Science.gov

Sample records for moderately obese men

  1. Moderate exercise-induced energy expenditure does not alter leptin levels in sedentary obese men.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, George A; Caplan, Jonathan D; Lowndes, Joshua; Carpenter, Richard L; Dennis, Karen E; Sivo, Stephen A; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether exercise-induced increases in energy expenditure (EE) alter circulating leptin levels in obese individuals. Participants were randomized to an exercise intervention group (n = 8) or nonexercising control (n = 7). All data were collected on an outpatient basis at the exercise physiology laboratory at the University of Central Florida. Fifteen healthy obese males (24.9 +/- 1.4 years old, body mass index 33.4 +/- 0.7 kg . m). Members of the intervention group underwent a single exercise session of moderate intensity (58.4 +/- 1.3% of VO2max) for 60 minutes. Postexercise, 24 hour postexercise, and 48 hour postexercise levels of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin. The exercise session elicited an EE of 567 +/- 25 Kcal. No significant main effect or time-by-group interactions for leptin or ghrelin were observed immediately after the exercise bout or in the days following the intervention. These preliminary data suggest that a bout of acute exercise of moderate intensity and duration does not affect leptin concentration. It is possible that a higher level of EE is required to elicit substantial changes.

  2. Effects of moderate exercise on VLDL₁ and Intralipid kinetics in overweight/obese middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Al-Shayji, Iqbal A R; Caslake, Muriel J; Gill, Jason M R

    2012-02-01

    Prior moderate exercise reduces plasma triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein concentrations, mainly in the large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL₁) fraction, but the mechanism responsible is unclear. We investigated the effects of brisk walking on TG-rich lipoprotein kinetics using a novel method. Twelve overweight/obese middle-aged men underwent two kinetic studies, involving infusion of Intralipid to block VLDL₁ catabolism, in random order. On the afternoon prior to infusion, subjects either walked on a treadmill for 2 h at ∼50% maximal oxygen uptake or performed no exercise. Multiple blood samples were taken during and after infusion for separation of Intralipid (S(f) 400) and VLDL₁ (S(f) 60-400). VLDL₁-TG and -apoB production rates were calculated from their linear rises during infusion; fractional catabolic rates (FCR) were calculated by dividing linear rises by fasting concentrations. Intralipid-TG FCR was determined from the postinfusion exponential decay. Exercise reduced fasting VLDL₁-TG concentration by 30% (P = 0.007) and increased TG enrichment of VLDL₁ particles [30% decrease in cholesteryl ester (CE)/TG ratio (P = 0.007); 26% increase in TG/apoB ratio (P = 0.059)]. Exercise also increased VLDL₁-TG, VLDL₁-apoB, and Intralipid-TG FCRs by 82, 146, and 43%, respectively (all P < 0.05), but had no significant effect on VLDL₁-TG or -apoB production rates. The exercise-induced increase in VLDL₁-apoB FCR correlated strongly with the exercise-induced changes in VLDL₁ CE/TG (r = -0.659, r = 0.020) and TG/apoB (r = 0.785, P = 0.002) ratios. Thus, exercise-induced reductions in VLDL₁ concentrations are mediated by increased catabolism, rather than reduced production, which may be facilitated by compositional changes to VLDL₁ particles that increase their affinity for clearance from the circulation.

  3. Improvement of fasting plasma glucose level after ingesting moderate amount of dietary fiber in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.

    PubMed

    Kobayakawa, Akira; Suzuki, Tomoo; Ikami, Takao; Saito, Morio; Yabe, Daisuke; Seino, Yutaka

    2013-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake on fasting plasma glucose level and physical characteristics in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity. Thirty men with mild hyperglycemia (>5.6 mmol/L) and visceral fat accumulation (>100 cm²) ingested 7.5 g/day of dietary fiber for 12 weeks. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed at baseline and at week 12. Blood was drawn every 4 weeks. In the test food group, fasting plasma glucose level was reduced with time, and the difference between the test food group and placebo group was statistically significant at week 12. Body weight and body mass index were also reduced with time, but visceral and subcutaneous fat areas did not change significantly during the study period. The results suggest that even a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake may be beneficial for managing the fasting plasma glucose level concomitant with insulin resistance, body weight, and body mass index in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.

  4. Effect of 1-h moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on intramyocellular lipids in obese men before and after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Ipavec-Levasseur, Stephanie; Croci, Ilaria; Choquette, Stéphane; Byrne, Nuala M; Cowin, Gary; O'Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Hickman, Ingrid J

    2015-12-01

    Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are depleted in response to an acute bout of exercise in lean endurance-trained individuals; however, it is unclear whether changes in IMCL content are also seen in response to acute and chronic exercise in obese individuals. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 18 obese men and 5 normal-weight controls to assess IMCL content before and after an hour of cycling at the intensity corresponding with each participant's maximal whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatmax was determined via indirect calorimetry during a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The same outcome measures were reassessed in the obese group after a 16-week lifestyle intervention comprising dietary calorie restriction and exercise training. At baseline, IMCL content decreased in response to 1 h of cycling at Fatmax in controls (2.8 ± 0.4 to 2.0 ± 0.3 A.U., -39%, p = 0.02), but not in obese (5.4 ± 2.1 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 A.U., p = 0.42). The lifestyle intervention lead to weight loss (-10.0 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.001), improvements in maximal aerobic power (+5.2 ± 3.4 mL/(kg·min)), maximal fat oxidation rate (+0.19 ± 0.22 g/min), and a 29% decrease in homeostasis model assessment score (all p < 0.05). However, when the 1 h of cycling at Fatmax was repeated after the lifestyle intervention, there remained no observable change in IMCL (4.6 ± 1.8 vs. 4.6 ± 1.9 A.U., p = 0.92). In summary, there was no IMCL depletion in response to 1 h of cycling at moderate intensity either before or after the lifestyle intervention in obese men. An effective lifestyle intervention including moderate-intensity exercise training did not impact rate of utilisation of IMCL during acute exercise in obese men.

  5. Effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) and low-fat weight-loss diets on the serum lipid profile in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Pelkman, Christine L; Fishell, Valerie K; Maddox, Deborah H; Pearson, Thomas A; Mauger, David T; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2004-02-01

    Little evidence of the effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) weight-loss diets on risk factors for cardiovascular disease exists because low-fat diets are typically recommended. Previous studies in weight-stable persons showed that a moderate-fat diet results in a more favorable lipid and lipoprotein profile (ie, lower serum triacylglycerol and higher HDL cholesterol) than does a low-fat diet. We evaluated the effects of energy-controlled, low-fat and moderate-fat diets on changes in lipids and lipoproteins during weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance. We conducted a parallel-arm study design in overweight and obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 29.8 +/- 2.4] healthy men and women (n = 53) assigned to consume a low-fat (18% of energy) or moderate-fat (33% of energy) diet for 6 wk to achieve weight loss, which was followed by 4 wk of weight maintenance. All foods were provided and body weight was monitored to ensure equal weight loss between groups. The moderate-fat diet elicited favorable changes in the lipoprotein profile. Compared with baseline, HDL cholesterol was unchanged, whereas triacylglycerol and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were lower at the end of the weight-maintenance period in the moderate-fat diet group. Despite similar weight loss, triacylglycerol rebounded, HDL cholesterol decreased, and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol did not change during the 10-wk interval in the low-fat diet group. A moderate-fat weight-loss and weight-maintenance diet improves the cardiovascular disease risk profile on the basis of favorable changes in lipids and lipoproteins. There is merit in recommending a moderate-fat weight-loss diet.

  6. Weight reduction, but not a moderate intake of fish oil, lowers concentrations of inflammatory markers and PAI-1 antigen in obese men during the fasting and postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Jellema, A; Plat, J; Mensink, R P

    2004-11-01

    In obese subjects, chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, which are reversed by weight loss. Sustained weight loss, however, is difficult to achieve and more insight into dietary approaches on anti-inflammatory responses in obese subjects is needed. In this respect, fish oil deserves attention. Eleven obese men (BMI: 30-35 kg m(-2)) received daily fish oil (1.35 g n-3 fatty acids) or placebo capsules in random order for 6 weeks. Eight subjects continued with a weight reduction study that lasted 8 weeks. Mean weight loss was 9.4 kg. At the end of each experimental period a postprandial study was performed. Relative to fasting concentrations, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increased by 75% 2 h and by 118% 4 h after the meal (P < 0.001), when subjects consumed the control capsules. In contrast, C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentrations decreased slightly by 0.7% and 6.6% (P = 0.046), and those of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen by, respectively, 26% and 53% (P < 0.001). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; P = 0.330) and soluble TNF-receptor concentrations (sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75; P = 0.451 and P = 0.108, respectively) did not change. Changes relative to fasting concentrations were not significantly affected by either fish oil or weight reduction. Absolute IL-6, C-RP, sTNF-R55, sTNF-R75, and PAI-1 antigen concentrations, however, were consistently lower after weight reduction, but not after fish oil consumption. For slightly obese subjects a moderate intake of fish oil does not have the same favourable effects on markers for a low-grade inflammatory state as weight reduction.

  7. Weight loss, but not fish oil consumption, improves fasting and postprandial serum lipids, markers of endothelial function, and inflammatory signatures in moderately obese men.

