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Sample records for moderate ischemic mitral

  1. Surgical treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Puskas, John D; Ascheim, Deborah D; Voisine, Pierre; Gelijns, Annetine C; Moskowitz, Alan J; Hung, Judy W; Parides, Michael K; Ailawadi, Gorav; Perrault, Louis P; Acker, Michael A; Argenziano, Michael; Thourani, Vinod; Gammie, James S; Miller, Marissa A; Pagé, Pierre; Overbey, Jessica R; Bagiella, Emilia; Dagenais, François; Blackstone, Eugene H; Kron, Irving L; Goldstein, Daniel J; Rose, Eric A; Moquete, Ellen G; Jeffries, Neal; Gardner, Timothy J; O'Gara, Patrick T; Alexander, John H; Michler, Robert E

    2014-12-04

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. For surgical patients with moderate regurgitation, the benefits of adding mitral-valve repair to coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) are uncertain. We randomly assigned 301 patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation to CABG alone or CABG plus mitral-valve repair (combined procedure). The primary end point was the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), a measure of left ventricular remodeling, at 1 year. This end point was assessed with the use of a Wilcoxon rank-sum test in which deaths were categorized as the lowest LVESVI rank. At 1 year, the mean LVESVI among surviving patients was 46.1±22.4 ml per square meter of body-surface area in the CABG-alone group and 49.6±31.5 ml per square meter in the combined-procedure group (mean change from baseline, -9.4 and -9.3 ml per square meter, respectively). The rate of death was 6.7% in the combined-procedure group and 7.3% in the CABG-alone group (hazard ratio with mitral-valve repair, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 2.12; P=0.81). The rank-based assessment of LVESVI at 1 year (incorporating deaths) showed no significant between-group difference (z score, 0.50; P=0.61). The addition of mitral-valve repair was associated with a longer bypass time (P<0.001), a longer hospital stay after surgery (P=0.002), and more neurologic events (P=0.03). Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation was less common in the combined-procedure group than in the CABG-alone group (11.2% vs. 31.0%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, deaths, readmissions, functional status, or quality of life at 1 year. In patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation, the addition of mitral-valve repair to CABG did not result in a higher degree of left ventricular reverse remodeling. Mitral-valve repair was associated with a reduced prevalence of moderate or

  2. CTS Trials Network: A paradigm shift in the surgical treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation?

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Cardiothoracic Surgery Trials Network has reported results of the one-year follow up of their randomized trial "Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation". They studied 301 patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without mitral repair with the primary end-point of change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) at one year and multiple clinical and echocardiographic secondary endpoints. Although their results were against repairing the mitral valve, the debate on surgical management of moderate IMR remains unsettled.

  3. CTS Trials Network: A paradigm shift in the surgical treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation?

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Cardiothoracic Surgery Trials Network has reported results of the one-year follow up of their randomized trial “Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation”. They studied 301 patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without mitral repair with the primary end-point of change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) at one year and multiple clinical and echocardiographic secondary endpoints. Although their results were against repairing the mitral valve, the debate on surgical management of moderate IMR remains unsettled. PMID:26779511

  4. [Does mitral valve annuloplasty improve long-term survival in patients having moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation undergoing CABG?].

    PubMed

    Silberman, Shuli; Merin, Ofer; Fink, Daniel; Alshousha, Atia; Shachar, Sigal; Tauber, Rachel; Butnaro, Adi; Bitran, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The best surgical approach for patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is still undetermined. We examined long term outcomes in patients with moderate IMR undergoing coronary bypass (CABG), and compared outcomes between those undergoing isolated CABG to those undergoing concomitant restrictive annuloplasty. Between the years 1993-2011, 231 patients with moderate IMR underwent CABG: group 1 (n = 186) underwent isolated CABG, group 2 (n = 15) underwent CABG with concomitant mitral valve annuloplasty. Univariate analysis was used to compare baseline parameters. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to compare survival. Cox multivariate regression was used to determine predictors for late survival. Survival data up to 20 years is 97% complete. The groups were similar with respect to age, prior MI, LV function, and incidence of atrial fibrillation. Patients undergoing mitral repair had a higher incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) (p < 0.0001). After surgery more repair patients required use of inotropes (p = 0.0005). Overall operative mortality was 7% and similar between groups. Ten year survival was 55% and 52% for groups 1 and 2 respectively (p = 0.2). Predictors of late mortality included age, CHF, LV dimensions and LV dysfunction. Neither the addition of a mitral procedure and type of ring implanted nor residual MR after surgery, emerged as predictors of survival. In patients with moderate ischemic MR, neither operative mortality nor long term survival are affected by the performance of a restrictive annuloplasty. For patients with CHF, mitral repair may be beneficial in terms of survival.

  5. Repair or observe moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation during coronary artery bypass grafting? Prospective randomized multicenter data

    PubMed Central

    Gulack, Brian C.; Englum, Brian R.; Castleberry, Anthony W.; Daneshmand, Mani A.; Perrault, Louis P.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common occurrence following myocardial infarction and its presence is associated with poor outcomes. The optimal treatment of ischemic MR is a matter of debate, especially for patients with moderate MR severity. Some authors advocate for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with moderate MR, maintaining that reverse ventricular remodeling will reduce MR grade and its associated mortality risk, while others argue that a concomitant mitral valve repair (MVR) or replacement is superior. The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CTSN) recently published the 1-year results of the Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation study, a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial investigating the impact of MVR in addition to CABG compared to CABG alone in the treatment of moderate ischemic MR. Here, we have reviewed previous observational and prospective studies investigating moderate ischemic MR treatment as well as the results of the current CTSN randomized trial. Furthermore, we have summarized the current state of the available evidence and preview potential new information that will become available with planned subgroup analyses and further follow-up of enrolled patients in the recently completed CTSN trial. PMID:26309829

  6. Two-Year Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Michler, Robert E; Smith, Peter K; Parides, Michael K; Ailawadi, Gorav; Thourani, Vinod; Moskowitz, Alan J; Acker, Michael A; Hung, Judy W; Chang, Helena L; Perrault, Louis P; Gillinov, A Marc; Argenziano, Michael; Bagiella, Emilia; Overbey, Jessica R; Moquete, Ellen G; Gupta, Lopa N; Miller, Marissa A; Taddei-Peters, Wendy C; Jeffries, Neal; Weisel, Richard D; Rose, Eric A; Gammie, James S; DeRose, Joseph J; Puskas, John D; Dagenais, François; Burks, Sandra G; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Milano, Carmelo A; Atluri, Pavan; Voisine, Pierre; O'Gara, Patrick T; Gelijns, Annetine C

    2016-05-19

    In a trial comparing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) alone with CABG plus mitral-valve repair in patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation, we found no significant difference in the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) or survival after 1 year. Concomitant mitral-valve repair was associated with a reduced prevalence of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, but patients had more adverse events. We now report 2-year outcomes. We randomly assigned 301 patients to undergo either CABG alone or the combined procedure. Patients were followed for 2 years for clinical and echocardiographic outcomes. At 2 years, the mean (±SD) LVESVI was 41.2±20.0 ml per square meter of body-surface area in the CABG-alone group and 43.2±20.6 ml per square meter in the combined-procedure group (mean improvement over baseline, -14.1 ml per square meter and -14.6 ml per square meter, respectively). The rate of death was 10.6% in the CABG-alone group and 10.0% in the combined-procedure group (hazard ratio in the combined-procedure group, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 1.83; P=0.78). There was no significant between-group difference in the rank-based assessment of the LVESVI (including death) at 2 years (z score, 0.38; P=0.71). The 2-year rate of moderate or severe residual mitral regurgitation was higher in the CABG-alone group than in the combined-procedure group (32.3% vs. 11.2%, P<0.001). Overall rates of hospital readmission and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups, but neurologic events and supraventricular arrhythmias remained more frequent in the combined-procedure group. In patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation undergoing CABG, the addition of mitral-valve repair did not lead to significant differences in left ventricular reverse remodeling at 2 years. Mitral-valve repair provided a more durable correction of mitral regurgitation but did not significantly improve survival or reduce overall adverse events or

  7. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Jahan; Chen, Frederick Y

    2015-05-01

    Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation remains controversial. In moderate mitral regurgitation (MR), controversy exists whether revascularization alone will be adequate to restore native valve geometry or whether intervention on the valve (repair) should be performed concomitantly. When MR is severe, the need for valve intervention is not disputed. Rather, the controversy is whether repair versus replacement should be undertaken. In contrast to degenerative or myxomatous disease that directly affects leaflet integrity and morphology, ischemic FMR results from a distortion and dilation of native ventricular geometry that normally supports normal leaflet coaptation. To address this, the first and most crucial step in successful valve repair is placement of an undersized, complete remodeling annuloplasty ring to restore the annulus to its native geometry. The following article outlines the steps for repair of ischemic mitral regurgitation.

  8. Design, Rationale, and Initiation of the Surgical Interventions for Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Trial: A Report from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter K.; Michler, Robert E.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Alexander, John H.; Puskas, John D.; D’Alessandro, David A.; Hahn, Rebecca T.; Williams, Judson B.; Dent, John M.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Moquete, Ellen; Pagé, Pierre; Jeffries, Neal O.; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Ascheim, Deborah D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation have demonstrably poorer outcome compared to coronary artery disease patients without mitral regurgitation. The optimal treatment of this condition has become increasingly controversial and a randomized trial evaluating current practices is warranted. Methods and Results We describe the design and initial execution of the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation trial. This is an ongoing prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial designed to test the safety and efficacy of mitral repair in addition to coronary artery bypass grafting in the treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation. Conclusion The results of the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network ischemic mitral regurgitation trials will provide long-awaited information on controversial therapies for a morbid disease process. PMID:21788032

  9. Ischemic mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Spadaccio; Nenna, Antonio; Chello, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral prolapse (IMP) is a pathologic entity encountered in about one-third among the patients undergoing surgery for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). IMP is generally the result of a papillary muscle injury consequent to myocardial, but the recent literature is progressively unveiling a more complex pathogenesis. The mechanisms underlying its development regards the impairment of one or more components of the mitral apparatus, which comprises the annulus, the chordae tendineae, the papillary muscle and the left ventricular wall. IMP is not only a disorder of valvular function, but also entails coexistent aspects of a geometric disturbance of the mitral valve configuration and of the left ventricular function and dimension and a correct understanding of all these aspects is crucial to guide and tailor the correct therapeutic strategy to be adopted. Localization of prolapse, anatomic features of the prolapsed leaflets and the subvalvular apparatus should be carefully evaluated as also constituting the major determinants defining patient’s outcomes. This review will summarize our current understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical evidence on IMP with a particular focus on the surgical treatment. PMID:28149574

  10. Predicting recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Kron, Irving L; Hung, Judy; Overbey, Jessica R; Bouchard, Denis; Gelijns, Annetine C; Moskowitz, Alan J; Voisine, Pierre; O'Gara, Patrick T; Argenziano, Michael; Michler, Robert E; Gillinov, Marc; Puskas, John D; Gammie, James S; Mack, Michael J; Smith, Peter K; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor; Gardner, Timothy J; Ailawadi, Gorav; Zeng, Xin; O'Sullivan, Karen; Parides, Michael K; Swayze, Roger; Thourani, Vinod; Rose, Eric A; Perrault, Louis P; Acker, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network recently reported no difference in the primary end point of left ventricular end-systolic volume index at 1 year postsurgery in patients randomized to repair (n = 126) or replacement (n = 125) for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation. However, patients undergoing repair experienced significantly more recurrent mitral regurgitation than patients undergoing replacement (32.6% vs 2.3%). We examined whether baseline echocardiographic and clinical characteristics could identify those who will develop moderate/severe recurrent mitral regurgitation or die. Our analysis includes 116 patients who were randomized to and received mitral valve repair. Logistic regression was used to estimate a model-based probability of recurrence or death from baseline factors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed from these estimated probabilities to determine classification cut-points maximizing accuracy of prediction based on sensitivity and specificity. Of the 116 patients, 6 received a replacement before leaving the operating room; all other patients had mild or less mitral regurgitation on intraoperative echocardiogram after repair. During the 2-year follow-up period, 76 patients developed moderate/severe mitral regurgitation or died (53 mitral regurgitation recurrences, 13 mitral regurgitation recurrences and death, and 10 deaths). The mechanism for recurrent mitral regurgitation was largely mitral valve leaflet tethering. Our model (including age, body mass index, sex, race, effective regurgitant orifice area, basal aneurysm/dyskinesis, New York Heart Association class, history of coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, or ventricular arrhythmias) yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. The model demonstrated good discrimination in identifying patients who will survive 2 years without recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair. Although our

  11. Moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation after postero-lateral myocardial infarction in sheep alters left ventricular shear but not normal strain in the infarct and infarct borderzone

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liang; Wu, Yife; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Khazalpour, Michael; Takaba, Kiyoaki; Tartibi, Mehrzad; Zhang, Zhihong; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Saloner, David A.; Wallace, Arthur W.; Mishra, Rakesh; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR: MR) is associated with poor outcome. Left ventricular (LV) strain after postero-lateral myocardial infarction (MI) may drive LV remodeling. Although moderate CIMR has been previously shown to effect LV remodeling, the effect of CIMR on LV strain after postero-lateral MI remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that moderate CIMR alters LV strain after postero-lateral MI. Methods/Results Postero-lateral MI was created in 10 sheep. Cardiac MRI with tags was performed 2 weeks before and 2, 8 and 16 weeks after MI. LV and right ventricular (RV) volumes were measured and regurgitant volume indexed to body surface area (BSA; RegurgVolume Index) calculated as the difference between LV and RV stroke volumes / BSA. Three-dimensional strain was calculated. Circumferential (Ecc)and longitudinal (Ell) strains were reduced in the infarct proper, MI borderzone (BZ) and remote myocardium 16 weeks after MI. In addition, radial circumferential (Erc) and radial longitudinal (Erl) shear strains were reduced in remote myocardium but increased in the infarct and BZ 16 weeks after MI. Of all strain components, however, only Erc was effected by RegurgVolume Index (p=0.0005). There was no statistically significant effect of RegurgVolume Index on Ecc, Ell, Erl, or circumferential longitudinal shear strain (Ecl). Conclusions Moderate CIMR alters radial circumferential shear strain after postero-lateral MI in the sheep. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of shear strain on myocyte hypertrophy and the effect of mitral repair on myocardial strain. PMID:26857634

  12. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation: lessons from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network randomized study.

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Santana, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% to 50% of patients will develop ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) after a myocardial infarction, which is a result of progressive left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction of the subvalvular apparatus, and portends a poor long-term prognosis. Surgical treatment is centered on mitral valve repair utilizing a restrictive annuloplasty, or valve replacement with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. In the recent Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CSTN) study, patients with severe ischemic MR were randomized to mitral valve repair with a restrictive annuloplasty versus chordal-sparing valve replacement, and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, if indicated. At 2-year follow-up, mitral valve repair was associated with a significantly higher incidence of moderate or greater recurrent MR and heart failure, with no difference in the indices of left ventricular reverse remodeling, as compared with valve replacement. The current appraisal aims to provide insight into the CSTN trial results, and discusses the evidence supporting a pathophysiologic-guided repair strategy incorporating combined annuloplasty and subvalvular repair techniques to optimize the outcomes of mitral valve repair in ischemic MR.

  13. Mitral-valve repair versus replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Acker, Michael A; Parides, Michael K; Perrault, Louis P; Moskowitz, Alan J; Gelijns, Annetine C; Voisine, Pierre; Smith, Peter K; Hung, Judy W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Puskas, John D; Argenziano, Michael; Gammie, James S; Mack, Michael; Ascheim, Deborah D; Bagiella, Emilia; Moquete, Ellen G; Ferguson, T Bruce; Horvath, Keith A; Geller, Nancy L; Miller, Marissa A; Woo, Y Joseph; D'Alessandro, David A; Ailawadi, Gorav; Dagenais, Francois; Gardner, Timothy J; O'Gara, Patrick T; Michler, Robert E; Kron, Irving L

    2014-01-02

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with a substantial risk of death. Practice guidelines recommend surgery for patients with a severe form of this condition but acknowledge that the supporting evidence for repair or replacement is limited. We randomly assigned 251 patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation to undergo either mitral-valve repair or chordal-sparing replacement in order to evaluate efficacy and safety. The primary end point was the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) at 12 months, as assessed with the use of a Wilcoxon rank-sum test in which deaths were categorized below the lowest LVESVI rank. At 12 months, the mean LVESVI among surviving patients was 54.6±25.0 ml per square meter of body-surface area in the repair group and 60.7±31.5 ml per square meter in the replacement group (mean change from baseline, -6.6 and -6.8 ml per square meter, respectively). The rate of death was 14.3% in the repair group and 17.6% in the replacement group (hazard ratio with repair, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 1.47; P=0.45 by the log-rank test). There was no significant between-group difference in LVESVI after adjustment for death (z score, 1.33; P=0.18). The rate of moderate or severe recurrence of mitral regurgitation at 12 months was higher in the repair group than in the replacement group (32.6% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in the rate of a composite of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, in functional status, or in quality of life at 12 months. We observed no significant difference in left ventricular reverse remodeling or survival at 12 months between patients who underwent mitral-valve repair and those who underwent mitral-valve replacement. Replacement provided a more durable correction of mitral regurgitation, but there was no significant between-group difference in clinical outcomes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of

  14. Surgery for ischemic mitral regurgitation: should the valve be repaired?

    PubMed

    Silberman, Shuli; Eldar, Orly; Oren, Avraham; Tauber, Rachel; Fink, Daniel; Klutstein, Marc W; Bitran, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) often have concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR). Repairing the valve at the time of surgery is not universally accepted. The results of CABG with or without mitral valve annuloplasty (MVA) were compared in patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) function and ischemic MR. Among a total of 195 patients, 108 underwent isolated CABG, and 87 underwent CABG with MVA. The study end-points included survival, degree of MR, and NYHA functional class. Patients in the MVA group were younger (mean age 63 +/- 10 versus 68 +/- 9 years; p <0.001), but had a more severe cardiac pathology, with severe LV dysfunction in 45% versus 26% (p = 0.006) and severe MR in 82% versus 14% (p < 0.001). The operative mortality was 9%, and similar in both groups. The follow up was complete, with a mean survival period of 87 +/- 50 months. Although, overall, no improvement was seen in LV function, symptomatic improvement was more pronounced in the MVA group (p = 0.006). At follow up, residual MR was present in 2% of the MVA group and in 47% of the CABG-only group (p < 0.0001). For the MVA and CABG-only groups, respectively, survival at five and 10 years was 68% and 46% versus 77% and 52% (p = NS). By multivariate analysis, neither degree of MR nor LV function at follow up had any impact on survival. In patients with a reduced LV function undergoing CABG, the addition of a mitral annuloplasty does not increase the operative risk. Although patients in the MVA group were more ill, there was a better symptomatic improvement in this group, and they attained a similar survival. It is recommended that MVA be performed at the time of CABG in patients having moderate or greater MR associated with a reduced LV function.

  15. The prevalence of moderate mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Wierup, Per; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Egeblad, Henrik; Scherstén, Henrik; Kimblad, Per-Ola; Bech-Hansen, Odd; Roijer, Anders; Nilsson, Folke; Nielsen, Per Hostrup; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Mølgaard, Henning

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) in the contemporary CABG population. We also aimed to correlate the effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) of any regurgitant mitral valve in patients with coronary artery disease with the semiquantitative integrated scale of IMR. From March 15 through June 15, 2006, 510 consecutive CABG patients in three tertiary centres were included in the study. All patients showing any sign of mitral regurgitation (MR) at the referring hospital underwent a preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic estimation of the degree of MR using the integrated scale (1-4) and ERO. IMR was found in 141 patients (28%). The prevalence of moderate 2+ or worse IMR was 4% (95% CI; 2.5-6.1%) and the ERO corresponding to 2+ IMR or more ranged from 5 to 30 mm(2). Fourteen patients had an ERO between 15-30 mm(2). According to our study, patients with moderate IMR, defined as an ERO between 15-30 mm(2), account for only 2.7% (95% CI; 1.5-4.7%) of a non-emergency CABG population.

  16. Novel pathogenetic mechanisms and structural adaptations in ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Silbiger, Jeffrey J

    2013-10-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common complication of myocardial infarction thought to result from leaflet tethering caused by displacement of the papillary muscles that occurs as the left ventricle remodels. The author explores the possibility that left atrial remodeling may also play a role in the pathogenesis of ischemic MR, through a novel mechanism: atriogenic leaflet tethering. When ischemic MR is hemodynamically significant, the left ventricle compensates by dilating to preserve forward output using the Starling mechanism. Left ventricular dilatation, however, worsens MR by increasing the mitral valve regurgitant orifice, leading to a vicious cycle in which MR begets more MR. The author proposes that several structural adaptations play a role in reducing ischemic MR. In contrast to the compensatory effects of left ventricular enlargement, these may reduce, rather than increase, its severity. The suggested adaptations involve the mitral valve leaflets, the papillary muscles, the mitral annulus, and the left ventricular false tendons. This review describes the potential role each may play in reducing ischemic MR. Therapies that exploit these adaptations are also discussed.

  17. Two-Year Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Daniel; Moskowitz, Alan J; Gelijns, Annetine C; Ailawadi, Gorav; Parides, Michael K; Perrault, Louis P; Hung, Judy W; Voisine, Pierre; Dagenais, Francois; Gillinov, A Marc; Thourani, Vinod; Argenziano, Michael; Gammie, James S; Mack, Michael; Demers, Philippe; Atluri, Pavan; Rose, Eric A; O'Sullivan, Karen; Williams, Deborah L; Bagiella, Emilia; Michler, Robert E; Weisel, Richard D; Miller, Marissa A; Geller, Nancy L; Taddei-Peters, Wendy C; Smith, Peter K; Moquete, Ellen; Overbey, Jessica R; Kron, Irving L; O'Gara, Patrick T; Acker, Michael A

    2016-01-28

    In a randomized trial comparing mitral-valve repair with mitral-valve replacement in patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we found no significant difference in the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), survival, or adverse events at 1 year after surgery. However, patients in the repair group had significantly more recurrences of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation. We now report the 2-year outcomes of this trial. We randomly assigned 251 patients to mitral-valve repair or replacement. Patients were followed for 2 years, and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were assessed. Among surviving patients, the mean (±SD) 2-year LVESVI was 52.6±27.7 ml per square meter of body-surface area with mitral-valve repair and 60.6±39.0 ml per square meter with mitral-valve replacement (mean changes from baseline, -9.0 ml per square meter and -6.5 ml per square meter, respectively). Two-year mortality was 19.0% in the repair group and 23.2% in the replacement group (hazard ratio in the repair group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.35; P=0.39). The rank-based assessment of LVESVI at 2 years (incorporating deaths) showed no significant between-group difference (z score=-1.32, P=0.19). The rate of recurrence of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation over 2 years was higher in the repair group than in the replacement group (58.8% vs. 3.8%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in rates of serious adverse events and overall readmissions, but patients in the repair group had more serious adverse events related to heart failure (P=0.05) and cardiovascular readmissions (P=0.01). On the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the replacement group (P=0.07). In patients undergoing mitral-valve repair or replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we observed no significant between-group difference in left ventricular reverse remodeling or survival at

  18. Two-Year Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D.; Moskowitz, A.J.; Gelijns, A.C.; Ailawadi, G.; Parides, M.K.; Perrault, L.P.; Hung, J.W.; Voisine, P.; Dagenais, F.; Gillinov, A.M.; Thourani, V.; Argenziano, M.; Gammie, J.S.; Mack, M.; Demers, P.; Atluri, P.; Rose, E.A.; O’Sullivan, K.; Williams, D.L.; Bagiella, E.; Michler, R.E.; Weisel, R.D.; Miller, M.A.; Geller, N.L.; Taddei-Peters, W.C.; Smith, P.K.; Moquete, E.; Overbey, J.R.; Kron, I.L.; O’Gara, P.T.; Acker, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a randomized trial comparing mitral-valve repair with mitral-valve replacement in patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we found no significant difference in the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), survival, or adverse events at 1 year after surgery. However, patients in the repair group had significantly more recurrences of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation. We now report the 2-year out-comes of this trial. METHODS We randomly assigned 251 patients to mitral-valve repair or replacement. Patients were followed for 2 years, and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were assessed. RESULTS Among surviving patients, the mean (±SD) 2-year LVESVI was 52.6±27.7 ml per square meter of body-surface area with mitral-valve repair and 60.6±39.0 ml per square meter with mitral-valve replacement (mean changes from baseline, −9.0 ml per square meter and −6.5 ml per square meter, respectively). Two-year mortality was 19.0% in the repair group and 23.2% in the replacement group (hazard ratio in the repair group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.35; P = 0.39). The rank-based assessment of LVESVI at 2 years (incorporating deaths) showed no significant between-group difference (z score = −1.32, P = 0.19). The rate of recurrence of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation over 2 years was higher in the repair group than in the replacement group (58.8% vs. 3.8%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in rates of serious adverse events and overall readmissions, but patients in the repair group had more serious adverse events related to heart failure (P = 0.05) and cardiovascular readmissions (P = 0.01). On the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the replacement group (P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing mitral-valve repair or replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we observed no significant between

  19. Surgical revascularization is associated with maximal survival in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Anthony W; Williams, Judson B; Daneshmand, Mani A; Honeycutt, Emily; Shaw, Linda K; Samad, Zainab; Lopes, Renato D; Alexander, John H; Mathew, Joseph P; Velazquez, Eric J; Milano, Carmelo A; Smith, Peter K

    2014-06-17

    The optimal treatment for ischemic mitral regurgitation remains actively debated. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between ischemic mitral regurgitation treatment strategy and survival. We retrospectively reviewed patients at our institution diagnosed with significant coronary artery disease and moderate or severe ischemic mitral regurgitation from 1990 to 2009, categorized by medical treatment alone, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or CABG plus mitral valve repair or replacement. Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to assess the relationship between treatment strategy and survival, with the use of propensity scores to account for nonrandom treatment assignment. A total of 4989 patients were included: medical treatment alone=36%, percutaneous coronary intervention=26%, CABG=33%, and CABG plus mitral valve repair or replacement=5%. Median follow-up was 5.37 years. Compared with medical treatment alone, significantly lower mortality was observed in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.92; P=0.0002), CABG (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.62; P<0.0001), and CABG plus mitral valve repair or replacement (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.82; P<0.0001). There was no significant difference in these results based on mitral regurgitation severity. Patients with significant coronary artery disease and moderate or severe ischemic mitral regurgitation undergoing CABG alone demonstrated the lowest risk of death. CABG with or without mitral valve surgery was associated with lower mortality than either percutaneous coronary intervention or medical treatment alone. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. [Impact of mitral annuloplasty combined with surgical revascularization in ischemic mitral regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Tribak, M; Konaté, M; Ould Hbib, B; Konan, P; Mahfoudi, L; Hassani, A El; Daouda, A; Lachhab, F; Bendagha, N; Soufiani, A; Fila, J; Maghraoui, S; Bensouda, A; Marmade, L; Moughil, S

    2017-08-08

    Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation (IMR) is a serious complication of coronary artery disease and is associated with a poor prognosis. The optimal surgical treatment of IMR involves controversies in its indications and modalities. To determine whether mitral annuloplasty associated with surgical revascularization improved short and mid terms outcomes compared with revascularization alone in patients with IMR. Between January 2007 and January 2011, 81 patients operated on Department of Cardiovascular Surgery "B" were included in this study divided into 3 groups. Group 1: 28 patients with IMR had mitral valve surgery associated with surgical revascularization. Group 2: 26 patients with IMR had surgical revascularization without mitral valve surgery. Group 3: 27 patients without IMR had isolated revascularization. Clinical end-points were operative mortality, late mortality, postoperative functional status (NYHA), and the Effective Regurgitant Orifice (ERO) at last follow-up. The mean follow-up was 5 years for groups 1 and 2 and 4 years for group 3. There was no difference between the 3 groups regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and extension of coronary artery disease. The Left Ventricle End Diastolic Diameter (LVEDD) and the Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction (LVEF) were slightly different. Late and operative mortality were higher in group 2 compared to groups 1 and 3. Postoperative functional status (NYHA) improved both in groups 1 and 2. In group 1, there was a decrease in ERO. Mitral annuloplasty combined to revascularization improves symptoms, postoperative ERO and short- and mid-term survival compared with revascularization alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance determinants of functional mitral regurgitation in ischemic and non ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; De Agustin, Alberto; Manzano, M Carmen; Bustos, Ana; Sánchez, Tibisay; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Fuentes, Manuel; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, José

    2011-04-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is frequent in left ventricular (LV) dilatation/dysfunction. Echocardiographic predictors of FMR are known. However, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) predictors of FMR have not been fully addressed. The aim of the study was to evaluate CMR mitral valve (MV) parameters associated with FMR in ischemic and non ischemic LV dysfunction. 80 patients with LV ejection fraction below 45% and/or left ventricular dilatation of ischemic and non ischemic etiology were included. Cine-MR images (steady state free-precession) were acquired in a short-axis and 4 chambers views where MV evaluation was performed. Delayed enhancement was performed as well. Significant FMR was established as more than mild MR according to the echocardiographic report. Mean age was 59 years, males 79%. FMR was detected in 20 patients (25%) Significant differences were noted in LV functional parameters and in most MV parameters according to the presence of significant FMR. However, differences were noted between ischemic and non ischemic groups. In the first, differences in most MV parameters remained significant while in the non ischemic, only systolic and diastolic interpapillary muscle distance (1.60 vs. 2.19 cm, P = 0.001; 2. 51 vs. 3.04, P = 0.008) were predictors of FMR. FMR is associated with a more severe LV dilatation/dysfunction in the overall population. CMR MV parameters are associated with the presence of significant FMR and are different between ischemic and non ischemic patients. CMR evaluation of these patients may help in risk stratification as well as in surgical candidate selection.

  2. [Comparison of preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic parameters in replacement or reconstruction of the mitral valve in ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Mijatov, M; Jonjev, Z; Konstantinović, Z; Golubović, M; Radovanović, N

    2000-01-01

    Ischemic mitral insufficiency is a clinical syndrome described as a consequence of the coronary artery disease where the basic problem is blood regurgitation between the left ventricle and left atrium following mitral annulus dilatation. Mitral regurgitation occurs in different degrees during the natural evolution of the ischemic heart disease. The main reason for the existence of mitral regurgitation is global deterioration in the left ventricle geometry as a consequence of myocardial infarction or/and left ventricle dilatation. Surgical correction of this problem is possible by simultaneous correction of mitral insufficiency (repair or replacement) and complete myocardial revascularisation. Complete hemodynamic monitoring was followed by Swan-Ganz catheter including: central venous pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac output, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance. All surgical procedures were performed in extracorporeal circulation (ECC) with membrane oxygenator using moderate systemic hypothermia and transseptal surgical approach to mitral valve. Hemodynamic parameters were followed before and after ECC, immediately after surgery and during the first 48 hours after operation in the intensive care unit. In 88 patients posterior semicircular annuloplasty by N. Radovanović was performed whereas in 13 patients mitral valve replacement was done. There is a great, statistically significant hemodynamic improvement after the surgical procedure and during the continuous 48 hours monitoring in the intensive care unit no matter if mitral repair or replacement was done. No statistically significant difference was recorded between these two groups considering that the hemodynamic improvement is very similar. Simultaneous surgical procedures, including myocardial revascularization, mitral and usually consecutive tricuspid insufficiency correction, are a very common surgical problem with higher operative risk than

  3. RT 3D TEE: Characteristics of Mitral Valve in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Evaluated by MVQ Program

    PubMed Central

    Kovalova, Sylva; Necas, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the changes of mitral valve (MV) in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) using Mitral Valve Quantification (MVQ) program. Methods We examined 46 patients (18 women) with IMR aged 45-86 and a control group of 33 healthy individuals (14 women) aged 18-88. Following parameters were assessed: Area of minimal surface spanning annulus (A3), annulus height (h), tenting height (Th), exposed area of anterior (AL), posterior (PL) and both leaflets (BL), ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LV EF), regurgitation volume (RV) and BL/A3, AL/A3, PL/A3 ratios. The normal range of BL/A3 ratio was defined as the average ± 2SD of control group. The study group was separated into subgroup 1 with BL/A3 ratio within normal values and subgroup 2 with pathological BL/A3 ratio. Corresponding parameters of IMR group were compared to the controls and both subgroups were compared to each other using Student t-test. Results In IMR group, as compared to the controls, A3, AL, PL, BL as well as BL/A3, AL/A3, PL/A3 ratios and Th were significantly increased, conversely, h and LV EF was significantly decreased. In the subgroup 2 as compared to the subgroup 1 there was significant increase of Th, BL, AL and PL, while EF LV was significantly decreased. There was no significant difference between these subgroups in A3, h and RV. Conclusion In ischemic MV remodeling two stages were identified without relation to the severity of IMR. The first stage was mainly influenced by the LV dilatation while LV remodeling was more important in the second stage.

  4. Effects of acute ischemic mitral regurgitation on three-dimensional mitral leaflet edge geometry.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Tom C; Ennis, Daniel B; Itoh, Akinobu; Carlhäll, Carl Johan; Lai, David T; Ingels, Neil B; Miller, D Craig

    2008-02-01

    Improved quantitative understanding of in vivo leaflet geometry in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is needed to improve reparative techniques, yet few data are available due to current imaging limitations. Using marker technology we tested the hypotheses that IMR (1) occurs chiefly during early systole; (2) affects primarily the valve region contiguous with the myocardial ischemic insult; and (3) results in systolic leaflet edge restriction. Eleven sheep had radiopaque markers sutured as five opposing pairs along the anterior (A(1)-E(1)) and posterior (A(2)-E(2)) mitral leaflet free edges from the anterior commissure (A(1)-A(2)) to the posterior commissure (E(1)-E(2)). Immediately postoperatively, biplane videofluoroscopy was used to obtain 4D marker coordinates before and during acute proximal left circumflex artery occlusion. Regional mitral orifice area (MOA) was calculated in the anterior (Ant-MOA), middle (Mid-MOA), and posterior (Post-MOA) mitral orifice segments during early systole (EarlyS), mid systole (MidS), and end systole (EndS). MOA was normalized to zero (minimum orifice opening) at baseline EndS. Tenting height was the distance of the midpoint of paired markers to the mitral annular plane at EndS. Acute ischemia increased echocardiographic MR grade (0.5+/-0.3 vs 2.3+/-0.7, p<0.01) and MOA in all regions at EarlyS, MidS, and EndS: Ant-MOA (7+/-10 vs 22+/-19 mm(2), 1+/-2 vs 18+/-16 mm(2), 0 vs 17+/-15 mm(2)); Mid-MOA (9+/-13 vs 25+/-17 mm(2), 3+/-6 vs 21+/-19 mm(2), 0 vs 25+/-17 mm(2)); and Post-MOA (8+/-10 vs 25+/-16, 2+/-4 vs 22+/-13 mm(2), 0 vs 23+/-13 mm(2)), all p<0.05. There was no change in MOA throughout systole (EarlyS vs MidS vs EndS) during baseline conditions or ischemia. Tenting height increased with ischemia near the central and the anterior commissure leaflet edges (B(1)-B(2): 7.1+/-1.8mm vs 7.9+/-1.7 mm, C(1)-C(2): 6.9+/-1.3mm vs 8.0+/-1.5mm, both p<0.05). MOA during ischemia was larger throughout systole, indicating that acute IMR

  5. EFFECTS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC MITRAL REGURGITATION ON THREE DIMENSIONAL MITRAL LEAFLET EDGE GEOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Tom C.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Itoh, Akinobu; Carlhäll, Carl Johan; Lai, David T.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig

    2008-01-01

    Background: Improved quantitative understanding of in-vivo leaflet geometry in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is needed to improve reparative techniques, yet few data are available due to current imaging limitations. Using marker technology we tested the hypotheses that IMR: (1) Occurs chiefly during early-systole; (2) Affects primarily the valve region contiguous with the myocardial ischemic insult; and, (3) Results in systolic leaflet edge restriction. Methods: Eleven sheep had radiopaque markers sutured as five opposing pairs along the anterior (A1-E1) and posterior (A2-E2) mitral leaflet free-edges from the anterior commissure (A1-A2) to the posterior commissure (E1-E2). Immediately postoperatively, biplane videofluoroscopy was used to obtain 4-D marker coordinates before and during acute proximal left circumflex artery occlusion. Regional mitral orifice area (MOA) was calculated in the anterior (Ant-MOA), middle (Mid-MOA) and posterior (Post-MOA) mitral orifice segments during early-systole (EarlyS), mid-systole (MidS), and end-systole (EndS). MOA was normalized to zero (minimum orifice opening) at baseline EndS. Tenting height was the distance of the midpoint of paired markers to the mitral annular plane at EndS. . Results: Acute ischemia increased echocardiographic MR grade (0.5±0.3 vs. 2.3±0.7, p<0.01) and MOA in all regions at EarlyS, MidS and EndS: Ant-MOA (7±10 vs. 22±19mm2, 1±2 vs. 18±16mm2, 0 vs. 17±15mm2); Mid-MOA (9±13 vs. 25±17mm2, 3±6 vs. 21±19mm2, 0 vs. 25±17mm2); and Post-MOA (8±10 vs. 25±16, 2±4 vs. 22±13mm2, 0 vs. 23±13mm2), all p<0.05. There was no change in MOA throughout systole (EarlyS vs. MidS vs. EndS) during baseline conditions or ischemia. Tenting height increased with ischemia near the central and the anterior commissure leaflet edges (B1-B2: 7.1±1.8mm vs. 7.9±1.7mm, C1-C2: 6.9±1.3mm vs. 8.0±1.5mm, both p<0.05). Conclusions: (1) MOA during ischemia was larger throughout systole, indicating that acute IMR in

  6. Importance of anterior leaflet tethering in predicting recurrence of ischemic mitral regurgitation after restrictive annuloplasty.

    PubMed

    van Garsse, Leen; Gelsomino, Sandro; Lucà, Fabiana; Lorusso, Roberto; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Stefàno, Pieluigi; Maessen, Jos

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between anterior mitral leaflet (AML) tethering and recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) after restrictive annuloplasty. We also explored whether the effect of AML tethering was secondary to modifications in left ventricular size and geometry. The study population consisted of 435 consecutive patients with chronic ischemic MR who survived combined coronary artery bypass grafting and undersized mitral ring annuloplasty performed at 3 institutions (University Hospital, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy; and Civic Hospital, Brescia, Italy) from 2001 to 2008. The median follow-up was 44.7 months (interquartile range 25.9-66.4). The patients were divided by the baseline measurements into quintiles of AML tethering angle α' as follows: group 1, normal/slight AML tethering; group 2, mild AML tethering; group 3, moderate AML tethering; group 4, moderate-to-severe AML tethering; and group 5, severe AML tethering. Recurrence of MR was significantly greater in patients with moderate-to-severe (28.3%) and severe (39.4%) AML tethering (P < .001). A strong correlation was found between α' (r = 0.83, P < .001) and recurrent MR but a weak correlation with the posterior mitral angle β' (r = 0.12, P = .05). On logistic regression analysis corrected for other echocardiographic risk factors, moderate-severe AML tethering or worse (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-4.1; P < .001) was a strong predictor of MR recurrence. Compared with patients with β' of 45 or greater, those with severe and moderate-severe AML tethering had more than 3.7 and 1.7 times greater odds of MR recurrence, respectively. No significant interactions were found between α' and the indexes of left ventricular function and geometry. Preoperative moderate-severe AML tethering or worse was strongly associated with MR recurrence. Thus, assessment of leaflet tethering should be incorporated into clinical risk assessment and

  7. Quantitation of the mitral tetrahedron in patients with ischemic heart disease using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography to evaluate the geometric determinants of ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Lin, Lung-Chun; Hsu, Kwan-Lih; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2013-05-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is common in ischemic heart disease and results in poor prognosis. However, the exact mechanism of IMR has not been fully elucidated. Quantitation of the mitral tetrahedron using three-dimentianl (3D) echocardiography is capable of evaluating the geometric determinants and mechanisms of IMR. Forty patients with a history of ST-elevation myocardial infarction at least 6 months earlier were studied. Parameters of mitral deformation and global left ventricular (LV) function and shape were evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography. The effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) of IMR was obtained by the quantitative continuous-wave Doppler technique. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography was applied to assess the mitral tetrahedron. Mitral valvular tenting area (P < 0.001), mitral annular area (P = 0.032), dilation of the LV in diastole, impairment of the LV ejection fraction, and volume of the spherically shaped LV in systole were greater in patients with an ERO ≥20 mm(2) than in those with an ERO <20 mm(2). In the mitral tetrahedron, only the interpapillary muscle roots distance showed a significant difference (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis with the logistic regression model showed the systolic mitral tenting area (odds ratio [OR]: 280.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.59-1.72 × 10(4), P = 0.007) and interpapillary muscle distance (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.03-2.19, P = 0.036) to be independent factors in predicting significant IMR (ERO ≥20 mm(2)). 3D echocardiography can be effectively applied in measuring the mitral tetrahedron and evaluating the mechanism of IMR. Mitral valvular tenting and interpapillary muscle distance are 2 independent factors of significant IMR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Progression to moderate or severe mitral regurgitation after percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy using stepwise inflation technique.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, T; Yamazoe, M; Tamura, Y; Tanabe, Y; Hori, T; Konno, T; Higuchi, K; Ida, T; Takemoto, M; Aizawa, Y

    1998-05-01

    Progression to moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) was studied after Inoue balloon percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) using the stepwise inflation technique, performed at increments of 1 mm of balloon diameter, in 49 consecutive patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (aged from 32-73 years; 8 males, 41 females). The patients were classified on the basis of the degree of MR after PTMC, compared with that before PTMC, into either Group A, development of moderate or more severe (> or = grade 2) MR (n = 8) or Group B, no increase in MR or development of mild (grade 1) MR (n = 41). Progression to moderate or severe MR was significantly associated only with advanced age (60 +/- 8 vs 52 +/- 10 years, p < 0.05) and narrower mitral valve area (0.87 +/- 0.35 vs 1.11 +/- 0.29 cm2, p < 0.05), but other characteristics before PTMC were similar in both groups. There was no difference between the two groups in the total number and degree of balloon inflation. Immediately before the final inflation, the left atrial mean pressure and v wave pressure were decreased in smaller degrees in Group A compared with Group B (-2 +/- 2 vs -5 +/- 4 mmHg, p < 0.05; -2 +/- 2 vs -6 +/- 6 mmHg, p < 0.05, respectively). Thus, the stepwise inflations require careful monitoring of changes in the left atrial pressure and waveform to recognize the aggravation of MR, especially in older patients with severe stenosis. Patients who do not have a significant drop in left atrial mean pressure and v wave pressure during stepwise inflations of the balloon might be at risk of development of moderate or severe MR after further dilations.

  9. A pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation induced by mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong-Chun; Li, Kai; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Wei-Min; Peng, Peng; Yang, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Bao-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Ai-Li; Tang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A miniature pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) was developed by posterior mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. A 2.5-mm ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) of male Tibetan miniature pigs to induce ischemia, while the posterior mitral chordae tendinae was also ruptured. X-ray coronary angiography, ECG analysis, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to evaluate heart structure and function in pigs at baseline and one, two, four and eight weeks after the operation. Blood velocity of the mitral regurgitation was found to be between medium and high levels. Angiographic analyses revealed that the LCX closure was 10-20% at one week, 30-40% at two weeks and 90-100% at four weeks subsequent ameroid constrictor implantation. ECG analysis highlighted an increase in the diameter of the left atria (LA) at two weeks post-operation as well as ischemic changes in the left ventricle (LV) and LA wall at four weeks post-operation. Echocardiography and MRI further detected a gradual increase in LA and LV volumes from two weeks post-operation. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes as well as LA end diastolic and systolic volume were also significantly higher in pig hearts post-operation when compared to baseline. Pathological changes were observed in the heart, which included scar tissue in the ischemic central area of the LV. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the presence of contraction bands and edema surrounding the ischemia area, including inflammatory cell infiltration within the ischemic area. We have developed a pig model of IMR using the posterior mitral chordae tendineae rupture technique and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. The pathological features of this pig IMR model were found to mimic the natural history and progression of IMR in patients.

  10. Preoperative Three-Dimensional Valve Analysis Predicts Recurrent Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation after Mitral Annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K.; Levack, Melissa M.; Shang, Eric K.; Pouch, Alison M.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Gleason, Thomas G.; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Cheung, Albert T.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) with undersized annuloplasty rings is characterized by high IMR recurrence rates. Patient-specific preoperative imaging-based risk stratification for recurrent IMR would optimize results. We sought to determine if pre-repair three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography combined with a novel valve modeling algorithm would be predictive of IMR recurrence 6 months after repair. Methods Intraoperative transesophageal real-time 3D echocardiography was performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized ring annuloplasty for IMR (and in 21 patients with normal mitral valves). A customized image analysis protocol was used to assess 3D annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. IMR recurrence (≥grade 2) was assessed with two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography 6 months after repair. Results Preoperative annular geometry was similar in all IMR patients; and preoperative leaflet tethering was significantly higher in patients with recurrent IMR (n=13) as compared with patients in whom IMR did not recur IMR (n=37) (tethering index 3.91±1.01 vs. 2.90±1.17, P=0.008; tethering angles of A3 (23.5±8.9° vs. 14.4± 11.4°, P=0.012), P2 (44.4±8.8° vs. 28.2±17.0°, P=0.002), and P3 (35.2±6.0° vs. 18.6±12.7°, P<0.001)). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed preoperative P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of IMR recurrence with an optimal cut-off value of 29.9° (AUC 0.92, 95%CI 0.84–1.00, P<0.001). Conclusions 3D echocardiography combined with valve modeling is predictive of recurrent IMR. Preoperative regional leaflet tethering of segment P3 is a strong independent predictor of IMR recurrence after undersized ring annuloplasty. In patients with a preoperative P3 tethering angle ≥29.9° chordal-sparing valve replacement rather than valve repair should be strongly considered. PMID:26688087

  11. Repair or replace for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation: prospective randomized multicenter data.

    PubMed

    LaPar, Damien J; Acker, Michael A; Gelijns, Annetine C; Kron, Irving L

    2015-09-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a subset of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) that has the potential to impact an increasing number of patients in the future. This is in the context of a worldwide population, which continues to live longer with improved survival after myocardial infarction. Substantial data have accumulated over the past few decades demonstrating the negative effects of IMR. Further, significant research has been done to define the optimal surgical approach and several studies have compared mitral repair versus replacement for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (SMR). Studies supporting performance of mitral repair cite superior operative morbidity and mortality rates, while proponents of mitral replacement cite improved long-term durability and correction of MR. Lack of clinically robust Level I randomized controlled trial data have curtailed attempts to better define appropriate surgical treatment allocation over the past few decades. Recently, however, the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CTSN) conducted the first randomized controlled trial, funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute for Neurological Diseases and Stroke and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, to compare the performance of mitral repair versus replacement for SMR. Herein, the present review describes the design, results and implications of the CTSN SMR trial and its efforts to identify the most efficacious surgical approach to SMR. This review also describes CTSN investigation to predict the recurrence of MR after mitral repair.

  12. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS) model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV) loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves. PMID:21942971

  13. [Chest pain with ischemic electrocardiographic changes: mitral valve prolapse in pediatrics. Case report].

    PubMed

    Matamala-Morillo, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-González, Moisés; Segado-Arenas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Chest pain is rare and usually benign in pediatrics. Cardiac etiology is even rarer. However, it is a symptom associated with ischemic heart disease and it imposes great social alarm, even in health care workers. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most common causes of this symptom in children, as well as serious diseases that can cause it, which require prompt medical attention. We report a case of chest pain associated with ischemic electrocardiographic changes in a patient with mitral valve prolapse and MASS phenotype (mitral valve prolapse, aortic root enlargement, and skeletal and skin alterations), we review the mitral valve prolapse and stress the importance of knowing it in the pediatric setting.

  14. Surgical Revascularization is Associated with Maximal Survival in Patients with Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: A 20-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Castleberry, Anthony W.; Williams, Judson B.; Daneshmand, Mani A.; Honeycutt, Emily; Shaw, Linda K.; Samad, Zainab; Lopes, Renato D.; Alexander, John H.; Mathew, Joseph P.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Smith, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) remains actively debated. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between IMR treatment strategy and survival. Methods and Results We retrospectively reviewed patients at our institution diagnosed with significant coronary artery disease and moderate or severe IMR from 1990–2009, categorized by medical treatment alone (MED), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or CABG + mitral valve repair or replacement (MVRR). Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to assess the relationship between treatment strategy and survival, using propensity scores to account for nonrandom treatment assignment. A total of 4,989 patients were included: MED = 36%, PCI = 26%, CABG = 33%, and CABG+MVRR = 5%. Median follow-up was 5.37 years. Compared to MED, significantly lower mortality was observed in patients treated with PCI [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 – 0.92, p=0.0002], CABG (AHR: 0.56, CI: 0.51 – 0.62, p<0.0001), and CABG+MVRR (AHR: 0.69, CI: 0.57 – 0.82, p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in these results based on MR severity. Conclusions Patients with significant coronary artery disease and moderate or severe IMR undergoing CABG alone demonstrated the lowest risk of death. CABG with or without mitral valve surgery was associated with lower mortality than either PCI or MED. PMID:24744275

  15. The value of preoperative 3-dimensional over 2-dimensional valve analysis in predicting recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation after mitral annuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J; Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K; Levack, Melissa M; Shang, Eric K; Pouch, Alison M; Eperjesi, Thomas J; Plappert, Theodore J; Yushkevich, Paul A; Hung, Judy; Mariani, Massimo A; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Gleason, Thomas G; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A; Woo, Y Joseph; Cheung, Albert T; Gillespie, Matthew J; Jackson, Benjamin M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation with undersized annuloplasty is characterized by high recurrence rates. We sought to determine the value of pre-repair 3-dimensional echocardiography over 2-dimensional echocardiography in predicting recurrence at 6 months. Intraoperative transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Two-dimensional echocardiography annular diameter and tethering parameters were measured in the apical 2- and 4-chamber views. A customized protocol was used to assess 3-dimensional annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. Recurrence (grade ≥2) was assessed with 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography at 6 months. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional annular geometry were similar in all patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional leaflet tethering were significantly higher in patients with recurrence (n = 13) when compared with patients without recurrence (n = 37). Multivariate logistic regression revealed preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 32.0° (area under the curve, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P = .002) and preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 29.9° (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.00; P < .001). The predictive value of the 3-dimensional geometric multivariate model can be augmented by adding basal aneurysm/dyskinesis (area under the curve, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.00; P < .001). Preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle is a stronger predictor of ischemic mitral regurgitation recurrence after annuloplasty than preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior

  16. Determinants of Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation and Non-ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bengi Bakal, Ruken; Hatipoglu, Suzan; Sahin, Muslum; Emiroglu, Mehmet Yunus; Bulut, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Nihal

    2014-01-01

    Atrial conduction time has important hemodynamic effects on ventricular filling and is accepted as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. In this study we assessed atrial conduction time in patients with non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCMP) and functional mitral regurgitation (MR) and aimed to determine factors predicting atrial conduction time prolongation. Sixty five patients with non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy who have moderate to severe MR and 60 control subjects were included in the study. In addition to conventional echocardiographic measures used to asses left ventricle and MR, atrial electromechanical coupling (time interval from the onset of P wave on surface electrocardiogram [ECG] to the beginning of A wave interval with tissue Doppler echocardiography [PA]), intra- and interatrial electromechanical delay (intra and inter AEMD) were measured. The correlations between inter AEMD and left atrial (LA) size, MR volume, isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT), deceleration time (DT), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPs), E/A ratio and E/e' were very poor. Similarly, intra AEMD was not correlated to LA size , MR volume, IVRT, DT, PAPs, E/A ratio and E/e'. However, both inter AEMD and intra AEMD had good correlation with left ventricular mass index, tenting area (TA), tenting distance (TD), coaptation septal distance (CSD), sphericity index (SI). Prolongation of inter and intra AEMDs were found to be well correlated with parameters reflecting left ventricular and mitral annular remodeling.

  17. Optimal Surgical Management of Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: To Repair or to Replace?

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Louis P.; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Kron, Irving L.; Acker, Michael A.; Miller, Marissa A.; Horvath, Keith A.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Argenziano, Michael; D'Alessandro, David A.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Moy, Claudia S.; Mathew, Joseph P.; Hung, Judy; Gardner, Timothy J.; Parides, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR), a complication of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease more generally, is associated with a high mortality rate and estimated to affect 2.8 million Americans. With 1-year mortality rates as high as 40%, recent practice guidelines of professional societies recommend repair or replacement, but there remains a lack of conclusive evidence supporting either intervention. The choice between therapeutic options is characterized by the trade-off between reduced operative morbidity and mortality with repair versus a better long-term correction of mitral insufficiency with replacement. The long-term benefits of repair versus replacement remain unknown, which has led to significant variation in surgical practice. Methods and Results This paper describes the design of a prospective randomized clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of mitral valve repair and replacement in patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation. This trial is being conducted as part of the Cardiothoracic (CT) Surgical Trials Network. This paper addresses challenges in selecting a feasible primary endpoint, characterizing the target population (including the degree of MR), and analytical challenges in this high mortality disease. Conclusions The paper concludes by discussing the importance of information on functional status, survival, neurocognition, quality of life and cardiac physiology in therapeutic decision-making. PMID:22054660

  18. Revascularization alone or combined with suture annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Evaluation by color Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Czer, L S; Maurer, G; Bolger, A F; DeRobertis, M; Chaux, A; Matloff, J M

    1996-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of revascularization alone or combined with mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation, we performed color Doppler echocardiography intraoperatively before and after cardiopulmonary bypass in 49 patients (mean age, 70 +/- 9 years) with concomitant mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease (triple vessel or left main in 88%; prior infarction in 90%). After revascularization alone (n = 25), the mitral annulus diameter (2.88 +/- 0.44 cm vs 2.88 +/- 0.44 cm), leaflet-to-annulus ratio (1.44 +/- 0.30 vs 1.44 +/- 0.29), and mitral regurgitation grade (1.7 +/- 0.9 vs 1.8 +/- 0.7) remained unchanged (p = NS, postpump vs prepump); mitral regurgitation decreased by 2 grades in only 1 patient (4%). After combined revascularization and mitral valve suture annuloplasty (Kay-Zubiate; n = 24), the annulus diameter decreased (to 2.57 +/- 0.45 cm from 3.11 +/- 0.43 cm), the leaflet-to-annulus ratio increased (to 1.46 +/- 0.25 from 1.20 +/- 0.21), and the mitral regurgitation grade decreased significantly (to 0.9 +/- 0.9 from 2.8 +/- 1.0) (p < 0.01); mitral regurgitation decreased by 2 grades or more (successful repair) in 75%. The origin of the jet correlated with the site of prior infarction (p < 0.05), being inferior in cases of posterior or inferior infarction (67%), and central or broad in cases of combined anterior and inferior infarction (70%). Despite a slightly higher 30-day mortality in the repair group (p = 0.10), there was no significant difference in survival between the 2 surgical groups at 5 years or 8 years. Therefore, in this study of patients with mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease, reduction in regurgitation grade with revascularization alone was infrequent. Concomitant suture annuloplasty significantly reduced regurgitation by reestablishing a more normal relationship between the leaflet and annulus sizes. The failure rate after suture annuloplasty was 25%; alternative repair techniques such as ring

  19. On-pump beating heart mitral valve repair in patients with patent bypass grafts and severe ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Atoui, Rony; Bittira, Bindu; Morin, Jean E; Cecere, Renzo

    2009-07-01

    Re-operative mitral valve surgery in patients with poor ventricular function can be challenging especially in the presence of patent bypass grafts. We report the case of 11 patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy who underwent reoperative mitral valve repair through a limited right thoracotomy approach, on a non-fibrillating beating heart. All patients had their valves successfully repaired with no operative mortality and minimal morbidity. The technical aspects of the procedure are discussed, and the pertinent literature reviewed.

  20. Dynamic changes in the ischemic mitral annulus: Implications for ring sizing

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Khurram; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Jeganathan, Jelliffe; Matyal, Robina; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Contrary to the rest of the mitral annulus, inter-trigonal distance is known to be relatively less dynamic during the cardiac cycle. Therefore, intertrigonal distance is considered a suitable benchmark for annuloplasty ring sizing during mitral valve (MV) surgery. The entire mitral annulus dilates and flattens in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). It is assumed that the fibrous trigone of the heart and the intertrigonal distance does not dilate. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the changes in mitral annular geometry in patients with IMR and specifically analyze the changes in intertrigonal distance during the cardiac cycle. Methods: Intraoperative three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic data obtained from 26 patients with normal MVs undergoing nonvalvular cardiac surgery and 36 patients with IMR undergoing valve repair were dynamically analyzed using Philips Qlab® software. Results: Overall, regurgitant valves were larger in area and less dynamic than normal valves. Both normal and regurgitant groups displayed a significant change in annular area (AA) during the cardiac cycle (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Anteroposterior and anterolateral-posteromedial diameters and inter-trigonal distance increased through systole (P < 0.05 for all) in accordance with the AAs in both groups. However, inter-trigonal distance showed the least percentage change across the cardiac cycle and its reduced dynamism was validated in both cohorts (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Annular dimensions in regurgitant valves are dynamic and can be measured feasibly and accurately using echocardiography. The echocardiographically identified inter-trigonal distance does not change significantly during the cardiac cycle. PMID:26750668

  1. Management of mitral regurgitation during left ventricular reconstruction for ischemic heart failure†

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Patrick; Braun, Jerry; Holman, Eduard R.; Versteegh, Michel I.M.; Verwey, Harriette F.; Dion, Robert A.E.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Klautz, Robert J.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in ischemic cardiomyopathy frequently leads to functional mitral regurgitation (MR). The indication for correcting MR in patients undergoing LV reconstruction (LVR) is unclear. In this study, we evaluated our strategy of correcting MR ≥ grade 2+ by restrictive mitral annuloplasty (RMA) during LVR. METHODS We studied 92 consecutive patients (76 men, mean age 61 ± 10 years) who underwent LVR for ischemic heart failure (IHF). RMA was performed in all patients with MR ≥ grade 2+ on preoperative echocardiography and in patients who showed increased MR to ≥grade 2+ immediately after LVR. Patients were attributed to a RMA and no-RMA group, depending on whether or not concomitant RMA had been performed. Mean clinical and structured echocardiographic follow-up was 47 ± 20 months and was 100% complete. RESULTS In 38 out of 40 patients (95%) with preoperative MR ≥ grade 2+, concomitant RMA was planned and performed. In 17 out of 52 patients (33%) with MR < grade 2+ preoperatively, MR increased after LVR to ≥grade 2+ leading to additional RMA during a second period of aortic cross-clamping. Early mortality in the RMA group (n = 55) was 12.7% and survival at 36 months 78.2 ± 11.2%. Early mortality in the no-RMA group (n = 37) was 5.4% and survival at 36 months 81.1 ± 12.8%. Patients in the RMA group had significantly more reduced LV function with greater LV dimensions and volumes preoperatively. Echocardiography demonstrated sustained improvement in LVEF with reduction of LV volumes in both patient groups. Recurrence of MR at late follow-up was observed in 2 patients (1 patient per group). CONCLUSIONS Patients with IHF eligible for LV reconstruction have MR ≥ grade 2+ in 44% of cases. In one-third of IHF patients with MR < grade 2+ preoperatively, MR increases to ≥grade 2+ after LVR. Concomitant mitral valve repair for MR ≥ grade 2+, on either preoperative echocardiography or

  2. Midterm outcomes of chordal cutting in combination with downsized ring annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Murashita, Takashi; Okada, Yukikatsu; Kanemitsu, Hideo; Fukunaga, Naoto; Konishi, Yasunobu; Nakamura, Ken; Koyama, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    We describe midterm outcomes after division of secondary chords (chordal cutting) combined with downsized ring annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). We compared the clinical outcomes in patients who underwent chordal cutting with downsized ring annuloplasty (CC-group, n = 15) and those who underwent conventional ring annuloplasty only (Conventional-group, n = 35) for IMR. Follow-up was complete in all patients. The median follow-up time was 4.1 years. Thirty-day mortality was 0% in CC-group and 20% in Conventional-group. The overall survival rate at 5-year was 80.8% ± 12.6% in CC-group and 61.7% ± 8.4% in Conventional-group (Log-rank, p = 0.145). The freedom rate from valve-related events at 5 year was 84.6% ± 10.0% in CC-group and 65.3% ± 10.1% in Conventional-group (Log-rank, p = 0.213). Recurrence of severe mitral regurgitation was revealed in 3 patients of CC-group. Preoperative tenting height was the significant predictor of mitral regurgitation recurrence. In CC-group, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 38.0% ± 14.0%, which was similar to the preoperative value of 40.0% ± 13.2% (p = 0.349). Chordal cutting with downsized ring annuloplasty for IMR is a simple method and provides satisfactory early outcomes. However, it carries with high recurrence of MR especially for patients with high tenting height.

  3. Determinants of functional mitral regurgitation severity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Dimitrios M; Papadopoulou, Klio; Giannakoulas, George; Kamperidis, Vasilis; Dalamanga, Emmanouela G; Damvopoulou, Efthalia; Parcharidou, Despina G; Karamitsos, Theodoros D; Karvounis, Haralambos I

    2014-01-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is prevalent among patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and is associated with a poorer prognosis. Our aim was to assess the primary determinants of MR severity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Patients with functional MR secondary to ICM (n = 55) and DCM (n = 48) were prospectively enrolled. Effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area, global LV remodeling, regional wall-motion abnormalities, and mitral apparatus deformity indices were assessed utilizing conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. ICM patients had more severe MR compared with DCM patients despite similar ejection fraction and functional status (ERO = 0.16 ± 0.08 cm(2) vs. ERO = 0.12 ± 0.70 cm(2) , respectively, P = 0.002). Regional myocardial systolic velocities in mid-inferior and mid-lateral wall were negatively correlated with ERO in ICM and DCM patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified coaptation height as the only independent determinant of ERO in both groups. In a subset of ICM patients (n = 9) with relatively high ERO despite low coaptation height, a higher prevalence of left bundle branch block was detected (88.9% vs. 46.7%, P = 0.02). Functional MR severity was chiefly determined by the extent of mitral apparatus deformity, and coaptation height can provide a rapid estimation of MR severity in heart failure patients. Additional contributory mechanisms in ICM patients include depressed myocardial systolic velocities in posteromedial papillary muscle attaching site and evidence of global LV dyssynchrony. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  5. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  6. Ischemic or Nonischemic Functional Mitral Regurgitation and Outcomes in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure With Preserved or Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Katsuya; Minami, Yuichiro; Otsubo, Shigeru; Sato, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR), preserved or reduced ejection fraction (EF), and ischemic or nonischemic origin with outcomes in patients discharged alive after hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (HF). Of the 4,842 patients enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes (ATTEND) registry, 3,357 patients were evaluated to assess the association of FMR, preserved or reduced EF, and ischemic or nonischemic origin with the primary end point (all-cause death and readmission for HF after discharge). At the time of discharge, FMR was assessed semiquantitatively (classified as none, mild, or moderate to severe) by color Doppler analysis of the regurgitant jet area. According to multivariable analysis, in the ischemic group, either mild or moderate to severe FMR in patients with a preserved EF had a significantly higher risk of the primary end point than patients without FMR (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 2.29; p = 0.010 and HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.30 to 3.01; p = 0.001, respectively). In patients with reduced EF with an ischemic origin, only moderate to severe FMR was associated with a significantly higher risk of the primary end point (HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.50; p = 0.014). In the nonischemic group, there was no significant association between FMR and the primary end point in patients with either a preserved or reduced EF. In conclusion, among patients with acute decompensated HF with a preserved or reduced EF, the association of FMR with adverse outcomes may differ between patients who had an ischemic or nonischemic origin of HF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiplanar strain quantification for assessment of right ventricular dysfunction and non-ischemic fibrosis among patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonino; Kim, Jiwon; Rodriguez-Diego, Sara; Khalique, Omar; Siden, Jonathan Y; Goldburg, Samantha R; Mehta, Neil K; Srinivasan, Aparna; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Levine, Robert A; Crea, Filippo; Devereux, Richard B; Weinsaft, Jonathan W

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (iMR) predisposes to right ventricular (RV) pressure and volume overload, providing a nidus for RV dysfunction (RVDYS) and non-ischemic fibrosis (NIF). Echocardiography (echo) is widely used to assess iMR, but performance of different indices as markers of RVDYS and NIF is unknown. iMR patients prospectively underwent echo and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) within 72 hours. Echo quantified iMR, assessed conventional RV indices (TAPSE, RV-S', fractional area change [FAC]), and strain via speckle tracking in apical 4-chamber (global longitudinal strain [RV-GLS]) and parasternal long axis orientation (transverse strain). CMR volumetrically quantified RVEF, and assessed ischemic pattern myocardial infarction (MI) and septal NIF. 73 iMR patients were studied; 36% had RVDYS (EF<50%) on CMR among whom LVEF was lower, PA systolic pressure higher, and MI size larger (all p<0.05). CMR RVEF was paralleled by echo results; correlations were highest for RV-GLS (r = 0.73) and lowest for RV-S' (r = 0.43; all p<0.001). RVDYS patients more often had CMR-evidenced NIF (54% vs. 7%; p<0.001). Whereas all RV indices were lower among NIF-affected patients (all p≤0.006), percent change was largest for transverse strain (48.3%). CMR RVEF was independently associated with RV-GLS (partial r = 0.57, p<0.001) and transverse strain (r = 0.38, p = 0.002) (R = 0.78, p<0.001). Overall diagnostic performance of RV-GLS and transverse strain were similar (AUC = 0.93[0.87-0.99]|0.91[0.84-0.99], both p<0.001), and yielded near equivalent sensitivity and specificity (85%|83% and 80%|79% respectively). Compared to conventional echo indices, RV strain parameters yield stronger correlation with CMR-defined RVEF and potentially constitute better markers of CMR-evidenced NIF in iMR.

