennell, J.F.; Blake, J.B.; Roelof, E.C.

    1997-12-31

    Although the primary function of the CEP-PAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current, detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper, the authors present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  6. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging with the POLAR CEPPAD/ IPS Instrument : Initial Forward Modeling Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Moore, K. R.; Spence, H. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the primary function of the CEPPAD/IPS instrument on Polar is the measurement of energetic ions in-situ, it has also proven to be a very capable Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imager. Raw ENA images are currently being constructed on a routine basis with a temporal resolution of minutes during both active and quiet times. However, while analyses of these images by themselves provide much information on the spatial distribution and dynamics of the energetic ion population in the ring current. detailed modeling is required to extract the actual ion distributions. In this paper. we present the initial results of forward modeling an IPS ENA image obtained during a small geo-magnetic storm on June 9, 1997. The equatorial ion distribution inferred with this technique reproduces the expected large noon/midnight and dawn/dusk asymmetries. The limitations of the model are discussed and a number of modifications to the basic forward modeling technique are proposed which should significantly improve its performance in future studies.

  7. Atomic resolution model of the antibody Fc interaction with the complement C1q component.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sebastian; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-05-01

    The globular C1q heterotrimer is a subunit of the C1 complement factor. Binding of the C1q subunit to the constant (Fc) part of antibody molecules is a first step and key event of complement activation. Although three-dimensional structures of C1q and antibody Fc subunits have been determined experimentally no atomic resolution structure of the C1q-Fc complex is known so far. Based on systematic protein-protein docking searches and Molecular Dynamics simulations a structural model of the C1q-IgG1-Fc-binding geometry has been obtained. The structural model is compatible with available experimental data on the interaction between the two partner proteins. It predicts a binding geometry that involves mainly the B-subunit of the C1q-trimer and both subunits of the IgG1-Fc-dimer with small conformational adjustments with respect to the unbound partners to achieve high surface complementarity. In addition to several charge-charge and polar contacts in the rim region of the interface it also involves nonpolar contacts between the two proteins and is compatible with the carbohydrate moiety of the Fc subunit. The model for the complex structure provides a working model for rationalizing available biochemical data on this important interaction and can form the basis for the design of Fc variants with a greater capacity to activate the complement system for example on binding to cancer cells or other target structures.

  8. A model for energy transfer in collisions of atoms with highly excited molecules.

    PubMed

    Houston, Paul L; Conte, Riccardo; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-05-21

    A model for energy transfer in the collision between an atom and a highly excited target molecule has been developed on the basis of classical mechanics and turning point analysis. The predictions of the model have been tested against the results of trajectory calculations for collisions of five different target molecules with argon or helium under a variety of temperatures, collision energies, and initial rotational levels. The model predicts selected moments of the joint probability distribution, P(Jf,ΔE) with an R(2) ≈ 0.90. The calculation is efficient, in most cases taking less than one CPU-hour. The model provides several insights into the energy transfer process. The joint probability distribution is strongly dependent on rotational energy transfer and conservation laws and less dependent on vibrational energy transfer. There are two mechanisms for rotational excitation, one due to motion normal to the intermolecular potential and one due to motion tangential to it and perpendicular to the line of centers. Energy transfer is found to depend strongly on the intermolecular potential and only weakly on the intramolecular potential. Highly efficient collisions are a natural consequence of the energy transfer and arise due to collisions at "sweet spots" in the space of impact parameter and molecular orientation. PMID:25907301

  9. Kubo–Greenwood approach to conductivity in dense plasmas with average atom models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Starrett, C. E.

    2016-04-13

    In this study, a new formulation of the Kubo–Greenwood conductivity for average atom models is given. The new formulation improves upon previous treatments by explicitly including the ionic-structure factor. Calculations based on this new expression lead to much improved agreement with ab initio results for DC conductivity of warm dense hydrogen and beryllium, and for thermal conductivity of hydrogen. We also give and test a slightly modified Ziman–Evans formula for the resistivity that includes a non-free electron density of states, thus removing an ambiguity in the original Ziman–Evans formula. Again, results based on this expression are in good agreement withmore » ab initio simulations for warm dense beryllium and hydrogen. However, for both these expressions, calculations of the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum lead to poor agreement at low temperatures compared to ab initio simulations.« less

  10. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1. PMID:27417497

  11. Dislocation-stacking fault tetrahedron interaction: what can we learn from atomic scale modelling.

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Matsukawa, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    The high number density of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) observed in irradiated fcc metals suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, taken into account when estimating mechanical properties changes of irradiated materials. The central issue is describing the individual interaction between a moving dislocation and an SFT, which is characterized by a very fine size scale, {approx}100 nm. This scale is amenable to both in situ TEM experiments and large-scale atomic modelling. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of dislocation-SFT interactions using molecular dynamics (MD). The results are compared with observations from in situ deformation experiments. It is demonstrated that in some cases the simulations and experimental observations are quite similar, suggesting a reasonable interpretation of experimental observations.

  12. Kubo-Greenwood approach to conductivity in dense plasmas with average atom models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrett, C. E.

    2016-06-01

    A new formulation of the Kubo-Greenwood conductivity for average atom models is given. The new formulation improves upon previous treatments by explicitly including the ionic-structure factor. Calculations based on this new expression lead to much improved agreement with ab initio results for DC conductivity of warm dense hydrogen and beryllium, and for thermal conductivity of hydrogen. We also give and test a slightly modified Ziman-Evans formula for the resistivity that includes a non-free electron density of states, thus removing an ambiguity in the original Ziman-Evans formula. Again, results based on this expression are in good agreement with ab initio simulations for warm dense beryllium and hydrogen. However, for both these expressions, calculations of the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum lead to poor agreement at low temperatures compared to ab initio simulations.

  13. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Zhuang, Wei E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Yi Qin E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  14. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Gao, Yi Qin; Zhuang, Wei

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  15. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1.

  16. Atomic model of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Xu, Fengting; Liu, Jiasen; Gao, Bingquan; Liu, Yanxin; Zhai, Yujia; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Baker, Timothy S; Schulten, Klaus; Zheng, Dong; Pang, Hai; Sun, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease, first described in China in 1984, causes hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver. Its etiological agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), belongs to the Lagovirus genus in the family Caliciviridae. The detailed molecular structure of any lagovirus capsid has yet to be determined. Here, we report a cryo-electron microscopic (cryoEM) reconstruction of wild-type RHDV at 6.5 Å resolution and the crystal structures of the shell (S) and protruding (P) domains of its major capsid protein, VP60, each at 2.0 Å resolution. From these data we built a complete atomic model of the RHDV capsid. VP60 has a conserved S domain and a specific P2 sub-domain that differs from those found in other caliciviruses. As seen in the shell portion of the RHDV cryoEM map, which was resolved to ~5.5 Å, the N-terminal arm domain of VP60 folds back onto its cognate S domain. Sequence alignments of VP60 from six groups of RHDV isolates revealed seven regions of high variation that could be mapped onto the surface of the P2 sub-domain and suggested three putative pockets might be responsible for binding to histo-blood group antigens. A flexible loop in one of these regions was shown to interact with rabbit tissue cells and contains an important epitope for anti-RHDV antibody production. Our study provides a reliable, pseudo-atomic model of a Lagovirus and suggests a new candidate for an efficient vaccine that can be used to protect rabbits from RHDV infection.

  17. Electron, Atomic, and Radiation Kinetics in Plasma Discharge Lighting: Advanced Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, John L.

    2006-10-01

    Non-LTE discharges used in lighting sources provide an excellent testbed for understanding the interplay between plasma, atomic, and radiation physics. Standard models for the Hg fluorescent bulb include non-equilibrium kinetics for the species, but employ both a 0-D Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function (EDF) and Holstein's probability-of-escape for radiation transport. These assumptions overlook some of the more interesting, and challenging, aspects of plasma lighting. The radial ambipolar potential requires the inclusion of the spatial gradient term in the inhomogeneous electron Boltzmann equation. The resulting EDF is found to depend on both electron energy and radial position [1]. Advanced radiation transport techniques account for non-local photo-pumping, line overlap within the Hg resonance lines, and partial frequency redistribution [2]. The results of our completely coupled model match the observed spatial distribution of Hg excited states and the line-of-sight intensity [3]. Due to environmental initiatives there is also recent interest in non-Hg discharges for high intensity lighting. One example is an RF electrodeless Mo-O-Ar plasma discharge bulb which operates by recycling the emitting Mo with an O catalyst. Based on atomic physics calculations for Mo [4], the kinetic pathways leading to visible emission can be identified [5] and explain the measured lighting efficiency of ˜40 lumens/watt of supplied power.[1] J. Appl. Phys., 94, p.62, 2003. [2] Plasma Sources Sci. Tech., 14, p.236, 2005. [3] J. Phys. D., 38, p.4180, 2005. [4] New J. Physics, 6, p.145, 2004. [5] J. Appl. Phys., 95, p.5284, 2004.

  18. Modelling of 'sub-atomic' contrast resulting from back-bonding on Si(111)-7×7.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Adam; Jarvis, Samuel P; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that 'sub-atomic' contrast can be observed during NC-AFM imaging of the Si(111)-7×7 substrate with a passivated tip, resulting in triangular shaped atoms [Sweetman et al. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 2265]. The symmetry of the features, and the well-established nature of the dangling bond structure of the silicon adatom means that in this instance the contrast cannot arise from the orbital structure of the atoms, and it was suggested by simple symmetry arguments that the contrast could only arise from the backbonding symmetry of the surface adatoms. However, no modelling of the system has been performed in order to understand the precise origin of the contrast. In this paper we provide a detailed explanation for 'sub-atomic' contrast observed on Si(111)-7×7 using a simple model based on Lennard-Jones potentials, coupled with a flexible tip, as proposed by Hapala et al. [Phys. Rev. B 2014, 90, 085421] in the context of interpreting sub-molecular contrast. Our results show a striking similarity to experimental results, and demonstrate how 'sub-atomic' contrast can arise from a flexible tip exploring an asymmetric potential created due to the positioning of the surrounding surface atoms.

  19. Modelling of 'sub-atomic' contrast resulting from back-bonding on Si(111)-7×7.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Adam; Jarvis, Samuel P; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that 'sub-atomic' contrast can be observed during NC-AFM imaging of the Si(111)-7×7 substrate with a passivated tip, resulting in triangular shaped atoms [Sweetman et al. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 2265]. The symmetry of the features, and the well-established nature of the dangling bond structure of the silicon adatom means that in this instance the contrast cannot arise from the orbital structure of the atoms, and it was suggested by simple symmetry arguments that the contrast could only arise from the backbonding symmetry of the surface adatoms. However, no modelling of the system has been performed in order to understand the precise origin of the contrast. In this paper we provide a detailed explanation for 'sub-atomic' contrast observed on Si(111)-7×7 using a simple model based on Lennard-Jones potentials, coupled with a flexible tip, as proposed by Hapala et al. [Phys. Rev. B 2014, 90, 085421] in the context of interpreting sub-molecular contrast. Our results show a striking similarity to experimental results, and demonstrate how 'sub-atomic' contrast can arise from a flexible tip exploring an asymmetric potential created due to the positioning of the surrounding surface atoms. PMID:27547610

  20. Rovibrationally Inelastic Atom-Molecule Collision Cross Sections from a Hard Sphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashner, Jacob; Stewart, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Hard-shell models have long been used to elucidate the principal features of molecular energy transfer and exchange reaction in the A + BC system. Nevertheless, no three-dimensional hard-shell calculation of inelastic collision cross sections has been reported. This work aims to fill that void. A particular motivation comes from our experimental results, which show the importance of equatorial impacts in the vibrational excitation process. Working with the simple hard-sphere model, we incorporated secondary impacts, defined as those in which A strikes C after striking B. Such collisions are important in systems such as Li2 - X, in which vibrational energy transfer occurs principally through side impacts. We discuss the complexity this adds to the model and present fully three-dimensional cross sections for rovibrational excitation of an initially stationary molecule in the homonuclear A + B2 system, examining the cross section as a function of the masses and radii of the atoms. We show how the features in the cross section evolve as these parameters are varied and calculate the contribution of secondary (near-equatorial) impacts to the dynamics. We compare with recent measurements in our laboratory and with the results of quasiclassical trajectories.

  1. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-10-29

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson's ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers.

  2. An analytic model for accurate spring constant calibration of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang

    2015-01-01

    Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769

  3. Dynamic modeling and simulation of rough cylindrical micro/nanoparticle manipulation with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Korayem, Moharam H; Badkoobeh Hezaveh, Hedieh; Taheri, Moein

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the process of pushing rough cylindrical micro/nanoparticles on a surface with an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe is investigated. For this purpose, the mechanics of contact involving adhesion are studied first. Then, a method is presented for estimating the real area of contact between a rough cylindrical particle (whose surface roughness is described by the Rumpf and Rabinovich models) and a smooth surface. A dynamic model is then obtained for the pushing of rough cylindrical particles on a surface with an AFM probe. Afterwards, the process is simulated for different particle sizes and various roughness dimensions. Finally, by reducing the length of the cylindrical particle, the simulation condition is brought closer to the manipulation condition of a smooth spherical particle on a rough substrate, and the simulation results of the two cases are compared. Based on the simulation results, the critical force and time of manipulation diminish for rough particles relative to smooth ones. Reduction in the aspect ratio at a constant cross-section radius and the radius of asperities (height of asperities based on the Rabinovich model) results in an increase in critical force and time of manipulation.

  4. A robust all-atom model for LCAT generated by homology modeling.

    PubMed

    Segrest, Jere P; Jones, Martin K; Catte, Andrea; Thirumuruganandham, Saravana P

    2015-03-01

    LCAT is activated by apoA-I to form cholesteryl ester. We combined two structures, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of oxidized (short) acyl chains of phospholipid, and bacteriophage tubulin PhuZ, as C- and N-terminal templates, respectively, to create a novel homology model for human LCAT. The juxtaposition of multiple structural motifs matching experimental data is compelling evidence for the general correctness of many features of the model: i) The N-terminal 10 residues of the model, required for LCAT activity, extend the hydrophobic binding trough for the sn-2 chain 15-20 Å relative to PLA2. ii) The topography of the trough places the ester bond of the sn-2 chain less than 5 Å from the hydroxyl of the catalytic nucleophile, S181. iii) A β-hairpin resembling a lipase lid separates S181 from solvent. iv) S181 interacts with three functionally critical residues: E149, that regulates sn-2 chain specificity, and K128 and R147, whose mutations cause LCAT deficiency. Because the model provides a novel explanation for the complicated thermodynamic problem of the transfer of hydrophobic substrates from HDL to the catalytic triad of LCAT, it is an important step toward understanding the antiatherogenic role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:25589508

  5. Characterization of atomic-level structure in Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy by experimental and modeling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Rafał

    2015-09-15

    The atomic structure of Fe{sub 70}Nb{sub 10}B{sub 20} alloy in “as-cast” state and after annealing was investigated using high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM observations allowed to indicate some medium-range order (MRO) regions about 2 nm in size and formation of some kinds of short-range order (SRO) structures represented by atomic clusters with diameter ca. 0.5 nm. The Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method basing on the results of XRD measurements was used in modeling the atomic structure of Fe-based alloy. The structural model was described by peak values of partial pair correlation functions and coordination numbers determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations. The three-dimensional configuration box of atoms was obtained from the RMC simulation and the representative Fe-centered clusters were taken from the calculated structure. According to the Gonser et al. approach, the measured spectra of alloy studied were decomposed into 5 subspectra representing average Fe–Fe coordination numbers. Basing on the results of disaccommodation of magnetic permeability, which is sensitive to the short order of the random packing of atoms, it was stated that an occurrence of free volume is not detected after nanocrystallization process. - Highlights: • Atomic cluster model of amorphous structure was proposed for studied glassy alloy. • Short range order (ca. 0.5 nm) regions interpreted as clusters were identified by HREM. • Clusters correspond to coordination numbers (N = 4,6,8,9) calculated by using Gonser approach. • Medium-range order (ca. 2 nm) could be referred to few atomic clusters. • SRO regions are able to grow up as nuclei of crystalline bcc Fe and iron borides. • Crystalline particles have spherical morphology with an average diameter of 20 nm.

  6. Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : II. Atomic and Cluster Scale Models.

    SciTech Connect

    Lechman, Jeremy B.; Takato, Yoichi

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the interaction of aerosol particle clusters/flocs with surfaces is an area of interest for a number of processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, and powder manufacturing as well as in steam-tube rupture in nuclear power plants. Developing predictive capabilities for these applications involves coupled phenomena on multiple length and timescales from the process macroscopic scale ({approx}1m) to the multi-cluster interaction scale (1mm-0.1m) to the single cluster scale ({approx}1000 - 10000 particles) to the particle scale (10nm-10{micro}m) interactions, and on down to the sub-particle, atomic scale interactions. The focus of this report is on the single cluster scale; although work directed toward developing better models of particle-particle interactions by considering sub-particle scale interactions and phenomena is also described. In particular, results of mesoscale (i.e., particle to single cluster scale) discrete element method (DEM) simulations for aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls are presented. The particle-particle interaction model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular package in the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Additionally, as mentioned, results from atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations are also described as a means of developing higher fidelity models of particle-particle interactions. Ultimately, the results from these and other studies at various scales must be collated to provide systems level models with accurate 'sub-grid' information for design, analysis and control of the underlying systems processes.

  7. Modeling of adhesion in tablet compression - I. atomic force microscopy and molecular simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. J.; Li, T.; Bateman, S. D.; Erck, R.; Morris, K. R.; Energy Technology; Purdue Univ.; Novartis Pharmaceutical Corp.