    PubMed

    Plat, Jogchum; Jellema, Annemarie; Ramakers, Julian; Mensink, Ronald P

    2007-12-01

    Overweight persons are at risk for cardiovascular diseases, which may relate to a disturbed endothelial function and pro-inflammatory serum profiles. Indeed, weight loss lowers cardiovascular disease risk, but weight maintenance is difficult. Therefore, dietary supplements such as fish oil, which improve endothelial function, are useful. In this study, we evaluated effects of fish oil and moderate weight loss in the same population. For this, 11 normolipidemic healthy, moderately obese men (BMI 30-35 kg/m2) received in random order 1.1 g/d eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) + docosahexanoic acid (DHA) or oleic acid (control) for 6 wk. In the 3rd period, 8 of the 11 subjects consumed low-energy diets (2 MJ/d) for 4 wk followed by 4 wk weight stabilization. Their body weight was reduced by 9.4 +/- 2.0 kg (P < 0.05). On the final day of all 3 periods, a postprandial test was conducted. Weight loss lowered fasting and postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TG) responses (P < 0.001), whereas fish oil reduced only postprandial TG (P = 0.006). Fish oil did not affect soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (s-ICAM), whereas weight loss reduced fasting (P = 0.009) and postprandial s-ICAM responses (P < 0.001). Fasting s-ICAM and TG correlated (r = 0.68; P = 0.029), as did changes in fasting s-ICAM and TG during weight loss (r = 0.80; P = 0.029) and fish oil treatment (r = 0.76; P = 0.009). Fasting (P = 0.027) and postprandial (P < 0.001) serum C-reactive protein were lowered by weight loss. The postprandial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 response was lowered by fish oil and after weight loss (P < 0.001). This indicates that 1.1 g/d EPA+DHA supplied for 6 wk, in contrast to approximately 10 kg weight loss, does not improve markers of endothelial function and inflammation.

  8. Moderators of sexual behavior in gay men.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-08-01

    We investigated factors that might moderate the association between sexual behavior desires and sexual behavior enactments in gay men. Condom eschewal, number of STIs, HIV serostatus, age, and relationship status were each hypothesized to moderate this association. An Internet survey collected data from 219 self-identifying gay men. Results indicated that sexual behavior desires and enactments were highly correlated, and of the five moderators tested, four varied this association. Condom eschewers had a stronger association between desires and enactments than condom users. Gay men with fewer STIs/STDs (excluding HIV) also had a stronger association between the two variables. HIV serostatus did not exclusively moderate the association. Rather, a three-way interaction was produced such that HIV-positive men with STIs had a stronger association between sexual behavior desires and enactments than HIV-negative men with STIs. Finally, gay men in monogamous relationships were least likely to have their desires associated with enactments. Age was not found to be a significant moderator. Overall, we concluded the moderators representing sexual health and sexual health behaviors were most influential over the enactment of sexual behavior desires.

  9. Moderators of Sexual Behavior in Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated factors that might moderate the association between sexual behavior desires and sexual behavior enactments in gay men. Condom eschewal, number of STIs, HIV serostatus, age, and relationship status were each hypothesized to moderate this association. An Internet survey collected data from 219 self-identifying gay men. Results indicated that sexual behavior desires and enactments were highly correlated, and of the five moderators tested, four varied this association. Condom eschewers had a stronger association between desires and enactments than condom users. Gay men with fewer STIs/STDs (excluding HIV) also had a stronger association between the two variables. HIV serostatus did not exclusively moderate the association. Rather, a three-way interaction was produced such that HIV-positive men with STIs had a stronger association between sexual behavior desires and enactments than HIV-negative men with STIs. Finally, gay men in monogamous relationships were least likely to have their desires associated with enactments. Age was not found to be a significant moderator. Overall, we concluded the moderators representing sexual health and sexual health behaviors were most influential over the enactment of sexual behavior desires. PMID:18719988

  10. Sprint interval and moderate-intensity continuous training have equal benefits on aerobic capacity, insulin sensitivity, muscle capillarisation and endothelial eNOS/NAD(P)Hoxidase protein ratio in obese men.

    PubMed

    Cocks, Matthew; Shaw, Christopher S; Shepherd, Sam O; Fisher, James P; Ranasinghe, Aaron; Barker, Thomas A; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2016-04-15

    Skeletal muscle capillary density and vasoreactivity are reduced in obesity, due to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability. Sprint interval training (SIT) has been proposed as a time efficient alternative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), but its effect on the skeletal muscle microvasculature has not been studied in obese individuals. We observed that SIT and MICT led to equal increases in capillarisation and endothelial eNOS content, while reducing endothelial NOX2 content in microvessels of young obese men. We conclude that SIT is equally effective at improving skeletal muscle capillarisation and endothelial enzyme balance, while being a time efficient alternative to traditional MICT. Sprint interval training (SIT) has been proposed as a time efficient alternative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), leading to similar improvements in skeletal muscle capillary density and microvascular function in young healthy humans. In this study we made the first comparisons of the muscle microvascular response to SIT and MICT in an obese population. Sixteen young obese men (age 25 ± 1 years, BMI 34.8 ± 0.9 kg m(-2) ) were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of MICT (40-60 min cycling at ∼65% V̇O2 peak , 5 times per week) or constant load SIT (4-7 constant workload intervals of 200% Wmax 3 times per week). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after training from the m. vastus lateralis to measure muscle microvascular endothelial eNOS content, eNOS serine(1177) phosphorylation, NOX2 content and capillarisation using quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy. Maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2 peak ), whole body insulin sensitivity and arterial stiffness were also assessed. SIT and MICT increased skeletal muscle microvascular eNOS content and eNOS ser(1177) phosphorylation in terminal arterioles and capillaries (P < 0.05), but the latter effect was eliminated when normalised to eNOS content (P = 0.217). SIT and MICT also reduced

  11. Food reinforcement and obesity. Psychological moderators.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Lin, Henry; Carr, Katelyn A; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2012-02-01

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) provides an index of the motivation to eat. Research has shown that RRV(food) is higher in obese individuals than their non-obese peers, is associated with greater energy intake, predicts weight gain and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. This study was designed to determine whether dietary restraint, dietary disinhibition or hunger moderate the effect of RRV(food) on the weight status and energy intake in 273 adults of various body mass index (BMI) levels. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the independent effects of RRV(food) on BMI and energy intake, controlling for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and RRV(reading). Results showed that greater RRV(food), but not RRV(reading), was associated with greater BMI and energy intake. Dietary disinhibition and dietary restraint moderated the relationship between RRV(food) and BMI, with dietary disinhibition being a stronger moderator of this relationship (r(2)=0.20) than dietary restraint (r(2)=0.095). In addition, dietary disinhibition moderated the effect of RRV(food) on energy intake. These results replicate the importance of RRV(food) as a predictor of obesity, and show that psychological factors moderate the effect of food reinforcement on body weight and energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117.

  12. Relation of Misperception of Healthy Weight to Obesity in Urban Black Men

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Rassnick, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity, as well as moderators of this relation, in a sample of middle-aged black men. Survey data from 404 mostly immigrant, black males living in greater New York City were collected as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Data included measures of health status, BMI, perceived healthy weight, and misperception of healthy weight. Misperception of healthy weight was more frequent among obese men (90.2%) than nonobese men (48.7%) (P < 0.001). Mean level of misperception was also significantly higher in obese men than nonobese men (P < 0.001). Health status moderated the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity: obese men who felt healthy or who had fewer comorbid conditions had greater misperception of healthy weight than obese men who felt unhealthy or had relatively more comorbid conditions (P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that misperception of healthy weight discriminates between obese and nonobese black men, and the magnitude of this relation is exacerbated in obese men who are relatively healthy. Future studies should determine the prevalence of misperception of healthy weight in more diverse populations and identify potential mediators of the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity. PMID:19876006

  13. Relation of misperception of healthy weight to obesity in urban black men.

    PubMed

    Godino, Job G; Lepore, Stephen J; Rassnick, Stefanie

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity, as well as moderators of this relation, in a sample of middle-aged black men. Survey data from 404 mostly immigrant, black males living in greater New York City were collected as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Data included measures of health status, BMI, perceived healthy weight, and misperception of healthy weight. Misperception of healthy weight was more frequent among obese men (90.2%) than nonobese men (48.7%) (P < 0.001). Mean level of misperception was also significantly higher in obese men than nonobese men (P < 0.001). Health status moderated the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity: obese men who felt healthy or who had fewer comorbid conditions had greater misperception of healthy weight than obese men who felt unhealthy or had relatively more comorbid conditions (P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that misperception of healthy weight discriminates between obese and nonobese black men, and the magnitude of this relation is exacerbated in obese men who are relatively healthy. Future studies should determine the prevalence of misperception of healthy weight in more diverse populations and identify potential mediators of the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity.

  14. Obesity and health-related quality of life: does social support moderate existing associations?

    PubMed

    Wiczinski, Eileen; Döring, Angela; John, Jürgen; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Obesity has been shown to be negatively related to physical health-related quality of life (HQOL) much more strongly than mental HQOL. This is remarkable given findings on obesity-related social stigmata and associations with depression. Considering obesity as a stressor, this study tests for a moderating role of social support for obesity/HQOL associations among women and men. Data come from N=2,732 participants aged 35-74 years in a 2004-2005 general population survey in the Augsburg region, Germany. Body weight and height were assessed by anthropometric measurements (classified by body mass index using WHO standards), social support by the Social Support Questionnaire 14-item Short-Form (F-SozU-K14) and HQOL by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). In multiple regression and general linear models, age, education, family status, health insurance, and place of residence were adjusted for. Among both genders, obesity was associated with reduced physical but not mental HQOL. Among men reporting strong social support, physical HQOL was impaired neither in the moderately nor the severely obese group (compared with normal weight), while it was given less social support. Among women, poor physical HQOL was associated with obesity regardless of social support. In this adult population sample, no association was found for obesity with mental HQOL. In contrast, a negative association with physical HQOL exists for all subgroups except men with strong social support, indicating that social support buffers obesity-related impairments in physical HQOL in men but not in women. This suggests that obese women and men with strong social support represent distinct populations, with possible implications for obesity care.