  8. A comparative study of ivabradine and atenolol in patients with moderate mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Gopalan Nair; Sajeer, Kalathingathodika; Sajeev, Chakanalil Govindan; Bastian, Cicy; Vinayakumar, Desabandhu; Muneer, Kader; Haridasan, Vellani; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Beta-blockers are frequently used in patients with mitral stenosis to control the heart rate and alleviate exercise-related symptoms. The objective of our study was to examine whether ivabradine was superior to atenolol for achieving higher exercise capacity in patients with moderate mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm. We also evaluated their effects on left ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI). Eighty-two patients with moderate mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm were randomized to receive ivabradine (n=42) 5mg twice daily or atenolol (n=40) 50mg daily for 6 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography and treadmill test were performed at baseline and after completion of 6 weeks of treatment. Mean total exercise duration in seconds markedly improved in both study groups at 6 weeks (298.57±99.05s vs. 349.12±103.53s; p=0.0001 in ivabradine group, 290.90±92.42s vs. 339.90±99.84s; p=0.0001 in atenolol group). On head-to-head comparison, there was no significant change in improvement of exercise time between ivabradine and atenolol group (p=0.847). Left ventricular MPI did not show any significant change from baseline and at 6 weeks in both drug groups (49.8%±8% vs. 48.3%±7% in ivabradine group, 52.9%±10% vs. 50.9%±10% in atenolol groups; p=0.602). Ivabradine or atenolol can be used for heart rate control in patients with moderate mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm. Ivabradine is not superior to atenolol for controlling heart rate or exercise capacity. Left ventricular MPI was unaffected by either of the drugs. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair for moderate secondary/functional mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing aortic root/valve intervention.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Abraham, Atul; Bhoje, Amol; Gharde, Parag; Sahu, Manoj; Talwar, Sachin; Airan, Balram

    2017-06-13

    The present study evaluates the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of edge-to-edge repair for moderate secondary/functional mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing aortic valve/root interventions. Sixteen patients underwent transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. Mitral regurgitation was 2+ in 8 patients and 3+ in 6 patients. Two patients in whom cardiac arrest developed preoperatively had severe (4+) mitral regurgitation. Patients underwent operation for severe aortic regurgitation ± aortic root lesions. The mean left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters were 51.5 ± 12.8 mm and 70.7 ± 10.7 mm, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction ranged from 20% to 60%. Primary surgical procedure included Bentall's ± hemiarch replacement in 10 patients, aortic valve replacement in 5 patients, and noncoronary sinus replacement with aortic valve repair in 1 patient. Severity of mitral regurgitation decreased to trivial or zero in 13 patients, 1+ in 2 patients, and 2+ in 1 patient. There were no gradients across the mitral valve in 9 patients, less than 5 mm Hg in 6 patients, and 9 mm Hg in 1 patient. There was no operative mortality. Follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 54 months. Echocardiography showed trivial or no mitral regurgitation in 12 patients, 1+ in 2 patients, and 2+ in 2 patients. None of the patients had significant mitral stenosis. The mean left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters decreased to 40.5 ± 10.3 mm and 58.7 ± 11.6 mm, respectively. Ejection fraction also improved slightly (22%-65%). Transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is a safe and effective technique to abolish secondary/functional mitral regurgitation. However, its impact on overall survival needs to be studied. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms of Functional Mitral Regurgitation in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Determined by Transesophageal Echocardiography (From the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure [STICH] Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Golba, Krzysztof; Mokrzycki, Krzysztof; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Cherniavsky, Alexander; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Roberts, Bradley J.; Haddad, Haissam; Maurer, Gerald; Yii, Michael; Asch, Federico M.; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Holly, Thomas A.; Przybylski, Roman; Kron, Irving; Schaff, Hartzell; Aston, Susan; Horton, John; Lee, Kerry L.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Grayburn, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying functional mitral regurgitation (MR), and the relation between mechanism and severity of MR have not been evaluated in a large multicenter randomized controlled trial. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed in 215 patients at 17 centers in the Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial. Both two-dimensional (2D, n=215) and three-dimensional (3D, n=81) TEE were used to assess multiple quantitative measures of the mechanism and severity of MR. By 2D TEE, leaflet tenting area, anterior and posterior leaflet angles, mitral annulus diameter, left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume index, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and sphericity index (p<0.05 for all) were significantly different across MR grades. By 3D TEE, mitral annulus area, leaflet tenting area, LV end-systolic volume index, LVEF, and sphericity index (p<0.05 for all) were significantly different across MR grades. A multivariable analysis showed a trend for annulus area (p=0.069) and LV end-systolic volume index (p=0.071) to predict effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) and for annulus area (p=0.018) and LV end-systolic volume index (p=0.073) to predict vena contracta area. In the STICH trial, multiple quantitative parameters of the mechanism of functional MR are related to MR severity. The mechanism of functional MR in ischemic cardiomyopathy is heterogeneous but no single variable stands out as a strong predictor of quantitative severity of MR. PMID:24035166

  11. Moderate alcohol intake reduces risk of ischemic stroke in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Joo; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Jae Guk; Ko, Youngchai; Hong, Keun-Sik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Han, Moon-Ku; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We undertook a population-based, case-control study to examine a dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and risk of ischemic stroke in Koreans who had different alcoholic beverage type preferences than Western populations and to examine the effect modifications by sex and ischemic stroke subtypes. Methods: Cases (n = 1,848) were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older with first-ever ischemic stroke. Stroke-free controls (n = 3,589) were from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were matched to the cases by age (±3 years), sex, and education level. All participants completed an interview using a structured questionnaire about alcohol intake. Results: Light to moderate alcohol intake, 3 or 4 drinks (1 drink = 10 g ethanol) per day, was significantly associated with a lower odds of ischemic stroke after adjusting for potential confounders (no drinks: reference; <1 drink: odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.45; 1–2 drinks: 0.45, 0.36–0.57; and 3–4 drinks: 0.54, 0.39–0.74). The threshold of alcohol effect in women was slightly lower than that in men (up to 1–2 drinks in women vs up to 3–4 drinks in men), but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no statistical interaction between alcohol intake and the subtypes of ischemic stroke (p = 0.50). The most frequently used alcoholic beverage was one native to Korea, soju (78% of the cases), a distilled beverage with 20% ethanol by volume. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that light to moderate distilled alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in Koreans. PMID:26519539

  12. Downsizing annuloplasty in ischemic mitral regurgitation: double row overlapping suture to avoid ring disinsertion in valve repair.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Francesco; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Al-Attar, Nawwar; Chello, Massimo; Lusini, Mario; Barbato, Raffaele; Acar, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    The long-term outcomes of undersizing annuloplasty for the treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is affected by the progressive dilation of the annulus, which carries increased risk for ring disinsertion. Reasons underlying this phenomenon might be found in the excess of physical stress on the annuloplasty sutures during the ventricular remodeling process. We report a technique based on the placement of a double row of overlapping sutures aiming at reducing the potential for ring disinsertion. Eleven patients with IMR undergoing mitral valve repair associated with coronary bypass grafting were treated with this technique and echocardiographically followed up at 6 and 12 months. The overall annular dimension decreased significantly with a significant reduction of the tenting area and no recurrence of mitral regurgitation at 1 year. A double row of overlapping sutures allowed firm attachment of the prosthetic ring while downsizing the annulus in IMR, limiting the consequences of changes in subannular ventricular geometry. This technique might therefore be considered a useful aid during mitral valve repair.

  13. Contribution of ischemic mitral regurgitation to congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Grigioni, Francesco; Detaint, Delphine; Avierinos, Jean-François; Scott, Christopher; Tajik, Jamil; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2005-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to define the contribution of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) to the occurrence of congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI). After MI, CHF is a frequent and serious complication, but its determinants and, particularly, the role of IMR are poorly defined. We analyzed 173 asymptomatic patients with previous Q-wave MI (>16 days) with echocardiographic quantitation of IMR (measuring effective regurgitant orifice [ERO] and regurgitant volume). The 102 patients with IMR were matched to 71 patients without IMR for age (71 +/- 11 years vs. 68 +/- 9 years; p = 0.11), gender (76% vs. 82% males; p = 0.41), and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (37 +/- 14% vs. 36 +/- 11%; p = 0.92). Five-year rates of CHF and of CHF or cardiac death (CD) were 36 +/- 5% and 52 +/- 5%, respectively. Independent determinants of CHF were EF, sodium plasma level, and presence and degree of IMR (p < 0.0001). Five-year CHF rates were 18 +/- 5% without mitral regurgitation (MR), 53 +/- 7% with IMR, 46 +/- 9% with ERO 1 to 19 mm(2) and 68 +/- 12% with ERO > or =20 mm(2) (all p < 0.0001). The adjusted relative risk of CHF was 3.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 7.75) for IMR presence and 4.42 (95% CI 1.9 to 10.5) for ERO > or =20 mm(2). The adjusted relative risk of CHF/CD was 2.97 (95% CI 1.77 to 5.16) for IMR presence and 4.4 (95% CI 2.4 to 8.2) for ERO > or =20 mm(2). After MI, incidence of CHF and of CHF/CD are high even in patients with no or minimal symptoms at baseline and are higher in patients with IMR. Congestive heart failure is independently determined by larger ERO of IMR. These data suggest that detecting and quantifying IMR is essential for risk stratification after MI. Value of IMR treatment in improving post-MI outcome should be investigated.

  14. Doppler-derived left ventricular negative dP/dt as a predictor of atrial fibrillation or ischemic stroke in patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation and normal ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Cho, Eun Joo; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Jung, Hae-Ok; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) -dP/dt in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) or ischemic stroke in patients with moderate to severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR). Doppler-derived LV -dP/dt was determined from the continuous-wave Doppler spectrum of the MR jet (-dP/dt = 32/time between 3 and 1 m/sec) in 80 patients (mean age 59 ± 16 years, 41% men) with moderate to severe degenerative MR, normal LV ejection fraction (LVEF ≥ 60%), and sinus rhythm at diagnosis. Events were defined as new AF or ischemic stroke. During a mean follow-up of 18 ± 13 months, there were 9 events (6 new AF, 3 ischemic strokes). Univariate analysis showed that older age, decreased LV -dP/dt, increased LV mass index, and left atrial volume index (LAVI), shortened deceleration time (DT), reduced A' velocity, and elevated E/E' ratio, prolongation of pulmonary venous (PV) atrial reversal (AR) flow duration relative to mitral inflow A-wave duration (AR-Adur) were associated with events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, Doppler-derived LV -dP/dt (for each 100 mmHg/sec increase, hazard ratio: 0.165, 95% confidence interval: 0.036-0.761, P = 0.021) and E/E' (hazard ratio: 0.820, 95% confidence interval: 0.682-0.987, P = 0.036) were significant independent predictors of AF or ischemic stroke. Doppler-derived LV -dP/dt is independently associated with the occurrence of AF or ischemic stroke in patients with moderate to severe degenerative MR and provides additional prognostic information. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Treatment with hydralazine in mild to moderate mitral or aortic incompetence.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Lederballe, O; Videbaek, J; Henningsen, P

    1983-05-01

    Twenty-two patients with mild or moderate mitral or aortic incompetence were randomly assigned to treatment with either hydralazine (mean 127 mg/day, range 37-225) or placebo. Eight patients in the hydralazine group and ten patients in the placebo group completed the study. Two of the patients in the hydralazine group and one patient in the placebo group were withdrawn because of suspected side effects. One patient dropped out because of influenza. Over a period of seven weeks the patients were monitored clinically as well as non-invasively with echocardiography and exercise testing. The systolic blood pressure fell from 152 +/- 10 to 135 +/- 9 mm Hg (mean +/- s.e.m.) (17%, P less than 0.01). The diastolic blood pressure fell from 63 +/- 8 to 58 +/- 8 mm Hg (5%, P = 0.09). The heart rate was unchanged. Left ventricular internal diameter in systole decreased from 49 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 3 mm (9%, P = 0.05) and in diastole from 73 +/- 4 to 70 +/- 3 mm (4%, P = 0.03). Left ventricular systolic wall tension fell from 200 +/- 16 to 152 +/- 18 mm Hg (24%, P less than 0.01). Left ventricular shortening fraction increased from 32 +/- 3 to 36 +/- 3% (12%, P less than 0.01). Maximal exercise capacity improved from 3200 +/- 800 to 3800 +/- 700 kpm (19%, P = 0.02). No significant responses were observed in the placebo group. Oral hydralazine reduces left ventricular internal diameters, improves left ventricular performance, presumably at a lower level of oxygen consumption, and improves exercise capacity in patients with modest mitral or aortic incompetence.

  16. Comparison of Transesophageal and Transthoracic Echocardiographic Measurements of Mechanism and Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (From the STICH trial)

    PubMed Central

    Grayburn, Paul A.; She, Lilin; Roberts, Brad J.; Golba, Krzysztof S.; Mokrzycki, Krzysztof; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Cherniavsky, Alexander; Przybylski, Roman; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Asch, Federico M.; Holly, Thomas A.; Haddad, Haissam; Yii, Michael; Maurer, Gerald; Kron, Irving; Schaff, Hartzell; Velazquez, Eric J.; Oh, Jae K.

    2015-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in ischemic heart disease and contributes to symptoms and mortality. This report compares the results of baseline transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) imaging of the mechanism and severity of functional MR in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy in the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial. Independent core labs measured both TTE and TEE images on 196 STICH patients. Common measurements to both modalities included MR grade, mitral valve tenting height and tenting area, and mitral annular diameter. For each parameter, correlations were assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. A modest correlation (figure) was present between TEE and TTE for overall MR grade (n=176, r=0.52). For mechanism of MR, modest correlations were present for long-axis tenting height (n=152, r=0.35), tenting area (n=128, r=0.27), and long-axis mitral annulus diameter (n=123, r=0.41). For each measurement, there was significant scatter. Potential explanations for the scatter include different orientation of the imaging planes between TEE and TTE, a mean temporal delay of 6 days between TEE and TTE, and statistically significant differences in heart rate and blood pressure and weight between studies. In conclusion, TEE and TTE measurements of MR mechanism and severity correlate only modestly with enough scatter in the data that they are not interchangeable. PMID:26170249

  17. Cardiac Calcified Amorphous Tumor of the Mitral Valve Presenting as Transient Ischemic Attack.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Teshnizi, Mohammad; Ghorbanzadeh, Atefeh; Zirak, Nahid; Manafi, Babak; Moeinipour, Aliasghar

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac calcified amorphous tumors (CATs) are an extremely rare nonneoplastic intracardiac masses. They have been reported in the literature in only a few cases. Thus, the incidence, pathogenesis, and best approach to the treatment are not certain. We report a case of CATs on the atrial surface of the anterior mitral valve leaflet in a 37-year-old female who was diagnosed by histopathological examination after surgical removal.

  18. Cardiac Calcified Amorphous Tumor of the Mitral Valve Presenting as Transient Ischemic Attack

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi Teshnizi, Mohammad; Ghorbanzadeh, Atefeh; Zirak, Nahid; Manafi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac calcified amorphous tumors (CATs) are an extremely rare nonneoplastic intracardiac masses. They have been reported in the literature in only a few cases. Thus, the incidence, pathogenesis, and best approach to the treatment are not certain. We report a case of CATs on the atrial surface of the anterior mitral valve leaflet in a 37-year-old female who was diagnosed by histopathological examination after surgical removal. PMID:28194283

  19. Papillary fibroelastoma of mitral valve: a rare cause of transient ischemic attack in the young.

    PubMed

    Gölbaşi, Z; Ciçek, D; Aydogdu, S; Can, C

    2000-07-01

    We report the case of a young Turkish man with a transient ischemic attack secondary to a rare cardiac tumor, papillary fibroelastoma. The tumor was diagnosed by 2-dimensional echocardiography and treated surgically.

  20. [Progressive moderate mitral regurgitation in a children with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. The importance of cardiologic follow up].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Ferrer, Francisco; Grima Murcia, María D

    2016-12-01

    Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a congenital disease with an estimated prevalence of one in 200,000 individuals. This is an ophthalmic disorder related to anterior segment dysgenesis, which may be present from the neonatal period. It is associated with extraocular affectations such as cranial dimorphism, maxillofacial or dental anomalies. Cardiological or pituitary manifestations are less common. The congenital heart disease in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome has been described in very few cases in the literature. We report a 7-year-old patient with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome and mild mitral insufficiency since the age of 3 years, which is progressing to moderate mitral regurgitation at the present time. The cardiologic follow up may be indicated in patients with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome.

  1. Meta-analysis of concomitant mitral valve repair and coronary artery bypass surgery versus isolated coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with moderate ischaemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Kopjar, Tomislav; Gasparovic, Hrvoje; Mestres, Carlos A; Milicic, Davor; Biocina, Bojan

    2016-08-01

    Ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a complication of coronary artery disease with normal chordal and leaflet morphology. Controversy surrounds the issue of appropriate surgical management of moderate IMR. With the present meta-analysis, we aimed to determine whether the addition of mitral valve (MV) repair to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) improved clinical outcome over CABG alone in patients with moderate IMR. Databases were searched for studies reporting on clinical outcomes after CABG and MV repair or CABG alone for moderate IMR. Clinical end-points were operative mortality, survival, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ≥2 and MR grade ≥2 at last follow-up. A total of five observational and four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. The mean follow-up was 2.7 years. An analysis of all studies revealed increased operative risk in the concomitant CABG and MV repair group {risk ratio [RR] 2.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 3.56], P = 0.01, I(2) = 0%}. However, an analysis of RCTs only showed that the operative risk was equivalent [RR 1.05 (95% CI 0.34, 3.30), P = 0.93, I(2) = 0%]. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) on survival did not favour either procedure [all studies: HR 1.08 (95% CI 0.77, 1.50), P = 0.66, I(2) = 0%; RCTs only: HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.47, 1.70), P = 0.73, I(2) = 0%]. The incidence of exercise intolerance quantified as NYHA class ≥2 was similar between groups (all studies: RR 0.72 (95% CI 0.42, 1.24), P = 0.24, I(2) = 77%; RCTs only: RR 0.61 (95% CI 0.24, 1.55), P = 0.30, I(2) = 83%]. Risk of residual MR grade ≥2 was higher in the CABG only group [all studies: RR 0.30 (95% CI 0.16, 0.60), P < 0.001, I(2) = 83%; RCTs only: RR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.90), P = 0.04, I(2) = 72%]. There is neither increased operative mortality nor survival benefit associated with concomitant CABG and MV repair for IMR of moderate degree over CABG alone. Further studies with long-term follow-up data and sub-group analyses of current data are

  2. Outcomes of Mild to Moderate Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Operations: A Meta-Analysis of 2,488 Patients.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ibrahim; Koksal, Cengiz; Erkin, Alper; Sacli, Hakan; Demirtas, Mucahit; Percin, Bilal; Diler, Mevriye Serpil; Kirali, Kaan

    2015-12-01

    This meta-analysis examined the prognosis of patients who were found to have mild to moderate functional tricuspid regurgitation during mitral valve operations. Overall, this meta-analysis included 2,488 patients in 10 studies. Compared with the group without tricuspid valve annuloplasty, the probability of not progressing to moderate to severe functional tricuspid regurgitation was significantly higher in the tricuspid valve annuloplasty group. A more aggressive surgical approach involving concomitant tricuspid repair with mitral valve operations may be considered to avoid the development of moderate to severe functional tricuspid regurgitation in the follow-up.

  3. Relationship between native papillary muscle T1 time and severity of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Nakamori, Shiro; Roujol, Sébastien; Delling, Francesca N; Akhtari, Shadi; Jang, Jihye; Basha, Tamer; Berg, Sophie; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2016-11-16

    Functional mitral regurgitation is one of the severe complications of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Non-contrast native T1 mapping has emerged as a non-invasive method to evaluate myocardial fibrosis. We sought to evaluate the potential relationship between papillary muscle T1 time and mitral regurgitation in DCM patients. Forty DCM patients (55 ± 13 years) and 20 healthy adult control subjects (54 ± 13 years) were studied. Native T1 mapping was performed using a slice interleaved T1 mapping sequence (STONE) which enables acquisition of 5 slices in the short-axis plane within a 90 s free-breathing scan. We measured papillary muscle diameter, length and shortening. DCM patients were allocated into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of functional mitral regurgitation. Papillary muscle T1 time was significantly elevated in DCM patients with mitral regurgitation (n = 22) in comparison to those without mitral regurgitation (n = 18) (anterior papillary muscle: 1127 ± 36 msec vs 1063 ± 16 msec, p < 0.05; posterior papillary muscle: 1124 ± 30 msec vs 1062 ± 19 msec, p < 0.05), but LV T1 time was similar (1129 ± 38 msec vs 1134 ± 58 msec, p = 0.93). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that papillary muscle native T1 time (β = 0.10, 95 % CI: 0.05-0.17, p < 0.05) is significantly correlated with mitral regurgitant fraction. Elevated papillary muscle T1 time was associated with larger diameter, longer length and decreased papillary muscle shortening (all p values <0.05). In DCM, papillary muscle native T1 time is significantly elevated and related to mitral regurgitant fraction.

  4. Management and outcomes in patients with moderate or severe functional mitral regurgitation and severe left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Samad, Zainab; Shaw, Linda K; Phelan, Matthew; Ersboll, Mads; Risum, Niels; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Glower, Donald D; Milano, Carmelo A; Alexander, John H; O'Connor, Christopher M; Wang, Andrew; Velazquez, Eric J

    2015-10-21

    The management and outcomes of patients with functional moderate/severe mitral regurgitation and severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction are not well defined. We sought to determine the characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and LV systolic dysfunction. For the period 1995-2010, the Duke Echocardiography Laboratory and Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Diseases databases were merged to identify patients with moderate or severe functional MR and severe LV dysfunction (defined as LV ejection fraction ≤ 30% or LV end-systolic diameter > 55 mm). We examined treatment effects in two ways. (i) A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the independent relationship of different treatment strategies and long-term event (death, LV assist device, or transplant)-free survival among those with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). (ii) To examine the association of mitral valve (MV) surgery with outcomes, we divided the entire cohort into two groups, those who underwent MV surgery and those who did not; we used inverse probability weighted (IPW) propensity adjustment to account for non-random treatment assignment. Among 1441 patients with moderate (70%) or severe (30%) MR, a significant history of hypertension (59%), diabetes (28%), symptomatic heart failure (83%), and CAD (52%) was observed. Past revascularization in 26% was noted. At 1 year, 1094 (75%) patients were treated medically. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 114 patients, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in 82, CABG and MV surgery in 96, and MV surgery alone in 55 patients. Among patients with CAD, compared with medical therapy alone, the treatment strategies of CABG surgery [hazard ratio (HR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.76] and CABG with MV surgery (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.78) were associated with long-term, event-free survival benefit. Percutaneous

  5. Importance of mitral valve repair associated with left ventricular reconstruction for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Asher, Craig R.; Hail, Melanie; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Starling, Randall C.; Young, James B.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) reconstruction surgery leads to early improvement in LV function in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair associated with LV reconstruction on LV function 1-year after surgery in ICM patients assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty ICM patients who underwent the combination surgery (LV reconstruction in 60, MV repair in 30, and revascularization in 52 patients) were studied. Real-time 3DE was performed and LV volumes were obtained at baseline, discharge, 6-month and >or=12-month follow-up. Reduction in end-diastolic volumes (EDV) by 29% and in end-systolic volumes by 38% were demonstrated immediately after surgery and remained at subsequent follow-up (P<0.0001). The LV ejection fraction significantly increased by about 10% at discharge and was maintained >or=12-month (P<0.0001). Although the LV volumes were significantly larger in patients with MV repair before surgery (EDV, 235+/-87 mL versus 193+/-67 mL, P<0.05), they were similar to LV volumes of the patients without MV repair at subsequent follow-ups. However, the EDV increased from 139+/-24 mL to 227+/-79 mL (P<0.01) in 7 patients with recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Improvement in New York Heart Association functional class occurred in 81% patients during late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time 3DE demonstrates that LV reconstruction provides significant reduction in LV volumes and improvement in LV function which is sustained throughout the 1-year follow-up with 84% cardiac event free survival. If successful, MV repair may prevent LV redilation, while recurrent MR is associated with increased LV volumes.

  6. Importance of mitral valve repair associated with left ventricular reconstruction for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jian Xin; Shiota, Takahiro; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Asher, Craig R.; Hail, Melanie; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Starling, Randall C.; hide

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) reconstruction surgery leads to early improvement in LV function in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair associated with LV reconstruction on LV function 1-year after surgery in ICM patients assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty ICM patients who underwent the combination surgery (LV reconstruction in 60, MV repair in 30, and revascularization in 52 patients) were studied. Real-time 3DE was performed and LV volumes were obtained at baseline, discharge, 6-month and >or=12-month follow-up. Reduction in end-diastolic volumes (EDV) by 29% and in end-systolic volumes by 38% were demonstrated immediately after surgery and remained at subsequent follow-up (P<0.0001). The LV ejection fraction significantly increased by about 10% at discharge and was maintained >or=12-month (P<0.0001). Although the LV volumes were significantly larger in patients with MV repair before surgery (EDV, 235+/-87 mL versus 193+/-67 mL, P<0.05), they were similar to LV volumes of the patients without MV repair at subsequent follow-ups. However, the EDV increased from 139+/-24 mL to 227+/-79 mL (P<0.01) in 7 patients with recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Improvement in New York Heart Association functional class occurred in 81% patients during late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time 3DE demonstrates that LV reconstruction provides significant reduction in LV volumes and improvement in LV function which is sustained throughout the 1-year follow-up with 84% cardiac event free survival. If successful, MV repair may prevent LV redilation, while recurrent MR is associated with increased LV volumes.

  7. Quantitative histologic analysis of the mitral valve anterior leaflet: ischemic alterations and implications for valve replacement design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, David W.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.

    1999-06-01

    There is a current trend to design innovative mitral valve replacements that mimic the native mitral valve (MV). A prerequisite for these new designs is the characterization of MV structure. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of MV collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) in MV anterior leaflets. Methods: Specimens from the mid-line of eight sheep MV anterior leaflets were stained with aniline blue (collagen) and alcian blue (GAGs). These specimens were analyzed using an image analysis system running Optimas software. Based on the luminance of stains within individual valve layers, the distribution of valvular collagen and GAGs from leaflet annulus to free-edge were determined. Results: Near the annulus, 100% of MV thickness is fibrosa (collagen dominated layer). Moving towards the free-edge, fibrosa prominence decreases and there is a transition to spongiosa (GAG dominated layer). Near the free-edge 100% of MV thickness is dominated by the spongiosa. Conclusions: Valvular collagen dominates MV structure near the annulus to support the stresses of bending and pressurization. Valvular GAGs dominate the MV near the free-edge to absorb the impact of leaflet coaptation. Image analysis has proven to be an effective tool to evaluate MV structure and facilitate the design of valve replacements.

  8. Effect of Ivabradine on Heart Rate and Duration of Exercise in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Mitral Stenosis: A Randomized Comparison With Metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Saggu, Daljeet K; Narain, Varun S; Dwivedi, Sudhanshu K; Sethi, Rishi; Chandra, Sharad; Puri, Aniket; Saran, Ram K

    2015-06-01

    Symptoms in mitral stenosis (MS) are heart rate (HR) dependent. Increase in HR reduces diastolic filling period with rise in transmitral gradient. By reducing HR, beta-blockers improve hemodynamics and relieve symptoms, but the use may be limited by side effects. The present randomized crossover study looked at comparative efficacy of ivabradine and metoprolol on symptoms, hemodynamics, and exercise parameters in patients with mild-to-moderate MS (mitral valve area, 1-2 cm) in normal sinus rhythm. Baseline clinical assessment, treadmill stress testing, and an echocardiographic Doppler evaluation were performed to determine resting HR, total exercise duration, mean gradient across mitral valve, and mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). Patients were then allocated to either metoprolol or ivabradine to maximal tolerated doses over 6 weeks (metoprolol: 100 mg twice a day, ivabradine: 10 mg twice a day). Reevaluation was done at the end of this period, and all drugs stopped for washout over 2 weeks. Thereafter, the 2 groups were crossed over to the other drug that was continued for another 6 weeks. Assessment was again performed at the end of this period. Thirty-three patients of 34 completed the protocol. Fifteen were male, mean age was 28.9 ± 6.6 years, all were in New York Heart Association class 2, and mean resting HR was 103.5 ± 7.2/min. Mean mitral valve area was 1.56 ± 0.16 cm, mean PASP was 38.1 ± 5.1 mm Hg, and mean gradient across mitral valve was 10.6 ± 1.6 mm Hg. Significant decrease in baseline and peak exercise HR was observed at the end of follow-up with both drugs. Reduction in mitral valve gradient after ivabradine (42%) and metoprolol (37%) and reduction in PASP after both ivabradine (23%) and metoprolol (27%) were to a similar extent. Significant reduction in total exercise duration after both ivabradine and metoprolol therapy was observed. One patient developed blurring of vision with ivabradine therapy but did not require

  9. Chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation and papillary muscle infarction detected by late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Wobbe; Willemsen, Hendrik M; Lexis, Chris P H; Prakken, Niek H; Lipsic, Erik; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Mariani, Massimo A; van der Harst, Pim; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2016-12-01

    Both papillary muscle infarction (PMI) and chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR) are associated with reduced survival after myocardial infarction. The influence of PMI on CIMR and factors influencing both entities are incompletely understood. We sought to determine the influence of PMI on CIMR after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to define independent predictors of PMI and CIMR. Between January 2011 and May 2013, 263 patients (mean age 57.8 ± 11.5 years) underwent late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and transthoracic echocardiography 4 months after PCI for STEMI. Infarct size, PMI, and mitral valve and left ventricular geometric and functional parameters were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of PMI and CIMR (≥grade 2+). PMI was present in 61 patients (23 %) and CIMR was present in 86 patients (33 %). In patients with PMI, 52 % had CIMR, and in patients without PMI, 27 % had CIMR (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, infarct size [odds ratio (OR) 1.09 (95 % confidence interval 1.04-1.13), P < 0.001], inferior MI [OR 4.64 (1.04-20.62), P = 0.044], and circumflex infarct-related artery [OR 8.21 (3.80-17.74), P < 0.001] were independent predictors of PMI. Age [OR 1.08 (1.04-1.11), P < 0.001], infarct size [OR 1.09 (1.03-1.16), P = 0.003], tethering height [OR 19.30 (3.28-113.61), P = 0.001], and interpapillary muscle distance [OR 3.32 (1.31-8.42), P = 0.011] were independent predictors of CIMR. The risk of PMI is mainly associated with inferior infarction and infarction in the circumflex coronary artery. Although the prevalence of CIMR is almost doubled in the presence of PMI, PMI is not an independent predictor of CIMR. Tethering height and interpapillary muscle distance are the strongest independent predictors of CIMR.

  10. Acute Ischemic Stroke After Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidence and Impact on Outcome.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Robert G; Haarbauer-Krupa, Juliet K; Bell, Jeneita M; Corrigan, John D; Hammond, Flora M; Torbey, Michel T; Hofmann, Melissa C; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Miller, A Cate; Whiteneck, Gale G

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to nearly 300 000 annual US hospitalizations and increased lifetime risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Occurrence of AIS immediately after TBI has not been well characterized. We evaluated AIS acutely after TBI and its impact on outcome. A prospective database of moderate to severe TBI survivors, admitted to inpatient rehabilitation at 22 Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems centers and their referring acute-care hospitals, was analyzed. Outcome measures were AIS incidence, duration of posttraumatic amnesia, Functional Independence Measure, and Disability Rating Scale, at rehabilitation discharge. Between October 1, 2007, and March 31, 2015, 6488 patients with TBI were enrolled in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database. One hundred and fifty-nine (2.5%) patients had a concurrent AIS, and among these, median age was 40 years. AIS was associated with intracranial mass effect and carotid or vertebral artery dissection. High-velocity events more commonly caused TBI with dissection. AIS predicted poorer outcome by all measures, accounting for a 13.3-point reduction in Functional Independence Measure total score (95% confidence interval, -16.8 to -9.7; P<0.001), a 1.9-point increase in Disability Rating Scale (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.5; P<0.001), and an 18.3-day increase in posttraumatic amnesia duration (95% confidence interval, 13.1-23.4; P<0.001). Ischemic stroke is observed acutely in 2.5% of moderate to severe TBI survivors and predicts worse functional and cognitive outcome. Half of TBI patients with AIS were aged ≤40 years, and AIS patients more often had cervical dissection. Vigilance for AIS is warranted acutely after TBI, particularly after high-velocity events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Moderate sensitivity and high specificity of emergency department administrative data for transient ischemic attacks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Amy Y X; Quan, Hude; McRae, Andrew; Wagner, Gabrielle O; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2017-09-18

    Validation of administrative data case definitions is key for accurate passive surveillance of disease. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a condition primarily managed in the emergency department. However, prior validation studies have focused on data after inpatient hospitalization. We aimed to determine the validity of the Canadian 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-CA) codes for TIA in the national ambulatory administrative database. We performed a diagnostic accuracy study of four ICD-10-CA case definition algorithms for TIA in the emergency department setting. The study population was obtained from two ongoing studies on the diagnosis of TIA and minor stroke versus stroke mimic using serum biomarkers and neuroimaging. Two reference standards were used 1) the emergency department clinical diagnosis determined by chart abstractors and 2) the 90-day final diagnosis, both obtained by stroke neurologists, to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the ICD-10-CA algorithms for TIA. Among 417 patients, emergency department adjudication showed 163 (39.1%) TIA, 155 (37.2%) ischemic strokes, and 99 (23.7%) stroke mimics. The most restrictive algorithm, defined as a TIA code in the main position had the lowest sensitivity (36.8%), but highest specificity (92.5%) and PPV (76.0%). The most inclusive algorithm, defined as a TIA code in any position with and without query prefix had the highest sensitivity (63.8%), but lowest specificity (81.5%) and PPV (68.9%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were overall lower when using the 90-day diagnosis as reference standard. Emergency department administrative data reflect diagnosis of suspected TIA with high specificity, but underestimate the burden of disease. Future studies are necessary to understand the reasons for the low to moderate sensitivity.

  12. Mitral stenosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mitral stenosis is a heart valve disorder that narrows or obstructs the mitral valve opening. Narrowing of the mitral ... the body. The main risk factor for mitral stenosis is a history of rheumatic fever but it ...

  13. Percutaneous mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Block, Peter C

    2003-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) associated with, ischemic, and degenerative (prolapse) disease, contributes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction due to remodeling, and LV dilation, resulting in worsening of MR. Mitral valve (MV) surgical repair has provided improvement in survival, LV function and symptoms, especially when performed early. Surgical repair is complex, due to diverse etiologies and has significant complications. The Society for Thoracic Surgery database shows that operative mortality for a 1st repair is 2% and for re-do repair is 4 times that. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest are required. The attendant morbidity prolongs hospitalization and recovery. Alfieri simplified mitral repair using an edge-to-edge technique which subsequently has been shown to be effective for multiple etiologies of MR. The MV leaflers are typically brought together by a central suture producing a double orifice MV without stenosis. Umana reported that MR decreased from grade 3.6 +/- 0.5 to 0.8 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.0001) and LV ejection fraction increased from 33 +/- 13% to 45 +/- 11% (P = 0.0156). In 121 patients, Maisano reported freedom from re-operation of 95 +/- 4.8% with up to 6 year follow-up. Oz developed a MV "grasper" that is directly placed via a left ventriculotomy and coapts both leaflets which are then fastened by a graduated spiral screw. An in-vitro model using explanted human valves showed significant reduction in MR and in canine studies, animals followed by serial echo had persistent MV coaptation. At 12 weeks the device was endothelialized. These promising results have paved the way for a percutaneous or minimally invasive-off pump mitral repair. Evalve has developed catheter-based technology, which, by apposing the edges of a regurgitant MV, results in edge-to-edge repair. Release of the device is done after echo and fluoroscopic evaluation under normal loading conditions. If the desired effect is not produced the device can be repositioned or retrieved

  14. Mitral Valve Replacement After Failed Mitral Ring Insertion With or Without Leaflet/Chordal Repair for Pure Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William C; Moore, Meagan; Ko, Jong Mi; Hamman, Baron L

    2016-06-01

    Mitral repair operations for correction of pure mitral regurgitation (MR) are generally quite successful. Occasionally, however, the reparative procedure incompletely corrects the MR or the MR recurs. From March 1993 to January 2016, twenty nine patients had mitral valve replacement after the initial mitral repair operation, and observations in them were analyzed. All 29 patients at the repair operation had an annular ring inserted and later (<1 year in 6 and >1 year in 21) mitral valve replacement. The cause of the MR before the repair operation appears to have been prolapse in 16 patients (55%), secondary (functional) in 12 (41%) (ischemic in 5), and infective endocarditis which healed in 1 (3%). At the replacement operation the excised anterior mitral leaflet was thickened in all 29 patients. Some degree of stenosis appeared to have been present in 16 of the 29 patients before the replacement operation, although only 10 had an echocardiographic or hemodynamic recording of a transvalvular gradient; at least 11 patients had restricted motion of the posterior mitral leaflet; 10, ring dehiscence; 2, severe hemolysis; and 2, left ventricular outflow obstruction. In conclusion, there are multiple reasons for valve replacement after earlier mitral repair. Uniformly, at the time of the replacement, the mitral leaflets were thickened by fibrous tissue. Measurement of the area enclosed by the 360° rings and study of the excised leaflet suggest that the ring itself may have contributed to the leaflet scarring and development of some transmitral stenosis.

  15. [Color Doppler identification of early diastolic turbulence in the left atrium in patients with mitral valve insufficiency: persistence of regurgitation or inertia phenomenon?].

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, G; Moro, E; Nicolosi, G L; Dall'Aglio, V; Mimo, R; Mangano, S; Zanuttini, D

    1990-08-01

    Color Doppler flow mapping represents the most recent non invasive diagnostic tool for the visualization of intracardiac blood flow. By using the color Doppler flow mapping technique, two independent observers identified the persistence of turbulence in early diastole inside the left atrium in a selected group of 8 patients (3 F and 5 M) with mitral insufficiency. All the patients had moderate or severe mitral insufficiency, due to dilated cardiomyopathy and/or ischemic cardiomyopathy and/or valvular disease. The persistence of early diastolic turbulence inside the left atrium was documented and confirmed by using 30 degrees color sector images, which show the highest possible frame rate. The frame by frame analysis facilitated the identification of two simultaneous flow velocities during early diastole, after the mitral valve was open. The first flow was anterograde and was coded as a red signal; it flowed from the mitral valve into the left ventricle and represented early diastolic left ventricular filling. The second flow was retrograde, and was coded as a blue mosaic signal, due to turbulent aliased jet, extending from the mitral valve into the left atrium, away from the transducer. The interpretation of these two dimensional color Doppler findings is uncertain. We believe, however, that these turbulent velocity signals which persist in early diastole and flow from the mitral valve into the left atrium are probably caused by inertial blood flow due to the impact of regurgitant mitral jets during the previous systole.

  16. Transcatheter mitral valve repair in osteogenesis imperfecta associated mitral valve regurgitation.

    PubMed

    van der Kley, Frank; Delgado, Victoria; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Schalij, Martin J

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is associated with increased prevalence of significant mitral valve regurgitation. Surgical mitral valve repair and replacement are feasible but are associated with increased risk of bleeding and dehiscence of implanted valves may occur more frequently. The present case report describes the outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve repair in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. A 60 year-old patient with osteogenesis imperfecta and associated symptomatic moderate to severe mitral regurgitation underwent transthoracic echocardiography which showed a nondilated left ventricle with preserved systolic function and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. On transoesophageal echocardiography the regurgitant jet originated between the anterolateral scallops of the anterior and posterior leaflets (A1-P1). Considering the comorbidities associated with osteogenesis imperfecta the patient was accepted for transcatheter mitral valve repair using the Mitraclip device (Abbott vascular, Menlo, CA). Under fluoroscopy and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography guidance, a Mitraclip device was implanted between the anterolateral and central scallops with significant reduction of mitral regurgitation. The postoperative evolution was uneventful. At one month follow-up, transthoracic echocardiography showed a stable position of the Mitraclip device with no mitral regurgitation. Transcatheter mitral valve repair is feasible and safe in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and associated symptomatic significant mitral regurgitation. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training on Hemorheological and Laboratory Parameters in Ischemic Heart Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Barbara; Nagy, Alexandra; Toth, Andras; Rabai, Miklos; Mezey, Bela; Csatho, Arpad; Czuriga, Istvan; Toth, Kalman; Szabados, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design In this study we set out to determine the effects of long-term physical training on hemorheological, laboratory parameters, exercise tolerability, psychological factors in cardiac patients participating in an ambulatory rehabilitation program. Methods Before physical training, patients were examined by echocardiography, tested on treadmill by the Bruce protocol, and blood was drawn for laboratory tests. The enrolled 79 ischemic heart disease patients joined a 24-week cardiac rehabilitation training program. Blood was drawn to measure hematocrit (Hct), plasma and whole blood viscosity (PV, WBV), red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and deformability. Hemorheological, clinical chemistry and psychological measurements were repeated 12 and 24 weeks later, and a treadmill test was performed at the end of the program. Results After 12 weeks Hct, PV, WBV and RBC aggregation were significantly decreased, RBC deformability exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05). Laboratory parameters (triglyceride, uric acid, hsCRP and fibrinogen) were significantly decreased (p<0.05). After 24 weeks the significant results were still observed. By the end of the study, IL-6 and TNF-α levels displayed decreasing trends (p<0.06). There was a significant improvement in MET (p<0.001), and the BMI decrease was also significant (p<0.05). The vital exhaustion parameters measured on the fatigue impact scale indicated a significant improvement in two areas of the daily activities (p<0.05). Conclusions Regular physical training improved the exercise tolerability of patients with ischemic heart disease. Previous publications have demonstrated that decreases in Hct and PV may reduce cardiovascular risk, while a decrease in RBC aggregation and an increase in deformability improve the capillary flow. Positive changes in laboratory parameters and body weight may indicate better oxidative and inflammatory circumstances and an improved metabolic state. The psychological findings point

  18. Transventricular mitral valve operations.

    PubMed

    Joseph Woo, Y; McCormick, Ryan C

    2011-10-01

    We report transventricular mitral valve operations in 2 patients with severe mitral regurgitation and postinfarction left ventricular rupture and pseudoaneurysm. The first patient had direct papillary muscle involvement necessitating replacement of the mitral valve. The second patient had indirect mitral involvement allowing for placement of an atrial mitral annuloplasty ring via the left ventricle. Both patients showed no mitral valve regurgitation after replacement or repair and had uneventful postoperative recoveries. These cases demonstrate a feasible, alternative, transventricular approach to mitral valve replacement and repair.

  19. Mitral valve repair for traumatic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Taro; Kogure, Shuhei; Muro, Takashi; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2016-06-01

    Mitral valve injury after blunt chest trauma is a rare clinical condition. We describe a case of mitral valve repair for severe mitral regurgitation due to blunt chest trauma 5 years previously. A 22-year-old man was referred to our hospital for surgical correction of severe mitral regurgitation. Echocardiography demonstrated a partial tear of the anterolateral papillary muscle which lacerated to the apex. The entire anterolateral part of the mitral valve including the anterior commissure and posterior leaflets had prolapsed. Reimplantation of the papillary muscle to the posterior left ventricular wall and ring annuloplasty were successfully performed without residual regurgitation.

  20. Five-year Prognosis after Mild to Moderate Ischemic Stroke by Stroke Subtype: A Multi-Clinic Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yumei; Fang, Xianghua; Asmaro, Karam; Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Xinqing; Zhang, Hongmei; Qin, Xiaoming; Ji, Xunming

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mild to moderate ischemic stroke is a common presentation in the outpatient setting. Among the various subtypes of stroke, lacunar infarction (LI) is generally very common. Currently, little is known about the long-term prognosis and factors associated with the prognosis between LI and non-LI. This study aims to compare the risk of death and acute cardiovascular events between patients with LI and non-LI, and identify potential risk factors associated with these outcomes. Methods A total of 710 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (LI: 474, non-LI: 263) from 18 clinics were recruited consecutively from 2003 to 2004. They were prospectively followed-up until the end of 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results After a 5-year follow up, 54 deaths and 96 acute cardiovascular events occurred. Recurrent stroke was the most common cause of death (19 cases, 35.18%) and new acute cardiovascular events (75 cases, 78.13%). There were no significant differences between patients with LI and non-LI in their risks of death, new cardiovascular events, and recurrent stroke after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, cardiac diseases, body mass index, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, ADL dependence, and depressive symptoms. Among the modifiable risk factors, diabetes, hypertension, ADL dependency, and symptoms of depression were independent predictors of poor outcomes in patients with LI. In non-LI patients, however, no modifiable risk factors were detected for poor outcomes. Conclusion Long-term outcomes did not differ significantly between LI and non-LI patients. Detecting and managing vascular risk factors and depression as well as functional rehabilitation may improve the prognoses of LI patients. PMID:24223696

  1. Durability of mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation due to degenerative mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    David, Tirone E

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative diseases of the mitral valve (MV) are the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in the Western world and the most suitable pathology for MV repair. Several studies have shown excellent long-term durability of MV repair for degenerative diseases. The best follow-up results are obtained with isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet, however even with isolated prolapse of the anterior leaflet or prolapse of both leaflets the results are gratifying, particularly in young patients. The freedom from reoperation on the MV at 15 years exceeds 90% for isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet and it is around 70-85% for prolapse of the anterior leaflet or both leaflets. The degree of degenerative change in the MV also plays a role in durability of MV repair. Most studies have used freedom from reoperation to assess durability of the repair but some studies that examined valve function late after surgery suggest that recurrent mitral regurgitation is higher than estimated by freedom from reoperation. We can conclude that MV repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation is associated with low probability of reoperation for up to two decades after surgery. However, almost one-third of the patients develop recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation suggesting that surgery does not arrest the degenerative process.

  2. Durability of mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation due to degenerative mitral valve disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative diseases of the mitral valve (MV) are the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in the Western world and the most suitable pathology for MV repair. Several studies have shown excellent long-term durability of MV repair for degenerative diseases. The best follow-up results are obtained with isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet, however even with isolated prolapse of the anterior leaflet or prolapse of both leaflets the results are gratifying, particularly in young patients. The freedom from reoperation on the MV at 15 years exceeds 90% for isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet and it is around 70-85% for prolapse of the anterior leaflet or both leaflets. The degree of degenerative change in the MV also plays a role in durability of MV repair. Most studies have used freedom from reoperation to assess durability of the repair but some studies that examined valve function late after surgery suggest that recurrent mitral regurgitation is higher than estimated by freedom from reoperation. We can conclude that MV repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation is associated with low probability of reoperation for up to two decades after surgery. However, almost one-third of the patients develop recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation suggesting that surgery does not arrest the degenerative process. PMID:26539345

  3. Can the proximal isovelocity surface area method calculate stenotic mitral valve area in patients with associated moderate to severe aortic regurgitation? Analysis using low aliasing velocity of 10% of the peak transmitral velocity.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, H; Enya, E; Hirano, Y; Uehara, H; Ozasa, Y; Yamada, S; Ishikawa, K

    2001-02-01

    To assess the ability of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method to accurately measure the stenotic mitral valve area (MVA), and to assess whether aortic regurgitation (AR) affects the calculation, we compared the accuracy of the PISA method and the pressure half-time (PHT) method for determining MVA in patients with and without associated AR by using two-dimensional echocardiographic planimetry as a standard. The study population consisted of 45 patients with mitral stenosis. Seventeen of the 45 patients had associated moderate-to-severe AR. The PISA method was performed using low aliasing velocity (AV) of 10% of the peak transmitral velocity, which provided the most accurate estimation of MVA when compared with planimetry. The maximal radius r of the PISA was measured from the orifice to blue-red aliasing interface. Using the PISA method, MVA was calculated as (2pir(2)) x theta / 180 x AV/Vmax, where theta was the inflow angle formed by mitral leaflets, AV was the aliasing velocity (cm/sec), and Vmax was the peak transmitral velocity (cm/sec). MVA by the PISA method correlated well with planimetry both in patients with AR (r = 0.90, P < 0.001, SEE = 0.17 cm(2)) and without AR (r = 0.92, P < 0.001, SEE = 0.16 cm(2)). However, MVA by the PHT method did not correlate as well with planimetry (r = 0.57, P < 0.05, SEE = 0.37 cm(2)) in patients with associated AR, and the PHT method produced a significant overestimation (24%) of MVA obtained by planimetry in these patients. We conclude that the PISA method allows accurate estimation of MVA and is not influenced by AR.

  4. [Changes in MLS-BAEP in newborn piglets with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage during selective moderate head cooling therapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Mei; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Cheng, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lai-Shuang; Jiang, Ze-Dong; Shao, Xiao-Mei

    2013-06-01

    To study the effect of selective moderate head cooling therapy on maximum length sequences brainstem auditory evoked potential (MLS-BAEP) in newborn piglets with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Sixteen newborn piglets aged 5-7 day old were randomly divided into three groups: normothermic control (n=4), HI (n=6) and mild hypothermia-treated (n=6). HI was induced through temporary occlusion of both carotid arteries, followed by mechanical ventilation with low concentration of oxygen (FiO2=0.06) for 30 minutes. Mild hypothermia was induced by equipment via circulating water. MLS-BAER was recorded before HI and at 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours, 60 hours, 72 hours, 4 days, 7 days, 10 days, 13 days and 15 days after HI. Compared with the normothermic control group, all latencies and intervals tended to increase significantly at 72 hours in the HI group and reached peak values on day 7. From day 10, all latencies and intervals tended to decrease, but apart from wave I latency, still differed significantly from those of the normothermic control group. MLS-BAER variables did not reach normal values until day 15. Ⅲ latency, Ⅰ-Ⅲ interval and Ⅰ-Ⅴ interval were significantly reduced in the hypothermia-treated group between 60 and 7 days after HI compared with the HI group (P<0.05). V latency and Ⅲ-Ⅴ interval in the hypothermia-treated group were also reduced compared with the HI group between 72 hours and 7 days after HI (P<0.05). Both peripheral and central auditory systems are disturbed by HI, which shows as a significant increase in MLS-BAER variables (all latencies and intervals) in newborn piglets. Involvement in central brainstem auditory system reaches a peak on day 7 after injury. MLS-BAER variables still cannot reach to normal values until day 15. Selective moderate head cooling therapy can significantly reduce brainstem damage induced by HI.

  5. Early and Moderate Sensory Stimulation Exerts a Protective Effect on Perilesion Representations of Somatosensory Cortex after Focal Ischemic Damage

    PubMed Central

    Xerri, Christian; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that intensive training within an early critical time window after focal cortical ischemia increases the area of damaged tissue and is detrimental to behavioral recovery. We postulated that moderate stimulation initiated soon after the lesion could have protective effects on peri-infarct cortical somatotopic representations. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of mild cutaneous stimulation delivered in an attention-demanding behavioral context on the functional organization of the perilesion somatosensory cortex using high-density electrophysiological mapping. We compared the effects of 6-day training initiated on the 3rd day postlesion (early training; ET) to those of same-duration training started on the 8th day (delayed training; DT). Our findings confirm previous work showing that the absence of training aggravates representational loss in the perilesion zone. In addition, ET was found to be sufficient to limit expansion of the ischemic lesion and reduce tissue loss, and substantially maintain the neuronal responsiveness to tactile stimulation, thereby preserving somatotopic map arrangement in the peri-infarct cortical territories. By contrast, DT did not prevent tissue loss and only partially reinstated lost representations in a use-dependent manner within the spared peri-infarct cortical area. This study differentiates the effects of early versus delayed training on perilesion tissue and cortical map reorganization, and underscores the neuroprotective influence of mild rehabilitative stimulation on neuronal response properties in the peri-infarct cortex during an early critical period. PMID:24914807

  6. Early and moderate sensory stimulation exerts a protective effect on perilesion representations of somatosensory cortex after focal ischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Xerri, Christian; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that intensive training within an early critical time window after focal cortical ischemia increases the area of damaged tissue and is detrimental to behavioral recovery. We postulated that moderate stimulation initiated soon after the lesion could have protective effects on peri-infarct cortical somatotopic representations. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of mild cutaneous stimulation delivered in an attention-demanding behavioral context on the functional organization of the perilesion somatosensory cortex using high-density electrophysiological mapping. We compared the effects of 6-day training initiated on the 3rd day postlesion (early training; ET) to those of same-duration training started on the 8th day (delayed training; DT). Our findings confirm previous work showing that the absence of training aggravates representational loss in the perilesion zone. In addition, ET was found to be sufficient to limit expansion of the ischemic lesion and reduce tissue loss, and substantially maintain the neuronal responsiveness to tactile stimulation, thereby preserving somatotopic map arrangement in the peri-infarct cortical territories. By contrast, DT did not prevent tissue loss and only partially reinstated lost representations in a use-dependent manner within the spared peri-infarct cortical area. This study differentiates the effects of early versus delayed training on perilesion tissue and cortical map reorganization, and underscores the neuroprotective influence of mild rehabilitative stimulation on neuronal response properties in the peri-infarct cortex during an early critical period.

  7. Parabolic resection for mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Drake, Daniel H; Drake, Charles G; Recchia, Dino

    2010-02-01

    Parabolic resection, named for the shape of the cut edges of the excised tissue, expands on a common 'trick' used by experienced mitral surgeons to preserve tissue and increase the probability of successful repair. Our objective was to describe and clinically analyze this simple modification of conventional resection. Thirty-six patients with mitral regurgitation underwent valve repair using parabolic resection in combination with other techniques. Institution specific mitral data, Society of Thoracic Surgeons data and preoperative, post-cardiopulmonary bypass (PCPB) and postoperative echocardiography data were collected and analyzed. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated mitral regurgitation ranging from moderate to severe. PCPB transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no regurgitation or mild regurgitation in all patients. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 2.8%. Serial echocardiograms demonstrated excellent repair stability. One patient (2.9%) with rheumatic disease progressed to moderate regurgitation 33 months following surgery. Echocardiography on all others demonstrated no or mild regurgitation at a mean follow-up of 22.8+/-12.8 months. No patient required mitral reintervention. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated 80% freedom from cardiac death, reintervention and greater than moderate regurgitation at four years following repair. Parabolic resection is a simple technique that can be very useful during complex mitral reconstruction. Early and intermediate echocardiographic studies demonstrate excellent results.

  8. Treatment of functional mitral valve regurgitation with the permanent percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty system: results of the multicenter international Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Annuloplasty System to Reduce Mitral Valve Regurgitation in Patients with Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Machaalany, Jimmy; Bilodeau, Luc; Hoffmann, Rainer; Sack, Stefan; Sievert, Horst; Kautzner, Josef; Hehrlein, Christoph; Serruys, Patrick; Sénéchal, Mario; Douglas, Pamela; Bertrand, Olivier F

    2013-05-01

    PTOLEMY-2 was a prospective multicenter phase I single-arm feasibility trial to evaluate the second-generation permanent percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) device in reducing functional mitral regurgitation (MR). Percutaneous MR reduction has been performed through a direct method of clipping and securing the mitral leaflets together or an indirect approach of reducing mitral annular dimension via the coronary sinus. The PTMA device is the only coronary sinus mitral repair device without a static fixation element. Patients with at least moderate functional MR, New York Heart Association functional class II to IV, and left ventricular ejection fraction of 20% to 50% were enrolled at 14 centers in 5 countries. Device effects on patients were assessed by serial echocardiography, quality of life (QOL), and exercise capacity metrics. A total of 43 patients were recruited, and 30 patients (70%) were implanted with a permanent PTMA device with a mean follow-up of 5.8 ± 3.8 months. The primary safety end point (freedom from death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or emergency surgery) at 30 days was met in 28 patients, whereas 2 patients died of device-related complications. The primary efficacy end point (MR reduction of at least 1.0 grade or reduction of regurgitant orifice area by 0.1 cm(2) or regurgitant volume by 15 mL or regurgitant fraction by 10% compared with baseline) was obtained in 13 patients. No significant changes were noted in MR parameters, ventricular volumes, or QOL. Distance walked on 6 minutes testing at 6-month follow-up increased from 331 ± 167 m to 417 ± 132 m (P = .65). Compared with nonresponders, responders had a higher baseline regurgitant orifice area >0.2 cm(2) (P = .001) and less prior history of myocardial infarction (P = .02), coronary artery bypass surgery (P = .03), and ischemic MR (P = .04). Overall, PTMA had mild impact on MR reduction, left ventricular remodeling, QOL, and exercise capacity. During follow-up, the risk

  9. Acute pericarditis as a complication of percutaneous mitral balloon valvulotomy.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Hasan; Basar, Nurcan; Yasar, Ayse Saatci; Erbay, Ali Riza; Atak, Ramazan

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades, percutaneous mitral balloon valvulotomy (PMBV) has been frequently used, with high success and low complication rates, in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe rheumatic mitral stenosis. The case is reported of a patient with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis who developed acute pericarditis two days after successful PMBV. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported.

  10. Immediate and 12-Month Outcomes of Ischemic Versus Nonischemic Functional Mitral Regurgitation in Patients Treated With MitraClip (from the 2011 to 2012 Pilot Sentinel Registry of Percutaneous Edge-To-Edge Mitral Valve Repair of the European Society of Cardiology).

    PubMed

    Pighi, Michele; Estevez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Maisano, Francesco; Ussia, Gian P; Dall'Ara, Gianni; Franzen, Olaf; Laroche, Cécile; Settergren, Magnus; Winter, Reidar; Nickenig, Georg; Gilard, Martine; Di Mario, Carlo

    2017-02-15

    In literature, there are limited data comparing ischemic mitral regurgitation (I-MR) versus nonischemic MR regarding outcomes after percutaneous "edge-to-edge" repair. We aimed to describe the early and 12-month results after MitraClip device implantation regarding the 2 etiologies. From January 2011 to December 2012, the Transcatheter Valve Treatment Sentinel Pilot Registry included 452 patients with MR who underwent MitraClip procedure in 25 centers across Europe. The prevalent etiology was I-MR (235 patients, 52.0%). I-MR group had a significantly higher proportion of men (74.9 vs 59.9%, p <0.001) and surgical risk (logistic EuroSCORE 24.8 ± 18.2 vs 18.8 ± 16.3, p <0.001). Acute procedural success was high (96%) and similar between groups (p = 0.48). Patients with I-MR required a higher, albeit not significant, number of clips to reduce MR (p = 0.08). Inhospital mortality was low (2.0%) without significant differences between etiologies. The estimated 1-year mortality and rehospitalization rates were 15.0% and 25.8%, respectively, without significant differences between groups. Paired echocardiographic data showed a persistent improvement of MR at 1 year in both etiologies. Despite a significant overall reverse atrial remodeling after clip, there were no significant changes in left ventricular volumes. In conclusion, this large independent cohort showed that percutaneous "edge-to-edge" therapy was associated with early- and long-term improvement of MR severity and functional condition both in patients with I-MR and nonischemic MR. There were no significant differences between the 2 etiologies regarding survival and freedom from rehospitalization due to heart failure at the 1-year follow-up.

  11. Mitral Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tricuspid Valve Disease Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Heart abnormalities that are ... Transplantation End-stage Lung Disease Adult Lung Transplantation Pediatric Lung ... Aortic Aneurysm Mitral Valve Disease Overview The mitral valve is ...

  12. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Walter W.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses the pathophysiology of mitral valve prolapse and provides guidelines to identify and treat low-to high-risk mitral valve prolapse. An approach to diagnosing bacterial endocarditis and its prophylaxis are also discussed. The author reviews mitral valve prolapse syndrome and the risk of sudden death.

  13. Percutaneous repair or surgery for mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ted; Foster, Elyse; Glower, Donald D; Glower, Donald G; Kar, Saibal; Rinaldi, Michael J; Fail, Peter S; Smalling, Richard W; Siegel, Robert; Rose, Geoffrey A; Engeron, Eric; Loghin, Catalin; Trento, Alfredo; Skipper, Eric R; Fudge, Tommy; Letsou, George V; Massaro, Joseph M; Mauri, Laura

    2011-04-14

    Mitral-valve repair can be accomplished with an investigational procedure that involves the percutaneous implantation of a clip that grasps and approximates the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the regurgitant jet. We randomly assigned 279 patients with moderately severe or severe (grade 3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation in a 2:1 ratio to undergo either percutaneous repair or conventional surgery for repair or replacement of the mitral valve. The primary composite end point for efficacy was freedom from death, from surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, and from grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation at 12 months. The primary safety end point was a composite of major adverse events within 30 days. At 12 months, the rates of the primary end point for efficacy were 55% in the percutaneous-repair group and 73% in the surgery group (P=0.007). The respective rates of the components of the primary end point were as follows: death, 6% in each group; surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, 20% versus 2%; and grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation, 21% versus 20%. Major adverse events occurred in 15% of patients in the percutaneous-repair group and 48% of patients in the surgery group at 30 days (P<0.001). At 12 months, both groups had improved left ventricular size, New York Heart Association functional class, and quality-of-life measures, as compared with baseline. Although percutaneous repair was less effective at reducing mitral regurgitation than conventional surgery, the procedure was associated with superior safety and similar improvements in clinical outcomes. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EVEREST II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00209274.).

  14. Management of mitral regurgitation in Marfan syndrome: Outcomes of valve repair versus replacement and comparison with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Helder, Meghana R K; Schaff, Hartzell V; Dearani, Joseph A; Li, Zhuo; Stulak, John M; Suri, Rakesh M; Connolly, Heidi M

    2014-09-01

    The study objective was to evaluate patients with Marfan syndrome and mitral valve regurgitation undergoing valve repair or replacement and to compare them with patients undergoing repair for myxomatous mitral valve disease. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients with Marfan syndrome treated surgically between March 17, 1960, and September 12, 2011, for mitral regurgitation and performed a subanalysis of those with repairs compared with case-matched patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease who had repairs (March 14, 1995, to July 5, 2013). Of 61 consecutive patients, 40 underwent mitral repair and 21 underwent mitral replacement (mean [standard deviation] age, 40 [18] vs 31 [19] years; P = .09). Concomitant aortic surgery was performed to a similar extent (repair, 45% [18/40] vs replacement, 43% [9/21]; P = .87). Ten-year survival was significantly better in patients with Marfan syndrome with mitral repair than in those with replacement (80% vs 41%; P = .01). Mitral reintervention did not differ between mitral repair and replacement (cumulative risk of reoperation, 27% vs 15%; P = .64). In the matched cohort, 10-year survival after repair was similar for patients with Marfan syndrome and myxomatous mitral disease (84% vs 78%; P = .63), as was cumulative risk of reoperation (17% vs 12%; P = .61). Patients with Marfan syndrome and mitral regurgitation have better survival with repair than with replacement. Survival and risk of reoperation for patients with Marfan syndrome were similar to those for patients with myxomatous mitral disease. These results support the use of mitral valve repair in patients with Marfan syndrome and moderate or more mitral regurgitation, including those having composite replacement of the aortic root. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitral Valve Stenosis after Open Repair Surgery for Non-rheumatic Mitral Valve Regurgitation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm(2). Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9-54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier-Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair.

  16. Mitral Valve Stenosis after Open Repair Surgery for Non-rheumatic Mitral Valve Regurgitation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R.; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm2. Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9–54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier–Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair. PMID:27148540

  17. [Functional mitral regurgitation. Physiopathology and impact of medical therapy and surgical techniques for left ventricle reduction].

    PubMed

    Comín, J; Manito, N; Roca, J; Castells, E; Esplugas, E

    1999-07-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation is frequently observed in the setting of left ventricular dyfunction. This finding is a marker of poor outcome in patients with either ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy. The mechanism accounting for this phenomenon is an altered balance of tethering versus coapting forces acting on the mitral valves in the failing heart. Tethering forces represent an anomalous tension on the mitral valves due to displacement of mitral valve attachments secondary to increased left ventricular chamber sphericity associated with systolic ventricular dysfunction. On the other hand, coapting forces are weak and unable to counteract the abnormal tension acting on the mitral valve, which restricts closure and leads to regurgitation. Vasodilators and inotropic drugs are effective in the management of functional mitral regurgitation. Although partial left ventriculectomy or Batista's procedure is still investigational, this new technique seems to provide an optimal control of functional mitral regurgitation and improve functional capacity and survival of some patients with heart failure.