    2003-04-01

    Adhesion problems during tablet manufacturing have been observed to be dependent on many formulation and process factors including the run time on the tablet press. Consequently, problems due to sticking may only become apparent towards the end of the development process when a prolonged run on the tablet press is attempted for the first time. It would be beneficial to predict in a relative sense if a formulation or new chemical entity has the potential for adhesion problems early in the development process. It was hypothesized that favorable intermolecular interaction between the drug molecules and the punch face is the first step or criterion in the adhesion process. Therefore, the rank order of adhesion during tablet compression should follow the rank order of these energies of interaction. The adhesion phenomenon was investigated using molecular simulations and contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three model compounds were chosen from a family of profen compounds. Silicon nitride AFM tips were modified by coating a 20-nm iron layer on the surfaces by sputter coating. Profen flat surfaces were made by melting and recrystallization. The modified AFM probe and each profen surface were immersed in the corresponding profen saturated water during force measurements using AFM. The work of adhesion between iron and ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and flurbiprofen in vacuum were determined to be -184.1, -2469.3, -17.3 mJ {center_dot} m-2, respectively. The rank order of the work of adhesion between iron and profen compounds decreased in the order: ketoprofen > ibuprofen > flurbiprofen. The rank order of interaction between the drug molecules and the iron superlattice as predicted by molecular simulation using Cerius2 is in agreement with the AFM measurements. It has been demonstrated that Atomic Force Microscopy is a powerful tool in studying the adhesion phenomena between organic drug compounds and metal surface. The study has provided insight into the adhesion problems

  8. Van der Waals interactions and the limits of isolated atom models at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S; Björkman, Torbjörn; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Björk, Jonas; Canova, Filippo Federici; Gade, Lutz H; Jung, Thomas A; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Van der Waals forces are among the weakest, yet most decisive interactions governing condensation and aggregation processes and the phase behaviour of atomic and molecular matter. Understanding the resulting structural motifs and patterns has become increasingly important in studies of the nanoscale regime. Here we measure the paradigmatic van der Waals interactions represented by the noble gas atom pairs Ar-Xe, Kr-Xe and Xe-Xe with a Xe-functionalized tip of an atomic force microscope at low temperature. Individual rare gas atoms were fixed at node sites of a surface-confined two-dimensional metal-organic framework. We found that the magnitude of the measured force increased with the atomic radius, yet detailed simulation by density functional theory revealed that the adsorption induced charge redistribution strengthened the van der Waals forces by a factor of up to two, thus demonstrating the limits of a purely atomic description of the interaction in these representative systems. PMID:27174162

  9. Van der Waals interactions and the limits of isolated atom models at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Björkman, Torbjörn; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Björk, Jonas; Canova, Filippo Federici; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-05-01

    Van der Waals forces are among the weakest, yet most decisive interactions governing condensation and aggregation processes and the phase behaviour of atomic and molecular matter. Understanding the resulting structural motifs and patterns has become increasingly important in studies of the nanoscale regime. Here we measure the paradigmatic van der Waals interactions represented by the noble gas atom pairs Ar-Xe, Kr-Xe and Xe-Xe with a Xe-functionalized tip of an atomic force microscope at low temperature. Individual rare gas atoms were fixed at node sites of a surface-confined two-dimensional metal-organic framework. We found that the magnitude of the measured force increased with the atomic radius, yet detailed simulation by density functional theory revealed that the adsorption induced charge redistribution strengthened the van der Waals forces by a factor of up to two, thus demonstrating the limits of a purely atomic description of the interaction in these representative systems.

  10. Van der Waals interactions and the limits of isolated atom models at interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Björkman, Torbjörn; Nowakowska, Sylwia; Björk, Jonas; Canova, Filippo Federici; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Van der Waals forces are among the weakest, yet most decisive interactions governing condensation and aggregation processes and the phase behaviour of atomic and molecular matter. Understanding the resulting structural motifs and patterns has become increasingly important in studies of the nanoscale regime. Here we measure the paradigmatic van der Waals interactions represented by the noble gas atom pairs Ar–Xe, Kr–Xe and Xe–Xe with a Xe-functionalized tip of an atomic force microscope at low temperature. Individual rare gas atoms were fixed at node sites of a surface-confined two-dimensional metal–organic framework. We found that the magnitude of the measured force increased with the atomic radius, yet detailed simulation by density functional theory revealed that the adsorption induced charge redistribution strengthened the van der Waals forces by a factor of up to two, thus demonstrating the limits of a purely atomic description of the interaction in these representative systems. PMID:27174162

  11. An atomic finite element model for biodegradable polymers. Part 1. Formulation of the finite elements.

    PubMed

    Gleadall, Andrew; Pan, Jingzhe; Ding, Lifeng; Kruft, Marc-Anton; Curcó, David

    2015-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to analyse materials at the atomic scale. However, MD has high computational demands, which may inhibit its use for simulations of structures involving large numbers of atoms such as amorphous polymer structures. An atomic-scale finite element method (AFEM) is presented in this study with significantly lower computational demands than MD. Due to the reduced computational demands, AFEM is suitable for the analysis of Young's modulus of amorphous polymer structures. This is of particular interest when studying the degradation of bioresorbable polymers, which is the topic of an accompanying paper. AFEM is derived from the inter-atomic potential energy functions of an MD force field. The nonlinear MD functions were adapted to enable static linear analysis. Finite element formulations were derived to represent interatomic potential energy functions between two, three and four atoms. Validation of the AFEM was conducted through its application to atomic structures for crystalline and amorphous poly(lactide).

  12. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien; Li, Tao; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-15

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  13. Atomic imaging and modeling of passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation of the SiGe(001) surface via H2O2(g) and trimethylaluminum dosing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman-Osborn, Tobin; Chagarov, Evgueni A.; Park, Sang Wook; Sahu, Bhagawan; Siddiqui, Shariq; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-12-01

    Passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition (ALD) via H2O2(g) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) dosing were studied on the clean Si0.6Ge0.4(001) surface at the atomic level using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Chemical analysis of the surface was performed with in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) while density functional theory (DFT) was employed to model the bonding of H2O2(g) chemisorbates to the substrate. A room temperature saturation dose of H2O2(g) covers the surface with a monolayer of sbnd OH and sbnd O chemisorbates. XPS and DFT demonstrate that the room temperature H2O2/SiGe surface is composed of only Gesbnd OH and Gesbnd O bonds while annealing induces an atomic layer exchange bringing Si to the surface to bond with sbnd OH or sbnd O while pushing Ge subsurface. The resulting Sisbnd OH and Sisbnd O surface is optimal because it can be used to nucleate high-k ALD and Si dangling bonds are readily passivated by forming gas. After H2O2(g) functionalization, TMA dosing, and a subsequent 230 °C anneal, ordering along the dimer row direction is observed on the surface. STS verifies that the TMA/H2O2/SiGe surface has an unpinned Fermi level with no states in the band gap demonstrating the ability to serve as an ideal template for further high-k deposition.

  14. NMR provides checklist of generic properties for atomic-scale models of periodic mesoporous silicas.

    PubMed

    Shenderovich, Ilja G; Mauder, Daniel; Akcakayiran, Dilek; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2007-10-25

    MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas were studied by (29)Si solid-state NMR and (15)N NMR in the presence of (15)N-pyridine with the aim to formulate generic structural parameters that may be used as a checklist for atomic-scale structural models of this class of ordered mesoporous materials. High-quality MCM-41 silica constitutes quasi-ideal arrays of uniform-size pores with thin pore walls, while SBA-15 silica has thicker pore walls with framework and surface defects. The numbers of silanol (Q(3)) and silicate (Q(4)) groups were found to be in the ratio of about 1:3 for MCM-41 and about 1:4 for our SBA-15 materials. Combined with the earlier finding that the density of surface silanol groups is about three per nm(2) in MCM-41 (Shenderovich, et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 11924) this allows us to discriminate between different atomic-scale models of these materials. Neither tridymite nor edingtonite meet both of these requirements. On the basis of the hexagonal pore shape model, the experimental Q(3):Q(4) ratio yields a wall thickness of about 0.95 nm for MCM-41 silica, corresponding to the width of ca. four silica tetrahedra. The arrangement of Q(3) groups at the silica surfaces was analyzed using postsynthesis surface functionalization. It was found that the number of covalent bonds to the surface formed by the functional reagents is affected by the surface morphology. It is concluded that for high-quality MCM-41 silicas the distance between neighboring surface silanol groups is greater than 0.5 nm. As a result, di- and tripodical reagents like (CH(3))(2)Si(OH)(2) and CH(3)Si(OH)(3) can form only one covalent bond to the surface. The residual hydroxyl groups of surface-bonded functional reagents either remain free or interact with other reagent molecules. Accordingly, the number of surface silanol groups at a given MCM-41 or SBA-15 silica may not decrease but increase after treatment with CH(3)Si(OH)(3) reagent. On the other hand, nearly all surface silanol groups

  15. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  16. Hybrid Modeling of Hydrogen Energetic Neutral Atoms from Mars: Emission from Subsolar Magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Kallio, Esa; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    We simulated the hydrogen energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from the subsolar magnetosheath of Mars using a hybrid scheme in order to reproduce multiple features of the statistical features obtained from statistical observations of the Neutral Particle Detectors on the Mars Express spacecraft. We track the charge exchange reaction between the ions produced by the hybrid plasma model under a Martian neutral exosphere model. The simulation exhibits a directional emission of hydrogen ENAs from dayside magnetosheath. Particularly, the stronger ENA emission in the opposite direction of the solar wind convection electric field is reproduced, being consistent with the observations, by a corresponding asymmetry in the proton flux at the lower magnetosheath. This proton flux asymmetry is caused by the mass loading of ionospheric heavy ions in the direction of the convection electric field. We also investigate the influences of the upstream solar wind dynamic pressure. We demonstrate that higher dynamic pressure causes stronger and more anisotropic ENA emission, besides the influence of the proton flux. This dependence suggests that the induced magnetic boundary is lower during higher dynamic pressure, where the sheath protons can access to a denser exosphere and thus the charge exchange rate is higher.

  17. [Research on optimization of mathematical model of flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Zhao, Xue-Hong; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Dai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry was a widely used method in the industries of health, environmental, geological and metallurgical fields for the merit of high sensitivity, wide measurement range and fast analytical speed. However, optimization of this method was too difficult as there exist so many parameters affecting the sensitivity and broadening. Generally, the optimal conditions were sought through several experiments. The present paper proposed a mathematical model between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients using the law of conservation of mass according to the characteristics of hydride chemical reaction and the composition of the system, which was proved to be accurate as comparing the theoretical simulation and experimental results through the test of arsanilic acid standard solution. Finally, this paper has put a relation map between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients, and summarized that GLS volume, carrier solution flow rate and sample loop volume were the most factors affecting sensitivity and broadening coefficients. Optimizing these three factors with this relation map, the relative sensitivity was advanced by 2.9 times and relative broadening was reduced by 0.76 times. This model can provide a theoretical guidance for the optimization of the experimental conditions.

  18. Tight-binding models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices: general formulation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modugno, Michele; Ibañez-Azpiroz, Julen; Pettini, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Tight-binding models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices can be properly defined by using the concept of maximally localized Wannier functions for composite bands. The basic principles of this approach are reviewed here, along with different applications to lattice potentials with two minima per unit cell, in one and two spatial dimensions. Two independent methods for computing the tight-binding coefficients—one ab initio, based on the maximally localized Wannier functions, the other through analytic expressions in terms of the energy spectrum—are considered. In the one dimensional case, where the tight-binding coefficients can be obtained by designing a specific gauge transformation, we consider both the case of quasi resonance between the two lowest bands, and that between s and p orbitals. In the latter case, the role of the Wannier functions in the derivation of an effective Dirac equation is also reviewed. Then, we consider the case of a two dimensional honeycomb potential, with particular emphasis on the Haldane model, its phase diagram, and the breakdown of the Peierls substitution. Tunable honeycomb lattices, characterized by movable Dirac points, are also considered. Finally, general considerations for dealing with the interaction terms are presented.

  19. Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Keuter, Thomas Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaßen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

  20. Thermodynamics of various F420 coenzyme models as sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-06-14

    32 F420 coenzyme models with alkylation of the three different N atoms (N1, N3 and N10) in the core structure (XFH(-)) were designed and synthesized and the thermodynamic driving forces (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the 32 XFH(-) releasing hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and electrons, the thermodynamic driving forces of the 32 XFH˙ releasing protons and hydrogen atoms and the thermodynamic driving forces of XF(-)˙ releasing electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The effects of the methyl group at N1, N3 and N10 and a negative charge on N1 and N10 atoms on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were examined; the results show that seating arrangements of the methyl group and the negative charge have remarkably different effects on the thermodynamic properties of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates. The effects of the substituents at C7 and C8 on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were also examined; the results show that the substituents at C7 and C8 have good Hammett linear free energy relationships with the six thermodynamic parameters. Meanwhile, a reasonable determination of possible reactions between members of the F420 family and NADH family in vivo was given according to a thermodynamic analysis platform constructed using the elementary step thermodynamic parameter of F420 coenzyme model 2FH(-) and NADH model MNAH releasing hydride ions in acetonitrile. The information disclosed in this work can not only fill a gap in the chemical thermodynamics of F420 coenzyme models as a class of very important organic sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons, but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of F420 coenzyme.

  1. Thermodynamics of various F420 coenzyme models as sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-06-14

    32 F420 coenzyme models with alkylation of the three different N atoms (N1, N3 and N10) in the core structure (XFH(-)) were designed and synthesized and the thermodynamic driving forces (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the 32 XFH(-) releasing hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and electrons, the thermodynamic driving forces of the 32 XFH˙ releasing protons and hydrogen atoms and the thermodynamic driving forces of XF(-)˙ releasing electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The effects of the methyl group at N1, N3 and N10 and a negative charge on N1 and N10 atoms on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were examined; the results show that seating arrangements of the methyl group and the negative charge have remarkably different effects on the thermodynamic properties of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates. The effects of the substituents at C7 and C8 on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were also examined; the results show that the substituents at C7 and C8 have good Hammett linear free energy relationships with the six thermodynamic parameters. Meanwhile, a reasonable determination of possible reactions between members of the F420 family and NADH family in vivo was given according to a thermodynamic analysis platform constructed using the elementary step thermodynamic parameter of F420 coenzyme model 2FH(-) and NADH model MNAH releasing hydride ions in acetonitrile. The information disclosed in this work can not only fill a gap in the chemical thermodynamics of F420 coenzyme models as a class of very important organic sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons, but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of F420 coenzyme

  2. The atom-surface interaction potential for He-NaCl: A model based on pairwise additivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Jeremy M.; Fowler, P. W.

    1986-08-01

    The recently developed semi-empirical model of Fowler and Hutson is applied to the He-NaCl atom-surface interaction potential. Ab initio self-consistent field calculations of the repulsive interactions between He atoms and in-crystal Cl - and Na + ions are performed. Dispersion coefficients involving in-crystal ions are also calculated. The atom-surface potential is constructed using a model based on pairwise additivity of atom-ion forces. With a small adjustment of the repulsive part, this potential gives good agreement with the experimental bound state energies obtained from selective adsorption resonances in low-energy atom scattering experiments. Close-coupling calculations of the resonant scattering are performed, and good agreement with the experimental peak positions and intensity patterns is obtained. It is concluded that there are no bound states deeper than those observed in the selective adsorption experiments, and that the well depth of the He-NaCl potential is 6.0 ± 0.2 meV.

  3. Identifying student and teacher difficulties in interpreting atomic spectra using a quantum model of emission and absorption of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-06-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students. By analyzing the responses, we conclude that (i) teachers lack a quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation capable of explaining the spectra, (ii) teachers and students share the same difficulties, and (iii) these difficulties concern the model of the atom, the model of radiation, and the model of the interaction between them.

  4. The Analog Atomic Force Microscope: Measuring, Modeling, and Graphing for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Valerie; Brandt, Sharon; Lieberman, Marya

    2013-01-01

    using an analog atomic force microscope (A-AFM) made from a cardboard box and mailing tubes. Varying numbers of ping pong balls inside the tubes mimic atoms on a surface. Students use a dowel to make macroscale measurements similar to those of a nanoscale AFM tip as it…

  5. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  6. Using Concept Maps as Instructional Materials to Foster the Understanding of the Atomic Model and Matter-Energy Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Joana G.; Correia, Paulo R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of concept maps (Cmaps) as instructional materials prepared by teachers, to foster the understanding of chemistry. We choose fireworks as a macroscopic event to teach basic chemical principles related to the Bohr atomic model and matter-energy interaction. During teachers' Cmap navigation, students can experience…

  7. Prediction of hydrodynamic and other solution properties of rigid proteins from atomic- and residue-level models.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A; Amorós, D; García de la Torre, J

    2011-08-17

    Here we extend the ability to predict hydrodynamic coefficients and other solution properties of rigid macromolecular structures from atomic-level structures, implemented in the computer program HYDROPRO, to models with lower, residue-level resolution. Whereas in the former case there is one bead per nonhydrogen atom, the latter contains one bead per amino acid (or nucleotide) residue, thus allowing calculations when atomic resolution is not available or coarse-grained models are preferred. We parameterized the effective hydrodynamic radius of the elements in the atomic- and residue-level models using a very large set of experimental data for translational and rotational coefficients (intrinsic viscosity and radius of gyration) for >50 proteins. We also extended the calculations to very large proteins and macromolecular complexes, such as the whole 70S ribosome. We show that with proper parameterization, the two levels of resolution yield similar and rather good agreement with experimental data. The new version of HYDROPRO, in addition to considering various computational and modeling schemes, is far more efficient computationally and can be handled with the use of a graphical interface.

  8. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  9. The relative variational model - A topological view of matter and its properties: Space occupancy by the atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, M. S.; De Vasconcelos, V.; Mattos, J. R. L.; Jordao, E.