  15. Prevalence of obesity and correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Wen, Wanqing; Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate the age-adjusted prevalence of general and centralized obesity among Chinese men living in urban Shanghai. Research Methods and Procedures A cross-sectional study was conducted in 61,582 Chinese men aged 40 to 75. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was used to measure overweight (23≤BMI<27.5) and obesity (BMI≥27.5) based on the WHO recommended criteria for Asians. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was used to measure moderate (75th≤WHR<90th percentile) and severe (WHR≥90th percentile) centralized obesity. Results The average BMI and WHR were 23.7 kg/m2 and 0.90, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 48.6% and obesity, 10.5%. The prevalence of general and centralized obesity was higher in men with high income or who were unemployed, tea drinkers, or non-ginseng users than their counterparts. Men with high education had a higher prevalence of overweight and centralized obesity, but had a lower prevalence of obesity and severe centralized obesity compared to those with lower education. Current smokers or alcohol drinkers had a lower prevalence of general obesity but higher prevalence of centralized obesity than non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Ex-smokers and ex-alcohol drinkers had a higher prevalence of general and centralized obesity compared to non-smokers and non-alcohol drinkers. Prevalence of obesity was associated with high energy intake and low daily physical activity. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity in Chinese men in urban Shanghai was lower than that observed in Western countries but higher than that in other Asian countries, and the prevalence of general and centralized obesity differed by demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. PMID:18356829

  16. A qualitative investigation of obese men's experiences with their weight.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sophie; Thomas, Samantha L; Hyde, Jim; Castle, David J; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2011-07-01

    To investigate obese men's health behaviors and strategies for change. Qualitative interviews with 36 men (BMI 30 and over). All men felt personally responsible for their weight gain. Sedentary lifestyles, stress, lack of worklife balance and weight-based stigma were all significant causes of weight gain and barriers to weight loss. These factors also contributed to men's unwillingness to seek help for their over-weight. Addressing the self-blame and stigma associated with obesity is important in developing strategies to improve the health and well-being of obese men.

  17. Android (centralized) obesity and somatotypes in men: association with mesomorphy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H; Joos, S K

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between body fat distribution patterns and somatotype among 824 men was sought from Sheldon, Dupertuis and MacDermott's Atlas of Men (1954). The men were classified photoscopically into obese, overweight and normal weight classes and then into android (central), intermediate and gynoid (generalized) classes of body fat patterning independently and blindly by two observers. Android fat men were found by both observers to be older and more often classed as obese than gynoid fat men. The android obese were significantly more mesomorphic and less endomorphic than the gynoid obese (P less than 0.01). Results suggest that android obesity involves more than an upper body distribution of subcutaneous fat: it is a deep body obesity involving excess lean body mass as well.

  18. Moderate obesity and endothelial dysfunction in humans: influence of gender and systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Suboc, Tisha Marie B; Dharmashankar, Kodlipet; Wang, Jingli; Ying, Rong; Couillard, Allison B; Tanner, Michael J; Widlansky, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether moderate obesity (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m²) is associated with impaired conduit and microvascular endothelial function, and whether men or women are more susceptible to impairment of endothelial function related to moderate obesity. Forty-one middle aged, nondiabetic moderately obese (BMI 34.7 ± 4.0 kg/m2) and nonobese (BMI 24.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2) subjects of both sexes underwent noninvasive studies of endothelial function (brachial reactivity) and measurements of endothelial-dependent vasodilation of gluteal subcutaneous arterioles to acetylcholine (Ach). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to Ach was decreased in the moderately obese compared with the nonobese (P < 0.001). Stratified analysis based on sex showed impairment of arteriolar endothelial function in women BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (P = 0.02), but not men. There was no difference between in vivo endothelial function flow-mediated dilation (FMD%) by BMI category. Sex-specific analysis showed FMD% was lower in women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 compared to those with BMI < 30 kg/m2 (P = 0.02). No differences were seen in men based on BMI category (P = 0.18). In women, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) correlated with BMI (ρ = 0.68, P = 0.006). Moderate obesity is associated with impaired resistance arteriolar endothelial function. This is more prominent in women than men and is associated with systemic inflammation. PMID:24187612

  19. Explaining Racial Disparities in Obesity Among Men: Does Place Matter?

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-standing patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. This study examined disparities in obesity among Black and White men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. The findings were compared with the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. In the NHIS, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.12-1.49) than White men. However in the EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.06, 95% confidence interval=0.70-1.62) compared with White men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social environment may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among Black and White men.

  20. Explaining Racial Disparities in Obesity Among Men: Does Place Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V.; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    National data indicate that black men have higher rates of obesity than white men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these longstanding patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. We examined disparities in obesity among black and white men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. We compared the findings to a national sample. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, SES and health conditions. In the national sample, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.12–1.49) than white men. However in EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.70–1.62) compared to white men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social context may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among black and white men. PMID:25249452

  1. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content.

  2. Obesity differences between African-American men and women.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S; Nanda, J P; Bonney, G; Kofie, V

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-demographic and behavioral differences related to obesity between African-American men and women. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of greater than 27.3 kg/m2 for women and 27.8 kg/m2 for men. Data were collected from 661 African-Americans, 418 women and 243 men, residing in wards 7 and 8 in Washington, DC through telephone interviews. Obesity was prevalent among 38.3% of the women and 20.1% of the men (p < 0.01). For women age 55 or older, annual income over $20K, having less than a high school education, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were associated with being overweight in the initial bivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For men, being 35 years or older and unemployment were significant factors associated with obesity. Our final analysis, when known dietary risk factors were adjusted, revealed that in women, obesity was associated with age, hard liquor consumption and non use of tobacco. For men, older age was a primary association. We concluded that gender, with increasing age, plays a significant role in predicting obesity, as defined by concurrent national standards. African American men 55 years of age or older are the most likely group to be overweight even after predisposing and behavioral risk factors are considered.

  3. Testosterone Concentrations in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Dhindsa, Sandeep; Miller, Michael G.; McWhirter, Cecilia L.; Mager, Donald E.; Ghanim, Husam; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Dandona, Paresh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of subnormal testosterone concentrations in patients with obesity and with type 2 diabetes in a primary care clinic population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Free testosterone concentrations of 1,849 men (1,451 nondiabetic and 398 diabetic) in the Hypogonadism In Males (HIM) study were analyzed. The HIM study was a U.S.-based cross-sectional study designed to define the prevalence of hypogonadism in men aged >45 years. Free testosterone was measured by equilibrium dialysis. RESULTS The prevalence of subnormal free testosterone concentrations in lean, overweight, and obese nondiabetic men was 26% (n = 275), 29% (n = 687), and 40% (n = 489), respectively (P < 0.001 for trend), and 44% (n = 36), 44% (n = 135), and 50% (n = 227), respectively, in diabetic men (P = 0.46 for trend within group and P < 0.05 compared with nondiabetic men). The mean free testosterone concentration of diabetic men was significantly lower than that of nondiabetic men. Free testosterone concentrations were negatively and significantly (P < 0.001) related to age (r = −0.37), BMI (r = −0.18), and sex hormone–binding globulin (r = −0.11) in multiple regression analysis. The average decline of free testosterone concentrations was 7.8 pg/ml per decade in nondiabetic men and 8.4 pg/ml per decade in diabetic men. CONCLUSIONS Forty percent of obese nondiabetic men and 50% of obese diabetic men aged ≥45 years have subnormal free testosterone concentrations. In view of its high prevalence, obesity is probably the condition most frequently associated with subnormal free testosterone concentrations in males. The concomitant presence of diabetes is associated with an additional increase in the prevalence of subnormal free testosterone concentrations. PMID:20200299

  4. Poor sleep quality associated with obesity in men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Yuan, Jingqin; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Zengzhen; Shankar, Nivedita; Ali, Gholam; Xie, Yiqiong; Xu, Tan; Shan, Guangliang

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between sleep quality and obesity status. A cross-sectional study of 3225 Chinese participants aged 18 to 65 years was conducted in Beijing in 2007. Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to the Working Group on Obesity in China, and sleep quality was assessed by the modified Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % CIs of obesity by sleep quality adjusted for potential confounders. Two sets of potential confounders were used in the adjusted models. Model 1 was adjusted for sex and age. Model 2 was further adjusted for education level, occupation, marriage status, smoking, alcohol consumption, body pain, and health status. Poor sleep quality was significantly negatively associated with overweight/obesity in men but not in women. Additional adjustment for education level, occupation, marriage status, smoking, alcohol consumption, body pain, and health status did not attenuate the association (OR = 1.41 with 95 % CI 1.03-1.93; P < 0.05) among men. The adjusted OR per sleep quality score hour was 1.07 (1.01-1.14) for overweight/obesity, suggesting that for one score increase in sleep quality, obesity/overweight risk increased by 7 % in men. Sleep quality was negatively associated with overweight/obesity in Chinese men but not in women.

  5. Testosterone as Potential Effective Therapy in Treatment of Obesity in Men with Testosterone Deficiency: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Farid; Aversa, Antonio; Isidori, Andrea M; Gooren, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Obesity negatively affects human health. Limiting food intake, while producing some weight loss, results in reduction of lean body mass. Combined with moderate exercise it produces significant weight loss, maintains lean body mass and improves insulin sensitivity, but appears difficult to adhere to. Bariatric surgery is clinically effective for severely obese individuals compared with non-surgical interventions, but has limitations. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have implicated a role for testosterone (T) in the patho-physiology of obesity. Methods: Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: A literature search in PubMed on the role of T in counteracting obesity and its complications. Results: Obesity per se impairs testicular T biosynthesis. Furthermore, lower-than-normal T levels increase accumulation of fat depots, particularly abdominal (visceral) fat. This fat distribution is associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its sequels, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). T treatment reverses fat accumulation with significant improvement in lean body mass, insulin sensitivity and biochemical profiles of cardiovascular risk. The contribution of T to combating obesity in hypogonadal men remains largely unknown to medical professionals managing patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Many physicians associate T treatment in men with risks for prostate malignancy and CVD. These beliefs are not supported by recent insights. Conclusion: While overall treatment of obesity is unsuccessful, T treatment of hypogonadal men may be effective, also because it improves mood, energy, reduces fatigue and may motivate men to adhere to diet and exercise regimens designed to combat obesity. PMID:22268394

  6. Only minor additional metabolic health benefits of high as opposed to moderate dose physical exercise in young, moderately overweight men.