  18. Exuberant accessory mitral valve tissue with possible true parachute mitral valve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Aleksandra; Joksimovic, Zoran; Jovovic, Ljiljana

    2012-09-11

    A parachute mitral valve is defined as a unifocal attachment of mitral valve chordae tendineae independent of the number of papillary muscles. Data from the literature suggests that the valve can be distinguished on the basis of morphological features as either a parachute-like asymmetrical mitral valve or a true parachute mitral valve. A parachute-like asymmetrical mitral valve has two papillary muscles; one is elongated and located higher in the left ventricle. A true parachute mitral valve has a single papillary muscle that receives all chordae, as was present in our patient. Patients with parachute mitral valves during childhood have multilevel left-side heart obstructions, with poor outcomes without operative treatment. The finding of a parachute mitral valve in an adult patient is extremely rare, especially as an isolated lesion. In adults, the unifocal attachment of the chordae results in a slightly restricted valve opening and, more frequently, valvular regurgitation. A 40-year-old Caucasian female patient was admitted to a primary care physician due to her recent symptoms of heart palpitation and chest discomfort on effort. Transthoracic echocardiography showed chordae tendineae which were elongated and formed an unusual net shape penetrating into left ventricle cavity. The parasternal short axis view of her left ventricle showed a single papillary muscle positioned on one side in the posteromedial commissure receiving all chordae. Her mitral valve orifice was slightly eccentric and the chordae were converting into a single papillary muscle. Mitral regurgitation was present and it was graded as moderate to severe. Her left atrium was enlarged. There were no signs of mitral stenosis or a subvalvular ring. She did not have a bicuspid aortic valve or coarctation of the ascending aorta. The dimensions and systolic function of her left ventricle were normal. Our patient had a normal body habitus, without signs of heart failure. Her functional status was graded

  19. Exuberant accessory mitral valve tissue with possible true parachute mitral valve: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A parachute mitral valve is defined as a unifocal attachment of mitral valve chordae tendineae independent of the number of papillary muscles. Data from the literature suggests that the valve can be distinguished on the basis of morphological features as either a parachute-like asymmetrical mitral valve or a true parachute mitral valve. A parachute-like asymmetrical mitral valve has two papillary muscles; one is elongated and located higher in the left ventricle. A true parachute mitral valve has a single papillary muscle that receives all chordae, as was present in our patient. Patients with parachute mitral valves during childhood have multilevel left-side heart obstructions, with poor outcomes without operative treatment. The finding of a parachute mitral valve in an adult patient is extremely rare, especially as an isolated lesion. In adults, the unifocal attachment of the chordae results in a slightly restricted valve opening and, more frequently, valvular regurgitation. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian female patient was admitted to a primary care physician due to her recent symptoms of heart palpitation and chest discomfort on effort. Transthoracic echocardiography showed chordae tendineae which were elongated and formed an unusual net shape penetrating into left ventricle cavity. The parasternal short axis view of her left ventricle showed a single papillary muscle positioned on one side in the posteromedial commissure receiving all chordae. Her mitral valve orifice was slightly eccentric and the chordae were converting into a single papillary muscle. Mitral regurgitation was present and it was graded as moderate to severe. Her left atrium was enlarged. There were no signs of mitral stenosis or a subvalvular ring. She did not have a bicuspid aortic valve or coarctation of the ascending aorta. The dimensions and systolic function of her left ventricle were normal. Our patient had a normal body habitus, without signs of heart failure

  20. Diastolic murmurs in the presence of Starr-Edwards mitral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, R A; McAnulty, J H; Starr, A; Rahimtoola, S H

    1975-03-01

    Diastolic murmurs associated with the Starr-Edwards mitral prosthesis have not been described previously. In this report, five patients with mitral prostheses are described in whom apical mid-diastolic and presystolic murmurs resulted from two different causes. Three patients had clots obstructing the prosthetic orifice. The other two had normally functioning protheses and moderately severe aortic insufficiency. The occurrence of mid-diastolic and presystolic murmurs in the presence of a normally functioning prosthetic mitral valve demonstrates that 1) the mid-diastolic Austin Flint murmur can occur in the absence of incomplete mitral valve opening, premature mitral valve closure, vibrating mitral leaflets, or relative mitral stenosis and 2) the presystolic Austin Flint murmur can occur in the absence of incomplete valve opening or presystolic mitral regurgitation. However, the presystolic murmur was associated with early closure movement of the presthetic poppet.

  1. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair Therapies: Evolution, Status and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Daniella; Onohara, Daisuke; Kalra, Kanika; Sarin, Eric L; Padala, Muralidhar

    2017-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation is a common cardiac valve lesion, developing from primary lesions of the mitral valve or secondary to cardiomyopathies. Moderate or higher severity of mitral regurgitation imposes significant volume overload on the left ventricle, causing permanent structural and functional deterioration of the myocardium and heart failure. Timely correction of regurgitation is essential to preserve cardiac function, but surgical mitral valve repair is often delayed due to the risks of open heart surgery. Since correction of mitral regurgitation can provide symptomatic relief and halt progressive cardiac dysfunction, transcatheter mitral valve repair technologies are emerging as alternative therapies. In this approach, the mitral valve is repaired either with sutures or implants that are delivered to the native valve on catheters introduced into the cardiovascular system under image guidance, through small vascular or ventricular ports. Several transcatheter mitral valve technologies are in development, but limited clinical success has been achieved. In this review, we present a historical perspective of mitral valve repair, review the transcatheter technologies emerging from surgical concepts, the challenges they face in achieving successful clinical application, and the increasing rigor of safety and durability standards for new transcatheter valve technologies.

  2. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results.

  3. Problem: Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Problem: Mitral Valve Regurgitation Updated:Sep 21,2016 What is mitral valve ... blood flows from the ventricle through the aortic valve — as it should — and some blood flows ...

  4. Impact of mitral valve geometry on hemodynamic efficacy of surgical repair in secondary mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Padala, Muralidhar; Gyoneva, Lazarina I; Thourani, Vinod H; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve geometry is significantly altered secondary to left ventricular remodeling in non-ischemic and ischemic dilated cardiomyopathies. Since the extent of remodeling and asymmetry of dilatation of the ventricle differ significantly between individual patients, the valve geometry and tethering also differ. The study aim was to determine if mitral valve geometry has an impact on the efficacy of surgical repairs to eliminate regurgitation and restore valve closure in a validated experimental model. Porcine mitral valves (n = 8) were studied in a pulsatile heart simulator, in which the mitral valve geometry can be precisely altered and controlled throughout the experiment. Baseline hemodynamics for each valve were measured (Control), and the valves were tethered in two distinct ways: annular dilatation with 7 mm apical papillary muscle (PM) displacement (Tether 1, symmetric), and annular dilatation with 7 mm apical, 7 mm posterior and 7 mm lateral PM displacement (Tether 2, asymmetric). Mitral annuloplasty was performed on each valve (Annular Repair), succeeded by anterior leaflet secondary chordal cutting (Sub-annular Repair). The efficacy of each repair in the setting of a given valve geometry was quantified by measuring the changes in mitral regurgitation (MR), leaflet coaptation length, tethering height and area. At baseline, none of the valves was regurgitant. Significant leaflet tethering was measured in Tether 2 over Tether 1, but both groups were significantly higher compared to baseline (60.9 +/- 31 mm2 for Control versus 129.7 +/- 28.4 mm2 for Tether 1 versus 186.4 +/- 36.3 mm2 for Tether 2). Consequently, the MR fraction was higher in Tether 2 group (23.0 +/- 5.7%) than in Tether 1 (10.5 +/- 5.5%). Mitral annuloplasty reduced MR in both groups, but remnant regurgitation after the repair was higher in Tether 2. After chordal cutting a similar trend was observed with trace regurgitation in Tether 1 group at 3.6 +/- 2.8%, in comparison to 18.6 +/- 4

  5. Mitral valve prolapse, panic disorder, and chest pain.

    PubMed

    Alpert, M A; Mukerji, V; Sabeti, M; Russell, J L; Beitman, B D

    1991-09-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is a common cardiac disorder that can readily be diagnosed by characteristic auscultatory and echocardiographic criteria. Although many diseases have been associated with mitral valve prolapse, most affected individuals have the primary form of the disorder. Mitral valve prolapse is an inherited condition commonly associated with myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve and its support structures. Complications of mitral valve prolapse, including cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, infective endocarditis, severe mitral regurgitation (with or without chordae tendineae rupture), and cerebral ischemic events, occur infrequently considering the wide prevalence of the disorder. Panic disorder is a specific type of anxiety disorder characterized by at least three panic attacks within a 3-week period or one panic attack followed by fear of subsequent panic attacks for at least 1 month. It too is a common condition with a prevalence and age and gender distribution similar to that of mitral valve prolapse. Panic disorder and mitral valve prolapse share many nonspecific symptoms, including chest pain or discomfort, palpitations, dyspnea, effort intolerance, and pre-syncope. Chest pain is the symptom in both conditions that most commonly brings the patient to medical attention. The clinical description of chest pain in patients with mitral valve prolapse is highly variable, possibly reflecting multiple etiologies. Chest pain in panic disorder is usually characterized as atypical angina pectoris and as such bears resemblance to the chest pain commonly described by patients with mitral valve prolapse. Multiple investigative attempts to elucidate the mechanism of chest pain in both conditions have failed to identify a unifying cause. Review of the literature leaves little doubt that mitral valve prolapse and panic disorder frequently co-occur. Given the similarities in their symptomatology, a high rate of co-occurrence is, in fact, entirely predictable

  6. Mild to moderate atheromatous disease of the thoracic aorta and new ischemic brain lesions after conventional coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Djaiani, George; Fedorko, Ludwik; Borger, Michael; Mikulis, David; Carroll, Jo; Cheng, Davy; Karkouti, Keyvan; Beattie, Scott; Karski, Jacek

    2004-09-01

    The presence of new ischemic brain infarcts, detected by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI), have been reported in considerable number of patients after cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the role of proximal thoracic aortic atheroma in predicting embolic events and new ischemic brain lesions in patients undergoing conventional coronary revascularization surgery. Transesophageal echocardiography and epiaortic scanning was performed to assess the severity of aortic atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. Patients were allocated to either low-risk group, (intimal thickness < or =2mm), or high-risk group (intimal thickness >2mm). Transcranial Doppler was used to monitor the middle cerebral artery. DW-MRI was performed 3-7 days after surgery. The NEECHAM Confusion Scale was used for assessment and monitoring patient consciousness level. Patients in the high-risk group were considerably older; 71+/-6 (n=38) versus 67+/-6 (n=72) years, P=0.004 and were more likely to have impaired left ventricular function. Confusion was present in 6 (16%) patients in the high-risk group and 5 (7%) patients in the low-risk group. Patients in the high-risk group had a three-fold increase in median embolic count, 223.5 versus 70.0, P=0.0003. DW-MRI detected brain lesions were only present in patients from high-risk group, 61.5 versus 0%, P<0.0001. There was significant correlation between the NEECHAM scores and embolic count in the high-risk group; r=0.63, P<0.001. The findings of this investigation suggest that mild to moderate atheromatous disease of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch (intimal thickness >2mm) is a major contributor to ischemic brain injury after cardiac surgery.

  7. Moderate GSK-3β inhibition improves neovascular architecture, reduces vascular leakage, and reduces retinal hypoxia in a model of ischemic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Mien V; Smith, Lois E H; Senger, Donald R

    2010-09-01

    In ischemic retinopathies, unrelieved hypoxia induces the formation of architecturally abnormal, leaky blood vessels that damage retina and ultimately can cause blindness. Because these newly formed blood vessels are functionally defective, they fail to alleviate underlying hypoxia, resulting in more pathological neovascularization and more damage to retina. With an established model of ischemic retinopathy, we investigated inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) as a means for improving the architecture and functionality of pathological blood vessels in retina. In vitro, hypoxia increased GSK-3β activity in retinal endothelial cells, reduced β-catenin, and correspondingly impaired integrity of cell/cell junctions. Conversely, GSK-3β inhibitors restored β-catenin, improved cell/cell junctions, and enhanced the formation of capillary cords in three-dimensional collagen matrix. In vivo, GSK-3β inhibitors, at appropriately moderate doses, strongly reduced abnormal vascular tufts, reduced abnormal vascular leakage, and improved vascular coverage and perfusion during the proliferative phase of ischemia-driven retinal neovascularization. Most importantly, these improvements in neovasculature were accompanied by marked reduction in retinal hypoxia, relative to controls. Thus, GSK-3β inhibitors offer a promising strategy for alleviating retinal hypoxia by correcting key vascular defects typically associated with ischemia-driven neovascularization.

  8. Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergy, Gordon G.

    1980-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is the most common heart disease seen in college and university health services. It underlies most arrhythmia and many chest complaints. Activity and exercise restrictions are usually unnecessary. (Author/CJ)

  9. Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergy, Gordon G.

    1980-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is the most common heart disease seen in college and university health services. It underlies most arrhythmia and many chest complaints. Activity and exercise restrictions are usually unnecessary. (Author/CJ)

  10. [Ischaemic mitral insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Messas, E

    2004-06-01

    Ischaemic mitral insufficiency (IMI) due to regurgitation of an anatomically normal valve, due to dysfunction directly related to myocardial ischaemia, is observed in over 20% of post-infarction patients and is associated with a doubling of the risk of death. The responsibility of ventricular remodelling with displacement of the papillary muscles in the genesis of IMI has been demonstrated experimentally. 3-D echocardiography has improved our understanding of the central role of geometrical changes of the subvalvular apparatus. The inconsistent results of surgery using an undersized mitral annulus have led to the search for alternative techniques. The correction of mitral insufficiency at coronary bypass surgery is a current topic of research. The application of new techniques of mitral valvuloplasty seems more effective and should provide an answer to this problem.

  11. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769

  12. Mitral Repair Is Superior to Replacement When Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reece, T Brett; Tribble, Curtis G.; Ellman, Peter I.; Maxey, Thomas S.; Woodford, Randall L.; Dimeling, George M.; Wellons, Harry A.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of mitral repair and replacement in revascularized patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Summary Background Data: Combined coronary bypass (CABG) and mitral procedures have been associated with the highest mortality (>10%) in cardiac surgery. Recent studies have suggested that mitral valve replacement (MVR) with sparing of the subvalvular apparatus had comparable results to mitral repair when associated with CABG. Methods: Over the past 7 years, 54 patients had CABG/mitral repair versus 56 who had CABG/MVR with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. The groups were similar in age at 69.2 years in the replacement group versus 67.0 in the repair group. We compared these 2 groups based on hospital mortality, incidence of complications including nosocomial infection, neurologic decompensation (stroke), pulmonary complication (pneumonia, atelectasis, and prolonged ventilation), and renal complications (acute renal failure or insufficiency). Results: The mitral repair group had a hospital mortality of 1.9% versus 10.7% in the replacement group (P = 0.05). Infection occurred in 9% of repairs compared with 13% of replacements (P = 0.59). The incidence of stroke was no different between groups (2 of 54 repairs vs. 2 of 56 replacements, P = 1.00). Pulmonary complication rate was 39% in repairs versus 32% in replacements (P = 0.59). Worsening renal function occurred in 15% of repairs versus 18% of replacements (P = 0.67). Conclusions: Mitral repair is superior to mitral replacement when associated with coronary artery disease in terms of perioperative morbidity and hospital mortality. Although preservation of the subvalvular apparatus with MVR has a theoretical advantage in terms of ventricular function, mitral repair clearly adds a survival benefit in patients with concomitant ischemic cardiac disease. PMID:15082971

  13. Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Anatomical Assessment of Isolated Parachute Mitral Valve in an Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    López-Pardo, Francisco; Urbano-Moral, Jose Angel; González-Calle, Antonio; Laviana-Martinez, Fernando; Esteve-Ruiz, Iris; Lagos-Degrande, Oscar; López-Haldon, Jose E

    2015-11-01

    Parachute mitral valve (PMV) is a rare congenital anomaly of the mitral valve apparatus usually evidenced in infants and young children. Adult presentation is extremely rare and is generally mild in terms of mitral stenosis. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department due to progressive dyspnea, with NYHA functional class IV symptoms on presentation. The echocardiographic examination identified a PMV with moderate mitral stenosis and a secondary smaller subvalvular mitral orifice. The report shows the usefulness of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the detection and quantification of this rare anomaly. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Feasibility of Doppler hemodynamic evaluation of primary and secondary mitral regurgitation during exercise echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Coisne, Augustin; Levy, Franck; Malaquin, Dorothée; Richardson, Marjorie; Quéré, Jean Paul; Montaigne, David; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Exercise transthoracic echocardiography (ExE) was recently proposed to evaluate tolerance and help risk stratification of mitral regurgitation (MR). Few data are available on the feasibility of Doppler echocardiographic recordings at exercise in daily practice in both secondary and primary MR. Comprehensive resting and ExE were performed in 72 unselected patients (age 59 ± 15 years, 62 % men), with no or minimal symptoms, with at least moderate (mean effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) = 36 ± 14 mm(2)) primary or secondary MR in two French university hospitals. At rest, quantification of ERO was more challenging in semi-supine position than in classic left lateral decubitus position (55/72; 76 % vs 66/72; 92 %; p = 0.012), particularly in mitral valve (MV) prolapse (35/47; 74 %). During exercise, ERO was only obtained in 30/55 (55 %) patients and was more difficult to assess in MV prolapse than in rheumatic or ischemic MR (respectively in 43, 67 and 88 %, p = 0.046). At peak exercise, ERO was more frequently obtained in symptomatic than asymptomatic patients (77 vs 37 %, p = 0.046) because peak heart rate was lower (113 ± 20 vs 133 ± 23 bpm, p = 0.026). Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) was obtained in 69 patients (96 %) at rest and in 60 patients (83 %) at peak exercise (Pex). LV contractile reserve (CR), monitored in all patients (100 %), was found in 51/72 patients (71 %). In daily ExE, monitoring of the CR and SPAP appeared less challenging than MR quantification by the PISA method. Monitoring of ERO was more feasible in ischemic MR than in MV prolapse.

  15. The association of depressive symptoms and ischemic heart disease in older adults is not moderated by gender, marital status or education.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Oskar; Meyer, Thorsten

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether the association of depression and ischemic heart disease (IHD) is moderated by gender, marital status or education. Data from the 1998 Medicare Health Outcome Survey (HOS) with a 2 year follow-up were re-analyzed. 63,965 older adults who had not reported IHD at baseline were included. Logistic regression analysis modelled the effects of depression, somatic risk factors, and demographic variables on IHD after 2 years. Two year reported incidence of IHD was 6.2%. Depression was associated with a 1.53-fold risk of developing IHD after controlling for somatic risk factors and demographic variables. Male gender, lower than high-school education, and being married were associated with IHD. Neither of these variables yielded significant interactions with depression, nor did any of the higher-order interaction terms. The association of depression and IHD seems independent from pivotal demographic variables. Possibly the impact of psychosocial factors in this sample of older people is weak compared to medical conditions and age. Also the possibility exists that a common factor such as a shared genetic vulnerability contributes to both depressive symptoms and IHD.

  16. How Is Mitral Valve Prolapse Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Mitral Valve Prolapse Treated? Most people who have mitral valve ... all hospitals offer this method. Valve Repair and Valve Replacement In mitral valve surgery, the valve is repaired or replaced. ...

  17. Morphofunctional Abnormalities of Mitral Annulus and Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Cristina; De Lazzari, Manuel; Rizzo, Stefania; Cipriani, Alberto; Giorgi, Benedetta; Lacognata, Carmelo; Rigato, Ilaria; Migliore, Federico; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Bertaglia, Emanuele; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Bauce, Barbara; Corrado, Domenico; Thiene, Gaetano; Iliceto, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Background— Arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is characterized by myxomatous leaflets and left ventricular (LV) fibrosis of papillary muscles and inferobasal wall. We searched for morphofunctional abnormalities of the mitral valve that could explain a regional mechanical myocardial stretch. Methods and Results— Thirty-six (27 female patients; median age: 44 years) arrhythmic MVP patients with LV late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance and no or trivial mitral regurgitation, and 16 (6 female patients; median age: 40 years) MVP patients without LV late gadolinium enhancement were investigated by morphofunctional cardiac magnetic resonance. Mitral annulus disjunction (median: 4.8 versus 1.8 mm; P<0.001), end-systolic mitral annular diameters (median: 41.2 versus 31.5; P=0.004) and end-diastolic mitral annular diameters (median: 35.5 versus 31.5; P=0.042), prevalence of posterior systolic curling (34 [94%] versus 3 [19%]; P<0.001), and basal to mid LV wall thickness ratio >1.5 (22 [61%] versus 4 [25%]; P=0.016) were higher in MVP patients with late gadolinium enhancement than in those without. A linear correlation was found between mitral annulus disjunction and curling (R=0.85). A higher prevalence of auscultatory midsystolic click (26 [72%] versus 6 [38%]; P=0.018) was also noted. Histology of the mitral annulus showed a longer mitral annulus disjunction in 50 sudden death patients with MVP and LV fibrosis than in 20 patients without MVP (median: 3 versus 1.5 mm; P<0.001). Conclusions— Mitral annulus disjunction is a constant feature of arrhythmic MVP with LV fibrosis. The excessive mobility of the leaflets caused by posterior systolic curling accounts for a mechanical stretch of the inferobasal wall and papillary muscles, eventually leading to myocardial hypertrophy and scarring. These mitral annulus abnormalities, together with auscultatory midsystolic click, may identify MVP patients who would need arrhythmic risk stratification. PMID

  18. Morphofunctional Abnormalities of Mitral Annulus and Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Basso, Cristina; De Lazzari, Manuel; Rizzo, Stefania; Cipriani, Alberto; Giorgi, Benedetta; Lacognata, Carmelo; Rigato, Ilaria; Migliore, Federico; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Bertaglia, Emanuele; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Bauce, Barbara; Corrado, Domenico; Thiene, Gaetano; Iliceto, Sabino

    2016-08-01

    Arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is characterized by myxomatous leaflets and left ventricular (LV) fibrosis of papillary muscles and inferobasal wall. We searched for morphofunctional abnormalities of the mitral valve that could explain a regional mechanical myocardial stretch. Thirty-six (27 female patients; median age: 44 years) arrhythmic MVP patients with LV late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance and no or trivial mitral regurgitation, and 16 (6 female patients; median age: 40 years) MVP patients without LV late gadolinium enhancement were investigated by morphofunctional cardiac magnetic resonance. Mitral annulus disjunction (median: 4.8 versus 1.8 mm; P<0.001), end-systolic mitral annular diameters (median: 41.2 versus 31.5; P=0.004) and end-diastolic mitral annular diameters (median: 35.5 versus 31.5; P=0.042), prevalence of posterior systolic curling (34 [94%] versus 3 [19%]; P<0.001), and basal to mid LV wall thickness ratio >1.5 (22 [61%] versus 4 [25%]; P=0.016) were higher in MVP patients with late gadolinium enhancement than in those without. A linear correlation was found between mitral annulus disjunction and curling (R=0.85). A higher prevalence of auscultatory midsystolic click (26 [72%] versus 6 [38%]; P=0.018) was also noted. Histology of the mitral annulus showed a longer mitral annulus disjunction in 50 sudden death patients with MVP and LV fibrosis than in 20 patients without MVP (median: 3 versus 1.5 mm; P<0.001). Mitral annulus disjunction is a constant feature of arrhythmic MVP with LV fibrosis. The excessive mobility of the leaflets caused by posterior systolic curling accounts for a mechanical stretch of the inferobasal wall and papillary muscles, eventually leading to myocardial hypertrophy and scarring. These mitral annulus abnormalities, together with auscultatory midsystolic click, may identify MVP patients who would need arrhythmic risk stratification. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Modeling the Mitral Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The mitral valve is one of four valves in the human heart. The valve opens to allow oxygenated blood from the lungs to fill the left ventricle, and closes when the ventricle contracts to prevent backflow. The valve is composed of two fibrous leaflets which hang from a ring. These leaflets are supported like a parachute by a system of strings called chordae tendineae. In this talk, I will describe a new computational model of the mitral valve. To generate geometry, general information comes from classical anatomy texts and the author's dissection of porcine hearts. An MRI image of a human heart is used to locate the tips of the papillary muscles, which anchor the chordae tendineae, in relation to the mitral ring. The initial configurations of the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae are found by solving solving an equilibrium elasticity problem. The valve is then simulated in fluid (blood) using the immersed boundary method over multiple heart cycles in a model valve tester. We aim to identify features and mechanisms that influence or control valve function. Support from National Science Foundation, Graduate Research Fellowship Program, Grant DGE 1342536.

  20. Safety and feasibility of a novel adjustable mitral annuloplasty ring: a multicentre European experience†

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Martin; Doll, Nicolas; Livesey, Steve; Castella, Manuel; Kocher, Alfred; Casselman, Filip; Voth, Vladimir; Bannister, Christina; Encalada Palacios, Juan F.; Pereda, Daniel; Laufer, Guenther; Czesla, Markus

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recurrent mitral regurgitation is a significant problem after mitral valve repair in patients with functional valve disease. We report the safety and feasibility of a novel adjustable mitral annuloplasty device that permits downsizing of the anterior–posterior diameter late after initial surgery. METHODS In this multicentre, non-randomized, observational register, patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation undergoing surgical mitral valve repair with the MiCardia EnCorSQ™ Mitral Valve Repair system were evaluated. Patient characteristics, operative specifications and results as well as postoperative follow-up were collected for all five centres. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with a median age of 71 (64–75) years (EuroSCORE II 6.7 ± 6.3; 66% male, 48% ischaemic MR, 37% dilated cardiomyopathy and 15% degenerative disease) were included. Operative mortality was 1% and the 1-year survival was 93%. Ring adjustment was attempted in 12 patients at a mean interval of 9 ± 6 months after surgery. In three of these attempts, a technical failure occurred. In 1 patient, mitral regurgitation was reduced two grades, in 2 patients mitral regurgitation was reduced one grade and in 6 patients, mitral regurgitation did not change significantly. The mean grade of mitral regurgitation changed from 2.9 ± 0.9 to 2.1 ± 0.7 (P = 0.02). Five patients were reoperated after 11 ± 9 months (Ring dehiscence: 2; failed adjustment: 3). CONCLUSION We conclude that this device may provide an additional treatment option in patients with functional mitral regurgitation, who are at risk for reoperation due to recurrent mitral regurgitation. Clinical results in this complex disease were ambiguous and patient selection seems to be a crucial step for this device. Further trials are required to estimate the clinical value of this therapeutic concept. PMID:25694471

  1. Staphylococcus caprae native mitral valve infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Poyner, Jennifer; Olson, Ewan; Henriksen, Peter; Koch, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Staphylococcus caprae is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case involving the native mitral valve in the absence of an implantable cardiac electronic device. Case presentation: A 76-year-old man presented with a 2 week history of confusion and pyrexia. His past medical history included an open reduction and internal fixation of a humeral fracture 17 years previously, which remained non-united despite further revision 4 years later. There was no history of immunocompromise or farm-animal contact. Two sets of blood culture bottles, more than 12 h apart, were positive for S. caprae. Trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed a 1×1.2 cm vegetation on the mitral valve, with moderate mitral regurgitation. Due to ongoing confusion, he had a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan, which showed a subacute small vessel infarct consistent with a thromboembolic source. A humeral SPECT-CT (single-photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography) scan showed no clear evidence of acute osteomyelitis. Surgical vegetectomy and mitral-valve repair were considered to reduce the risk of further systemic embolism and progressive valve infection. However, the potential risks of surgery to this patient led to a decision to pursue a cure with antibiotic therapy alone. He remained well 3 months after discharge, with repeat echocardiography demonstrating a reduction in the size of the vegetation (0.9 cm). Conclusion: Management of this infection was challenging due to its rarity and its unclear progression, complicated by the dilemma surrounding surgical intervention in a patient with a complex medical background. PMID:28348787

  2. Mitral valve repair is not always needed in patients with functional mitral regurgitation undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, J.E.; Jaarsma, W.; Kelder, J.C.; Morshuis, W.J.; Visser, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is defined as mitral regurgitation in the absence of intrinsic valvular abnormalities. We prospectively evaluated the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement (AVR), without additional mitral valve repair, on the degree of moderate or severe FMR. Study design and methods From a cohort of 2829 patients undergoing CABG and/or AVR in the St. Antonius Hospital, 67 patients were identified with moderate or severe FMR by transthoracic and transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Results Two out of the 67 patients (3%) died perioperatively. During follow-up (3-18 months) mitral regurgitation decreased by one grade in 29 patients, by two grades in 28, by three grades in five patients and remained unchanged in one patient (p=0.0001). Of all patients, 85% had grade I mitral regurgitation or less. Grade II mitral regurgitation remained in nine patients with a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications. NYHA class improved from 3.1+0.5 to 1.4+0.4 (p=0.0001). Ejection fraction increased from 46 to 55% (p=0.0001). Overall, left atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions decreased significantly. In contrast, no decrease in dimensions was seen in patients with postoperative grade II mitral regurgitation. Conclusion FMR may improve significantly following CABG and/or AVR, although a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications may affect outcome. PMID:25696484

  3. Lipomatous hamartoma of mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Seetharama P S; Gowda, Girish S L; Chikkatur, Raghavendra; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2016-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, and tumors arising from cardiac valves are extremely rare. We present a case of lipomatous hamartoma of the mitral valve in a young female. This is the 6th case of lipomatous hamartoma of the mitral valve to be reported. We discuss the operative and histopathological findings.

  4. The Diagnosis of Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, D. S.; Rally, C. R.

    1963-01-01

    The diagnosis of classical mitral stenosis is easy, but many pitfalls lead to over-diagnosis or under-diagnosis. These have been considered in detail and variations in symptoms and signs have been illustrated by case histories. Such variations include: (1) Embolism producing the Leriche syndrome; (2) mitral stenosis with insignificant hemodynamic effect; (3) myxoma masquerading as mitral stenosis; (4) mitral stenosis without apical murmurs, and (5) mitral stenosis with a systolic murmur predominant or alone. In cases of combined mitral and aortic stenosis, the history, radiographic configuration, and incidence of hemoptysis, edema, bronchitis, embolism and atrial fibrillation resemble such findings in cases of isolated mitral stenosis, but the auscultatory signs of the latter may be obscured. The degree of aortic stenosis is difficult to determine in cases of combined stenosis. In the diagnosis of re-stenosis the condition of the valve at the first commissurotomy, the precise procedure performed and the degree of regurgitation produced are of prime importance. Congenital mitral stenosis is rare and is associated with a high incidence of other defects. PMID:13936649

  5. Floppy Mitral Valve (FMV) - Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) - Mitral Valvular Regurgitation and FMV/MVP Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Pitsis, Antonios A; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2016-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) results from the systolic movement of a portion(s) or segment(s) of the mitral valve leaflet(s) into the left atrium during left ventricular (LV) systole. It should be emphasised that MVP alone, as defined by imaging techniques, may comprise a non-specific finding because it also depends on the LV volume, myocardial contractility and other LV hemodynamics. Thus, a floppy mitral valve (FMV) should be the basis for the diagnosis of MVP. Two types of symptoms may be defined in these patients. In one group, symptoms are directly related to progressive mitral regurgitation and its complications. In the other group, symptoms cannot be explained only by the degree of mitral regurgitation alone; neuroendocrine dysfunction has been implicated for the explanation of symptoms in this group of patients that today is referred as the FMV/MVP syndrome. When significant mitral regurgitation is present in a patient with FMV/MVP, surgical intervention is recommended. In patients with a prohibitive risk for surgery, transcatheter mitral valve repair using a mitraclip device may be considered. Furthermore, transcatheter mitral valve replacement may represent an option in the near future as clinical trials are underway. In this brief review, the current concepts related to FMV/MVP and FMV/MVP syndrome will be discussed.

  6. Severe hemolytic anemia after repair of primum septal defect and cleft mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Alehan, D; Doğan, R; Ozkutlu, S; Elshershari, H; Gümrük, F

    2001-01-01

    Two cases are described in which severe mechanical hemolytic anemia developed after surgical repair of primum atrial septal defect (ASD) and cleft mitral valve. In both cases there was residual mitral regurgitation after repair. Moderate mitral regurgitation and collision of the regurgitant jet with the teflon patch used for repair of the primum ASD were detected by color-Doppler echocardiography imaging. Laboratory tests showed normochromic normocytic anemia, increased indirect serum bilirubin, decreased plasma haptoglobin and hemoglobinuria. The peripheral blood smear contained numerous fragmented red cells. Following another surgical correction of the mitral valve (repair or mitral valve replacement), there was no more hemolysis. The two presented cases show that foreign materials in association with localized intracardiac turbulence may cause severe hemolysis.

  7. [Intraoperative evaluation of mitral valve reconstruction using two-dimensional contrast echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Viossat, J; Chauvaud, S; Mihaileanu, S; Pillière, R; Sicre, P; Schnebert, B; Abbou, B; Lafont, A; Julien, J; Marino, J P

    1986-09-01

    20 patients who underwent reconstructive surgery for mitral regurgitation were peroperatively investigated by contrasted bidimensional echocardiography using intraventricular injection of 20 ml of physiologic saline. Before the valvuloplasty, the peroperative quantitation of mitral leakage was in all cases closely correlated with the data obtained preoperatively. After the mitral reparation, three groups of patients could be observed: group I (12 cases): absent or minimal regurgitation (0-+); group II (5 cases): moderate mitral regurgitation (++); group III (3 cases): marked regurgitation ( - +) necessitating an immediate ECC. In two cases it was possible to improve successfully the valvular function, in the third case valvular replacement was necessary. The correlation between the data of peroperative contrasted echography at one hand and the clinical examination and the postoperative paraclinical investigations on the other hand was excellent in all cases. Thus the contrasted bidimensional peroperative echocardiography represents a reliable method for predicting the immediate results of mitral reconstructive surgery.

  8. Amplatzer Amulet left atrial appendage occluder entrapment through mitral valve.

    PubMed

    González-Santos, Jose María; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Arribas-Jiménez, Antonio; López-Rodríguez, Javier; Rodríguez-Collado, Javier; Vargas-Fajardo, María del Carmen; Dalmau-Sorlí, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María Encarnación; Arévalo-Abascal, R Adolfo

    2013-11-01

    We report on a 77-year-old woman in whom percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure was performed. The patient had a left atrial myxoma resection 3 years previously, and 2 years later, she suffered a transient ischemic attack. Atrial fibrillation was detected and anticoagulation therapy was established. An episode of intracranial bleeding forced interruption of anticoagulation. Thus, percutaneous LAA closure with an Amplatzer Amulet LAA Occluder (St Jude Medical) was proposed. During the procedure, the LAA occluder migrated and became trapped in the mitral valve. Secondary massive mitral regurgitation and hemodynamic instability forced emergent cardiac surgery. Successful removal of the Amplatzer Amulet LAA Occluder was achieved. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-centre experience with mitral valve repair in asymptomatic patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation†

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Wouter J.; Head, Stuart J.; de Groot-de Laat, Lotte E.; Geleijnse, Marcel L.; Bogers, Ad J.J.C.; Van Herwerden, Lex A.; Kappetein, A. Pieter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Guidelines recommend surgical mitral valve repair in selected patients with asymptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR), but the role of repair remains a matter of debate. Survival analyses of operated asymptomatic patients have been reported, but long-term haemodynamics and quality of life are not well defined. The aim of this study was to report the long-term follow-up focusing on these aspects. METHODS Our database identified patients who underwent primary isolated mitral valve repair for severe MR and were asymptomatic by New York Heart Association Class I and in sinus rhythm. To obtain sufficient length of follow-up, only patients operated on before 2006 returned for an echocardiogram and quality-of-life assessment (SF-36). RESULTS Between May 1991 and December 2005, 46 asymptomatic patients with severe MR and a normal left ventricular function (ejection fraction >60%) were operated on. Mean age was 50.2 ± 13.2 years and 89% of patients were male. There were no operative deaths. Mean follow-up was 8.4 ± 3.9 years with 386 patient-years, survival was 93.3% at 12 years and comparable with the general age-matched Dutch population. Follow-up echocardiography showed that 92% had no to mild MR, and 3 patients had moderate MR. Left ventricular function was good/impaired/moderate in 66/29/5% of patients. Quality-of-life SF-36 assessment showed that mean physical and mental health components were 83 ± 17 and 79 ± 17, which was comparable with that of the general age- and gender-matched Dutch population. CONCLUSIONS Our experience shows that mitral valve repair for severe MR in asymptomatic patients is safe, and has satisfactory long-term survival with a low recurrence rate of MR, good left ventricular function, and excellent quality of life that is comparable with the general Dutch population. PMID:23442941

  10. [Postoperative acute mitral regurgitation. Unexpected finding after minor non-cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Wagner, K J; Unterbuchner, C; Bogdanski, R; Martin, J; Kochs, E F; Tassani-Prell, P

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the case of a 59-year-old man who was scheduled for general anesthesia with propofol, sufentanil and sevoflurane for removal of a metal implant. The patient was classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II status because of an asymptomatic mitral valve prolapse and medically treated arterial hypertension. During induction of narcosis a pulsoxymetrically measured inadequate increase in oxygen saturation after preoxygenation was noticed and a moderate respiratory obstruction occurred intraoperatively, but anesthesia was uneventfully completed and the patient was extubated. However, 3 h later the patient developed severe dyspnea, hypoxia, tachycardia and arterial hypotension. Physical examination revealed a new grade 4/6 systolic murmur radiating to the axilla and X-ray showed bilateral pulmonary edema. Neither electrocardiographic nor biochemical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction were identified but transthoracic echocardiography revealed fluttering of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve with grade III regurgitation and dilation of the left atrium. Coronary angiography was normal and left ventriculography confirmed severe mitral regurgitation. Mitral valve repair was successfully performed 22 h after presentation of symptoms. Mitral regurgitation is a common finding on echocardiography, seen to some degree in over 75% of the population. The etiology of mitral valve insufficiency which can be caused by pathologic changes of one or more of the components of the mitral valve, including the leaflets, annulus, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, or by abnormalities of the surrounding left ventricle and/or atrium are discussed. Rupture of mitral chordae tendineae is infrequent and causes acute hemodynamic deterioration and needs corrective surgery. Valve replacement should be performed only if mitral valve repair is not possible. Echocardiography is an invaluable tool in determining the severity of regurgitation

  11. Ventricular Reconstruction Results in Improved Left Ventricular Function and Amelioration of Mitral Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kaza, Aditya K.; Patel, Mayank R.; Fiser, Steven M.; Long, Stewart M.; Kern, John A.; Tribble, Curtis G.; Kron, Irving L.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Surgical restoration of the left ventricular wall (Dor procedure) has been advocated as a therapy for left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. This procedure involves placement of an endoventricular patch through a ventriculotomy. Methods We reviewed our series of patients that underwent the Dor procedure within the past 4 years and examined their pre and postoperative ventricular function and mitral valve function. Pre and postoperative ejection fraction and degree of mitral regurgitation were analyzed using the paired Student t-test. We hypothesized that this procedure would result in improved ventricular function and that it would also help improve mitral valve function. Results Thirty-four patients underwent this procedure, with one death. Of these, 30 patients underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and 8 patients had mitral intervention (seven had an Alfieri repair of the mitral valve, and one had mitral valve annuloplasty). The average preoperative ejection fraction among these patients was 26.8% (range 10–45%). The postoperative ejection fraction was significantly higher at 35.4% (range 25–52%) (P < .001). We noted an improvement in ejection fraction in 27 patients (82%). We also noted that 21 of 33 patients (64%) had improvement in the degree of mitral regurgitation based on echocardiography data (P < .001). Conclusions We conclude that the Dor procedure results in improvement in the left ventricular function. Furthermore, we also note that this procedure ameliorates mitral regurgitation in a majority of these patients even in the absence of associated mitral valve procedures, probably due to reduction in the size of the ventricle and improved orientation of the papillary muscles. PMID:12035039

  12. A 25-year study of chordal replacement with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene in mitral valve repair†.

    PubMed

    Hata, Hiroki; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Shimahara, Yusuke; Sato, Shunsuke; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the outcome of mitral valve repair with chordal replacement using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene over the past 25 years. From July 1988 to February 2013, 224 consecutive patients (mean age 57 years, 34% women) underwent mitral valve repair with chordal replacement using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures at our institution. Isolated anterior leaflet prolapse was observed in 134 patients (60%), isolated posterior leaflet prolapse was observed in 13 patients (6%) and bileaflet prolapse was observed in 77 patients (34%). The number of replaced artificial chordae ranged from 2 to 12 (mean 3.7) per patient. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed pre- and postoperatively and in the follow-up period. The follow-up period ranged from 0.3 to 25.3 years (mean 7.4, median 6.2). There was 1 early death and 15 late deaths, of which 7 were cardiac related. The actuarial survival rates at 10 and 20 years were 92 and 81%, respectively. Thirty-three patients (15%) developed recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation during the follow-up period and 30 patients (13%) required reoperation on the mitral valve. Rates of freedom from reoperation and freedom from recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation were 84 and 82% at 10 years, and 74 and 59% at 20 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictors of recurrent mitral regurgitation were mitral valve repair without annuloplasty ring and greater than mild postoperative mitral regurgitation; and the independent predictors of mitral reoperation were previous cardiac surgery and greater than mild postoperative mitral regurgitation. Histopathological analysis of the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures removed during reoperation revealed complete endothelialization without calcification or microthrombi. Our 25-year follow-up demonstrated reliable long-term outcomes of chordal replacement with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures. © The Author 2014

  13. Mitral Valve Annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Bothe, Wolfgang; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Swanson, Julia C.; Miller, D. Craig; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Mitral valve annuloplasty is a common surgical technique used in the repair of a leaking valve by implanting an annuloplasty device. To enhance repair durability, these devices are designed to increase leaflet coaptation, while preserving the native annular shape and motion; however, the precise impact of device implantation on annular deformation, strain, and curvature is unknown. Here we quantify how three frequently used devices significantly impair native annular dynamics. In controlled in vivo experiments, we surgically implanted eleven flexible-incomplete, eleven semi-rigid-complete, and twelve rigid-complete devices around the mitral annuli of 34 sheep, each tagged with 16 equally-spaced tantalum markers. We recorded four-dimensional marker coordinates using biplane videofluoroscopy, first with device and then without, which were used to create mathematical models using piecewise cubic splines. Clinical metrics (characteristic anatomical distances) revealed significant global reduction in annular dynamics upon device implantation. Mechanical metrics (strain and curvature fields) explained this reduction via a local loss of anterior dilation and posterior contraction. Overall, all three devices unfavorably reduced annular dynamics. The flexible-incomplete device, however, preserved native annular dynamics to a larger extent than the complete devices. Heterogeneous strain and curvature profiles suggest the need for heterogeneous support, which may spawn more rational design of annuloplasty devices using design concepts of functionally graded materials. PMID:22037916

  14. Quantitation of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Topilsky, Yan; Grigioni, Francesco; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most frequent valve disease. Nevertheless, evaluation of MR severity is difficult because standard color flow imaging is plagued by considerable pitfalls. Modern surgical indications in asymptomatic patients require precise assessment of MR severity. MR severity assessment is always comprehensive, utilizing all views and methods. Determining trivial/mild MR is usually easy, based on small jet and flow convergence. Specific signs of severe MR (pulmonary venous flow systolic reversal or severe mitral lesion) are useful but insensitive. Quantitative methods, quantitative Doppler (measuring stroke volumes) and flow convergence (aka PISA method), measure the lesion severity as effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) and volume overload as regurgitant volume (RVol). Interpretation of these numbers should be performed in context of specific MR type. In organic MR (intrinsic valve lesions) ERO ≥ 0.40 cm(2) and RVol ≥ 60 mL are associated with poor outcome, while in functional MR ERO ≥ 0.20 cm(2) and RVol ≥ 30 mL mark reduced survival. While MR assessment should always be comprehensive, quantitative assessment of MR provides measures that are strongly predictive of outcome and should be the preferred approach. The ERO and RVol measured by these methods require interpretation in causal context to best predict outcome and determine MR management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of papillary muscle approximation in mitral valve repair for the treatment of secondary mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Yucel, Evin; Santana, Orlando

    2016-12-30

    SummarySecondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is present in up to half of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and is associated with a poor prognosis. It primarily results from progressive left ventricular remodelling, papillary muscle displacement and tethering of the mitral valve leaflets. Mitral valve repair with an undersized ring annuloplasty is the reparative procedure of choice in the treatment of secondary MR. However, this technique is associated with a 30-60% incidence of recurrent moderate or greater MR at mid-term follow-up, which results in progressive deterioration of left ventricular function and increased morbidity. Combined mitral valve repair and papillary muscle approximation has been applied in order to address both the annular and subvalvular dysfunction that coexist in secondary MR, which include graft and suture-based techniques. Herein, we provide a systematic review of the published literature regarding the technical aspects, clinical application, and outcomes of mitral valve repair with combined ring annuloplasty and papillary muscle approximation for the treatment of secondary MR.

  16. Changes in Mitral Valve Annular Geometry After Repair: Saddle-Shaped Versus Flat Annuloplasty Rings

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Feroze; Gorman, Joseph H.; Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Gorman, Robert C.; Panzica, Peter J.; Hagberg, Robert C.; Lerner, Adam B.; Hess, Philip E.; Maslow, Andrew; Khabbaz, Kamal R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Saddle-shaped annuloplasty rings are being increasingly used during mitral valve (MV) repair to conform the mitral annulus to a more nonplanar shape and possibly reduce leaflet stress. In this study utilizing three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography we compared the effects of rigid flat rings with those of the saddle rings on the mitral annular geometry. Specifically we measured the changes in nonplanarity angle (NPA) before and after MV repair. Methods Geometric analysis on 38 patients undergoing MV repair for myxomatous and ischemic mitral regurgitation with full flat rings (n = 18) and saddle rings (n = 18) were performed. The acquired three-dimensional volumetric data were analyzed utilizing the “Image Arena” software (TomTec GmBH, Munich, Germany). Specifically, the degree of change in the NPA was calculated and compared before and after repair for both types of rings. Results Both types of annuloplasty rings resulted in significant changes in the geometric structure of the MV after repair. However, saddle rings lead to a decrease in the NPA (7% for ischemic and 8% for myxomatous MV repairs) (ie, made the annulus more nonplanar), whereas flat rings increased the NPA (7.9% for ischemic and 11.8% for myxomatous MV repairs) (ie, made the annulus less nonplanar); p value 0.001 or less. Conclusions Implantation of saddle-shaped rings during MV repair surgery is associated with augmentation of the nonplanar shape of the mitral annulus (ie, decreases NPA). This favorable change in the mitral annular geometry could possibly confer a structural advantage to MV repairs with the saddle rings. PMID:20868816

  17. Changes in mitral valve annular geometry after repair: saddle-shaped versus flat annuloplasty rings.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Feroze; Gorman, Joseph H; Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Gorman, Robert C; Panzica, Peter J; Hagberg, Robert C; Lerner, Adam B; Hess, Philip E; Maslow, Andrew; Khabbaz, Kamal R

    2010-10-01

    Saddle-shaped annuloplasty rings are being increasingly used during mitral valve (MV) repair to conform the mitral annulus to a more nonplanar shape and possibly reduce leaflet stress. In this study utilizing three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography we compared the effects of rigid flat rings with those of the saddle rings on the mitral annular geometry. Specifically we measured the changes in nonplanarity angle (NPA) before and after MV repair. Geometric analysis on 38 patients undergoing MV repair for myxomatous and ischemic mitral regurgitation with full flat rings (n = 18) and saddle rings (n = 18) were performed. The acquired three-dimensional volumetric data were analyzed utilizing the "Image Arena" software (TomTec GmBH, Munich, Germany). Specifically, the degree of change in the NPA was calculated and compared before and after repair for both types of rings. Both types of annuloplasty rings resulted in significant changes in the geometric structure of the MV after repair. However, saddle rings lead to a decrease in the NPA (7% for ischemic and 8% for myxomatous MV repairs) (ie, made the annulus more nonplanar), whereas flat rings increased the NPA (7.9% for ischemic and 11.8% for myxomatous MV repairs) (ie, made the annulus less nonplanar); p value 0.001 or less. Implantation of saddle-shaped rings during MV repair surgery is associated with augmentation of the nonplanar shape of the mitral annulus (ie, decreases NPA). This favorable change in the mitral annular geometry could possibly confer a structural advantage to MV repairs with the saddle rings. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitral Apparatus Assessment by Delayed Enhancement CMR – Relative Impact of Infarct Distribution on Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Chinitz, Jason S.; Chen, Debbie; Goyal, Parag; Wilson, Sean; Islam, Fahmida; Nguyen, Thanh; Wang, Yi; Hurtado-Rua, Sandra; Simprini, Lauren; Cham, Matthew; Levine, Robert A.; Devereux, Richard B.; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess patterns and functional consequences of mitral apparatus infarction after acute MI (AMI). Background The mitral apparatus contains two myocardial components – papillary muscles and the adjacent LV wall. Delayed-enhancement CMR (DE-CMR) enables in-vivo study of inter-relationships and potential contributions of LV wall and papillary muscle infarction (PMI) to mitral regurgitation (MR). Methods Multimodality imaging was performed: CMR was used to assess mitral geometry and infarct pattern, including 3D DE-CMR for PMI. Echocardiography (echo) was used to measure MR. Imaging occurred 27±8 days post-AMI (CMR, echo within 1 day). Results 153 patients with first AMI were studied. PMI was present in 30% (n=46; 72% posteromedial, 39% anterolateral). When stratified by angiographic culprit vessel, PMI occurred in 65% of patients with left circumflex, 48% with right coronary, and only 14% of patients with left anterior descending infarctions (p<0.001). Patients with PMI had more advanced remodeling as measured by LV size and mitral annular diameter (p<0.05). Increased extent of PMI was accompanied by a stepwise increase in mean infarct transmurality within regional LV segments underlying each papillary muscle (p<0.001). Prevalence of lateral wall infarction was 3.0 fold higher among patients with, compared to those without, PMI (65% vs. 22%, p<0.001). Infarct distribution also impacted MR, with greater MR among patients with lateral wall infarction (p=0.002). Conversely, MR severity did not differ based on presence (p=0.19) or extent (p=0.12) of PMI, or by angiographic culprit vessel. In multivariable analysis, lateral wall infarct size (OR=1.20[CI=1.05–1.39], p=0.01) was independently associated with substantial (≥moderate) MR even after controlling for mitral annular (OR=1.22[1.04–1.43], p=0.01) and LV end-diastolic diameter (OR=1.11 [0.99–1.23], p=0.056). Conclusions PMI is common post-AMI, affecting nearly one-third of patients. PMI extent

  19. Double-Orifice Mitral Valve in an Eight-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Segreto, Antonio; De Salvatore, Sergio; Chiusaroli, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Federico; Van Wyk, Cornelius; Congiu, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    The case is described of an eight-year-old boy who required an operation for moderate mitral regurgitation due to a double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV). The DOMV, which was clearly demonstrated by transthoracic echocardiography, had a central fibrous bridge. Mitral valve repair using a 5/0 Prolene suture placed at the level of the superior commissure of each hole to stabilize the valve, and ring annuloplasty with Edwards Physio ring, was successfully performed. Intraoperative real-time transesophageal echocardiography showed the repaired DOMV to be without regurgitation or stenosis.

  20. Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 centimeters) each. The surgeon uses a special computer to control robotic arms during the surgery. A ... heart and mitral valve are displayed on a computer in the operating room. You will need a ...

  1. Mitral Valve Prolapse (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System Congenital Heart Defects Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Marfan Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse EKG ( ...

  2. Mitral Valve Prolapse (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be cleared by the doctor to participate in sports. This may involve some additional tests. Although any heart condition can be frightening, mitral valve prolapse likely will not have any effect on your child's everyday life and activities. If ...

  3. Transient mitral regurgitation: An adjunctive sign of myocardial ischemia during dipyridamole-thallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lette, J.; Gagnon, A.; Lapointe, J.; Cerino, M.

    1989-07-01

    A patient developed transient exacerbation of a mitral insufficiency murmur and a reversible posterior wall perfusion defect during dipyridamole-thallium imaging. Coronary angiography showed significant stenoses of both the right and the circumflex coronary arteries that supply the posterior papillary muscle. Cardiac auscultation for transient mitral incompetence, a sign of reversible papillary muscle dysfunction, is a simple and practical adjunctive test for myocardial ischemia during dipyridamole-thallium imaging. It may confirm that an isolated reversible posterior wall myocardial perfusion defect is truly ischemic in nature as opposed to an artifact resulting from attenuation by the diaphragm.

  4. Fully automated software for mitral annulus evaluation in chronic mitral regurgitation by 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Iolanda; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Rincon, Luis Miguel; González, Ariana; García Martín, Ana; Hinojar, Rocio; Jimenez Nacher, Jose Julio; Indolfi, Ciro; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for mitral valve (MV) anatomic and functional evaluation. Currently, dedicated MV analysis software has limitations for its use in clinical practice. Thus, we tested here a complete and reproducible evaluation of a new fully automatic software to characterize MV anatomy in different forms of mitral regurgitation (MR) by 3D TEE.Sixty patients were included: 45 with more than moderate MR (28 organic MR [OMR] and 17 functional MR [FMR]) and 15 controls. All patients underwent TEE. 3D MV images obtained using 3D zoom were imported into the new software for automatic analysis. Different MV parameters were obtained and compared. Anatomic and dynamic differences between FMR and OMR were detected. A significant increase in systolic (859.75 vs 801.83 vs 607.78 mm; P = 0.002) and diastolic (1040.60 vs. 1217.83 and 859.74 mm; P < 0.001) annular sizes was observed in both OMR and FMR compared to that in controls. FMR had a reduced mitral annular contraction compared to degenerative cases of OMR and to controls (17.14% vs 32.78% and 29.89%; P = 0.007). Good reproducibility was demonstrated along with a short analysis time (mean 4.30 minutes).Annular characteristics and dynamics are abnormal in both FMR and OMR. Full 3D software analysis automatically calculates several significant parameters that provide a correct and complete assessment of anatomy and dynamic mitral annulus geometry and displacement in the 3D space. This analysis allows a better characterization of MR pathophysiology and could be useful in designing new devices for MR repair or replacement.

  5. Fully automated software for mitral annulus evaluation in chronic mitral regurgitation by 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Aquila, Iolanda; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Rincon, Luis Miguel; González, Ariana; García Martín, Ana; Hinojar, Rocio; Jimenez Nacher, Jose Julio; Indolfi, Ciro; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for mitral valve (MV) anatomic and functional evaluation. Currently, dedicated MV analysis software has limitations for its use in clinical practice. Thus, we tested here a complete and reproducible evaluation of a new fully automatic software to characterize MV anatomy in different forms of mitral regurgitation (MR) by 3D TEE. Sixty patients were included: 45 with more than moderate MR (28 organic MR [OMR] and 17 functional MR [FMR]) and 15 controls. All patients underwent TEE. 3D MV images obtained using 3D zoom were imported into the new software for automatic analysis. Different MV parameters were obtained and compared. Anatomic and dynamic differences between FMR and OMR were detected. A significant increase in systolic (859.75 vs 801.83 vs 607.78 mm2; P = 0.002) and diastolic (1040.60 vs. 1217.83 and 859.74 mm2; P < 0.001) annular sizes was observed in both OMR and FMR compared to that in controls. FMR had a reduced mitral annular contraction compared to degenerative cases of OMR and to controls (17.14% vs 32.78% and 29.89%; P = 0.007). Good reproducibility was demonstrated along with a short analysis time (mean 4.30 minutes). Annular characteristics and dynamics are abnormal in both FMR and OMR. Full 3D software analysis automatically calculates several significant parameters that provide a correct and complete assessment of anatomy and dynamic mitral annulus geometry and displacement in the 3D space. This analysis allows a better characterization of MR pathophysiology and could be useful in designing new devices for MR repair or replacement. PMID:27930514

  6. Impact of mitral annular calcification on cardiovascular events in a multiethnic community: the Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Kohsaka, Shun; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2008-09-01

    We sought to determine the magnitude of the association between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and vascular events in a multiethnic cohort. Mitral annular calcification is common in the elderly and is associated with atherosclerotic risk factors. Its impact on the risk of cardiovascular events is controversial. The study cohort consisted of 1,955 subjects, ages >or=40 years, and free of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS). Mitral annular calcification was assessed by transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography. The association between MAC and MI, IS, and vascular death (VD) was examined by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. The effect of MAC thickness was also analyzed. The mean age of the cohort was 68.0 +/- 9.7 years and the majority of subjects were Hispanics (56.8%). A total of 519 subjects (26.6%) had MAC. Of 498 patients with MAC thickness measurements available, 253 (13.1%) had mild to moderate MAC (1 to 4 mm) and 245 (12.7%) severe MAC (>4 mm). During a mean follow-up of 7.4 +/- 2.5 years, MI occurred in 100 (5.1%) subjects, IS in 104 (5.3%) subjects, and VD in 155 (8.0%) subjects. After adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors, MAC was associated with an increased risk of MI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13 to 2.69, p = 0.011) and VD (adjusted HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.09 to 2.15, p = 0.015), but not IS (adjusted HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.87 to 2.05, p = 0.18). Further analysis revealed that the impact of MAC was related to its thickness, with MAC >4 mm being a strong and independent predictor of MI (adjusted HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.17, p = 0.008) and VD (adjusted HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.72, p = 0.002), and showing borderline association with IS (adjusted HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.95 to 2.67, p = 0.084). In this multiethnic cohort, MAC was a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events, especially MI and VD. The risk increase

  7. The long-term results and changing patterns of biological valves at the mitral position in contemporary practice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tomonobu; Ito, Hideki; Mutsuga, Masato; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Terazawa, Sachie; Narita, Yuji; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitral valve surgery has changed with the wide acceptance of mitral valve repair. The aim of this study is to obtain the long-term results of patients who underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR) using a biological prosthesis in contemporary practice in Japan. From January 1990 to December 2013, 76 patients underwent MVR using a biological prosthesis with or without concomitant surgery. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire and a telephone interview. The mean follow-up period was 4.26 years. The etiologies of the patients included dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n=20 [26.3%]), ischemic mitral regurgitation (n=7 [9.2%]). There is a trend towards decreasing number of rheumatic and degenerative disease and increasing number of DCM and ischemic mitral regurgitation. Three patients (3.9%) died in the perioperative period. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 69.6% and 31.7%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year freedom from valve related death were 95.6% and 80.6 %, respectively. The linearized rates of valve-related complications were as follows: thromboembolism (0.63%/patient/year), bleeding (1.25%/patient/year). One patient underwent reoperation for structural degeneration 13 years after the first operation. The present study shows the long-term results of mitral valve replacement with bioproshtesis in a contemporary case series. The practice pattern is changing. The low rate of valve-related complication justify the current patient selection. PMID:28008192

  8. Effectiveness and safety of a home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme of mixed surveillance in patients with ischemic heart disease at moderate cardiovascular risk: A randomised, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Escobar, Raquel; González-Represas, Alicia; Gómez-González, Adela María; Montiel-Trujillo, Angel; Aguilar-Jimenez, Rafael; Carrasco-Ruíz, Rosa; Salinas-Sánchez, Pablo

    2017-02-20

    Previous studies have documented the feasibility of home-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes in low-risk patients with ischemic heart disease, but a similar solution needs to be found for patients at moderate cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness and safety of a home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme of mixed surveillance in patients with ischemic cardiopathology at moderate cardiovascular risk. A randomised, controlled clinical trial was designed wherein 28 patients with stable coronary artery disease at moderate cardiovascular risk, who met the selection criteria for this study, participated. Of these, 14 were assigned to the group undergoing traditional cardiac rehabilitation in hospital (control group) and 14 were assigned to the home-based mixed surveillance programme (experimental group). The patients in the experimental group went to the cardiac rehabilitation unit once a week and exercised at home, which was monitored with a remote electrocardiographic monitoring device (NUUBO®). The in-home exercises comprised of walking at 70% of heart rate reserve during the first month, and 80% during the second month, for 1 h per day at a frequency of 5 to 7 days per week. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to evaluate the effects of time (before and after intervention) and time-group interaction regarding exercise capacity, risk profile, cardiovascular complications, and quality of life. No significant differences were observed between the traditional cardiac rehabilitation group and the home-based with mixed surveillance group for exercise time and METS achieved during the exertion test, and the recovery rate in the first minute (which increased in both groups after the intervention). The only difference between the two groups was for quality of life scores (10.93 [IC95%: 17.251, 3.334, p = 0.007] vs -4.314 [IC95%: -11.414, 2.787; p = 0.206]). No serious heart

  9. [Ischemic hepatitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Squella, Freddy; Zapata, Rodrigo

    2003-06-01

    Ischemic hepatitis or shock liver is defined as an extensive hepatocellular necrosis associated with a decrease in hepatic perfusion due to systemic hypotension. Serum aminotransferase levels (ALAT and ASAT) increase rapidly after the ischemic episode and peak within 1 to 3 days to at least 20 times the upper normal limit. After recovery, aminotransferases return to near normal levels in 7-10 days of the initial insult. Histological it is characterized by centrolobular necrosis without inflammation. We report a 47 years old woman with a rheumatic mitral valve disease, atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation and congestive heart failure. She was admitted due to a rapid auricular arrhythmia and secondary severe hypotension. She developed rapidly progressive jaundice (bilirubin up to 8.9 mg/dl) and her aminotransferases (ALAT and ASAT) increased rapidly to levels near 100 times the upper normal limit. Other causes of liver disease were excluded. With hemodynamic support and after heart rate control she improved rapidly within the following 10 days with normalization of liver function tests and complete clinical recovery.

  10. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  11. [Mitral valve repair with the MitraClip following surgical mitral annuloplasty failure].

    PubMed

    Picard, F; Tadros, V-X; Millán, X; Asgar, A W

    2016-10-28

    Mitral repair using the MitraClip device is on ongoing expansion and has been evaluated in different patterns of mitral regurgitation. Nevertheless, surgical approaches to mitral regurgitation remain the standard of care, at least in absence of contraindication. We report the first Canadian experience of mitral valve repair with the MitraClip following surgical mitral annuloplasty failure. Therapeutic considerations and potential challenges are discussed.

  12. Myocardial imaging artifacts caused by mitral valve annulus calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, L.E.; Movahed, A.; Reeves, W.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Knowledge of imaging artifact of myocardial perfusion studies with thallium-201 is critical for improving the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease. Three patients are described who underwent exercise or pharmacologic stress thallium-201 imaging studies and had a moderate, fixed myocardial perfusion defect (scar) involving the posterolateral and inferoposterior walls of the left ventricle. This was an imaging artifact caused by a heavily calcified mitral valve annulus.

  13. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  14. MitraClip Therapy for Mitral Regurgitation: Secondary Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ted; Mehta, Arjun; Guerrero, Mayra; Levisay, Justin P; Salinger, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Therapy for mitral regurgitation (MR) has been synonymous with mitral valve surgery. Operative approaches for degenerative MR repair have been associated with excellent results, with durable long term outcomes. Surgery for functional MR has been less successful. MitraClip has shown promise for functional MR, especiall in patinets who are high risk for surgery. The aggregate of nonrandomized global experience with MitraClip in functional MR has been consistent in showing improvements in symptoms and left ventricular remodeling. It remains to be seen how MitraClip therapy will compare with best medical therapy. The COAPT trial will clarify this question.

  15. Myocardial Infarction Alters Adaptation of the Tethered Mitral Valve

    PubMed Central

    Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Aikawa, Elena; Bischoff, Joyce; Guerrero, J. Luis; Hjortnaes, Jesper; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Szymanski, Catherine; Bartko, Philipp E.; Seybolt, Margo M.; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Sullivan, Suzanne; Garcia, Michael L.; Mauskapf, Adam; Titus, James S.; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Irvin, Whitney S.; Chaput, Miguel; Messas, Emmanuel; Hagège, Albert A.; Carpentier, Alain; Levine, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In patients with myocardial infarction (MI), leaflet tethering by displaced papillary muscles induces mitral regurgitation (MR), which doubles mortality. Mitral valves (MVs) are larger in such patients but fibrosis sets in counterproductively. The investigators previously reported that experimental tethering alone increases mitral valve area in association with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. OBJECTIVES This study explored the clinically relevant situation of tethering and MI, testing the hypothesis that ischemic milieu modifies MV adaptation. METHODS Twenty-three adult sheep were examined. Under cardiopulmonary bypass, the PM tips in 6 sheep were retracted apically to replicate tethering, short of producing MR (tethered-alone). PM retraction was combined with apical MI created by coronary ligation in another 6 sheep (tethered + MI), and left ventricular (LV) remodeling was limited by external constraint in 5 additional sheep (LV constraint). Six sham-operated sheep were controls. Diastolic MV surface area was quantified by 3-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and after 58 ± 5 days, followed by histopathology and flow cytometry of excised leaflets. RESULTS Tethered + MI leaflets were markedly thicker than tethered-alone valves and sham controls. Leaflet area also increased significantly. EMT, detected as α-smooth muscle actin-positive endothelial cells, significantly exceeded that in tethered-alone and control valves. Transforming growth factor-β, matrix metalloproteinase expression, and cellular proliferation were markedly increased. Uniquely, tethering + MI showed endothelial activation with vascular adhesion molecule expression, neovascularization, and cells positive for CD45, considered a hematopoietic cell marker. Tethered + MI findings were comparable with external ventricular constraint. CONCLUSIONS MI altered leaflet adaptation, including a profibrotic increase in valvular cell activation, CD45-positive cells, and matrix turnover

  16. Mitral Valve Mechanics Following Posterior Leaflet Patch Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Q.; Honge, Jesper L.; Ostli, Bjorn; Levine, Robert A.; Hagège, Albert; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten L.; Jensen, Morten O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim of the study Attention towards the optimization of mitral valve repair methods is increasing. Patch augmentation is one strategy used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR). The study aim was to investigate the force balance changes in specific chordae tendineae emanating from the posterior papillary muscle in a FIMR-simulated valve, following posterior leaflet patch augmentation. Methods Mitral valves were obtained from 12 pigs (body weight 80 kg). An in vitro test set-up simulating the left ventricle was used to hold the valves. The left ventricular pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted on the chordae tendineae. Data were acquired before and after 12 mm posterior and 5 mm apical posterior papillary muscle displacement to simulate the effect from one of the main contributors of FIMR, before and after patch augmentation. Results The effect of displacing the posterior papillary muscle induced tethering on the intermediate chordae tendineae to the posterior leaflet, and resulted in a 39.8% force increase (p = 0.014). Posterior leaflet patch augmentation of the FIMR valve induced a 31.1% force decrease (p = 0.007). There was no difference in force between the healthy and the repaired valve simulations (p = 0.773). Conclusion Posterior leaflet patch augmentation significantly reduced the forces exerted on the intermediate chordae tendineae from the posterior papillary muscle following FIMR simulation. As changes in chordal tension lead to a redistribution of the total stress exerted on the valve, patch augmentation may have an adverse long-term influence on mitral valve function and remodeling. PMID:23610985

  17. Isolated parachute mitral valve in a 29 years old female; a case report.

    PubMed

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Mahmoudi, Seyed Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year old female patient was referred to our hospital for evaluation of dyspnea NYHA class I which begun from several months ago. The only abnormal sign found on physical examination was a grade 2/6 systolic murmur at the apex position without radiation. Echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular sizes and systolic function, and only one papillary muscle in left ventricular (LV) cavity which all chordae tendineae inserted into that muscle. The mitral valve orifice was eccentrically located at the lateral side with mild to moderate mitral regurgitation but without significant mitral stenosis. No other congenital heart anomalies were identified. Thus, the final diagnosis was isolated parachute mitral valve (IPMV). She was one of the very rare IPMV cases have ever been reported in adults.