    2012-07-01

    Formal definitions of convergence, connected-ness and continuity were established to characterize and describe the crystalline solid and its properties as a unified notion in the topological space. In this unified notion, physical and material properties are modeled by means of an intrinsic and invariable form function: the Relative Variational Model. The crystalline solid is assumed an empty space that has been filled with atoms and phonons, i.e., the crystal is built with packages of matter and energy in a regular and orderly repetitive pattern along three orthogonal dimensions of the space. The spatial occupation of the atom in the crystalline structure is determined by its mean vibrational volume, which also defines the lattice parameter or interatomic distance. However, as packages of vibrational energy, phonons can only exist as vibrations of atoms. Any variation of internal energy is in fact the discretized variations of phonon's population. These variations occur in the quantized modes of vibration, and therefore the balance between the frequency and amplitude of vibrations also is a dynamic variable. In this paper, the Relative Variational Model was applied to de-convolutions of frequency spectra of the inelastic neutron scatterings. Some dynamic aspects of atom vibration were presented and evaluated in support to the model's fundamentals. (authors)

  10. Interactions between C and Cu atoms in single-layer graphene: direct observation and modelling.

    PubMed

    Kano, Emi; Hashimoto, Ayako; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene.

  11. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: Insights from lattice and all-atom models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouza, Maksim; Co, Nguyen Truong; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kolinski, Andrzej; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-04-01

    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  12. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: Insights from lattice and all-atom models

    SciTech Connect

    Kouza, Maksim Kolinski, Andrzej; Co, Nguyen Truong; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-04-14

    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  13. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2003-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  14. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; G.H. Wolf; R.W. Carpenter; D.A. Gormley; J.R. Diefenbacher; R. Marzke

    2006-03-01

    significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO2 mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH)2. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO2 mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach has provided a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. We used ab initio techniques to significantly advance our understanding of atomic-level processes at the solid/solution interface by

  15. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2002-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  16. Multiscale approach for the construction of equilibrated all-atom models of a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Becker, Matthew L; Latour, Robert A

    2016-06-24

    A multiscale modeling approach is presented for the efficient construction of an equilibrated all-atom model of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel using the all-atom polymer consistent force field (PCFF). The final equilibrated all-atom model was built with a systematic simulation toolset consisting of three consecutive parts: (1) building a global cross-linked PEG-chain network at experimentally determined cross-link density using an on-lattice Monte Carlo method based on the bond fluctuation model, (2) recovering the local molecular structure of the network by transitioning from the lattice model to an off-lattice coarse-grained (CG) model parameterized from PCFF, followed by equilibration using high performance molecular dynamics methods, and (3) recovering the atomistic structure of the network by reverse mapping from the equilibrated CG structure, hydrating the structure with explicitly represented water, followed by final equilibration using PCFF parameterization. The developed three-stage modeling approach has application to a wide range of other complex macromolecular hydrogel systems, including the integration of peptide, protein, and/or drug molecules as side-chains within the hydrogel network for the incorporation of bioactivity for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications.

  17. AUTOMATED FORCE FIELD PARAMETERIZATION FOR NON-POLARIZABLE AND POLARIZABLE ATOMIC MODELS BASED ON AB INITIO TARGET DATA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Roux, Benoît

    2013-08-13

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on atomistic models are increasingly used to study a wide range of biological systems. A prerequisite for meaningful results from such simulations is an accurate molecular mechanical force field. Most biomolecular simulations are currently based on the widely used AMBER and CHARMM force fields, which were parameterized and optimized to cover a small set of basic compounds corresponding to the natural amino acids and nucleic acid bases. Atomic models of additional compounds are commonly generated by analogy to the parameter set of a given force field. While this procedure yields models that are internally consistent, the accuracy of the resulting models can be limited. In this work, we propose a method, General Automated Atomic Model Parameterization (GAAMP), for generating automatically the parameters of atomic models of small molecules using the results from ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculations as target data. Force fields that were previously developed for a wide range of model compounds serve as initial guess, although any of the final parameter can be optimized. The electrostatic parameters (partial charges, polarizabilities and shielding) are optimized on the basis of QM electrostatic potential (ESP) and, if applicable, the interaction energies between the compound and water molecules. The soft dihedrals are automatically identified and parameterized by targeting QM dihedral scans as well as the energies of stable conformers. To validate the approach, the solvation free energy is calculated for more than 200 small molecules and MD simulations of 3 different proteins are carried out.

  18. Near-atomic resolution structural model of the yeast 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Florian; Unverdorben, Pia; Bohn, Stefan; Schweitzer, Andreas; Pfeifer, Günter; Sakata, Eri; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Villa, Elizabeth; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Förster, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    The 26S proteasome operates at the executive end of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 26S proteasome at a resolution of 7.4 Å or 6.7 Å (Fourier-Shell Correlation of 0.5 or 0.3, respectively). We used this map in conjunction with molecular dynamics-based flexible fitting to build a near-atomic resolution model of the holocomplex. The quality of the map allowed us to assign α-helices, the predominant secondary structure element of the regulatory particle subunits, throughout the entire map. We were able to determine the architecture of the Rpn8/Rpn11 heterodimer, which had hitherto remained elusive. The MPN domain of Rpn11 is positioned directly above the AAA-ATPase N-ring suggesting that Rpn11 deubiquitylates substrates immediately following commitment and prior to their unfolding by the AAA-ATPase module. The MPN domain of Rpn11 dimerizes with that of Rpn8 and the C-termini of both subunits form long helices, which are integral parts of a coiled-coil module. Together with the C-terminal helices of the six PCI-domain subunits they form a very large coiled-coil bundle, which appears to serve as a flexible anchoring device for all the lid subunits. PMID:22927375

  19. Near-atomic resolution structural model of the yeast 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Beck, Florian; Unverdorben, Pia; Bohn, Stefan; Schweitzer, Andreas; Pfeifer, Günter; Sakata, Eri; Nickell, Stephan; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Villa, Elizabeth; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Förster, Friedrich

    2012-09-11

    The 26S proteasome operates at the executive end of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 26S proteasome at a resolution of 7.4 Å or 6.7 Å (Fourier-Shell Correlation of 0.5 or 0.3, respectively). We used this map in conjunction with molecular dynamics-based flexible fitting to build a near-atomic resolution model of the holocomplex. The quality of the map allowed us to assign α-helices, the predominant secondary structure element of the regulatory particle subunits, throughout the entire map. We were able to determine the architecture of the Rpn8/Rpn11 heterodimer, which had hitherto remained elusive. The MPN domain of Rpn11 is positioned directly above the AAA-ATPase N-ring suggesting that Rpn11 deubiquitylates substrates immediately following commitment and prior to their unfolding by the AAA-ATPase module. The MPN domain of Rpn11 dimerizes with that of Rpn8 and the C-termini of both subunits form long helices, which are integral parts of a coiled-coil module. Together with the C-terminal helices of the six PCI-domain subunits they form a very large coiled-coil bundle, which appears to serve as a flexible anchoring device for all the lid subunits.

  20. Modeling of Transmittance Degradation Caused by Optical Surface Contamination by Atomic Oxygen Reaction with Adsorbed Silicones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce; Miller, Sharon; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward

    2001-01-01

    A numerical procedure is presented to calculate transmittance degradation caused by contaminant films on spacecraft surfaces produced through the interaction of orbital atomic oxygen (AO) with volatile silicones and hydrocarbons from spacecraft components. In the model, contaminant accretion is dependent on the adsorption of species, depletion reactions due to gas-surface collisions, desorption, and surface reactions between AO and silicone producing SiO(x), (where x is near 2). A detailed description of the procedure used to calculate the constituents of the contaminant layer is presented, including the equations that govern the evolution of fractional coverage by specie type. As an illustrative example of film growth, calculation results using a prototype code that calculates the evolution of surface coverage by specie type is presented and discussed. An example of the transmittance degradation caused by surface interaction of AO with deposited contaminant is presented for the case of exponentially decaying contaminant flux. These examples are performed using hypothetical values for the process parameters.

  1. Atomic-level functional model of dengue virus Envelope protein infectivity.

    PubMed

    Christian, Elizabeth A; Kahle, Kristen M; Mattia, Kimberly; Puffer, Bridget A; Pfaff, Jennifer M; Miller, Adam; Paes, Cheryl; Davidson, Edgar; Doranz, Benjamin J

    2013-11-12

    A number of structures have been solved for the Envelope (E) protein from dengue virus and closely related flaviviruses, providing detailed pictures of the conformational states of the protein at different stages of infectivity. However, the key functional residues responsible for mediating the dynamic changes between these structures remain largely unknown. Using a comprehensive library of functional point mutations covering all 390 residues of the dengue virus E protein ectodomain, we identified residues that are critical for virus infectivity, but that do not affect E protein expression, folding, virion assembly, or budding. The locations and atomic interactions of these critical residues within different structures representing distinct fusogenic conformations help to explain how E protein (i) regulates fusion-loop exposure by shielding, tethering, and triggering its release; (ii) enables hinge movements between E domain interfaces during triggered structural transformations; and (iii) drives membrane fusion through late-stage zipper contacts with stem. These results provide structural targets for drug and vaccine development and integrate the findings from structural studies and isolated mutagenesis efforts into a cohesive model that explains how specific residues in this class II viral fusion protein enable virus infectivity.

  2. Viewing dynamic interactions of proteins and a model lipid membrane with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Anthony S; Rand, Jacob H; Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Taatjes, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    The information covered in this chapter will present a model homogenous membrane preparation technique and dynamic imaging procedure that can be successfully applied to more than one type of lipid study and atomic force microscope (AFM) instrument setup. The basic procedural steps have been used with an Asylum Research MFP-3D BIO and the Bruker (formerly, Veeco) BioScope. The AFM imaging protocol has been supplemented by procedures (not to be presented in this chapter) of ellipsometry, standardized western blotting, and dot-blots to verify appropriate purity and activity of all experimental molecular components; excellent purity and activity level of the lipids, proteins, and drug(s) greatly influence the success of imaging experiments in the scanning probe microscopy field. The major goal of the chapter is to provide detailed procedures for sample preparation and operation of the Asylum Research MFP-3D BIO AFM. In addition, one should be cognizant that our comprehensive description in the use of the MFP-3D BIO's functions for successful image acquisitions and analyses is greatly enhanced by Asylum Research's (AR's) accompanying extensive manual(s), technical notes, and AR's users forum. Ultimately, the stepwise protocol and information will allow novice personnel to begin acquiring quality images for processing and analysis with minimal supervision.

  3. Relation between elastic modulus and glass softening temperature in the delocalized atom model

    SciTech Connect

    Sanditov, B. D.; Sangadiev, S. Sh.; Sanditov, D. S.

    2012-09-15

    The ratio of softening temperature (glass transition temperature) to elastic modulus (T{sub g}/E) is mainly determined by the limiting elastic deformation of an interatomic bond, which characterizes the transition of a structural microregion from an elastic into a viscous-flow state. In silicate glasses, this transition is caused by the limiting deformation of directed ionic-covalent Si-O-Si bonds. In the case of amorphous hydrocarbons, it is related to the relatively weak intermolecular bonds between regions in chain macromolecules, and the T{sub g}/E ratio is significantly higher than in inorganic glasses. In glassy systems of one class, this ratio turns out to be constant (T{sub g}/E Almost-Equal-To const), and a linear correlation is detected between softening temperature and elastic modulus, which can be explained in terms of the delocalized atom model. The values of T{sub g}/E can be used to classify glasses similarly to the well-known Angell classification according to so-called fragility.

  4. Efimov studies of an ultracold cloud of 39 K atoms in microgravity: Numerical modelling and experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossman, Maren; Engels, Peter; D'Incao, Jose; Jin, Deborah; Cornell, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold atomic gases at or near quantum degeneracy provide a powerful tool for the investigation of few-body physics. A particularly intriguing few-body phenomenon is the existence of Efimov trimer states at large interatomic scattering lengths. These trimers are predicted to exhibit universal geometric scaling relations, but in practice the situation is complicated e.g. by finite-range and finite-temperature effects. While some Efimov trimers have already been experimentally observed by several groups in ground-based experiments, NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) onboard the ISS will greatly enhance the experimentally accessible regimes by providing ultracold clouds of 39 K atoms with temperatures at or below 1 nK, low densities, and long observation times. We present results of numerical modelling and simulations that lay out Efimov experiments capitalizing on the particular strengths of CAL.

  5. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results.

    PubMed

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-05-16

    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental

  6. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners. PMID:19653995

  7. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  8. Dielectric spectroscopy at the nanoscale by atomic force microscopy: A simple model linking materials properties and experimental response

    SciTech Connect

    Miccio, Luis A. Colmenero, Juan; Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegría, Ángel; Schwartz, Gustavo A.

    2014-05-14

    The use of an atomic force microscope for studying molecular dynamics through dielectric spectroscopy with spatial resolution in the nanometer scale is a recently developed approach. However, difficulties in the quantitative connection of the obtained data and the material dielectric properties, namely, frequency dependent dielectric permittivity, have limited its application. In this work, we develop a simple electrical model based on physically meaningful parameters to connect the atomic force microscopy (AFM) based dielectric spectroscopy experimental results with the material dielectric properties. We have tested the accuracy of the model and analyzed the relevance of the forces arising from the electrical interaction with the AFM probe cantilever. In this way, by using this model, it is now possible to obtain quantitative information of the local dielectric material properties in a broad frequency range. Furthermore, it is also possible to determine the experimental setup providing the best sensitivity in the detected signal.

  9. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  10. Local order parameters for use in driving homogeneous ice nucleation with all-atom models of water.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Aleks; Doye, Jonathan P K; Noya, Eva G; Vega, Carlos

    2012-11-21

    We present a local order parameter based on the standard Steinhardt-Ten Wolde approach that is capable both of tracking and of driving homogeneous ice nucleation in simulations of all-atom models of water. We demonstrate that it is capable of forcing the growth of ice nuclei in supercooled liquid water simulated using the TIP4P/2005 model using over-biassed umbrella sampling Monte Carlo simulations. However, even with such an order parameter, the dynamics of ice growth in deeply supercooled liquid water in all-atom models of water are shown to be very slow, and so the computation of free energy landscapes and nucleation rates remains extremely challenging.

  11. The atomic approach to the Anderson model for the finite U case: application to a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Lobo, T; Figueira, M S; Foglio, M E

    2010-07-01

    In the present work we apply the atomic approach to the single-impurity Anderson model (SIAM). A general formulation of this approach, that can be applied both to the impurity and to the lattice Anderson Hamiltonian, was developed in a previous work (Foglio et al 2009 arxiv: 0903.0139v2 [cond-mat.str-el]). The method starts from the cumulant expansion of the periodic Anderson model, employing the hybridization as a perturbation. The atomic Anderson limit is analytically solved and its sixteen eigenenergies and eigenstates are obtained. This atomic Anderson solution, which we call the AAS, has all the fundamental excitations that generate the Kondo effect, and in the atomic approach is employed as a 'seed' to generate the approximate solutions for finite U. The width of the conduction band is reduced to zero in the AAS, and we choose its position such that the Friedel sum rule is satisfied, close to the chemical potential mu. We perform a complete study of the density of states of the SIAM over the whole relevant range of parameters: the empty dot, intermediate valence, Kondo and magnetic regimes. In the Kondo regime we obtain a density of states that characterizes well the structure of the Kondo peak. To show the usefulness of the method we have calculated the conductance of a quantum dot, side-coupled to a conduction band.

  12. Atomic-accuracy models from 4.5-Å cryo-electron microscopy data with density-guided iterative local refinement.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Frank; Song, Yifan; Li, Xueming; Brunner, Matthias J; Xu, Chunfu; Conticello, Vincent; Egelman, Edward; Marlovits, Thomas C; Cheng, Yifan; Baker, David

    2015-04-01

    We describe a general approach for refining protein structure models on the basis of cryo-electron microscopy maps with near-atomic resolution. The method integrates Monte Carlo sampling with local density-guided optimization, Rosetta all-atom refinement and real-space B-factor fitting. In tests on experimental maps of three different systems with 4.5-Å resolution or better, the method consistently produced models with atomic-level accuracy largely independently of starting-model quality, and it outperformed the molecular dynamics-based MDFF method. Cross-validated model quality statistics correlated with model accuracy over the three test systems.

  13. Electromagnetic model for near-field microwave microscope with atomic resolution: Determination of tunnel junction impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik, Alexander N.

    2014-08-25

    An electrodynamic model is proposed for the tunneling microwave microscope with subnanometer space resolution as developed by Lee et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183111 (2010)]. Tip-sample impedance Z{sub a} was introduced and studied in the tunneling and non-tunneling regimes. At tunneling breakdown, the microwave current between probe and sample flows along two parallel channels characterized by impedances Z{sub p} and Z{sub t} that add up to form overall impedance Z{sub a}. Quantity Z{sub p} is the capacitive impedance determined by the near field of the probe and Z{sub t} is the impedance of the tunnel junction. By taking into account the distance dependences of effective tip radius r{sub 0}(z) and tunnel resistance R{sub t}(z) = Re[Z{sub t}(z)], we were able to explain the experimentally observed dependences of resonance frequency f{sub r}(z) and quality factor Q{sub L}(z) of the microscope. The obtained microwave resistance R{sub t}(z) and direct current tunnel resistance R{sub t}{sup dc}(z) exhibit qualitatively similar behavior, although being largely different in both magnitude and the characteristic scale of height dependence. Interpretation of the microwave images of the atomic structure of test samples proved possible by taking into account the inductive component of tunnel impedance ImZ{sub t} = ωL{sub t}. Relation ωL{sub t}/R{sub t} ≈ 0.235 was obtained.