    PubMed

    Reichkendler, M H; Rosenkilde, M; Auerbach, P L; Agerschou, J; Nielsen, M B; Kjaer, A; Hoejgaard, L; Sjödin, A; Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B

    2014-05-01

    The dose-response effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity, metabolic risk, and quality of life were examined. Sixty-one healthy, sedentary (VO₂max: 35 ± 5 ml/kg/min), moderately overweight (BMI: 27.9 ± 1.8), young (age: 29 ± 6 years) men were randomized to sedentary living (sedentary control group; n = 18), moderate (moderate dose training group [MOD]: 300 kcal/day, n = 21), or high (high dose training group [HIGH]: 600 kcal/day, n = 22) dose physical exercise for 11 weeks. The return rate for post-intervention testing was 82-94% across groups. Weekly exercise amounted to 2,004 ± 24 and 3,774 ± 68 kcal, respectively, in MOD and HIGH. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased (P < 0.001) 18 ± 3% in MOD and 17 ± 3% in HIGH, and fat percentage decreased (P < 0.001) similarly in both exercise groups (MOD: 32 ± 1 to 29 ± 1%; HIGH: 30 ± 1 to 27 ± 1%). Peripheral insulin sensitivity increased (P < 0.01) (MOD: 28 ± 7%; HIGH: 36 ± 8%) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance decreased (P < 0.05) (MOD: -17 ± 7%; HIGH: -18 ± 10%). The number of subjects meeting the criteria of the metabolic syndrome decreased by 78% in MOD (P < 0.01) and by 80% in HIGH (P < 0.05). General health assessed by questionnaire increased similarly in MOD (P < 0.05) and HIGH (P < 0.01). Only minor additional health benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  7. [Obesity--significant risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men].

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Musialik, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    The obesity affects around 312 million people over the world. In The United States it causes more than 300 000 deaths per year. It leads to many complications, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. It was proven recently that obesity is also an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men. 79% of men presenting erectile disorders have BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater. BMI in the range 25-30 kg/m2 is associated with 1,5 times, and in the range of over 30 kg/m2 with 3 times greater risk of sexual dysfunction. The occurrence of erectile dysfunction in patients with obesity is caused by a number of complications which are characteristic for an excessive amount of fat tissue, in example: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or dyslipidemia. In the United States diabetes and obesity are responsible for 8 million cases of erectile dysfunction. Scientific evidence indicates that excessive body weight should be considered as an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction. This risk increases with increasing BMI. Erectile disorders correlate with the occurrence of obesity at any time during the patient's life. Obesity leads to erectile dysfunction in a considerably greater extent than aging. Mechanisms responsible for the independent influence of obesity on the erectile dysfunction are: hormonal imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, psychological factors and physical inactivity. The basis for erectile dysfunction treatment in obesity is body weight loss. Erectile disorders in obese men are significantly more frequent than in general population. Obesity is beyond any doubts an independent risk factor of erectile dysfunction.

  8. [Clinical symptom relief in obese patients with persistent moderate asthma secondary to decreased obesity].

    PubMed

    Hernández Romero, Azael; Matta Campos, Juan; Mora Nieto, Alejandra; del Rivero, Leonel; Andrés Dionicio, Atenea Estela; Aguilar Ramírez, Pilar; Barthell Solís, Carlos; García González, América; Carreta Macías, Leticia; Murguía Corral, Ricardo; Vázquez Nava, Francisco; Almeida Arvizu, Víctor Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and obesity has increased last years implying important economical and social consequences. A relationship between asthma severity and obesity grade has been found. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate if obesity decline has a beneficial impact on asthma severity. To evaluate the effect of obesity decline on control symptoms and asthma severity. Ninety-six patients with obesity and moderate chronic asthma were randomized to group A or B and were maintained for 40 days on a low calorie diet. At baseline and at the end of the study, symptoms, measurement of obesity, spirometry, inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin's levels were assessed. Diets' safety was evaluated based on laboratory test. Data were analyzed with Student's t test. After 40 days on a low calorie diet, in group A, there were significant decreases of obesity (p < 0.001) and IgE, symptoms almost disappeared (cough persisted in 20%) and medication was suspended in 80%. Group B had obesity decline but IgE levels remained (> 100 UI/mL), symptoms and drug regimen remained unchanged. Both diets were not harmful for patients. These results show that asthmatic obese patients maintained for 40 days on low calorie diet A, had obesity and IgE levels decrease and symptoms and asthma severity relief.

  9. Interval training intensity affects energy intake compensation in obese men.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-12-01

    Compensatory responses may attenuate the effectiveness of exercise training in weight management. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of moderate- and high-intensity interval training on eating behavior compensation. Using a crossover design, 10 overweight and obese men participated in 4-week moderate (MIIT) and high (HIIT) intensity interval training. MIIT consisted of 5-min cycling stages at ± 20% of mechanical work at 45%VO(2)peak, and HIIT consisted of alternate 30-s work at 90%VO(2)peak and 30-s rests, for 30 to 45 min. Assessments included a constant-load exercise test at 45%VO(2)peak for 45 min followed by 60-min recovery. Appetite sensations were measured during the exercise test using a Visual Analog Scale. Food preferences (liking and wanting) were assessed using a computer-based paradigm, and this paradigm uses 20 photographic food stimuli varying along two dimensions, fat (high or low) and taste (sweet or nonsweet). An ad libitum test meal was provided after the constant-load exercise test. Exercise-induced hunger and desire to eat decreased after HIIT, and the difference between MIIT and HIIT in desire to eat approached significance (p = .07). Exercise-induced liking for high-fat nonsweet food tended to increase after MIIT and decreased after HIIT (p = .09). Fat intake decreased by 16% after HIIT, and increased by 38% after MIIT, with the difference between MIIT and HIIT approaching significance (p = .07). This study provides evidence that energy intake compensation differs between MIIT and HIIT.

  10. The Association Between Obesity and Weight Loss Intention Weaker Among Blacks and Men than Whites and Women

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although obesity is associated with weight loss intention, the magnitude of this association may differ across various populations. Using a nationally representative data of the United States, this study tested the variation of the association between obesity and weight loss intention based on race and gender. Methods Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003, which enrolled 5,810 nationally representative sample of adults (3,516 African Americans, 1,415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites). Socio-demographics, body mass index (BMI), and weight loss intention were measured. We fitted logistic regression models in the pooled sample with weight loss intention as outcome, obesity (BMI > 30) as predictor, while the effect of covariates were controlled. To test our moderation hypotheses, we entered race * obesity and gender * obesity interactions to the model. Results Although the association between obesity and weight loss intention was significant among both race and gender groups, the magnitude of the association between obesity and weight loss intention was larger for women than men and Whites than Blacks. That means individuals with obesity have less intention for weight loss if they are Black or men. Conclusion The link between obesity and weight loss intention depends on race and gender. Weight loss intention may not increase in response to obesity among Blacks and men, compared to Whites and women. Healthy weight programs in the United States may benefit from tailoring based on race and gender. PMID:26462289

  11. The Association Between Obesity and Weight Loss Intention Weaker Among Blacks and Men than Whites and Women.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-09-01

    Although obesity is associated with weight loss intention, the magnitude of this association may differ across various populations. Using a nationally representative data of the United States, this study tested the variation of the association between obesity and weight loss intention based on race and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003, which enrolled 5,810 nationally representative sample of adults (3,516 African Americans, 1,415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites). Socio-demographics, body mass index (BMI), and weight loss intention were measured. We fitted logistic regression models in the pooled sample with weight loss intention as outcome, obesity (BMI > 30) as predictor, while the effect of covariates were controlled. To test our moderation hypotheses, we entered race * obesity and gender * obesity interactions to the model. Although the association between obesity and weight loss intention was significant among both race and gender groups, the magnitude of the association between obesity and weight loss intention was larger for women than men and Whites than Blacks. That means individuals with obesity have less intention for weight loss if they are Black or men. The link between obesity and weight loss intention depends on race and gender. Weight loss intention may not increase in response to obesity among Blacks and men, compared to Whites and women. Healthy weight programs in the United States may benefit from tailoring based on race and gender.

  12. Obesity and prostate enlargement in men with localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Ryan P; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Freedland, Stephen J; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Obesity is associated with prostate enlargement in men without prostate cancer. This study demonstrates an association between obesity and prostate enlargement in men with prostate cancer, and leads to possible implications for prostate cancer screening and diagnosis. • To determine if obesity is associated with prostate size in men with prostate cancer. • We examined preoperative body mass index (BMI) and whole prostate weight in a cohort of 16,325 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 1975 to 2008 at a single institution. • We used multivariable regression modelling adjusting for age, year of surgery, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), pathological stage and Gleason grade. • Of the entire cohort, 13,343 (82%) patients had a prostate weight of at least 40 g. These men were older (P < 0.001), had a higher preoperative BMI (P < 0.002), higher preoperative PSA (P < 0.001), and were more likely to have pT2 disease (P < 0.001). • In multivariable regression, preoperative BMI was associated with increased prostate weight: for each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI, prostate weight increased by 0.45 g (95% CI 0.35-0.55, P-trend < 0.001). • Compared with men with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) , men with a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) had a 40% (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.95) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 40 g and a 70% (odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 1.32-2.20) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 50 g. • In men with localized prostate cancer, obesity is associated with an increased risk of prostate enlargement. • These data validate other observations linking obesity with prostate enlargement and may have important ramifications for prostate cancer diagnosis in obese men. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  13. Thermic effect of food in lean and obese men.