  18. Isolated parachute mitral valve in a 29 years old female; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Mahmoudi, Seyed Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year old female patient was referred to our hospital for evaluation of dyspnea NYHA class I which begun from several months ago. The only abnormal sign found on physical examination was a grade 2/6 systolic murmur at the apex position without radiation. Echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular sizes and systolic function, and only one papillary muscle in left ventricular (LV) cavity which all chordae tendineae inserted into that muscle. The mitral valve orifice was eccentrically located at the lateral side with mild to moderate mitral regurgitation but without significant mitral stenosis. No other congenital heart anomalies were identified. Thus, the final diagnosis was isolated parachute mitral valve (IPMV). She was one of the very rare IPMV cases have ever been reported in adults PMID:27069567

  19. Parachute mitral valve and Pacman deformity of the ventricular septum in a middle-aged male.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Jagdish C; Shukla, Madhu; Mohan, Vishwas; Sethi, Arvind

    2016-09-01

    Parachute mitral valve and Pacman heart (incomplete muscular ventricular septal defect) are rare congenital deformities usually reported in infants and children. Very few adult patients with these anomalies are reported but the association of the two has not been described. This report describes a 56-year-old male with exertional dyspnea who was detected to have moderately severe mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Typical parachute deformity of the mitral valve with a reduced opening and common attachment of all the chordae to a single posteromedial papillary muscle was evident. The chordae were elongated, lax, and redundant, which is atypical for this anomaly. Incidentally, detected aneurysm of the basal muscular interventricular septum (Pacman deformity or incomplete triangular septal defect) was also present. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trans Apical Mitral Implantation (TAMI) of the Tiara ™ Bio-prosthesis: Pre-Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Banai, Shmuel; Verheye, Stefan; Cheung, Anson; Schwartz, Marc; Marko, Alexei; Lane, Randy; Jolicoeur, E. Marc; Garceau, Patrick; Biner, Simon; Tanguay, Jean-Francois; Edelman, Elazer R.; White, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the pre-clinical evaluation of Trans-Apical Mitral Implantation (TAMI) of the Tiara in preparation for first-in-man implantation. Background The Tiara™ is a trans-catheter self-expanding mitral bio-prosthesis, specifically designed for the complex anatomical configuration of the mitral apparatus. Methods Tiara valves were implanted in an acute porcine model, in a chronic ovine model, and in human cadavers. Results Acute and chronic evaluation demonstrated excellent function and alignment of the valves, with no left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, coronary artery obstruction, or transvalvular gradients. Chronic evaluation of 7 sheep demonstrated clinically stable animals. A mild degree of prosthetic valve regurgitation was seen in 2 of the 7 sheep. Mild to moderate degree of paravalvular leak, which was attributed to this animal model, was observed in 6 of these animals. Cardioscopy and macroscopic evaluation demonstrated stable and secure positioning of the Tiara with no evidence of injury to the ventricular or atrial walls. Pericardial leaflets were free and mobile without calcifications. Implantation of the Tiara valves in human cadaver hearts demonstrated, upon visual inspection, proper anatomic alignment and seating of the valve both at the atrial and at the ventricular aspects of the native mitral apparatus. Conclusions In preparation for the first-in-man trans-catheter mitral valve implantation we report the successful pre-clinical evaluation of the Tiara trans-catheter self-expanding mitral bioprosthetic valve. In porcine and ovine models without mitral regurgitation, trans-apical mitral implantation of the Tiara valve is technically feasible, safe, and results in a stable and well-functioning mitral bioprosthesis. PMID:24556094

  1. Mitral disc-valve variance

    PubMed Central

    Berroya, Renato B.; Escano, Fernando B.

    1972-01-01

    This report deals with a rare complication of disc-valve prosthesis in the mitral area. A significant disc poppet and struts destruction of mitral Beall valve prostheses occurred 20 and 17 months after implantation. The resulting valve incompetence in the first case contributed to the death of the patient. The durability of Teflon prosthetic valves appears to be in question and this type of valve probably will be unacceptable if there is an increasing number of disc-valve variance in the future. Images PMID:5017573

  2. Local intense mosaic pattern at site of flail mitral leaflet: report of a new color Doppler sign.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Rami N; D'Cruz, Ivan A; Minderman, Daniel; Kaiser, Jacqueline

    2005-10-01

    Color flow Doppler has been useful in diagnosing the presence and severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). We noted a hitherto unreported sign of MR due to flail mitral leaflet: intense local mosaic pattern at the site of the flail leaflet. This sign was seen well in 11 of 14 patients (79%) with the two-dimensional echocardiographic features of flail mitral leaflet, all with moderate or severe MR. In 3 other patients, the sign was absent; two of those had flail mitral leaflet with severe MR. No local mosaic pattern was seen on color Doppler in 20 other patients with MR but no flail mitral leaflet. We speculate that the focal intense mosaic color Doppler morphology may have been caused by intrusion of the flail leaflet into the MR stream, or to a Coanda-like effect of the MR jet "adhering" to the flail leaflet.

  3. [Valvular surgery for an exercise-induced functional mitral regurgitation in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: a case study].

    PubMed

    Attari, M; Legrand, M; Philippe, C; Rosak, P

    2013-08-01

    We here report the case of a 67-year-old woman with moderate mitral regurgitation without significant structural abnormalities that get worse during severe recurrent heart failures and preserved ejection fraction with concomitant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation became permanent and despite a well-controlled cardiac frequency, new heart failure episodes occurred. Exercise doppler echocardiography showed that the mechanism of this mitral regurgitation was a two leaflet mitral tenting. We discuss here the different mechanisms that could induce these kinds of mitral regurgitation with excessive tenting. We emphasize the interest of early detection by exercise doppler echocardiography even when a triggering factor like atrial fibrillation seems to be involved. We also discuss the interest of mitral valve replacement for these patients.

  4. Recent developments in percutaneous mitral valve treatment.

    PubMed

    La Canna, Giovanni; Denti, Paolo; Buzzatti, Nicola; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, various percutaneous techniques have been introduced for the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR), including direct leaflet repair, annuloplasty and left ventricular remodeling. Percutaneous mitral repair targets both primary degenerative and secondary mitral valve regurgitation and may be considered in selected high-surgical-risk patients. The assessment of mitral functional anatomy by echocardiography and computed tomography is crucial when selecting the appropriate repair strategy, according to the regurgitant valve lesion and the surrounding anatomy. The ongoing clinical use of new devices in annuloplasty and percutaneous mitral valve replacement is a promising new scenario in the treatment of MR that goes beyond the conventional surgical approach.

  5. Finite Element Modeling of Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ashley E.; Pantoja, Joe Luis; Weinsaft, Jonathan; Grossi, Eugene; Guccione, Julius M.; Ge, Liang; Ratcliffe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The mitral valve is a complex structure regulating forward flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle (LV). Multiple disease processes can affect its proper function, and when these diseases cause severe mitral regurgitation (MR), optimal treatment is repair of the native valve. The mitral valve (MV) is a dynamic structure with multiple components that have complex interactions. Computational modeling through finite element (FE) analysis is a valuable tool to delineate the biomechanical properties of the mitral valve and understand its diseases and their repairs. In this review, we present an overview of relevant mitral valve diseases, and describe the evolution of FE models of surgical valve repair techniques. PMID:26632260

  6. Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of left atrial emptying volume: a noninvasive index in quantifying the degree of nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Ren, J F; Kotler, M N; DePace, N L; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Kalman, P; Ross, J

    1983-10-01

    Several noninvasive techniques, including radionuclide angiography and Doppler echocardiography, have attempted to measure the regurgitant volume in patients with mitral regurgitation; however, none of these techniques are entirely satisfactory. Utilizing a computerized light pen method for tracing the left atrial endocardial border during systole and diastole in two orthogonal planes (apical four and two chamber views), biplane volume determinations were calculated in 12 normal subjects and 30 patients with nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation. Left atrial emptying volume determinations were performed by subtracting the left atrial end-diastolic volume from the left atrial end-systolic volume. The degree of mitral regurgitation was visually assessed as normal (0, trivial, Group I, 12 patients), mild (1+, Group II, 4 patients), moderate (2+, Group III, 8 patients), moderately severe (3+, Group IV, 12 patients) and severe (4+, Group V, 6 patients) by contrast left ventricular angiography and also quantitatively by regurgitant fraction at cardiac catheterization. All 18 patients with moderately severe (Group IV) and severe (Group V) mitral regurgitation had a left atrial emptying volume greater than 40 ml compared with none of the normal subjects and patients with mild (Group II) or moderate (Group III) mitral regurgitation. There was good correlation between left atrial emptying volume and mitral regurgitant fraction (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01). Thus, in patients with nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation, left atrial emptying volume is useful in separating mild from severe mitral regurgitation.

  7. Compassionate use of the PASCAL transcatheter mitral valve repair system for patients with severe mitral regurgitation: a multicentre, prospective, observational, first-in-man study.

    PubMed

    Praz, Fabien; Spargias, Konstantinos; Chrissoheris, Michael; Büllesfeld, Lutz; Nickenig, Georg; Deuschl, Florian; Schueler, Robert; Fam, Neil P; Moss, Robert; Makar, Moody; Boone, Robert; Edwards, Jeremy; Moschovitis, Aris; Kar, Saibal; Webb, John; Schäfer, Ulrich; Feldman, Ted; Windecker, Stephan

    2017-08-19

    Severe mitral regurgitation is associated with impaired prognosis if left untreated. Using the devices currently available, transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) remains challenging in complex anatomical situations. We report the procedural and 30-day results of the first-in-man study of the Edwards PASCAL TMVr system. In this multicentre, prospective, observational, first-in-man study, we collected data from seven tertiary care hospitals in five countries that had a compassionate use programme in which patients underwent transcatheter mitral valve repair using the Edwards PASCAL TMVr system. Eligible patients were those with symptomatic, severe functional, degenerative, or mixed mitral regurgitation deemed at high risk or inoperable. Safety and efficacy of the procedure were prospectively assessed at device implantation, discharge, and 30 days after device implantation. The key study endpoints were technical success assessed at the end of the procedure and device success 30 days after implantation using the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. Between Sept 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017, 23 patients (median age 75 years [IQR 61-82]) had treatment for moderate-to-severe (grade 3+) or severe (grade 4+) mitral regurgitation using the Edwards PASCAL TMVr system. At baseline, the median EuroScore II score was 7·1% (IQR 3·6-12·8) and the median Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality for mitral valve repair was 4·8% (2·1-9·0) and 6·8% (2·9-10·1) for mitral valve replacement. 22 (96%) of 23 patients were New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV at baseline. The implantation of at least one device was successful in all patients, resulting in procedural residual mitral regurgitation of grade 2+ or less in 22 (96%) patients. Six (26%) of 23 patients had two implants. Periprocedural complications occurred in two (9%) of 23 patients (one minor bleeding event and one transient ischaemic attack). Despite the anatomical

  8. Stroke volume and mitral annular velocities. Insights from tissue Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Bruch, C; Stypmann, J; Gradaus, R; Breithardt, G; Wichter, T

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of stroke volume (SV) on mitral annular velocities derived from tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). To this end, conventional echocardiographic variables and TDI derived mitral annular velocities (S', E', A') were obtained in 14 patients (pts) with increased SV (due to primary mitral (n=12) (ISV group)), in 41 pts with reduced SV (due to ischemic (n=27) or dilated cardiomyopathy (n=9) or hypertensive heart disease (n=5) (RSV group)) and 29 asymptomatic controls with normal SV (CON group). Systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') mitral annular velocities were elevated in the ISV group in the comparison to the CON group, but were significantly reduced in the RSV group. Late diastolic annular velocities (A') did not differ between the ISV and the CON group, but were lowest in the RSV group. On simple linear regression analysis, SV was significantly related to S' (r=0.74, p<0.001), to E' (r=0.74, p<0.001) and to A' (r=0.43, p<0.01). On multiple regression analysis, SV was a stronger independent predictor of S' and E' than conventional systolic or diastolic echocardiographic variables. Thus, stroke volume has a significant impact on TDI derived systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') mitral annular velocities. This should be considered, when TDI is used in the evaluation of LV performance or in the estimation of filling pressures.

  9. Rare Case of Unileaflet Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jainil; Jain, Tarun; Shah, Sunay; Mawri, Sagger; Ananthasubramaniam, Karthikeyan

    2016-06-01

    Unileaflet mitral valve is the rarest of the congenital mitral valve anomalies and is usually life threatening in infancy due to severe mitral regurgitation (MR). In most asymptomatic individuals, it is mostly due to hypoplastic posterior mitral leaflet. We present a 22-year-old male with palpitations, who was found to have an echocardiogram revealing an elongated anterior mitral valve leaflet with severely hypoplastic posterior mitral valve leaflet appearing as a unileaflet mitral valve without MR. Our case is one of the 11 reported cases in the literature so far. We hereby review those cases and conclude that these patients are likely to be at risk of developing worsening MR later in their lives.

  10. Percutaneous mitral commisurotomy during pregnancy – A report of two cases performed in a United Kingdom tertiary centre and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ferrah; Smith, William HT; Wallace, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of severe mitral stenosis where percutaneous mitral commisurotomy was performed within pregnancy. The first case involves an emergency procedure for a new diagnosis of severe mitral stenosis in a woman presenting with pulmonary oedema at 27 weeks’ gestation. The second case is of a woman known to have mitral stenosis who underwent a semi-elective procedure for deterioration in symptoms. This procedure is not commonly performed in the United Kingdom because of low incidence of rheumatic heart disease. In addition, percutaneous mitral commisurotomy during pregnancy is rarely performed in the United Kingdom because of the improved healthcare system where majority of the women with moderate to severe mitral stenosis (even asymptomatic) will undergo planned interventions (percutaneous mitral commisurotomy or mitral valve surgery) before contemplating pregnancy. These cases highlight both the acute and chronic presentations of mitral stenosis and the impact pregnancy has on this condition. In addition, these cases show the importance of retaining skills in performing percutaneous mitral commisurotomy within our United Kingdom cardiologists. PMID:27512481

  11. CMR predictors of mitral regurgitation in mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Delling, Francesca N; Kang, Lih Lisa; Yeon, Susan B; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Manning, Warren J; Han, Yuchi

    2010-10-01

    We sought to assess the correlation between mitral valve characteristics and severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) in subjects with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Compared with extensive echocardiographic studies, CMR predictors of MVP-related MR are unknown. The severity of MR at the time of diagnosis has prognostic implication for patients; therefore, the identification of determinants of MR and its progression may be important for risk stratification, follow-up recommendations, and surgical decision making. Seventy-one MVP patients (age 54 ± 11 years, 58% males, left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction 65 ± 5%) underwent cine CMR to assess annular dimensions, maximum systolic anterior and posterior leaflet displacement, papillary muscle (PM) distance to coaptation point and prolapsed leaflets, as well as diastolic anterior and posterior leaflet thickness and length, and LV volumes and mass. Velocity-encoded CMR was used to obtain aortic outflow and to quantify MR volume. Using multiple linear regression analysis including all variables, LV mass (p < 0.001), anterior leaflet length (p = 0.006), and posterior displacement (p = 0.01) were the best determinants of MR volume with a model-adjusted R(2) = 0.6. When the analysis was restricted to valvular characteristics, MR volume correlated with anterior mitral leaflet length (p < 0.001), posterior mitral leaflet displacement (p = 0.003), posterior leaflet thickness (p = 0.008), and the presence of flail (p = 0.005) with a model-adjusted R(2) = 0.5. We also demonstrated acceptable intraobserver and interobserver variability in these measurements. Anterior leaflet length, posterior leaflet displacement, posterior leaflet thickness, and the presence of flail are the best CMR valvular determinants of MVP-related MR. The acceptable intraobserver and interobserver variability of our measurements confirms the role of CMR as an imaging modality for assessment of MVP patients

  12. Exercise pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Magne, Julien; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Piérard, Luc A

    2010-07-06

    Current guidelines recommend mitral valve surgery for asymptomatic patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation and preserved left ventricular systolic function when exercise pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is present. However, the determinants of exercise PHT have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to identify the echocardiographic predictors of exercise PHT and the impact on symptoms. Comprehensive resting and exercise transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 78 consecutive patients (age, 61+/-13 years; 56% men) with at least moderate degenerative mitral regurgitation (effective regurgitant orifice area =43+/-20 mm(2); regurgitant volume =71+/-27 mL). Exercise PHT was defined as a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) >60 mm Hg. Exercise PHT was present in 46% patients. In multivariable analysis, exercise effective regurgitant orifice was an independent determinant of exercise SPAP (P<0.0001) and exercise PHT (P=0.002). Resting PHT and exercise PHT were associated with markedly reduced 2-year symptom-free survival (36+/-14% versus 59+/-7%, P=0.04; 35+/-8% versus 75+/-7%, P<0.0001). After adjustment, although the impact of resting PHT was no longer significant, exercise PHT was identified as an independent predictor of the occurrence of symptoms (hazard ratio=3.4; P=0.002). Receiver-operating characteristics curves revealed that exercise PHT (SPAP >56 mm Hg) was more accurate than resting PHT (SPAP >36 mm Hg) in predicting the occurrence of symptoms during follow-up (P=0.032). Exercise PHT is frequent in patients with asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation. Exercise mitral regurgitation severity is a strong independent predictor of both exercise SPAP and exercise PHT. Exercise PHT is associated with markedly low 2-year symptom-free survival, emphasizing the use of exercise echocardiography. An exercise SPAP >56 mm Hg accurately predicts the occurrence of symptoms.

  13. Robotically assisted mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changqing; Yang, Ming; Xiao, Cangsong; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yang; Wang, Jiali; Li, Jiachun

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, we determined the safety and efficacy of robotic mitral valve replacement using robotic technology. From January 2007 through March 2011, more than 400 patients underwent various types of robotic cardiac surgery in our department. Of these, 22 consecutive patients underwent robotically assisted mitral valve replacement. Of the 22 patients with isolated rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (9 men and 13 women), the mean age was 44.7 ± 19.8 years (range, 32-65). Preoperatively, all patients underwent a complete workup, including coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography. Of the 22 patients, 15 had concomitant atrial fibrillation. The surgical approach was through 4 right-side chest ports with femoral perfusion. Aortic occlusion was performed with a Chitwood crossclamp, and antegrade cardioplegia was administered directly by way of the anterior chest. Using 3 port incisions in the right side of the chest and a 2.5- to 3.0-cm working port, all the procedures were completed with the da Vinci S robot. All patients underwent successful robotic surgery. Of the 22 patients, 16 received a mechanical valve and 6 a tissue valve. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic crossclamp time was 137.1 ± 21.9 minutes (range, 105-168) and 99.3 ± 17.9 minutes (range, 80-133), respectively. No operative deaths, stroke, or other complications occurred, and no incisional conversions were required. After surgery, all the patients were followed up echocardiographically. Robotically assisted mitral valve replacement can be performed safely in patients with isolated mitral valve stenosis, and surgical results are excellent. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Single Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab Provides No Neuroprotection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Moderate-to-Severe Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Neil R.; Johnson, Mary A.; Nolan, Theresa; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ranibizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor-antagonist, is said to be neuroprotective when injected intravitreally in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). We evaluated the efficacy of a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of ranibizumab in a nonhuman primate model of NAION (pNAION). Methods We induced pNAION in one eye of four adult male rhesus monkeys using a laser-activated rose Bengal induction method. We then immediately injected the eye with either ranibizumab or normal saline (NS) intravitreally. We performed a clinical assessment, optical coherence tomography, electrophysiological testing, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography in three of the animals (one animal developed significant retinal hemorrhages and, therefore, could not be analyzed completely) prior to induction, 1 day and 1, 2, and 4 weeks thereafter. Following the 4-week analysis of the first eye, we induced pNAION in the contralateral eye and then injected either ranibizumab or NS, whichever substance had not been injected in the first eye. We euthanized all animals 5 to 12 weeks after the final assessment of the second eye and performed both immunohistochemical and light and electron microscopic analyses of the retina and optic nerves of both eyes. Results A single IVT dose of ranibizumab administered immediately after induction of pNAION resulted in no significant reduction of clinical, electrophysiological, or histologic damage compared with vehicle-injected eyes. Conclusions A single IVT dose of ranibizumab is not neuroprotective when administered immediately after induction of pNAION. PMID:26624498

  15. Early Clinical Outcome of Mitral Valve Replacement Using a Newly Designed Stentless Mitral Valve for Failure of Initial Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hidefumi; Kasegawa, Hitoshi; Kin, Hajime; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2016-12-21

    Here we report the early outcome of mitral valve replacement using a newly designed stentless mitral valve for failure of initial mitral valve repair. Mitral valve plasty (MVP) for mitral regurgitation is currently a standard technique performed worldwide. However, whether mitral valve repair should be performed for patients with advanced leaflet damage or complicated pathology remains controversial. Mitral valve replacement might be feasible for patients who have undergone failed initial MVP; however, it is not an optimal treatment because of poor valve durability and the need for anticoagulative therapy. We report two cases of successful mitral valve replacement using a newly designed stentless mitral valve made of fresh autologous pericardium, which may have a potential benefit over mitral valve repair or mitral valve replacement with a mechanical or bioprosthetic valve.

  16. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature.

  17. Quantification of mitral regurgitation: comparison between transthoracic and transesophageal color Doppler flow mapping.

    PubMed

    Mimo, R; Sparacino, L; Nicolosi, G; D'Angelo, G; Dall'Aglio, V; Lestuzzi, C; Pavan, D; Cervesato, E; Zanuttini, D

    1991-11-01

    We reviewed transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiograms of 100 consecutive patients: 63 male, 37 female, mean age 50 years (range 16-83 years), 32 with neoplastic disease, 18 aortic disease, 28 mitral valve disease, and 22 with other diseases. Absence or presence of mitral regurgitation (defined as mild, moderate, or severe) was assessed. TEE showed mild mitral regurgitation in 26 patients where TTE was negative. The overall estimate of regurgitant lesion severity was concordant at TEE and TTE in 64% of cases. The overall estimate of regurgitant lesion severity was also greater by one grade in 1% of cases at TTE, and in 35% of cases at TEE. Maximal digitized jet areas were 3.60 +/- 6.35 cm 2 at TTE and 3.04 +/- 3.79 cm 2 at TEE (P = NS). Correlation was r = 0.69 (TEE = 0.41 TTE + 1.55; P less than 0.001). TEE yielded a higher prevalence of mitral regurgitation than TTE with a trend toward greater overall estimate of mitral regurgitation at the semi-quantitative analysis. TTE and TEE showed similar mean results at the quantitative assessment of maximal jet areas. However, a highly significant random variability was observed in quantifying mitral regurgitation at TEE.

  18. Mitral valve plasty for mitral regurgitation after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, H; Hamanaka, Y; Hirai, S; Mitsui, N; Kobayashi, T

    2001-06-01

    A 21 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of chest and back pain after blunt chest trauma. On admission, consciousness was clear and a physical examination showed labored breathing. Her vital signs were stable, but her breathing gradually worsened, and artificial respiration was started. The chest roentgenogram and a subsequent chest computed tomographic scans revealed contusions, hemothorax of the left lung and multiple rib fractures. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed normal left ventricular wall motion and mild mitral regurgitation (MR). TTE was carried out repeatedly, and revealed gradually progressive MR and prolapse of the posterior medial leaflet, although there was no congestive heart failure. After her general condition had recovered, surgery was performed. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed torn chordae at the posterior medial leaflet. The leaflet where the chorda was torn was cut and plicated, and posterior mitral annuloplasty was performed using a prosthetic ring. One month later following discharge, the MR had disappeared on TTE.

  19. Percutaneous mitral valve annuloplasty for functional mitral regurgitation: acute results of the first patient treated with the Viacor permanent device and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Olivier F; Philippon, François; St Pierre, André; Nguyen, Can M; Larose, Eric; Bilodeau, Sylvie; Dagenais, François; Charbonneau, Eric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Sénéchal, Mario

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to develop less invasive techniques to manage moderate or severe functional mitral regurgitation in patients at high surgical risk. We report the acute results of the first patient treated with the permanent Viacor percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) device in North America, introduce the PTOLEMY-2 protocol, and briefly discuss the current status of transvenous mitral valve techniques. After several episodes of pulmonary edema, an 87-year-old woman was referred for hemodynamic evaluation. Angiography revealed normal coronary arteries and severe mitral regurgitation. Baseline echocardiography showed severe (4+) functional mitral regurgitation. The coronary sinus was cannulated with a 9.5-Fr introducer from a left subclavian approach. After distal positioning of a coronary wire, the 7-Fr PTMA Viacor catheter was advanced to the anterior interventricular vein. Two 130 g/cm rods were then inserted resulting in an acute and dramatic reduction in mitral regurgitation as assessed by continuous transoesophageal echocardiography and which was associated with a sudden rise in arterial blood pressure. The next day, transthoracic echocardiogram showed a significant reduction in effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) from 41 to 10 mm(2). The patient was discharged home the day following the procedure without complication. In accordance with the PTOLEMY-2 protocol, she will undergo 3-D transthoracic echocardiograms, quality of life assessments, and 6-min walk tests at regular intervals for the next 5 years. PTMA is a promising technique for the treatment of severe mitral regurgitation in selected patients. Further ongoing research will determine the predictors of success and long-term safety and performance of this technique. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Broad ischemic stroke revealing infective endocarditis in a young patient: about a case].

    PubMed

    Ravelosaona, Fanomezantsoa Noella; Razafimahefa, Julien; Randrianasolo, Rahamefy Odilon; Rakotoarimanana, Solofonirina; Tehindrazanarivelo, Djacoba Alain

    2016-01-01

    Broad ischemic stroke is mainly due to a cardiac embolus or to an atheromatous plaque. In young subjects, one of the main causes of ischemic stroke (broad ischemic stroke in particolar) is embolic heart disease including infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis is a contraindication against the anticoagulant therapy (which is indicated for the treatment of embolic heart disease complicated by ischemic stroke). One neurologic complications of infective endocarditis is ischemic stroke which often occurs in multiple sites. We here report the case of a 44-year old man with afebrile acute onset of severe left hemiplegia associated with a sistolic mitral murmur, who had fever in hospital on day 5 with no other obvious source of infection present. Brain CT scan showed full broad ischaemic stroke of the right middle cerebral artery territory and doppler ultrasound, performed after stroke onset, showed infective endocarditis affecting the small mitral valve. He was treated with 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy without anticoagulant therapy ; evolution was marked by the disappearance of mitral valve vegetations and by movement sequelae involving the left side of the body. In practical terms, our problem was the onset of the fever which didn't accompany or pre-exist patient's deficit, leading us to the misdiagnosis of ischemic stroke of cardioembolic origin. This case study underlines the importance of doppler ultrasound, in the diagnosis of all broad ischemic strokes, especially superficial, before starting anticoagulant therapy.

  1. Successful balloon mitral valvotomy in a rare coexistence of Ebstein's anomaly and rheumatic mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Navdeep Singh; Kondethimmanahally Rangaiah, Sunil Kumar; Ramesh, Dwarikaprasad; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2016-05-05

    Co-existence of Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve with rheumatic mitral stenosis is a very rare occurrence. We report the case of a young man who presented with progressive dyspnoea and was found to have rheumatic mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension and Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. The patient underwent successful balloon mitral valvotomy resulting in marked improvement of symptoms.

  2. Bi-Luminal Mitral Valve: Incidence, Clinical Features, Associated Anomaly and Echocardiographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Vikas; Singh, Karandeep; Asif, Mohammad; Sachan, Mohit; Kumar, Ashutosh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Singh, Avinash Kumar; Singh, Shravan; Razi, Mahamdula; Thakur, Ramesh; Pandey, Umeshwar; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to know the incidence, clinical features, associated anomaly and echocardiographic evaluation of bi-luminal mitral valve (also known as double orifice mitral valve or DOMV) in patients with suspected mitral valve disease, continous murmur or left-to-right shunt. Methods Twenty-eight patients with DOMV were diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a retrospective review of 52,256 echocardiographic studies in 45,898 patients performed between 2000 and 2015. Results The mean age was 20.1 years (15 - 34 years) with female preponderance (M/F: 1:1.8). Dyspnea and diastolic murmur were the most common symptoms found in 19 (67.8%) and 19 (67.8%) of patients, respectively. Normal sinus rhythm was the most common electrocardiographic finding. Twenty-five (89%) patients had complete bridge, while three (11%) had incomplete bridge type of DOMV. Twenty-one (75%) had severe mitral stenosis (MS) including severe tricuspid regurgitation (n = 13, 61%), ventricular septal defect (VSD, n = 3, 14%), complete endocardial cushion defect (ECD, n = 3, 14%), and mild to moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) (n = 2, 11%), moderate MS and moderate MR were found in four (16%) patients among complete bridge type of DOMV, while all patients with incomplete bridge type had severe MS and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) as associated lesions. Overall, 24 (85%) had severe and four (15%) had moderate MS. Conclusions DOMV as a cause of symptomatic mitral valve disease was seen in young and middle-aged patients with estimated incidence of 0.06%. Dyspnea and diastolic murmur were the most common symptoms. Mostly, it was an isolated anomaly but in majority, associated with VSD, complete ECD and PDA. TTE examination is a reliable and sufficient means of diagnosing DOMV and determining its type. PMID:27829956

  3. [Immediate Results of Mitral Valve Surgery in Asymptomatic Patients With Severe Mitral Regurgitation Due to Degenerative Mitral VaIve Disease].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, V M; Afanasyev, A V; Zheleznev, S I; Bogachev-Prokophiev, A V; Demin, I I; Karaskov, A M

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative mitral valve disease nowadays is the most common cause of mitral insufficiency in developed countries and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In the last decades repairing the mitral valve has become the operation of choice for treatment of the mitral valve prolapse, enabling to improve the geometry and function of the left ventricle and long-term survival. Nevertheless, the problem of choice of method of management of severe mitral regurgitation in asymptomatic patients with degenerative mitral valve disease remains unsolved. In this article we present immediate results of a prospective comparative study of mitral valve surgery in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients in dependence on NYHA class of heart failure.

  4. Three hundred robotic-assisted mitral valve repairs: the Cedars-Sinai experience.

    PubMed

    Ramzy, Danny; Trento, Alfredo; Cheng, Wen; De Robertis, Michele A; Mirocha, James; Ruzza, Andrea; Kass, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    patients. Crossclamp times decreased from 116 minutes to 91 minutes in the second group despite starting a training program with a junior associate performing part of the procedure at the console in the last 100 cases. Post-pump echocardiograms showed no/trace mitral regurgitation in 86.1% of the last 180 patients and mild mitral regurgitation in 11.1%. Follow-up echocardiography for the last 180 patients from 1 month to more than 1 year showed no/trace mitral regurgitation in 64.6% of patients and mild mitral regurgitation in 23.1% of patients. Seven patients (10.8%) had moderate mitral regurgitation, and 1 patient (1.5%) had severe mitral regurgitation. The majority of complications and reoperations occurred early in our experience, especially using the first-generation da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif). The newer da Vinci Si HD system with the addition of an adjustable left atrial roof retractor together with increased experience has made robotic-assisted mitral repair of all types of degenerative mitral valve pathology reproducible. The training of young surgeons in a stepwise fashion in high-volume centers will help to avoid the complications encountered during the introduction of this technology. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immediate Outcome of Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty with JOMIVA Balloon during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ramona; Kaliappan, Tamilarasu; Gopalan, Rajendiran; Palanimuthu, Ramasmy; Anandhan, Premkrishna

    2017-01-01

    with JOMIVA balloon. Post procedure mean mitral valve area was 1.7 cm2 as assessed by echocardiography. Post procedure mean gradient across the mitral valve as assessed by echocardiography was 5 mmHg. Two patients had moderate to severe mitral regurgitation after the procedure and the rest had either no mitral regurgitation or mild mitral regurgitation after the procedure. None of the patients warranted mitral valve replacement after BMV. No patients had any manifestations of systemic embolism like cerebrovascular accident or limb ischemia after the procedure. None of the patients had preterm delivery or adverse fetal outcome during index hospitalisation. Conclusion Over the wire BMV is safe and effective method during pregnancy. The results are comparable to that of Inoue technique. BMV offers a good symptomatic improvement in pregnant women presenting with symptoms of pulmonary congestion because of Rheumatic mitral stenosis. PMID:28384909

  6. A complex transcatheter mitral valve replacement and repair for the treatmemt of refractory severe mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Condado, Jose F; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Thourani, Vinod H; Jensen, Hanna K; Kim, Dennis W; Kaebnick, Brian W; Block, Peter C; Lerakis, Stamatios

    2017-01-23

    Hybrid transcatheter Mitral Valve-in-Ring and Mitral Valve-in-Valve procedures can be an alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement in patients with high surgical risk. We present a case of a 65-year-old male with recurrent severe mitral regurgitation (MR) that failed two traditional surgical attempts due to severe chest fibrosis. We performed a mitral valve-in ring replacement with a Sapien valve followed by a mitral valve-in-valve replacement with a Melody valve. Patient had a residual paravalvular leak that was closed with a vascular plug. Our case proves that is feasible to treat selected patients with MR using a hybrid transcatheter approach.

  7. Percutaneous Rescue for Critical Mitral Stenosis Late After Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Salenger, Rawn; Diao, Xavier; Dawood, Murtaza Y; Herr, Daniel L; Sample, George A; Pichard, Augusto; Gammie, James S

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of catastrophic hemodynamic compromise secondary to pannus ingrowth and severe mitral stenosis occurring years after repair of a nonrheumatic mitral valve. The initial repair included closure of a posterior leaflet cleft and implantation of an annuloplasty ring. We describe a hybrid treatment strategy for this severely compromised patient, which included initial placement of a right ventricular assist device followed by percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty and, eventually, a definitive mitral valve reoperation. This case report reinforces the importance of routine clinical and echocardiographic follow-up for patients after mitral valve repair, and it includes the description of a novel therapeutic approach.

  8. A Remnant Mitral Subvalvular Apparatus Mimicking Aortic Valve Vegetation after Mitral Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jun-Sung; Kim, Myung-A

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of the subvalvular apparatus has the merits of postoperative outcomes during mitral valve replacement for mitral regurgitation. We performed mitral valve replacement with anterior and posterior leaflet chordal preservation in a 65-year-old woman. On the 2nd postoperative day, routine postoperative trans-thoracic echocardiography showed an unknown aortic subvalvular mobile mass. We report a case of a remnant mitral subvalvular apparatus detected by echocardiography after chordal preserving mitral valve replacement which was confused with postoperative aortic valve vegetation. PMID:22509443

  9. Successful treatment of double-orifice mitral stenosis with percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy.

    PubMed

    Patted, Suresh V; Halkati, Prabhu C; Ambar, Sameer S; Sattur, Ameet G

    2012-01-01

    Double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is an uncommon congenital anomaly, being present in 0.05% of the general population. The isolated occurrence of this anomaly is very rare and, to our knowledge, no data are currently available on the incidence of an isolated DOMV. A DOMV is characterized by a mitral valve with a single fibrous annulus with 2 orifices opening into the left ventricle (LV). Subvalvular structures, especially the tensor apparatus, invariably show various degrees of abnormality. It can substantially obstruct mitral valve inflow or cause mitral valve incompetence. We present a rare case of nineteen-year-old male who underwent percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy in stenotic DOMV.

  10. Non-invasive diagnosis of mitral regurgitation by Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, D; Diebold, B; Peronneau, P; Foult, J M; Nee, M; Guermonprez, J L; Maurice, P

    1981-01-01

    The value of Doppler echocardiography for the non-invasive diagnosis of mitral regurgitation was studied blindly in 161 consecutive invasively investigated adult patients. Regurgitation was graded from 0 to 3 at selective left ventricular angiography. The Doppler echocardiographic examination was considered to be positive when a disturbed systolic flow was found within the left atrium behind the aorta or the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. The test was considered to be negative in the absence of a regurgitant jet. The level of the signal to noise ratio was checked by the recording of the ventricular filling flow. The study was performed in 131 cases from the left side of the sternum and in 101 cases from the apex. There were no false positives and thus the specificity was 100 per cent. The 20 false negatives were all in patients with grade 1 regurgitation. Thus only some (33%) instances of mild regurgitation were misdiagnosed, and the sensitivity for moderate to severe mitral regurgitation was 100 per cent. PMID:7236465

  11. Feasibility of mitral valve surgery using minimal extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Sjatskig, J; Yilmaz, A; van Boven, J W; Sonker, U; Waanders, F G; Kloppenburg, G T L

    2012-07-01

    Using minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC) in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement has been proven to be safe, feasible and superior compared to standard cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in terms of postoperative complications, total hospital stay and blood product transfusions. This feasibility study evaluates the clinical outcomes of mitral valve surgery performed with MECC. From March 2006 to January 2011, seventy-five patients who underwent mitral valve surgery performed with MECC (n=75) in our institution were retrospectively evaluated. Demographic characteristics, operative data and clinical outcomes were collected in a prospectively designed database. The mean age was 68.8 ± 10.2 years with a EuroSCORE of 7.0 ± 2.3. Thirty-seven patients had a moderate left ventricular function (with a range of 30-40%). All patients except two had severe mitral valve incompetence (MI). Surgery was successful in all procedures. The mean duration of surgery was 210 ± 44 min (range 118-356 min). The mean CPB time was 128 ± 30 (range 67-249) min. The cross-clamp time was 99 ± 26 (range 48-205) min. There were no intraoperative perfusion problems or airlocks reported. The mean intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay was two days. Subsequent analysis showed a first postoperative haemoglobin value of 9.4 g/dL ± 1.7. There were no peroperative neurological complications. One patient developed an ischaemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) on the forth postoperative day due to inadequate anticoagulation. Other postoperative complications included eight patients with pneumonia, one superficial wound infection, temporary renal insufficiency in two patients and four patients needed re-exploration for excessive postoperative leakage. Overall in-hospital mortality was four percent. Our results show, for the first time, that isolated or combined mitral valve surgery using MECC is feasible and safe.

  12. Papillary fibroelastoma of the mitral valve. A rare cause of embolic events.

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, V; Alberti, A; Bonacina, E; Gordini, V

    1995-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our department with an 11-month history of multiple transient ischemic attacks and strokes. A 2-dimensional echocardiographic study revealed an intracardiac tumor attached both to the chordae and to the anterolateral papillary muscle of the mitral valve. The patient underwent excision of the tumor, which necessitated concomitant mitral valve replacement. She remains free of symptoms 1 year postoperatively, with no echocardiographic evidence of recurrence of the tumor. To date, 19 cases of surgically treated papillary fibroelastomas of the mitral valve have been reported in the English-language literature. We add the description of our case to emphasize the importance of this tumor as an identifiable and curable cause of cerebral and coronary embolization. The frequent occurrence of cardiac valve tumors suggests the use of 2-dimensional echocardiography in patients who are experiencing transient ischemic attacks or strokes, as well as in those who sustain a myocardial infarction despite normal coronary arteries at angiography. When papillary fibroelastoma is diagnosed, surgical treatment must be considered because of the high risk of embolization. Images PMID:8605435

  13. Mechanical dyssynchrony and deformation imaging in patients with functional mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabella; Marini, Claudia; Stella, Stefano; Ancona, Francesco; Spartera, Marco; Margonato, Alberto; Agricola, Eustachio

    2016-01-01

    Chronic functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a frequent finding of ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), associated with unfavourable prognosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms are involved in FMR, such as annular dilatation and dysfunction, left ventricle (LV) remodeling, dysfunction and dyssynchrony, papillary muscles displacement and dyssynchrony. The best therapeutic choice for FMR is still debated. When optimal medical treatment has already been set, a further option for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and/or surgical correction should be considered. CRT is able to contrast most of the pathophysiologic determinants of FMR by minimizing LV dyssynchrony through different mechanisms: Increasing closing forces, reducing tethering forces, reshaping annular geometry and function, correcting diastolic MR. Deformation imaging in terms of two-dimensional speckle tracking has been validated for LV dyssynchrony assessment. Radial speckle tracking and three-dimensional strain analysis appear to be the best methods to quantify intraventricular delay and to predict CRT-responders. Speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with mitral valve regurgitation has been usually proposed for the assessment of LV and left atrial function. However it has also revealed a fundamental role of intraventricular dyssynchrony in determining FMR especially in DCM, rather than in ischemic cardiomyopathy in which MR severity seems to be more related to mitral valve deformation indexes. Furthermore speckle tracking allows the assessment of papillary muscle dyssynchrony. Therefore this technique can help to identify optimal candidates to CRT that will probably demonstrate a reduction in FMR degree and thus will experience a better outcome. PMID:26981211

  14. Mechanical dyssynchrony and deformation imaging in patients with functional mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabella; Marini, Claudia; Stella, Stefano; Ancona, Francesco; Spartera, Marco; Margonato, Alberto; Agricola, Eustachio

    2016-02-26

    Chronic functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a frequent finding of ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), associated with unfavourable prognosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms are involved in FMR, such as annular dilatation and dysfunction, left ventricle (LV) remodeling, dysfunction and dyssynchrony, papillary muscles displacement and dyssynchrony. The best therapeutic choice for FMR is still debated. When optimal medical treatment has already been set, a further option for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and/or surgical correction should be considered. CRT is able to contrast most of the pathophysiologic determinants of FMR by minimizing LV dyssynchrony through different mechanisms: Increasing closing forces, reducing tethering forces, reshaping annular geometry and function, correcting diastolic MR. Deformation imaging in terms of two-dimensional speckle tracking has been validated for LV dyssynchrony assessment. Radial speckle tracking and three-dimensional strain analysis appear to be the best methods to quantify intraventricular delay and to predict CRT-responders. Speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with mitral valve regurgitation has been usually proposed for the assessment of LV and left atrial function. However it has also revealed a fundamental role of intraventricular dyssynchrony in determining FMR especially in DCM, rather than in ischemic cardiomyopathy in which MR severity seems to be more related to mitral valve deformation indexes. Furthermore speckle tracking allows the assessment of papillary muscle dyssynchrony. Therefore this technique can help to identify optimal candidates to CRT that will probably demonstrate a reduction in FMR degree and thus will experience a better outcome.

  15. Percutaneous mitral valvotomy in rheumatic mitral stenosis: a new approach.

    PubMed Central

    Commeau, P; Grollier, G; Huret, B; Foucault, J P; Potier, J C

    1987-01-01

    Three patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis were treated with percutaneous mitral valvotomy. A Brockenbrough catheter was advanced transseptally into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle over a long guide wire. An angle wire loop retriever was advanced through a 10 Fr straight catheter via the femoral artery into the left ventricle. The retriever was used to catch the flexible end of the long guide wire. This end of the long guide wire was then drawn out of the right femoral artery by the retriever through the straight catheter. The straight catheter was left in the descending aorta; the Brockenbrough catheter was removed and a 7 Fr balloon catheter was introduced percutaneously over the long guide wire through the femoral vein. This balloon catheter was used for interatrial septal dilatation and right femoral venous dilatation. In two patients this catheter was replaced over the long guide wire with a 9 Fr Schneider-Medintag Grüntzig catheter (3 X 12 mm diameter when inflated) and in the other by a Mansfield (18 mm diameter when inflated). The procedure was well tolerated in these three patients and there were no complications. Haemodynamic function improved, there was appreciable decrease in dyspnoea, and exercise tolerance was increased. This procedure has several advantages: the balloon is more easily positioned through the mitral valve; the stability of the balloon during inflation is improved by traction at both ends of the long guide wire; and there is the option of rapidly exchanging one balloon for a larger one over the long guide wire. This technique seems to be less arrhythmogenic and results in less blood loss because manual compression of the femoral vessels after the procedure is easier. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3620253

  16. Degenerative mitral valve regurgitation: best practice revolution

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David H.; Rosenhek, Raphael; Falk, Volkmar

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative mitral valve disease often leads to leaflet prolapse due to chordal elongation or rupture, and resulting in mitral valve regurgitation. Guideline referral for surgical intervention centres primarily on symptoms and ventricular dysfunction. The recommended treatment for degenerative mitral valve disease is mitral valve reconstruction, as opposed to valve replacement with a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve, because valve repair is associated with improved event free survival. Recent studies have documented a significant number of patients are not referred in a timely fashion according to established guidelines, and when they are subjected to surgery, an alarming number of patients continue to undergo mitral valve replacement. The debate around appropriate timing of intervention for asymptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation has put additional emphasis on targeted surgeon referral and the need to ensure a very high rate of mitral valve repair, particularly in the non-elderly population. Current clinical practice remains suboptimal for many patients, and this review explores the need for a ‘best practice revolution’ in the field of degenerative mitral valve regurgitation. PMID:20624767

  17. Robotic Mitral Valve Replacement in Pectus Excavatum.

    PubMed

    Onan, Burak; Bakir, Ihsan

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of the mitral valve can be challenging using conventional sternotomy and thoracotomy incisions in patients with pectus deformity. We report the use of a robotic approach to replace a rheumatic mitral valve in a patient with pectus excavatum. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12740 (J Card Surg 2016;31:306-308). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mitral valve disease—morphology and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert A.; Hagége, Albert A.; Judge, Daniel P.; Padala, Muralidhar; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Aikawa, Elena; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Bischoff, Joyce; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bruneval, Patrick; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Carpentier, Alain; Chaput, Miguel; Chester, Adrian H.; Clusel, Catherine; Delling, Francesca N.; Dietz, Harry C.; Dina, Christian; Durst, Ronen; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Jensen, Morten O.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier P.; Le Marec, Hervé; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Markwald, Roger R.; Mérot, Jean; Messas, Emmanuel; Milan, David P.; Neri, Tui; Norris, Russell A.; Peal, David; Perrocheau, Maelle; Probst, Vincent; Pucéat, Michael; Rosenthal, Nadia; Solis, Jorge; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Song, Jae-Kwan; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2016-01-01

    Mitral valve disease is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Emerging evidence indicates that the mitral valve is not a passive structure, but—even in adult life—remains dynamic and accessible for treatment. This concept motivates efforts to reduce the clinical progression of mitral valve disease through early detection and modification of underlying mechanisms. Discoveries of genetic mutations causing mitral valve elongation and prolapse have revealed that growth factor signalling and cell migration pathways are regulated by structural molecules in ways that can be modified to limit progression from developmental defects to valve degeneration with clinical complications. Mitral valve enlargement can determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and might be stimulated by potentially modifiable biological valvular–ventricular interactions. Mitral valve plasticity also allows adaptive growth in response to ventricular remodelling. However, adverse cellular and mechanobiological processes create relative leaflet deficiency in the ischaemic setting, leading to mitral regurgitation with increased heart failure and mortality. Our approach, which bridges clinicians and basic scientists, enables the correlation of observed disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to the discovery of new opportunities for improving the natural history of mitral valve disease. PMID:26483167

  19. Parachute deformity of the mitral valve

    PubMed Central

    Bett, J. H. N.; Stovin, P. G. I.

    1969-01-01

    A case of parachute deformity of the mitral valve, a rare congenital form of mitral stenosis characterized by insertion of the chordae tendineae into a single posterior papillary muscle, is described in an 11-year-old girl. The eleven other cases in the English literature are reviewed. Images PMID:5348334

  20. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  1. Mitral valve disease--morphology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert A; Hagége, Albert A; Judge, Daniel P; Padala, Muralidhar; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Aikawa, Elena; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Bischoff, Joyce; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bruneval, Patrick; Butcher, Jonathan T; Carpentier, Alain; Chaput, Miguel; Chester, Adrian H; Clusel, Catherine; Delling, Francesca N; Dietz, Harry C; Dina, Christian; Durst, Ronen; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Handschumacher, Mark D; Jensen, Morten O; Jeunemaitre, Xavier P; Le Marec, Hervé; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Markwald, Roger R; Mérot, Jean; Messas, Emmanuel; Milan, David P; Neri, Tui; Norris, Russell A; Peal, David; Perrocheau, Maelle; Probst, Vincent; Pucéat, Michael; Rosenthal, Nadia; Solis, Jorge; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Song, Jae-Kwan; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2015-12-01

    Mitral valve disease is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Emerging evidence indicates that the mitral valve is not a passive structure, but--even in adult life--remains dynamic and accessible for treatment. This concept motivates efforts to reduce the clinical progression of mitral valve disease through early detection and modification of underlying mechanisms. Discoveries of genetic mutations causing mitral valve elongation and prolapse have revealed that growth factor signalling and cell migration pathways are regulated by structural molecules in ways that can be modified to limit progression from developmental defects to valve degeneration with clinical complications. Mitral valve enlargement can determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and might be stimulated by potentially modifiable biological valvular-ventricular interactions. Mitral valve plasticity also allows adaptive growth in response to ventricular remodelling. However, adverse cellular and mechanobiological processes create relative leaflet deficiency in the ischaemic setting, leading to mitral regurgitation with increased heart failure and mortality. Our approach, which bridges clinicians and basic scientists, enables the correlation of observed disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to the discovery of new opportunities for improving the natural history of mitral valve disease.

  2. Determinants of exercise-induced changes in mitral regurgitation in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Lebrun, Frédéric; Piérard, Luc A

    2003-12-03

    We sought to examine the determinants of exercise-induced changes in ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. In the post-myocardial infarction (MI) phase, ischemic MR contributes to worsening of symptoms and of LV dysfunction. In this study, 70 patients in the chronic, post-MI phase, with LV ejection fraction <45% and at least mild MR, underwent semi-supine exercise Doppler echocardiography. The effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) of MR was quantified at rest and during exercise. Exercise-induced changes in ERO were compared with changes in mitral deformation and in local and global LV remodeling. The wide range of exercise-induced ERO changes that were observed was unrelated to the degree of MR at rest (r = 0.20). Effective regurgitant orifice changes correlated best with changes in mitral deformation (i.e., differences in systolic mitral tenting area, systolic annular area, and coaptation height) (p < 0.0001). Posterior displacement of the papillary muscles was associated with larger changes in the ERO in both infarct groups. In patients with inferior MI, a decrease in the ERO was related to improvement in wall motion (r = 0.68). The independent predictors of ERO changes during exercise were changes in systolic annular area for all infarct categories, in tenting area and wall motion score in the global population and those with inferior infarction, and in apical displacement of mitral leaflets for patients with anterior MI. The degree of MR at rest is unrelated to exercise-induced changes in EROs, which are related to those in local LV remodeling and in mitral deformation but not those in global LV function.

  3. Misconceptions and Facts About Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Argulian, Edgar; Borer, Jeffrey S; Messerli, Franz H

    2016-09-01

    Mitral regurgitation is a common heart valve disease. It is defined to be primary when it results from the pathology of the mitral valve apparatus itself and secondary when it is caused by distortion of the architecture or function of the left ventricle. Although the diagnosis and management of mitral regurgitation rely heavily on echocardiography, one should bear in mind the caveats and shortcomings of such an approach. Clinical decision making commonly focuses on the indications for surgery, but it is complex and mandates precise assessment of the mitral pathology, symptom status of the patient, and ventricular performance (right and left) among other descriptors. It is important for healthcare providers at all levels to be familiar with the clinical picture, diagnosis, disease course, and management of mitral regurgitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Paravalvular mitral valve leakage presenting as congestive heart failure, missed by TTE but diagnosed by TEE: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Sooriabalan, Danushan; Burzyantseva, Olga; Sinnapunayagm, Selvaratnam

    2008-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of prosthetic valve leakage by the transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) technique is more difficult. These limitations are diminished with the use of transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) techniques. Case report A 71 year old Caucasian male presented with symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure. Past medical history included a bio-prosthetic mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation. TTE showed possible mitral regurgitation. As the TTE did not correlate with the finding of a high E-velocity, a TEE was performed, which showed a significant paravalvular leak of moderate severity around the bio-prosthetic mitral valve. Conclusion There should be a high degree of suspicion to diagnose a paravalvular leak. PMID:18838002

  5. Ischemic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Montessori, Gino; Liepa, Egils V.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty cases of ischemic colitis are reviewed; 19 were obtained from autopsy files and the diagnosis in one was made from a surgical specimen. The majority of the patients were elderly with generalized arteriosclerosis. In approximately two-thirds of the patients the ischemic colitis was precipitated by preceding trauma, operation or congestive heart failure. Clinically, ischemic colitis is characterized by abdominal pain, distension and bleeding per rectum. Perforation of large bowel may occur. The lesions tend to be localized around the splenic flexure and junction of the descending and sigmoid colon, and in cases following aortic graft surgery the rectum is involved. Microscopically, there is necrosis, hemorrhage and ulceration. In less severe cases the mucosa only is affected. Cases with perforation show necrosis of all layers. It is considered that ischemic colitis is comparatively frequent and should be distinguished from other inflammatory conditions of the colon. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:5308923

  6. Pituitary Apoplexy Following Mitral Valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ha; Son, Dong Wuk; Cha, Seung Heon

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome caused by the sudden enlargement of a pituitary adenoma secondary to hemorrhage or infarction. Pituitary apoplexy after cardiac surgery is a very rare perioperative complication. Factors associated with open heart surgery that may lead to pituitary apoplexy include hemodynamic instability during cardiopulmonary bypass and systemic heparinization. We report a case of pituitary apoplexy after mitral valvuloplasty with cardiopulmonary bypass. After early pituitary tumor resection and hormonal replacement therapy, the patient made a full recovery. PMID:25932297

  7. Recurrent stuck mitral valve: eosinophilia an unusual pathology.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Bhat, Yasser; Radhakrishnan, S; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    Eosinophilia is a very unusual and rare cause of thrombosis of prosthetic mitral valve. We report a 10-year-old male child of recurrent stuck prosthetic mitral valve. The child underwent mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation secondary to Rheumatic heart disease. He had recurrent prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis, despite desired INR levels. There was associated eosinophilia. The child was treated on the lines of tropical eosinophilia with oral prednisolone and diethylcarbamazine, the eosinophil count dropped significantly with no subsequent episode of stuck mitral valve. We discuss the management of recurrent stuck mitral valve and also eosinophilia as a causative factor for the same.

  8. Transapical aortic valve and mitral valve in ring prosthesis implantation - a new advance in transcatheter procedures.

    PubMed

    Neves, Paulo C; Paulo, Nelson Santos; Gama, Vasco; Vouga, Luís

    2014-08-01

    Transcatheter valve implantation offers a new treatment modality to those patients whose general condition makes conventional surgery very risky. However, the transcatheter option has only been available for the aortic valve. We describe a case of a successful implantation of two Edwards SAPIEN(®) 26 and 29 mm transapical valves, respectively, in aortic and mitral positions, on a 74-year-old patient with severe aortic and mitral stenosis. The procedure progressed uneventfully. Predischarge echocardiogram showed a peak aortic gradient of 20 mmHg, mild periprosthetic regurgitation, peak and mean mitral gradients of 12 and 4, respectively, and moderate (II/IV) periprosthetic regurgitation. Indications for transapical valve implantation will rapidly increase in the near future. It is essential to individualize the treatment be applied for each patient, in order to optimize the success of the procedure.

  9. Chronic mitral regurgitation and Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temporelli, P. L.; Scapellato, F.; Corra, U.; Eleuteri, E.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Thomas, J. D.; Giannuzzi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies relating Doppler parameters and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWP) typically exclude patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of chronic MR on the Doppler estimation of PCWP. PCWP and mitral Doppler profiles were obtained in 88 patients (mean age 55 +/- 8 years) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 23% +/- 5%). Patients were classified by severity of MR. Patients with severe MR had greater left atrial areas, LV end-diastolic volumes, and mean PCWPs and lower ejection fractions (each P <.01). In patients with mild MR, multiple echocardiographic parameters correlated with PCWP; however, with worsening MR, only deceleration time strongly related to PCWP. From stepwise multivariate analysis, deceleration time was the best independent predictor of PCWP overall, and it was the only predictor in patients with moderate or severe MR. Doppler-derived early mitral deceleration time reliably predicts PCWP in patients with severe LV dysfunction irrespective of degree of MR.

  10. Chronic mitral regurgitation and Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temporelli, P. L.; Scapellato, F.; Corra, U.; Eleuteri, E.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Thomas, J. D.; Giannuzzi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies relating Doppler parameters and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWP) typically exclude patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of chronic MR on the Doppler estimation of PCWP. PCWP and mitral Doppler profiles were obtained in 88 patients (mean age 55 +/- 8 years) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 23% +/- 5%). Patients were classified by severity of MR. Patients with severe MR had greater left atrial areas, LV end-diastolic volumes, and mean PCWPs and lower ejection fractions (each P <.01). In patients with mild MR, multiple echocardiographic parameters correlated with PCWP; however, with worsening MR, only deceleration time strongly related to PCWP. From stepwise multivariate analysis, deceleration time was the best independent predictor of PCWP overall, and it was the only predictor in patients with moderate or severe MR. Doppler-derived early mitral deceleration time reliably predicts PCWP in patients with severe LV dysfunction irrespective of degree of MR.

  11. Silent destruction of aortic and mitral valve by Klebsiella pneumoniae endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, K H; Sharma, Rajni; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella endocarditis rarely affects the native valve especially in the immunocompromised and the elderly. We report a case of Klebsiella endocarditis in a 60-year-old man who had a nidus of infection on the aortic valve which led to severe aortic regurgitation. This possibly spread to the anterior mitral leaflet (AML) leading to AML perforation therefore causing moderate mitral regurgitation. The reason for this suspicion was that there was perforation of the AML in the absence of vegetation. Noteworthy is that he was asymptomatic apart from generalised fatigue. This case draws our attention to the nature of Klebsiella valvular affection due to the fact that it had bitten the aortic and mitral valve silently and compelled the patient to undergo double valve replacement without having a prolonged duration of symptomatic illness thereby calling for high suspicion especially in individuals in the extremes of ages where the symptoms are less-guiding than the signs. PMID:24057412

  12. Cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary oedema in an infant with severe residual mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Joong, Anna; Lai, Wyman W; Ferris, Anne

    2017-01-01

    An infant with residual severe mitral regurgitation following mitral commissurotomy developed cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary oedema and subsegmental atelectasis that resolved with mechanical mitral valve replacement.

  13. Regurgitation Hemodynamics Alone Cause Mitral Valve Remodeling Characteristic of Clinical Disease States In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Connell, Patrick S; Azimuddin, Anam F; Kim, Seulgi E; Ramirez, Fernando; Jackson, Matthew S; Little, Stephen H; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2016-04-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation is a challenging clinical condition that is frequent, highly varied, and poorly understood. While the causes of mitral regurgitation are multifactorial, how the hemodynamics of regurgitation impact valve tissue remodeling is an understudied phenomenon. We employed a pseudo-physiological flow loop capable of long-term organ culture to investigate the early progression of remodeling in living mitral valves placed in conditions resembling mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Valve geometry was altered to mimic the hemodynamics of controls (no changes from native geometry), MVP (5 mm displacement of papillary muscles towards the annulus), and FMR (5 mm apical, 5 mm lateral papillary muscle displacement, 65% larger annular area). Flow measurements ensured moderate regurgitant fraction for regurgitation groups. After 1-week culture, valve tissues underwent mechanical and compositional analysis. MVP conditioned tissues were less stiff, weaker, and had elevated collagen III and glycosaminoglycans. FMR conditioned tissues were stiffer, more brittle, less extensible, and had more collagen synthesis, remodeling, and crosslinking related enzymes and proteoglycans, including decorin, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and lysyl oxidase. These models replicate clinical findings of MVP (myxomatous remodeling) and FMR (fibrotic remodeling), indicating that valve cells remodel extracellular matrix in response to altered mechanical homeostasis resulting from disease hemodynamics.

  14. Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair in Mitral Regurgitation Reduces Cell-Free Hemoglobin and Improves Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Rammos, Christos; Zeus, Tobias; Balzer, Jan; Kubatz, Laura; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B.; Veulemans, Verena; Hellhammer, Katharina; Totzeck, Matthias; Luedike, Peter; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Endothelial dysfunction is predictive for cardiovascular events and may be caused by decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO is scavenged by cell-free hemoglobin with reduction of bioavailable NO up to 70% subsequently deteriorating vascular function. While patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) suffer from an impaired prognosis, mechanisms relating to coexistent vascular dysfunctions have not been described yet. Therapy of MR using a percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) approach has been shown to lead to significant clinical benefits. We here sought to investigate the role of endothelial function in MR and the potential impact of PMVR. Methods and Results Twenty-seven patients with moderate-to-severe MR treated with the MitraClip® device were enrolled in an open-label single-center observational study. Patients underwent clinical assessment, conventional echocardiography, and determination of endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with MR demonstrated decompartmentalized hemoglobin and reduced endothelial function (cell-free plasma hemoglobin in heme 28.9±3.8 μM, FMD 3.9±0.9%). Three months post-procedure, PMVR improved ejection fraction (from 41±3% to 46±3%, p = 0.03) and NYHA functional class (from 3.0±0.1 to 1.9±1.7, p<0.001). PMVR was associated with a decrease in cell free plasma hemoglobin (22.3±2.4 μM, p = 0.02) and improved endothelial functions (FMD 4.8±1.0%, p<0.0001). Conclusion We demonstrate here that plasma from patients with MR contains significant amounts of cell-free hemoglobin, which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. PMVR therapy is associated with an improved hemoglobin decompartmentalization and vascular function. PMID:26986059

  15. Transcatheter mitral valve repair therapies for primary and secondary mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Al Amri, Ibtihal; van der Kley, Frank; Schalij, Martin J; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Delgado, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation is one of the most prevalent valvular heart diseases and its prevalence is related to population aging. Elderly patients with age-associated co-morbidities have an increased risk for conventional mitral valve surgery. Transcatheter mitral valve repair has emerged as a feasible and safe alternative in patients with contraindications for surgery or high operative risk. Several transcatheter mitral repair technologies have been developed during the last decade. While the development of some devices was abandoned due to suboptimal results, others demonstrated to be safe and effective and have been included in current practice guidelines. Not all technologies are suitable for all mitral anatomies and regurgitation mechanisms. Therefore, accurate evaluation of mitral valve anatomy and function are pivotal to the success of these therapies. Cardiac imaging plays a central role in selecting patients, guiding the procedure and evaluating the durability of the repair at follow-up.

  16. [Antioxidant therapy in ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Suslina, Z A; Federova, T N; Maksimova, M Iu; Riasina, T V; Stvolinskiĭ, S L; Khrapova, E V; Boldyrev, A A

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of emoxipin, an antioxidant synthetic drug, for treatment of patients with ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. The drug produced a beneficial clinical effect in patients with lacunar and cardioembolic strokes of moderate severity. Therapy with emoxipin increased endogenic antioxidant activity and improved a clinical status of the patients. The protective effect of carnosine was demonstrated in experimental acute hypobaric hypoxia and cerebral ischemia in rats. The results obtained permit to recommend an inclusion of both emoxipin and carnosine in a combined treatment of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation.

  17. Transection of anterior mitral basal stay chords alters left ventricular outflow dynamics and wall shear stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fangli; Yeo, Joon Hock; Chong, Chuh Khiun; Chua, Yeow Leng; Lim, Khee Hiang; Ooi, Ean Tat; Goetz, Wolfgang A

    2008-01-01

    Anterior mitral basal stay chords are relocated to correct prolapse of the anterior mitral leaflet (AML); it has also been suggested that their transection might be used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation. The study aim was to clarify the effect of stay chord transection (SCT) on the hemodynamic aspects of left ventricular outflow. Two three-dimensional left ventricular models including the left ventricular outflow tract and saddle-shaped mitral valve before and after SCT were constructed. After SCT, the AML was specified to be more concave and the aortomitral angle to be narrower than before SCT. Time-dependent turbulent flow in a flow range of 10 to 28 l/min during rapid ejection was simulated using the commercial software, FLUENT. Left ventricular outflow before SCT was streamlined along the AML throughout rapid ejection. After SCT, this flow was redirected in the vicinity of the AML, thereby creating a zone of persistent low-momentum recirculation associated with additional energy loss. Consequently, the axial forward flow delivered into the aorta after SCT was diminished. The high wall shear stress, which was concentrated at the fibrous trigones before SCT, was redistributed along the intertrigonal distance after SCT. The stay chords, which maintain the natural profile of the AML, are essential to streamline left ventricular outflow, facilitate flow delivery into the aorta, minimize dissipation of potential energy, and to create an optimum wall shear stress pattern that conforms to the fibrous trigones. Transection of the stay chords compromises local hemodynamics, resulting in greater energy loss and unfavorable wall shear stress distribution. The study results emphasize the importance of preserving stay chord function in mitral valve surgeries.