  14. Kinetic Defects Induced by Melittin in Model Lipid Membranes: A Solution Atomic Force Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianjun; Khadka, Nawal K

    2016-05-26

    Quantitative characterization of membrane defects (pores) is important for elucidating the molecular basis of many membrane-active peptides. We study kinetic defects induced by melittin in vesicular and planar lipid bilayers. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements indicate that melittin induces time-dependent calcein leakage. Solution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to visualize melittin-induced membrane defects. After initial equilibration, the most probable defect radius is ∼3.8 nm in 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) bilayers. Unexpectedly, defects become larger with longer incubation, accompanied by substantial shape transformation. The initial defect radius is ∼4.7 nm in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers. Addition of 30 mol % cholesterol to DOPC bilayers suppresses defect kinetics, although the inhibitory impact is negated by longer incubation. Overall, the kinetic rate of defect development follows DLPC > DOPC > DOPC/cholesterol. Kinetic defects are also observed when anionic lipids are present. Based on the observation that defects can occupy as large as 40% of the bilayer surface, we propose a kinetic defect growth model. We also study the effect of melittin on the phase behavior of DOPC/egg-sphingomyelin/cholesterol bilayers. We find that melittin initially suppresses or eliminates liquid-ordered (Lo) domains; Lo domains gradually emerge and become the dominant species with longer incubation; and defects in phase-coexisting bilayers have a most probable radius of ∼5 nm and are exclusively localized in the liquid-disordered (Ld) phase. Our experimental data highlight that melittin-induced membrane defects are not static; conversely, spontaneous defect growth is intrinsically associated with membrane permeabilization exerted by melittin. PMID:27167473

  15. Homology modeling, molecular dynamics and atomic level interaction study of snake venom 5' nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Arafat, A Syed Yasir; Arun, A; Ilamathi, M; Asha, J; Sivashankari, P R; D'Souza, Cletus J M; Sivaramakrishnan, V; Dhananjaya, B L

    2014-03-01

    5' Nucleotidase (5' NUC) is a ubiquitously distributed enzyme known to be present in snake venoms (SV) that is responsible primarily for causing dysregulation of physiological homeostasis in humans by inducing anticoagulant effects and by inhibiting platelet aggregation. It is also known to act synergistically with other toxins to exert a more pronounced anti-coagulant effect during envenomation. Its structural and functional role is not yet ascertained clearly. The 3D structure of snake venom 5' nucleotidase (SV-5' NUC) is not yet known and was predicted by us for the first time using a comparative homology modeling approach using Demansia vestigiata protein sequence. The accuracy and stability of the predicted SV-5' NUC structure were validated using several computational approaches. Key interactions of SV-5' NUC were studied using experimental studies/molecular docking analysis of the inhibitors vanillin, vanillic acid and maltol. All these inhibitors were found to dock favorably following pharmacologically relevant absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) profiles. Further, atomic level docking interaction studies using inhibitors of the SV-5' NUC active site revealed amino acid residues Y65 and T72 as important for inhibitor-(SV-5' NUC) interactions. Our in silico analysis is in good agreement with experimental inhibition results of SV-5' NUC with vanillin, vanillic acid and maltol. The present study should therefore play a guiding role in the experimental design of new SV-5' NUC inhibitors for snake bite management. We also identified a few pharmacophoric features essential for SV-5' NUC inhibitory activity that can be utilized further for the discovery of putative anti-venom agents of therapeutic value for snake bite management.

  16. Kinetic Defects Induced by Melittin in Model Lipid Membranes: A Solution Atomic Force Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianjun; Khadka, Nawal K

    2016-05-26

    Quantitative characterization of membrane defects (pores) is important for elucidating the molecular basis of many membrane-active peptides. We study kinetic defects induced by melittin in vesicular and planar lipid bilayers. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements indicate that melittin induces time-dependent calcein leakage. Solution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to visualize melittin-induced membrane defects. After initial equilibration, the most probable defect radius is ∼3.8 nm in 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) bilayers. Unexpectedly, defects become larger with longer incubation, accompanied by substantial shape transformation. The initial defect radius is ∼4.7 nm in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers. Addition of 30 mol % cholesterol to DOPC bilayers suppresses defect kinetics, although the inhibitory impact is negated by longer incubation. Overall, the kinetic rate of defect development follows DLPC > DOPC > DOPC/cholesterol. Kinetic defects are also observed when anionic lipids are present. Based on the observation that defects can occupy as large as 40% of the bilayer surface, we propose a kinetic defect growth model. We also study the effect of melittin on the phase behavior of DOPC/egg-sphingomyelin/cholesterol bilayers. We find that melittin initially suppresses or eliminates liquid-ordered (Lo) domains; Lo domains gradually emerge and become the dominant species with longer incubation; and defects in phase-coexisting bilayers have a most probable radius of ∼5 nm and are exclusively localized in the liquid-disordered (Ld) phase. Our experimental data highlight that melittin-induced membrane defects are not static; conversely, spontaneous defect growth is intrinsically associated with membrane permeabilization exerted by melittin.

  17. The Nature of Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Alan

    This monograph was written for the purpose of presenting physics to college students who are not preparing for careers in physics. It deals with the nature of atoms, and treats the following topics: (1) the atomic hypothesis, (2) the chemical elements, (3) models of an atom, (4) a particle in a one-dimensional well, (5) a particle in a central…

  18. Atom Resonance Lines for Modeling Atmosphere: Studies of Pressure-Broadening of Alkali Atom Resonance Lines for Modeling Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Hashima (Technical Monitor); Kirby, K.; Babb, J.; Yoshino, K.

    2005-01-01

    We report on progress made in a joint program of theoretical and experimental research to study the line-broadening of alkali atom resonance lines due to collisions with species such as helium and molecular hydrogen. Accurate knowledge of the line profiles of Na and K as a function of temperature and pressure will allow such lines to serve as valuable diagnostics of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets. A new experimental apparatus has been designed, built and tested over the past year, and we are poised to begin collecting data on the first system of interest, the potassium resonance lines perturbed by collisions with helium. On the theoretical front, calculations of line-broadening due to sodium collisions with helium are nearly complete, using accurate molecular potential energy curves and transition moments just recently computed for this system. In addition we have completed calculations of the three relevant potential energy curves and associated transition moments for K - He, using the MOLPRO quantum chemistry codes. Currently, calculations of the potential surfaces describing K-H2 are in progress.

  19. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  20. Analysis of solvation structure and thermodynamics of ethane and propane in water by reference interaction site model theory using all-atom models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Qizhi; Smith, Vedene H.

    2001-08-01

    Following our previous paper on methane [Cui and Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 10240 (2000)], we study the solvation structures and thermodynamics of ethane and propane in water at the infinite dilution limit by using the hypernetted chain closure reference interaction site model (HNC-RISM) theory with all-atom representations for solute molecules. At four thermodynamic states: temperature T=283.15, 298.15, 313.15, 328.15 K and the corresponding bulk water density ρ=0.9997, 0.9970, 0.9922, 0.9875 g cm-3, all the atomic solute-solvent radial distribution functions are obtained, and the corresponding running coordination numbers and the hydration free energies, energies, enthalpies, and entropies are calculated with the radial distribution functions as input. The hydration structures of ethane and propane are presented and analyzed at the atomic level in terms of the atomic solute-solvent radial distribution functions. With the optimized nonbonded potential parameters based on the CHARMM96 all-atom model for alkanes [Yin and Mackerell, J. Comput. Chem. 19, 334 (1998)], the ethane and propane hydration thermodynamic properties predicted by the HNC-RISM theory are improved in the specified temperature range (10-55 °C).

  1. Elastic, charge transfer, and related transport cross sections for proton impact of atomic hydrogen for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. R.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu; Stancil, P. C.; Zaman, T.

    2016-04-01

    Updating and extending previous work (Krstić and Schultz 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3458 and other references) comprehensive calculations were performed for elastic scattering and charge transfer in proton—atomic hydrogen collisions. The results, obtained for 1301 collision energies in the center-of-mass energy range of 10-4-104 eV, are provided for integral and differential cross sections relevant to transport modeling in astrophysical and other plasma environments, and are made available through a website. Use of the data is demonstrated through a Monte Carlo transport simulation of solar wind proton propagation through atomic hydrogen gas representing a simple model of the solar wind interaction with heliospheric neutrals.

  2. Elastic, charge transfer, and related transport cross sections for proton impact of atomic hydrogen for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. R.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu; Stancil, P. C.; Zaman, T.

    2016-04-01

    Updating and extending previous work (Krstić and Schultz 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3458 and other references) comprehensive calculations were performed for elastic scattering and charge transfer in proton—atomic hydrogen collisions. The results, obtained for 1301 collision energies in the center-of-mass energy range of 10‑4–104 eV, are provided for integral and differential cross sections relevant to transport modeling in astrophysical and other plasma environments, and are made available through a website. Use of the data is demonstrated through a Monte Carlo transport simulation of solar wind proton propagation through atomic hydrogen gas representing a simple model of the solar wind interaction with heliospheric neutrals.

  3. The atomic scale structure of CXV carbon: wide-angle x-ray scattering and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Hawelek, L; Brodka, A; Dore, J C; Honkimaki, V; Burian, A

    2013-11-13

    The disordered structure of commercially available CXV activated carbon produced from finely powdered wood-based carbon has been studied using the wide-angle x-ray scattering technique, molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations. The x-ray scattering data has been converted to the real space representation in the form of the pair correlation function via the Fourier transform. Geometry optimizations using classical molecular dynamics based on the reactive empirical bond order potential and density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31g* level have been performed to generate nanoscale models of CXV carbon consistent with the experimental data. The final model of the structure comprises four chain-like and buckled graphitic layers containing a small percentage of four-fold coordinated atoms (sp(3) defects) in each layer. The presence of non-hexagonal rings in the atomic arrangement has been also considered. PMID:24140935

  4. The atomic scale structure of CXV carbon: wide-angle x-ray scattering and modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawelek, L.; Brodka, A.; Dore, J. C.; Honkimaki, V.; Burian, A.

    2013-11-01

    The disordered structure of commercially available CXV activated carbon produced from finely powdered wood-based carbon has been studied using the wide-angle x-ray scattering technique, molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations. The x-ray scattering data has been converted to the real space representation in the form of the pair correlation function via the Fourier transform. Geometry optimizations using classical molecular dynamics based on the reactive empirical bond order potential and density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31g* level have been performed to generate nanoscale models of CXV carbon consistent with the experimental data. The final model of the structure comprises four chain-like and buckled graphitic layers containing a small percentage of four-fold coordinated atoms (sp3 defects) in each layer. The presence of non-hexagonal rings in the atomic arrangement has been also considered.

  5. Modeling of neutrals in the Linac4 H(-) ion source plasma: hydrogen atom production density profile and Hα intensity by collisional radiative model.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Shibata, T; Ohta, M; Yasumoto, M; Nishida, K; Hatayama, A; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Sawada, K; Fantz, U

    2014-02-01

    To control the H(0) atom production profile in the H(-) ion sources is one of the important issues for the efficient and uniform surface H(-) production. The purpose of this study is to construct a collisional radiative (CR) model to calculate the effective production rate of H(0) atoms from H2 molecules in the model geometry of the radio-frequency (RF) H(-) ion source for Linac4 accelerator. In order to validate the CR model by comparison with the experimental results from the optical emission spectroscopy, it is also necessary for the model to calculate Balmer photon emission rate in the source. As a basic test of the model, the time evolutions of H(0) production and the Balmer Hα photon emission rate are calculated for given electron energy distribution functions in the Linac4 RF H(-) ion source. Reasonable test results are obtained and basis for the detailed comparisons with experimental results have been established. PMID:24593558

  6. Floquet Engineering of Correlated Tunneling in the Bose-Hubbard Model with Ultracold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinert, F.; Mark, M. J.; Lauber, K.; Daley, A. J.; Nägerl, H.-C.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the experimental implementation of tunable occupation-dependent tunneling in a Bose-Hubbard system of ultracold atoms via time-periodic modulation of the on-site interaction energy. The tunneling rate is inferred from a time-resolved measurement of the lattice site occupation after a quantum quench. We demonstrate coherent control of the tunneling dynamics in the correlated many-body system, including full suppression of tunneling as predicted within the framework of Floquet theory. We find that the tunneling rate explicitly depends on the atom number difference in neighboring lattice sites. Our results may open up ways to realize artificial gauge fields that feature density dependence with ultracold atoms.

  7. Floquet Engineering of Correlated Tunneling in the Bose-Hubbard Model with Ultracold Atoms.

    PubMed

    Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Lauber, K; Daley, A J; Nägerl, H-C

    2016-05-20

    We report on the experimental implementation of tunable occupation-dependent tunneling in a Bose-Hubbard system of ultracold atoms via time-periodic modulation of the on-site interaction energy. The tunneling rate is inferred from a time-resolved measurement of the lattice site occupation after a quantum quench. We demonstrate coherent control of the tunneling dynamics in the correlated many-body system, including full suppression of tunneling as predicted within the framework of Floquet theory. We find that the tunneling rate explicitly depends on the atom number difference in neighboring lattice sites. Our results may open up ways to realize artificial gauge fields that feature density dependence with ultracold atoms. PMID:27258874

  8. Statistical theory of rarified gases in the coulomb model of substance: Adiabatic approximation and initial atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, V. B.

    2014-03-01

    In the framework of the adiabatic approximation for a subsystem of nuclei with the average distance between them significantly exceeding the dimensions of the initial atom, we consider a nonrelativistic Coulomb system consisting of electrons and nuclei of one type for the temperature range where we can restrict ourself to using the ground state to describe the electron subsystem. We show that the equilibrium properties of such a system are equivalent to the thermodynamic properties of the one-component system of initial atoms interacting between themselves via a short-range potential that is the effective potential of the nucleus-nucleus interaction. In the framework of the applicability of Boltzmann statistics, we present quantum group expansions for the thermodynamic properties of a chemically reacting rarified gas that correspond to the method of initial atoms.

  9. A note on approximate teleportation of an unknown atomic state in the two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dSouza, A. D.; Cardoso, W. B.; Avelar, A. T.; Baseia, B.

    2009-04-01

    We consider recent schemes [J.M. Liu, B. Weng, Physica A 367 (2006) 215] to teleport unknown atomic states and superposition of zero- and two-photon states using the two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model. Here we do the same using the “full two-photon Jaynes-Cumming”, valid for arbitrary average number of photons. The success probability and fidelity of this teleportation are also considered.

  10. Experiments and modeling of discharge characteristics in water-mist sprays generated by pressure-swirl atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, Paolo E.

    2012-12-01

    Pressure-swirl atomizers are often employed to generate a water-mist spray, typically employed in fire suppression. In the present study, an experimental characterization of dispersion (velocity and cone angle) and atomization (drop-size axial evolution) was carried out following a previously developed methodology, with specific reference to the initial region of the spray. Laser-based techniques were used to quantitatively evaluate the considered phenomena: velocity field was reconstructed through a Particle Image Velocimetry analysis; drop-size distribution was measured by a Malvern Spraytec device, highlighting secondary atomization and subsequent coalescence along the spray axis. Moreover, a comprehensive set of relations was validated as predictive of the involved parameters, following an inviscid-fluid approach. The proposed model pertains to early studies on pressure-swirl atomizers and primarily yields to determine both initial velocity and cone angle. The spray thickness is also predicted and a classic correlation for Sauter Mean Diameter is shown to provide good agreement with experimental results. The analysis was carried out at the operative pressure of 80 bar; two injectors were employed featuring different orifice diameters and flow numbers, as a sort of parametric approach to this spray typology.

  11. Theoretical modeling and experimental observations of the atomic layer deposition of SrO using a cyclopentadienyl Sr precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, Kurt D.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Slepko, Alex; Ekerdt, John G.; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2016-08-01

    First-principle calculations are used to model the adsorption and hydration of strontium bis(cyclopentadienyl) [Sr(Cp)2] on TiO2-terminated strontium titanate, SrTiO3 (STO), for the deposition of strontium oxide, SrO, by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The Sr(Cp)2 precursor is shown to adsorb on the TiO2-terminated surface, with the Sr atom assuming essentially the bulk position in STO. The C-Sr bonds are weaker than in the free molecule, with a Ti atom at the surface bonding to one of the C atoms in the cyclopentadienyl rings. The surface does not need to be hydrogenated for precursor adsorption. The calculations are compared with experimental observations for a related Sr cyclopentadienyl precursor, strontium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) [Sr(iPr3Cp)2], adsorbed on TiO2-terminated STO. High-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy show adsorption of the Sr precursor on the TiO2-terminated STO after a single precursor dose. This study suggests that ALD growth from the strontium precursors featuring cyclopentadienyl ligands, such as Sr(Cp)2, may initiate film growth on non-hydroxylated surfaces.

  12. Atomic scale simulations of pyrochlore oxides with a tight-binding variable-charge model: implications for radiation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sattonnay, G; Tétot, R

    2014-02-01

    Atomistic simulations with new interatomic potentials derived from a tight-binding variable-charge model were performed in order to investigate the lattice properties and the defect formation energies in Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores. The main objective was to determine the role played by the defect stability on the radiation tolerance of these compounds. Calculations show that the titanate has a more covalent character than the zirconate. Moreover, the properties of oxygen Frenkel pairs, cation antisite defects and cation Frenkel pairs were studied. In Gd2Ti2O7 the cation antisite defect and the Ti-Frenkel pair are not stable: they evolve towards more stable defect configurations during the atomic relaxation process. This phenomenon is driven by a decrease of the Ti coordination number down to five which leads to a local atomic reorganization and strong structural distortions around the defects. These kinds of atomic rearrangements are not observed around defects in Gd2Zr2O7. Therefore, the defect stability in A2B2O7 depends on the ability of B atoms to accommodate high coordination number (higher than six seems impossible for Ti). The accumulation of structural distortions around Ti-defects due to this phenomenon could drive the Gd2Ti2O7 amorphization induced by irradiation.