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessio, D A; Kavle, E C; Mozzoli, M A; Smalley, K J; Polansky, M; Kendrick, Z V; Owen, L R; Bushman, M C; Boden, G; Owen, O E

    1988-01-01

    A systemic reappraisal of the thermic effect of food was done in lean and obese males randomly fed mixed meals containing 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 kcal/kg fat-free mass. Densitometric analysis was used to measure body composition. Preprandial and postprandial energy expenditures were measured by indirect calorimetry. The data show that the thermic effect of food was linearly correlated with caloric intake, and that the magnitude and duration of augmented postprandial thermogenesis increased linearly with caloric consumption. Postprandial energy expenditures over resting metabolic requirements were indistinguishable when comparing lean and obese men for a given caloric intake. Individuals, however, had distinct and consistent thermic responses to progressively greater caloric challenges. These unique thermic profiles to food ingestion were also independent of leanness or obesity. We conclude that the thermic effect of food increases linearly with caloric intake, and is independent of leanness and obesity. Images PMID:3384951

  14. Anaerobic power output of young obese men: comparison with non-obese men and the role of excess fat.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, K; Suzuki, M; Miyashita, M

    1980-01-01

    Anaerobic power output was measured by the staircase climb test in 14 obese, 16 lean, and 21 ordinary men aged from 18--22 years. Fat storage rate (%fat) was estimated by densitometry. The obese group ranked highest with an average power output of 1,012 W. This value was significantly higher than those of the other two groups, 890 W for lean subjects and 855 W for ordinary subjects. The power output per kilogram of lean body mass of the obese group was the highest also. However, the vertical velocity was the lowest although the difference among the three average values was not statistically significant. To investigate the effect of excess fat, eight non-obese subjects engaged in an added-weight experiment. The value obtained was almost the same as for the obese group. The added weights made the vertical velocity decrease but the power output increase. Consequently, it was obvious that the excess fat of an obese man played a role only as an inert mass in the power output measurement. A significantly higher power output of the obese group might be due to more excess fat, and obesity itself was an advantage in the staircase climb test.

  15. Phoenixin is negatively associated with anxiety in obese men.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Weibert, Elena; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Phoenixin was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus and initially implicated in reproductive functions. A subsequent study described an anxiolytic effect of the peptide. The aim of the study was to investigate a possible association of circulating phoenixin with anxiety in humans. We therefore enrolled 68 inpatients with a broad spectrum of psychometrically measured anxiety (GAD-7). We investigated men since a menstrual cycle dependency of phoenixin has been assumed. Obese subjects were enrolled since they often report psychological comorbidities. In addition, we also assessed depressiveness (PHQ-9) and perceived stress (PSQ-20). Plasma phoenixin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA. First, we validated the ELISA kit performing a spike-and-recovery experiment showing a variance of 6.7±8.8% compared to the expected concentrations over the whole range of concentrations assessed, while a lower variation of 1.6±0.8% was observed in the linear range of the assay (0.07-2.1ng/ml). We detected phoenixin in the circulation of obese men at levels of 0.68±0.50ng/ml. These levels showed a negative association with anxiety scores (r=-0.259, p=0.043), while no additional associations with other psychometric parameters were observed. In summary, phoenixin is present in the human circulation and negatively associated with anxiety in obese men, a population often to report comorbid anxiety.

  16. Depression in adolescent obesity: cultural moderators of the association between obesity and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wardle, J; Williamson, S; Johnson, F; Edwards, C

    2006-04-01

    Community studies relating depression to obesity in adolescents have generated inconsistent results. It has been argued that the variability in findings is due to effect modification by demographic characteristics that vary across samples. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the strength of the obesity-depression association is moderated by gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Data were from two large, school-based, studies of adolescent health and well-being (n=4320; n=1824). Students completed one of two measures of depressive symptoms (SDQ; CES-D) in school and were weighed and measured. Gender and ethnicity were self-reported and SES was indexed by residential neighbourhood characteristics or individual family deprivation. There was barely any association between obesity and depressive symptoms in either sample. There was also no evidence that obese participants who were female, white or from higher SES backgrounds were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. The results indicate that in community samples of adolescents, regardless of gender, SES or ethnicity, reports of depressive symptoms are not significantly higher in obese than normal-weight groups. The results are discussed in terms of obese adolescents' resilience in the face of multiple social adversities.

  17. Prostate cancer detection: The impact of obesity on Asian men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alvin; Chia, Sing Joo

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on prostate cancer detection in biopsy-naive men presenting to a single tertiary hospital in Singapore. We retrospectively examined 458 men who underwent initial prostate biopsies between January 2012 and April 2014. Indications for biopsy were serum prostate-specific antigen level≥4.0ng/ml, or digital rectal examination findings suspicious for malignancy, or both. Only men with serum prostate-specific antigen level <20ng/ml were included. BMI categories were based on the World Health Organization recommendations (normal:<25.0, overweight: 25.0-29.9, and obese: ≥30). Of the 458 men included in our cohort, 125 (27.3%) men were positive for prostate cancer on biopsy, with 69 (15.1%) being clinically significant (Gleason≥7). Men with BMI≥25kg/m(2) (41.7%) were younger (67.2 vs. 68.8y, P = 0.030), had larger prostates (45.5 vs. 40.1g, P = 0.014), and were more likely to have a positive biopsy finding (34.6% vs. 22.1%, P = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, being overweight or obese was associated with increased risk of having prostate cancer on biopsy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.58-4.30, P<0.001 and OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.37-7.73 P = 0.007, respectively). The same trend was observed for clinically significant cancers but not for clinically insignificant cancers (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.87-6.82, P<0.001 and OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.33-11.21, P = 0.013 for being overweight and obese, respectively). Asian men with BMI≥25kg/m(2) are at greater risk of having a positive initial biopsy result. The BMI threshold (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) for Asian men to be at increased risk of prostate cancer detection on initial biopsy is lower than that of Western populations (BMI≥30kg/m(2)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Male body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptomatology: moderating variables among men.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Zanetti, Assunta M; Riva, Giuseppe; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Volpato, Chiara; Madeddu, Fabio; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is recognized as a robust risk factor for eating disorders. Despite over 80% of college men being body dissatisfied, not all men report several levels of eating disorder symptoms. In this study, we examined poor impulse control, social anxiety and internalization of media ideals as potential moderators. Data collected from 405 college-aged men were analysed, using latent variable structural equation modelling approach. All variables investigated have been found to moderate the body dissatisfaction-eating disorder symptomatology, such that male body dissatisfaction was strongly related to men's eating disorder symptomatology when each moderator was at its highest level. Practical implications are discussed.

  19. "Obesity" and "Clinical Obesity" Men's understandings of obesity and its relation to the risk of diabetes: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Nicola F; Hayes, Louise; Unwin, Nigel C; Murtagh, Madeleine J

    2008-01-01

    Background The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore undertook this study in order to inform the process of health promotion and diabetes prevention in this group. Methods A qualitative study in North East England General Practice using a purposive sample of men aged 25 and 45 years (selection process designed to include 'normal', 'overweight' and 'obese' men). One to one audio-recorded semi structured interviews focused on: overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity and diabetes. Transcripts were initially analysed using framework analysis. Emerging themes interlinked. Results The men in this study (n = 17) understand the word obesity differently from the clinical definition; "obesity" was used as a description of those with fat in a central distribution, and understandings of the term commonly take into account fitness as well as weight. Men in their late 30s and early 40s described becoming more aware of health issues. Knowledge of what constitutes a 'healthy lifestyle' was generally good, but men described difficulty acting upon this knowledge for various reasons e.g. increasing responsibilities at home and at work. Knowledge of diabetes and the link between obesity and diabetes was poor. Conclusion Men in this study had a complex understanding of the interlinked importance of weight and fitness in relation to health. Obesity is understood as a description of people with centrally distributed fat, in association with low fitness levels. There is a need to increase understanding of the causes and consequences of diabetes

  20. Sleep Apnea, Reproductive Hormones and Quality of Sexual Life in Severely Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Walker, James M.; Gibson, Mark; Cloward, Tom V.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Adams, Ted D.; Meikle, A. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sleep apnea on the reproductive function of obese men is not entirely elucidated. The objective of this study was to define the effect of sleep apnea on the reproductive hormones and sexual function in obese men. This study included 89 severely obese men with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 considering gastric bypass surgery. Anthropometrics (weight, and BMI), reproductive hormones, and sleep studies were measured. The sexual quality of life was assessed using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire (IWQOL-Lite). The mean age of our patients was 46.9 ± 11.0 years, the mean BMI was 47.8 ± 8.7 kg/m2 and the mean weight was 337.7 ± 62.4 lb. After correction for age and BMI, means of free testosterone per severity group of sleep apnea were as follows: no or mild sleep apnea 74.4 ± 3.8 pg/ml, moderate sleep apnea 68.6 ± 4.2 pg/ml, and severe sleep apnea 60.2 ± 2.92 pg/ml, P = 0.014. All other parameters of sleep apnea including hypopnea index, percent time below a SpO2 of 90%, and percent time below a SpO2 of 80% were also negatively correlated with testosterone levels after correction for age and BMI. BMI and presence of coronary artery disease decreased the sexual quality of life. Sleep apnea was associated with reduced sexual quality of life. In summary, sleep apnea negatively affects testosterone levels independent of BMI. Severely obese men had decreased sexual quality of life. PMID:21273994

  1. Geography, Race/Ethnicity, and Obesity Among Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Elizabeth A; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased significantly and is a particular concern for minority men. Studies focused at the community and national levels have reported that geography can play a substantial role in contributing to obesity, but little is known about how regional influences contribute to obesity among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and obesity among men in the United States and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in obesity within these geographic regions. Data from men, aged 18 years and older, from the National Health Interview Survey were combined for the years 2000 to 2010. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) Logistic regression models were specified to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between geographic region and obesity and for race and obesity within geographic regions. Compared to men living in the Northeast, men living in the Midwest had significantly greater odds of being obese (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.02, 1.17]), and men living in the West had lower odds of being obese (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.76, 0.89]). Racial/ethnic differences were also observed within geographic region. Black men have greater odds of obesity than White men in the South, West, and Midwest. In the South and West, Hispanic men also have greater odds of obesity than White men. In all regions, Asian men have lower odds of obesity than White men.

  2. [Effect of alcohol intake on dietary habits and obesity in Japanese middle-aged men].

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Hirai, Y; Fujiura, Y; Imaizumi, T

    2000-10-01

    The amount of alcohol intake has been increasing in Japan. We investigated whether this might affect dietary habits in middle-aged men. In 1989, we conducted a health examination of 809 Japanese males aged 40-69. Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recall. Mean values of total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate were evaluated according to alcohol intake. Consumption of total calories and proteins, especially animal proteins, increased and carbohydrate intake decreased proportionately with the amount of alcohol intake. Meat, fish, and soybean intake were increased in heavy drinker, along with niacin, sodium, and phosphorus intake. Despite their higher caloric intake, moderate and heavy drinkers were not more obese than non- or light-drinkers. Japanese heavy drinkers took more animal protein and sodium instead of carbohydrate compared to non- and light- drinkers. In our series, heavy drinking was not related to obesity.