  18. Ischemic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, James F.; Hernandez III, Luis O.

    2015-01-01

    Most clinicians associate ischemic colitis with elderly patients who have underlying cardiovascular comorbidities. While the majority of cases probably occur in this population, the disease can present in younger patients as a result of different risk factors, making the diagnosis challenging. While a majority of patients respond to medical management, surgery is required in approximately 20% of the cases and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:26034405

  19. Challenging mitral valve repair for double-orifice mitral valve with noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Manabu; Misumi, Hiroyasu; Abe, Kohei; Kawazoe, Kohei

    2017-02-25

    Double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a relatively rare cardiac anomaly. Although usually associated with various cardiac anomalies, co-presence of DOMV and noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium (NCLVM) is extremely rare. Here, we present a 24-year-old male who underwent mitral valve repair using artificial chordae and annuloplasty at the posterior commissure for severe mitral regurgitation (MR), resulting from flail anterior leaflet of the larger postero-medial orifice and dilatation of left ventricle with NCLVM. One year later, he underwent second mitral valve repair for recurrence of MR. Further endoscopic evaluation of the left ventricle, and reinforcement via artificial ring, enabled us to achieve repair.

  20. Transapical Mitral Valve Replacement for Mixed Native Mitral Stenosis and Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Bedzra, Edo; Don, Creighton W; Reisman, Mark; Aldea, Gabriel S

    2016-08-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure. He had undergone transapical mitral valve replacement for mixed mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation. At the 1 month follow-up, the patient reported symptom resolution. An echocardiogram revealed a low gradient and no regurgitation. Our case shows that with careful multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative planning, and patient selection, percutaneous mitral intervention can become an alternative therapy for high-risk patients who cannot undergo conventional surgical therapy.

  1. Lyme Carditis: A Case Involving the Conduction System and Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Patel, Lakir D; Schachne, Jay S

    2017-02-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection in the Northern hemisphere. Cardiac manifestations of Lyme disease typically include variable atrioventricular nodal block and rarely structural heart pathology. The incidence of Lyme carditis may be underestimated based on current reporting practices of confirmed cases. This case of a 59-year-old man with Lyme carditis demonstrates the unique presentation of widespread conduction system disease, mitral regurgitation, and suspected ischemic disease. Through clinical data, electrocardiograms, and cardiac imaging, we show the progression, and resolution, of a variety of cardiac symptoms attributable to infection with Lyme. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-02.asp].

  2. Short-term hemodynamic performance of the mitral Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT pericardial valve. Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Morehead, A. J.; Thomas, J. D.; Smedira, N. G.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Marchand, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although long-term durability data exist, little data are available concerning the hemodynamic performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT pericardial valve in the mitral position. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who were implanted with mitral PERIMOUNT valves at seven international centers between January 1996 and February 1997 consented to participate in a short-term echocardiography follow-up. Echocardiographs were collected at a mean of 600+/-133 days after implantation (range, 110 to 889 days); all underwent blinded core lab analysis. RESULTS: At follow-up, peak gradients were 9.09+/-3.43 mm Hg (mean, 4.36+/-1.79 mm Hg) and varied inversely with valve size (p < 0.05). The effective orifice areas were 2.5+/-0.6 cm2 and tended to increase with valve size (p = 0.08). Trace mitral regurgitation (MR) was common (n = 48), 9 patients had mild MR, 1 had moderate MR, none had severe MR. All MR was central (n = 55) or indeterminate (n = 3). No paravalvular leaks were observed. Mitral regurgitation flow areas were 3.4+/-2.8 cm2 and were without significant volumes. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, these mitral valves are associated with trace, although physiologically insignificant, central MR. Despite known echocardiographic limitations, the PERIMOUNT mitral valves exhibit similar hemodynamics to other prosthetic valves.

  3. Short-term hemodynamic performance of the mitral Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT pericardial valve. Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Morehead, A. J.; Thomas, J. D.; Smedira, N. G.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Marchand, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although long-term durability data exist, little data are available concerning the hemodynamic performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT pericardial valve in the mitral position. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who were implanted with mitral PERIMOUNT valves at seven international centers between January 1996 and February 1997 consented to participate in a short-term echocardiography follow-up. Echocardiographs were collected at a mean of 600+/-133 days after implantation (range, 110 to 889 days); all underwent blinded core lab analysis. RESULTS: At follow-up, peak gradients were 9.09+/-3.43 mm Hg (mean, 4.36+/-1.79 mm Hg) and varied inversely with valve size (p < 0.05). The effective orifice areas were 2.5+/-0.6 cm2 and tended to increase with valve size (p = 0.08). Trace mitral regurgitation (MR) was common (n = 48), 9 patients had mild MR, 1 had moderate MR, none had severe MR. All MR was central (n = 55) or indeterminate (n = 3). No paravalvular leaks were observed. Mitral regurgitation flow areas were 3.4+/-2.8 cm2 and were without significant volumes. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, these mitral valves are associated with trace, although physiologically insignificant, central MR. Despite known echocardiographic limitations, the PERIMOUNT mitral valves exhibit similar hemodynamics to other prosthetic valves.

  4. Mitral Valve Clip for Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed T.; Ahmadzai, Nadera; Coyle, Kathryn; Coyle, Doug; Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of the 500,000 North American patients with chronic mitral regurgitation may be poor candidates for mitral valve surgery. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of percutaneous mitral valve repair using mitral valve clips in candidates at prohibitive risk for surgery. Data Sources We searched articles in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library published from 1994 to February 2014 for evidence of effectiveness and harms; for economic literature we also searched NHS EED and Tufts CEA registry. Grey literature was also searched. Review Methods Primary studies were sought from existing systematic reviews that had employed reliable search and screening methods. Newer studies were sought by searching the period subsequent to the last search date of the review. Two reviewers screened records and assessed study validity. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized, generic assessment for non-randomized studies, and the Phillips checklist for economic studies. Results Ten studies including 1 randomized trial were included. The majority of the direct comparative evidence compared the mitral valve clip repair with surgery in patients not particularly at prohibitive surgical risk. Irrespective of degenerative or functional chronic mitral regurgitation etiology, evidence of effectiveness and harms is inconclusive and of very low quality. Very-low-quality evidence indicates that percutaneous mitral valve clip repair may provide a survival advantage, at least during the first 1 to 2 years, particularly in medically managed chronic functional mitral regurgitation. Because of limitations in the design of studies, the cost-effectiveness of mitral valve clips in patients at prohibitive risk for surgery also could not be established. Limitations Because of serious concerns of risk of bias, indirectness, and imprecision, evidence is of very low quality. Conclusions No meaningful

  5. Mitral annular calcification is not associated with decreased procedural success, durability of repair, or left ventricular remodelling in percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Richard; Tat, Emily; Siegel, Robert J; Arsanjani, Reza; Hussaini, Asma; Makar, Moody; Mizutani, Yukiko; Trento, Alfredo; Kar, Saibal

    2016-10-20

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) negatively influences outcomes in surgical mitral valve (MV) repair for mitral regurgitation (MR). However, there are no data on whether MAC impacts on outcomes of MitraClip percutaneous MV edge-to-edge repair. This study sought to investigate whether the presence of MAC impacts on the procedural success and durability of percutaneous transcatheter repair of MR using the MitraClip. One hundred and seventy-three patients undergoing MitraClip repair for significant MR were studied. Patients with moderate-or-severe MAC (n=28) were compared to those with no-or-mild MAC. Post-procedural MR severity was not different (p=0.642) and MR reduction to moderate-or-less was equally high in patients with moderate-or-severe MAC (100%) and those without (96.7%), p=1.000. At one year, MR severity was not different (p=0.831), and there was no difference in the repair durability when comparing patients with moderate-or-severe MAC (93.8%) to those without (90.6%), p=1.000. All patients with moderate-or-severe MAC assessed at one year were in NYHA functional Class I-II and had haemodynamic improvements with a decrease in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (-6.5±13.1 mmHg), p=0.021, and end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter (-3.9±6.5 mm), p=0.034, not different to those achieved by patients without MAC (both p>0.100). Moderate-or-severe MAC scored by echocardiography and confirmed on fluoroscopy was not associated with decreased procedural success or durability of repair. Patients with moderate-or-severe MAC had improvements in clinical symptoms and haemodynamics, as well as decreased left ventricular dimensions.

  6. Double-orifice mitral valve treated by percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Thomas George; Revankar, Vinod Raghunath; Papanna, Monica; Srinivasan, Harshini

    2016-07-01

    Double-orifice mitral valve is an rare anomaly characterized by a mitral valve with a single fibrous annulus and 2 orifices that open into the left ventricle. It is often associated with other congenital anomalies, most commonly atrioventricular canal defects, and rarely associated with a stenotic or regurgitant mitral valve. A patient who was diagnosed with congenital double-orifice mitral valve with severe mitral stenosis was treated successfully by percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy rather than the conventional open surgical approach, demonstrating the utility of percutaneous correction of this anomaly.

  7. Increased systemic and regional coagulation activity in patients with mitral stenosis and sinus rhythm.

    PubMed

    Atak, Ramazan; Yetkin, Ertan; Yetkin, Ozkan; Ayaz, Selime; Ileri, Mehmet; Senen, Kubilay; Turhan, Hasan; Erbay, Ali Riza; Cehreli, Sengül

    2003-01-01

    A hypercoagulable state has been reported in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and sinus rhythm (SR). However it has been suggested that the coagulation activity may be increased only within the left atrium in MS, with normal peripheral blood levels. The aim of the present study was to assess regional left atrial and systemic coagulation activities by measuring PF1+2 in patients with severe mitral stenosis and sinus rhythm, normal blood clotting times, and no left atrial thrombus. The study was conducted in 25 consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe MS and sinus rhythm who underwent percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed before the valvuloplasty procedure in all patients to exclude the presence of left atrial thrombus and left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (LASEC). There were no statistically significant differences between LASEC-positive and LASEC-negative patients with respect to age, gender, fibrinogen levels, prothrombin time, mitral valve area, mean mitral gradient, pulmonary artery pressure (in all p > 0.05). Regional (left atrial) PF1+2 levels of both LASEC-positive and LASEC-negative patients were significantly elevated when compared to control subjects (p < 0.01). Statistically significant elevated systemic level of PF1+2 was observed only in LASEC-positive patients when compared to control subjects (p < 0.01, p > 0.05, respectively). In conclusion patients with severe mitral stenosis and SR have increased regional coagulation activity in both LASEC-negative and LASEC-positive groups. Although this increased regional coagulation activity has been reflected in peripheral blood of LASEC-positive patients, it has not been reflected in peripheral blood of LASEC-negative patients.

  8. Metoprolol vs ivabradine in patients with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vikas; Kumar, Niraj; Lohiya, Balalji; Sihag, Bhupendra K; Prajapati, Rajpal; Singh, T B; Subramanian, Geetha

    2016-10-15

    Severe mitral stenosis is usually symptomatic and is treated by BMV or surgery, whereas mild to moderate mitral stenosis is usually asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic and managed medically. Patients in the later group may become symptomatic during episodes of exercise and increased heart rate. Beta-blockers are frequently used in patients with mitral stenosis to control the heart rate and alleviate exercise-related symptoms. The objective of our study was to investigate the comparative efficacy of ivabradine versus metoprolol in patients with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm. We studied 97 patients of mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm presented with exertional symptoms. The effectiveness of Metoprolol was compared with ivabradine in alleviating these exertional symptoms in a randomized, open label non crossover study. We also assessed various stress ECG parameters, 24 hour Holter parameters and 2D Echo parameters to objectively compare the effects of ivabradine and metoprolol in these patients. Ivabradine and metoprolol both were effective in controlling exertional symptoms. Significant improvement in objective parameters like TMT (work capacity, baseline heart rate and maximal heart rate) and 2D echocardiography (right ventricular systolic pressure) are seen with both drugs. Ivabradine controls the exertional symptoms significantly more than metoprolol. On head to head comparison there was a significant benefit of working capacity and heart rate at maximal exercise in favour of ivabradine. Ivabradine should be strongly considered in medical management of mitral stenosis patients where beta blockers are contraindicated such as reactive airway disease. The cost of ivabradine is higher than metoprolol which might possess constraints as most of the rheumatic heat disease patients belong to low socio economic status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Echocardiographic determinants of mitral early flow propagation velocity.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Paolo; Grimaldi, Antonio; Alimento, Marina; Berna, Giovanni; Guazzi, Maurizio D

    2002-09-15

    Transmitral color Doppler early diastolic flow propagation velocity (Vp) has been correlated with the left ventricular (LV) relaxation time constant tau in dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent influence of LV systolic function and geometry, and of LV relaxation, on Vp in an unselected outpatient population. We studied 30 normal subjects and 130 patients (hypertensive LV hypertrophy, aortic valve stenosis or prosthesis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, aortic or mitral valve regurgitation). In all, we noninvasively measured LV geometry, mass, systolic function, wall motion dyssynergy, and diastolic function (abnormal relaxation or restrictive LV Doppler filling patterns). The Vp was similar in normal subjects and in patients (51 +/- 14 vs 53 +/- 25 cm/s). In normal subjects, the determinants of Vp at multiple regression analysis were isovolumic relaxation time, 2-dimensional cardiac index, and mitral E-wave velocity-time integral. In all, the main determinants were LV ejection fraction, percent of segmental wall dyssynergy, and isovolumic relaxation time and age. The Vp was highest in hypertrophic (75 +/- 25 cm/s, p <0.05 vs normal subjects) and lowest in dilated (35 +/- 13 cm/s, p = NS) cardiomyopathy. During multivariate analysis of variance, percent of wall dyssynergy (but not diffuse LV hypokinesia) independently reduced Vp (p = 0.02). The latter was not influenced by the LV filling pattern. Thus, in an unselected clinical population, prolonged relaxation per se does not influence Vp if LV systolic dysfunction and/or wall dyssynergy is absent-the latter factors are important independent determinants of Vp, which is determined by multiple factors.

  10. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation in the atria of heart failure patients due to mitral and tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen-Ping; Chen, Mien-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Pan, Kuo-Li; Ho, Wan-Chun; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Huang-Chung

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis occurs in atrial cardiomyocytes in mitral and tricuspid valve disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the respective roles of the mitochondrial and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor associated death domain (TRADD)-mediated death receptor pathways for apoptosis in the atrial cardiomyocytes of heart failure patients due to severe mitral and moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation. This study comprised eighteen patients (7 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and 11 in sinus rhythm). Atrial appendage tissues were obtained during surgery. Three purchased normal human left atrial tissues served as normal controls. Moderately-to-severely myolytic cardiomyocytes comprised 59.7±22.1% of the cardiomyocytes in the right atria and 52.4±12.9% of the cardiomyocytes in the left atria of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with atrial fibrillation group and comprised 58.4±24.8% of the cardiomyocytes in the right atria of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with sinus rhythm. In contrast, no myolysis was observed in the normal human adult left atrial tissue samples. Immunohistochemical analysis showed expression of cleaved caspase-9, an effector of the mitochondrial pathways, in the majority of right atrial cardiomyocytes (87.3±10.0%) of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with sinus rhythm, and right atrial cardiomyocytes (90.6±31.4%) and left atrial cardiomyocytes (70.7±22.0%) of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with atrial fibrillation. In contrast, only 5.7% of cardiomyocytes of the normal left atrial tissues showed strongly positive expression of cleaved caspase-9. Of note, none of the atrial cardiomyocytes in right atrial tissue in sinus rhythm and in the fibrillating right and left atria of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients, and in the normal human adult left atrial tissue samples showed cleaved caspase-8 expression, which is a downstream effector of TRADD of the death receptor pathway

  11. Successful Treatment of Double-Orifice Mitral Stenosis with Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Commissurotomy

    PubMed Central

    Patted, Suresh V.; Halkati, Prabhu C.; Ambar, Sameer S.; Sattur, Ameet G.

    2012-01-01

    Double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is an uncommon congenital anomaly, being present in 0.05% of the general population. The isolated occurrence of this anomaly is very rare and, to our knowledge, no data are currently available on the incidence of an isolated DOMV. A DOMV is characterized by a mitral valve with a single fibrous annulus with 2 orifices opening into the left ventricle (LV). Subvalvular structures, especially the tensor apparatus, invariably show various degrees of abnormality. It can substantially obstruct mitral valve inflow or cause mitral valve incompetence. We present a rare case of nineteen-year-old male who underwent percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy in stenotic DOMV. PMID:24826244

  12. Emergency mitral valve replacement for acute severe mitral regurgitation following balloon mitral valvotomy: pathophysiology of hemodynamic collapse and peri-operative management issues.

    PubMed

    Bayya, Praveen Reddy; Varma, Praveen Kerala; Raman, Suneel Puthuvassery; Neema, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) following balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) needing emergent mitral valve replacement is a rare complication. The unrelieved mitral stenosis is compounded by severe MR leading to acute rise in pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular afterload, decreased coronary perfusion, ischemia and right ventricular failure. Associated septal shift and falling left ventricular preload leads to a vicious cycle of myocardial ischemia and hemodynamic collapse and needs to be addressed emergently before the onset of end organ damage. In this report, we describe the pathophysiology of hemodynamic collapse and peri-operative management issues in a case of mitral valve replacement for acute severe MR following BMV.

  13. Effects of Mitral Annulus Remodeling Following MitraClip Procedure on Reduction of Functional Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco; Mesa, Dolores; Ruiz, Martín; Delgado, Mónica; Rodríguez, Sara; Pardo, Laura; Pan, Manuel; López, Amador; Romero, Miguel A; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2016-11-01

    The percutaneous mitral valve repair procedure (MitraClip) appears to reduce mitral annulus diameter in patients with functional mitral regurgitation, but the relationship between this and regurgitation severity has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mitral annulus remodeling on the reduction of mitral regurgitation in patients with functional etiology. The study included all patients with functional mitral regurgitation treated with MitraClip at our hospital until January 2015. Echocardiogram (iE33 model, Philips) was performed in all patients immediately after device positioning. Changes in the mitral annulus correlated with mitral regurgitation severity, as assessed using the effective regurgitant orifice area. The study included 23 patients (age, 65±14 years; 74% men; left ventricular ejection fraction, 31%±13%; systolic pulmonary artery pressure, 47±10 mmHg). After the procedure, the regurgitant orifice area decreased by 0.30 cm(2)±0.04 cm(2) (P<.0005), from a baseline of 0.49 cm(2)±0.09 cm(2). Anteroposterior diameter decreased by 3.14 mm±1.01 mm (P<.0005) from a baseline of 28.27 mm±4.9 mm, with no changes in the intercommissural diameter (0.50 mm±0.91 mm vs 40.68 mm±4.7 mm; P=.26). A significant association was seen between anteroposterior diameter reduction and regurgitant orifice area reduction (r=.49; P=.020). In patients with functional mitral regurgitation, the MitraClip device produces an immediate reduction in the anteroposterior diameter. This remodeling may be related to the reduction in mitral regurgitation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitral mechanical valve without long-term anticoagulation. Eight-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Björk, V O; Ribeiro, A; Canetti, M; Bomfim, V

    1994-01-01

    In 12 patients with sinus rhythm (including 5 children and 6 young women), mitral valve replacement was performed with a microporous-surfaced valve similar to the Björk-Shiley Monostrut. After the first 3 months, permitting endothelialization of the suture ring to continue over the groove and adjacent metal valve ring, no long-term anticoagulant treatment was given. There was no thromboembolic complication in this group during follow-up for 6-8 years, during which four women gave birth to a total of seven children. In eight other cases, one mitral case with atrial fibrillation, anti-coagulant was not discontinued, and in the remaining aortic cases it was reinstituted. One of them (with atrial fibrillation) had hematuria during inadequate anticoagulant medication, but no thromboembolism. Of five patients with only aortic valve replacement, two had thromboembolic complications, one without residual symptoms and one with slight hand weakness. Another had a transient ischemic attack while on anticoagulant and acetylsalicylic acid was added. Two patients with aortic and mitral valve replacement died, one from heart tamponade and the other from venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolism.

  15. Mitral valve repair for active culture positive infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doukas, G; Oc, M; Alexiou, C; Sosnowski, A W; Samani, N J; Spyt, T J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and echocardiographic outcome after mitral valve (MV) repair for active culture positive infective MV endocarditis. Patients and methods Between 1996 and 2004, 36 patients (mean (SD) age 53 (18) years) with positive blood culture up to three weeks before surgery (or positive culture of material removed at operation) and intraoperative evidence of endocarditis underwent MV repair. Staphylococci and streptococci were the most common pathogens. All patients had moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 2.3 (1.0). Follow up was complete (mean 38 (19) months). Results Operative mortality was 2.8% (one patient). At follow up, endocarditis has not recurred. One patient developed severe recurrent MR and underwent valve replacement and one patient had moderate MR. There were two late deaths, both non‐cardiac. Kaplan‐Meier five year freedom from recurrent moderate to severe MR, freedom from repeat operation, and survival were 94 (4)%, 97 (3)%, and 93 (5)%, respectively. At the most recent review the mean NYHA class was 1.17 (0.3) (p < 0.0001). At the latest echocardiographic evaluation, left atrial diameters, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and MV diameter were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with preoperative values. Conclusions MV repair for active culture positive endocarditis is associated with low operative mortality and provides satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection, freedom from repeat operation, and survival. Hence, every effort should be made to repair infected MVs and valves should be replaced only when repair is not possible. PMID:15951395

  16. Seamless reconstruction of mitral leaflet and chordae with one piece of pericardium.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Aoki, Masakazu; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yasunari; Sawaki, Sadanari; Yanagisawa, Junji; Tokoro, Masayoshi

    2014-06-01

    Mitral valve repair is challenging when enough pliable mitral leaflets and chordae are not left intact because of extensive infective endocarditis or chronic sclerotic degeneration. For those cases, we developed a simple method to reconstruct defective leaflets and chordae en bloc with a piece of pericardium, and the mid-term results were evaluated. From January 2009 to November 2013, 25 patients with the mean age of 63 (range 20-88) years underwent this operation. The causes of mitral regurgitation were infective endocarditis in 8, sclerotic degeneration in 8, leaflet dehiscence of previous repair in 2, mitral annular calcification in 3, rheumatic in 2 and congenital in 2. After complete debridement of infected or consolidated tissue, we reconstructed defective mitral leaflets and chordae en bloc with a piece of glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium. To substitute posterior leaflet and chordae, the pericardium was trimmed into a narrow pentagonal shape. The pointed end was attached directly to the corresponding papillary muscle, basal side edges to remnant leaflets on both sides, and the base to the annulus. For anterior leaflet, the pericardium was trimmed into a triangular shape if the lesion was confined in the left or right half or into a double-triangle shape if the lesion involved whole anterior leaflet. The summit of triangle was fixed to corresponding papillary muscle, and the base to remnant anterior leaflet, thus reconstructing coaptation zone and chordae seamlessly. There was no hospital death, and mitral regurgitation at discharge was none or trivial in all patients. During 1-59 months (mean 12.7) of complete follow-up, death, infection or hemolysis was not observed. In one patient, mitral regurgitation recurred 8 months postoperatively because the fixation suture of the pericardium to the papillary muscle broke. The valve was re-repaired with re-attaching the leg of the pericardium. Regurgitation was less than moderate in all other patients

  17. [Association of anorexia nervosa and mitral valve prolapse].

    PubMed

    Amano, K; Sakamoto, T; Hada, Y; Hasegawa, I; Takahashi, T; Suzuki, J; Takahashi, H

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of anorexia nervosa recently encountered were reported in respect to their cardiovascular manifestations including prolapse of the cardiac valves and other poorly recognized cardiac findings. All four patients, aged 13 to 32 years, were women and had marked emaciation (35 to 44% weight loss of the ideal body weight) with typical hormone abnormalities. Chest radiographs showed a small cardiac shadow, and sinus bradycardia with low voltage was present in their electrocardiograms. One case, 13-year-old, had a mid-systolic click and occasionally a late systolic murmur, and also an abdominal continuous hum. Echocardiography including two-dimensional color flow-mapping disclosed mitral valve prolapse in all, and tricuspid valve prolapse in two. Mild to moderate pericardial effusion was noted in all between the right ventricle and diaphragm, and pericardiocentesis in one case had no effect on the valve movements. No inflammatory changes were observed in the specimen of the pericardium and also of the fluid. An association of mitral valve prolapse and anerexia nervosa was discussed based on the previous studies, but the final conclusion remains unknown.

  18. Persistent pulmonary artery hypertension in patients undergoing balloon mitral valvotomy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Krishna Kumar Mohanan; Pillai, Harikrishnan Sivadasan; Titus, Thomas; Varaparambil, Ajitkumar; Sivasankaran, Sivasubramonian; Krishnamoorthy, Kavassery Mahadevan; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Thajudeen, Anees; Ganapathy, Sanjay; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is known to regress after successful balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV). Data of persistent pulmonary artery hypertension (PPAH) following BMV is scarce. We analyzed the clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic data of 701 consecutive patients who have undergone successful BMV in our institute from 1997 to 2003. Data of 287 patients who had PPAH (defined by pulmonary artery systolic pressure [PASP] of ≥ 40 mmHg at one year following BMV) were compared to the data of 414 patients who did not have PPAH. Patients who had PPAH were older (39.9 ± 9.9 years vs. 29.4 ± 10.1; P < 0.001). They had higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF; 21.9 vs. 12.1%, P < 0.05), moderate or severe pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) defined as PASP more than 50 mmHg (43.5 vs. 33.8%, P = 0.00), anatomically advanced mitral valve disease as assessed by Wilkin's echocardiographic score > 8 (33.7 vs. 23.2%, P < 0.001), and coexistent aortic valve disease (45.6 vs. 37.9%, P < 0.001) at the baseline. Those patients with PPAH had comparatively lower immediate postprocedural mitral valve area (MVA). On follow-up of more than five years, the occurrence of restenosis (39.3 vs. 10.1%, P = 0.000), new onset heart failure (14% vs. 4%, P < 0.05) and need for reinterventions (9.5% vs. 2.8%, P < 0.05) were higher in the PPAH group. Patients with PPAH were older, sicker, and had advanced rheumatic mitral valve disease. They had higher incidence of restenosis, new onset heart failure, and need for reinterventions on long term follow-up. PPAH represents an advanced stage of rheumatic valve disease and indicates chronicity of the disease, which may be the reason for the poorer prognosis of these patients. Patients with PPAH requires intense and more frequent follow-up. PMID:24015345

  19. Bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction due to native valve preserving procedure.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yukihiro; Mori, Yoshio; Umeda, Yukio; Takiya, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Mitral valve replacement with preservation of the mitral leaflets and subvalvular apparatus is considered to maintain left ventricular geometry and function and reduce the risk of myocardial rupture. However, the routine use of this technique may lead to early complications such as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and even mitral inflow obstruction, requiring reoperation. We describe a rare case of bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction caused by a native valve preserving procedure.

  20. Unusual redo mitral valve replacement for bleeding in Glanzmann thrombasthenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Villarreal, Ovidio A; Fernández-Ceseña, Ernesto; Solano-Ricardi, Mercedes; Aguilar-García, Alma L; Vega-Hernández, Raquel; Del Angel-Soto, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of 23-year-old man with mitral valve regurgitation and Glanzmann thrombasthenia, who underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement. Warfarin therapy was devastating, causing bilateral hemothorax, pericardial effusion, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hematuria. Redo mitral valve replacement with a biological prosthesis was required to resolve this critical situation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mitral valve replacement in Glanzmann thrombasthenia, highlighting the danger of oral anticoagulation in this pathology.

  1. Acute severe mitral regurgitation. Pathophysiology, clinical recognition, and management.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Nestico, P F; Morganroth, J

    1985-02-01

    Acute severe mitral regurgitation often goes unrecognized as an emergency requiring prompt, lifesaving treatment. Its causes, physical signs, natural history, echocardiographic features, and findings on chest roentgenography, electrocardiography, and nuclear scintigraphic scanning are reviewed. Acute severe mitral insufficiency can be differentiated from chronic severe mitral insufficiency by noninvasive two-dimensional echocardiography. M-mode echocardiography is a valuable tool in evaluating mitral prosthetic paravalvular regurgitation.

  2. Minimally invasive, robotic, and off-pump mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Rodriguez, Evelio; Atluri, Pavan; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2006-01-01

    A significant transformation is occurring in the management of mitral valve disease. Earlier surgery is now recommended. Mitral valve repair is the standard of care, and newer methods of reconstructing the mitral valve are developing. Surgery with videoscopic assistance can be effectively performed without sternotomy. Robotics systems are gaining wider adoption. Implantable devices to repair or replace the mitral valve off-pump and percutaneously are emerging.

  3. [Diagnosis and differential therapy of mitral stenosis].

    PubMed

    Fassbender, D; Schmidt, H K; Seggewiss, H; Mannebach, H; Bogunovic, N

    1998-11-01

    Clinical symptoms and diagnostic findings in patients with mitral stenosis are usually determined by the extent of the stenosis. Compared to a normal mitral valve area (MVA) of > 4 cm2, MVA in patients with severe mitral stenosis is usually reduced to < 1.5 cm2. In older patients symptoms are frequently influenced by concomitant diseases (e.g. atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension or lung disease). An important diagnostic element besides anamnesis, auscultation, ECG and chest X-ray is echocardiography, which is required in order to measure non-invasively and reliably the mitral valve gradient (MVG), the MVA and morphologic changes to the valves, as well as concomitant valvular disease, ventricular functions and, where appropriate, left-atrial thrombi. In addition to the surgical treatment of patients with severe mitral stenosis, which has been an established procedure for 50 years, percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (MVP) has recently established itself as an alternative option. At the current time, the Inoue technique seems to display the most advantages. Following transseptal puncture, the Inoue balloon is guided transvenously into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle using a special support wire. The balloon is short and soft. Its special unfolding character enables it to be placed securely in the mitral valve without any risk of ventricular perforation (Figure 1). As with surgical commissurotomy, balloon valvuloplasty leads to a separation of fused commissures. This results in a significant reduction of MVG, accompanied by an increase in the MVA (Figure 2). The results and success of MVP are influenced by the morphology of the valves and the changes to the subvalvular apparatus. In randomized studies, the results of surgical commissurotomy were comparable with those of balloon mitral valvulotomy. In our hospital, an increase in MVA from 1.0 to 1.8 cm2 could be achieved in 899 patients (mean age 56 +/- 3 years). In younger patients with

  4. Mitral Valve Prolapse in Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; Werner, John Christian

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 36 home-reared young adults with Down's syndrome found that 20 had abnormal echocardiographic findings. Thirteen had mitral valve prolapse, three had mitral valve prolapse and aortic insufficiency, two had only aortic insufficiency, and two had other mitral valve disorders. Theories of pathogenesis and relationship to exercise and…

  5. Right Atrial Clot Formation Early after Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Aksakal, Aytekin; Yücel, Huriye; Atasoy Günaydın, İlksen; Ekbul, Adem; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Mitral balloon valvuloplasty which has been used for the treatment of rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) for several decades can cause serious complications. Herein, we presented right atrial clot formation early after percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty which was treated successfully with unfractioned heparin infusion. PMID:28105049

  6. Fluid-Structure Interactions of the Mitral Valve and Left Heart: Comprehensive Strategies, Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Del Pin, Facundo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The remodeling that occurs after a posterolateral myocardial infarction can alter mitral valve function by creating conformational abnormalities in the mitral annulus and in the posteromedial papillary muscle, leading to mitral regurgitation (MR). It is generally assumed that this remodeling is caused by a volume load and is mediated by an increase in diastolic wall stress. Thus, mitral regurgitation can be both the cause and effect of an abnormal cardiac stress environment. Computational modeling of ischemic MR and its surgical correction is attractive because it enables an examination of whether a given intervention addresses the correction of regurgitation (fluid-flow) at the cost of abnormal tissue stress. This is significant because the negative effects of an increased wall stress due to the intervention will only be evident over time. However, a meaningful fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart is not trivial; it requires a careful characterization of the in-vivo cardiac geometry, tissue parameterization though inverse analysis, a robust coupled solver that handles collapsing Lagrangian interfaces, automatic grid-generation algorithms that are capable of accurately discretizing the cardiac geometry, innovations in image analysis, competent and efficient constitutive models and an understanding of the spatial organization of tissue microstructure. In this manuscript, we profile our work toward a comprehensive fluid-structure interaction model of the left heart by reviewing our early work, presenting our current work and laying out our future work in four broad categories: data collection, geometry, fluid-structure interaction and validation. PMID:20454531

  7. [Interventional mitral valve replacement. Current status].

    PubMed

    Lutter, G; Frank, D

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 30 % of patients suffering from severe valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve regurgitation are non-compliant to the gold standard of minimally invasive surgery, reconstruction or valve replacement. The number of these mostly old patients with severe comorbidities is increasing; therefore, transcatheter interventions have been developed to address an unmet clinical need and may be an alternative therapeutic option to the reference standard. Apart from the successful MitraClip therapy, alternative transcatheter reconstruction technologies are being developed. As with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures, the off-pump implantation of a valved stent into the mitral position mainly via a transapical approach will be of great benefit. Recently, the feasibility of transcatheter mitral valved stent implantation in high-risk patients has already been reported.

  8. Acute mitral regurgitation in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bouabdallaoui, Nadia; Wang, Zhen; Lecomte, Milena; Ennezat, Pierre V; Blanchard, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a well-recognised entity that commonly manifests with chest pain, ST segment abnormalities and transient left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery obstructive disease. This syndrome usually portends a favourable outcome. In the rare haemodynamically unstable TTC patients, acute mitral regurgitation (MR) related to systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is to be considered. Bedside echocardiography is key in recognition of this latter condition as vasodilators, inotropic agents or intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation worsen the patient's clinical status. We discuss here a case of TTC where nitrate-induced subaortic obstruction and mitral regurgitation led to haemodynamic instability.

  9. Transcatheter mitral valve implantation: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Mylotte, Darren; Piazza, Nicolo

    2015-09-01

    In the last year transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) has seen a major jump in development. This technique offers the potential to treat a great number of elderly and/or high-risk patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Such patients are declined surgical intervention either because the institutional Heart Team considers the risk of intervention to exceed the potential benefit, or because the patients and their families believe the morbidity of mitral surgery to be excessive. The advent of a less invasive transcatheter treatment could, therefore, potentially appeal to both clinicians and patients alike. In this overview paper, we describe briefly these recent developments in TVMI technologies as an introduction to the dedicated TVMI technical device parade later in this supplement.

  10. Surgical Treatment of Congenital Mitral Valve Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Carrozzini, Massimiliano; Padalino, Massimo; Milanesi, Ornella; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Congenital mitral valve (MV) dysplasia is a relatively rare and highly complex cardiac disease. We present our results and illustrate the techniques used to repair these valves. Between 1972 and 2014, 100 consecutive patients underwent surgical repair of congenital MV dysplasia at our institution. Predominant MV regurgitation was present in 53 patients (53%) whereas mitral stenosis was prevalent in 47 (47%). There were five early (5%) and eight late deaths (9%). Actuarial survival was 95%, 94%, and 93% at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively. Sixteen patients (18%) required reintervention due to subsequent MV dysfunction. Actuarial freedom from reintervention for MV dysfunction was 95%, 92%, and 89% at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively. The mechanism underlying the valve dysfunction in congenital mitral valve dysplasia is multifactorial and requires the application of a variety of surgical techniques for repair. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12743 (J Card Surg 2016;31:352-356). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Use of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography to evaluate mitral valve morphology for risk stratification prior to mitral valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Francis, Loren; Finley, Alan; Hessami, Walead

    2017-02-01

    Mitral stenosis is often managed percutaneously with an interventional procedure such as balloon commissurotomy. Although this often results in an increased mitral valve area and improved clinical symptoms, this procedure is not benign and may have serious complications including the development of hemodynamically significant mitral valve regurgitation. Multiple scoring systems have been developed to attempt to risk stratify these patients prior to their procedure.

  12. Mitral regurgitation in patients with coronary artery disease and low left ventricular ejection fractions. How should it be treated?

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, J T; Simonet, F; Maurice, J; Bloch, A; Velebit, V; Schmuziger, M

    1995-01-01

    fractions who present with 2- or 3-vessel disease, significant coronary artery stenoses (less than or equal 70%), and angina. The mortality rate is acceptable and morbidity is low. If there is no rupture of papillary muscle or chordae, concomitant ischemic mitral regurgitation (grades I through III) seems to return to normal after coronary artery bypass grafting and, therefore, does not need to be corrected surgically during the primary operation. PMID:7580362

  13. Mitral valve repair over five decades

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It has become evident that mitral valve (MV) repair is the preferable treatment for the majority of patients presenting with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). This success clearly testifies that the surgical procedure is accessible, reproducible and is carrying excellent long-lasting results. From the pre-extracorporeal circulation’s era to the last percutaneous approaches, a large variety of techniques have been proposed to address the different features of MV diseases. This article aimed at reviewing chronologically the development of these dedicated techniques through their origins and the debates that they generated in the literature. PMID:26309841

  14. Severe mitral regurgitation due to an extraordinary heart defect.

    PubMed

    García-Ropero, Álvaro; Cortés García, Marcelino; Aldamiz Echevarría, Gonzalo; Farré Muncharaz, Jerónimo

    2016-09-01

    A previously non-described cause of mitral regurgitation is presented. An asymptomatic 50-year old male who was casually diagnosed of mitral valve Barlow's disease underwent cardiac surgery due to severe mitral regurgitation. In the operating theatre, a longitudinal fissure of 1.5-2.0 cm length, along the posterior mitral leaflet, was found responsible for the insufficiency. This defect had features of a potential congenital origin and it was successfully repaired with direct suture. Whether it is an atypical mitral cleft, a variation of Barlow's morphology spectrum or a new congenital heart defect remains unclear.

  15. Novel Annular and Subvalvular Enlargement in Congenital Mitral Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Nels D; Beers, Kevin M; Maldonado, Elaine M; Calhoon, John H; Husain, S Adil

    2016-09-01

    Reparative procedures are not always feasible in congenitally abnormal mitral valves. Mechanical prosthesis has been accepted as the choice for valve replacement in the pediatric population. This report describes a case of congenital mitral valve disease requiring mitral valve replacement. The infant's mitral valve annulus was not amenable to placement of the smallest available mechanical prosthesis. The approach used here for annular and subvalvular enlargement facilitated implantation of a larger prosthesis for congenital mitral valve replacement. Five-year outcomes in a single patient may indicate broader applicability and avoidance of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of chronic lisinopril therapy on left atrial volume versus dimension in chronic organic mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Graham C; Marcotte, Francois; Rudski, Lawrence G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic mitral regurgitation imparts a volume load on the left atrium (LA). Because this chamber may dilate asymmetrically, changes in left atrial size may be underestimated using standard two-dimensional or M-mode techniques. METHODS The effect of lisinopril therapy in the setting of chronic organic mitral regurgitation on LA dimension was studied using standard M-mode techniques and LA volumes using the biplane Simpson’s method. RESULTS Mitral regurgitant fraction was reduced at one year in the lisinopril group versus the placebo group (−6.7%±3.5% versus 3.5%±3.2%, respectively; P<0.05). Significant reductions in both maximum and minimum LA volumes were seen in the lisinopril group (88±33 mL to 75±23 mL and 46±20 mL to 38±16 mL, respectively; P<0.01). This change in LA size was not appreciated when measurements were performed using standard M-mode techniques (from 44.3±6.9 mm to 44.1±7.4 mm; P=not significant). There was no significant relationship between change in LA volume and change in regurgitant fraction or systolic blood pressure. Change in LA volume was moderately correlated with change in left ventricular mass. CONCLUSIONS Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy reduces LA volume in the setting of chronic mitral regurgitation. This change in LA size is not apparent when standard M-mode techniques are used. Therefore, a volumetric assessment of atrial size in the setting of chronic mitral regurgitation proved to be superior to standard two-dimensional techniques. PMID:16485047

  17. Impact of mitral annular calcification on cardiovascular events in a multiethnic community. The Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Kohsaka, Shun; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the magnitude of the association between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and vascular events in a multiethnic cohort. BACKGROUND MAC is common in the elderly, and is associated with atherosclerotic risk factors. Its impact on the risk of cardiovascular events is controversial. METHODS The study cohort consisted of 1,955 subjects, aged ≥40 years, and free of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS). MAC was assessed by transthoracic 2D echocardiography. The association between MAC and MI, IS, and vascular death (VD) was examined by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. The effect of MAC thickness was also analyzed. RESULTS The mean age of the cohort was 68.0 ± 9.7 years and the majority of subjects were Hispanics (56.8%). 519 subjects (26.6%) had MAC. Of 498 patients with MAC thickness measurement available, 253 (13.1%) had mild to moderate MAC (1–4mm) and 245 (12.7%) severe MAC (≥4mm). During a mean follow-up of 7.4 ± 2.5 years, MI occurred in 100 (5.1%) subjects, IS in 104 (5.3%) subjects, and VD in 155 (8.0%) subjects. After adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors, MAC was associated with an increased risk of MI (adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–2.69: p=0.011) and VD (adjusted HR 1.53; 95%CI 1.09–2.15: p=0.015), but not IS (adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 0.87–2.05: p=0.18). Further analysis revealed that the impact of MAC was related to its thickness, with MAC >4mm being a strong and independent predictor of MI (adjusted HR 1.89: 95%CI 1.13–3.17: p=0.008) and VD (adjusted HR 1.81: 95%CI 1.21–2.72: p=0.002), and showing borderline association with IS (adjusted HR 1.59: 95%CI 0.95–2.67: p=0.084). CONCLUSIONS In this multiethnic cohort, MAC was a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events, especially MI and VD. The risk increase was directly related to MAC severity. PMID:19356491

  18. Successful surgical repair of the parachute mitral valve with mitral valve regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with exercise-related dyspnea was admitted to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a large anomalous papillary muscle that originated from the posterior wall of the left ventricle and severe mitral valve regurgitation in systole. Cleft suture, 5-0 polytetrafluoroethylene sutures from a single papillary muscle to the anterior commissure leaflet (AC), 5-0 polypropylene sutures between AC and A1, and between A1 and A2, the double-orifice technique, and ring plasty with 32-mm semi-rigid ring was performed. Postoperative echocardiography showed an improvement in severe mitral valve regurgitation. At the 2-month follow-up, the patient was in good health. In the present case, the elderly patient with an isolated parachute mitral valve but without any other cardiac anomaly and presenting with mitral valve regurgitation is extremely rare. This case of mitral valvuloplasty for a parachute mitral valve with a single papillary muscle in an elderly woman has not been reported before.

  19. Non-rheumatic `subvalvar' mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Caves, P. K.; Paneth, M.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty-seven patients with non-rheumatic subvalvar mitral regurgitation are reported, representing 16% of all patients with mitral regurgitation submitted to open operation over a five-and-a-half-year period. In 22 older patients with `idiopathic' chordal lesions, the commonest finding was rupture of chordae to the posterior leaflet. The aortic leaflet chordae were most frequently involved following myocardial infarction (7 patients) or bacterial endocarditis (3 patients). Three other younger patients had ruptured chordae and two patients had rupture of the posteromedial papillary muscle following acute myocardial infarction. The mitral valve was repaired in 16 patients with ruptured chordae, of whom only eight obtained a satisfactory late result. In the other 21 patients the valve was replaced with a mounted aortic homograft or a Starr-Edwards prosthesis. It is concluded that mitral valve repair should be reserved for patients with symmetrical rupture of the chordae controlling the centre of the posterior leaflet, as regurgitation may reappear after other forms of repair due to progressive rupture of other abnormal chordae or breakdown of the repair. The early and late mortality in the patients with a definite antecedent myocardial infarction was much higher than in the other groups, and emergency valve replacement soon after rupture of the papillary muscle was unsuccessful in both patients. Images PMID:4731107

  20. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery III

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478

  1. Mitral Valve Prolapse in Young Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFaul, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research regarding mitral valve prolapse in young children indicates that up to five percent of this population have the condition, with the majority being asymptomatic and requiring reassurance that the condition usually remains mild. Beta-blocking drugs are prescribed for patients with disabling chest pain, dizziness, palpitation, or…

  2. [Mitral valve prolapse and cusp elasticity].

    PubMed

    Curti, H J; Ferreira, M C; Silveira, S A; Sanches, P C; Carvalhal, S

    1994-06-01

    To verify if systolic bulging of floppy mitral cusps can to elastic behavior of their myxomatous collagen tissue. Five hearts with floppy mitral valves obtained from autopsies were distended with air (20 to 250 mmHg) through a catheter connected to the left ventricle. It was observed if some area of the atrial surface of the coapted cusps showed variable bulging according to the variation of air injection pressures. Molding of those surfaces (gypsum) allowed the same kind of analysis by other four researches. It was analyzed the cut surfaces of these radially sectioned molds. Lately, isolated tendinae chords were submitted to repeated tractions and observed if they exhibited elastic behavior. Histological study defined the presence of collagen myxomatous degeneration and quantified the amount of elastic tissue. In no case it was detected elastic bulding of mitral cusps. Cut surfaces of the molds confirmed that no increment of the prominent areas occurred, even in those regions with extensive, histologically confirmed, myxomatous substitution of the native collagen tissue. Increment of the degree of mitral bulging occurring during ventricular systole can not be ascertained to cusp elasticity but probably to papilar muscle traction.

  3. Ischemic Strokes (Clots)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infographic Stroke Hero F.A.S.T. Quiz Ischemic Strokes (Clots) Updated:Apr 26,2017 Ischemic stroke accounts ... strokes. Read more about silent strokes . TIA and Stroke: Medical Emergencies When someone has shown symptoms of ...

  4. [Late ventricular potentials and mitral valve prolapse].

    PubMed

    Babuty, D; Charniot, J C; Delhomme, C; Fauchier, L; Fauchier, J P; Cosnay, P

    1994-03-01

    In order to determine the predictive value for ventricular arrhythmias of ventricular late potentials (LP) in mitral valve prolapse (MVP) the authors performed high amplification signal-averaging ECG (SA) and 24 hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring in 68 consecutive patients (34 men, 34 women, average age 48 +/- 17.7 years) with echocardiographically diagnosed MVP. Patients with bundle branch block or associated cardiac disease were excluded. Echocardiography showed 26 patients to have floppy mitral valves (38.2%), 50 patients to have posterior deplacement > or = 5 mm of the mitral valves in systole (73.5%) and 35 patients to have mitral regurgitation (51.4%). Holter monitoring showed 17 patients without ventricular extrasystoles (VES), 15 had Lown Grade I, 6 had Lown Grade II, 3 had Lown Grade III, 15 had Lown Grade IV A and 12 had Lown Grade IV B ventricular arrhythmias. Therefore, 30 patients had complex ventricular arrhythmias (> or = Lown Grade III) and 13 patients had spontaneous non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) (one patient had NSVT on resting ECG but not on Holter monitoring). Eighteen patients had LP (26.5%). The incidence of complex ventricular arrhythmias was higher in patients with mitral regurgitation (62.8% versus 27.7%; p < 0.005) whereas the incidence of NSVT was not significantly different (25.7% versus 17.1%; p = 0.15). On the other hand, the frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias was not significantly different in the presence or absence of LP (61.1% versus 40%: NS) whereas the incidence of NSVT was higher in patients with LP (44.4% versus 10%; p < 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Echocardiography of congenital mitral valve disorders: echocardiographic-morphological comparisons.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Norman H

    2014-12-01

    I surveyed our echocardiographic database of the years between 1998 and 2012 for congenital abnormalities of the mitral valve in patients over 14 years. A total of 249 patients with mitral valve abnormalities were identified. Abnormalities included clefts in the mitral valve in 58 patients, double orifice of the mitral valve in 19, mitral stenosis with two papillary muscles in 72, and mitral stenosis with one papillary muscle in 51 patients. Supravalvar rings were found in 35 patients with a single papillary muscle, and mitral stenoses with two papillary muscles were found in 22 patients. Mitral prolapse occurred in 44 patients and mitral valvar straddle in five patients. The patients were evaluated by all modalities of ultrasound available over the course of time. Although some lesions were isolated, there were many lesions in which more than one mitral deformity presented in the same patient. The patients are presented showing anatomical correlation with autopsy specimens, some of which came from the patients in this series, and others matched to show correlative anatomy. These lesions remain rare as a group and continue to have high morbidity and mortality.

  6. Isolated Mitral Cleft in Trisomy 21: An Initially 'Silent' Lesion.

    PubMed

    Thankavel, Poonam P; Ramaciotti, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cardiac anomalies are common in trisomy 21, and transthoracic echocardiogram within the first month of life is recommended. While a cleft mitral valve associated with atrioventricular septal defect has been well defined in this population, the prevalence of isolated mitral valve cleft has not been previously reported. The aim of our study was to define the occurrence of isolated mitral cleft in the first echocardiogram of patients with trisomy 21. This retrospective chart review examined echocardiographic data on all Trisomy 21 patients <1 year of age obtained during January 1, 2010, to May 1, 2014, at our institution. Images were reviewed by one of the authors with no knowledge of the official diagnosis. In addition to evaluation for isolated mitral valve cleft, data obtained included presence of additional congenital heart defects and need for surgical intervention. A total of 184 patients (median age 5 days) were identified. Isolated mitral cleft was identified in 12 patients (6.5 %). Four were diagnosed retrospectively (33 %). Only one had mitral regurgitation on initial echocardiogram. Seven required surgery for closure of ventricular septal defects. Isolated mitral cleft is present in an important number of neonates with Trisomy 21. Mitral regurgitation is often absent in the neonatal period and should not be used as a reliable indicator of absence of valve abnormality. Careful attention should be directed toward the mitral valve during the first echocardiogram to exclude an isolated cleft, which can lead to progressive mitral regurgitation.

  7. Mitral valve repair versus replacement in simultaneous aortic and mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Marian; Pirk, Jan; Szarszoi, Ondrej; Skalsky, Ivo; Maly, Jiri; Netuka, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Double valve replacement for concomitant aortic and mitral valve disease is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Excellent results with valve repair in isolated mitral valve lesions have been reported; therefore, whether its potential benefits would translate into better outcomes in patients with combined mitral-aortic disease was investigated. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed involving 341 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with either mitral valve repair (n=42) or double valve replacement (n=299). Data were analyzed for early mortality, late valve-related complications and survival. RESULTS: The early mortality rate was 11.9% for valve repair and 11.0% for replacement (P=0.797). Survival (± SD) was 67±11% in mitral valve repair with aortic valve replacement and 81±3% in double valve replacement at five years of follow-up (P=0.187). The percentage of patients who did not experience major adverse valve-related events at five years of follow-up was 83±9% in those who underwent mitral valve repair with aortic valve replacement and 89±2% in patients who underwent double valve replacement (P=0.412). Age >70 years (HR 2.4 [95% CI 1.1 to 4.9]; P=0.023) and renal dysfunction (HR 1.9 [95% CI 1.2 to 3.7]; P=0.01) were independent predictors of decreased survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with double valve disease, both mitral valve repair and replacement provided comparable early outcomes. There were no significant differences in valve-related reoperations, anticoagulation-related complications or prosthetic valve endocarditis. Patient-related factors appear to be the major determinant of late survival, irrespective of the type of operation. PMID:24294032

  8. Echocardiographic anatomy of the mitral valve in healthy dogs and dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Wesselowski, S; Borgarelli, M; Menciotti, G; Abbott, J

    2015-06-01

    To further characterize the echocardiographic anatomy of the canine mitral valve apparatus in normal dogs and in dogs affected by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Twenty-two normal dogs and 60 dogs with MMVD were prospectively studied. The length (AMVL), width (AMVW) and area (AMVA) of the anterior mitral valve leaflet were measured in the control group and the affected group, as were the diameters of the mitral valve annulus in diastole (MVAd) and systole (MVAs). The dogs with MMVD were staged based on American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) guidelines and separated into groups B1 and B2/C. All measurements were indexed to body weight based on empirically defined allometric relationships. There was a statistically significant relationship between all log10 transformed mitral valve dimensions and body weight. The AMVL, AMVW, AMVA, MVAd and MVAs were all significantly greater in the B2/C group compared to the B1 and control groups. The AMVW was also significantly greater in the B1 group compared to the control group. Interobserver % coefficient of variation (% CV) was <10% for AMVL, AMVA, MVAd and MVAs, but was 29.6% for AMVW. Intraobserver % CV was <10.4% for all measurements. Measurements of the anterior mitral valve leaflet and the mitral valve annulus in the dog can be indexed to body weight based on allometric relationships. Preliminary reference intervals have been proposed over a range of body sizes. Relative to normal dogs, AMVL, AMVW, AMVA, MVAd and MVAs are greater in patients with advanced MMVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Losartan on Mitral Valve Changes After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Bartko, Philipp E; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Guerrero, J Luis; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Szymanski, Catherine; Kim, Dae-Hee; Seybolt, Margo M; Handschumacher, Mark D; Sullivan, Suzanne; Garcia, Michael L; Titus, James S; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Irvin, Whitney S; Messas, Emmanuel; Hagège, Albert A; Carpentier, Alain; Aikawa, Elena; Bischoff, Joyce; Levine, Robert A

    2017-09-05

    After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition. The study assessed 17 sheep, including 6 sham-operated control animals and 11 with apical MI and papillary muscle retraction short of producing MR; 6 of the 11 were treated with daily losartan, and 5 were untreated, with flexible epicardial mesh comparably limiting left ventricular (LV) remodeling. LV volumes, tethering, and MV area were quantified by using three-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and at 60 ± 6 days, and excised leaflets were analyzed by histopathology and flow cytometry. Post-MI LV dilation and tethering were comparable in the losartan-treated and untreated LV constraint sheep. Telemetered sensors (n = 6) showed no significant losartan-induced changes in arterial pressure. Losartan strongly reduced leaflet thickness (0.9 ± 0.2 mm vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 mm; p < 0.05; 0.4 ± 0.1 mm sham animals), TGF-β, and downstream phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and EMT (27.2 ± 12.0% vs. 51.6 ± 11.7% α-smooth muscle actin-positive endothelial cells, p < 0.05; 7.2 ± 3.5% sham animals), cellular proliferation, collagen deposition, endothelial cell activation (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression), neovascularization, and cells positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45, a hematopoietic marker associated with post-MI valve fibrosis. Leaflet area increased comparably (17%) in constrained and losartan

  10. Mitral annulus morphologic and functional analysis using real time tridimensional echocardiography in patients submitted to unsupported mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Marco Antônio Vieira; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Brandão, Carlos Manuel de Almeida; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Tarasoutchi, Flávio; Spinola, Pablo da Cunha; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mitral valve repair is the treatment of choice to correct mitral insufficiency, although the literature related to mitral valve annulus behavior after mitral repair without use of prosthetic rings is scarce. Objective To analyze mitral annulus morphology and function using real time tridimensional echocardiography in individuals submitted to mitral valve repair with Double Teflon technique. Methods Fourteen patients with mitral valve insufficiency secondary to mixomatous degeneration that were submitted to mitral valve repair with the Double Teflon technique were included. Thirteen patients were in FC III/IV. Patients were evaluated in preoperative period, immediate postoperative period, 6 months and 1 year after mitral repair. Statistical analysis was made by repeated measures ANOVA test and was considered statistically significant P<0.05. Results There were no deaths, reoperation due to valve dysfunction, thromboembolism or endocarditis during the study. Posterior mitral annulus demonstrated a significant reduction in immediate postoperative period (P<0.001), remaining stable during the study, and presents a mean of reduction of 25.8% comparing with preoperative period. There was a significant reduction in anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters in the immediate postoperative period (P<0.001), although there was a significant increase in mediolateral diameter between immediate postoperative period and 1 year. There was no difference in mitral internal area variation over the cardiac cycle during the study. Conclusion Segmentar annuloplasty reduced the posterior component of mitral annulus, which remained stable in a 1-year-period. The variation in mitral annulus area during cardiac cycle remained stable during the study. PMID:26313723

  11. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Marak, Creticus P.; Joy, Parijat S.; Gupta, Pragya; Guddati, Achuta K.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH. PMID:24383034

  12. Ultrasound based mitral valve annulus tracking for off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng P.; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve cannot close properly during systole. The NeoChordtool aims to repair MR by implanting artificial chordae tendineae on flail leaflets inside the beating heart, without a cardiopulmonary bypass. Image guidance is crucial for such a procedure due to the lack of direct vision of the targets or instruments. While this procedure is currently guided solely by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), our previous work has demonstrated that guidance safety and efficiency can be significantly improved by employing augmented virtuality to provide virtual presentation of mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tools integrated with real time ultrasound image data. However, real-time mitral annulus tracking remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe an image-based approach to rapidly track MVA points on 2D/biplane TEE images. This approach is composed of two components: an image-based phasing component identifying images at optimal cardiac phases for tracking, and a registration component updating the coordinates of MVA points. Preliminary validation has been performed on porcine data with an average difference between manually and automatically identified MVA points of 2.5mm. Using a parallelized implementation, this approach is able to track the mitral valve at up to 10 images per second.

  13. En face view of the mitral valve: definition and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Feroze; Warraich, Haider Javed; Shahul, Sajid; Qazi, Aisha; Swaminathan, Madhav; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Panzica, Peter; Maslow, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    A 3-dimensional echocardiographic view of the mitral valve, called the "en face" or "surgical view," presents a view of the mitral valve similar to that seen by the surgeon from a left atrial perspective. Although the anatomical landmarks of this view are well defined, no comprehensive echocardiographic definition has been presented. After reviewing the literature, we provide a definition of the left atrial and left ventricular en face views of the mitral valve. Techniques used to acquire this view are also discussed.

  14. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined.

  15. Mitral Valve Prolapse or, What to Ignore in Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Fallen, Ernest L.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of an isolated midsystolic click and/or late systolic murmur in an otherwise healthy young individual is a totally benign entity and represents a normal variation of mitral valve motion and function. There exists a very small subset of patients with mitral prolapse easily identified by certain clinical characteristics, who have distinct pathologic changes in their mitral valve leaflets and supporting structures. (Can Fam Physician 1981; 27:631-634). PMID:21289711

  16. Evolution of the concept and practice of mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Rajab, Taufiek K.

    2015-01-01

    The first successful mitral valve repair was performed by Elliot Cutler at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in 1923. Subsequent evolution in the surgical techniques as well as multi-disciplinary cooperation between cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and cardiac anesthesiologists has resulted in excellent outcomes. In spite of this, the etiology of mitral valve pathology ultimately determines the outcome of mitral valve repair. PMID:26309840

  17. Acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Eduardo; Mestres, Carlos A; Loma-Osorio, Pablo; Josa, Miguel

    2004-03-01

    Traumatic rupture of intracardiac structures is an uncommon phenomenon although there are a number of reports with regards to rupture of the tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation of traumatic origin. Both lesions were seen separated by 2 weeks. Pathophysiology is reviewed. The combination of both aortic and mitral lesions following blunt chest trauma is almost exceptional.

  18. Mitral and tricuspid valve surgery for Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Ohashi, Takeki; Furui, Masato; Kageyama, Souichirou; Kodani, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Hirai, Yasutaka; Sakakura, Reo

    2015-05-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, mental retardation, short stature, and hypotonia. An 18-year-old man with morphologic features characteristic of Coffin-Lowry syndrome was referred to our institution for valve disease surgery for worsening cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe mitral valve regurgitation associated with tricuspid valve regurgitation. Mitral valve implantation with a biological valve and tricuspid annular plication with a ring was performed. The ascending aorta was hypoplastic. Both the mitral papillary muscle originating near the mitral annulus and the chordae were shortened. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and his cardiac failure improved.

  19. Chimney technique for mitral valve replacement in children.

    PubMed

    González Rocafort, Álvaro; Aroca, Ángel; Polo, Luz; Rey, Juvenal; Villagrá, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Severe mitral stenosis is unusual in children, but it represents an important challenge for surgeons because of the scarcity of solutions. Several mitral percutaneous and surgical valvuloplasties are performed repetitively to delay mitral valve replacement. Most of the time these procedures show discouraging results. When mitral valve replacement is performed, the annulus may not be large enough to fit a substitute. We present, to our best knowledge, a new technique to implant a large prosthesis in a small annulus without negatively affecting the opening of the leaflets.

  20. Robotic-assisted mitral valve repair: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Algarni, Khaled D; Suri, Rakesh M; Daly, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Robotic-assisted mitral valve repair represents the least invasive surgical approach currently available for anatomical mitral valve repair in patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Standard mitral valve repair techniques utilized during conventional sternotomy/right thoracotomy are exactly replicated with the robotic instrumentation through 1-2 cm port-like incisions with superior 3D visualization. This is performed on cardiopulmonary bypass by peripheral cannulation of the femoral vessels/right internal jugular vein. The ascending aorta is occluded with a transthoracic aortic cross-clamp. Antegrade cardioplegia is delivered centrally into the aortic root through a cardioplegia vent catheter. By replicating conventional mitral valve repair done via an open sternotomy approach, the quality of mitral valve repair is ensured while providing the patients with advantages of less invasive surgery including shorter hospital stay, rapid recovery and return to normal activities, less blood transfusion, superior cosmesis and complete elimination of sternotomy-related morbidities such as deep sternal wound infection and sternal dehiscence. We reviewed the first consecutive 200 patients undergoing robotic mitral valve repair at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 24 January 2008 and 28 January 2011. Successful mitral valve repair was completed in all patients. There were no early (30-day) deaths. One patient suffered a stroke (0.5%). One patient required reoperation for bleeding (0.5%). Two patients (1%) required reoperation for recurrent mitral regurgitation. Twelve patients (6%) required transfusion of allogeneic blood products. We have noted a significant reduction in operative times and resource utilization over time.

  1. [Totally robotic mitral valve surgery in 60 cases].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Gao, Chang-qing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-li; Xiao, Cang-song; Wu, Yang

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of robotic mitral valve surgery using da Vinci S system. We conducted a retrospective review of 60 robotic mitral surgeries from March 2007 to December 2010. Of the 60 patients, 44 underwent mitral valve repair and 16 received mitral valve replacement. The surgical approach was through 4 right chest ports with femoral and internal jugular vein cannulations. Transesophageal echocardiography was used intraoperatively to estimate the surgical results. None of the cases required a conversion to a median sternotomy. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest time was 132.2∓29.6 min and 88.1∓22.3 min for robotic mitral valve repair, and was 137.1∓21.9 min and 99.3∓17.4 min for robotic mitral valve replacement. Echocardiographic follow-up of all the patients revealed 3 cases of slight regurgitation in mitral valve repair group. In selected patients with mitral valve disease, robotic mitral surgery can be performed safely.

  2. Peri-procedural imaging for transcatheter mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Navin; Patel, Parag; Bartel, Thomas; Kapadia, Samir; Navia, Jose; Stewart, William; Tuzcu, E. Murat

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) has a high prevalence in older patient populations of industrialized nations. Common etiologies are structural, degenerative MR and functional MR secondary to myocardial remodeling. Because of co-morbidities and associated high surgical risk, open surgical mitral repair/replacement is deferred in a significant percentage of patients. For these patients transcatheter repair/replacement are emerging as treatment options. Because of the lack of direct visualization, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for these procedures. In this review, we summarize mitral valve anatomy, trans-catheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) options, and imaging in the context of TMVR. PMID:27054104

  3. Effect of the mitral valve on diastolic flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore; Dawoud, Fady; Luo, Hongchang; Lardo, Albert C.

    2014-12-15

    The leaflets of the mitral valve interact with the mitral jet and significantly impact diastolic flow patterns, but the effect of mitral valve morphology and kinematics on diastolic flow and its implications for left ventricular function have not been clearly delineated. In the present study, we employ computational hemodynamic simulations to understand the effect of mitral valve leaflets on diastolic flow. A computational model of the left ventricle is constructed based on a high-resolution contrast computed-tomography scan, and a physiological inspired model of the mitral valve leaflets is synthesized from morphological and echocardiographic data. Simulations are performed with a diode type valve model as well as the physiological mitral valve model in order to delineate the effect of mitral-valve leaflets on the intraventricular flow. The study suggests that a normal physiological mitral valve promotes the formation of a circulatory (or “looped”) flow pattern in the ventricle. The mitral valve leaflets also increase the strength of the apical flow, thereby enhancing apical washout and mixing of ventricular blood. The implications of these findings on ventricular function as well as ventricular flow models are discussed.