  13. Hubbard model for ultracold bosonic atoms interacting via zero-point-energy-induced three-body interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Saurabh; Johnson, P. R.; Tiesinga, Eite

    2016-04-01

    We show that, for ultracold neutral bosonic atoms held in a three-dimensional periodic potential or optical lattice, a Hubbard model with dominant, attractive three-body interactions can be generated. In fact, we derive that the effect of pairwise interactions can be made small or zero starting from the realization that collisions occur at the zero-point energy of an optical lattice site and the strength of the interactions is energy dependent from effective-range contributions. We determine the strength of the two- and three-body interactions for scattering from van der Waals potentials and near Fano-Feshbach resonances. For van der Waals potentials, which for example describe scattering of alkaline-earth atoms, we find that the pairwise interaction can only be turned off for species with a small negative scattering length, leaving the 88Sr isotope a possible candidate. Interestingly, for collisional magnetic Feshbach resonances this restriction does not apply and there often exist magnetic fields where the two-body interaction is small. We illustrate this result for several known narrow resonances between alkali-metal atoms as well as chromium atoms. Finally, we compare the size of the three-body interaction with hopping rates and describe limits due to three-body recombination.

  14. Precisely detecting atomic position of atomic intensity images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijun; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai; Li, Junjie; Wang, Jincheng; Zhou, Yaohe

    2015-03-01

    We proposed a quantitative method to detect atomic position in atomic intensity images from experiments such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and simulation such as phase field crystal modeling. The evaluation of detection accuracy proves the excellent performance of the method. This method provides a chance to precisely determine atomic interactions based on the detected atomic positions from the atomic intensity image, and hence to investigate the related physical, chemical and electrical properties.

  15. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: an experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions.

    PubMed

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C; Culberson, Lori M; Sanov, Andrei

    2014-09-28

    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO(-) photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions.

  16. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: An experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions

    SciTech Connect

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C.; Culberson, Lori M.; Sanov, Andrei

    2014-09-28

    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO{sup −} photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions.

  17. A Computer-Controlled Classroom Model of an Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Tyler A.; Johnson, Matthew M.; Eklund, Peter C.; Russin, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "seeing by feeling" as a way to circumvent limitations on sight is universal on the macroscopic scale--reading Braille, feeling one's way around a dark room, etc. The development of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 extended this concept to imaging in the nanoscale. While there are classroom demonstrations that use…

  18. The Multiphoton Interaction of Lambda Model Atom and Two-Mode Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tang-Kun

    1996-01-01

    The system of two-mode fields interacting with atom by means of multiphotons is addressed, and the non-classical statistic quality of two-mode fields with interaction is discussed. Through mathematical calculation, some new rules of non-classical effects of two-mode fields which evolue with time, are established.

  19. Entanglement and the Jaynes-Cummings model with Rydberg-dressed atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Grant

    2016-05-01

    Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, high-precision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate for the first time a strong and tunable Rydberg-dressed interaction between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz in units of Planck's constant. We spectroscopically demonstrate that this system is isomorphic to a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian, and observe the √{ N} nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder with a single symmetric Rydberg excitation. This interaction enables a ground-state spin-flip blockade, whereby simultaneous hyperfine spin flips of two atoms are blockaded due to their mutual interaction. We employ this spin-flip blockade to rapidly produce single-step Bell-state entanglement between atoms. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories and through the National Science Foundation's Center for Quantum Information and Control NSF-1212445.

  20. Back-Influence of Molecular Motion on Energy Transfer in the Landau-Teller Model of Atom Molecule Scattering.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Eli

    2016-07-21

    This year we celebrate the 80th anniversary of the Landau-Teller model for energy exchange in a collinear collision of an atom with a harmonic diatomic molecule. Even after 80 years though, the analytic theory to date has not included in it the back-influence of the oscillator's motion on the energy transfer between the approaching particle and the molecule. This is the topic of the present paper. The back-influence can be obtained by employing classical second-order perturbation theory. The second-order theory is used in both a classical and semiclassical context. Classically, analytic expressions are derived for the final phase and action of the diatom, after the collision. The energy loss of the atom is shown to decrease linearly with the increasing energy of the oscillator. The magnitude of this decrease is a direct consequence of the back-reaction of the oscillator on the translational motion. The qualitative result is universal, in the sense that it is not dependent on the details of the interaction of the atom with the oscillator. A numerical application to a model collision of an Ar atom with a Br2 diatom demonstrates the importance and accuracy of the second-order perturbation theory. The same results are then used to derive a second-order perturbation theory semiclassical expression for the quantum transition probability from initial vibrational state ni to final vibrational state nf of the oscillator. A comparison of the theory with exact quantum data is presented for a model collision of Br2 with a hydrogen molecule, where the hydrogen molecule is considered as a single approaching particle. PMID:27309793

  1. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencs, László; Laczai, Nikoletta; Ajtony, Zsolt

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective-diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass - m0) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m0 values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm3 min- 1) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m0(mini-flow)-to-m0(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m0 data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m0 values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology.

  2. The equilibrium properties and folding kinetics of an all-atom Go model of the Trp-cage.

    PubMed

    Linhananta, Apichart; Boer, Jesse; MacKay, Ian

    2005-03-15

    The ultrafast-folding 20-residue Trp-cage protein is quickly becoming a new benchmark for molecular dynamics studies. Already several all-atom simulations have probed its equilibrium and kinetic properties. In this work an all-atom Go model is used to accurately represent the side-chain packing and native atomic contacts of the Trp-cage. The model reproduces the hallmark thermodynamics cooperativity of small proteins. Folding simulations observe that in the fast-folding dominant pathway, partial alpha-helical structure forms before hydrophobic core collapse. In the slow-folding secondary pathway, partial core collapse occurs before helical structure. The slow-folding rate of the secondary pathway is attributed to the loss of side-chain rotational freedom, due to the early core collapse, which impedes the helix formation. A major finding is the observation of a low-temperature kinetic intermediate stabilized by a salt bridge between residues Asp-9 and Arg-16. Similar observations [R. Zhou, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 13280 (2003)] were reported in a recent study using an all-atom model of the Trp-cage in explicit water, in which the salt-bridge stabilized intermediate was hypothesized to be the origin of the ultrafast-folding mechanism. A theoretical mutation that eliminates the Asp-9-Arg-16 salt bridge, but leaves the residues intact, is performed. Folding simulations of the mutant Trp-cage observe a two-state free-energy landscape with no kinetic intermediate and a significant decrease in the folding rate, in support of the hypothesis.

  3. Back-Influence of Molecular Motion on Energy Transfer in the Landau-Teller Model of Atom Molecule Scattering.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Eli

    2016-07-21

    This year we celebrate the 80th anniversary of the Landau-Teller model for energy exchange in a collinear collision of an atom with a harmonic diatomic molecule. Even after 80 years though, the analytic theory to date has not included in it the back-influence of the oscillator's motion on the energy transfer between the approaching particle and the molecule. This is the topic of the present paper. The back-influence can be obtained by employing classical second-order perturbation theory. The second-order theory is used in both a classical and semiclassical context. Classically, analytic expressions are derived for the final phase and action of the diatom, after the collision. The energy loss of the atom is shown to decrease linearly with the increasing energy of the oscillator. The magnitude of this decrease is a direct consequence of the back-reaction of the oscillator on the translational motion. The qualitative result is universal, in the sense that it is not dependent on the details of the interaction of the atom with the oscillator. A numerical application to a model collision of an Ar atom with a Br2 diatom demonstrates the importance and accuracy of the second-order perturbation theory. The same results are then used to derive a second-order perturbation theory semiclassical expression for the quantum transition probability from initial vibrational state ni to final vibrational state nf of the oscillator. A comparison of the theory with exact quantum data is presented for a model collision of Br2 with a hydrogen molecule, where the hydrogen molecule is considered as a single approaching particle.

  4. Quantitative composition determination at the atomic level using model-based high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; Rosenauer, A; De Backer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-02-01

    High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images provide sample information which is sensitive to the chemical composition. The image intensities indeed scale with the mean atomic number Z. To some extent, chemically different atomic column types can therefore be visually distinguished. However, in order to quantify the atomic column composition with high accuracy and precision, model-based methods are necessary. Therefore, an empirical incoherent parametric imaging model can be used of which the unknown parameters are determined using statistical parameter estimation theory (Van Aert et al., 2009, [1]). In this paper, it will be shown how this method can be combined with frozen lattice multislice simulations in order to evolve from a relative toward an absolute quantification of the composition of single atomic columns with mixed atom types. Furthermore, the validity of the model assumptions are explored and discussed.

  5. Hubbard Model for Atomic Impurities Bound by the Vortex Lattice of a Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T H; Yuan, Y; Bao, W; Clark, S R; Foot, C; Jaksch, D

    2016-06-17

    We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes. PMID:27367366

  6. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH.

  7. Hubbard Model for Atomic Impurities Bound by the Vortex Lattice of a Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T H; Yuan, Y; Bao, W; Clark, S R; Foot, C; Jaksch, D

    2016-06-17

    We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes.

  8. EXAFS Measurements and Reverse Monte Carlo Modeling of Atomic Structure in Amorphous Ni80P20 Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,W.; Ma, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a full account of the EXAFS measurements and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the atomic arrangements and short-to-medium range structure in an amorphous Ni-P alloy, expanding on the description included in our recent publication. The atomic packing is analyzed from the standpoint of solute atoms. The short-to-medium range structure is discussed based on single-solute-centered quasi-equivalent clusters that form due to strong chemical short-range ordering, and the topological order is described in terms of both intra-cluster and inter-cluster dense packing for efficient filling of space. This analysis is also conducted for amorphous Ni80P20 prepared via different processing routes, to observe if the polyamorphism suggested in literature for amorphous Ni-P can be confirmed from the local structure perspective. The structural differences between the proposed polymorphs are apparently subtle and a full resolution of this issue is found to be beyond the capabilities of our EXAFS/RMC modeling approach. The amorphous structural features uncovered are also compared briefly with those observed before in amorphous alloy systems with positive heat of mixing.

  9. Atom-atom inelastic collisions and three-body atomic recombination in weakly ionized argon plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, C. G.; Kunc, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A stationary collisional-radiative model including both inelastic electron-atom and atom-atom collisions is used to examine nonequilibrium weakly ionized argon plasmas with atomic densities 10 to the 16th to 10 to the 20th/cu cm, temperatures below 6000 K, and with different degrees of radiation trapping. It is shown that three-body atomic recombination becomes important at high particle densities. Comparison is made between the present approach and Thomson's theory for atomic recombination.

  10. REMO: A new protocol to refine full atomic protein models from C-alpha traces by optimizing hydrogen-bonding networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Zhang, Yang

    2009-08-15

    Protein structure prediction approaches usually perform modeling simulations based on reduced representation of protein structures. For biological utilizations, it is an important step to construct full atomic models from the reduced structure decoys. Most of the current full atomic model reconstruction procedures have defects which either could not completely remove the steric clashes among backbone atoms or generate final atomic models with worse topology similarity relative to the native structures than the reduced models. In this work, we develop a new protocol, called REMO, to generate full atomic protein models by optimizing the hydrogen-bonding network with basic fragments matched from a newly constructed backbone isomer library of solved protein structures. The algorithm is benchmarked on 230 nonhomologous proteins with reduced structure decoys generated by I-TASSER simulations. The results show that REMO has a significant ability to remove steric clashes, and meanwhile retains good topology of the reduced model. The hydrogen-bonding network of the final models is dramatically improved during the procedure. The REMO algorithm has been exploited in the recent CASP8 experiment which demonstrated significant improvements of the I-TASSER models in both atomic-level structural refinement and hydrogen-bonding network construction.

  11. Tomography of atomic number and density of materials using dual-energy imaging and the Alvarez and Macovski attenuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paziresh, M.; Kingston, A. M.; Latham, S. J.; Fullagar, W. K.; Myers, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography and the Alvarez and Macovski [Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976)] transmitted intensity (AMTI) model were used in this study to estimate the maps of density (ρ) and atomic number (Z) of mineralogical samples. In this method, the attenuation coefficients are represented [Alvarez and Macovski, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976)] in the form of the two most important interactions of X-rays with atoms that is, photoelectric absorption (PE) and Compton scattering (CS). This enables material discrimination as PE and CS are, respectively, dependent on the atomic number (Z) and density (ρ) of materials [Alvarez and Macovski, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976)]. Dual-energy imaging is able to identify sample materials even if the materials have similar attenuation coefficients at single-energy spectrum. We use the full model rather than applying one of several applied simplified forms [Alvarez and Macovski, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976); Siddiqui et al., SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2004); Derzhi, U.S. patent application 13/527,660 (2012); Heismann et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2073-2079 (2003); Park and Kim, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 59, 2709 (2011); Abudurexiti et al., Radiol. Phys. Technol. 3, 127-135 (2010); and Kaewkhao et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1260-1265 (2008)]. This paper describes the tomographic reconstruction of ρ and Z maps of mineralogical samples using the AMTI model. The full model requires precise knowledge of the X-ray energy spectra and calibration of PE and CS constants and exponents of atomic number and energy that were estimated based on fits to simulations and calibration measurements. The estimated ρ and Z images of the samples used in this paper yield average relative errors of 2.62% and 1.19% and maximum relative errors of 2.64% and 7.85%, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the method accounts for the beam hardening effect in density (ρ) and

  12. Analysis of structural correlations in a model binary 3D liquid through the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the atomic stress tensors.

    PubMed

    Levashov, V A

    2016-03-01

    It is possible to associate with every atom or molecule in a liquid its own atomic stress tensor. These atomic stress tensors can be used to describe liquids' structures and to investigate the connection between structural and dynamic properties. In particular, atomic stresses allow to address atomic scale correlations relevant to the Green-Kubo expression for viscosity. Previously correlations between the atomic stresses of different atoms were studied using the Cartesian representation of the stress tensors or the representation based on spherical harmonics. In this paper we address structural correlations in a 3D model binary liquid using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the atomic stress tensors. This approach allows to interpret correlations relevant to the Green-Kubo expression for viscosity in a simple geometric way. On decrease of temperature the changes in the relevant stress correlation function between different atoms are significantly more pronounced than the changes in the pair density function. We demonstrate that this behaviour originates from the orientational correlations between the eigenvectors of the atomic stress tensors. We also found correlations between the eigenvalues of the same atomic stress tensor. For the studied system, with purely repulsive interactions between the particles, the eigenvalues of every atomic stress tensor are positive and they can be ordered: λ1 ≥ λ2 ≥ λ3 ≥ 0. We found that, for the particles of a given type, the probability distributions of the ratios (λ2/λ1) and (λ3/λ2) are essentially identical to each other in the liquids state. We also found that λ2 tends to be equal to the geometric average of λ1 and λ3. In our view, correlations between the eigenvalues may represent "the Poisson ratio effect" at the atomic scale. PMID:26957166

  13. Analysis of structural correlations in a model binary 3D liquid through the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the atomic stress tensors.

    PubMed

    Levashov, V A

    2016-03-01

    It is possible to associate with every atom or molecule in a liquid its own atomic stress tensor. These atomic stress tensors can be used to describe liquids' structures and to investigate the connection between structural and dynamic properties. In particular, atomic stresses allow to address atomic scale correlations relevant to the Green-Kubo expression for viscosity. Previously correlations between the atomic stresses of different atoms were studied using the Cartesian representation of the stress tensors or the representation based on spherical harmonics. In this paper we address structural correlations in a 3D model binary liquid using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the atomic stress tensors. This approach allows to interpret correlations relevant to the Green-Kubo expression for viscosity in a simple geometric way. On decrease of temperature the changes in the relevant stress correlation function between different atoms are significantly more pronounced than the changes in the pair density function. We demonstrate that this behaviour originates from the orientational correlations between the eigenvectors of the atomic stress tensors. We also found correlations between the eigenvalues of the same atomic stress tensor. For the studied system, with purely repulsive interactions between the particles, the eigenvalues of every atomic stress tensor are positive and they can be ordered: λ1 ≥ λ2 ≥ λ3 ≥ 0. We found that, for the particles of a given type, the probability distributions of the ratios (λ2/λ1) and (λ3/λ2) are essentially identical to each other in the liquids state. We also found that λ2 tends to be equal to the geometric average of λ1 and λ3. In our view, correlations between the eigenvalues may represent "the Poisson ratio effect" at the atomic scale.

  14. Estimation of Enthalpy of Formation of Liquid Transition Metal Alloys: A Modified Prescription Based on Macroscopic Atom Model of Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Subramanian; Saibaba, Saroja

    2016-09-01

    The enthalpy of formation Δo H f is an important thermodynamic quantity, which sheds significant light on fundamental cohesive and structural characteristics of an alloy. However, being a difficult one to determine accurately through experiments, simple estimation procedures are often desirable. In the present study, a modified prescription for estimating Δo H f L of liquid transition metal alloys is outlined, based on the Macroscopic Atom Model of cohesion. This prescription relies on self-consistent estimation of liquid-specific model parameters, namely electronegativity ( ϕ L) and bonding electron density ( n b L ). Such unique identification is made through the use of well-established relationships connecting surface tension, compressibility, and molar volume of a metallic liquid with bonding charge density. The electronegativity is obtained through a consistent linear scaling procedure. The preliminary set of values for ϕ L and n b L , together with other auxiliary model parameters, is subsequently optimized to obtain a good numerical agreement between calculated and experimental values of Δo H f L for sixty liquid transition metal alloys. It is found that, with few exceptions, the use of liquid-specific model parameters in Macroscopic Atom Model yields a physically consistent methodology for reliable estimation of mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys.