  3. Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Is Upregulated in Lean and Obese Men During Acute Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Petridou, Anatoli; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Douroudos, Ioannis; Mastorakos, George; Lazaropoulou, Christina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Tournis, Symeon; Mitrakou, Asimina; Mougios, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the effect of acute resistance exercise on adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase activity (TGLA) in lean and obese men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Nine lean and eight obese men performed 30 min of circuit resistance exercise. Adipose tissue and blood were sampled during exercise for TGLA, metabolite, and hormone determinations. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was measured throughout exercise. RESULTS—Energy expenditure of exercise relative to body mass was higher in the lean and RER was higher in the obese men, suggesting lower fat oxidation. TGLA increased 18-fold at 5 min of exercise in the lean men and 16-fold at 10 min of exercise in the obese men. The delayed lipolytic activation in the obese men was reflected in serum nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol concentrations. Plasma insulin increased in the obese but did not change in the lean men. CONCLUSIONS—Resistance exercise upregulated adipose tissue lipolysis and enhanced energy expenditure in lean and obese men, with a delayed lipolytic activation in the obese men. PMID:18375413

  4. Role of PSA density in diagnosis of prostate cancer in obese men.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Peter Ka-Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen-Chun; Chan, Samson Yun-Sang; Chu, Peggy Sau-Kwan; Man, Chi-Wai; Hou, See-Ming; Ng, Chi-Fai

    2014-12-01

    To compare the performance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in obese and non-obese Chinese men. The results of transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) prostate biopsies of Chinese men with PSA <20 ng/mL were reviewed. Parameters including age, body mass index (BMI), TRUS prostate volume, and TRUS biopsy results were recorded. The diagnostic yields of PSA density (>0.15 ng/mL as positive) in obese and non-obese men with PSA <20 ng/mL were compared. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2) according to WHO recommendation for Hong Kong Chinese. TRUS biopsy, BMI, and PSA density data were available for 854 men (mean age 65.9 ± 7.3). The mean PSA values for the obese and non-obese patients were 7.9 ± 3.7 and 8.2 ± 4.1 ng/mL, respectively (p = 0.416). TRUS volumes in obese and non-obese men were 63.2 ml and 51.6 ml, respectively (t test, p < 0.001), and PSA density was significantly lower in obese men (0.145 vs. 0.188, p < 0.001). For obese men, positive PSA density was associated with four times (41.1 vs. 9.5 %, p < 0.001) the risk of prostate cancer, compared to only twice the risk (18.8 vs. 9.7 %, p = 0.001) in non-obese men. The specificity and area under the curve of PSA density were 74.2 % and 0.731, respectively, for obese men, and 51.4 % and 0.653, respectively, for non-obese men. Among patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer, the obese patient group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with Gleason 7-10 prostate cancer than the non-obese patient group (48.9 vs. 32.7 %, Chi-square test, p = 0.035), and a trend toward a higher proportion of bilateral lobe involvement. PSA density had better performance in obese men. Positive PSA density in obese men was associated with four times the risk of prostate cancer.

  5. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R. A.; Thomas, E. Louise; Fitzpatrick, J.; Durighel, G.; McCarthy, J.; Morin, S. X.; Ind, P. W.; Bell, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Restriction of total lung capacity (TLC) is found in some obese subjects, but the mechanism is unclear. Two hypotheses are as follows: 1) increased abdominal volume prevents full descent of the diaphragm; and 2) increased intrathoracic fat reduces space for full lung expansion. We have measured total intrathoracic volume at full inflation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 asymptomatic obese men [mean age 52 yr, body mass index (BMI) 35–45 kg/m2] and 7 control men (mean age 50 yr, BMI 22–27 kg/m2). MRI volumes were compared with gas volumes at TLC. All measurements were made with subjects supine. Obese men had smaller functional residual capacity (FRC) and FRC-to-TLC ratio than control men. There was a 12% predicted difference in mean TLC between obese (84% predicted) and control men (96% predicted). In contrast, differences in total intrathoracic volume (MRI) at full inflation were only 4% predicted TLC (obese 116% predicted TLC, control 120% predicted TLC), because mediastinal volume was larger in obese than in control [heart and major vessels (obese 1.10 liter, control 0.87 liter, P = 0.016) and intrathoracic fat (obese 0.68 liter, control 0.23 liter, P < 0.0001)]. As a consequence of increased mediastinal volume, intrathoracic volume at FRC in obese men was considerably larger than indicated by the gas volume at FRC. The difference in gas volume at TLC between the six obese men with restriction, TLC < 80% predicted (OR), and the eight obese men with TLC > 80% predicted (ON) was 26% predicted TLC. Mediastinal volume was similar in OR (1.84 liter) and ON (1.73 liter), but total intrathoracic volume was 19% predicted TLC smaller in OR than in ON. We conclude that the major factor restricting TLC in some obese men was reduced thoracic expansion at full inflation. PMID:20299612

  7. Weight loss via diet and exercise improves exercise breathing mechanics in obese men.

    PubMed

    Babb, Tony G; Wyrick, Brenda L; Chase, Paul J; DeLorey, Darren S; Rodder, Susan G; Feng, Mabel Y; Ranasinghe, Kamalini G

    2011-08-01

    Obesity alters breathing mechanics during exercise. Weight loss improves lung function at rest, but the effect of weight loss, especially regional fat loss, on exercise breathing mechanics is unclear. We hypothesized that weight loss, especially a decrease in abdominal fat, would improve breathing mechanics during exercise because of an increase in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV). Nine obese men were studied before and after weight loss (13% ± 8% of total fat weight, mean ± SD). Subjects underwent pulmonary function testing, underwater weighing, fat distribution estimates (MRI), and graded cycle ergometry before and after a 12-week diet and exercise program. In seven men, esophageal and gastric pressures were measured. The effects of weight loss were analyzed at rest, at ventilatory threshold (VTh), and during peak exercise by dependent Student t test, and the relationship among variables was determined by correlation analysis. Subjects lost 7.4 ± 4.2 kg of body weight (P < .001), but the distribution of fat remained unchanged. After weight loss, lung volume subdivisions at rest were increased (P < .05) and were moderately associated (P < .05) with changes in chest, waist, and hip circumferences. At VTh, EELV increased, and gastric pressure decreased significantly (P < .05). The changes in waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI, and sum of chest, waist, and hip circumferences were also consistently and significantly correlated (P < .05) with changes in gastric pressure during exercise at VTh. Modest weight loss improves breathing mechanics during submaximal exercise in otherwise healthy obese men, which is clinically encouraging. Improvement appears to be related to the cumulative loss of chest wall fat.

  8. Effect of Schooling on Obesity: Is Health Knowledge a Moderating Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of a study designed to determine effects of schooling and health knowledge on probability of men and women becoming obese. Findings indicate that schooling, but not health knowledge, reduces the probability of male and female obesity. (Contains 29 references.) (PKP)

  9. Obesity in men with childhood ADHD: a 33-year controlled, prospective, follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A; Klein, Rachel G; Castellanos, F Xavier; Proal, Erika; Mannuzza, Salvatore

    2013-06-01

    To compare BMI and obesity rates in fully grown men with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We predicted higher BMI and obesity rates in: (1) men with, versus men without, childhood ADHD; (2) men with persistent, versus men with remitted, ADHD; and (3) men with persistent or remitted ADHD versus those without childhood ADHD. Men with childhood ADHD were from a cohort of 207 white boys (referred at a mean age of 8.3 years), interviewed blindly at mean ages 18 (FU18), 25 (FU25), and 41 years (FU41). At FU18, 178 boys without ADHD were recruited. At FU41, 111 men with childhood ADHD and 111 men without childhood ADHD self-reported their weight and height. Men with childhood ADHD had significantly higher BMI (30.1 ± 6.3 vs 27.6 ± 3.9; P = .001) and obesity rates (41.4% vs 21.6%; P = .001) than men without childhood ADHD. Group differences remained significant after adjustment for socioeconomic status and lifetime mental disorders. Men with persistent (n = 24) and remitted (n = 87) ADHD did not differ significantly in BMI or obesity rates. Even after adjustment, men with remitted (but not persistent) ADHD had significantly higher BMI (B: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.22 to 4.50]) and obesity rates (odds ratio: 2.99 [95% CI: 1.55 to 5.77]) than those without childhood ADHD. Children with ADHD are at increased risk of obesity as adults. Findings of elevated BMI and obesity rates in men with remitted ADHD require replication.

  10. Dysfunctional traits in obese women and underweight men.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Wyllians V; Lara, Diogo R

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide, together with its comorbidities. Our aim was to assess the emotional traits and affective temperaments, according to various Body Mass Index (BMI) groups, in a large sample. Data was collected by a web-survey on psychological and psychiatric measures (BRAINSTEP). The BMI was evaluated by self-reporting and temperament was evaluated by the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS). The final sample consisted of 10,786 individuals (mean age 27.9 ± 7.8 years, 70% females). About 40% of the sample had a BMI score higher than normal. The overall BMI score was particularly associated with a higher Desire and a lower Control and Volition (p<0.001 for all), especially in women. Obese females also had significantly lower Coping, Stability, and Caution. In males only, underweight individuals were more fearful and sensitive, and they had a lower Coping and Volition character than normal weight subjects, suggesting a more fragile and immature profile. Linear regression with several adjustments confirmed these associations. Regarding affective temperaments, a Depressive type was more prevalent among underweight subjects, an Obsessive type was associated with a normal BMI, and a Hyperthymic type was apparent in overweight individuals of both genders. Underweight males and females were more prone to having an internalized temperament. Only self-reporting measures were used in a cross-sectional design. Obese women and underweight men have a more dysfunctional trait profile. Addressing these traits may be important for prevention strategies and, possibly, for weight reduction in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Disgust sensitivity, obesity stigma, and gender: contamination psychology predicts weight bias for women, not men.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination.