  4. Mitral Regurgitation after Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvotomy in Patients with Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Toufan, Mehrnoush; Salehi, Rezvaneyeh; Alizadehasl, Azin; Ghaffari, Samad; Sohrabi, Bahram; Separham, Ahmad; Manafi, Ataolaah; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Bagher; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) is the gold standard treatment for rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) in that it causes significant changes in mitral valve area (MVA) and improves leaflet mobility. Development of or increase in mitral regurgitation (MR) is common after BMV. This study evaluated MR severity and its changes after BMV in Iranian patients. Methods: We prospectively evaluated consecutive patients with severe rheumatic MS undergoing BMV using the Inoue balloon technique between February 2010 and January 2013 in Madani Heart Center, Tabriz, Iran. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and echocardiographic and catheterization data, including MVA, mitral valve mean and peak gradient (MVPG and MVMG), left atrial (LA) pressure, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAPs), and MR severity before and after BMV, were evaluated. Results: Totally, 105 patients (80% female) at a mean age of 45.81 ± 13.37 years were enrolled. NYHA class was significantly improved after BMV: 55.2% of the patients were in NYHA functional class III before BMV compared to 36.2% after the procedure (p value < 0.001). MVA significantly increased (mean area = 0.64 ± 0.29 cm2 before BMV vs. 1.90 ± 0.22 cm2 after BMV; p value < 0.001) and PAPs, LA pressure, MVPG, and MVMG significantly decreased. MR severity did not change in 82 (78.1%) patients, but it increased in 18 (17.1%) and decreased in 5 (4.8%) patients. Patients with increased MR had a significantly higher calcification score (2.03 ± 0.53 vs.1.50 ± 0.51; p value < 0.001) and lower MVA before BMV (0.81 ± 0.23 vs.0.94 ± 0.18; p value = 0.010). There were no major complications. Conclusion: In our study, BMV had excellent immediate hemodynamic and clinical results inasmuch as MR severity increased only in some patients and, interestingly, decreased in a few. Our results, underscore BMV efficacy in severe MS. The echocardiographic calcification score was useful for identifying patients

  5. Mitral regurgitation after percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis: a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Toufan, Mehrnoush; Salehi, Rezvaneyeh; Alizadehasl, Azin; Ghaffari, Samad; Sohrabi, Bahram; Separham, Ahmad; Manafi, Ataolaah; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Bagher; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) is the gold standard treatment for rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) in that it causes significant changes in mitral valve area (MVA) and improves leaflet mobility. Development of or increase in mitral regurgitation (MR) is common after BMV. This study evaluated MR severity and its changes after BMV in Iranian patients. We prospectively evaluated consecutive patients with severe rheumatic MS undergoing BMV using the Inoue balloon technique between February 2010 and January 2013 in Madani Heart Center, Tabriz, Iran. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and echocardiographic and catheterization data, including MVA, mitral valve mean and peak gradient (MVPG and MVMG), left atrial (LA) pressure, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAPs), and MR severity before and after BMV, were evaluated. Totally, 105 patients (80% female) at a mean age of 45.81 ± 13.37 years were enrolled. NYHA class was significantly improved after BMV: 55.2% of the patients were in NYHA functional class III before BMV compared to 36.2% after the procedure (p value < 0.001). MVA significantly increased (mean area = 0.64 ± 0.29 cm(2) before BMV vs. 1.90 ± 0.22 cm(2) after BMV; p value < 0.001) and PAPs, LA pressure, MVPG, and MVMG significantly decreased. MR severity did not change in 82 (78.1%) patients, but it increased in 18 (17.1%) and decreased in 5 (4.8%) patients. Patients with increased MR had a significantly higher calcification score (2.03 ± 0.53 vs.1.50 ± 0.51; p value < 0.001) and lower MVA before BMV (0.81 ± 0.23 vs.0.94 ± 0.18; p value = 0.010). There were no major complications. In our study, BMV had excellent immediate hemodynamic and clinical results inasmuch as MR severity increased only in some patients and, interestingly, decreased in a few. Our results, underscore BMV efficacy in severe MS. The echocardiographic calcification score was useful for identifying patients likely to have MR development or MR increase after

  6. Preservation versus non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement: a meta-analysis of 3835 patients

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araújo e Sá, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo César; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P <0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P <0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P <0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596

  7. Nonresectional Single-Suture Leaflet Remodeling for Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation Facilitates Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, John W.; Cohen, Jeffrey E.; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Fairman, Alexander S.; Edwards, Bryan B.; Hornick, Matthew A.; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Both leaflet resection and neochordal construction are effective mitral repair techniques, but they may become incrementally time-consuming when using minimally invasive approaches. We have used a single-suture leaflet-remodeling technique of inverting the prolapsed or flail segment tissue into the left ventricle. This repair is straightforward, expeditious, and facilitates a minimally invasive approach. Methods Ninety-nine patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent a minimally invasive single-suture repair of the mitral valve from May 2007 through December 2012. Preoperative and perioperative echocardiograms as well as patient outcomes were analyzed and compared with those obtained from patients undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair using quadrangular resection at the same institution during the same period. Results All 99 patients had a successful mitral repair through a sternal-sparing minimally invasive approach. Ninety-one of the 99 patients had zero MR on postoperative echocardiogram, and 8 of 99 had trace to mild MR. Patients in the nonresectional group had significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times compared with the quadrangular resection group (115.8 ± 41.7 minutes versus 144.9 ± 38.2 minutes; p < 0.001; 76.2 ± 28.1 minutes versus 112.6 ± 33.5 minutes; p < 0.001, respectively). The mean length of stay was 7.5 ± 3 days. All patients were discharged alive and free from clinical symptoms of MR. There have been no reoperations for recurrent MR on subsequent average follow-up of 1 year. Conclusions An effective, highly efficient, and thus far durable single-suture mitral leaflet-remodeling technique facilitates minimally invasive repair of degenerative MR. PMID:23932318

  8. Conduction disorders after tricuspid annuloplasty with mitral valve surgery: Implications for earlier tricuspid intervention.

    PubMed

    Jouan, Jérôme; Mele, Alessandro; Florens, Emmanuelle; Chatellier, Gilles; Carpentier, Alain; Achouh, Paul; Fabiani, Jean-Noël

    2016-01-01

    Tricuspid valve repair has been recently advocated in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery who have mild to moderate secondary tricuspid regurgitation. However, the incidence of heart conduction disorders after combined mitral valve and tricuspid valve interventions has not been evaluated. We sought to analyze the incidence of permanent pacemaker implantations and heart conduction disorders in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery with and without tricuspid valve annuloplasty. In 2011 and 2012, among 201 consecutive patients referred to the Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou for isolated nonischemic mitral valve disease, 113 underwent an isolated mitral valve procedure (group 1) and 88 had a concomitant tricuspid valve ring annuloplasty (group 2). Patients' mean age was 59.7 ± 16.5 years in group 1 and 60.7 ± 14.9 years in group 2 (P = .5). Mean crossclamp time and bypass time were 78 ± 35 minutes and 105 ± 47 minutes in group 1 and 92 ± 36 minutes and 128 ± 50 minutes in group 2, respectively (P = .001 and .005, respectively). Operative mortality was 3% (2.7% in group 1 and 3.2% in group 2, P = .4). Incidence of high-grade heart conduction disorders lasting more than 3 days postoperatively was 14.5% in group 1 and 41.2% in group 2 (P = .001). At 3 years, freedom from permanent pacemaker implantation was 99% ± 2% in group 1 and 94.1% ± 5% in group 2 (P = .02). For the entire cohort, longer crossclamp time (P = .02) and tricuspid ring annuloplasty (hazard ratio, 3.8; P = .001) were independent predictors of heart conduction disorders. The need for permanent pacemaker implantation is increased after concomitant tricuspid ring annuloplasty in the setting of mitral valve surgery. A clinical period of observation up to 14 days after postoperative heart conduction disorders should be observed before recommending permanent pacemaker placement. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  10. The role of age and comorbidities in postoperative outcome of mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Vincent; Boisselier, Clément; Saplacan, Vladimir; Belin, Annette; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Fischer, Marc-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The average age of patients undergoing mitral valve repair is increasing each year. This retrospective study aimed to compare postoperative complications of mitral valve repair (known to be especially high-risk) between 2 age groups: under and over the age of 80. Patients who underwent mitral valve repair were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (<80 years old) and group 2 (≥80 years old). Baseline characteristics, pre- and postoperative hemodynamic data, surgical characteristics, and postoperative follow-up data until hospital discharge were collected. A total of 308 patients were included: 264 in group 1 (age 63 ± 13 years) and 44 in group 2 (age 83 ± 2 years). Older patients had more comorbidities (atrial fibrillation, history of cardiac decompensation, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic kidney disease) and they presented more postoperative complications (50.0% vs 33.7%; P = 0.043), with a longer hospital stay (8.9 ± 6.9 vs 6.6 ± 4.6 days; P = 0.005). To assess the burden of age, a propensity score was awarded to postoperative complications. Active smoking, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, associated ischemic heart disease, obesity, and cardio pulmonary by-pass duration were described as independent risk factors. When matched on this propensity score, there was no difference in morbidity or mortality between group 1 and group 2. Older patients suffered more postoperative complications, which were related to their comorbidities and not only to their age. PMID:27336886

  11. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  12. Robotic Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement Using the Sapien XT in the Setting of Severe Mitral Annular Calcification.

    PubMed

    Koeckert, Michael S; Loulmet, Didier F; Williams, Mathew R; Neuburger, Peter J; Grossi, Eugene A

    2016-05-01

    We describe the use of the Sapien XT, placed in the mitral position using a totally endoscopic robotic approach in a 76-year-old man with extensive circumferential mitral calcifications and severe stenosis. The patient was at high risk for traditional open surgery and a large mitral valve annulus prevented safe transcatheter deployment due to size mismatch. Our novel approach offered a minimally invasive technique for native mitral valve replacement in a high-risk patient with anatomical constraints prohibitive to conventional approaches. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12737 (J Card Surg 2016;31:303-305). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [A case of death due to mitral regurgitation caused by traumatic mitral valve injury].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Y; Kojima, T; Yasui, W; Nagasawa, N; Yashiki, M

    1996-06-01

    A 51-year-old male, who had been driving a motor bicycle, was involved in a traffic accident with a trailer, and he died immediately after the accident. According to the external examination of the victim, no fatal injuries were found. The medico-legal autopsy revealed a rupture of the left side of the pericardium, and a tear of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. There were no injuries of the papillary muscles and chordae. The cause of death was due to traumatic mitral regurgitation.

  14. Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy Overview.

    PubMed

    Catanese, Luciana; Tarsia, Joseph; Fisher, Marc

    2017-02-03

    The treatment of acute ischemic stroke has undergone dramatic changes recently subsequent to the demonstrated efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) device-based therapy in multiple trials. The selection of patients for both intravenous and IA therapy is based on timely imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and if IA therapy is considered noninvasive, angiography with one of these modalities is necessary to document a large-vessel occlusion amenable for intervention. More advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are available that can be used to identify a small ischemic core and ischemic penumbra, and this information will contribute increasingly in treatment decisions as the therapeutic time window is lengthened. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator remains the mainstay of acute stroke therapy within the initial 4.5 hours after stroke onset, despite the lack of Food and Drug Administration approval in the 3- to 4.5-hour time window. In patients with proximal, large-vessel occlusions, IA device-based treatment should be initiated in patients with small/moderate-sized ischemic cores who can be treated within 6 hours of stroke onset. The organization and implementation of regional stroke care systems will be needed to treat as many eligible patients as expeditiously as possible. Novel treatment paradigms can be envisioned combining neuroprotection with IA device treatment to potentially increase the number of patients who can be treated despite long transport times and to ameliorate the consequences of reperfusion injury. Acute stroke treatment has entered a golden age, and many additional advances can be anticipated. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. [Surgical techniques in mitral valve diseases. Reconstruction and/or replacement].

    PubMed

    Noack, T; Mohr, F-W

    2016-02-01

    Mitral valve (MV) disease is one of the most common heart valve diseases. The surgical and interventional treatment for MV disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. For primary mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) surgical MV repair is the treatment of choice, which can be performed with an excellent outcome and long-term survival in reference centers. The surgical technique used for MV repair depends on the pathological mechanism, the morphological dimensions of the MV, the operative risk and the expertise of the cardiac surgeon. The surgical and interventional treatment of secondary MVVR is the subject of on-going discussions. In patients with moderate secondary MVR undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, concomitant MV repair should be performed. In the presence of severe secondary MR with risk factors for failure of MV repair, patients should consider having MV replacement. In the rare cases of patients presenting with mitral valve stenosis (MVS) MV repair can be considered in young patients and who are most often treated with MV replacement. The choice between biological or mechanical MV replacement depends on the pathophysiology, the comorbidities, the amount of anticoagulation necessary and the age of the patient. New percutaneous techniques for MV replacement offer new treatment options for reoperation in high-risk patients.

  16. Investigation of the Left Ventricular Flow Dynamics in the Presence of Severe Mitral Annular Calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayegh, Batoul; Kadem, Lyes; di Labbio, Giuseppe; Pressman, Gregg S.; Obasare, Edinrin

    2016-11-01

    Valvular calcification is frequent with aging and diverse diseases. Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a degenerative process where the fibrous annulus of the mitral valve degrades. MAC can be found in approximately 40% of people aged over 65. It is associated with increased occurrence of cardiovascular diseases including stroke. This experimental work is aimed to investigate the effects of MAC on the left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics and to develop new clinical parameters. Two patient-specific 3D-printed mitral valves with moderate and severe MACs were placed in a left heart simulator. The velocity fields in the LV were acquired using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and compared to normal LV flow. The velocity fields were used to evaluate the temporal evolution of the vorticity fields and viscous energy loss in the LV. The presence of MAC disturbed the flow in the LV leading to markedly increased viscous energy losses. As the severity of MAC increased, the velocity of the inflow jet also increased causing significant perturbations to the normally-occurring vortex in the LV.

  17. Antiphospholipid antibody-associated non-infective mitral valve endocarditis successfully treated with medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Tahmeed; Bell, Adrian; Khasnis, Atul; Silverberg, Bruce J; Martinez, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Non-bacterial endocarditis lesions associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) in the absence of other criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosus is termed an aPL-associated cardiac valve disease. Evidence regarding the management of this condition is sparse. A rare case is described of a 20-year-old female who presented with an incidental finding of 'vegetations on a heart valve'. Echocardiography revealed mitral valve leaflet thickening and echodensities with moderate mitral regurgitation. She had an elevated partial thromboplastin time that did not correct with a mixing study, and elevated levels of antiocardiolipin antibodies. Hence, a diagnosis of aPL-associated cardiac valve disease was made, and the patient commenced on warfarin, hydroxychloroquine, and a short course of oral prednisone. At one year after diagnosis the patient remained symptom-free, and follow up echocardiography revealed resolution of the vegetations with minimal mitral regurgitation. Further evidence is needed to guide the therapy of this rare condition.

  18. Echocardiographic evaluation of mitral stenosis using diastolic posterior left ventricular wall motion.

    PubMed

    Wise, J R

    1980-05-01

    The slope of the posterior left ventricular wall motion in diastole (LVDS) was determined by echocardiography in 25 normal subjects and 21 patients with mitral stenosis. Patients with mitral stenosis had reduced LVDS that was related to the degree of mitral stenosis determined by calculated mitral valve area (r = 0.92). The mitral valve area correlated more closely with the LVDS than with the left atrial emptying index derived from the posterior aortic wall motion. Three patients with mitral stenosis had an increased LVDS after mitral valvotomy or mitral valve replacement. One patient with a stenotic mitral valve prosthesis had reduced LVDS. The results of this study suggest that analysis of the LVDS would be useful in predicting the severity of mitral stenosis and may be beneficial in evaluating patients with suspected prosthetic mitral valve malfunction.

  19. Functional Mitral Regurgitation: Appraising the Evidence Behind Recommended Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Samad, Zainab; Velazquez, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common type of MR encountered in clinical practice. Because the disease arises from the ventricular aspect of the mitral valve apparatus, treatment therapies are less defined and outcomes are poor. In this review, the state of evidence for medical and surgical therapy in functional MR is appraised. Future directions for research in this area are also defined.

  20. Single-Suture Neochorda-Folding Plasty for Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Myung; Je, Hyung Gon; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2016-01-01

    The single-suture neochorda-folding plasty technique is a modification of existing mitral valve repair techniques. In the authors’ experience, its simplicity, reliability, and versatility make it a useful technique for mitral valve repair, especially when a minimally invasive approach is used. PMID:26889453

  1. Myxomatous Mitral Valve with Prolapse and Flail Scallop

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jerry; Timbrook, Alexa; Said, Sarmad; Babar, Kamran; Teleb, Mohamed; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Myxomatous mitral valve with prolapse are classically seen with abnormal leaflet apposition during contraction of the heart. Hemodynamic disorders can result from eccentric mitral regurgitation usually caused by chordae tendinae rupture or papillary muscle dysfunction. Echocardiography is the gold standard for evaluation of leaflet flail and prolapse due to high sensitivity and specificity. Though most mitral valve prolapse are asymptomatic those that cause severe regurgitation need emergent surgical intervention to prevent disease progression. Case Report We report a 54 year old Hispanic male who presented with progressively worsening dyspnea and palpitations. Initial evaluation was significant for atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram with subsequent echocardiography revealing myxomatous mitral valve with prolapse. Following surgical repair of the mitral valve, the dyspnea and palpitations resolved. Conclusions Mitral valve prolapse is a common valvular abnormality but the pathogenic cause of myxomatous valves has not been elucidated. Several theories describe multiple superfamilies of proteins to be involved in the process. Proper identification of these severe mitral regurgitation due to these disease valves will help relieve symptomatic mitral valve prolapse patients. PMID:27279924

  2. Echocardiography in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation and Mitral Valve Clip

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huai

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and transcatheter mitral valve repair (MitraClip) procedures have been performed worldwide. In this paper, we review the use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional transesophageal echo for guiding transcatheter aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair. PMID:23019387

  3. A Rare Case of Mitral Valve Prolapse in Endomyocardial Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Joseph; Haranal, Maruti Yamanappa; Reddy, Shashidhar Ranga; Suryaprakash, Sharadaprasad

    2016-09-01

    Mitral valve prolapse in endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is an unusual entity. Literature search reveals only 1 report of mitral valve prolapse assosiated with EMF. A 32-year-old woman, of African origin, who presented with features of right heart failure, was diagnosed to have mitral valve prolapse of rheumatic origin with severe mitral regurgitation and severe pulmonary hypertension (PAH). Intraoperative findings lead to the diagnosis of EMF. We report this rare case of mitral valve prolapse in EMF, in a geographical area where rheumatic heart disease is endemic, to showcase how a rare manifestation of EMF can be misdiagnosed as that of rheumatic heart disease. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple purpose simulator using a natural porcine mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Arita, Makoto; Tono, Sumihiro; Kasegawa, Hitoshi; Umezu, Mitsuo

    2004-12-01

    An in vitro pulsatile simulator with a porcine mitral valve was developed in order to simulate physiologic and diseased mitral valve conditions. Evaluation of these conditions was conducted from a hydrodynamic and annulus behavior point of view. We found it possible to simulate mild "mitral valve prolapse" and to obtain quantitative data related to the condition. The diseased condition produced a 40% greater regurgitant volume than that observed under the normal condition (p < 0.0001). Regarding the leakage volume, the diseased condition exhibited about 2.6 times more leakage than the normal condition. The mitral valve simulator proposed in this study is considered fairly stable with respect to both hemodynamics and the behavior of the annulus, and it is an adequate simulator for modeling various types of normal and diseased mitral valve conditions.

  5. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroğlu, Mehmet; Salinger, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Over the last decade, several technologies have been developed for percutaneous repair of the mitral valve for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and at high-risk for the traditional open-heart mitral valve repair or replacement. Among them, MitraClip has emerged as the only clinically safe and effective method for percutaneous mitral valve repair. It is adapted from the surgical technique that was initially described by Dr. Alfieri and his group by placement of a suture approximating the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the MR jet, leading to creation of so-called bow-tie or double orifice with significant reduction in the MR jet. Here, we review the details of the technology, its procedural perspective as well as currently available data for its safety and effectiveness on a case-based report.

  6. Congenital mitral valve lesions : Correlation between morphology and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Remenyi, Bo; Gentles, Tom L

    2012-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the mitral valve are often complex and affect multiple segments of the valve apparatus. They may occur in isolation or in association with other congenital heart defects. The majority of mitral valve malformations are not simply classified, and descriptive terms with historical significance (parachute, mitral, or arcade) often lack the specificity that cardiac surgeons demand as part of preoperative echocardiographic morphological assessment. This paper examines the strengths and limitations of commonly used descriptions and classification systems of congenitally malformed mitral valves. It correlates pathological, surgical, and echocardiographic findings. Finally, it makes recommendations for the systematic evaluation of the congenitally malformed mitral valve using segmental echocardiographic analysis to assist precise communication and optimal surgical management. PMID:22529594

  7. Harken Caged-Disc Mitral Valve Replacement, 1969-1975: Analysis of Late Mortality, Thromboembolism, and Valve Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Richard J.; Czer, Lawrence S.C.; Chaux, Aurelio; Sethna, Dhun; Derobertis, Michele; Raymond, Marjorie; Matloff, Jack M.

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term outcome of mitral valve replacement with a Harken caged-disc prosthesis for up to 11 years (range, 50 to 130 months; mean, 81 months) in 170 patients whose mean age was 55 years. The early (30-day) mortality was 11.2% (19 out of 170 patients). Late follow-up information was obtained for 144 (95%) of the 151 survivors. The actuarial survival was 57% at 5 years and 40% at 10 years. Overall mortality was associated with advanced age, male sex, an ischemic origin for the mitral valve disease, and nonuse of warfarin anticoagulation. Late deaths (n=59) were valve-related in 46%, cardiac but non-valve-related in 44%, and noncardiac in 10% of the cases. One thromboembolic event or more occurred in 41 patients (incidence, 5.7% per patient year), 14 of whom died (24% of the late deaths). All four patients who were not on warfarin, aspirin, or other antithrombotic therapy experienced thromboemboli. This complication was correlated with the nonuse of warfarin-type anticoagulation, with mitral regurgitation, and with late cardiac death. Mechanical prosthetic failure resulted in reoperation or death in 7.6% of the late survivors (1.5% per patient year). In 75 patients with normally functioning prostheses, the disc-to-sewing ring ratio was established by means of cinefluoroscopy (0.93 ± 0.04, mean ± 25D). Because of the high proportion of cardiac valve-related deaths (46%), the high incidence of late mortality due to thromboembolic events (24%), and the 7.6% incidence of reoperation or death resulting from mechanical valve failure, close follow-up with cinefluoroscopy and continued warfarin anticoagulation (alone or in combination with dipyridamole) are essential after mitral valve replacement with the Harken caged-disc prosthesis. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:411-417) Images PMID:15227298

  8. Parachute mitral valve: morphologic descriptors, associated lesions, and outcomes after biventricular repair.

    PubMed

    Marino, Bradley S; Kruge, Lydia E; Cho, Catherine J; Tomlinson, Ryan S; Shera, David; Weinberg, Paul M; Gaynor, J William; Rychik, Jack

    2009-02-01

    In "true" parachute mitral valve, mitral valve chordae insert into one papillary muscle. In parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve, most or all chordal attachments are to one papillary muscle. This study compared morphologic features, associated lesions, and palliation strategies of the two parachute mitral valve and dominant papillary muscle types and examined interventions and midterm outcomes in patients with biventricular circulation. Echocardiography and autopsy databases were reviewed to identify patients with "true" parachute mitral valve or parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve from January 1987 to January 2006. Predictors of palliation strategy in the entire cohort, mitral stenosis on initial echocardiogram, and mortality in the biventricular cohort were determined with logistic regression. Eighty-six patients with "true" parachute mitral valve (n = 49) or parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve (n = 37) were identified. Chordal attachments to the posteromedial papillary muscle were more common (73%). The presence "true" parachute mitral valve (P = .008), hypoplastic left ventricle (P < .001), and two or more left-sided obstructive lesions (P = .002) predicted univentricular palliation. Among 49 patients maintaining biventricular circulation at follow-up, 8 died median follow-up 6.4 years (7 days-17.8 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that "true" parachute mitral valve was associated with mitral stenosis on initial echocardiogram (P = .03), and "true" parachute mitral valve (P = .04) and conotruncal anomalies (P = .0003) were associated with mortality. Progressive mitral stenosis was found in 11 patients; 2 underwent mitral valve interventions, and 1 died. Nearly two thirds of this parachute mitral valve cohort underwent biventricular palliation. Some progression of mitral stenosis occurred, although mitral valve intervention was rare. "True" parachute mitral valve was associated with mitral stenosis on initial echocardiogram. "True" parachute mitral

  9. Abnormal Mitral Valve Dimensions in Pediatric Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Daryl; Benson, Lee; Windram, Jonathan; Wong, Derek; Dragulescu, Andreea; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Mertens, Luc; Friedberg, Mark; Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The hearts of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) show structural abnormalities other than isolated wall thickening. Recently, adult HCM patients have been found to have longer mitral valve leaflets than control subjects. The aim of the current study was to assess whether children and adolescents with HCM have similar measureable differences in mitral valve leaflet dimensions when compared to a healthy control group. Clinical and echocardiographic data from 46 children with myocardial hypertrophy and a phenotype and/or genotype consistent with sarcomeric HCM were reviewed. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies were evaluated. The anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflet lengths and myocardial structure were compared to 20 healthy controls. The anterior mitral valve was longer in the HCM group than in the control group (28.4 ± 4.9 vs. 25.2 ± 3.6 mm in control patients, p = 0.013) as was the posterior mitral valve leaflet (16.3 ± 3.0 vs. 13.1 ± 2.3 mm for controls <0.0001). There was no correlation between the resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient and anterior mitral valve leaflet length, nor was the anterior mitral valve leaflet longer in those with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve compared to those without (28.9 ± 6.1 vs. 28.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.61). Children and adolescents with HCM have abnormally long mitral valve leaflets when compared with healthy control subjects. These abnormalities do not appear to result in, or be due to, obstruction to left ventricular outflow. The mechanism of this mitral valve elongation is not clear but appears to be independent of hemodynamic disturbances.

  10. Porcine mitral valve interstitial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Lester, W; Rosenthal, A; Granton, B; Gotlieb, A I

    1988-11-01

    There are connective tissue cells present within the interstitium of the heart valves. This study was designed to isolate and characterize mitral valve interstitial cells from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Explants obtained from the distal part of the leaflet, having been scraped free of surface endocardial cells, were incubated in medium 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells grew out of the explant after 3 to 5 days and by 3 weeks these cells were harvested and passaged. Passages 1 to 22 were characterized in several explant sets. The cells showed a growth pattern reminiscent of fibroblasts. Growth was dependent on serum concentration. Cytoskeletal localization of actin and myosin showed prominent stress fibers. Ultrastructural studies showed many elongated cells with prominent stress fibers and some gap junctions and few adherens junctions. There were as well cells with fewer stress fibers containing prominent Golgi complex and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In the multilayered superconfluent cultures, the former cells tended to be on the substratum of the dish or surface of the multilayered culture, whereas the latter was generally located within the layer of cells. Extracellular matrix was prominent in superconfluent cultures, often within the layers as well. Labeling of the cells with antibody HHF 35 (Tsukada T, Tippens D, Gordon D, Ross R, Gown AM: Am J Pathol 126:51, 1987), which recognizes smooth muscle cell actin, showed prominent staining of the elongated stress fiber-containing cells and much less in the secretory type cells. These studies show that interstitial mitral valve cells can be grown in culture and that either two different cell types or one cell type with two phenotypic expressions is present in culture.

  11. Beating-heart Mitral Valve Chordal Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Genevieve; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2011-01-01

    Replacing open-heart surgical procedures with beating-heart interventions substantially decreases the trauma and risk of a procedure. One of the most challenging procedures to perform on the beating heart is valve repair. To address this need, this paper proposes a tool for replacing mitral valve chordae to correct regurgitation. The chordae is secured to the papillary muscle and leaflet using NiTi tissue anchors that also incorporate an internal adjustment mechanism to enable initial adjustment as well as subsequent readjustment of chordae length. Efficacy of the proposed tool for chordae replacement and reduction of regurgitation was demonstrated in an ex-vivo heart simulator. PMID:22254843

  12. Anatomic regurgitant orifice area obtained using 3D-echocardiography as an indicator of severity of mitral regurgitation in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Menciotti, G; Borgarelli, M

    2017-09-27

    To determine feasibility and repeatability of measuring the anatomic regurgitant orifice area (AROA) using real-time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (RT3DE) in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), and to investigate differences in the AROA of dogs with different disease severity and in different American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) stages. Sixty privately-owned dogs diagnosed with MMVD. The echocardiographic database of our institution was retrospectively searched for dogs diagnosed with MMVD and RT3DE data set acquisition. Dogs were classified into mild, moderate, or severe MMVD according to a Mitral Regurgitation Severity Score (MRSS), and into stage B1, B2 or C according to ACVIM staging. The RT3DE data sets were imported into dedicated software and a short axis plane crossing the regurgitant orifice was used to measure the AROA. Feasibility, inter- and intra-observer variability of measuring the AROA was calculated. Differences in the AROA between dogs in different MRSS and ACVIM stages were investigated. The AROA was measurable in 60 data sets of 81 selected to be included in the study (74%). The inter- and intra-observer coefficients of variation were 26% and 21%, respectively. The AROA was significantly greater in dogs with a severe MRSS compared with dogs with mild MRSS (p=0.045). There was no difference between the AROA of dogs in different ACVIM clinical stages. Obtaining the AROA using RT3DE is feasible and might provide additional information to stratify mitral regurgitation severity in dogs with MMVD. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of the AROA deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Magnesium Levels and FGF-23 Dysregulation Predict Mitral Valve Calcification as well as Intima Media Thickness in Predialysis Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Paula; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Jerónimo, Teresa; Fragoso, André; Silva, Claudia; Guilherme, Patrícia; Santos, Nélio; Faísca, Marília; Neves, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mitral valve calcification and intima media thickness (IMT) are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) implicated with high cardiovascular mortality. Objective. To investigate the implication of magnesium and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels with mitral valve calcification and IMT in CKD diabetic patients. Methods. Observational, prospective study involving 150 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD, divided according to Wilkins Score. Carotid-echodoppler and transthoracic echocardiography were used to assess calcification. Statistical tests used to establish comparisons between groups, to identify risk factors, and to establish cut-off points for prediction of mitral valve calcification. Results. FGF-23 values continually increased with higher values for both IMT and calcification whereas the opposite trend was observed for magnesium. FGF-23 and magnesium were found to independently predict mitral valve calcification and IMT (P < 0.05). Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the number of deaths was higher in patients with lower magnesium levels and poorer Wilkins score. The mean cut-off value for FGF-23 was 117 RU/mL and for magnesium 1.7 mg/dL. Conclusions. Hypomagnesemia and high FGF-23 levels are independent predictors of mitral valve calcification and IMT and are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in this population. They might be used as diagnostic/therapeutic targets in order to better manage the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients.

  14. Low Magnesium Levels and FGF-23 Dysregulation Predict Mitral Valve Calcification as well as Intima Media Thickness in Predialysis Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jerónimo, Teresa; Fragoso, André; Silva, Claudia; Guilherme, Patrícia; Santos, Nélio; Faísca, Marília; Neves, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mitral valve calcification and intima media thickness (IMT) are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) implicated with high cardiovascular mortality. Objective. To investigate the implication of magnesium and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels with mitral valve calcification and IMT in CKD diabetic patients. Methods. Observational, prospective study involving 150 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD, divided according to Wilkins Score. Carotid-echodoppler and transthoracic echocardiography were used to assess calcification. Statistical tests used to establish comparisons between groups, to identify risk factors, and to establish cut-off points for prediction of mitral valve calcification. Results. FGF-23 values continually increased with higher values for both IMT and calcification whereas the opposite trend was observed for magnesium. FGF-23 and magnesium were found to independently predict mitral valve calcification and IMT (P < 0.05). Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the number of deaths was higher in patients with lower magnesium levels and poorer Wilkins score. The mean cut-off value for FGF-23 was 117 RU/mL and for magnesium 1.7 mg/dL. Conclusions. Hypomagnesemia and high FGF-23 levels are independent predictors of mitral valve calcification and IMT and are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in this population. They might be used as diagnostic/therapeutic targets in order to better manage the high cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. PMID:26089881

  15. Is minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery the new benchmark for treating mitral valve disease?

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of mitral valve disease remains dynamic; surgeons and patients must now choose between many different surgical options when addressing mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Notably, advances in imaging and surgical instrumentation allow surgeons to perform less invasive mitral valve surgery that spares the sternum. With favorable long-term data now emerging, we compare the benefits and risks of thoracoscopic mitral valve surgery with that through conventional sternotomy or surgery that is robot-assisted. PMID:27942489

  16. Impact of interventional edge-to-edge repair on mitral valve geometry.

    PubMed

    Schueler, Robert; Kaplan, Sarah; Melzer, Charlotte; Öztürk, Can; Weber, Marcel; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Welz, Armin; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Hammerstingl, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    The acute and long-term effects of interventional edge-to-edge repair on the mitral valve (MV) geometry are unclear. We sought to assess MV-annular geometry and the association of changes in MV-diameters with functional response one year after MitraClip implantation. Consecutive patients (n=84; age 81.2±8.3years, logistic EuroSCORE 21.7±17.9%) with symptomatic moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent MitraClip-procedure. MV-annular geometry was assessed with 3D TOE before, immediately and one year after clip implantation. 96.7% of secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) patients presented with moderate-to-severe MR, 3.3% with severe SMR, respectively. 66.7% of primary MR (PMR) patients had moderate-to-severe MR, and 33.3% severe PMR respectively. When analyzing immediate effects of MitraClipC on mitral geometry, only patients with SMR (n=60, 71.4%) experienced significant reductions of the diastolic MV anterior-posterior diameters (AP: 3.9±0.5cm, 3.5±0.7cm; p<0.001), and annulus-areas (2D: 12.9±3.8cm2, 12.6±3.7cm2; p<0.001; 3D: 13.4±3.8, 13.1±3.2cm2; p<0.001). All measures on MV annular geometry were not significantly altered in patients with PMR (p>0.05). After one year of follow-up, MV annular parameters remained significantly reduced in SMR patients (p<0.05) and remained unchanged in subjects with PMR (p>0.05). Only SMR patients experienced significant increase in 6min walking distances (p=0.004), decrease in pulmonary pressures (p=0.007) and functional NYHA-class (p<0.001); in patients with PMR only NYHA class improved after one year (p<0.001). Edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip-system impacts on MV-geometry in patients with SMR with stable results after 12months. Reduction of MV-annular dimensions was associated with higher rates of persisting MR reduction and better functional status in patients with SMR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurements of the pulmonary vasculature on thoracic radiographs in healthy dogs compared to dogs with mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Oui, Heejin; Oh, Juyeon; Keh, Seoyeon; Lee, Gahyun; Jeon, Sunghoon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    This study reassessed the previously reported radiographic method of comparing pulmonary vessels versus rib diameter for differentiating healthy dogs and dogs with mitral regurgitation. The width of the right cranial pulmonary artery and vein at the fourth rib level, right caudal pulmonary artery and vein at the ninth rib level, and the diameters of the fourth rib and ninth rib were measured in prospectively recruited healthy dogs (n = 40) and retrospectively recruited dogs with mitral regurgitation (n = 58). In healthy dogs, the pulmonary arteries and accompanying veins were similar in size. The cranial lobar vessels were smaller than the fourth rib. However, 67.5% of right caudal pulmonary artery diameters and 65% of vein diameters were larger than the ninth rib in healthy dogs. The right caudal pulmonary vein diameter in dogs with mitral regurgitation, particularly those within moderate and severe grades, was significantly larger than that in healthy dogs (P < 0.001). The comparative method used to detect enlargement of the right caudal pulmonary vein relative to the accompanying pulmonary artery had the highest sensitivity (80.2%) and specificity (82.5%) for predicting mitral regurgitation. A cut-off of 1.22 when applying the ninth rib criterion had better specificity (73%) than the most used value ≤ 1 (89.7% sensitivity and 63.8% specificity), although it has less sensitivity (73%). We recommend using the accompanying pulmonary artery and 1.22 × the diameter of the ninth rib as a radiographic criterion for assessing the size of the right caudal pulmonary vein and differentiating healthy dogs from those with mitral regurgitation. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Echocardiography in evaluation of mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Watts, E; Nomeir, A M; Barnes, R

    1975-06-01

    Thirty-three patients with mitral valve prostheses were studied with echocardiography in an effort to determine if this technique could be useful in detecting significant abnormalities. Recordings were obtained in the supine position with the transducer directed to record maximum excursion of the prosthesis. Echoes from the struts, poppet and sewing ring were readily recorded. Amplitude of excursion and opening and closing velocities of the poppet were measured. Fifty echocardiographic recordings were obtained from the 33 patients. Of the 33 patients studied, 22 were thought to have "normal" echo tracings while in 11, the tracings were considered "abnormal." Apparent abnormalities consisted of: 1) abnormal diastolic separation between the poppet and strut, 2) increased echoes near the poppet, strut or sewing ring and 3) a combination of both. There was only one instance of suspected "sticking" of the prosthesis. All patients who had "abnormal" studies except one developed complications associated with their prosthesis (90%) compared to only 36% in patients with "normal" tracings. Five patients in each group died. Autopsy studies are described and correlations with the echocardiographic findings are made. In low profile valves reduction in excursion of the disc may be an indication of malfunction. Echocardiography appears to be of value in the assessment of function of mitral valve prostheses.

  19. Repeat mitral valve replacement: 30-years' experience.

    PubMed

    Expósito, Víctor; García-Camarero, Tamara; Bernal, José M; Arnáiz, Elena; Sarralde, Aurelio; García, Iván; Berrazueta, José R; Revuelta, José M

    2009-08-01

    Prosthetic heart valve dysfunction is an acquired condition that carries a significant risk of emergency surgery. However, the long-term natural history of the condition is not well understood. Between 1974 and 2006, 1535 isolated mitral valve replacements were performed at our hospital (in-hospital mortality 5%). In total, 369 patients needed a second operation (in-hospital mortality 8.1%), while 80 (age 59.8+/-11.4 years) needed a third. The reasons for the third intervention were structural deterioration (67.5%), paravalvular leak (20%) and endocarditis (6.3%). Some 15 patients died in hospital (18.8%). After a mean follow-up period of 17.8 years, 21 patients needed another intervention (i.e., a fourth intervention). The actuarial reoperation-free rate at 20 years was 40.1+/-13.8%. The late mortality rate was 58.5% (18-year survival rate 15.4+/-5.4%). Indications for repeat mitral valve replacement must be judged on an individual basis given the high risk associated with surgery.

  20. Impact and evolution of right ventricular dysfunction after successful MitraClip implantation in patients with functional mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Godino, Cosmo; Salerno, Anna; Cera, Michela; Agricola, Eustachio; Fragasso, Gabriele; Rosa, Isabella; Oppizzi, Michele; Monello, Alberto; Scotti, Andrea; Magni, Valeria; Montorfano, Matteo; Cappelletti, Alberto; Margonato, Alberto; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction (RVdysf) is a predictor of poor outcome in patients with heart failure and valvular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution and the impact of RVdysf in patients with moderate-severe functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) successfully treated with MitraClip. From October 2008 to July 2014, 60 consecutive high surgical risk FMR patients were evaluated and stratified into two groups: RVdysf group (TAPSE < 16 mm and/or S'TDI < 10 cm/s, 21 patients) and No-RVdysf group (38 patients). The overall mean age of patients was 73 ± 8 (83% male). Ischemic FMR etiology was present in 67%. Mean LVEF was 30 ± 10%. Overall mean time follow-up was 565 ± 310 days. The only significant difference between the two groups was a greater prevalence of stroke, ICD and use of aldosterone antagonist in RVdysf group. Acute procedural success was achieved in 90% of patients. At 6-month echo-matched analysis significant RV function improvement was observed in patients with baseline RVdysf (TAPSE 15 ± 3.0 vs. 19 ± 4.5, p = 0.007; S'TDI 7 ± 1.2 vs. 11 ± 2.8, p < 0.0001; baseline vs. 6-month, respectively). The mean improvement in the 6-min walking test was significant in both groups (120 and 143 m, RVdysf and No-RVdysf groups, respectively). At Kaplan-Meier analysis, the presence of RVdysf did not affect the outcome in terms of freedom from composite efficacy endpoint. This study shows that successful MitraClip implantation in patients with FMR and concomitant right ventricular dysfunction yields significant improvement of RV function at mid-term follow-up. Further data on larger population will be required to confirm our observations.

  1. Mitral Valve Surgery: Current Minimally Invasive and Transcatheter Options.

    PubMed

    Ramlawi, Basel; Gammie, James S

    2016-01-01

    The mitral valve is a highly complex structure, the competency and function of which relies on the harmonious action of its component parts. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR/r) has been performed successfully with incremental improvements in techniques over the past decade. These minimally invasive procedures, while attractive to patients and referring physicians, should meet the same high bar for optimal clinical outcomes and long-term durability of valve repair as traditional sternotomy procedures. The majority of MICS MVR/r procedures are performed via a right minithoracotomy approach with direct or camera-assisted visualization, with a minority of centers performing robotic MVR/r. Outcomes with MICS MVR/r have been shown to have similar morbidity and mortality rates as traditional sternotomy MV procedures but with the advantage of reduced transfusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and time to recovery. More recently, transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement (TMVR/r) has become a reality. Percutaneous MV repair technology is currently FDA approved for patients with nonsurgical high-risk degenerative mitral regurgitation. Other TMVR/r technology is at various levels of preclinical and clinical investigation, although these devices are proving to be more challenging compared to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) due to the significantly more complex mitral anatomy and the greater heterogeneity of mitral disease requiring treatment. In this article, we review current techniques for MICS MVR/r and upcoming catheter-based therapies for the mitral valve.

  2. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Ruptured Mitral Chordae Tendineae.

    PubMed

    Toma, Milan; Bloodworth, Charles H; Pierce, Eric L; Einstein, Daniel R; Cochran, Richard P; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Kunzelman, Karyn S

    2017-03-01

    The chordal structure is a part of mitral valve geometry that has been commonly neglected or simplified in computational modeling due to its complexity. However, these simplifications cannot be used when investigating the roles of individual chordae tendineae in mitral valve closure. For the first time, advancements in imaging, computational techniques, and hardware technology make it possible to create models of the mitral valve without simplifications to its complex geometry, and to quickly run validated computer simulations that more realistically capture its function. Such simulations can then be used for a detailed analysis of chordae-related diseases. In this work, a comprehensive model of a subject-specific mitral valve with detailed chordal structure is used to analyze the distinct role played by individual chordae in closure of the mitral valve leaflets. Mitral closure was simulated for 51 possible chordal rupture points. Resultant regurgitant orifice area and strain change in the chordae at the papillary muscle tips were then calculated to examine the role of each ruptured chorda in the mitral valve closure. For certain subclassifications of chordae, regurgitant orifice area was found to trend positively with ruptured chordal diameter, and strain changes correlated negatively with regurgitant orifice area. Further advancements in clinical imaging modalities, coupled with the next generation of computational techniques will enable more physiologically realistic simulations.

  3. Mitral Valve Surgery: Current Minimally Invasive and Transcatheter Options

    PubMed Central

    Ramlawi, Basel; Gammie, James S.

    2016-01-01

    The mitral valve is a highly complex structure, the competency and function of which relies on the harmonious action of its component parts. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR/r) has been performed successfully with incremental improvements in techniques over the past decade. These minimally invasive procedures, while attractive to patients and referring physicians, should meet the same high bar for optimal clinical outcomes and long-term durability of valve repair as traditional sternotomy procedures. The majority of MICS MVR/r procedures are performed via a right minithoracotomy approach with direct or camera-assisted visualization, with a minority of centers performing robotic MVR/r. Outcomes with MICS MVR/r have been shown to have similar morbidity and mortality rates as traditional sternotomy MV procedures but with the advantage of reduced transfusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and time to recovery. More recently, transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement (TMVR/r) has become a reality. Percutaneous MV repair technology is currently FDA approved for patients with nonsurgical high-risk degenerative mitral regurgitation. Other TMVR/r technology is at various levels of preclinical and clinical investigation, although these devices are proving to be more challenging compared to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) due to the significantly more complex mitral anatomy and the greater heterogeneity of mitral disease requiring treatment. In this article, we review current techniques for MICS MVR/r and upcoming catheter-based therapies for the mitral valve. PMID:27127558

  4. [Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy using Inoue's balloon during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Murillo, H; Ayala, F; Badui, E; Almazán, A; Solorio, S; Enciso, R; Madrid, R; Lepe, L; Rangel Abundis, A; Chávez, E

    1996-01-01

    The authors present three cases of pregnant women with symptomatic severe mitral stenosis with a mean age of 28.6 +/- 2.3 years, and during 27.6 +/- 1.52 weeks of pregnancy. Two patients were in class III and one in class IV of the New York Heart Association (NYHA). All patients had a mitral valvular area equal or less than 1 cm2, with a Wilkins score of 7 to 9 and mitral insufficiency grade I in two cases; two, had severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean > 50 mm Hg). After Percutaneous Mitral Valvuloplasty (PMV) the mitral valve measured by 2D echocardiography increased form 0.83 +/- 0.2 cm2 to 1.8 +/- 0.15 cm2; the mean transmitral gradient diminished from 13 +/- 3.4 mm Hg to 3.6 +/- 1.15 mm Hg; the degree of mitral insufficiency was no modified in neither case. Hemodynamic results revealed increasing of the mitral valve from 0.83 +/- 0.18 cm2 to 2.23 +/- 0.3 cm2; the mean mitral gradient decreased from 21.6 +/- 9 to 4.3 +/- 0.5 mm Hg; the mean left atrial pressure from 30 +/- 12 to 12.3 +/- 4 mm Hg; the mean pressure of the pulmonary artery diminished suddenly from 44.3 +/- 16 to 25.6 +/- 11 mm Hg. The average fluoroscopic time was 15.3 +/- 3 minutes. There were no complications. The patients were discharged 48 hours after the procedure and continued their pregnancies in class I NYHA, which resolved in a non complicated vaginal delivery with normal products. We conclude that PMV is a safe and useful therapy in pregnant patient with severe mitral stenosis refractory to medical treatment.

  5. Echocardiographic analysis of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Tri, Terry B.; Gregoratos, Gabriel

    1981-03-01

    Although the Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis was removed from the market nearly a decade ago, a number of patients still have this valve in place. We recently studied the echocardiographic features of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis. Abnormalities that suggested improper functioning of the prosthesis included a markedly delayed poppet opening and an early diastolic hump believed to represent motion of the mitral annulus. Previously described echocardiographic indications of dys-function were not observed in our patient. We report the first known echocardiographic evaluation of a Davila-Sierra prosthesis.

  6. Echocardiographic analysis of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve

    PubMed Central

    Tri, Terry B.; Gregoratos, Gabriel

    1981-01-01

    Although the Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis was removed from the market nearly a decade ago, a number of patients still have this valve in place. We recently studied the echocardiographic features of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis. Abnormalities that suggested improper functioning of the prosthesis included a markedly delayed poppet opening and an early diastolic hump believed to represent motion of the mitral annulus. Previously described echocardiographic indications of dys-function were not observed in our patient. We report the first known echocardiographic evaluation of a Davila-Sierra prosthesis. Images PMID:15216230

  7. [A Case of Mitral Valvular Re-repair in a Patient with Hemolytic Anemia after Mitral Valvular Repair].

    PubMed

    Tomino, Mikiko; Miyata, Kazuto; Takeshita, Yuji; Kaneko, Koki; Kanazawa, Hiroko; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted for mitral valvular repair. After folding plasty to A3, a 30 mm Cosgrove-Edwards ring was placed. There was no mitral regurgitation jet observed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during the operation. However, high blood pressure was monitored and treated in the intensive care unit, hemolytic anemia developed, and the serum lactate dehydrogenase level was elevated. Two weeks after the operation, serum lactate dehydrogenase was again elevated. TEE showed mild mitral regurgitation and the regurgitation jet colliding with the annuloplasty ring. Multiple transfusions of red blood cells were required. Repeat surgery was therefore undertaken. Lam and associates previously studying patients on hemolysis after mitral valvular repair noted high grade mitral regurgitation jets fragmented or accelerated. In the present case, mitral regurgitation was mild, but the high velocity and manner of regurgitation (collision with the annuloplasty ring) could cause hemolytic anemia. In the present case, high blood pressure might have caused chordae rupture. Furthermore, a flexible ring, such as the Cosgrove-Edwards ring, is likely to cause hemolytic anemia. As contributing factors to hemolysis after mitral valvular repair, perioperative blood pressure management and type of ring are significant.

  8. Resolution of massive left atrial appendage thrombi with rivaroxaban before balloon mitral commissurotomy in severe mitral stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuechun; Lin, Jiafeng; Peng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Data on nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant being used for the treatment of LAA thrombi are limited only in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. There are no data on the antithrombotic efficacy and safety of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant in the resolution of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombi in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Patient concerns: A 49-year-old woman with known rheumatic mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation was referred for percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy because of progressive dyspnea on exertion over a period of 3 months. Diagnoses: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated a large LAA thrombus protruding into left atria cavity before the procedure. Interventions: Direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor rivaroxaban (20 mg/d) was started for the patient. After 3 weeks of rivaroxaban treatment TEE showed a relevantly decreased thrombus size, and a complete thrombus resolution was achieved after 5 weeks of anticoagulant therapy with the FXa inhibitor. Outcomes: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of large LAA thrombus resolution with nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant in severe mitral stenosis, and in which percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy was performed subsequently. Lessons: The report indicated that rivaroxaban could be a therapeutic option for mitral stenosis patients with LAA thrombus. Further study is required before the routine use of rivaroxaban in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. PMID:27930571

  9. Study of Effectiveness and Safety of Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvulotomy for Treatment of Pregnant Patients with Severe Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hasit Sureshbhai; Deshmukh, Jagjeet Kishanrao; Prajapati, Jayesh Somabhai; Sahoo, Sibasis Shahsikant; Vyas, Pooja Maheshbhai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In pregnant women mitral stenosis is the commonest cardiac valvular lesion. When it is present in majorly severe condition it leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In mitral stenosis pregnancy can lead to development of heart failure. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of balloon mitral valvulotomy (BMV) in pregnant females with severe mitral stenosis. Materials and Methods A total of 30 pregnant patients who underwent BMV were included in the study from July 2011 to November 2013. Clinical follow-up during pregnancy was done every 3 months until delivery and after delivery. The mean follow up time after BMV was 6.72±0.56 months. Results From the 30 pregnant females 14 (46.67%) and 16 (53.3%) patients underwent BMV during the third and second trimester of pregnancy respectively. The mean mitral valve area was 0.85+0.16 cm2 before BMV that increased to 1.60+0.27 cm2 (p<0.0001) immediately after BMV. Peak and mean diastolic gradients had decreased significantly within 48 hours after the procedure (p<0.001) but remained very much unchanged at 6.72 month period of follow-up. Two patients had an increase in mitral regurgitation by 2 grades. Conclusion During pregnancy BMV technique is safe and effective in patients with severe mitral stenosis. This results in marked symptomatic relief along with long term maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:26816932

  10. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip for severe functional mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Khung Keong; Ding, Zee Pin; Chua, Yeow Leng; Lim, Soo Teik; Sin, Kenny Yoong Kong; Tan, Jack Wei Chieh; Chiam, Paul Toon Lim; Hwang, Nian Chih; Koh, Tian Hai

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old Chinese woman with comorbidities of chronic obstructive lung disease, hypertension and prior coronary artery bypass surgery presented with severe functional mitral regurgitation (MR) and severely depressed left ventricular function. She was in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-III. Due to high surgical risk, she was referred for percutaneous treatment with the MitraClip valve repair system. This procedure is typically performed via the femoral venous system and involves a transseptal puncture. A clip is delivered to grasp the regurgitant mitral valve leaflets and reduce MR. This was performed uneventfully in our patient, with reduction of MR from 4+ to 1+. She was discharged on post-procedure Day 2 and her NYHA class improved to Class I. This was the first successful MitraClip procedure performed in Asia and represents a valuable treatment option in patients with severe MR, especially those with functional MR or those at high surgical risk.

  11. Redo mitral valve replacement through a right mini-thoracotomy with an unclamped aorta.

    PubMed

    Botta, Luca; Fratto, Pasquale; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Merlanti, Bruno; Brignani, Christian; Bosi, Mauro; Martinelli, Luigi

    2014-08-14

    Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve (MV) re operations can particularly be demanding in patients with patent coronary grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, leaks or thrombosis). In this article we describe our technique to manage complex mitral reoperations using a minimally invasive approach, moderate hypothermia and avoiding aortic cross-clamping. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of less invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. The advantage of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, reducing the risk of cardiac structures or patent graft injury. Moderate hypothermia and continuous blood perfusion can guarantee adequate myocardial protection particularly in the case of patent grafts, decreasing the dangers of an incomplete or imperfect aortic clamping at mild hypothermia and potential lesions due to demanding clamp placing. Complex MV reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space with an unclamped aorta.

  12. Intentional Laceration of the Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet to Prevent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction During Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jaffar M.; Rogers, Toby; Schenke, William H.; Mazal, Jonathan R.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Greenbaum, Adam B.; Babaliaros, Vasilis C.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The authors propose a novel transcatheter transection of the anterior mitral leaflet to prevent iatrogenic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction during transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). BACKGROUND LVOT obstruction is a life-threatening complication of TMVR caused by septal displacement of the anterior mitral leaflet. METHODS In vivo procedures in swine were guided by biplane x-ray fluoroscopy and intracardiac echocardiography. Retrograde transaortic 6-F guiding catheters straddled the anterior mitral leaflet. A stiff 0.014-inch guidewire with polymer jacket insulation was electrified and advanced from the LVOT, through the A2 leaflet base, into the left atrium. The wire was snared and externalized, forming a loop that was energized and withdrawn to lacerate the anterior mitral leaflet. RESULTS The anterior mitral leaflet was successfully lacerated in 7 live and 1 post-mortem swine under heparinization. Lacerations extended to 89 ± 19% of leaflet length and were located within 0.5 ± 0.4 mm of leaflet centerline. The chordae were preserved and retracted the leaflet halves away from the LVOT. LVOT narrowing after benchtop TMVR was significantly reduced with intentional laceration of the anterior mitral leaflet to prevent LVOT obstruction than without (65 ± 10% vs. 31 ± 18% of pre-implantation diameter, p < 0.01). The technique caused mean blood pressure to fall (from 54 ± 6 mm Hg to 30 ± 4 mm Hg, p < 0.01), but blood pressure remained steady until planned euthanasia. No collateral tissue injury was identified on necropsy. CONCLUSIONS Using simple catheter techniques, the anterior mitral valve leaflet was transected. Cautiously applied in patients, this strategy can prevent anterior mitral leaflet displacement and LVOT obstruction caused by TMVR. PMID:27609260

  13. Usefulness of the MrWALLETS Scoring System to Predict First Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Antonio; Bonfiglioli, Andrea; Faccioli, Luca; Ghinelli, Marco; Magalotti, Donatella; Manzetto, Francesco; Pontarin, Anna; Puddu, Giovanni M; Spinardi, Luca; Tubertini, Eleonora; Zoli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Some cryptogenic strokes are caused by undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) and could benefit from oral anticoagulation. In this study, we searched for echocardiographic parameters associated with first diagnosed AF, to form a scoring system for the identification of patients with AF. We examined 571 patients with ischemic stroke (72.7 ± 13.5 years, 50.6% women), subdivided into 4 groups: documented cause without AF, first diagnosed AF, known paroxysmal AF, and permanent AF. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography, brain computed tomography scan, carotid/vertebral ultrasound, and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Eight factors independently characterized first diagnosed AF and formed the "MrWALLETS" score: mitral regurgitation, mild-to-moderate (+1), white matter lesions (-1), age ≥75 years (+1), left atrium ≥4 cm (+1), cerebral lesion diameter ≥4 cm (+1), left ventricular end-diastolic volume <65 ml (+1), tricuspid regurgitation ≥moderate (+1), carotid stenosis ≥50% (-1). In the patients with ≥3 points, positive predictive value was 80%, specificity 97.5%, and sensitivity 57.1%. In the patients with ≥2 points sensitivity rose to 85.7%, but positive predictive value was 47.1%. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.95). There were important differences among AF groups, which therefore could not be merged. In conclusion, 4 echocardiographic parameters, 3 additional instrumental parameters, and age allow the identification of stroke patients with first diagnosed AF with high positive predictive value.

  14. Sinus Rhythm in Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis after Balloon Mitral Valvotomy: Is it Feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anand N; Shah, Saurin; Nayak, Vidya; Prabhu, Sridevi; Pai, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is largely present in patients with rheumatic valvular disease, leading to hospitalizations. Aim We aimed to study the restoration and maintenance of Sinus Rhythm (SR) in rheumatic patients with Mitral Stenosis (MS) and AF after Balloon Mitral Valvotomy (BMV) and evaluated the factors which affect the maintenance of SR. Materials and Methods A total of 50 patients who underwent BMV at U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre from 2010 November to 2013 January were included in the study. Subsequently, all patients were treated with amiodarone and electrical cardioversion was applied in patients in whom it was necessary. The patients were followed for six months for conversion and maintenance of SR. Results Total 34 (68%) patients reverted to SR. Twelve patients reverted to SR with amiodarone and 22 patients with electrical cardioversion and amiodarone. Out of the total, 29 patients and 26 patients remained in SR at the end of follow up at 3 months and 6 months respectively. Conclusion Smaller Left Atrial (LA) size and greater Mitral Valve Area (MVA) are the chief predictors of restoration and maintenance of SR. Combining BMV with an aggressive anti-arrhythmic strategy offers the best prospect of rhythm control. PMID:28384905

  15. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePlus

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a stroke lasts only a few minutes. It happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of a TIA are like other stroke symptoms, but do not ...

  16. Lubiprostone induced ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Sherid, Muhammed; Sifuentes, Humberto; Samo, Salih; Deepak, Parakkal; Sridhar, Subbaramiah

    2013-01-14

    Ischemic colitis accounts for 6%-18% of the causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is often multifactorial and more commonly encountered in the elderly. Several medications have been implicated in the development of colonic ischemia. We report a case of a 54-year old woman who presented with a two-hour history of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stool. The patient had recently used lubiprostone with close temporal relationship between the increase in the dose and her symptoms of rectal bleeding. The radiologic, colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were all consistent with ischemic colitis. Her condition improved without any serious complications after the cessation of lubiprostone. This is the first reported case of ischemic colitis with a clear relationship with lubiprostone (Naranjo score of 10). Clinical vigilance for ischemic colitis is recommended for patients receiving lubiprostone who are presenting with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding.

  17. Aortic and mitral valve surgery on the beating heart is lowering cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp time.

    PubMed

    Gersak, Borut; Sutlic, Zeljko

    2002-01-01

    The concept of cardiac surgery on the beating heart is acceptable rationale for the cardiac surgery in the next millenium. Beating heart (off-pump) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) techniques have led us to consider the possibility for performing the aortic and mitral valve surgery (mitral valve repairs and replacements - with or without CABG) on the beating heart with the technique of retrograde oxygenated coronary sinus perfusion. We used the technique of retrograde oxygenated blood coronary sinus perfusion in 78 patients (Group All) - (36 patients were with extremely low ejection fraction (Group X) - 62% of whom were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 4 and 34% of whom were in NYHA class 3). The procedures for the patients were: aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve surgery, in combination with CABG in ischemic patients. CABG was done in all the cases off-pump. In addition, we performed a case match study for 37 patients with good ejection fraction (51.65 +/- 11.88) (Beating Heart Group) operated on the beating heart with most appropriate group of patients (No. 37) operated in our institutions on arrested heart (ejection fraction 51.07 +/- 12.93) (Arrested Heart Group). The case match selection criteria were: gender, left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and diabetes. The selected beating heart group and selected arrested heart groups were without statistically significant differences for the mentioned criteria. There were statistically significant differences between Beating Heart Group and Arrested Heart Group in the duration of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Time (69.35 +/- 13.52 min. versus 93.59 +/- 28.54 min.), p<0.001, and statistically significant differences in Aortic Cross Clamp Time (46.5 +/- 8.95 min. versus 61.5 +/- 18.34 min.), p<0.001. The values for Creatinin Kinase (CK) and LDH were not statistically different, however the absolute values for Beating Heart Group were lower. There was no

  18. Dissection of the atrial wall after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, L; Kassai, I; Lengyel, M

    1996-01-01

    We describe an unusual sequela of mitral valve replacement in a 50-year-old woman who had undergone a closed mitral commissurotomy in 1975. She was admitted to our hospital because of mitral restenosis in November 1993, at which time her mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis. On the 8th postoperative day, the patient developed symptoms of heart failure; transesophageal echocardiography revealed dissection and rupture of the left atrial wall. At prompt reoperation, we found an interlayer dissection and rupture of the atrial wall into the left atrium. We repaired the ruptured atrial wall with a prosthetic patch. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative transesophageal echocardiography showed normal prosthetic valve function and no dissection. Images PMID:8680278

  19. Minimally Invasive, Nonsurgical Approach to Repairing Mitral Valve Leaks

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally Invasive, Nonsurgical Approach to Repairing Mitral Valve Leaks - David X. Zhao, MD Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights ...

  20. MitraClip catheter-based mitral valve repair system.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Anders; Settergren, Magnus

    2010-07-01

    The ongoing evolution of transcatheter valve technology is impressive. Mitral valve regurgitation is the most common type of heart valve insufficiency and mitral valve surgery is, next to aortic valve surgery, the second leading valvular surgical procedure in the western world. However, there is a large patient population suffering from mitral valve regurgitation that is currently not treated with heart surgery because of significant morbidity and mortality risks. This large underserved patient population could benefit from a less invasive treatment. The MitraClip system (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA, USA) is the first commercially available medical technology providing a catheter-based nonsurgical repair alternative for patients suffering from mitral valve regurgitation and has the greatest clinical experience compared with other alternative devices. The device is currently in late-stage clinical trials in the USA and has received the CE mark.

  1. [Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in patients undergoing robotic mitral valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Gao, Changqing; Xiao, Cangsong; Yang, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiali; Shen, Yansong

    2012-12-01

    To retrospectively assess the value of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during robotic mitral valve (MV) replacement. Intraoperative TEE was performed in 21 patients undergoing robotic MV replacement for severe rheumatic mitral stenosis between November 2008 and December 2010. During the procedure, TEE was performed to document the mechanism of rheumatic mitral stenosis (leaflet thickening and calcification, commissural fusion or chordal fusion) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During the establishment of peripheral CPB, TEE was used to guide the placement of the cannulae in the inferior vena cava (IVC), superior vena cava (SVC), and ascending aorta (AAO). After weaning from CPB, TEE was performed to evaluate the effect of the procedure. Accuracy of TEE was 100% for rheumatic mitral stenosis. All the cannuli in the SVC, IVC and AAO were located in the correct position. In all patients, TEE confirmed successful procedure. TEE is useful in the assessment of robotic MV replacement.

  2. Mitral valve aneurysm associated with aortic valve endocarditis and regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Raval, Amish N; Menkis, Alan H; Boughner, Derek R

    2002-01-01

    Mitral valve aneurysms are rare complications occurring most commonly in association with aortic valve infective endocarditis. [Decroly 1989, Chua 1990, Northridge 1991, Karalis 1992, Roguin 1996, Mollod 1997, Vilacosta 1997, Cai 1999, Vilacosta 1999, Teskey 1999, Chan 2000, Goh 2000, Marcos- Alberca 2000] While the mechanism of the development of this lesion is unclear, complications such as perforation can occur and lead to significant mitral regurgitation. [Decroly 1989, Karalis 1992, Teskey 1999, Vilacosta 1999]; The case of a 69-year-old male with Streptococcus Sanguis aortic valve endocarditis and associated anterior mitral leaflet aneurysm is presented. Following surgery, tissue pathology of the excised lesion revealed myxomatous degeneration and no active endocarditis or inflammatory cells. This may add support to the hypothesis that physical stress due to severe aortic insufficiency and structural weakening, without infection of the anterior mitral leaflet, can lead to the development of this lesion.

  3. Robotic mitral valve surgery: current limitations and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Rakesh; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Use of the surgical robot facilitates less invasive mitral valve surgery. Although multiple single center studies confirmed excellent results with robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery, both real and perceived limitations have slowed adoption of this technology. Some still question the safety and efficacy of robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery. However, present data suggests that robotic operations can be performed by specialized surgeons in appropriately selected patients without compromising results. That said, the robot does introduce additional procedural complexity related to management of cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection. A direct approach to these challenges combined with careful patient selection enables the surgeon to obtain excellent results with robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery. PMID:27942490

  4. Mitral valve aneurysm: A serious complication of aortic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria João; Alves, Vasco; Cabral, Sofia; Antunes, Nuno; Pereira, Luís Sousa; Oliveira, Filomena; Silveira, João; Torres, Severo

    2016-11-01

    Mitral valve aneurysms are rare and occur most commonly in association with aortic valve endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography is the most sensitive imaging modality for the diagnosis of this entity and its potential complications, such as leaflet rupture and mitral regurgitation, which mandate prompt surgical intervention. We present the case of a 70-year-old male patient with aortic valve endocarditis complicated with a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet and associated severe mitral regurgitation, diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography, with impressive images. We hypothesized that the aneurysm developed through direct extension of infection from the aortic valve or from a prolapsing aortic vegetation, with abscess formation and subsequent rupture and drainage. This case highlights the importance of appropriate imaging for early detection and timely surgical intervention (repair or replacement) to prevent fatal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A pathoanatomic approach to the management of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, Vinay; Smith, Anson J C; Cavalcante, João L

    2016-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation remains the most common global valvular heart disease. From otherwise unsuspecting healthy patients without overt symptoms to those with recalcitrant heart failure, mitral valve (MV) disease touches millions of patients per year. While MV prolapse without regurgitation remains benign, once regurgitation begins, quantification of severity is related to prognosis. Understanding the mechanism of regurgitation guides appropriate treatment. Current management guidelines emphasize early therapy after careful assessment of both anatomy and severity of mitral regurgitation. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the treatment of MV disease and to offer additional granularity on pathoanatomic decision making that may aid a more precise application of optimal guideline-directed therapy of primary and secondary mitral regurgitation.

  6. Severe mitral regurgitation unmasked after bilateral lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Udoji, Timothy N; Force, Seth D; Pelaez, Andres

    2013-09-01

    Abstract A 33-year-old female patient with advanced idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension underwent bilateral lung transplantation. The postsurgical course was complicated by prolonged mechanical ventilation and acute hypoxemia with recurrent episodes of pulmonary edema. An echocardiogram revealed improved right-sided pressures along with a dilated left atrium, a structurally normal mitral valve, and a new posterior-oriented severe mitral regurgitation. The patient's condition improved after treatment with arterial vasodilators and diuretics, and she has remained in World Health Organization functional class I after almost 36 months of follow-up. We hypothesize that cardiac ventricle remodeling and a geometric change in mitral valve apparatus after transplantation led to the hemodynamic changes and recurrent pulmonary edema seen in our patient. Our case is, to our knowledge, the second report of severe valvular regurgitation in a structurally normal mitral valve apparatus in the postoperative period and the first of a patient to be treated without valve replacement.