  15. Ab initio and Atomic kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of segregation in concentrated FeCrNi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piochaud, J. B.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2014-06-01

    Internal structure of pressurised water reactors are made of austenitic materials. Under irradiation, the microstructure of these concentrated alloys evolves and solute segregation on grain boundaries or irradiation defects such as dislocation loops are observed to take place. In order to model and predict the microstructure evolution, a multiscale modelling approach needs to be developed, which starts at the atomic scale. Atomic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) modelling is the method we chose to provide an insight on defect mediated diffusion under irradiation. In that approach, we model the concentrated commercial steel as a FeCrNi alloy (γ-Fe70Cr20Ni10). As no reliable empirical potential exists at the moment to reproduce faithfully the phase diagram and the interactions of the elements and point defects, we have adjusted a pair interaction model on large amount of DFT calculations. The point defect properties in the Fe70Cr20Ni10, and more precisely, how their formation energy depends on the local environment will be presented and some AKMC results on thermal non equilibrium segregation and radiation induce segregation will be presented. The effect of Si on the segregation will also be discussed.

  16. Atomic Decay Data for Modeling K Lines of Iron Peak and Light Odd-Z Elements*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M. A.; Garcia, J.; Witthoeft, M. C.; Kallman, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Complete data sets of level energies, transition wavelengths, A-values, radiative and Auger widths and fluorescence yields for K-vacancy levels of the F, Na, P, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn isonuclear sequences have been computed by a Hartree-Fock method that includes relativistic corrections as implemented in Cowan's atomic structure computer suite. The atomic parameters for more than 3 million fine-structure K lines have been determined. Ions with electron number N greater than 9 are treated for the first time, and detailed comparisons with available measurements and theoretical data for ions with N less than or equal to 9 are carried out in order to estimate reliable accuracy ratings.

  17. Proton scattering by a hydrogen atom in an effectively two-body model

    SciTech Connect

    Pupyshev, V. V.

    2013-02-15

    It is assumed that the total potential of proton interaction with a hydrogen atom is the sum of the short-range nuclear soft-core Reid potential and the long-range Thomas-Fermi potential. A quantum mechanical analysis of low-energy features of the phase shift and cross section for elastic proton scattering on a hydrogen atom is given for the case of zero total angular momentum. The calculations performed in the present study within a nonlinear version of the variable-phase approach ultimately revealed that, because of a long-range character of the asymptotic behavior of the Thomas-Fermi potential, the respective cross section at low energies oscillates but has a finite number of zeros.

  18. Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Foss-Feig, Michael; Hermele, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria

    2010-05-15

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  19. Emergence of Zeolite Analogs and other Microporous Crystals in an Atomic Lattice Model of Silica and Related Materials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lin; Auerbach, Scott M; Monson, Peter A

    2012-03-15

    The potential of tailored nanopores to transform technologies such as drug delivery, biofuel production, and optical-electronic devices depends on fundamental knowledge of the self-assembly of ordered nanoporous solids. Atomic-level geometries of critical nuclei that lead to such solids have remained hidden in the nanoscale blind spot between local (<0.5 nm) and collective (>5 nm) probes of structure. Heroic efforts at molecular simulation of nanopore formation have provided massive libraries of hypothetical structures; (1-5) however, to date no statistical simulation has generated a crystallization pathway from random initial condition to ordered nanoporous solid, until now. In this work, we show that a recently developed atomic lattice model of silica and related materials can form ordered nanoporous solids with a rich variety of structures including known chalcogenides, zeolite analogs, and layered materials. We find that whereas canonical Monte Carlo simulations of the model consistently produce the amorphous solids studied in our previous work, parallel tempering Monte Carlo gives rise to ordered nanoporous solids. The utility of parallel tempering highlights the existence of barriers between amorphous and crystalline phases of our model. Moreover, the self-assembly or nanoporous crystalline phases in the model open the door to detailed understanding of nanopore nucleation.

  20. Simulation of Heterogeneous Atom Probe Tip Shapes Evolution during Field Evaporation Using a Level Set Method and Different Evaporation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Li, Dongsheng; Xu, Wei; Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Geiser, B. P.; Larson, David J.

    2015-04-01

    In atom probe tomography (APT), accurate reconstruction of the spatial positions of field evaporated ions from measured detector patterns depends upon a correct understanding of the dynamic tip shape evolution and evaporation laws of component atoms. Artifacts in APT reconstructions of heterogeneous materials can be attributed to the assumption of homogeneous evaporation of all the elements in the material in addition to the assumption of a steady state hemispherical dynamic tip shape evolution. A level set method based specimen shape evolution model is developed in this study to simulate the evaporation of synthetic layered-structured APT tips. The simulation results of the shape evolution by the level set model qualitatively agree with the finite element method and the literature data using the finite difference method. The asymmetric evolving shape predicted by the level set model demonstrates the complex evaporation behavior of heterogeneous tip and the interface curvature can potentially lead to the artifacts in the APT reconstruction of such materials. Compared with other APT simulation methods, the new method provides smoother interface representation with the aid of the intrinsic sub-grid accuracy. Two evaporation models (linear and exponential evaporation laws) are implemented in the level set simulations and the effect of evaporation laws on the tip shape evolution is also presented.

  1. Atomic Level Anisotropy in the Electrostatic Modeling of Lone Pairs for a Polarizable Force Field Based on the Classical Drude Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Harder, Edward; Anisimov, Victor M; Vorobyov, Igor V; Lopes, Pedro E M; Noskov, Sergei Y; MacKerell, Alexander D; Roux, Benoît

    2006-11-01

    Electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom that do not participate in the bonding of a molecule ("lone pairs") give rise to a concentrated electron density away from the atom center. To account for the asymmetry in the electron charge density that arises from lone pairs, an electrostatic model is developed that is parametrically anisotropic at the atomic level. The model uses virtual interaction sites with partial charges that are associated but not coincident with the nuclei. In addition, the model incorporates anisotropic atomic polarizabilities. The protocol previously outlined in Anisimov et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2005, 1, 153] for parametrizing the electrostatic potential energy of a polarizable force field using classical Drude oscillators is extended to incorporate additional lone pair parameters. To probe the electrostatic environment around the lone pairs, the static (molecule alone) and perturbed (molecule in the presence of a test charge) electrostatic potential (ESP) are evaluated and compared to high level quantum mechanical (QM) electronic structure calculations. The parametrization of the virtual sites relies on data from the QM static ESP. The contribution to the perturbed ESP from the electronic polarization of the molecule is used to resolve the components of the atomic polarizability tensor. The model is tested in the case of four molecules:  methanol, acetone, methylamine, and pyridine. Interaction energies with water and sodium are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The results are compared with simpler models placing all the charge on the nuclei as well as using only isotropic atomic polarizabilities. Analysis shows that the addition of virtual sites reduces the average error relative to the QM calculations. In contrast to models with atom centered charges, the virtual site models correctly predict the minimum energy conformation for acetone and methanol, with water, to be closely coordinated with the lone pair direction

  2. Simple analytical embedded-atom-potential model including a long-range force for fcc metals and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J.; Ye, Y. Y.

    1996-09-01

    A simple analytical embedded-atom method (EAM) model is developed. The model includes a long-range force. In this model, the electron-density function is taken as a decreasing exponential function, the two-body potential is defined as a function like a form given by Rose et al. [Phys. Rev. B 33, 7983 (1986)], and the embedding energy is assumed to be an universal form recently suggested by Banerjea and Smith. The embedding energy has a positive curvature. The model is applied to seven fcc metals (Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt) and their binary alloys. All the considered properties, whether for pure metal systems or for alloy systems, are predicted to be satisfactory at least qualitatively. The model resolves the problems of Johnson's model for predicting the properties of the alloys involving metal Pd. However, more importantly, (i) by investigating the structure stability of seven fcc metals using the present model, we found that the stability energy is dominated by both the embedding energy and the pair potential for fcc-bcc stability while the pair potential dominates and is underestimated for fcc-hcp stability; and (ii) we find that the predicted total energy as a function of lattice parameter is in good agreement with the equation of state of Rose et al. for all seven fcc metals, and that this agreement is closely related to the electron density, i.e., the lower the contribution from atoms of the second-nearest neighbor to host density, the better the agreement becomes. We conclude the following: (i) for an EAM, where angle force is not considered, the long-range force is necessary for a prediction of the structure stability; or (ii) the dependence of the electron density on angle should be considered so as to improve the structure-stability energy. The conclusions are valid for all EAM models where an angle force is not considered.

  3. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature ismore » roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.« less

  4. Hydration free energies using semiempirical quantum mechanical Hamiltonians and a continuum solvent model with multiple atomic-type parameters.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Victor M; Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2011-06-23

    To build the foundation for accurate quantum mechanical (QM) simulation of biomacromolecules in an aqueous environment, we undertook the optimization of the COnductor-like Screening MOdel (COSMO) atomic radii and atomic surface tension coefficients for different semiempirical Hamiltonians adhering to the same computational conditions recently followed in the simulation of biomolecular systems. This optimization was achieved by reproducing experimental hydration free energies of a set consisting of 507 neutral and 99 ionic molecules. The calculated hydration free energies were significantly improved by introducing a multiple atomic-type scheme that reflects different chemical environments. The nonpolar contribution was treated according to the scaled particle Claverie-Pierotti formalism. Separate radii and surface tension coefficient sets have been developed for AM1, PM3, PM5, and RM1 semiempirical Hamiltonians, with an average unsigned error for neutral molecules of 0.64, 0.66, 0.73, and 0.71 kcal/mol, respectively. Free energy calculation of each molecule took on average 0.5 s on a single processor. The new sets of parameters will enhance the quality of semiempirical QM calculations using COSMO in biomolecular systems. Overall, these results further extend the utility of QM methods to chemical and biological systems in the condensed phase.

  5. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multicomponent metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamical aspects of a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (self diffusion coefficient, self relaxation time, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx˜1300 K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs well above the melting point of the system (Tm˜900 K) in the equilibrium liquid state; and the crossover temperature Tx is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature of the system (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a nonparametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter α2 and the four-point correlation function χ4.

  6. Semiclassical multichannel perturbed-stationary-state model for rearrangement atomic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hose, Gabriel

    1995-03-01

    We present a translationally invariant formulation of the semiclassical perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) method of atomic collisions that satisfies scattering boundary conditions without resorting to the electron translation factor. Our formulation hinges on the fact that correctly dissociating linear combinations of adiabatic electronic states become in the limit proper atomic states. Galilean invariant dynamical couplings are generated by scattering momenta conjugated to reaction coordinates in the Jacobi frames appropriate for describing either the colliding or the parting atomic species. Residual asymptotic couplings exist and constitute a necessary ingredient of our theory. They emerge because an electron in asymptotic capture (charge-exchange) state travels in the Jacobi frame proper for its collision entry state. As such, we do not eliminate the residual couplings by modifying the adiabatic functions with an electron translation factor, but rather harness them to construct asymptotic interaction-picture traveling states suitable for the PSS basis employed. This allows negating the traveling phases from the semiclassically propagated adiabatic amplitudes. The resulting phase-free capture amplitudes reach a definite asymptotic limit. The collision momentum operators in Jacobi coordinates proper for different asymptotic rearrangements are not equivalent. This is always true regardless of the basis employed, since imposing a diagonal internal kinetic energy in one Jacobi frame necessarily implies it is not diagonal in other internal coordinates (which is also the source of residual couplings). We therefore suggest a unique and instantaneous dynamical coupling operator may be constructed as the temporal adiabatic-state weighted average of the scattering momenta associated with the electronic rearrangements spanned by the basis. The proposed multichannel PSS propagator is shown, in forthcoming work, to faithfully reproduce the charge-exchange cross sections in

  7. Momentum density and spatial form of correlated density matrix in model two-electron atoms with harmonic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Ali; Rubio, Angel; March, Norman H.

    2007-09-15

    The detailed nature of the correlated first-order density matrix for the model atoms in the title for arbitrary interparticle interaction u(r{sub 12}) is studied. One representation with contracted information is first explored by constructing the momentum density {rho}(p) in terms of the wave function of the relative motion, say {psi}{sub R}(r{sub 12}), which naturally depends on the choice of u(r{sub 12}). For u(r{sub 12})=e{sup 2}/r{sub 12}, the so-called Hookean atom, and for the inverse square law u(r{sub 12})={lambda}/r{sub 12}{sup 2}, plots are presented of the above density {rho}(p) in momentum space. The correlated kinetic energy is recovered from averaging p{sup 2}/2m, m denoting the electron mass, with respect to {rho}(p). The second method developed is in coordinate space and expands the density matrix {gamma}(r{sub 1},r{sub 2}) in Legendre polynomials, using relative coordinate r{sub 1}-r{sub 2}, center-of-mass coordinate (r{sub 1}+r{sub 2})/2 and the angle, {theta} say, between these two vectors. For the Moshinsky atom in which u(r{sub 12})=(1/2)kr{sub 12}{sup 2} only the s term (l=0) contributes to the Legendre polynomial expansion. The specific example we present of the inverse square law model is shown to be characterized by the low-order terms (s+d) of the Legendre expansion. The Wigner function is finally calculated analytically for both Moshinsky and inverse square law models.

  8. Momentum density and spatial form of correlated density matrix in model two-electron atoms with harmonic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Ali; March, Norman H.; Rubio, Angel

    2007-09-01

    The detailed nature of the correlated first-order density matrix for the model atoms in the title for arbitrary interparticle interaction u(r12) is studied. One representation with contracted information is first explored by constructing the momentum density ρ(p) in terms of the wave function of the relative motion, say ΨR(r12) , which naturally depends on the choice of u(r12) . For u(r12)=e2/r12 , the so-called Hookean atom, and for the inverse square law u(r12)=λ/r122 , plots are presented of the above density ρ(p) in momentum space. The correlated kinetic energy is recovered from averaging p2/2m , m denoting the electron mass, with respect to ρ(p) . The second method developed is in coordinate space and expands the density matrix γ(r1,r2) in Legendre polynomials, using relative coordinate r1-r2 , center-of-mass coordinate (r1+r2)/2 and the angle, θ say, between these two vectors. For the Moshinsky atom in which u(r12)=(1)/(2)kr122 only the s term (l=0) contributes to the Legendre polynomial expansion. The specific example we present of the inverse square law model is shown to be characterized by the low-order terms (s+d) of the Legendre expansion. The Wigner function is finally calculated analytically for both Moshinsky and inverse square law models.

  9. Theoretical models for surface forces and adhesion and their measurement using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fabio L; Bueno, Carolina C; Da Róz, Alessandra L; Ziemath, Ervino C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2012-10-08

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of afs, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution.

  10. Theoretical Models for Surface Forces and Adhesion and Their Measurement Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fabio L.; Bueno, Carolina C.; Da Róz, Alessandra L.; Ziemath, Ervino C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of AFS, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution. PMID:23202925

  11. Quantum Drude oscillator model of atoms and molecules: Many-body polarization and dispersion interactions for atomistic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andrew P.; Crain, Jason; Sokhan, Vlad P.; Whitfield, Troy W.; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-04-01

    Treating both many-body polarization and dispersion interactions is now recognized as a key element in achieving the level of atomistic modeling required to reveal novel physics in complex systems. The quantum Drude oscillator (QDO), a Gaussian-based, coarse grained electronic structure model, captures both many-body polarization and dispersion and has linear scale computational complexity with system size, hence it is a leading candidate next-generation simulation method. Here, we investigate the extent to which the QDO treatment reproduces the desired long-range atomic and molecular properties. We present closed form expressions for leading order polarizabilities and dispersion coefficients and derive invariant (parameter-free) scaling relationships among multipole polarizability and many-body dispersion coefficients that arise due to the Gaussian nature of the model. We show that these “combining rules” hold to within a few percent for noble gas atoms, alkali metals, and simple (first-row hydride) molecules such as water; this is consistent with the surprising success that models with underlying Gaussian statistics often exhibit in physics. We present a diagrammatic Jastrow-type perturbation theory tailored to the QDO model that serves to illustrate the rich types of responses that the QDO approach engenders. QDO models for neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, designed to reproduce gas phase properties, are constructed and their condensed phase properties explored via linear scale diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations. Good agreement with experimental data for structure, cohesive energy, and bulk modulus is found, demonstrating a degree of transferability that cannot be achieved using current empirical models or fully ab initio descriptions.

  12. Hydrodynamic, Atomic Kinetic, and Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer Models of the X-ray Spectra of Compact Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Akiyama, S; Plewa, T

    2008-02-08

    We describe the results of an effort, funded by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, to model, using FLASH time-dependent adaptive-mesh hydrodynamic simulations, XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC atomic data, and Monte Carlo radiation transport, the radiatively-driven photoionized wind and accretion flow of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In this final report, we describe the purpose, approach, and technical accomplishments of this effort, including maps of the density, temperature, velocity, ionization parameter, and emissivity distributions of the X-ray emission lines of the well-studied HMXB Vela X-1.

  13. Atomic model of a cell-wall cross-linking enzyme in complex with an intact bacterial peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Schanda, Paul; Triboulet, Sébastien; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M; Ayala, Isabel; Callon, Morgane; Arthur, Michel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-12-24

    The maintenance of bacterial cell shape and integrity is largely attributed to peptidoglycan, a highly cross-linked biopolymer. The transpeptidases that perform this cross-linking are important targets for antibiotics. Despite this biomedical importance, to date no structure of a protein in complex with an intact bacterial peptidoglycan has been resolved, primarily due to the large size and flexibility of peptidoglycan sacculi. Here we use solid-state NMR spectroscopy to derive for the first time an atomic model of an l,d-transpeptidase from Bacillus subtilis bound to its natural substrate, the intact B. subtilis peptidoglycan. Importantly, the model obtained from protein chemical shift perturbation data shows that both domains-the catalytic domain as well as the proposed peptidoglycan recognition domain-are important for the interaction and reveals a novel binding motif that involves residues outside of the classical enzymatic pocket. Experiments on mutants and truncated protein constructs independently confirm the binding site and the implication of both domains. Through measurements of dipolar-coupling derived order parameters of bond motion we show that protein binding reduces the flexibility of peptidoglycan. This first report of an atomic model of a protein-peptidoglycan complex paves the way for the design of new antibiotic drugs targeting l,d-transpeptidases. The strategy developed here can be extended to the study of a large variety of enzymes involved in peptidoglycan morphogenesis.