  12. [Sex differences in the relationship between vigorous vs. moderate intensity exercise and risk markers of overweight and obesity in healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; González-Ruíz, Katherine; García, Sophya; Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have extensively documented the benefits of moderate intensity physical training for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in the management of overweight and obesity. However, the benefits of vigorous intensity training are small. To examine sex differences in the relationship between vigorous vs. moderate intensity exercise and risk markers for overweight and obesity in healthy adults. A cross-sectional, descriptive study in 304 healthy subjects (n=218 men, n=86 women). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to stratify exercise intensity into two categories, moderate and vigorous. Body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) were calculated, and waist circumference (WC) was measured as risk markers of overweight and obesity. No significant differences were found in risk markers of overweight and obesity in the male group depending on exercise intensityh. As compared to women training at moderate intensity, those making vigorous exercise had lower BMI (25.7±3.0 kg/m(2) vs.22.5±1.7 kg/m(2)), WC (79.2±6.8 cm vs. 76.0±3.1 cm), and BF (33.5±2.6% vs. 28.1±5.3%) levels (P<0.05 for all). Vigorous intensity training is associated with lower values of markers of overweight and obesity in women, but not in men. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Larger men have larger prostates: Detection bias in epidemiologic studies of obesity and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Andrew; Wang, Yun; Sadasivan, Sudha; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Gupta, Nilesh S; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa), but not with over-all PCa risk. However, obese men have larger prostates which may lower biopsy accuracy and cause a systematic bias toward the null in epidemiologic studies of over-all risk. Within a cohort of 6692 men followed-up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 495 prostate cancer cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy versus TURP, and procedure date. Data on body mass index and prostate volume at the time of the initial procedure were abstracted from medical records. Prior to consideration of differences in prostate volume, overweight (OR = 1.41; 95%CI 1.01, 1.97), and obese status (OR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.09, 2.33) at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP were associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Prostate volume did not significantly moderate the association between body-size and PCa, however it did act as an inverse confounder; adjustment for prostate volume increased the effect size for overweight by 22% (adjusted OR = 1.52; 95%CI 1.08, 2.14) and for obese status by 23% (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.20, 2.62). Larger prostate volume at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP was inversely associated with PCa incidence during follow-up (OR = 0.92 per 10 cc difference in volume; 95%CI 0.88, 0.97). In analyses that stratified case-control pairs by tumor aggressiveness of the case, prostate volume acted as an inverse confounder in analyses of non-aggressive PCa but not in analyses of aggressive PCa. In studies of obesity and PCa, differences in prostate volume cause a bias toward the null, particularly in analyses of non-aggressive PCa. A pervasive underestimation of the association between obesity and overall PCa risk may exist in the literature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Downregulation of de Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Moderately Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Auguet, Teresa; Berlanga, Alba; Aragonès, Gemma; Aguilar, Carmen; Sabench, Fàtima; Armengol, Sandra; Porras, José Antonio; Martí, Andreu; Jorba, Rosa; Hernández, Mercè; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in human adipose tissue from moderately obese women. We used qRT-PCR and Western Blot to analyze visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue mRNA expression involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, FAS), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, PPARδ) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα), in normal weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2, n = 35) and moderately obese women (BMI 30–38 kg/m2, n = 55). In SAT, ACC1, FAS and PPARα mRNA expression were significantly decreased in moderately obese women compared to controls. The downregulation reported in SAT was more pronounced when BMI increased. In VAT, lipogenic-related genes and PPARα were similar in both groups. Only PPARδ gene expression was significantly increased in moderately obese women. As far as inflammation is concerned, TNFα and IL6 were significantly increased in moderate obesity in both tissues. Our results indicate that there is a progressive downregulation in lipogenesis in SAT as BMI increases, which suggests that SAT decreases the synthesis of fatty acid de novo during the development of obesity, whereas in VAT lipogenesis remains active regardless of the degree of obesity. PMID:26694359

  15. Downregulation of de Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Moderately Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Auguet, Teresa; Berlanga, Alba; Aragonès, Gemma; Aguilar, Carmen; Sabench, Fàtima; Armengol, Sandra; Porras, José Antonio; Martí, Andreu; Jorba, Rosa; Hernández, Mercè; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in human adipose tissue from moderately obese women. We used qRT-PCR and Western Blot to analyze visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue mRNA expression involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, FAS), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, PPARδ) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα), in normal weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m², n = 35) and moderately obese women (BMI 30-38 kg/m², n = 55). In SAT, ACC1, FAS and PPARα mRNA expression were significantly decreased in moderately obese women compared to controls. The downregulation reported in SAT was more pronounced when BMI increased. In VAT, lipogenic-related genes and PPARα were similar in both groups. Only PPARδ gene expression was significantly increased in moderately obese women. As far as inflammation is concerned, TNFα and IL6 were significantly increased in moderate obesity in both tissues. Our results indicate that there is a progressive downregulation in lipogenesis in SAT as BMI increases, which suggests that SAT decreases the synthesis of fatty acid de novo during the development of obesity, whereas in VAT lipogenesis remains active regardless of the degree of obesity.

  16. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  17. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol-dependent sample of men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-09-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual's inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking, primarily alcohol-dependent, problem-drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Relative atrial natriuretic peptide deficiency and inadequate renin and angiotensin II suppression in obese hypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Daniel V; Hedley, Paula L; Christiansen, Michael; Goetze, Jens P; Esler, Murray; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanisms by which obesity leads to hypertension are incompletely understood. On this background, we assessed dietary sodium intake, serum levels of natriuretic peptides (NPs), and the activity of the renin-angiotensin system in 63 obese hypertensive men (obeseHT: body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, ≥130/80 mm Hg), in 40 obese normotensive men (obeseNT: body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, <130/80 mm Hg), and in 27 lean normotensive men (leanNT: body mass index, 20.0-24.9 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, <130/80 mm Hg). All study subjects were medication free. As a surrogate estimate for dietary sodium intake, we measured sodium excretion in a 24-hour urine collection and we measured serum levels of midregional proatrial NP and plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II. The obese men had higher mean (±SD) urinary sodium excretion (obeseHT, 213.6±85.2 mmol; obeseNT, 233.0±70.0 mmol) than the lean normotensive men (leanNT, 155.5±51.7 mmol; P=0.003). ObeseHT had lower (median [interquartile range]) serum midregional proatrial NP levels (49.2 [37.3-64.7] pmol/L) than leanNT (69.3 [54.3-82.9] pmol/L; P=0.003), whereas obeseNT had midregional proatrial NP levels in between (54.1 [43.2-64.7] pmol/L); obeseNT had lower (median [interquartile range]) plasma levels of renin (5.0 [3.0-8.0] mIU/L versus 9.0 [4.0-18.0]) and angiotensin II (2.4 [1.5-3.5] pmol/L versus 4.2 [2.2-7.9]) than obeseHT (P≤0.049), whereas obeseHT had similar plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II as leanNT (P≥0.19). Thus, despite a high sodium intake and a high blood pressure, obese hypertensive men have a relative NP deficiency and an inadequate renin-angiotensin system suppression.

  19. Inflammation polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk in Jamaican men: Role of obesity/body size.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Bhawna; Jackson, Maria; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Devarajan, Karthik; Flores-Obando, Rafael E; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall; Aiken, William; Kimbro, Kevin; Jones, Dominique; Kidd, LaCreis R; Ragin, Camille

    2017-09-10

    African ancestry and obesity are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer (PC). In a pilot study, we explored interactions between obesity (as measured by waist to hip ratio (WHR)) and inflammatory SNPs in relation to PC risk among Jamaican men. This study evaluated 87 chemokine and cytokine associated SNPs in obese and normal weight cases (N=109) and controls (N=102) using a stepwise penalized logistic regression approach in multivariable analyses. Upon stratification by WHR (normal weight (WHR<0.90) or obese (WHR≥0.90)), inheritance of CCR6 rs2023305 AG+GG (OR=1.75, p=0.007), CCR9 rs7613548 AG+GG (OR=1.71, p=0.012) and IL10ra rs2229113 AG+GG (OR=1.45, p=0.01) genotypes was associated with increase in overall or low grade (Gleason score<7) PC risk among normal weight men. These odds were elevated among obese men who possessed the CCR5 rs1799987 AG+GG (OR=1.95, p=0.003) and RNASEL rs12135247 CT+TT genotypes (OR=1.59, p=0.05). CCR7 rs3136685 AG+GG (p=0.032) was associated with a 1.52-1.70 fold increase in the risk of high grade cancer (Gleason score≥7) among obese men. CCR7 variant emerged as an important factor associated with high grade PC risk among obese men in our analyses. Overall, genetic loci found significant in normal weight men were not significant in obese men and vice-versa, partially explaining the role of obesity on PC risk among black men. Also, older age was an important risk factor both in normal weight and obese men but only with regard to low grade PC. Associations of inflammatory SNPs with obesity are suggestive and require further validation in larger cohorts to help develop an understanding of PC risk among obese and non-obese men of African descent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Examining Potential Moderators of the Link between Heterosexist Events and Gay and Bisexual Men's Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the relationship between heterosexist events and psychological distress and (b) the potential moderating roles of social support, avoidant coping, and self-esteem in the relationship between heterosexist events and psychological distress among 210 gay and bisexual men. Findings from the Web-based…

  1. Threatening Men's Mate Value Influences Aggression Toward an Intrasexual Rival: The Moderating Role of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian M; Carré, Justin M; Knack, Jennifer M; Arnocky, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Correlational research has linked low mate value (MV)--one's worth as a mating partner to members of the opposite sex--with aggression in men. In 2 experiments, we examined the effects of self-perceived MV on men's reported willingness to aggress directly toward a hypothetical mate poacher (Experiment 1, N = 60) and observable aggression toward a same-sex rival in a laboratory paradigm (Experiment 2, N = 54). In both experiments, the roles of narcissism in moderating the effect of MV condition on subsequent aggression were examined. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that men randomly assigned to the low MV condition were significantly more willing to report aggressive intention than men in the high MV condition. This relationship was moderated by narcissism such that men in the low MV condition who were also high in narcissism were the most likely to aggress. Results of Experiment 2 similarly showed that men in the low MV condition relative to the high MV condition aggressed more toward a same-sex rival when they were high in narcissism. These findings support evolutionary hypotheses surrounding the importance of self-perceived MV in directing aggressive mating efforts, as situated in the framework of threatened egotism.