  7. Early Stabilization of Traumatic Aortic Transection and Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, David L.; Wellens, Francis; Vercoutere, Rik A.; De Geest, Raf

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening aortic transection with concomitant mitral papillary muscle rupture and severe lung contusion caused by a failed parachute jump. This blunt thoracic injury was treated by early stabilization with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by successful delayed graft repair of the descending aorta and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:65–7) PMID:12638675

  8. Severe rheumatic mitral stenosis: a 21st century medusa.

    PubMed

    Carrilho-Ferreira, Pedro; Pedro, Monica Mendes; Varela, Manuel Gato; Diogo, Antonio Nunes

    2011-09-12

    Although the prevalence of rheumatic fever has greatly decreased in developed countries, rheumatic mitral stenosis still causes significant morbidity and mortality. Symptomatic patients have a poor prognosis, with a 0 to 15% 10-year survival rate, particularly if percutaneous or surgical intervention are contraindicated or considered high risk. We present a case of severe rheumatic mitral stenosis with an evolution over 4 decades, in which exceptional venous distention has established.

  9. Isolated true parachute mitral valve in an asymptomatic elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Onishi, Tetsuari; Omar, Alaa Marbrouk Salem; Norisada, Kazuko; Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Kinoshita, Shouhiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2010-12-01

    We report the extremely rare case of a 73-year-old asymptomatic patient who has an isolated true parachute mitral valve (PMV). In the echocardiographic examination, the parasternal long-axis view showed a single papillary muscle. The short-axis view revealed the presence of a symmetric mitral valve orifice with all chordae attaching to a large anterolateral papillary muscle. Because detailed examination did not reveal the presence of other complications, this patient was diagnosed as an isolated true PMV.

  10. Reexamining contraindications for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Reade, Clifton C; Bower, Curtis E; Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, L Wiley; Wooden, William A; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2005-01-01

    Historically, contraindications to minimally invasive or robotic mitral valve surgery have included prior mastectomy, thoracic reconstruction, or chest radiation. However, we believe that by granting flexibility in the choice of skin incision site while performing careful dissection, surgeons can provide these patients the outstanding results afforded by a minithoracotomy. We present a patient who had undergone a prior mastectomy and radiation treatment in whom we performed a minimally invasive mitral valve repair through a right-sided minithoracotomy using the previous mastectomy incision.

  11. Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinalendu; Mahindrakar, Pallavi; Das, Debasis; Behera, Sukanta Kumar; Chowdhury, Saibal Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit

    2011-08-01

    The usual presentation of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. The manifestations of left heart failure may be masked if pulmonary artery pressure remains high. We believe this is a rarest of rare case of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with severe mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension in which pulmonary hypertension, along with good collateral circulation helped to preserve left ventricular function.

  12. Robotic mitral valve surgery: overview, methodology, results, and perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Robotic mitral valve repair began in 1998 and has advanced remarkably. It arose from an interest in reducing patient trauma by operating through smaller incisions with videoscopic assistance. In the United States, following two clinical trials, the FDA approved the daVinci Surgical System in 2002 for intra-cardiac surgery. This device has undergone three iterations, eventuating in the current daVinci XI. At present it is the only robotic device approved for mitral valve surgery. Many larger centers have adopted its use as part of their routine mitral valve repair armamentarium. Although these operations have longer perfusion and arrest times, complications have been either similar or less than other traditional methods. Preoperative screening is paramount and leads to optimal patient selection and outcomes. There are clear contraindications, both relative and absolute, that must be considered. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic studies optimally guide surgeons in operative planning. Herein, we describe the selection criteria as well as our operative management during a robotic mitral valve repair. Major complications are detailed with tips to avoid their occurrence. Operative outcomes from the author’s series as well as those from the largest experiences in the United States are described. They show that robotic mitral valve repair is safe and effective, as well as economically reasonable due to lower costs of hospitalization. Thus, the future of this operative technique is bright for centers adopting the “heart team” approach, adequate clinical volume and a dedicated and experienced mitral repair surgeon. PMID:27942486

  13. Role of Imaging Techniques in Percutaneous Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Hion; Arzamendi, Dabit; Carreras, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the United States and the second most prevalent in Europe. Patients with severe mitral regurgitation have a poor prognosis with medical therapy once they become symptomatic or develop signs of significant cardiac dysfunction. However, as many as half of these patients are inoperable because of advanced age, ventricular dysfunction, or other comorbidities. Studies have shown that surgery increases survival in patients with organic mitral regurgitation due to valve prolapse but has no clinical benefit in those with functional mitral regurgitation. In this scenario, percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation in native valves provides alternative management of valvular heart disease in patients at high surgical risk. Percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation is a growing field that relies heavily on imaging techniques to diagnose functional anatomy and guide repair procedures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Atrial functional mitral regurgitation. Three-dimensional echocardiographic study].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramírez, José Miguel; Ortega-Trujillo, José Ramón

    2017-07-24

    Atrial fibrillation can lead to a left atrium remodeling and induce functional mitral regurgitation. The aim of this study is to establish what features of the mitral annulus are related to atrial functional mitral regurgitation. Retrospectively 29 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and 36 controls in sinus rhythm were enrolled. The characteristics of the mitral annulus were analyzed by three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in both groups. 2D and 3D echocardiographic parameters were correlated with the effective regurgitant orifice. Patients with atrial fibrillation had larger left atrium volume, anteroposterior diameter at end-diastole and lower percentage of change in this diameter (P: 0.015, 0.019 and <0.001, respectively). In the multiple regression analysis the ellipticity index (β: -0.756, P: 0.004) and height-anterolateral-posteriomedial diameter ratio (β: -0704, P: 0.003) were independent parameters correlated with the effective regurgitant orifice (R(2): 0.699, P: 0.019) in patients with atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation leads to atrial dilatation and alterations in the size and dynamic of the anteroposterior diameter, producing a circular mitral annulus. The independents determinants of atrial functional mitral regurgitation in the atrial fibrillation group were the ellipticity index and height-anterolateral-posteromedial diameter ratio. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Pivotal role of bedside Doppler echocardiography in the assessment of patients with acute heart failure and mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Bellouin, Annaïk; Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Juthier, Francis; Fayad, Georges; Vincentelli, André; Berrébi, Alain; Auffray, Jean Luc; Bauchart, Jean Jacques; Mouquet, Frédéric; Montaigne, David; Asseman, Philippe; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Pibarot, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Patients presenting with mitral regurgitation and acute heart failure remain a challenge for the clinicians. Bedside echocardiography ascertains the functional or primary nature of mitral regurgitation, thereby allowing to focus therapy on the left ventricle and mitral valve apparatus in patients with functional mitral regurgitation and to hasten mitral valve repair or replacement when acute heart failure results from primary mitral regurgitation. This short article reviews the evaluation by bedside echocardiography to guide management of these patients. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Heritability of Mitral Regurgitation: Observations From the Framingham Heart Study and Swedish Population.

    PubMed

    Delling, Francesca N; Li, Xinjun; Li, Shuo; Yang, Qiong; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Martinsson, Andreas; Andell, Pontus; Lehman, Birgitta T; Osypiuk, Ewa W; Stantchev, Plamen; Zöller, Bengt; Benjamin, Emelia J; Sundquist, Kristina; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Smith, J Gustav

    2017-10-01

    Familial aggregation has been described for primary mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by mitral valve prolapse. We hypothesized that heritability of MR exists across different MR subtypes including nonprimary MR. Study participants were FHS (Framingham Heart Study) Generation 3 (Gen 3) and Gen 2 cohort participants and all adult Swedish siblings born after 1932 identified in 1997 and followed through 2010. MR was defined as ≥ mild regurgitation on color Doppler in FHS and from International Classification of Diseases codes in Sweden. We estimated the association of sibling MR with MR in Gen 2/Gen 3/Swedish siblings. We also estimated heritability of MR in 539 FHS pedigrees (7580 individuals). Among 5132 FHS Gen 2/Gen 3 participants with sibling information, 1062 had MR. Of siblings with sibling MR, 28% (500/1797) had MR compared with 17% (562/3335) without sibling MR (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.43; P=0.04). When we combined parental and sibling data in FHS pedigrees, heritability of MR was estimated at 0.15 (95% CI, 0.07-0.23), 0.12 (95% CI, 0.04-0.20) excluding mitral valve prolapse, and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.15-0.73) for ≥ moderate MR only (all P<0.05). In Sweden, sibling MR was associated with a hazard ratio of 3.57 (95% CI, 2.21-5.76; P<0.001) for development of MR. Familial clustering of MR exists in the community, supporting a genetic susceptibility common to primary and nonprimary MR. Further studies are needed to elucidate the common regulatory pathways that may lead to MR irrespective of its cause. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Surgical Strategies for Management of Mitral Regurgitation: Recent Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Tolis, George; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by structural abnormality of the valve ("primary" MR), about which there is increasing consensus regarding treatment, there is increasing controversy around the management of functional or "secondary" MR, of which "ischemic mitral regurgitation" (IMR) is a common cause. While the trend in the management of primary MR is increasingly aggressive, with wide agreement on the preference for repair over replacement such that debate centers on earlier and earlier repair even among asymptomatic patients, the situation is reversed in the setting of secondary MR with uncertainly beyond the mode of management (repair or replacement) to the value of intervening at all. This is, in part, because the term IMR has been somewhat loosely applied by the medical and surgical communities to include regurgitation secondary to active myocardial ischemia, as well as that resulting from a completed myocardial infarct. As a result, there is considerable variability in reported outcomes of surgical interventions for IMR. In addition, the natural history of IMR is quite adverse-more so than that of many solid organ malignancies-and its surgical treatment has traditionally carried a higher operative mortality than many cardiac surgical procedures, including similar operations for primary MR and incidental coronary artery disease. Added to this, with recent advances in both the medical and surgical treatment of heart failure improving nonoperative outcomes and simultaneously reducing operative risk compared to reports from previous decades, the landscape has been quite dynamic. Here, we review the issues surrounding surgical treatment for IMR, along with available evidence supporting different approaches, to lend an informed perspective on the divergent opinions among experts in this field and guide the appropriate management of the individual patient.

  18. Growth of mitral annulus in the pediatric patient after suture annuloplasty of the entire posterior mitral annulus.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Takeshi; Huebler, Michael; Berger, Felix; Hetzer, Roland

    2009-08-01

    When mitral annuloplasty is performed in small children, room for annular growth should be allowed. However, it has not been reported how the valve develops after mitral annuloplasty of the entire posterior annulus. We report a case showing traces of annular growth at redo surgery. A female patient suffering from mitral valve insufficiency due to annular dilatation underwent modified Paneth plasty with Kay-Wooler commissural plication annuloplasty at the age of two years one month. In redo surgery 8.4 years after initial repair, enlargement of the commissural portion of the posterior annulus in addition to enlargement of the anterior leaflet and anterior annulus was observed. Modified Paneth plasty reinforced with a pericardial strip and Kay-Wooler annuloplasty of the posteromedial commissure were performed. Mitral orifice size measured with the Hegar dilator was 18 mm after the re-repair, increasing from 16 mm after the initial repair. Taking into account the normal mitral annulus diameter related to body surface area (BSA) of 16 mm at initial operation and 20 mm at redo surgery, the increase in mitral orifice size from 16 mm to 18 mm in this patient may be regarded as the annular growth in 8.4 years.

  19. Genetic predisposition to calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification.

    PubMed

    Kutikhin, Anton G; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Brusina, Elena B; Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Golovkin, Alexey S; Barbarash, Olga L

    2014-09-01

    Valvular calcification precedes the development of valvular stenosis and may represent an important early phenotype for valvular heart disease. It is known that development of valvular calcification is likely to occur among members of a family. However, the knowledge about the role of genomic predictive markers in valvular calcification is still elusive. Aims of this review are to assess the impact of gene polymorphisms on risk and severity of aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. According to the results of the investigations carried out, all polymorphisms may be divided into the three groups conferring the level of evidence of their association with valvular stenosis. It is possible to conclude that apoB (XbaI, rs1042031, and rs6725189), ACE (rs4340), IL10 (rs1800896 and rs1800872), and LPA (rs10455872) gene polymorphisms may be associated with valvular calcific stenosis with a relatively high level of evidence. A number of other polymorphisms, such as PvuII polymorphism within the ORα gene, rs1042636 polymorphism within the CaSR gene, rs3024491, rs3021094, rs1554286, and rs3024498 polymorphisms within the IL10 gene, rs662 polymorphism within the PON1 gene, rs2276288 polymorphism within the MYO7A gene, rs5194 polymorphism within the AGTR1 gene, rs2071307 polymorphism within the ELN gene, rs17659543 and rs13415097 polymorphisms within the IL1F9 gene may correlate with a risk of calcific valve stenosis with moderate level of evidence. Finally, rs1544410 polymorphism within the VDR gene, E2 and E4 alleles within the apoE gene, rs6254 polymorphism within the PTH gene, and rs1800871 polymorphism within the IL10 gene may be associated with aortic stenosis with low level of evidence.

  20. Right pulmonary agenesis in an elderly woman complicated by transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Takashi; Nozoe, Masahiko; Nakamoto, Yasuhisa; Irie, Yoshikazu; Mizushige, Katsufumi

    2011-01-01

    There are few case reports regarding patients with right lung agenesis living to old age because of both severe mediastinal and cardiac displacements. We report a 61-year-old woman with right pulmonary agenesis complicated by a transient ischemic attack that was evaluated by a three-dimensional reconstruction of helical computed tomography and an echocardiography. This patient was able to survive until old age because she had no critical anomalies in other organs including the heart. A mitral valve prolapse was detected by a two-dimensional echocardiography and we treated her with anti-platelet aggregation therapy for the prevention of recurrent stroke.

  1. Mutations in DCHS1 Cause Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Ronen; Sauls, Kimberly; Peal, David S; deVlaming, Annemarieke; Toomer, Katelynn; Leyne, Maire; Salani, Monica; Talkowski, Michael E.; Brand, Harrison; Perrocheau, Maëlle; Simpson, Charles; Jett, Christopher; Stone, Matthew R.; Charles, Florie; Chiang, Colby; Lynch, Stacey N.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Delling, Francesca N.; Freed, Lisa A.; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Le Tourneau, Thierry; LeMarec, Hervé; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Trujillano, Daniel; Ossowski, Stephan; Estivill, Xavier; Dina, Christian; Bruneval, Patrick; Chester, Adrian; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Irvine, Kenneth D.; Mao, Yaopan; Wessels, Andy; Motiwala, Tahirali; Puceat, Michel; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Menick, Donald R.; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Nie, Xingju; Broome, Ann-Marie; Williams, Katherine; Johnson, Amanda; Markwald, Roger R.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Hagege, Albert; Levine, Robert A.; Milan, David J.; Norris, Russell A.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common cardiac valve disease that affects nearly 1 in 40 individuals1–3. It can manifest as mitral regurgitation and is the leading indication for mitral valve surgery4,5. Despite a clear heritable component, the genetic etiology leading to non-syndromic MVP has remained elusive. Four affected individuals from a large multigenerational family segregating non-syndromic MVP underwent capture sequencing of the linked interval on chromosome 11. We report a missense mutation in the DCHS1 gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila cell polarity gene dachsous (ds) that segregates with MVP in the family. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish homolog dachsous1b resulted in a cardiac atrioventricular canal defect that could be rescued by wild-type human DCHS1, but not by DCHS1 mRNA with the familial mutation. Further genetic studies identified two additional families in which a second deleterious DCHS1 mutation segregates with MVP. Both DCHS1 mutations reduce protein stability as demonstrated in zebrafish, cultured cells, and, notably, in mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) obtained during mitral valve repair surgery of a proband. Dchs1+/− mice had prolapse of thickened mitral leaflets, which could be traced back to developmental errors in valve morphogenesis. DCHS1 deficiency in MVP patient MVICs as well as in Dchs1+/− mouse MVICs result in altered migration and cellular patterning, supporting these processes as etiological underpinnings for the disease. Understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds potential for therapeutic insights for this very common disease. PMID:26258302

  2. Correction of anterior mitral prolapse: the parachute technique.

    PubMed

    Zannis, Konstantinos; Mitchell-Heggs, Laurens; Di Nitto, Valentina; Kirsch, Matthias E W; Noghin, Milena; Ghorayeb, Gabriel; Lessana, Arrigo

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate a new surgical technique for the correction of anterior mitral leaflet prolapse. From October 2006 to November 2011, 44 consecutive patients (28 males, mean age 55 ± 13 years) underwent mitral valve repair because of anterior mitral leaflet prolapse. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate the distance from the tip of each papillary muscle to the annular plane. A specially designed caliper was used to manufacture a parachute-like device, by looping a 4-0 polytetrafluoroethylene suture between a Dacron strip and Teflon felt pledget, according to the preoperative echocardiographic measurements. This parachute was then used to resuspend the anterior mitral leaflet to the corresponding papillary muscle. Of the 44 patients, 35 (80%) required concomitant posterior leaflet repair. Additional procedures were required in 16 patients (36%). The preoperative logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation was 4.3 ± 6.9. The clinical and echocardiographic follow-up were complete. The total follow-up was 1031 patient-months and averaged 23.4 ± 17.2 months per patient. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (n = 2). Also, 2 patients (4.5%) with recurrent mitral regurgitation required mitral valve replacement, 1 on the first postoperative day and 1 after 13 months. In the latter patient, histologic analysis showed complete endothelialization of the Dacron strip. At follow-up, all non-reoperated survivors (n = 40) were in New York Heart Association class I, with no regurgitation in 40 patients (93%) and grade 2+ mitral regurgitation in 3 (7%). This technique offers a simple and reproducible solution for correction of anterior leaflet prolapse. Echocardiography can reliably evaluate the length of the chordae. However, the long-term results must be evaluated and compared with other surgical strategies. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular filling after mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed Central

    St John Sutton, M G; Traill, T A; Ghafour, A S; Brown, D J; Gibson, D G

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate the functional effects of mitral valve surgery, echocardiograms showing left ventricular dimension were recorded and digitised in 14 normal subjects and 129 patients after mitral valve surgery. Measurements were made of peak rate of increase of dimension (dD/dt) and duration of rapid filling, studies on left ventriculograms in 36 patients having shown close correlation between these values and changes in cavity volume. In 14 patients with mitral stenosis, peak dD/dt was reduced to 7-2 +/ 1-5 cm/s, and filling period prolonged to 330 +/- 65 ms, compared with normal (16-0 +/- 3-2 cm/s, and 160 +/- 50 ms, respectively), and after mitral valvotomy, these values improved significantly (10-4 +/- 2-7 cm/s and 245 +/- 55 ms). Characteristic abnormalities were found in 67 patients with mitral prostheses. Values for the Björk-Shiley (10-5 +/- 4-2 cm/s and 180 +/- 80 ms) and Hancock (10-3 +/- 3-7 cm/s, 245 +/- 80 ms) values were similar, and both superior to the Starr-Edwards (7-4 +/- 3-0 cm/s, 295 +/- 105 ms). Results after mitral valve repair in 30 cases were not significantly different from normal (14-4 +/- 5-0 cm/s, 170 +/- 50 ms). Values outside the 95 per cent confidence limits for the valve in question allowed diagnosis of value malfunction in 18 cases. The method is value in comparing different operative procedures and in following up patients after mitral valve surgery. PMID:603728

  4. Mutations in DCHS1 cause mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Durst, Ronen; Sauls, Kimberly; Peal, David S; deVlaming, Annemarieke; Toomer, Katelynn; Leyne, Maire; Salani, Monica; Talkowski, Michael E; Brand, Harrison; Perrocheau, Maëlle; Simpson, Charles; Jett, Christopher; Stone, Matthew R; Charles, Florie; Chiang, Colby; Lynch, Stacey N; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Delling, Francesca N; Freed, Lisa A; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Le Tourneau, Thierry; LeMarec, Hervé; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Trujillano, Daniel; Ossowski, Stephan; Estivill, Xavier; Dina, Christian; Bruneval, Patrick; Chester, Adrian; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Irvine, Kenneth D; Mao, Yaopan; Wessels, Andy; Motiwala, Tahirali; Puceat, Michel; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Menick, Donald R; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Nie, Xingju; Broome, Ann-Marie; Williams, Katherine; Johnson, Amanda; Markwald, Roger R; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Hagege, Albert; Levine, Robert A; Milan, David J; Norris, Russell A; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A

    2015-09-03

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common cardiac valve disease that affects nearly 1 in 40 individuals. It can manifest as mitral regurgitation and is the leading indication for mitral valve surgery. Despite a clear heritable component, the genetic aetiology leading to non-syndromic MVP has remained elusive. Four affected individuals from a large multigenerational family segregating non-syndromic MVP underwent capture sequencing of the linked interval on chromosome 11. We report a missense mutation in the DCHS1 gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila cell polarity gene dachsous (ds), that segregates with MVP in the family. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish homologue dachsous1b resulted in a cardiac atrioventricular canal defect that could be rescued by wild-type human DCHS1, but not by DCHS1 messenger RNA with the familial mutation. Further genetic studies identified two additional families in which a second deleterious DCHS1 mutation segregates with MVP. Both DCHS1 mutations reduce protein stability as demonstrated in zebrafish, cultured cells and, notably, in mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) obtained during mitral valve repair surgery of a proband. Dchs1(+/-) mice had prolapse of thickened mitral leaflets, which could be traced back to developmental errors in valve morphogenesis. DCHS1 deficiency in MVP patient MVICs, as well as in Dchs1(+/-) mouse MVICs, result in altered migration and cellular patterning, supporting these processes as aetiological underpinnings for the disease. Understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds potential for therapeutic insights for this very common disease.

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Mitral Regurgitation Secondary to Mitral Valve Prolapse by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Le Goffic, Caroline; Toledano, Manuel; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Binda, Camille; Castel, Anne-Laure; Delelis, François; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    2015-11-01

    The present prospective study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitant fraction (MRF) by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) in the modern era using as reference method the blinded multiparametric integrative assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) MRF by echocardiography (2D echo MRF and 3D echo MRF) were obtained by measuring the difference in left ventricular (LV) total stroke volume (obtained from either 2D or 3D acquisition) and aortic forward stroke volume normalized to LV total stroke volume. MRF was calculated by cMRI using either (1) (LV stroke volume - systolic aortic outflow volume by phase contrast)/LV stroke volume (cMRI MRF [volumetric]) or (2) (mitral inflow volume - systolic aortic outflow volume)/mitral inflow volume (cMRI MRF [phase contrast]). Six patients had 1 + MR, 6 patients had 2 + MR, 12 patients had 3 + MR, and 10 had 4 + MR. A significant correlation was observed between MR grading and 2D echo MRF (r = 0.60, p <0.0001) and 3D echo MRF (r = 0.79, p <0.0001), cMRI MRF (volumetric) (r = 0.87, p <0.0001), and cMRI MRF (phase contrast r = 0.72, p <0.001). The accuracy of MRF for the diagnosis of MR ≥3+ or 4+ was the highest with cMRI MRF (volumetric) (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.98), followed by 3D echo MRF (AUC = 0.96), 2D echo MRF (AUC = 0.90), and cMRI MRF (phase contrast; AUC = 0.83). In conclusion, MRF by cMRI (volumetric method) and 3D echo MRF had the highest diagnostic value to detect significant MR, whereas the diagnostic value of 2D echo MRF and cMRI MRF (phase contrast) was lower. Hence, the present study suggests that both cMRI (volumetric method) and 3D echo represent best approaches for calculating MRF.

  6. ANP and BNP plasma levels in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Rużyłło, Witold; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Opalińska-Ciszek, Ewa; Janas, Jadwiga; Hoffman, Piotr; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Grzybowski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atrial (ANP) and B-type (BNP) natriuretic peptides are hormones secreted by the heart as a response to volume expansion and pressure overload. Aim To assess the changes of ANP and BNP after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) and to investigate factors associated with endpoints. Material and methods The study included 96 patients (90.7% females, age 51.6 ±12.2 years) with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (mitral valve area (MVA) 1.18 (1.01–1.33) cm2, mean mitral gradient (MMG) 8.2 (7.1–9.2) mm Hg, NYHA 2.09 (1.9–2.5)). Patients were followed up for 29.1 months for the search of endpoints. Results The PBMV was successful in all cases. After the procedure MVA increased (1.18–1.78 cm2, p < 0.01) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) decreased (29.8–21.8 mm Hg, p < 0.01). Concentration of ANP significantly rose 30 min after the PBMV (79.2 vs. 134.2 pg/ml, p = 0.012) and dropped significantly after 24 h (134.2 vs. 70.4 pg/ml, p = 0.01). Furthermore, after 36 months concentration of ANP did not differ from the baseline value (p = NS). BNP concentration at day 1 was lower than at baseline (94.5 vs. 80.2 pg/ml, p = 0.032). Moreover, during the follow-up period BNP continued to fall at all time points. In univariate analysis parameters associated with endpoint occurrence were baseline PAP (p = 0.023), baseline PCWP (p = 0.022), baseline NYHA (p = 0.041) and increase in 6-minute walk test (6MWT) (p = 0.043). In multivariate analysis the only factor associated with endpoint occurrence was baseline NYHA (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: –1.3–1.91, p = 0.022). Conclusions Patients with MS had increased levels of both BNP and ANP. Baseline NYHA class was found to be associated with outcomes after the procedure. PMID:28344613

  7. Impact of mitral geometry and global afterload on improvement of mitral regurgitation after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Dworakowski, R; Kogoj, P; Reiken, J; Kenny, C; MacCarthy, P; Wendler, O; Monaghan, M J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of mitral geometry, left ventricular (LV) remodelling and global LV afterload on mitral regurgitation (MR) after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods In this study, 60 patients who underwent TAVI were evaluated by 3D echocardiography at baseline, 1 month and 6 months after procedure. The proportional change in MR following TAVI was determined by examining the percentage change in vena contracta (VC) at 6 months. Patients having a significant reduction of at least 30% in VC were defined as good responders (GR) and the remaining patients were defined as poor responders (PR). Results After 6 months of TAVI, 27 (45%) patients were GR and 33 (55%) were PR. There was a significant decrease in 3DE-derived mitral annular diameter and area (P = 0.001), mitral valve tenting area (TA) (P = 0.05), and mitral papillary muscle dyssynchrony index (DSI) (P = 0.05) in the GR group. 3DE-derived LVESV (P = 0.016), LV mass (P = 0.001) and LV DSI, (P = 0.001) were also improved 6 months after TAVI. In addition, valvulo-arterial impedance (ZVA) was significantly higher at baseline in patients with PR (P = 0.028). 3DE-derived mitral annular area (β: 0.47, P = 0.04), mitral papillary DSI (β: −0.65, P = 0.012) and ZVA (β: 0.45, P = 0.028) were the strongest independent parameters that could predict the reduction of functional MR after TAVI. Conclusion GR patients demonstrate more regression in mitral annulus area and diameter after significant decrease in high LVEDP and trans-aortic gradients with TAVI. PR patients appear to have increased baseline ZVA, mitral valve tenting and restriction in mitral valve coaptation. These factors are important for predicting the impact of TAVI on pre-existing MR. PMID:27457965

  8. Aortic and/or mitral valve surgery in patients with pulmonary hypertension performed via a minimally invasive approach

    PubMed Central

    Gosain, Priyanka; Larrauri-Reyes, Maiteder; Mihos, Christos G.; Escolar, Esteban; Santana, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the setting of left-sided valvular heart disease is common, and significantly increases the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing aortic and/or mitral valve surgery. Minimally invasive valve surgery is associated with a decreased incidence of perioperative complications, and a faster recovery, when compared with conventional sternotomy. In the present study, the outcomes of 569 patients with PH who underwent minimally invasive aortic and/or mitral valve surgery were analysed. The operative mortality was 3.5%, and postoperative strokes occurred in 1.4%. The mean intensive care unit and hospital length of stays were 50 ± 14 h and 7 ± 1 days, respectively. Patients with severe PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥40 mmHg) had a longer duration of postoperative ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay, when compared with mild/moderate PH, and similar clinical outcomes. In conclusion, a minimally invasive approach to aortic and/or mitral valve surgery in patients with PH is safe and feasible, and may be considered as an alternative to conventional median sternotomy. PMID:26892195

  9. Standard transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography views of mitral pathology that every surgeon should know

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    The mitral valve is the most commonly diseased heart valve and the prevalence of mitral valve disease increases proportionally with age. Echocardiography is the primary diagnostic imaging modality used in the assessment of patients with mitral valve disease. It is a noninvasive method which provides accurate anatomic and functional information regarding the mitral valve and can identify the mechanism of mitral valve pathology. This is especially useful as it may guide surgical repair. This is increasingly relevant given the growing trend of patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Collaboration between cardiac surgeons and echocardiographers is critical in the evaluation of mitral valve disease and for identification of complex valvular lesions that require advanced surgical skill to repair. This article will provide an overview of transthoracic and transesophageal assessment of common mitral valve pathology that aims to aid surgical decision making. PMID:26539350

  10. Ischemic Colitis Revealing Polyarteritis Nodosa

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, Amira; Litaiem, Noureddine; Smiti Khanfir, M.; Ayadi, Sofiene; Nfoussi, Haifa; Houman, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is one of the most common intestinal ischemic injuries. It results from impaired perfusion of blood to the bowel and is rarely caused by vasculitis. We report a case of ischemic colitis revealing polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) in a 55-year-old man. Histological examination of the resected colon led to the diagnosis of PAN. PMID:24382967

  11. Percutaneous mitral valve repair in the initial EVEREST cohort: evidence of reverse left ventricular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Foster, Elyse; Kwan, Damon; Feldman, Ted; Weissman, Neil J; Grayburn, Paul A; Schwartz, Allan; Rogers, Jason H; Kar, Saibal; Rinaldi, Michael J; Fail, Peter S; Hermiller, James; Whitlow, Patrick L; Herrmann, Howard C; Lim, D Scott; Glower, Donald D

    2013-07-01

    Percutaneous repair of mitral regurgitation (MR) permits examination of the effect of MR reduction without surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass on left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function. The goal of this analysis was to determine the extent of reverse remodeling at 12 months after successful percutaneous reduction of MR with the MitraClip device. Of 64 patients with 3 and 4+ MR who achieved acute procedural success after treatment with the MitraClip device, 49 patients had moderate or less MR at 12-month follow-up. Their baseline and 12-month echocardiograms were compared between the group with and without LV dysfunction. In patients with persistent MR reduction and pre-existing LV dysfunction, there was a reduction in LV wall stress, reduced LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume and increase in LV ejection fraction in contrast to those with normal baseline LV function, who showed reduction in LV end-diastolic volume, LV wall stress, no change in LV end-systolic volume, and a fall in LV ejection fraction. Patients with pre-existing LV dysfunction demonstrate reverse remodeling and improved LV ejection fraction after percutaneous mitral valve repair. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00209339, NCT00209274.

  12. [Study of left ventricular function in valvular cardiopathies (mitral insufficiency and aortic insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Herreman, F; Brun, P; Cannet, G; Savin, E; Vannier, D

    1974-10-01

    A study of the left ventricular function based on the haemodynamic data combined with those provided by biplane cineangiography was performed in 35 cases with left ventricular volume overload (20 cases of mitral incompetence and 15 of aortic insufficiency). The importance of the haemodynamic changes and of the adaptation mechanisms set up were described. The more intense dilatation-hypertrophy of aortic incompetence than of mitral incompetence plays an essential part. The role of Starling's mechanism is underlined. Estimation of the contractile value of the myocardium, taken into account the mechanical overload and the conditions of late-diastolic lengthening of the fibre and of impedance to left ventricular ejection was determined. An obvious myocardial failure, demonstrated in approximately one third of the cases, by determination of some contractility indices estimated in the ejection phase, Vf sigma max in particular, the only one valid in the presence of valvular regurgitation. In the other cases, the moderate decrease of myocardial contractility was masked by compensatory mechanisms.

  13. Quantification of mitral regurgitation on cardiac computed tomography: comparison with qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters.

    PubMed

    Arnous, Samer; Killeen, Ronan P; Martos, Ramon; Quinn, Martin; McDonald, Kenneth; Dodd, Jonathan Dermot

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can quantify the severity of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared to qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters. Cardiac computed tomographic angiography was performed in 23 patients (mean ± SD age, 63 ± 16 years; range, 24-86 years) with MR and 20 patients without MR (controls) as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Multiphasic reconstructions (20 data sets reconstructed at 5% increments of the electrocardiographic gated R-R interval) were used to analyze the mitral valve. Using CCTA planimetry, 2 readers measured the regurgitant mitral orifice area (CCTA ROA) during systole. A qualitative echocardiographic assessment of severity of MR was made by visual assessment of the length of the regurgitant jet. Quantitative echocardiographic measurements included the vena contracta, proximal isovelocity surface area, regurgitant volume, and estimated regurgitant orifice (ERO). Comparisons were performed using the independent t test, and correlations were assessed using the Spearman rank test. All controls and the patients with MR were correctly identified by CCTA. For patients with mild, moderate, or severe MR, mean ± SD EROs were 0.16 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.08, and 0.52 ± 0.03 cm² (P < 0.0001) compared with mean ± SD CCTA ROAs 0.09 ± 0.05, 0.30 ± 0.04, and 0.97 ± 0.26 cm² (P < 0.0001), respectively. When echocardiographic measurements were graded qualitatively as mild, moderate, or severe, strong correlations were seen with CCTA ROA (R = 0.89; P < 0.001). When echocardiographic measurements were graded quantitatively, the vena contracta and the ERO showed modest correlations with CCTA ROA (0.48 and 0.50; P < 0.05 for both). Neither the proximal isovelocity surface area nor the regurgitant volume demonstrated significant correlations with CCTA ROA. Single-source 64-slice CCTA provides a strong agreement with qualitative echocardiographic parameters but only a moderate

  14. Relief of mitral incompetence by selective intracoronary thrombolysis in hyperacute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Keltai, M; Palik, I; Rozsa, Z; Szente, A

    1985-01-01

    Left ventriculography and coronary arteriography were performed in 47 patients with hyperacute myocardial infarction prior to recanalization of the infarct-related vessel. Mitral regurgitation was found in ten patients. After successful recanalization, left ventriculography was repeated in eight of the ten patients with mitral incompetence, and the mitral regurgitation had disappeared in seven. Selective intracoronary thrombolysis resulted in improved left ventricular function and disappearance of mitral incompetence.

  15. Diagnosis of mitral valve cleft using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiyun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitral valve cleft (MVC) is the most common cause of congenital mitral insufficiency, and MVC may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. Direct suture and valvuloplasty are the major and effective treatments for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MVC. Therefore, it is important to determine the location and magnitude of the pathological damage due to MVC when selecting a surgical procedure for treatment. This study explored the application value of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) in the diagnosis of MVC. Methods From October 2012 to June 2016, 19 consecutive patients with MVC diagnosed by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in our hospital were selected for this study. Full-volume RT-3DE was performed on all patients. The 3D-imaging data were cropped and rotated in 3 views (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) with 6 directions to observe the position and shape of the MVC and the spatial position between the cleft and its surrounding structures. The maximum longitudinal diameter and the maximum width of the cleft were measured. The origin of the mitral regurgitant jet and the severity of MR were evaluated, and these RT-3DE data were compared with the intraoperative findings. Results Of the 19 patients studied, 4 patients had isolated cleft mitral valve, and cleft mitral valves combined with other congenital heart lesions were detected in 15 patients. The clefts of 6 patients were located in the A2 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A1 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A3 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A2–A3 segment, and the cleft of 1 patient was located in the P2 segment. Regarding the shape of the cleft, 13 patients had V-shaped clefts, and the others had C- or S-shaped clefts. The severity of the MR at presentation was mild in 2 patients, moderate in 9 and severe in 8. Two of the patients with mild MR did not undergo surgery

  16. Diagnosis of mitral valve cleft using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xinchun; Zhou, Aiyun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Mitral valve cleft (MVC) is the most common cause of congenital mitral insufficiency, and MVC may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. Direct suture and valvuloplasty are the major and effective treatments for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MVC. Therefore, it is important to determine the location and magnitude of the pathological damage due to MVC when selecting a surgical procedure for treatment. This study explored the application value of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) in the diagnosis of MVC. From October 2012 to June 2016, 19 consecutive patients with MVC diagnosed by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in our hospital were selected for this study. Full-volume RT-3DE was performed on all patients. The 3D-imaging data were cropped and rotated in 3 views (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) with 6 directions to observe the position and shape of the MVC and the spatial position between the cleft and its surrounding structures. The maximum longitudinal diameter and the maximum width of the cleft were measured. The origin of the mitral regurgitant jet and the severity of MR were evaluated, and these RT-3DE data were compared with the intraoperative findings. Of the 19 patients studied, 4 patients had isolated cleft mitral valve, and cleft mitral valves combined with other congenital heart lesions were detected in 15 patients. The clefts of 6 patients were located in the A2 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A1 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A3 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A2-A3 segment, and the cleft of 1 patient was located in the P2 segment. Regarding the shape of the cleft, 13 patients had V-shaped clefts, and the others had C- or S-shaped clefts. The severity of the MR at presentation was mild in 2 patients, moderate in 9 and severe in 8. Two of the patients with mild MR did not undergo surgery, while the remaining 17

  17. Fractal analysis of the ischemic transition region in chronic ischemic heart disease using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc

    2017-04-01

    To introduce a novel hypothesis and method to characterise pathomechanisms underlying myocardial ischemia in chronic ischemic heart disease by local fractal analysis (FA) of the ischemic myocardial transition region in perfusion imaging. Vascular mechanisms to compensate ischemia are regulated at various vascular scales with their superimposed perfusion pattern being hypothetically self-similar. Dedicated FA software ("FraktalWandler") has been developed. Fractal dimensions during first-pass (FDfirst-pass) and recirculation (FDrecirculation) are hypothesised to indicate the predominating pathomechanism and ischemic severity, respectively. Twenty-six patients with evidence of myocardial ischemia in 108 ischemic myocardial segments on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were analysed. The 40th and 60th percentiles of FDfirst-pass were used for pathomechanical classification, assigning lesions with FDfirst-pass ≤ 2.335 to predominating coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and ≥2.387 to predominating coronary artery disease (CAD). Optimal classification point in ROC analysis was FDfirst-pass = 2.358. FDrecirculation correlated moderately with per cent diameter stenosis in invasive coronary angiography in lesions classified CAD (r = 0.472, p = 0.001) but not CMD (r = 0.082, p = 0.600). The ischemic transition region may provide information on pathomechanical composition and severity of myocardial ischemia. FA of this region is feasible and may improve diagnosis compared to traditional noninvasive myocardial perfusion analysis. • A novel hypothesis and method is introduced to pathophysiologically characterise myocardial ischemia. • The ischemic transition region appears a meaningful diagnostic target in perfusion imaging. • Fractal analysis may characterise pathomechanical composition and severity of myocardial ischemia.

  18. Usefulness of preoperative cardiac dimensions to predict success of reverse cardiac remodeling in patients undergoing repair for mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V; McGurk, Siobhan; Khalpey, Zain; Rawn, James D; Schmitto, Jan D; Wollersheim, Laurens W; Maloney, Ann M; Cohn, Lawrence H

    2014-03-15

    Mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation (MR) is currently recommended based on the degree of MR and left ventricular (LV) function. The present study examines predictors of reverse remodeling after repair for degenerative disease. We retrospectively identified 439 patients who underwent repair for myxomatous mitral valve degeneration and had both pre- and postoperative echocardiographic data available. Patients were categorized based on left atrial (LA) diameter and LV diameter standards of the American Society of Echocardiography. The outcome of interest was the degree of reverse remodeling on all heart dimensions at follow-up. Mean age was 57 ± 12 years, and 37% of patients were women. Mean preoperative LV end-diastolic diameter was 5.8 ± 0.7 cm, LV end-systolic diameter 3.5 ± 0.6 cm, LA 4.7 ± 0.7 cm, and median ejection fraction 60%. Median observation time was 81 months, and time to postoperative echocardiography was 38 months. Overall, 95% of patients had normal LV diastolic dimensions postoperatively, 93% normal LV systolic dimensions, and 37% normal LA dimensions. A Cox regression analysis showed that moderate (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 3.4) or severe preoperative LA dilatation (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.4), abnormal preoperative LV end-systolic dimensions (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5), and age in years (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03) were predictive of less reverse remodeling on follow-up. In conclusion, preoperative LV end-systolic dimensions and LA dilatation substantially affect the likelihood of successful LA remodeling and normalization of all heart dimensions after mitral valve repair for MR. These findings support early operation for MR before the increase in heart dimensions is nonreversible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the Outcomes of Modified Artificial Chordae Technique for Mitral Regurgitation through Right Minithoracotomy or Median Sternotomy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhao-Lei; Feng, Xiao-Yuan; Ma, Nan; Zhu, Jia-Quan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Fang-Bao; Bao, Chun-Rong; Mei, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Right minithoracotomy (RM) has been proven to be a safe and effective approach for mitral valve surgery, but the differences of artificial chordae technique between RM and median sternotomy (MS) were seldom reported. Here, we compared the outcomes of modified artificial chordae technique for mitral regurgitation (MR) through RM or MS approaches. Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive adult patients who received mitral valve repair with artificial chordae and annuloplasty for MR through RM (n = 58) or MS (n = 60) from January 2006 to January 2015 were analyzed. Results: All of the selected patients underwent mitral valve repair successfully without any complication during the surgery. There was no significant difference between RM group and MS group in cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, and early postoperative complications. However, compared with the MS group, the RM group had shorter hospital stay and faster surgical recovery. At a mean follow-up of 44.8 ± 25.0 months, the freedom from more than moderate MR was 93.9% ± 3.5% in RM group and 94.8% ± 2.9% in MS group at 3 years postoperatively. Log-rank test showed that there was no significant difference in the freedom from recurrent significant MR between the two groups (χ2 = 0.247, P = 0.619). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of mild MR at discharge was the independent risk factor for the recurrent significant MR. Conclusion: Right minithoracotomy can achieve the similar therapeutic effects with MS for the patients who received modified artificial chordae technique for treating MR. PMID:27625084

  20. Tricuspid regurgitation after successful mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Aggeli, Constantina; Vlasseros, Ioannis; Felekos, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The tricuspid valve (TV) is inseparably connected with the mitral valve (MV) in terms of function. Any pathophysiological condition concerning the MV is potentially a threat for the normal function of the TV as well. One of the most challenging cases is functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after surgical MV correction. In the past, TR was considered to progressively revert with time after left-sided valve restoration. Nevertheless, more recent studies showed that TR could develop and evolve postoperatively over time, as well as being closely associated with a poorer prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pressure and volume overload are usually the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; structural alterations, like tricuspid annulus dilatation, increased leaflet tethering and right ventricular remodelling are almost always present when regurgitation develops. The most important risk factors associated with a higher probability of late TR development involve the elderly, female gender, larger left atrial size, atrial fibrillation, right chamber dilatation, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures, longer times from the onset of MV disease to surgery, history of rheumatic heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and prosthetic valve malfunction. The time of TR manifestation can be up to 10 years or more after an MV surgery. Echocardiography, including the novel 3D Echo techniques, is crucial in the early diagnosis and prognosis of future TV disease development. Appropriate surgical technique and timing still need to be clarified. PMID:22457188

  1. Artificial intelligence in mitral valve analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, Jelliffe; Knio, Ziyad; Amador, Yannis; Hai, Ting; Khamooshian, Arash; Matyal, Robina; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Mahmood, Feroze

    2017-01-01

    Echocardiographic analysis of mitral valve (MV) has become essential for diagnosis and management of patients with MV disease. Currently, the various software used for MV analysis require manual input and are prone to interobserver variability in the measurements. The aim of this study is to determine the interobserver variability in an automated software that uses artificial intelligence for MV analysis. Retrospective analysis of intraoperative three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography data acquired from four patients with normal MV undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery in a tertiary hospital. Echocardiographic data were analyzed using the eSie Valve Software (Siemens Healthcare, Mountain View, CA, USA). Three examiners analyzed three end-systolic (ES) frames from each of the four patients. A total of 36 ES frames were analyzed and included in the study. A multiple mixed-effects ANOVA model was constructed to determine if the examiner, the patient, and the loop had a significant effect on the average value of each parameter. A Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple comparisons, and P = 0.0083 was considered to be significant. Examiners did not have an effect on any of the six parameters tested. Patient and loop had an effect on the average parameter value for each of the six parameters as expected (P < 0.0083 for both). We were able to conclude that using automated analysis, it is possible to obtain results with good reproducibility, which only requires minimal user intervention.

  2. Tricuspid regurgitation after successful mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Aggeli, Constantina; Vlasseros, Ioannis; Felekos, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2012-07-01

    The tricuspid valve (TV) is inseparably connected with the mitral valve (MV) in terms of function. Any pathophysiological condition concerning the MV is potentially a threat for the normal function of the TV as well. One of the most challenging cases is functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after surgical MV correction. In the past, TR was considered to progressively revert with time after left-sided valve restoration. Nevertheless, more recent studies showed that TR could develop and evolve postoperatively over time, as well as being closely associated with a poorer prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pressure and volume overload are usually the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; structural alterations, like tricuspid annulus dilatation, increased leaflet tethering and right ventricular remodelling are almost always present when regurgitation develops. The most important risk factors associated with a higher probability of late TR development involve the elderly, female gender, larger left atrial size, atrial fibrillation, right chamber dilatation, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures, longer times from the onset of MV disease to surgery, history of rheumatic heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and prosthetic valve malfunction. The time of TR manifestation can be up to 10 years or more after an MV surgery. Echocardiography, including the novel 3D Echo techniques, is crucial in the early diagnosis and prognosis of future TV disease development. Appropriate surgical technique and timing still need to be clarified.

  3. Cost effectiveness of robotic mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Significant technological advances have led to an impressive evolution in mitral valve surgery over the last two decades, allowing surgeons to safely perform less invasive operations through the right chest. Most new technology comes with an increased upfront cost that must be measured against postoperative savings and other advantages such as decreased perioperative complications, faster recovery, and earlier return to preoperative level of functioning. The Da Vinci robot is an example of such a technology, combining the significant benefits of minimally invasive surgery with a “gold standard” valve repair. Although some have reported that robotic surgery is associated with increased overall costs, there is literature suggesting that efficient perioperative care and shorter lengths of stay can offset the increased capital and intraoperative expenses. While data on current cost is important to consider, one must also take into account future potential value resulting from technological advancement when evaluating cost-effectiveness. Future refinements that will facilitate more effective surgery, coupled with declining cost of technology will further increase the value of robotic surgery compared to traditional approaches. PMID:28203539

  4. Patient-specific mitral leaflet segmentation from 4D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Robert J; Tenenholtz, Neil A; Perrin, Douglas P; Marx, Gerald R; del Nido, Pedro J; Howe, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Segmenting the mitral valve during closure and throughout a cardiac cycle from four dimensional ultrasound (4DUS) is important for creation and validation of mechanical models and for improved visualization and understanding of mitral valve behavior. Current methods of segmenting the valve from 4DUS either require extensive user interaction and initialization, do not maintain the valve geometry across a cardiac cycle, or are incapable of producing a detailed coaptation line and surface. We present a method of segmenting the mitral valve annulus and leaflets from 4DUS such that a detailed, patient-specific annulus and leaflets are tracked throughout mitral valve closure, resulting in a detailed coaptation region. The method requires only the selection of two frames from a sequence indicating the start and end of valve closure and a single point near a closed valve. The annulus and leaflets are first found through direct segmentation in the appropriate frames and then by tracking the known geometry to the remaining frames. We compared the automatically segmented meshes to expert manual tracings for both a normal and diseased mitral valve, and found an average difference of 0.59 +/- 0.49 mm, which is on the order of the spatial resolution of the ultrasound volumes (0.5-1.0 mm/voxel).

  5. Usefulness of radionuclide angiocardiography in predicting stenotic mitral orifice area

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Armitage, D.L.; Fountas, P.N.; Tremblay, P.C.; Druck, M.N.

    1986-12-01

    Fifteen patients with pure mitral stenosis (MS) underwent high-temporal-resolution radionuclide angiocardiography for calculation of the ratio of peak left ventricular (LV) filling rate divided by mean LV filling rate (filling ratio). Whereas LV filling normally occurs in 3 phases, in MS it is more uniform. Thus, in 13 patients the filling ratio was below the normal range of 2.21 to 2.88 (p less than 0.001). In 11 patients in atrial fibrillation, filling ratio divided by mean cardiac cycle length and by LV ejection fraction provided good correlation (r = 0.85) with modified Gorlin formula derived mitral area and excellent correlation with echocardiographic mitral area (r = 0.95). Significant MS can be detected using radionuclide angiocardiography to calculate filling ratio. In the absence of the confounding influence of atrial systole calculation of 0.14 (filling ratio divided by cardiac cycle length divided by LV ejection fraction) + 0.40 cm2 enables accurate prediction of mitral area (+/- 4%). Our data support the contention that the modified Gorlin formula, based on steady-state hemodynamics, provides less certain estimates of mitral area for patients with MS and atrial fibrillation, in whom echocardiography and radionuclide angiocardiography may be more accurate.

  6. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Christian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Tucker, Nathan; Delling, Francesca N.; Toomer, Katelynn; Durst, Ronen; Perrocheau, Maelle; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Chen, Ming-Huei; Probst, Vincent; Bosse, Yohan; Pibarot, Philippe; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Hercberg, Serge; Roussel, Ronan; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Su Hao, LO; Dolmatova, Elena; Simonet, Floriane; Lecointe, Simon; Kyndt, Florence; Redon, Richard; Le Marec, Hervé; Froguel, Philippe; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Bruneval, Patrick; Norris, Russell A.; Milan, David J.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Levine, Robert A.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Hagege, Albert A.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Non-syndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown aetiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death1. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance2–5. We performed a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies in 1,442 cases and 2,439 controls. We identified and replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls six loci and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 encoding a transcription factor6, for which morpholino knockdown in zebrafish results in atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained for tensin1 (TNS1), a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also show the expression of tensin1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1−/− mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair7. PMID:26301497

  7. Mitral valve repair: an echocardiographic review: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve before and immediately after repair is crucial to the immediate and long-term outcome. Prior to mitral valve repair, echocardiographic imaging helps determine the feasibility and method of repair. After the repair, echocardiographic imaging displays the new baseline anatomy, assesses function, and determines whether or not further management is necessary. Three-dimensional imaging has improved the assessment of the mitral valve and facilitates communication with the surgeon by providing the surgeon with an image that he/she might see upon opening up the atrium. Further advancements in imaging will continue to improve the understanding of the function and dysfunction of the mitral valve both before and after repair. This information will improve treatment options, timing of invasive therapies, and advancements of repair techniques to yield better short- and long-term patient outcomes. The purpose of this review was to connect the echocardiographic evaluation with the surgical procedure. Bridging the pre- and post-CPB imaging with the surgical procedure allows a greater understanding of mitral valve repair.

  8. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery via right minithoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Glauber, Mattia; Karimov, Jamshid H; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Santarelli, Filippo; Ferrarini, Matteo; Del Sarto, Paolo; Murzi, Michele; Solinas, Marco

    2009-01-01

    From early experience in cardiac surgery on the mitral valve, access was gained in different ways: through left and right antero-lateral extended thoracotomy for closed and correspondingly for open mitral commissurotomy, from right parasternal access with rib resection, and via median sternotomy. Median sternotomy remains the most common approach for mitral valve procedures, such as replacement or repair, allowing good visualisation, exposure and working field. Applying the largely spread access as median sternotomy, surgeons always wanted to overcome the necessity of large incisions, get a better surgical view, to dissect with better respect to structural integrity and have better aesthetic results. Enhanced understanding of surgical bases and technological development sourced a breakthrough in minimally-invasive approach for mitral valve surgery, offering several advantages such as less postoperative pain, lower morbidity and mortality, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. In an effort to share the institutional experience in less invasive surgery, this article demonstrates our approach in mitral valve repair through a right minithoracotomy in the 3rd or 4th intercostal space.

  9. What forces act on a flat rigid mitral annuloplasty ring?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Ø; Jensen, Henrik; Nielsen, Sten L; Smerup, Morten; Johansen, Peter; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2008-05-01

    Increasing mitral valve repair durability requires successful restoration and support with annuloplasty rings. The stress distribution in these devices indirectly determines the success of the repair. It is hypothesized that changes in annular geometry throughout the cardiac cycle result in adverse strain distribution in stiff, flat annuloplasty rings, and hence non-physiological loading of the myocardium. The study aim was to identify the three-dimensional (3-D) force distribution in mitral annuloplasty rings. Eight animals were included in an acute porcine study. The mitral annulus 3-D dynamic geometry was assessed with sonomicrometry prior to ring insertion. Strain gauges mounted on dedicated D-shaped rigid flat annuloplasty rings enabled dynamic force measurements to be made perpendicular to the annulus plane. The average systolic annular height to commissural width ratio before ring implantation was 13.7 +/- 1.4%. Following ring implantation, the annulus was fixed in the diastolic flat configuration (p <0.01). Force accumulation was seen from the anterior (0.7 +/- 0.4 N) and commissural (1.4 +/- 1.0 N) annular segments; both forces were acting in opposite directions and were statistically significantly larger than zero (p <0.01; n = 8). These data demonstrate highest strains at the anterior and commissural areas of flat mitral annuloplasty rings, and support the hypothesis that the mitral valve annulus and its attached valvular and subvalvular structures apply systolic torque onto the flat annuloplasty ring in an attempt to conform it into the saddle-shaped configuration.

  10. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R; Brender, D; McCredie, M

    1989-01-01

    Pregnancy can cause life threatening complications in women with mitral stenosis, and there is a substantial risk of fetal death if valvotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass is required. A patient is described in whom pulmonary oedema developed after delivery of her first child by caesarean section 13 months previously. Subsequent cardiac catheterisation showed severe mitral stenosis (valve area 0.96 cm2, valve gradient 12 mm Hg, pulmonary artery pressure 30/16 mm Hg). Before valvotomy could be performed the patient again became pregnant and presented in pulmonary oedema at twenty two weeks' gestation. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and she underwent percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. This increased the valve area to 1.78 cm2 and reduced the transmitral gradient to 6 mm Hg. The procedure was uncomplicated, and she remained symptom free on no medication. She delivered vaginally at 37 weeks' gestation. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a safe and effective alternative to mitral valvotomy in pregnancy. PMID:2757867

  11. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Dina, Christian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Tucker, Nathan; Delling, Francesca N; Toomer, Katelynn; Durst, Ronen; Perrocheau, Maelle; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Chen, Ming-Huei; Probst, Vincent; Bosse, Yohan; Pibarot, Philippe; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Hercberg, Serge; Roussel, Ronan; Benjamin, Emelia J; Bonnet, Fabrice; Lo, Su Hao; Dolmatova, Elena; Simonet, Floriane; Lecointe, Simon; Kyndt, Florence; Redon, Richard; Le Marec, Hervé; Froguel, Philippe; Ellinor, Patrick T; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Bruneval, Patrick; Markwald, Roger R; Norris, Russell A; Milan, David J; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Levine, Robert A; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Hagege, Albert A; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Nonsyndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown etiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies in 1,412 MVP cases and 2,439 controls. We identified 6 loci, which we replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls, and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 (LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1), which encodes a transcription factor and for which morpholino knockdown of the ortholog in zebrafish resulted in atrioventricular valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained with knockdown of the ortholog of TNS1, which encodes tensin 1, a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also showed expression of tensin 1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1(-/-) mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair.

  12. Three-dimensional echocardiography for assessment of mitral valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Jose; de Agustín, Jose Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Since the last few years, three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has become an accurate tool for mitral stenosis assessment. We will review the latest developments of 3DE in this matter. Accuracy of 3DE planimetry is superior to the accuracy of the invasive Gorlin's method for mitral valve area (MVA) measurements when a median value obtained from two-dimensional planimetry, pressure half-time, and proximal isovelocity surface area method is used as the gold standard. 3DE improves MVA measurement particularly in less experienced operators compared with experienced operators. 3DE also improves the measurement of MVA in patients with calcific mitral stenosis by means of colour planimetry of the flow stream. Comparison of mitral valve volumes measured by 3DE in patients with critical and without critical stenosis has shown significantly larger volumes in patients with critical stenosis. Currently, there is sufficient evidence that 3DE is superior to two-dimensional echocardiography and may be routinely used in the quantification of the MVA in mitral stenosis. In the coming years, 3DE might replace Gorlin's method as the gold standard for MVA quantification and may eventually make cardiac catheterization unnecessary.

  13. Microwave Ablation in Mitral Valve Surgery for Atrial Fibrillation (MAMA).

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Anders; Lehto, Mika; Ahn, Henrik; Hermansson, Ulf; Linde, Peter; Ahlsson, Anders; Koistinen, Juhani; Savola, Jukka; Raatikainen, Pekka; Lepojärvi, Martti; Sahlman, Antero; Werkkala, Kalervo; Toivonen, Lauri; Walfridsson, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Microwave ablation in conjunction with open heart surgery is effective in restoring sinus rhythm (SR) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In patients assigned for isolated mitral valve surgery no prospective randomized trial has reported its efficacy. Methods: 70 patients with longlasting AF where included from 5 different centres. They were randomly assigned to mitral valve surgery and atrial microwave ablation or mitral valve surgery alone. Results: Out of 70 randomized, 66 and 64 patients were available for evaluation at 6 and 12 months. At 12 months SR was restored and preserved in 71.0 % in the ablation group vs 36.4 % in the control group (P=0.006), corresponding figures at 6 months was 62.5 % vs 26.5 % (P=0.003). The 30-day mortality rate was 1.4 %, with one death in the ablation group vs zero deaths in the control group. At 12 months the mortality rate was 7,1 % (Ablation n=3 vs Control n=2). No significant differences existed between the groups with regard to the overall rate of serious adverse events (SAE) during the perioperative period or at the end of the study. 16 % of patients randomized to ablation were on antiarrhytmic drugs compared to 6 % in the control group after 1 year (p=0.22). Conclusion: Microwave ablation of left and right atrium in conjunction with mitral valve surgery is safe and effectively restores sinus rhythm in patients with longlasting AF as compared to mitral valve surgery alone.

  14. Intraoperative assessment of mitral valve area after mitral valve repair: comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew; Gemignani, Anthony; Singh, Arun; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, 3 different methods to measure the mitral valve area (MVA) after mitral valve repair (MVRep) were studied. Data obtained immediately after repair were compared with postoperative data. The objective was to determine the feasibility and correlation between intraoperative and postoperative MVA data. A prospective study. A tertiary care medical center. Twenty-five elective adult surgical patients scheduled for MVRep. Echocardiographic data included MVAs obtained using the pressure half-time (PHT), 2-dimensional planimetry (2D-PLAN), and the continuity equation (CE). These data were obtained immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass and were compared with data obtained before hospital discharge (transthoracic echocardiogram 1) and 6 to 12 months after surgery (transthoracic echocardiogram 2). Intraoperative care was guided by hemodynamic goals designed to optimize cardiac function. The data show good agreement and correlation between MVA obtained with PHT and 2D-PLAN within and between each time period. MVA data obtained with the CE in the postoperative period were lower than and did not correlate or agree as well with other MVA data. The MVA recorded immediately after valve repair, using PHT, correlated and agreed with MVA data obtained in the postoperative period. These results contrast with previously published data and could highlight the impact of hemodynamic function during the assessment of MVA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transaortic Edge-to-Edge Repair for Functional Mitral Regurgitation During Aortic Valve Replacement: A 13-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Larrauri-Reyes, Maiteder; Hung, Judy; Santana, Orlando

    The study evaluated the feasibility of a transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (Alfieri stitch) for moderate or greater (≥2+) functional mitral regurgitation (MR) in high-risk patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. We retrospectively evaluated 40 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement combined with a transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair for 2+ or greater functional MR, between February 2002 and April 2015. The MR was graded semiquantitatively as 0 (trace/none), mild (1+), moderate (2+), or moderate to severe (3-4+). Thirty-two patients had aortic stenosis, and eight had aortic regurgitation. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 77.5 ± 5 years, 34 (85%) were male, and the mean ± SD EuroSCORE II was 14.3% ± 12.9. At a median follow-up of 1 month (interquartile range, 0.75-10), there were significant improvements in preoperative versus postoperative median MR grade (3+ vs 1+, P < 0.001), mean left ventricular ejection fraction (34% vs 41%, P = 0.018), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (54 vs 49 mm, P = 0.005), and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (49 vs 35 mm Hg, P < 0.001). Persistent 3 to 4+ MR occurred in two patients (5%). In 12 patients with at least 6-month follow-up (mean ± SD, 18 ± 11 months), a sustained improvement in all echocardiographic parameters was observed, with persistent 3 to 4+ MR occurring in one patient (8.3%). Actuarial survival at 1, 3, and 4.5 years was 82% ± 6, 71% ± 8, and 65% ± 10, respectively. A transaortic edge-to-edge repair for 2+ or greater functional MR can be safely performed during aortic valve replacement and is associated with improvements in MR grade, left ventricular remodeling, and pulmonary hemodynamics.

  16. Anatomical features of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction: Additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Derkx, Salomé; Nguyen, Virginia; Cimadevilla, Claire; Verdonk, Constance; Lepage, Laurent; Raffoul, Richard; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2017-03-01

    Recurrence of mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair is correlated with unfavourable left ventricular remodelling and poor outcome. This pictorial review describes the echocardiographic features of three types of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction, and the additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

  17. Caseous Calcification of Mitral Annulus: A Rare Monster Leading to Cerebrovascular Accident.

    PubMed

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Chhabra, Lovely; Krainski, Felix; Parker, Matthew W; Swales, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification that maybe easily misdiagnosed or confused with an abscess, a tumor, or infective vegetation. The main pathophysiological mechanism leading to CCMA involves degeneration and calcium deposition on the mitral valve. We present a case of CCMA to help understand this clinical entity.

  18. Opening snap and isovolumic relaxation period in relation to mitral valve flow in patients with mitral stenosis. Significance of A2--OS interval.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmanson, D; Veyrat, C; Bernier, A; Witchitz, S; Chiche, P

    1976-01-01

    In 15 patients with pure or predominant mitral stenosis and in a control group of 11 patients without mitral stenosis the blood flow velocity through the mitral valve orifice was recorded by means of a directional Doppler ultrasound velocity catheter introduced transeptally and positioned in the orifice of the mitral valve. A simultaneous surface phonocardiogram was obtained. The timing of the mitral opening snap in relation to the blood velocity record of the flow through the valve supported the hypothesis that the opening snap is due to a sudden tensing of the valve leaflets by the chordae tendineae. Determination of the exact time of mitral valve opening, made possible by the blood velocity record, led to the division of the classical A2-0S interval (aortic valve closure to opening snap) into two components representing respectively the diastolic isovolumic relaxation period and the time of excursion of the mitral valve cusps. The durations of the isovolumic relaxation period were compared with those in the control patients and were found to correlate with the severity of the mitral stenosis, whereas those of the excursion time of the mitral cusps were influenced by the presence or absence of mitral valve calcification. PMID:1259828

  19. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  20. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  1. Ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2009-01-01

    Ischemic optic neuropathy is one of the major causes of blindness or seriously impaired vision, yet there is disagreement as to its pathogenesis, clinical features and especially its management. This is because ischemic optic neuropathy is not one disease but a spectrum of several different types, each with its own etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and management. They cannot be lumped together. Ischemic optic neuropathy is primarily of two types: anterior (AION) and posterior (PION), involving the optic nerve head (ONH) and the rest of the optic nerve respectively. Furthermore, both AION and PION have different subtypes. AION comprises arteritic (A-AION - due to giant cell arteritis) and, non-arteritic (NA-AION - due to causes other than giant cell arteritis); NA-AION can be further classified into classical NA-AION and incipient NA-AION. PION consists of arteritic (A-PION - due to giant cell arteritis), non-arteritic (NA-PION - due to causes other than giant cell arteritis), and surgical (a complication of several systemic surgical procedures). Thus, ischemic optic neuropathy consists of six distinct types of clinical entities. NA-AION is by far the most common type and one of the most prevalent and visually crippling diseases in the middle-aged and elderly. A-AION, though less common, is an ocular emergency and requires early diagnosis and immediate treatment with systemic high dose corticosteroids to prevent further visual loss, which is entirely preventable. Controversy exists regarding the pathogenesis, clinical features and especially management of the various types of ischemic optic neuropathy because there are multiple misconceptions about its many fundamental aspects. Recently emerging information on the various factors that influence the optic nerve circulation, and also the various systemic and local risk factors which play important roles in the development of various types of ischemic optic neuropathy have given us a better understanding of

  2. Percutaneous Mitral Valvotomy in a Case of Situs Inversus Totalis and Juvenile Rheumatic Critical Mitral Stenosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Thakur, Ramesh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Sayal, Karandeep Singh; Sachan, Mohit; Krishna, Vinay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mishra, Vikas; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital disorder where the heart being a mirror image is situated on the right side of the body. Distorted cardiac anatomy makes fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous mitral valvotomy (PMV) technically challenging and there are only few reports of PMV in situs inversus totalis. Here we report a case where PMV was successfully done for situs inversus totalis with rare coincidence of juvenile rheumatic severe mitral stenosis in a 12-year-old boy with a few modifications of standard Inoue technique. He had exertional dyspnea of NYHA class III with initial mitral valve area (MVA) of 0.6 cm2 and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with features suitable for PMV. Femoral vein was accessed from the left side to align the septal puncture needle and balloon to facilitate left ventricular entry. Septal descent and puncture by Brockenbrough needle was performed in the right anterior oblique view with the needle facing 5 o’clock position. Accura balloon was negotiated across mitral valve in left anterior oblique and procedure was successfully executed. Echocardiography showed a well-divided anterior commissure with an MVA of 2.0 cm2 and mild mitral regurgitation. In summary, PMV is safe and feasible in the rare patient with situs inversus totalis with few modifications of the Inoue technique. PMID:26985259

  3. The Ross II procedure: pulmonary autograft in the mitral position.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Cherian, Ashok; Ross, Donald

    2004-10-01

    The surgical management of mitral valve disease in women of childbearing age, young patients, and children with congenital mitral valve defects is made difficult by the prospect of lifelong anticoagulation. We suggest the use of a pulmonary autograft in the mitral position (Ross II procedure) as an alternative surgical technique. We present a review of the literature, historical perspectives, indications, selection criteria, and surgical technique for the Ross II procedure. Our literature search identified 14 studies that reported results from the Ross II operation. Performed in 103 patients, the overall in-hospital mortality was 7 (6.7%), with a late mortality of 10 (9%). Although further research is needed, current evidence suggests the Ross II operation is a valuable alternative in low-risk young patients where valve durability and the complication rate from other procedures is unsatisfactory and anticoagulation not ideal.