  14. Assessment of current atomic scale modelling methods for the investigation of nuclear fuels under irradiation: Example of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Krack, Matthias; Freyss, Michel; Devanathan, Ram

    2015-10-13

    Multiscale approaches are developed to build more physically based kinetic and mechanical mesoscale models to enhance the predictive capability of fuel performance codes and increase the efficiency of the development of the safer and more innovative nuclear materials needed in the future. Atomic scale methods, and in particular electronic structure and empirical potential methods, form the basis of this multiscale approach. It is therefore essential to know the accuracy of the results computed at this scale if we want to feed them into higher scale models. We focus here on the assessment of the description of interatomic interactions in uranium dioxide using on the one hand electronic structure methods, in particular in the density functional theory (DFT) framework and on the other hand empirical potential methods. These two types of methods are complementary, the former enabling to get results from a minimal amount of input data and further insight into the electronic and magnetic properties, while the latter are irreplaceable for studies where a large number of atoms needs to be considered. We consider basic properties as well as specific ones, which are important for the description of nuclear fuel under irradiation. These are especially energies, which are the main data passed to higher scale models. We limit ourselves to uranium dioxide.

  15. Potentials for modeling cold collisions between Na (3S) and Rb (5S) atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Pashov, A.; Docenko, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Knoeckel, H.; Tiemann, E.

    2005-12-15

    The experimental characterization of the electronic states correlated to the asymptote of ground state Na (3S) and Rb (5S) atoms was expanded by spectroscopic data on a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} state levels using a high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy technique. The hyperfine splitting of the a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} state levels was partially resolved and analyzed for both Na {sup 85}Rb and Na {sup 87}Rb isotopomers. Transitions to high lying levels of the a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} and X {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} states were recorded simultaneously which enables one to determine long range parameters of the molecular potentials. Coupled channels calculations based on the Fourier grid method were finally applied for deriving accurate potential energy curves of the a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} and X {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} states capable of a reliable description of cold collisions between Na and Rb atoms in their ground states. Scattering lengths and Feshbach resonances were calculated for some quantum states.

  16. A Computer-Controlled Classroom Model of an Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Tyler A.; Johnson, Matthew M.; Eklund, Peter C.; Russin, Timothy J.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of "seeing by feeling" as a way to circumvent limitations on sight is universal on the macroscopic scale—reading Braille, feeling one's way around a dark room, etc. The development of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 extended this concept to imaging in the nanoscale. While there are classroom demonstrations that use a tactile probe to map the topography or some other property of a sample, the rastering of the probe over the sample is manually controlled, which is both tedious and potentially inaccurate. Other groups have used simulation or tele-operation of an AFM probe. In this paper we describe a teaching AFM with complete computer control to map out topographic and magnetic properties of a "crystal" consisting of two-dimensional arrays of spherical marble "atoms." Our AFM is well suited for lessons on the "Big Ideas of Nanoscale" such as tools and instrumentation, as well as a pre-teaching activity for groups with remote access AFM or mobile AFM. The principle of operation of our classroom AFM is the same as that of a real AFM, excepting the nature of the force between sample and probe.

  17. The Boson peak of model glass systems and its relation to atomic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derlet, P. M.; Maaß, R.; Löffler, J. F.

    2012-05-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) exhibit a rich variety of vibrational properties resulting from significant atomic scale disorder. The Boson peak, which reflects an enhancement of states in the low frequency regime of the vibrational density of states (VDOS), is one such experimental signature of amorphous materials that has gained much interest in recent times. However, the precise nature of these low frequency modes and how they are influenced by local atomic structure remains unclear. Past simulation work has demonstrated that such modes consist of a mixture of propagating and localized components, and have been referred to as quasi-localized modes. Using standard harmonic analysis, the present work investigates the structural origin of such modes by diagonalising the Hessian of atomistic BMG structures derived from molecular dynamics simulations using a binary Lennard Jones pair potential. It is found that the quasi-localized vibrational modes responsible for the low frequency enhancement of the VDOS exist in a structural environment characterized primarily by low elastic shear moduli, but also increased free volume, a hydrostatic pressure that is tensile, and low bulk moduli. These findings are found to arise from the long-range attractive nature of the pair-wise interaction potential, which manifests itself in the corresponding Hessian as long-range off-diagonal disorder characterized by a distribution of negative effective spring constants.

  18. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates.

  19. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates. PMID:22437350

  20. A Pseudo-Atomic Model of the COPII Cage Obtained from CryoEM and Mass Spectrometry Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Alex J.; Zhang, Qian; O’Donnell, Jason; Hariri, Hanaa; Bhattacharya, Nilakshee; Marshall, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    COPII vesicles transport proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. Previous cryoEM structures of the COPII cage lacked the resolution necessary to determine the residues of Sec13 and Sec31 that mediate assembly and flexibility of the COPII cage. Here we present a 12Å-resolution structure of the COPII cage, where the tertiary structure of Sec13 and Sec31 is clearly identifiable. We employ this structure and a homology model of the Sec13-Sec31 complex to create a reliable pseudo-atomic model of the COPII cage. We combined this model with hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis to characterize four distinct contact regions at the vertices of the COPII cage. Furthermore, we found that the 2-fold symmetry of the Sec31 dimeric region of Sec13-31 is broken on cage formation, and that the resulting hinge is essential to form the proper edge geometry in COPII cages. PMID:23262493

  1. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretationmore » of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.« less

  2. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  3. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Solares, Santiago D

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  4. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments. PMID:26734515

  5. Ultracold few fermionic atoms in needle-shaped double wells: spin chains and resonating spin clusters from microscopic Hamiltonians emulated via antiferromagnetic Heisenberg and t–J models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannouleas, Constantine; Brandt, Benedikt B.; Landman, Uzi

    2016-07-01

    Advances with trapped ultracold atoms intensified interest in simulating complex physical phenomena, including quantum magnetism and transitions from itinerant to non-itinerant behavior. Here we show formation of antiferromagnetic ground states of few ultracold fermionic atoms in single and double well (DW) traps, through microscopic Hamiltonian exact diagonalization for two DW arrangements: (i) two linearly oriented one-dimensional, 1D, wells, and (ii) two coupled parallel wells, forming a trap of two-dimensional, 2D, nature. The spectra and spin-resolved conditional probabilities reveal for both cases, under strong repulsion, atomic spatial localization at extemporaneously created sites, forming quantum molecular magnetic structures with non-itinerant character. These findings usher future theoretical and experimental explorations into the highly correlated behavior of ultracold strongly repelling fermionic atoms in higher dimensions, beyond the fermionization physics that is strictly applicable only in the 1D case. The results for four atoms are well described with finite Heisenberg spin-chain and cluster models. The numerical simulations of three fermionic atoms in symmetric DWs reveal the emergent appearance of coupled resonating 2D Heisenberg clusters, whose emulation requires the use of a t–J-like model, akin to that used in investigations of high T c superconductivity. The highly entangled states discovered in the microscopic and model calculations of controllably detuned, asymmetric, DWs suggest three-cold-atom DW quantum computing qubits.

  6. Ultracold few fermionic atoms in needle-shaped double wells: spin chains and resonating spin clusters from microscopic Hamiltonians emulated via antiferromagnetic Heisenberg and t-J models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannouleas, Constantine; Brandt, Benedikt B.; Landman, Uzi

    2016-07-01

    Advances with trapped ultracold atoms intensified interest in simulating complex physical phenomena, including quantum magnetism and transitions from itinerant to non-itinerant behavior. Here we show formation of antiferromagnetic ground states of few ultracold fermionic atoms in single and double well (DW) traps, through microscopic Hamiltonian exact diagonalization for two DW arrangements: (i) two linearly oriented one-dimensional, 1D, wells, and (ii) two coupled parallel wells, forming a trap of two-dimensional, 2D, nature. The spectra and spin-resolved conditional probabilities reveal for both cases, under strong repulsion, atomic spatial localization at extemporaneously created sites, forming quantum molecular magnetic structures with non-itinerant character. These findings usher future theoretical and experimental explorations into the highly correlated behavior of ultracold strongly repelling fermionic atoms in higher dimensions, beyond the fermionization physics that is strictly applicable only in the 1D case. The results for four atoms are well described with finite Heisenberg spin-chain and cluster models. The numerical simulations of three fermionic atoms in symmetric DWs reveal the emergent appearance of coupled resonating 2D Heisenberg clusters, whose emulation requires the use of a t-J-like model, akin to that used in investigations of high T c superconductivity. The highly entangled states discovered in the microscopic and model calculations of controllably detuned, asymmetric, DWs suggest three-cold-atom DW quantum computing qubits.

  7. Interlayer Potassium And Its Neighboring Atoms in Micas: Crystal-Chemical Modeling And Xanes Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brigatti, M.F.; Malferrari, D.; Poppi, M.; Mottana, A.; Cibin, G.; Marcelli, A.; Cinque, G.

    2009-05-12

    A detailed description of the interlayer site in trioctahedral true micas is presented based on a statistical appraisal of crystal-chemical, structural, and spectroscopic data determined on two sets of trioctahedral micas extensively studied by both X-ray diffraction refinement on single crystals (SC-XRD) and X-ray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS) at the potassium K-edge. Spectroscopy was carried out on both random powders and oriented cleavage flakes, the latter setting taking advantage of the polarized character of synchrotron radiation. Such an approach (AXANES) is shown to be complementary to crystal-chemical investigation based on SC-XRD refinement. However, the results are not definitive as they focus on few samples having extreme features only (e.g., end-members, unusual compositions, and samples with extreme and well-identified substitution mechanisms). The experimental absorption K-edge (XANES) for potassium was decomposed by calculation and extrapolated into a full in-plane absorption component ({sigma}{parallel}) and a full out-of-plane absorption component ({sigma}{perpendicular}). These two patterns reflect different structural features: {sigma}{parallel}represents the arrangement of the atoms located in the mica interlayer space and facing tetrahedral sheets; {sigma}{perpendicular} is associated with multiple-scattering interactions entering deep into the mica structure, thus also reflecting interactions with the heavy atoms (essentially Fe) located in the octahedral sheet. The out-of-plane patterns also provide insights into the electronic properties of the octahedral cations, such as their oxidation states (e.g., Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and their ordering (e.g., trans- vs. cis-setting). It is also possible to distinguish between F- and OH-rich micas due to peculiar absorption features originating from the F vs. OH occupancy of the O4 octahedral site. Thus, combining crystal-chemical, structural, and spectroscopic information is shown to be a

  8. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Method Combined with Hybrid All-Atom and Coarse-Grained Model: Theory and Application on Redox Potential Calculations.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2016-04-12

    We developed a new multiresolution method that spans three levels of resolution with quantum mechanical, atomistic molecular mechanical, and coarse-grained models. The resolution-adapted all-atom and coarse-grained water model, in which an all-atom structural description of the entire system is maintained during the simulations, is combined with the ab initio quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics method. We apply this model to calculate the redox potentials of the aqueous ruthenium and iron complexes by using the fractional number of electrons approach and thermodynamic integration simulations. The redox potentials are recovered in excellent accordance with the experimental data. The speed-up of the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model renders it computationally more attractive. The accuracy depends on the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model used in the combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical method. We have used another multiresolution model, in which an atomic-level layer of water molecules around redox center is solvated in supramolecular coarse-grained waters for the redox potential calculations. Compared with the experimental data, this alternative multilayer model leads to less accurate results when used with the coarse-grained polarizable MARTINI water or big multipole water model for the coarse-grained layer.

  9. Atomic Scale Modeling of High Strain Rate Deformation and Failure of HCP Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenchery, Karoon; Agarwal, Garvit; Dongare, Avinash

    2015-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of the microstructure effects on the defect evolution at the atomic resolution and the related contribution to plasticity at the macro-scales is needed to obtain a reliable performance of metallic materials in extreme environments. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to characterize the dynamic evolution of defect/damage structures during the deformation and failure behavior of HCP (Mg, Ti) metallic systems (single crystal and nanocrystalline at high strain rates as well as under shock loading conditions. The evolution of various types of dislocations, twins, faults, etc. and the related deformation and failure response (nucleation and growth of voids/cracks) will be discussed. The effects of strain rates on relationships between the microstructure and the strength of these materials at high strain rates and the underlying micromechanisms related to deformation and failure will be discussed.

  10. Modeling optical properties of silicon clusters by first principles: From a few atoms to large nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nurbawono, Argo; Liu, Shuanglong; Zhang, Chun

    2015-04-21

    Time dependent density functional tight binding (TDDFTB) method is implemented with sparse matrix techniques and improved parallelization algorithms. The method is employed to calculate the optical properties of various Si nanocrystals (NCs). The calculated light absorption spectra of small Si NCs from TDDFTB were found to be comparable with many body perturbation methods utilizing planewave basis sets. For large Si NCs (more than a thousand atoms) that are beyond the reach of conventional approaches, the TDDFTB method is able to produce reasonable results that are consistent with prior experiments. We also employed the method to study the effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties of large Si NCs. We learned that the optical properties of Si NCs can be manipulated with small molecule passivations such as methyl, hydroxyl, amino, and fluorine. In general, the shifts and profiles in the absorption spectra can be tuned with suitably chosen passivants.

  11. Atomically detailed models of gas mixture diffusion through CuBTC membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Keskin S; Liu JC; Johnson JK.

    2009-10-01

    Metal–organic frameworks are intriguing crystalline nanoporous materials that have potential applications in adsorption-based and membrane-based gas separations. We describe atomically detailed simulations of gas adsorption and diffusion in CuBTC that have been used to predict the performance of CuBTC membranes for separation of H2/CH4, CO2/CH4 and CO2/H2 mixtures. CuBTC membranes are predicted to have higher selectivities for all three mixtures than MOF-5 membranes, the only other metal–organic framework material for which detailed predictions of membrane selectivities have been made. Our results give insight into the physical properties that will be desirable in tuning the pore structure of MOFs for specific membrane-based separations

  12. Energetic Neutral Atom Emissions From Venus: VEX Observations and Theoretical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, M.-C.; Galli, A.; Tanaka, T.; Moore, T. E.; Wurz, P.; Holmstrom, M.

    2007-01-01

    Venus has almost no intrinsic magnetic field to shield itself from its surrounding environment. The solar wind thus directly interacts with the planetary ionosphere and atmosphere. One of the by-products of this close encounter is the production of energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions. Theoretical studies have shown that significant amount of ENAs are emanated from the planet. The launch of the Venus Express (VEX) in 2005 provided the first light ever of the Venus ENA emissions. The observed ENA flux level and structure are in pretty good agreement with the theoretical studies. In this paper, we present VEX ENA data and the comparison with numerical simulations. We seek to understand the solar wind interaction with the planet and the impacts on its atmospheres.

  13. Radiation amplification near an autoionizing state: A model in atomic Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Lambropoulos, P.; Tang, X.

    1994-08-01

    A consistent treatment of a AWoI through an autoionizing state with a solid quantitative application to Ca was presented. The treatment, in addition to the inclusion of a realistic and quantitative description of the significant atomic configuration, was also self-consistent in the sense that a complete specification of the pumping was included. In this study, it was demonstrated that multiphoton pumping can furnish a realistic scheme of amplification with or without inversion close to the minimum of an autoionizing state within the framework of an internally constant formalism. The gain for a probe pulse of a suitable duration was achieved based on the realistic parameters and a time-dependent analysis. One general indication observed was, within a particular range of intensities, ionization loss decreases up to a certain extent with increasing intensity.

  14. The study on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Weng, Yung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire during nanomachining. The coated diamond probe is used to as a tool, and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) is as an experimental platform for nanomachining. To understand the effect of normal force on single-crystal sapphire machining, this study tested nano-line machining and nano-rectangular pattern machining at different normal force. In nano-line machining test, the experimental results showed that the normal force increased, the groove depth from nano-line machining also increased. And the trend is logarithmic type. In nano-rectangular pattern machining test, it is found when the normal force increases, the groove depth also increased, but rather the accumulation of small chips. This paper combined the blew by air blower, the cleaning by ultrasonic cleaning machine and using contact mode probe to scan the surface topology after nanomaching, and proposed the "criterion of nanomachining cutting model," in order to determine the cutting model of single-crystal sapphire in the nanomachining is ductile regime cutting model or brittle regime cutting model. After analysis, the single-crystal sapphire substrate is processed in small normal force during nano-linear machining; its cutting modes are ductile regime cutting model. In the nano-rectangular pattern machining, due to the impact of machined zones overlap, the cutting mode is converted into a brittle regime cutting model.

  15. Flexible dose-response models for Japanese atomic bomb survivor data: Bayesian estimation and prediction of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James; Little, Mark P; Richardson, Sylvia

    2004-12-01

    Generalised absolute risk models were fitted to the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence data using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, taking account of random errors in the DS86 dose estimates. The resulting uncertainty distributions in the relative risk model parameters were used to derive uncertainties in population cancer risks for a current UK population. Because of evidence for irregularities in the low-dose dose response, flexible dose-response models were used, consisting of a linear-quadratic-exponential model, used to model the high-dose part of the dose response, together with piecewise-linear adjustments for the two lowest dose groups. Following an assumed administered dose of 0.001 Sv, lifetime leukaemia radiation-induced incidence risks were estimated to be 1.11 x 10(-2) Sv(-1) (95% Bayesian CI -0.61, 2.38) using this model. Following an assumed administered dose of 0.001 Sv, lifetime solid cancer radiation-induced incidence risks were calculated to be 7.28 x 10(-2) Sv(-1) (95% Bayesian CI -10.63, 22.10) using this model. Overall, cancer incidence risks predicted by Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods are similar to those derived by classical likelihood-based methods and which form the basis of established estimates of radiation-induced cancer risk.

  16. Equilibrated Atomic Models of Outward-Facing P-glycoprotein and Effect of ATP Binding on Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms. PMID:25600711

  17. Atomic structures and energies of grain boundaries in Mg2SiO4 forsterite from atomistic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaoud, Omar; Marquardt, Katharina; Jahn, Sandro

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundaries influence many physical and chemical properties of crystalline materials. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to study the structure of a series of [100] symmetric tilt grain boundaries in Mg2SiO4 forsterite. The present results show that grain boundary energies depend significantly on misorientation angle. For small misorientation angles (up to 22°), grain boundary structures consist of an array of partial edge dislocations with Burgers vector 1/2[001] associated with stacking faults and their energies can be readily fit with a model which adds the Peach-Koehler equation to the Read-Shockley dislocation model for grain boundaries. The core radius of partial dislocations and the spacing between the partials derived from grain boundary energies show that the transition from low- to high-angle grain boundaries occurs for a misorientation angle between 22° and 32°. For high misorientation angles (32.1° and 60.8°), the cores of dislocations overlap and form repeated structural units. Finally, we use a low energy atomic configuration obtained by molecular dynamics for the misorientation of 12.18° as input to simulate a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image. The simulated image is in good agreement with an observed HRTEM image, which indicates the power of the present approach to predict realistic atomic structures of grain boundaries in complex silicates.

  18. Equilibrated atomic models of outward-facing P-glycoprotein and effect of ATP binding on structural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G

    2015-01-20

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms.

  19. An atomic finite element model for biodegradable polymers. Part 2. A model for change in Young's modulus due to polymer chain scission.

    PubMed

    Gleadall, Andrew; Pan, Jingzhe; Kruft, Marc-Anton

    2015-11-01

    Atomic simulations were undertaken to analyse the effect of polymer chain scission on amorphous poly(lactide) during degradation. Many experimental studies have analysed mechanical properties degradation but relatively few computation studies have been conducted. Such studies are valuable for supporting the design of bioresorbable medical devices. Hence in this paper, an Effective Cavity Theory for the degradation of Young's modulus was developed. Atomic simulations indicated that a volume of reduced-stiffness polymer may exist around chain scissions. In the Effective Cavity Theory, each chain scission is considered to instantiate an effective cavity. Finite Element Analysis simulations were conducted to model the effect of the cavities on Young's modulus. Since polymer crystallinity affects mechanical properties, the effect of increases in crystallinity during degradation on Young's modulus is also considered. To demonstrate the ability of the Effective Cavity Theory, it was fitted to several sets of experimental data for Young's modulus in the literature.

  20. Improving atomic force microscopy imaging by a direct inverse asymmetric PI hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Feifei; Chan, Ho-Yin; Zhou, Lei; Dong, Zaili; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Wen Jung

    2015-02-03

    A modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model, referred to as a direct inverse asymmetric PI (DIAPI) model in this paper, was implemented to reduce the displacement error between a predicted model and the actual trajectory of a piezoelectric actuator which is commonly found in AFM systems. Due to the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator, the standard symmetric PI model cannot precisely describe the asymmetric motion of the actuator. In order to improve the accuracy of AFM scans, two series of slope parameters were introduced in the PI model to describe both the voltage-increase-loop (trace) and voltage-decrease-loop (retrace). A feedforward controller based on the DIAPI model was implemented to compensate hysteresis. Performance of the DIAPI model and the feedforward controller were validated by scanning micro-lenses and standard silicon grating using a custom-built AFM.

  1. All-Atom Structural Models of the Transmembrane Domains of Insulin and Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadiarani, Hossein; Vashisth, Harish

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily comprises many cell-surface receptors including the insulin receptor (IR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) that are constitutively homodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins. Therefore, these receptors require ligand-triggered domain rearrangements rather than receptor dimerization for activation. Specifically, binding of peptide ligands to receptor ectodomains transduces signals across the transmembrane domains for trans-autophosphorylation in cytoplasmic kinase domains. The molecular details of these processes are poorly understood in part due to the absence of structures of full-length receptors. Using MD simulations and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms, we present all-atom structural models of peptides containing 51 residues from the transmembrane and juxtamembrane regions of IR and IGF1R. In our models, the transmembrane regions of both receptors adopt helical conformations with kinks at Pro961 (IR) and Pro941 (IGF1R), but the C-terminal residues corresponding to the juxtamembrane region of each receptor adopt unfolded and flexible conformations in IR as opposed to a helix in IGF1R. We also observe that the N-terminal residues in IR form a kinked-helix sitting at the membrane–solvent interface, while homologous residues in IGF1R are unfolded and flexible. These conformational differences result in a larger tilt-angle of the membrane-embedded helix in IGF1R in comparison to IR to compensate for interactions with water molecules at the membrane–solvent interfaces. Our metastable/stable states for the transmembrane domain of IR, observed in a lipid bilayer, are consistent with a known NMR structure of this domain determined in detergent micelles, and similar states in IGF1R are consistent with a previously reported model of the dimerized transmembrane domains of IGF1R. Our all-atom structural models suggest potentially unique structural organization of kinase domains in each receptor. PMID

  2. Improving the Accuracy of Fitted Atomic Models in Cryo-EM Density Maps of Protein Assemblies Using Evolutionary Information from Aligned Homologous Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Ramachandran; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) has become an important technique to obtain structural insights into large macromolecular assemblies. However the resolution of the density maps do not allow for its interpretation at atomic level. Hence they are combined with high resolution structures along with information from other experimental or bioinformatics techniques to obtain pseudo-atomic models. Here, we describe the use of evolutionary conservation of residues as obtained from protein structures and alignments of homologous proteins to detect errors in the fitting of atomic structures as well as improve accuracy of the protein-protein interfacial regions in the cryo-EM density maps.

  3. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.

  4. Steric effect for proton, hydrogen-atom, and hydride transfer reactions with geometric isomers of NADH-model ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brian W; Polyansky, Dmitry E; Achord, Patrick; Cabelli, Diane; Muckerman, James T; Tanaka, Koji; Thummel, Randolph P; Zong, Ruifa; Fujita, Etsuko

    2012-01-01

    Two isomers, [Ru(1)]2+ (Ru = Ru(bpy)2, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, 1 = 2-(pyrid-2'-yl)-1-azaacridine) and [Ru(2)]2+ (2 = 3-(pyrid-2'-yl)-4-azaacridine), are bioinspired model compounds containing the nicotinamide functionality and can serve as precursors for the photogeneration of C-H hydrides for studying reactions pertinent to the photochemical reduction of metal-C1 complexes and/or carbon dioxide. While it has been shown that the structural differences between the azaacridine ligands of [Ru(1)]2+ and [Ru(2)]2+ have a significant effect on the mechanism of formation of the hydride donors, [Ru(1HH)]2+ and [Ru(2HH)]2+, in aqueous solution, we describe the steric implications for proton, net-hydrogen-atom and net-hydride transfer reactions in this work. Protonation of [Ru(2*-)] in aprotic and even protic media is slow compared to that of [Ru(1*-)]+. The net hydrogen-atom transfer between *[Ru(1)]2+ and hydroquinone (H2Q) proceeds by one-step EPT, rather than stepwise electron-proton transfer. Such a reaction was not observed for *[Ru(2)]2+ because the non-coordinated N atom is not easily available for an interaction with H2Q. Finally, the rate of the net hydride ion transfer from [Ru(1HH)]2+ to [Ph3C]+ is significantly slower than that of [Ru (2HH)]2+ owing to steric congestion at the donor site. PMID:22470971

  5. A new computational model for protein folding based on atomic solvation.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Scott, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    A new model for calculating the solvation energy of proteins is developed and tested for its ability to identify the native conformation as the global energy minimum among a group of thousands of computationally generated compact non-native conformations for a series of globular proteins. In the model (called the WZS model), solvation preferences for a set of 17 chemically derived molecular fragments of the 20 amino acids are learned by a training algorithm based on maximizing the solvation energy difference between native and non-native conformations for a training set of proteins. The performance of the WZS model confirms the success of this learning approach; the WZS model misrecognizes (as more stable than native) only 7 of 8,200 non-native structures. Possible applications of this model to the prediction of protein structure from sequence are discussed. PMID:7670381

  6. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Quantum Impurity Models with Coupled Cluster Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jin-Jun; Emary, Clive; Brandes, Tobias

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the ground-state properties of the Anderson single impurity model (finite Coulomb impurity repulsion) with the Coupled Cluster Method. We consider different CCM reference states and approximation schemes and make comparison with exact Green's function results for the non-interacting model and with Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory for the full interacting model. Our results show that coupled cluster techniques are well suited to quantum impurity problems.

  7. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required.

  8. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  9. Atomic and Molecular Data Needs for Radiation Damage Modeling: Multiscale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2011-05-01

    We present a brief overview of the multiscale approach towards understanding of the processes responsible for the radiation damage caused by energetic ions. This knowledge is very important, because it can be utilized in the ion-beam cancer therapy, which is one of the most advanced modern techniques to cure certain type of cancer. The central element of the multiscale approach is the theoretical evaluation and quantification of the DNA damage within cell environment. To achieve this goal one needs a significant amount of data on various atomic and molecular processes involved into the cascade of events starting with the ion entering and propagation in the biological medium and resulting in the DNA damage. The discussion of the follow up biological processes are beyond the scope of this brief overview. We consider different paths of the DNA damage and focus on the the illustration of the thermo-mechanical effects caused by the propagation of ions through the biological environment and in particular on the possibility of the creation of the shock waves in the vicinity of the ion tracks. We demonstrate that at the initial stages after ion's passage the shock wave is so strong that it can contribute to the DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed at the distances of a few nanometers from the ionic tracks. This novel mechanism of the DNA damage provides an important contribution to the cumulative biodamage caused by low-energy secondary electrons, holes and free radicals.

  10. Atomic and Molecular Data Needs for Radiation Damage Modeling: Multiscale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Surdutovich, Eugene

    2011-05-11

    We present a brief overview of the multiscale approach towards understanding of the processes responsible for the radiation damage caused by energetic ions. This knowledge is very important, because it can be utilized in the ion-beam cancer therapy, which is one of the most advanced modern techniques to cure certain type of cancer. The central element of the multiscale approach is the theoretical evaluation and quantification of the DNA damage within cell environment. To achieve this goal one needs a significant amount of data on various atomic and molecular processes involved into the cascade of events starting with the ion entering and propagation in the biological medium and resulting in the DNA damage. The discussion of the follow up biological processes are beyond the scope of this brief overview. We consider different paths of the DNA damage and focus on the the illustration of the thermo-mechanical effects caused by the propagation of ions through the biological environment and in particular on the possibility of the creation of the shock waves in the vicinity of the ion tracks. We demonstrate that at the initial stages after ion's passage the shock wave is so strong that it can contribute to the DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed at the distances of a few nanometers from the ionic tracks. This novel mechanism of the DNA damage provides an important contribution to the cumulative biodamage caused by low-energy secondary electrons, holes and free radicals.

  11. Modeling of XFEL induced ionization and atomic displacement in protein nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleman, Carl; Tîmneanu, Nicusor; Martin, Andrew V.; White, Thomas A.; Scott, Howard A.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.

    2012-10-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers enable high-resolution imaging of biological materials by using short enough pulses to outrun many of the effects of radiation damage. Experiments conducted at the LCLS have obtained diffraction data from single particles and protein nanocrystals at doses to the sample over 3 GGy. The details of the interaction of the X-ray FEL pulse with the sample determine the limits of this new paradigm for imaging. Recent studies suggest that in the case of crystalline samples, such as protein nanocrystals, the atomic displacements and loss of bound electrons in the crystal (due to the high X- ray intensity) has the effect of gating the diffraction signal, and hence making the experiment less radiation sensitive. Only the incident photon intensity in the first part of the pulse, before the Bragg diffraction has died out, is relevant to acquiring signal and the rest of the pulse will mainly contribute to a diffuse background. In this work we use a plasma based non-local thermodynamic equilibrium code to explore the displacement and the ionization of a protein nanocrystal at various X-ray wavelengths and intensities.

  12. Atomic polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  13. Visualization of atom's orbits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungwhan

    2014-02-01

    High-resolution imaging techniques have been used to obtain views of internal shapes of single atoms or columns of atoms. This review article focuses on the visualization of internal atomic structures such as the configurations of electron orbits confined to atoms. This is accomplished by applying visualization techniques to the reported images of atoms or molecules as well as static and dynamic ions in a plasma. It was found that the photon and electron energies provide macroscopic and microscopic views of the orbit structures of atoms, respectively. The laser-imaged atoms showed a rugged orbit structure, containing alternating dark and bright orbits believed to be the pathways for an externally supplied laser energy and internally excited electron energy, respectively. By contrast, the atoms taken by the electron microscopy provided a structure of fine electron orbits, systematically formed in increasing order of grayscale representing the energy state of an orbit. This structure was identical to those of the plasma ions. The visualized electronic structures played a critical role in clarifying vague postulates made in the Bohr model. Main features proposed in the atomic model are the dynamic orbits absorbing an externally supplied electromagnetic energy, electron emission from them while accompanying light radiation, and frequency of electron waves not light. The light-accompanying electrons and ionic speckles induced by laser light signify that light is composed of electrons and ions.

  14. Solid lipid microparticles produced by spray congealing: influence of the atomizer on microparticle characteristics and mathematical modeling of the drug release.

    PubMed

    Passerini, Nadia; Qi, Sheng; Albertini, Beatrice; Grassi, Mario; Rodriguez, Lorenzo; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2010-02-01

    The first aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of atomizer design on the properties of solid lipid microparticles produced by spray congealing. Two different air atomizers have been employed: a conventional air pressure nozzle (APN) and a recently developed atomizer (wide pneumatic nozzle, WPN). Milled theophylline and Compritol 888ATO were used to produce microparticles at drug-to-carrier ratios of 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70 using the two atomizers. The results showed that the application of different nozzles had significant impacts on the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release behavior of the microparticles. In contrast, the characteristics of the atomizer did not influence the physicochemical properties of the microparticles as differential scanning calorimetry, Hot Stage microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated. The drug and the lipid carrier presented in their original crystalline forms in both WPN and APN systems. A second objective of this study was to develop a novel mathematical model for describing the dynamic process of drug release from the solid lipid microparticles. For WPN microparticles the model predicted the changes of the drug release behavior with particle size and drug loading, while for APN microparticles the model fitting was not as good as for the WPN systems, confirming the influence of the atomizer on the drug release behavior.

  15. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R; Sun, Xiao

    2016-03-22

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics.

  16. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R.; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics. PMID:27001169

  17. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics. PMID:27001169

  18. Quantum simulation of spin models and the discrete Truncated Wigner Approximation: from Rydberg atoms to trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineiro Orioli, Asier; Berges, Juergen; Signoles, Adrien; Schempp, Hanna; Whitlock, Shannon; Weidemueller, Matthias; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Wall, Michael; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-05-01

    Accurate description of the dynamics of quantum spin models is a theoretically challenging problem with widespread applications ranging from condensed matter to high-energy physics. Furthermore recent experimental progress in AMO experiments allows for the physical realization of these models in a variety of setups, such as Rydberg systems and trapped ion experiments, with an unprecedented degree of control and flexibility. Therefore, it is vital to develop efficient theoretical methods capable of simulating the many-body dynamics of such systems. In this work, we employ and extend the recently developed discrete Truncated Wigner Approximation (dTWA), an approximation based on the phase space description of quantum mechanics, to compute the dynamics of two types of spin models: the long-range XY model, which can be realized with Rydberg atoms, and a coupled spin-boson model, which is relevant to trapped ion experiments. Comparisons to experimental results and to available exact solutions to benchmark the method show that the dTWA is capable of capturing important features of the spin evolution and can also help uncovering some underlying non-equilibrium processes.

  19. History and Philosophy of Science through Models: Some Challenges in the Case of "The Atom".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justi, Rosaria; Gilbert, John

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that the contribution of history and philosophy of science (HPS) to science education can be enhanced through a consideration of scientific models. Analyzes the curriculum and textbooks for 14-16 year olds in Brazil and the United Kingdom and identifies the use of hybrid models. (Contains 35 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades in 3C-SiC: Comparison of interatomic potentials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samolyuk, German D.; Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-06-03

    We used molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades to characterize the nature of primary radiation damage in 3C-SiC. We demonstrated that the most commonly used interatomic potentials are inconsistent with ab initio calculations of defect energetics. Both the Tersoff potential used in this work and a modified embedded-atom method potential reveal a barrier to recombination of the carbon interstitial and carbon vacancy which is much higher than the density functional theory (DFT) results. The barrier obtained with a newer potential by Gao and Weber is closer to the DFT result. This difference results in significant differences in the cascademore » production of point defects. We have completed both 10 keV and 50 keV cascade simulations in 3C-SiC at a range of temperatures. In contrast to the Tersoff potential, the Gao-Weber potential produces almost twice as many C vacancies and interstitials at the time of maximum disorder (~0.2 ps) but only about 25% more stable defects at the end of the simulation. Only about 20% of the carbon defects produced with the Tersoff potential recombine during the in-cascade annealing phase, while about 60% recombine with the Gao-Weber potential.« less