  4. [Longterm results of mitral valve replacement (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Erhard, W; Reichmann, M; Delius, W; Sebening, H; Herrmann, G

    1977-04-22

    210 patients were followed up by the actuary method for over 5 years after isolated mitral valve replacement or a double valve replacement. After isolated valve replacement the one month survival including the operative mortality was 92+/-2%. The survival after one year was 83+/-3% and after 5 years 66+/-7%. The five year survival of patients in preoperative class III (according to the NYHA) was 73+/-8% and of class IV 57+/-8% (P less than or equal to 0.1). A comparison of valve replacements for pure mitral stenosis or mitral insufficiency showed no statistically significant differences. In the 37 patients who had a double valve replacement the survival risk was not increased in comparison with those patients who had had a single valve replacement. Age above 45 years and a preoperative markedly raised pulmonary arteriolar resistance reduced the chances of survival.

  5. Review of mitral valve insufficiency: repair or replacement

    PubMed Central

    Madesis, Athanasios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kesisis, George; Tsiouda, Theodora; Beleveslis, Thomas; Koletas, Alexander; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve (MV) dysfunction is the second-most common clinically significant form of valvular defect in adults. MV regurgitation occurs with the increasing frequency of degenerative changes of the aging process. Moreover, other causes of clinically significant MV regurgitation include cardiac ischemia, infective endocarditis and rhematic disease more frequently in less developed countries. Recent evidence suggests that the best outcomes after repair of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) are achieved in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, who are selected for surgery soon after diagnosis on the basis of echocardiography. This review will focus on the surgical management of mitral insufficiency according to its aetiology today and will give insight to some of the perspectives that lay in the future. PMID:24672698

  6. Surgical phantom for off-pump mitral valve replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Doug L.; Campbell, Gordon; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    Off-pump, intracardiac, beating heart surgery has the potential to improve patient outcomes by eliminating the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping but it requires extensive image guidance as well as the development of specialized instrumentation. Previously, developments in image guidance and instrumentation were validated on either a static phantom or in vivo through porcine models. This paper describes the design and development of a surgical phantom for simulating off-pump mitral valve replacement inside the closed beating heart. The phantom allows surgical access to the mitral annulus while mimicking the pressure inside the beating heart. An image guidance system using tracked ultrasound, magnetic instrument tracking and preoperative models previously developed for off-pump mitral valve replacement is applied to the phantom. Pressure measurements and ultrasound images confirm the phantom closely mimics conditions inside the beating heart.

  7. Ischemic contracture of the left ventricle. Production and prevention.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, D C; Wilson, G J; Tanaka, S; Holness, D E; Lixfeld, W; Silver, M D; Rubis, L J; Goldstein, W; Gunstensen, J; Bigelow, W G

    1975-12-01

    Ischemic contracture of the left ventricle ("stone heart") is a recognized complication of prolonged periods of interruption of the coronary circulation during open-heart surgery. We have examined the effects of moderate hypothermia (28 degrees C.) and preoperative beta-adrenergic blockade (propranolol, 0.5 mg. per kilogram; 1.0 mg. per kilogram) on contracture development during ischemic arrest of the heart. Four groups of 8 dogs each were placed on total cardiopulmonary bypass, and ischemic arrest of the heart was produced by cross-clamping the ascending aorta and venting the left ventricle. Intramyocardial carbon dioxide tension was continuously monitored by mass spectrometry. When anaerobic energy production ceased, as indicated by a final plateau in the intramyocardial carbon dioxide accumulation curve, the ischemic arrest was terminated and the contractile state of the heart observed. These results are given in the text. We conclude that beta-adrenergic blockade delays, but does not prevent, the onset of ischemic contracture of the left ventricle under normothermic conditions. Moderate hypothermia appears to prevent this complication completely.

  8. Modeling the Myxomatous Mitral Valve With Three-Dimensional Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Pouch, Alison M; Jackson, Benjamin M; Lai, Eric; Takebe, Manabu; Tian, Sijie; Cheung, Albert T; Woo, Y Joseph; Patel, Prakash A; Wang, Hongzhi; Yushkevich, Paul A; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H

    2016-09-01

    Degenerative mitral valve disease is associated with variable and complex defects in valve morphology. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has shown promise in aiding preoperative planning for patients with this disease but to date has not been as transformative as initially predicted. The clinical usefulness of 3DE has been limited by the laborious methods currently required to extract quantitative data from the images. To maximize the utility of 3DE for preoperative valve evaluation, this work describes an automated 3DE image analysis method for generating models of the mitral valve that are well suited for both qualitative and quantitative assessment. The method is unique in that it captures detailed alterations in mitral leaflet and annular morphology and produces image-derived models with locally varying leaflet thickness. The method is evaluated on midsystolic transesophageal 3DE images acquired from 22 subjects with myxomatous degeneration and from 22 subjects with normal mitral valve morphology. Relative to manual image analysis, the automated method accurately represents both normal and complex leaflet geometries with a mean boundary displacement error on the order of one image voxel. A detailed quantitative analysis of the valves is presented and reveals statistically significant differences between normal and myxomatous valves with respect to numerous aspects of annular and leaflet geometry. This work demonstrates a successful methodology for the relatively rapid quantitative description of the complex mitral valve distortions associated with myxomatous degeneration. The methodology has the potential to significantly improve surgical planning for patients with complex mitral valve disease. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling the Myxomatous Mitral Valve With Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Pouch, Alison M.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Lai, Eric; Takebe, Manabu; Tian, Sijie; Cheung, Albert T.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Patel, Prakash A.; Wang, Hongzhi; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Degenerative mitral valve disease is associated with variable and complex defects in valve morphology. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has shown promise in aiding preoperative planning for patients with this disease but to date has not been as transformative as initially predicted. The clinical usefulness of 3DE has been limited by the laborious methods currently required to extract quantitative data from the images. Methods To maximize the utility of 3DE for preoperative valve evaluation, this work describes an automated 3DE image analysis method for generating models of the mitral valve that are well suited for both qualitative and quantitative assessment. The method is unique in that it captures detailed alterations in mitral leaflet and annular morphology and produces image-derived models with locally varying leaflet thickness. The method is evaluated on midsystolic transesophageal 3DE images acquired from 22 subjects with myxomatous degeneration and from 22 subjects with normal mitral valve morphology. Results Relative to manual image analysis, the automated method accurately represents both normal and complex leaflet geometries with a mean boundary displacement error on the order of one image voxel. A detailed quantitative analysis of the valves is presented and reveals statistically significant differences between normal and myxomatous valves with respect to numerous aspects of annular and leaflet geometry. Conclusions This work demonstrates a successful methodology for the relatively rapid quantitative description of the complex mitral valve distortions associated with myxomatous degeneration. The methodology has the potential to significantly improve surgical planning for patients with complex mitral valve disease. PMID:27492671

  10. Mitral valve prolapse in Marfan syndrome: an old topic revisited.

    PubMed

    Taub, Cynthia C; Stoler, Joan M; Perez-Sanz, Teresa; Chu, John; Isselbacher, Eric M; Picard, Michael H; Weyman, Arthur E

    2009-04-01

    The echocardiographic features of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in Marfan syndrome have been well described, and the incidence of MVP in Marfan syndrome is reported to be 40-80%. However, most of the original research was performed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the diagnostic criteria for MVP were less specific. Our goal was to investigate the characteristics of MVP associated with Marfan syndrome using currently accepted diagnostic criteria for MVP. Between January 1990 and March 2004, 90 patients with definitive diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (based on standardized criteria with or without genetic testing) were referred to Massachusetts General Hospital for transthoracic echocardiography. Patients' gender, age, weight, height, and body surface area at initial examination were recorded. Mitral valve thickness and motion, the degree of mitral regurgitation and aortic regurgitation, and aortic dimensions were quantified blinded to patients' clinical information. There were 25 patients (28%) with MVP, among whom 80% had symmetrical bileaflet MVP. Patients with MVP had thicker mitral leaflets (5.0 +/- 1.0 mm vs. 1.8 +/- 0.5 mm, P < 0.001), more mitral regurgitation (using a scale of 1-4, 2.2 +/- 1.0 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.60, P < 0.0001), larger LVEDD, and larger dimensions of sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, aortic arch, and descending aorta indexed to square root body surface area, when compared with those without MVP. When echocardiographic features of patients younger than 18 years of age and those of patients older than 18 were compared, adult Marfan patients had larger LA dimension (indexed to square root body surface area), larger sinotubular junction (indexed to square root body surface area), and more mitral regurgitation and aortic regurgitation. The prevalence of MVP in Marfan syndrome is lower than previously reported. The large majority of patients with MVP have bileaflet involvement, and those with MVP have significantly larger aortic root

  11. Energy dynamics of the intraventricular vortex after mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kouki; Itatani, Keiichi; Kitamura, Tadashi; Oka, Norihiko; Horai, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Shohei; Nie, Masaki; Miyaji, Kagami

    2017-04-07

    Mitral valve morphology after mitral valve surgery affects postoperative intraventricular flow patterns and long-term cardiac performance. We visualized ventricular flow by echocardiography vector flow mapping (VFM) to reveal the impact of different mitral valve procedures. Eleven cases of mechanical mitral valve replacement (nine in the anti-anatomical and two in the anatomical position), three bioprosthetic mitral valve replacements, and four mitral valve repairs were evaluated. The mean age at the procedure was 57.4 ± 17.8 year, and the echocardiography VFM in the apical long-axis view was performed 119.9 ± 126.7 months later. Flow energy loss (EL), kinetic pressure (KP), and the flow energy efficiency ratio (EL/KP) were measured. The cases with MVR in the anatomical position and with valve repair had normal vortex directionality ("Clockwise"; N = 6), whereas those with MVR in the anti-anatomical position and with a bioprosthetic mitral valve had the vortex in the opposite direction ("Counterclockwise"; N = 12). During diastole, vortex direction had no effect on EL ("Clockwise": 0.080 ± 0.025 W/m; "Counterclockwise": 0.083 ± 0.048 W/m; P = 0.31) or KP ("Clockwise": 0.117 ± 0.021 N; "Counterclockwise": 0.099 ± 0.057 N; P = 0.023). However, during systole, the EL/KP ratio was significantly higher in the "Counterclockwise" vortex than that in the "Clockwise" vortex (1.056 ± 0.463 vs. 0.617 ± 0.158; P = 0.009). MVP and MVR with a mechanical valve in the anatomical position preserve the physiological vortex, whereas MVR with a mechanical valve in the anti-anatomical position and a bioprosthetic mitral valve generate inefficient vortex flow patterns, resulting in a potential increase in excessive cardiac workload.

  12. Septic Cerebral Embolisation in Fulminant Mitral Valve Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doolub, Gemina

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old male with known intravenous drug use was admitted with an acute onset of worsening confusion and speech impairment. His vitals and biochemical profile demonstrated severe sepsis, with a brain CT showing several lesions suspicious for cerebral emboli. He then went on to have a bedside transthoracic echocardiogram that was positive for vegetation on the mitral valve, with associated severe mitral regurgitation. Unfortunately, before he was stable enough to be transferred for valve surgery, he suffered an episode of acute pulmonary oedema requiring intubation and ventilation on intensive care unit. PMID:26120312

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Mitral Valve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jeganathan, Jelliffe; Knio, Ziyad; Amador, Yannis; Hai, Ting; Khamooshian, Arash; Matyal, Robina; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Mahmood, Feroze

    2017-01-01

    Background: Echocardiographic analysis of mitral valve (MV) has become essential for diagnosis and management of patients with MV disease. Currently, the various software used for MV analysis require manual input and are prone to interobserver variability in the measurements. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the interobserver variability in an automated software that uses artificial intelligence for MV analysis. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of intraoperative three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography data acquired from four patients with normal MV undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery in a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: Echocardiographic data were analyzed using the eSie Valve Software (Siemens Healthcare, Mountain View, CA, USA). Three examiners analyzed three end-systolic (ES) frames from each of the four patients. A total of 36 ES frames were analyzed and included in the study. Statistical Analysis: A multiple mixed-effects ANOVA model was constructed to determine if the examiner, the patient, and the loop had a significant effect on the average value of each parameter. A Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple comparisons, and P = 0.0083 was considered to be significant. Results: Examiners did not have an effect on any of the six parameters tested. Patient and loop had an effect on the average parameter value for each of the six parameters as expected (P < 0.0083 for both). Conclusion: We were able to conclude that using automated analysis, it is possible to obtain results with good reproducibility, which only requires minimal user intervention. PMID:28393769

  14. The use of three-dimensional echocardiography for the evaluation of and treatment of mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose A; Nanda, Navin C; Gill, Edward A; de Isla, Leopoldo Pérez; Zamorano, Jose L

    2007-05-01

    To date, mitral stenosis has been evaluated by both hemodynamic data derived from catheterization as well as 2D and Doppler echocardiography. However, the advent of real-time 3D echocardiography has allowed more precise measurement of the mitral valve orifice by planimetry. In addition, evaluation of the mitral commissures prior to and after percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty is greatly aided by 3D echocardiography. Here we discuss these subjects as well as provide specific clinical trials that support the use of real-time 3D echocardiography for the evaluation and treatment of mitral stenosis.

  15. Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele; Rabinov, James; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular thrombectomy is an effective treatment for major acute ischemic stroke syndromes caused by major anterior circulation artery occlusions (commonly referred to as large vessel occlusion) and is superior to intravenous thrombolysis and medical management. Treatment should occur as quickly as is reasonably possible. All patients with moderate to severe symptoms (National Institutes of Health stroke scale >8) and a treatable occlusion should be considered. The use of neuroimaging is critical to exclude hemorrhage and large ischemic cores. Very shortly after stroke onset (<3 hours) computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography provide sufficient information to proceed; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is less reliable during this early stage. After 3 hours from onset diffusion MRI is the most reliable method to define ischemic core size and should be used in centers that can offer it rapidly. Recanalization is highly effective with a stentriever or using a direct aspiration technique, with the patient awake or under conscious sedation rather than general anesthesia, if it may be performed safely. After thrombectomy the patient should be admitted to an intensive care setting and inpatient rehabilitation undertaken as soon as feasible. Patient outcomes should be assessed at 3 months, preferably using the modified Rankin score. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ischemic Amnesia: Causes and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Michel, Patrik; Beaud, Valérie; Eskandari, Ashraf; Maeder, Philippe; Demonet, Jean-François; Eskioglou, Elissavet

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to describe the frequency and characteristics of acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks presenting predominantly with amnesia (ischemic amnesia) and to identify clinical clues for differentiating them from transient global amnesia (TGA). We retrospectively analyzed and described all patients presenting with diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attacks with antero- and retrograde amnesia as the main symptom over a 13.5-year period. We also compared their clinical features and stroke mechanisms with 3804 acute ischemic stroke from our ischemic stroke registry. Thirteen ischemic amnesia patients were identified, representing 0.2% of all patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. In 69% of ischemic amnesia cases, amnesia was transient with a median duration of 5 hours. Ischemia was not considered in 39% of cases. Fifty-four percent of cases were clinically difficult to distinguish from TGA, including 15% who were indistinguishable from TGA. 1.2% of all presumed TGA patients at our center were later found to have ischemic amnesia. Amnesic strokes were more often cardioembolic, multiterritorial, and typically involved the posterior circulation and limbic system. Clinical clues were minor focal neurological signs, higher age, more risk factors, and stroke favoring circumstances. Although all patients were independent at 3 months, 31% had persistent memory problems. Amnesia as the main symptom of acute ischemic cerebral events is rare, mostly transient, and easily mistaken for TGA. Although clinical clues are often present, the threshold for performing diffusion-weighted imaging in acute amnesia should be low. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Mitral valve prolapse in the ventriculogram: scintigraphic, electrocardiographic, and hemodynamic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbe, U.; Schicha, H.; Neumann, P.; Voth, E.; Emrich, D.; Neuhaus, K.L.; Kreuzer, H.

    1985-06-01

    Patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) frequently have chest pain, which may be difficult to differentiate from angina pectoris in coronary artery disease (CAD). The authors performed resting and exercise ECGs, pulmonary arterial pressure measurements, radionuclide ventriculography (/sup 99m/technetium), and perfusion scintigrams (/sup 201/thallium) in 56 patients with angiographically proven MVP and no CAD. Pathological results were obtained in 31% of exercise ECGs, 33% of pulmonary arterial pressure measurements during exercise, 22% of radionuclide ventriculographies, and in 75% of thallium perfusion scintigrams. A significant correlation in pathological results was found only between exercise ECG and both radionuclide ventriculography and pulmonary arterial pressure measurements. Because of the high prevalence of false-positive perfusion scintigrams in patients with typical or atypical chest pain, the use of exercise /sup 201/Tl imaging as a screening method to separate patients with MVP from those with CAD will not be appropriate. The variability of cardiac abnormalities in our patients with MVP and angiographically normal coronary arteries suggests that the MVP syndrome may represent a variable combination of metabolic, ischemic, or myopathic disorders.

  18. The challenges of managing rheumatic disease of the mitral valve in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Little, Sherard G

    2014-12-01

    Between January, 2009 and December, 2013, 84 patients were identified who underwent isolated mitral valve surgery in Jamaica at The University Hospital of the West Indies and The Bustamante Hospital for Children. The most common pathology requiring surgery was rheumatic heart disease, accounting for 84% of the procedures performed. The majority of patients had regurgitation of the mitral valve (67%), stenosis of the mitral valve (22%), and mixed mitral valve disease (11%). The most common procedure performed was replacement of the mitral valve (69%), followed by mitral valve repair (29%). Among the patients, one underwent closed mitral commissurotomy. The choice of procedure differed between age groups. In the paediatric population (<18 years of age), the majority of patients underwent repair of the mitral valve (89%). In the adult population (18 years and above), the majority of patients underwent mitral valve replacement (93%). Overall, of all the patients undergoing replacement of the mitral valve, 89% received a mechanical valve prosthesis, whereas 11% received a bioprosthetic valve prosthesis. Of the group of patients who underwent mitral valve repair for rheumatic heart disease, 19% required re-operation. The average time between initial surgery and re-operation was 1.2 years. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain significant public health challenges in Jamaica and other developing countries. Focus must remain on primary and secondary prevention strategies in order to limit the burden of rheumatic valvulopathies. Attention should also be directed towards improving access to surgical treatment for young adults.

  19. A quantitative approach to the intraoperative echocardiographic assessment of the mitral valve for repair.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Feroze; Matyal, Robina

    2015-07-01

    Intraoperative echocardiography of the mitral valve has evolved from a qualitative assessment of flow-dependent variables to quantitative geometric analyses before and after repair. In addition, 3-dimensional echocardiographic data now allow for a precise assessment of mitral valve apparatus. Complex structures, such as the mitral annulus, can be interrogated comprehensively without geometric assumptions. Quantitative analyses of mitral valve apparatus are particularly valuable for identifying indices of left ventricular and mitral remodeling to establish the chronicity and severity of mitral regurgitation. This can help identify patients who may be unsuitable candidates for repair as the result of irreversible remodeling of the mitral valve apparatus. Principles of geometric analyses also have been extended to the assessment of repaired mitral valves. Changes in mitral annular shape and size determine the stress exerted on the mitral leaflets and, therefore, the durability of repair. Given this context, echocardiographers may be expected to diagnose and quantify valvular dysfunction, assess suitability for repair, assist in annuloplasty ring sizing, and determine the success and failure of the repair procedure. As a result, anesthesiologists have progressed from being mere service providers to participants in the decision-making process. It is therefore prudent for them to acquaint themselves with the principles of intraoperative quantitative mitral valve analysis to assist in rational and objective decision making.

  20. A retrospective analysis of mitral valve pathology in the setting of bicuspid aortic valves

    PubMed Central

    van Rensburg, Annari; Doubell, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic implications of bicuspid aortic valve associations have come under scrutiny in the transcatheter aortic valve implantation era. We evaluate the spectrum of mitral valve disease in patients with bicuspid aortic valves to determine the need for closer echocardiographic scrutiny/follow-up of the mitral valve. A retrospective analysis of echocardiograms done at a referral hospital over five years was conducted in patients with bicuspid aortic valves with special attention to congenital abnormalities of the mitral valve. One hundred and forty patients with a bicuspid aortic valve were included. A congenital mitral valve abnormality was present in eight (5.7%, P = 0.01) with a parachute mitral valve in four (2.8%), an accessory mitral valve leaflet in one (0.7%), mitral valve prolapse in one, a cleft in one and the novel finding of a trileaflet mitral valve in one. Minor abnormalities included an elongated anterior mitral valve leaflet (P < 0.001), the increased incidence of physiological mitral regurgitation (P < 0.001), abnormal papillary muscles (P = 0.002) and an additional chord or tendon in the left ventricle cavity (P = 0.007). Mitral valve abnormalities occur more commonly in patients with bicuspid aortic valves than matched healthy individuals. The study confirms that abnormalities in these patients extend beyond the aorta. These abnormalities did not have a significant functional effect. PMID:28515127

  1. How safe is it to train residents to perform mitral valve surgery?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph; Göbölös, László; Miskolczi, Szabolcs; Barlow, Clifford

    2016-11-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The enquiry: In [patients undergoing mitral valve surgery] are [postoperative morbidity and mortality outcomes] acceptable when patients are operated on by [residents]? Four hundred and twenty-three were identified from the search strategy. Six articles selected as best evidence were tabulated. All current published evidence, encompassing open and minimally invasive mitral valve repair in addition to mitral valve replacement, supports the involvement of trainees in mitral procedures. Although trainees may experience longer aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times than specialist surgeons, they are not associated with significantly worse perioperative or postoperative outcomes in comparable mitral procedures. Important factors in the viability of mitral valve training and its quality include the volume of cases per institution and the expertise of the supervising surgeon, and these remain largely unexplored. Overall, mitral valve surgery remains a valuable potential training opportunity, one which is perhaps underexploited.

  2. Percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy in a case of situs inversus dextrocardia with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Prashanth; Halkati, Prabhu; Patted, Suresh; Ambar, Sameer; Yavagal, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy, safety and applicability of Inoue balloon technique for BMV are clearly established worldwide in selected subset of patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS). However, in altered cardiac anatomy it offers technical challenges. Distorted cardiac anatomy and cardiac malpositions considerably increase the complications involved in interatrial septal puncture and left ventricular entry during BMV. There are only a few reports worldwide on successful BMV in altered cardiac anatomy using the standard Inoue technique. Here we describe a case of a 27-year-old female with situs inversus and dextrocardia, where BMV was successfully performed with a few modifications of the standard Inoue technique previously described in similar patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DRESS and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cahyanur, Rahmat; Oktavia, Dina; Koesno, Sukamto

    2012-07-01

    DRESS (drug rash eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a life threatening condition characterized by skin rash, fever, leucocytosis with eosinophilia or atypical lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. This case report would like to describe an interesting case of DRESS coincidence with ischemic stroke. A 38 year old woman had been admitted with skin rash and fever since four days before. Four weeks before admission she received antibiotic and multivitamin for one week. The patient looked ill, with body temperature 38.0°C. Marked physical findings were cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly. Dermatological examination finding was generalized exanthema. Laboratory evaluation showed leucocytosis, eosinophilia, and increased level of ALT and AST. During hospitalization the patient also suffered from ischemic stroke. Treatments administered in this patient were oxygen, adequate intravenous fluid, parenteral nutrition, methyl prednisolone, cethirizin bid, ranitidin bid, and antibiotic. The antibiotic treatment in this case was performed with graded challenge or test dosing.

  4. Adenosine and Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bruce T.; Swierkosz, Tomasz A.; Herrmann, Howard C.; Kimmel, Stephen; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is released in large amounts during myocardial ischemia and is capable of exerting potent cardioprotective effects in the heart. Although these observations on adenosine have been known for a long time, how adenosine acts to achieve its anti-ischemic effect remains incompletely understood. However, recent advances on the chemistry and pharmacology of adenosine receptor ligands have provided important and novel information on the function of adenosine receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system. The development of model systems for the cardiac actions of adenosine has yielded important insights into its mechanism of action and have begun to elucidate the sequence of signalling events from receptor activation to the actual exertion of its cardioprotective effect. The present review will focus on the adenosine receptors that mediate the potent anti-ischemic effect of adenosine, new ligands at the receptors, potential molecular signalling mechanisms downstream of the receptor, mediators for cardioprotection, and possible clinical applications in cardiovascular disorders. PMID:10607860

  5. Diastolic Mitral Regurgitation in a Patient With Complex Native Mitral and Aortic Valve Endocarditis: A Rare Phenomenon With Potential Catastrophic Consequences.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Juan N; Lynch, James J; Mauermann, William J; Michelena, Hector I; Rehfeldt, Kent H

    2016-03-01

    Diastolic mitral valve regurgitation is a rare phenomenon described in patients with atrioventricular conduction abnormalities, severe left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction with regional wall motion dyssynchrony, or severe acute aortic valve regurgitation. The presence of diastolic mitral valve regurgitation in acute aortic regurgitation due to endocarditis suggests critical severity requiring urgent surgical valve replacement. We describe a case of diastolic mitral regurgitation in the setting of complex native mitral-aortic valve endocarditis in a patient in normal sinus rhythm and review the etiologic mechanisms of this phenomenon, echocardiographic assessment, and therapeutic implications for hemodynamic management.

  6. Coexistence of abnormal systolic motion of mitral valve in a consecutive group of 324 adult Tetralogy of Fallot patients assessed with echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anushree; Harris, Ian S; Mahadevan, Vaikom S; Foster, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients is not well described. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic CHD associated with overall good long-term survival after palliation. Since MVP is more often identified in adults and TOF patients are now surviving longer, we thus sought to perform this cohort study with a case–control design to (1) determine the prevalence of MVP and systolic displacement of mitral leaflets (SDML) in adult TOF patients, and (2) describe their clinical and imaging characteristics. Methods Retrospective interrogation of our echocardiography database identified 328 consecutive TOF patients ≥18 years from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2014. All images were reviewed to identify patients with concomitant MVP (prolapse >2 mm beyond the long-axis annular plane) or SDML (<2 mm beyond the annular plane). Results 26 (8%) TOF patients fulfilled criteria for systolic mitral valve abnormality (SMVA) (15 MVP; 11 SDML). 2 had moderate to severe mitral regurgitation requiring repair. When compared with 52 TOF patients without SMVA, those with SMVA were more likely to be females (60.7% vs 33.9%, p=0.03), less likely to have transannular patch (52% vs 97.4%, p<0.0001), had lower right ventricular ejection fraction (36.5% vs 43.8%, p=0.03) and a trend towards increased risk of atrial (44% vs 30.4%, p=0.5) and ventricular arrhythmias (32% vs 25.5%, p=0.6). On multivariate logistic regression, SMVA was independently associated with the absence of transannular patch (p=0.002) and atrial arrhythmias (p=0.04). Conclusions In this series of adult TOF patients, we describe a novel finding of a high prevalence of systolic mitral valve abnormalities. PMID:28123759

  7. Ischemic Stroke and Septic Shock After Subacute Endocarditis Caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Menegueti, Mayra Goncalves; Machado-Viana, Jaciara; Gaspar, Gilberto Gambero; Nicolini, Edson Antonio; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group, is a rare cause of subacute endocarditis and may lead to ischemic stroke. A 65-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with rheumatic valve disease was submitted to surgical mitral valve repair in 1996. Physical examination did not reveal any murmurs; physical examination of the lungs and abdomen was normal. The patient was admitted to hospital with progressive dyspnea, dry cough, and fever. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed an approximately 8-mm filamentous image with chaotic motion in the ventricular face of the anterior mitral valve leaflet compatible with vegetation. Treatment with ceftriaxone and gentamicin was initiated. Haemophilus parainfluenzae grew in five blood culture samples. Along the hospital stay, the patient’s level of consciousness decreased, and she was diagnosed with ischemic stroke of cardioembolic etiology. The patient developed septic shock refractory to the prescribed treatment and died 12 days after admission. Even though the patient started being treated for endocarditis before the infectious agent was identified, the prompt use of antimicrobials hindered the growth of Haemophilus parainfluenzae and made its isolation difficult. PMID:27924179

  8. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Surgical High-Risk Patients: Gender-Specific Acute and Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, Eike; Kalbacher, Daniel; Thomas, Christina; Appelbaum, Sebastian; Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Schlüter, Michael; Conradi, Lenard; Schirmer, Johannes; Treede, Hendrik; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lubos, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background. Analyses emphasizing gender-related differences in acute and long-term outcomes following MitraClip therapy for significant mitral regurgitation (MR) are rare. Methods. 592 consecutive patients (75 ± 8.7 years, 362 men, 230 women) underwent clinical and echocardiographic follow-up for a median of 2.13 (0.99–4.02) years. Results. Significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, renal failure, and adverse echocardiographic parameters in men resulted in longer device time (p = 0.007) and higher numbers of implanted clips (p = 0.0075), with equal procedural success (p = 1.0). Rehospitalization for heart failure did not differ (p[logrank] = 0.288) while survival was higher in women (p[logrank] = 0.0317). Logarithmic increase of NT-proBNP was a common independent predictor of death. Hypercholesterolemia and peripheral artery disease were predictors of death only in men while ischemic and dilative cardiomyopathy (CM) and age were predictors in women. Independent predictors of rehospitalization for heart failure were severely reduced ejection fraction and success in men while both ischemic and dilative CM, logistic EuroSCORE, and MR severity were predictive in women. Conclusions. Higher numbers of implanted clips and longer device time are likely related to more comorbidities in men. Procedural success and acute and mid-term clinical outcomes were equal. Superior survival for women in long-term analysis is presumably attributable to a comparatively better preprocedural health. PMID:27042662

  9. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  10. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  11. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the repaired mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Custodiol HTK cardioplegia use in robotic mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirav; DeLaney, Ed; Turi, Gerard; Stapleton, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Robotic surgery is a growing subspecialty in cardiac surgery. Custodiol HTK cardioplegia offers long-term myocardial protection, decreased metabolism, and eliminates multiple cardioplegia dosing. This article reviews the technique, strategy, and considerations for use of Custodiol HTK for myocardial protection in robotic mitral valve surgery.

  13. Takotsubo syndrome after mitral valve replacement for acute endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Gariboldi, Vlad; Jop, Bertrand; Grisoli, Dominique; Jaussaud, Nicolas; Kerbaul, François; Collart, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by transient and acute left ventricular dysfunction and apical ballooning, with electrocardiographic abnormalities, but without coronary disease. We report a case of Takotsubo syndrome occurring after emergent mitral valve replacement for acute infective endocarditis. The patient is a 66-year-old woman who regained complete recovery of left ventricular function.

  14. Myocardial viability as integral part of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to ischemic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    Chronic heart failure is a major public-health problem with a high prevalence, complex treatment, and high mortality. A careful and comprehensive analysis is needed to provide optimal (and personalized) therapy to heart failure patients. The main 4 non-invasive imaging techniques (echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, multi-detector-computed tomography, and nuclear imaging) provide information on cardiovascular anatomy and function, which form the basis of the assessment of the pathophysiology underlying heart failure. The selection of imaging modalities depends on the information that is needed for the clinical management of the patients: (1) underlying etiology (ischemic vs non-ischemic); (2) in ischemic patients, need for revascularization should be evaluated (myocardial ischemia/viability?); (3) left ventricular function and shape assessment; (4) presence of significant secondary mitral regurgitation; (5) device therapy with cardiac resynchronization therapy and/or implantable cardiac defibrillator (risk of sudden cardiac death). This review is dedicated to assessment of myocardial viability, however "isolated assessment of myocardial viability" may be clinically not meaningful and should be considered among all those different variables. This complete information will enable personalized treatment of the patient with ischemic heart failure.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of electrocardiographic P wave related parameters in the assessment of left atrial size in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Soto-Bustos, Ángel; Caro-Vadillo, Alicia; Martínez-DE-Merlo, Elena; Alonso-Alegre, Elisa González

    2017-08-28

    The purpose of this research was to compare the accuracy of newly described P wave-related parameters (P wave area, Macrux index and mean electrical axis) with classical P wave-related parameters (voltage and duration of P wave) for the assessment of left atrial (LA) size in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease. One hundred forty-six dogs (37 healthy control dogs and 109 dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease) were prospectively studied. Two-dimensional echocardiography examinations and a 6-lead ECG were performed prospectively in all dogs. Echocardiography parameters, including determination of the ratios LA diameter/aortic root diameter and LA area/aortic root area, were compared to P wave-related parameters: P wave area, Macrux index, mean electrical axis voltage and duration of P wave. The results showed that P wave-related parameters (classical and newly described) had low sensitivity (range=52.3% to 77%; median=60%) and low to moderate specificity (range=47.2% to 82.5%; median 56.3%) for the prediction of left atrial enlargement. The areas under the curve of P wave-related parameters were moderate to low due to poor sensitivity. In conclusion, newly P wave-related parameters do not increase the diagnostic capacity of ECG as a predictor of left atrial enlargement in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease.

  16. Thrombotic valvular dysfunction with transcatheter mitral interventions for postsurgical failures.

    PubMed

    Eng, Marvin H; Greenbaum, Adam; Wang, Dee Dee; Wyman, Janet; Dnp; Arjomand, Heider; Yadav, Pradeep; Nemeh, Hassan; Paone, Gaetano; Guerrero, Mayra; O'Neill, William

    2017-08-01

    Degenerated surgical mitral valve repairs or surgical prostheses are currently being treated with transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). We report the procedural and mid-term assessment of thirteen cases. From 12/2013 to 12/2015, 13 consecutive patients with degenerated mitral valve repair or valve replacement were treated. Patients were assessed for mitral valve academic valve consortium (MVARC) defined outcomes. Immediate procedural MVARC defined technical success was 92%. At 30 days MVARC device and procedure success were 61% and 84%, respectively. Mean follow-up was 150 days [IQR 40-123 days]. There were 2 late major adverse outcomes, a noncardiac related death (628 days) and a stroke (382 days). The mean mitral gradient decreased from 9.5 ± 3.4 to 5.5 ± 2.6 mm Hg (P < 0.01). Three patients were found to have high gradients, two presented with heart failure while another patient was found to have reduced leaflet motion and abnormal thickening postprocedure. The two patients with heart failure were treated with enoxaparin, which caused subsequent resolution of increased valve gradients in one patient. The other patient could not tolerate prolonged treatment from anticoagulation due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Three of 13 patients were treated with dual-antiplatelet therapy and were suspected to have valve thrombosis. Thrombotic related dysfunction post-TMVR occurred in 15% (2/13) of patients and one patient had abnormal leaflet thickening that may have been thrombus related. Dual-antiplatelet therapy was used in all 3 cases suggesting the possible need for oral anticoagulation postmitral valve-in-valve therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevention of Unilateral Pulmonary Edema Complicating Robotic Mitral Valve Operations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Emmanuel; Halkos, Michael E; Binongo, Jose N; Murphy, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE) has been reported after mitral operations performed through the right side of the chest. The clinical presentation is compatible with an ischemia-reperfusion injury. This report describes modifications to robotic mitral valve operations that were designed to reduce UPE. We reviewed 15 patients with UPE after robotic mitral valve operations from 2006 through 2012. Technique modifications to reduce right lung ischemia were used from 2013 through June 2015. Modifications included alterations in patient position, ventilation, and perfusion factors. The incidence of UPE before and after modifications was determined, as was perfusion factors and outcomes in a higher-risk patient subgroup with pulmonary hypertension and prolonged bypass procedures. The incidence of UPE was 1.4% (n = 15) in 1,059 consecutive robotic mitral valve procedures using the standard technique and 0.0% in 435 consecutive procedures using the modified technique (p < 0.02). All patients with UPE had pulmonary hypertension and bypass times of greater than 120 minutes. Patients in the higher-risk subgroup had significantly lower systemic temperature (31°C [range, 30°-32°C] versus 34°C [range, 33°-34°C]; p < 0.01) and higher mean perfusion pressure (67mm Hg [range 62-72 mm Hg] versus 54 mm Hg [range, 52-57 mm Hg]; p < 0.01) on bypass using the modified technique. The incidence of UPE in higher-risk patients was significantly reduced using the modified technique (0% versus 5.6%; p < 0.01) without any increase in overall morbidity or mortality. The incidence of UPE in patients undergoing robotic mitral valve operations has been significantly reduced using a modified technique, without increasing the perioperative complication rate. Further work is necessary to validate this protocol and understand the pathophysiology of postoperative UPE. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A complexity scoring system for degenerative mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Itagaki, Shinobu; Chikwe, Joanna; El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Adams, David H

    2016-06-01

    To develop a score to allow stratification of complexity in degenerative mitral valve repair. Retrospective modeling of data from 668 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for mitral valve prolapse. A complexity scoring scale was developed using a consensus approach, assigning a score to each valve, based on the following: prolapsing segments (weight 1 for each posterior segment; weight 2 for each anterior or commissural segment); presence of valve restriction (weight 2); presence of calcification (weight 3 if annulus involved, otherwise weight 2); and prior mitral valve repair (weight 3). Valve repairs were categorized into 3 groups based on the complexity score: 1: Simple (n = 244); 2-4: Intermediate (n = 260); ≥5: Complex (n = 164). Mitral valve repair was successfully performed in 667 patients (repair rate: 99.9%). The complexity score was directly correlated with surrogates of technical complexity. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time increased with lesion complexity ([in minutes] simple: 152; intermediate: 167; complex 195; P < .001). The median number of repair techniques utilized was related to lesion complexity (simple: 3; intermediate: 4; complex: 5; P < .001). Barlow's type etiology was more prevalent in complex cases (63%), compared with simple (9%) and intermediate (35%) cases (P < .001). Advanced repair techniques were required to complete repair in 51% of complex cases, compared with 14% of intermediate and 0% of simple cases (P < .001). Early and late outcomes were similar. Our scoring system may allow effective stratification of complexity of mitral valve repair. Future studies are required to evaluate the use of our score in a prospective setting. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immediate and long-term results of mitral valve replacement with University of Cape Town mitral valve prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schrire, Velva; Barnard, Christiaan N.

    1970-01-01

    We describe seven years' experience with the University of Cape Town lenticular mitral valve prosthesis in 122 patients. All the patients had severe mitral valve disease. In 98 severe mitral stenosis was present with or without incompetence and in 24 the dominant or sole lesion was mitral incompetence. Other valves, particularly the tricuspid, were also frequently affected. The disability was severe or total in almost every patient. One hundred and five patients were discharged from hospital, and in 90 per cent of these the clinical improvement was most gratifying, with the disappearance of pulmonary oedema, paroxysmal dyspnoea, angina pectoris, and congestive cardiac failure. Return to full normal activity including physical work was the rule. The hospital mortality was 14 per cent and a further 38 per cent died during the follow-up period. The major post-operative complication was systemic embolism which could occur at any time after operation. The most important factor influencing the frequency of this complication was the nature of the valve seat. A bare steel seat was associated with a 100 per cent embolism, and a significant reduction occurred when a cloth-covered seat of Dacron-velour was introduced. Anticoagulant therapy appeared to prevent large or fresh clots but had no effect on the deposition of fibrin or platelet thrombi. The only other factor of importance was the age of the patient: after the age of 50 life expectancy and trouble-free long-term survival was reduced. Images PMID:5440520

  20. Hospital-based health technology assessment on the use of mitral clips in the treatment of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Miniati, Roberto; Cecconi, Giulio; Dori, Fabrizio; Marchetti, Matteo; Gentili, Guido Biffi; Porchia, Barbara; Presicce, Giorgio; Franchi, Sara; Gusinu, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study, carried out at the Florence Teaching Hospital Careggi (AOUC), reports the technological evaluation, through the use of Health Technology Assessment (HTA), on the application of mitral clips in the treatment of mitral insufficiency. The assessment, carried out by analyzing the clinical, technological, social, procedural, safety and economic elements, sought to answer the following research questions: Evaluation of the general technological status of the mitral clips in the treatment process of mitral regurgitation, with particular reference to traditional methods; and contextualisation of the analyses within the hospital structure, by identifying criticality issues and improvements. The methodology was based on the following steps: technological description; areas of evaluation and the selection of Key Performance Indicators; research of scientific facts and the collection of expert opinions; evaluation and reporting of findings. The results are based on an analysis which included a total of 50 indicators, effectively evaluating 86.5% of them, from the least from the clinical sector (80%) to the most in the areas of procedure, safety and social (100%). Traditional surgery (repair or valve replacement) still represents the gold standard for the treatment of mitral regurgitation due to its maturity both on a technological and clinical level. The minimally invasive procedures which use the mitral clips present interesting opportunities both on a social level (minimum stay in hospital and no post-operative rehabilitation) and clinical level, especially as an alternative to medication, even if they are still at an emergent level (the long-term results are unknown) and complex to use. From the clinical point of view they show some interesting findings related to immediate and post-operative mortality (none during the operation and a minor and equal amount 30 days and 12 months later in comparison to traditional methods) whilst economically, despite the fact

  1. Is an adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation effective in preventing recurrent regurgitation?

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Santana, Orlando

    2016-02-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: Is an adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation effective in preventing recurrent regurgitation? Altogether, 353 studies were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. The best evidence regarding adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation was from retrospective analyses. The studies reported outcomes of mitral valve repair (MVr) with annuloplasty alone (ring MVr) versus adjunctive papillary muscle approximation (PMA; n = 3), papillary muscle relocation (PMR; n = 3), secondary chordal cutting (n = 2) and PMA + PMR (n = 1). All but one study included concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, whereas additional ventriculoplasty was performed in three studies. Follow-up ranged from 1 month to 5 years. The performance of PMA was associated with a lower mitral regurgitation (MR) grade when combined with ventriculoplasty in one study, whereas a greater improvement in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction at follow-up was observed with PMA alone in a separate study. Three studies of ring + PMR reported a reduction in ≥ 2+ recurrent MR, whereas two studies also observed a greater reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. The two studies on secondary chordal cutting reported a lower MR grade, lower recurrence of ≥ 2+ MR and a greater left ventricular ejection fraction at follow-up. Combining PMA + PMR + ventriculoplasty significantly reduced left ventricular end-systolic volume index at short-term follow-up in one study. Finally, none of the studies reported a significant difference in

  2. History, Evolution, and Importance of Emergency Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Holodinsky, Jessalyn K; Yu, Amy Y X; Assis, Zarina A; Al Sultan, Abdulaziz S; Menon, Bijoy K; Demchuk, Andrew M; Goyal, Mayank; Hill, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    More than 800,000 people in North America suffer a stroke each year, with ischemic stroke making up the majority of these cases. The outcomes of ischemic stroke range from complete functional and cognitive recovery to severe disability and death; outcome is strongly associated with timely reperfusion treatment. Historically, ischemic stroke has been treated with intravenous thrombolytic agents with moderate success. However, five recently published positive trials have established the efficacy of endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke. In this review, we will discuss the history of stroke treatments moving from various intravenous thrombolytic drugs to intra-arterial thrombolysis, early mechanical thrombectomy devices, and finally modern endovascular devices. Early endovascular therapy failures, recent successes, and implications for current ischemic stroke management and future research directions are discussed.

  3. A mitral annulus tracking approach for navigation of off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng P; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a real-time mitral valve annulus (MVA) tracking approach based on biplane transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data and magnetic tracking systems (MTS) to be used in minimally invasive off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair (MVR). The authors' guidance system consists of three major components: TEE, magnetic tracking system, and an image guidance software platform. TEE provides real-time intraoperative images to show the cardiac motion and intracardiac surgical tools. The magnetic tracking system tracks the TEE probe and the surgical tools. The software platform integrates the TEE image planes and the virtual model of the tools and the MVA model on the screen. The authors' MVA tracking approach, which aims to update the MVA model in near real-time, comprises of three steps: image based gating, predictive reinitialization, and registration based MVA tracking. The image based gating step uses a small patch centered at each MVA point in the TEE images to identify images at optimal cardiac phases for updating the position of the MVA. The predictive reinitialization step uses the position and orientation of the TEE probe provided by the magnetic tracking system to predict the position of the MVA points in the TEE images and uses them for the initialization of the registration component. The registration based MVA tracking step aims to locate the MVA points in the images selected by the image based gating component by performing image based registration. The validation of the MVA tracking approach was performed in a phantom study and a retrospective study on porcine data. In the phantom study, controlled translations were applied to the phantom and the tracked MVA was compared to its "true" position estimated based on a magnetic sensor attached to the phantom. The MVA tracking accuracy was 1.29 ± 0.58 mm when the translation distance is about 1 cm, and increased to 2.85 ± 1.19 mm when the translation distance is about 3 cm. In the study on

  4. One-year outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair in patients with severe symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Gotzmann, Michael; Sprenger, Isabell; Ewers, Aydan; Mügge, Andreas; Bösche, Leif

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate one-year outcomes after percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip® in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS Our study investigated consecutive patients with symptomatic severe MR who underwent MitraClip® implantation at the University Hospital Bergmannsheil from 2012 to 2014. The primary study end-point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end-points were degree of MR and functional status after percutaneous mitral valve repair. RESULTS The study population consisted of 46 consecutive patients (mean logistic EuroSCORE 32% ± 21%). The degree of MR decreased significantly (severe MR before MitraClip® 100% vs after MitraClip® 13%; P < 0.001), and the NYHA functional classes improved (NYHA III/IV before MitraClip® 98% vs after MitraClip® 35%; P < 0.001). The mortality rates 30 d and one year after percutaneous mitral valve repair were 4.3% and 19.5%, respectively. During the follow-up of 473 ± 274 d, 11 patients died (90% due to cardiovascular death). A pre-procedural plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level > 817 pg/mL was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 6.074; 95%CI: 1.257-29.239; P = 0.012). CONCLUSION Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip® has positive effects on hemodynamics and symptoms. Despite the study patients’ multiple comorbidities and extremely high operative risk, one-year outcomes after MitraClip® are favorable. Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide levels indicate poorer mid-term survival. PMID:28163835

  5. Influence of the echocardiographic score and not of the previous surgical mitral commissurotomy on the outcome of percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, E C; Peixoto, R T; Borges, I P; Oliveira, P S; Labrunie, M; Salles Netto, M; Villela, R A; Labrunie, P; Brito, G A; Peixoto, R T

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate prior mitral surgical commissurotomy and echocardiographic score influence on the outcomes and complications of percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty. We performed 459 complete mitral valvuloplasty procedures. Four hundred thirteen were primary valvuloplasty and 46 were in patients who had undergone prior surgical commissurotomy. The prior commissurotomy group was older, had higher echo scores, and a tendency toward a higher percentage of atrial fibrillation. When the groups were compared with each other, no differences were found in pre- and postprocedure mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean mitral gradient, mitral valve area, and mitral regurgitation. Because we found no significant differences, we subdivided the entire group based on echo scores, those with echo scores < or =8 and those with echo scores >8 the mitral valve area being higher in the < or =8 echo score group 2.06+/-0.42 versus 1.90+/-0.40 cm2 (p=0.0090) in the >8 echo score group. Dividing the groups based on echo score revealed that the higher echo score group had smaller mitral valve areas postvalvuloplasty.

  6. Determination of correlation between backflow volume and mitral valve leaflet young modulus from two dimensional echocardiogram images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Osman, Kahar; Adib, M. Azrul Hisham M.

    2012-06-01

    Mitral valve prolapse without proper monitoring might lead to a severe mitral valve failure which eventually leads to a sudden death. Additional information on the mitral valve leaflet condition against the backflow volume would be an added advantage to the medical practitioner for their decision on the patients' treatment. A study on two dimensional echocardiography images has been conducted and the correlations between the backflow volume of the mitral regurgitation and mitral valve leaflet Young modulus have been obtained. Echocardiogram images were analyzed on the aspect of backflow volume percentage and mitral valve leaflet dimensions on different rates of backflow volume. Young modulus values for the mitral valve leaflet were obtained by using the principle of elastic deflection and deformation on the mitral valve leaflet. The results show that the backflow volume increased with the decrease of the mitral valve leaflet Young modulus which also indicate the condition of the mitral valve leaflet approaching failure at high backflow volumes. Mitral valve leaflet Young modulus values obtained in this study agreed with the healthy mitral valve leaflet Young modulus from the literature. This is an initial overview of the trend on the prediction of the behaviour between the fluid and the structure of the blood and the mitral valve which is extendable to a larger system of prediction on the mitral valve leaflet condition based on the available echocardiogram images.

  7. Accuracy of Late Gadolinium Enhancement - Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Measurement of Left Atrial Substrate Remodeling in Patients With Rheumatic Mitral Valve Disease and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Da; Wu, Zhong; van der Geest, Rob J; Luo, Yong; Sun, Jiayu; Jiang, Jian; Chen, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a histopathological validation of cardiac late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of left atrial (LA) substrate remodeling (SRM) in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and persistent atrial fibrillation (AF).Adult patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and persistent AF undergoing open-heart surgery for mitral valve replacement were enrolled. Both two-dimensional (2D) sections and 3-dimensional (3D) full-volume LGE-MRI with different signal intensities were performed preoperatively to determine the extent of LA-SRM. Tissue samples were obtained intraoperatively from the LA roof and posterior lateral wall for pathological validation with Masson trichrome staining and immunostaining for collagen type I/III deposition. A linear regression model was used to determine the relationship between MRI-derived LA-SRM parameters and pathological results.Between February 2013 and March 2014, we successfully acquired LA tissue samples from 22 patients (13 men), with a mean age of 47 ± 8 years. All patients had rheumatic mitral valve stenosis, with a mean effective orifice area of 0.9 ± 0.2 cm(2) on echocardiography and a mean LA volume of 235 ± 85 mL on 3D-MRI. Multiple moderate linear associations were noted between the pathological results and LGE-MRI-derived LA-SRM parameters, with correlation indices (r(2)) of 0.194-0.385.LA-SRM measured by LGE-MRI showed moderate agreement with LA pathology in patients with rheumatic valve disease and persistent AF.

  8. Hypothermia therapy for newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia reduces cerebral injury and improves the neurological outcome secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. It has been indicated for asphyxiated full-term or near-term newborn infants with clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A search was performed for articles on therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with perinatal asphyxia in PubMed; the authors chose those considered most significant. There are two therapeutic hypothermia methods: selective head cooling and total body cooling. The target body temperature is 34.5 °C for selective head cooling and 33.5 °C for total body cooling. Temperatures lower than 32 °C are less neuroprotective, and temperatures below 30 °C are very dangerous, with severe complications. Therapeutic hypothermia must start within the first 6h after birth, as studies have shown that this represents the therapeutic window for the hypoxic-ischemic event. Therapy must be maintained for 72 h, with very strict control of the newborn's body temperature. It has been shown that therapeutic hypothermia is effective in reducing neurologic impairment, especially in full-term or near-term newborns with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia is a neuroprotective technique indicated for newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Lung Function Abnormalities in Smokers with Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Frits M E; Soriano, Joan B; Roche, Nicolas; Bloomfield, Paul H; Brusselle, Guy; Fabbri, Leonardo M; García-Rio, Francisco; Kearney, Mark T; Kwon, Namhee; Lundbäck, Bo; Rabe, Klaus F; Raillard, Alice; Muellerova, Hana; Cockcroft, John R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the ALICE (Airflow Limitation in Cardiac Diseases in Europe) study was to investigate the prevalence of airflow limitation in patients with ischemic heart disease and the effects on quality of life, healthcare use, and future health risk. To examine prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry in outpatients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with clinically documented ischemic heart disease who were current or former smokers. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 cardiovascular outpatient clinics in nine European countries. Airflow limitation was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC less than 0.70. Among the 3,103 patients with ischemic heart disease who were recruited, lung function was defined for 2,730 patients. Airflow limitation was observed in 30.5% of patients with ischemic heart disease: 11.3% had mild airflow limitation, 15.8% moderate airflow limitation, 3.3% severe airflow limitation, and 0.1% very severe airflow limitation. Most patients with airflow limitation (70.6%) had no previous spirometry testing or diagnosed pulmonary disease. Airflow limitation was associated with greater respiratory symptomatology, impaired health status, and more frequent emergency room visits (P < 0.05). Airflow limitation compatible with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects almost one-third of patients with ischemic heart disease. Although airflow limitation is associated with additional morbidity and societal burden, it is largely undiagnosed and untreated. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01485159).

  10. Sites of Successful Ventricular Fibrillation Ablation in Bileaflet Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Syed, Faisal F; Ackerman, Michael J; McLeod, Christopher J; Kapa, Suraj; Mulpuru, Siva K; Sriram, Chenni S; Cannon, Bryan C; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Noseworthy, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Although the vast majority of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is benign, a small subset of patients, predominantly women, with bileaflet prolapse, complex ventricular ectopy (VE), and abnormal T waves comprise the recently described bileaflet MVP syndrome. We compared findings on electrophysiological study in bileaflet MVP syndrome patients with and without cardiac arrest to identify factors that may predispose to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. Fourteen consecutive bileaflet MVP syndrome patients (n=13 women; median [limits], age at index ablation, 33.8 [21.0-58.7] years; ejection fraction, 60% [45%-67%]; all ≤ moderate mitral regurgitation; n=6 with previous cardiac arrest and implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks for ventricular fibrillation; and n=8 without implantable cardioverter defibrillator although with symptomatic complex VE) were included. The 2 groups had similar baseline echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics. All patients had at least 1 left ventricular papillary or fascicular VE focus. Purkinje origin VE was identified as the ventricular fibrillation trigger in 6 of 6 cardiac arrest patients (4 from papillary muscle) and Purkinje origin of dominant VE was seen in 5 of 8 (3 from papillary muscle) nonarrest patients. Acute success was seen in 17 of 19 procedures, and a ventricular fibrillation storm occurred within 24 hours of ablation in a single patient. Repeat ablation for recurrent symptomatic arrhythmia was performed in 6 patients. At 478 (39-2099) days of follow-up, 2 cardiac arrest patients received appropriate shocks. Symptoms from VE were reduced in 12 of 14. Bileaflet MVP syndrome is characterized by fascicular and papillary muscle VE that triggers ventricular fibrillation. Ablation of clinically dominant VE foci improves symptoms and reduces appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Quantification of left ventricular interstitial fibrosis in asymptomatic chronic primary degenerative mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nicola C; Moody, William E; Yuan, Mengshi; Weale, Peter; Neal, Desley; Townend, Jonathan N; Steeds, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    The optimum timing of surgery in asymptomatic patients with chronic severe primary degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) remains controversial, and further markers are needed to improve decision-making. There are limited data that wall stress is increased in MR and may result in ventricular fibrosis. We investigated the hypothesis that chronic volume overload in MR is a stimulus for myocardial fibrosis using T1-mapping cardiac MRI. A cross-sectional study of 35 patients (age 60 ± 14 years) with asymptomatic moderate and severe primary degenerative MR (mean effective regurgitant orifice area, 0.45 ± 0.25 cm)(2) with no class I indication for surgery were compared with age and sex controls. Subjects were studied with cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography, and cardiac MRI. Longitudinal and circumferential myocardial deformation was reduced with MR when left ventricular ejection fraction (67% ± 10%) and N-terminal pro B Natriuretic peptide (126 [76-428] ng/L) were within the normal range. Myocardial extracellular volume was increased (0.32 ± 0.07 versus 0.25 ± 0.02, P<0.01) and was associated with increased left ventricular end-systolic volume index (r=0.62, P<0.01), left atrial volume index (r=0.41, P<0.05) but lower left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.60, P<0.01), longitudinal function (mitral annular plane systolic excursion, r=-0.46, P<0.01), and peak VO2 max (r=-0.51, P<0.05). In a multivariable regression model, left ventricular end-systolic volume index and left atrial volume index were independent predictors of extracellular volume (r(2)=0.42, P<0.01). Patients with asymptomatic MR demonstrate a spectrum of myocardial fibrosis associated with reduced myocardial deformation and reduced exercise capacity. Future work is warranted to investigate whether left ventricle fibrosis affects clinical outcomes. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Randomized Comparison of Percutaneous Repair and Surgery for Mitral Regurgitation: 5-Year Results of EVEREST II.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ted; Kar, Saibal; Elmariah, Sammy; Smart, Steven C; Trento, Alfredo; Siegel, Robert J; Apruzzese, Patricia; Fail, Peter; Rinaldi, Michael J; Smalling, Richard W; Hermiller, James B; Heimansohn, David; Gray, William A; Grayburn, Paul A; Mack, Michael J; Lim, D Scott; Ailawadi, Gorav; Herrmann, Howard C; Acker, Michael A; Silvestry, Frank E; Foster, Elyse; Wang, Andrew; Glower, Donald D; Mauri, Laura

    2015-12-29

    In EVEREST II (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair Study), treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR) with a novel percutaneous device showed superior safety compared with surgery, but less effective reduction in MR at 1 year. This study sought to evaluate the final 5-year clinical outcomes and durability of percutaneous mitral valve (MV) repair with the MitraClip device compared with conventional MV surgery. Patients with grade 3+ or 4+ MR were randomly assigned to percutaneous repair with the device or conventional MV surgery in a 2:1 ratio (178:80). Patients prospectively consented to 5 years of follow-up. At 5 years, the rate of the composite endpoint of freedom from death, surgery, or 3+ or 4+ MR in the as-treated population was 44.2% versus 64.3% in the percutaneous repair and surgical groups, respectively (p = 0.01). The difference was driven by increased rates of 3+ to 4+ MR (12.3% vs. 1.8%; p = 0.02) and surgery (27.9% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.003) with percutaneous repair. After percutaneous repair, 78% of surgeries occurred within the first 6 months. Beyond 6 months, rates of surgery and moderate-to-severe MR were comparable between groups. Five-year mortality rates were 20.8% and 26.8% (p = 0.4) for percutaneous repair and surgery, respectively. In multivariable analysis, treatment strategy was not associated with survival. Patients treated with percutaneous repair more commonly required surgery for residual MR during the first year after treatment, but between 1- and 5-year follow-up, comparably low rates of surgery for MV dysfunction with either percutaneous or surgical therapy endorse the durability of MR reduction with both repair techniques. (EVEREST II Pivotal Study High Risk Registry; NCT00209274). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fresh autologous pericardium for leaflet perforation repair in mitral valve infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Charles F; DeFilippi, Christopher R; Shang, Eric; Griffith, Bartley P; Gammie, James S

    2013-07-01

    There is clear evidence that mitral valve (MV) repair is superior to replacement for MV infective endocarditis (IE). Leaflet perforation is a common pathologic finding in MV IE, and leaflet patch repair with glutaraldehyde-treated autologous or bovine pericardium is the currently accepted method of MV repair. In the present study, fresh autologous pericardium (FAP) was used universally to treat leaflet perforation in MV IE, and the mid-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were determined. Between 2002 and 2009, a total of 20 patients with leaflet perforations from MV IE underwent patch repair with FAP. Follow up echocardiography was performed in a core laboratory. There was one operative death (5%) secondary to sepsis, and three late deaths (15%). Late echocardiograms were available for review from 16 of the 19 patients (84%) who survived surgery. The mean time to follow up echocardiography was 793 +/- 663 days. The mitral regurgitation (MR) grade was mild or less in 14/16 patients (88%), moderate in one patient (6%), and severe in one patient (6%). The mean gradient was 4.8 +/- 2.7 mmHg, and the ejection fraction was preserved in all patients (63 +/- 4%). No expansion, retraction or calcification of the patches was observed. Freedom from reoperation, reinfection and thromboembolism was 100%. Fresh autologous pericardium for MV leaflet patch repair in IE is associated with good mid-term valve function. Given the association between late calcification and the glutaraldehyde treatment of bioprosthetic valves and this favorable experience, it is believed that FAP is an acceptable alternative for leaflet repair in MV IE.

  14. Minimally invasive approach for redo mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale; Taglieri, Corrado; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Martinelli, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve re-operations can be particularly demanding in patients with patent coronary artery bypass grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, perivalvular leaks, or thrombosis). Risk of graft injuries, hemorrhage, the presence of dense adhesions and complex valve exposure can make redo valve operations challenging through a median sternotomy. In this review article we provide an overview of minimally invasive approaches for redo mitral valve surgery discussing indications, techniques, outcomes, concerns and controversies. Scientific literature about minimally invasive approach for redo mitral surgery was reviewed with a MEDLINE search strategy combining “mitral valve” with the following terms: ‘minimally invasive’, ‘reoperation’, and ‘alternative approach’. The search was limited to the last ten years. A total of 168 papers were found using the reported search. From these, ten papers were identified to provide the best evidence on the subject. Mitral valve reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space termed “mini” thoracotomy or “port access”. The greatest potential benefit of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, avoiding the risk of injury to cardiac structures or patent grafts. Good percentages of valve repair can be achieved. Mortality is low as well as major complications. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of minimally invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. Less invasive trans-catheter techniques could be considered as the natural future evolution for management of structural heart disease and mitral reoperations. The safety and

  15. Minimally invasive approach for redo mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Botta, Luca; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale; Taglieri, Corrado; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Martinelli, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve re-operations can be particularly demanding in patients with patent coronary artery bypass grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, perivalvular leaks, or thrombosis). Risk of graft injuries, hemorrhage, the presence of dense adhesions and complex valve exposure can make redo valve operations challenging through a median sternotomy. In this review article we provide an overview of minimally invasive approaches for redo mitral valve surgery discussing indications, techniques, outcomes, concerns and controversies. Scientific literature about minimally invasive approach for redo mitral surgery was reviewed with a MEDLINE search strategy combining "mitral valve" with the following terms: 'minimally invasive', 'reoperation', and 'alternative approach'. The search was limited to the last ten years. A total of 168 papers were found using the reported search. From these, ten papers were identified to provide the best evidence on the subject. Mitral valve reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space termed "mini" thoracotomy or "port access". The greatest potential benefit of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, avoiding the risk of injury to cardiac structures or patent grafts. Good percentages of valve repair can be achieved. Mortality is low as well as major complications. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of minimally invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. Less invasive trans-catheter techniques could be considered as the natural future evolution for management of structural heart disease and mitral reoperations. The safety and efficacy of these

  16. The mitral valve prolapse epidemic: fact or fiction.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R. P.; Wooley, C. F.; Kolibash, A. J.; Boudoulas, H.

    1987-01-01

    In spite of two decades of research, the precise relationship of anatomic mitral valve prolapse (floppy valve) to the neuroendocrine disorder (MVP syndrome) remains unclear. In all likelihood they are two separate genetic disorders which travel together in some fashion. Mitral valve prolapse is a common disorder but progressive mitral regurgitation usually occurs late in life and in only a few patients. Other complications such as bacterial endocarditis, stroke, and sudden death are far less common but can occur at younger ages. The neuroendocrine syndrome in civilian life is mainly seen in young females (interestingly the peak incidence years correspond to peak female sex hormone output) but can be seen in males when subjected to unusual stress such as military service. More recent echocardiographic studies have questioned whether all prolapsing valves are truly abnormal. It has been shown that echographic prolapse can be produced in normal subjects by reducing venous return and impaired venous return may be present in some patients with the MVP syndrome. However, clicks and murmurs are apparently not heard when normal valves prolapse. It is our opinion that the presence of a click or typical murmur requires some anatomic abnormality of the mitral valve. One wonders if minimal valve abnormality (noted and dismissed by Davies) is the valve abnormality present in many young females with MVP syndrome, and that it may remain a mild abnormality throughout life. Recent psychiatric studies suggest that MVP is present in 30% of patients with Panic Disorder. It is not clear that this psychiatric syndrome is the same thing as the MVP syndrome. In Devereux's study, anxiety proneness was no different in the MVP cohort than in relatives without MVP. It is possible that diagnostic mixing of two similar but separate disorders has occurred, as has been the case since World War I. Perhaps the most important question is whether young patients with MVP syndrome and no

  17. Ischemic stroke and depression.

    PubMed

    Desmond, David W; Remien, Robert H; Moroney, Joan T; Stern, Yaakov; Sano, Mary; Williams, Janet B W

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies of depression after stroke have reported widely variable findings, possibly due to differences between studies in patient characteristics and methods for the assessment of depression, small sample sizes, and the failure to examine stroke-free reference groups to determine the base rate of depression in the general population. In an effort to address certain of those methodologic issues and further investigate the frequency and clinical determinants of depression after stroke, we administered the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (SIGH-D) and neurological, neuropsychological, and functional assessments to 421 patients (age = 71.5 +/- 8.0 years) 3 months after ischemic stroke and 249 stroke-free control subjects (age = 70.8 +/- 6.7 years). We required a SIGH-D total score > 11 for the identification of depression. We found that depression was less frequent (47/421 patients, or 11.2%, and 13/249 control subjects, or 5.2%), less severe, and less persistent in our stroke cohort than previously reported, possibly due to the underrepresentation of patients with a premorbid history of affective illness. Depression was associated with more severe stroke, particularly in vascular territories that supply limbic structures; dementia; and female sex. SIGH-D item analyses suggested that a reliance on nonsomatic rather than somatic symptoms would result in the most accurate diagnoses of depression after ischemic stroke.

  18. Imaging acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Percutaneous closure of perivalvular mitral regurgitation: how should the interventionalists and the echocardiographers communicate?

    PubMed

    Quader, Nishath; Davidson, Charles J; Rigolin, Vera H

    2015-05-01

    There is considerable interest in percutaneous closure of perivalvular leaks without the need for repeat surgery. Successful percutaneous closure of these defects requires extensive planning and coordination before and during t