  2. Visual exposure to obesity: Experimental effects on attraction toward overweight men and mate choice in females.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E; Christiansen, P

    2015-09-01

    Cultural differences in ideal body weight are well established, but less research has examined attraction toward potential mates of heavier body weights. We examined whether exposure to obesity increases physical attraction toward overweight men. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effect that exposure to obese vs healthy weight men had on female attraction toward an overweight man. Study 3 examined whether females who are regularly exposed to males of heavier body weights reported a greater attraction toward overweight men. Study 4 tested whether females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man, after having been exposed to obesity. Exposure to obesity altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this resulted in greater attraction toward an overweight man (Studies 1 and 2). Females regularly exposed to men of heavier body weight reported a greater attraction toward overweight men (Study 3). After exposure to obesity, females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man ahead of a healthy weight man (Study 4). Exposure to male obesity increases female attraction toward overweight men and may affect mate choice.

  3. The impact of obesity on the predictive accuracy of PSA in men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bañez, Lionel L; Albisinni, Simone; Freedland, Stephen J; Tubaro, Andrea; De Nunzio, Cosimo

    2014-04-01

    Obese men have been reported to have lower serum PSA values relative to normal-weight men in population-based studies, screening cohorts, and in men with prostate cancer (CaP) treated with surgery. There are concerns that PSA may be less accurate in detecting prostate cancer in men with increased body mass index (BMI). We determine whether the diagnostic potential of PSA is negatively influenced by obesity by comparing its operating characteristics across BMI categories among men undergoing prostate biopsy. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data on 917 men who underwent trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy from 2002 to 2010 at a University hospital in Italy were used in the study. Men were categorized for BMI as follows: <25 kg/m(2) (normal weight), 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (overweight), and ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (obese). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves were used to assess PSA accuracy for predicting prostate cancer overall and then stratified according to digital rectal examination (DRE) findings using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The obesity rate of the study cohort was 21 %. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall AUCs of PSA for predicting CaP among normal-weight (AUC = 0.56), overweight (AUC = 0.60), and obese men (AUC = 0.60; p = 0.68) in either DRE-positive or negative men. In a cohort of Italian men undergoing prostate biopsy, the performance accuracy of PSA as a predictor of CaP is not significantly altered by BMI. Obesity does not negatively impact the overall ability of PSA to discriminate between CaP and benign conditions.

  4. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk.

  5. Race moderates the relationship between obesity and colorectal cancer screening in women.

    PubMed

    Leone, Lucia A; Campbell, Marci K; Satia, Jessie A; Bowling, J Michael; Pignone, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    To determine if the relationship between obesity and usage of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in women varies when stratifying by race. Using nationally representative data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, we examined the relationship between obesity and CRC screening for white and African-American women aged 50 and older. Screening usage variables indicated if a woman was up-to-date for any CRC screening test, colonoscopy, or FOBT. We used multivariable logistic regression models that included interaction terms to determine if race moderates the obesity-screening relationship. We also calculated adjusted up-to-date colonoscopy rates using direct standardization to model covariates. The relationship between obesity and screening differed by race for any CRC screening test (P = 0.04 for interaction) and for colonoscopy (P = 0.01 for interaction), but not for FOBT. Obese white women had a lower adjusted colonoscopy rate (30.2%, 95% CI 25.9-34.8) than non-obese white women (39.1%, 95% CI 36.1-42.2). Obese African-American women, on the other hand, had a higher adjusted colonoscopy rate (41.2%, 95% CI 31.6-51.4) than their non-obese counterparts (35.6%, 95% CI 28.3-43.6). Overall, adjusted colonoscopy rates were lowest among obese white women. Obesity is associated with lower CRC screening rates in white, but not African-American women.

  6. Social anxiety, submissiveness, and shame in men and women: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jacob; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    Research suggests a positive relationship between social anxiety and shame; however, few studies have examined this relationship or potential mechanisms. Common behaviours of persons with social anxiety disorder (SAD), such as submissive behaviours, may be more consistent with societal expectations of women than men and therefore more likely to be associated with shame in socially anxious men than women. We examined the hypothesis that submissive behaviours would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and shame in men, but not in women, with SAD. Moderated mediation was examined in a cross-sectional dataset. Gender was modeled to moderate the paths from social anxiety to submissive behaviours and from submissive behaviours to shame. We also examined an alternative model of the relationships among these variables and the potential contributory role of depression. Men (n = 48) and women (n = 40) with SAD completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Submissive Behaviour Scale, Internalized Shame Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. Analyses supported the hypothesized model. The relationship between submissive behaviours and shame was greater in men than women with SAD; the relationship between social anxiety and submissive behaviours was not. Controlling for depression, moderation remained evident although diminished. Results for the comparison model did not support gender moderation. Submissive behaviours mediated the relationship between social anxiety and shame in men, but not women, with SAD. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a model of shame in SAD and may help to further elucidate specific features of SAD that differ between men and women. Although researchers have argued that the display of submissive behaviours might allow the socially anxious individual to limit or prevent attacks on the self, our results suggest that there are greater costs, with regard to feelings of shame, associated with such behaviours for men. In men with SAD

  7. Association between selenium nutritional status and metabolic risk factors in men with visceral obesity.

    PubMed

    Mutakin; Meiliana, Anna; Wijaya, Andi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Nakazawa, Minato; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Previous evidence has suggested an association between selenium and cardiovascular disease, which is main outcome of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine possible correlation between selenium nutritional status and metabolic risk factors in men with visceral obesity. Plasma samples were collected from 123 Indonesian men with visceral obesity. Their metabolic risk factors and selenium nutritional status were analyzed. The eligible subjects (n=78) were stratified according to the International Diabetes Federation: obese, obese plus one component, and obese plus two components or more. Obese plus two components or more were diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome. Pearson's correlation was performed to examine the correlation in each group. In the obese group, selenium positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r=0.390, P<0.05) and with fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) (r=0.474, P<0.05); glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPx3) activity was inversely correlated with FABP4 (r=-467, P<0.05). In the obese plus one component group, GPx3 activity positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (r=0.413, P<0.05). In the metabolic syndrome group, selenium negatively correlated with monocytes chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (r=-0.429, P<0.05). These results show that the association between selenium nutritional status and metabolic risk factors is limited to particular group of obese men with or without metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Psychological responses to acute resistance exercise in men and women who are obese.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Itamar; Goodman, Craig; Hare, David L; Jerums, George; Morris, Tony; Selig, Steve

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the psychological response to the very first session of resistance exercise on positive well-being (PWB), psychological distress (PD), and perception of fatigue in untrained men and women who are obese. Forty-five (male = 22, female = 23) untrained, middle-aged volunteers (mean +/- SEM, 51.0 +/- 1.0; range, 40-69 years) participated in the study. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to sex and obesity level (i.e., men who are obese, men who are nonobese, women who are obese, women who are nonobese). The threshold for obesity was defined as waist circumference >or=94 cm for men and 80 cm for women. Measures included body composition, aerobic power, muscle strength, and quality of life (Short Form 36, SF-36). Before and after resistance exercise, participants completed the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES). Paired sample t-tests were used to assess changes in SEES scores within group pre- and post-exercise and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to assess changes in SEES scores between groups. Exercise increased the perception of PWB in both women who are obese and nonobese, without changes in PD or fatigue. In women, the change in PWB after exercise was negatively correlated with most scales of the SF-36, particularly with the mental health dimension (r = -0.55, p < 0.01). No significant changes in PWB, PD, or fatigue were found in men who are obese. Acute resistance exercise improved PWB in women who are obese and nonobese and those with lower self-perceived quality of life scores at the start improved the most. In addition, resistance exercise did not increase feelings of distress in either women or men who are obese.

  9. The effect of overweight/obesity on cardiovascular responses to acute psychological stress in men aged 50-70 years.

    PubMed

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Reynolds, John; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of adiposity in males aged 50-70 years on cardiovascular responses to acute psychological stress. Lean (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2)) (n = 21) and overweight/obese (BMI 27-35 kg/m(2)) (n = 21) men aged 50-70 years were subjected to psychological stress. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output were measured by a Finometer during resting (60 min), stress (30 min), and recovery (90 min). The lean group had a significantly higher SBP stress reactivity when compared to the overweight/obese group (51.5 ± 3.7% vs. 41.0 ± 2.9% (mean ± SEM) ; p < 0.05). A significant effect of time was observed for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output (p < 0.0001 for all). There were significant time × body type interactions for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output (p < 0.05 for all). Total peripheral resistance during recovery was higher in the lean compared to the overweight/obese group (p < 0.05). In the lean group, systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability remained elevated after stress (p < 0.05) but returned to resting levels in the overweight/obese group (p > 0.05). Moderate adiposity in men was associated with reduced systolic blood pressure % reactivity, total peripheral resistance, and blood pressure variability after psychological stress. Overweight/obese men appear to be at no greater risk of unfavorable cardiovascular responses to stress.

  10. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  11. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  12. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men1234

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. Objective: We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status–metabolic health phenotypes. Methods: Men (n = 4855) aged ≥45 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. Results: MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P < 0.001), whereas HOMA-IR–defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P < 0.0001) compared with healthy normal weight in multivariable-adjusted analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical confounders. However, results were attenuated and became nonsignificant after further adjustment for BMI. Healthy and unhealthy overweight, defined by both criteria, were associated with lower whole grain bread intake (P < 0.001) in all models. Among black men, weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were not associated with food intake in all models. Conclusion: Healthy obesity in men is not associated with

  13. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men.

    PubMed

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K

    2015-11-01

    Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status-metabolic health phenotypes. Men (n = 4855) aged ≥ 45 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P < 0.001), whereas HOMA-IR-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P < 0.0001) compared with healthy normal weight in multivariable-adjusted analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical confounders. However, results were attenuated and became nonsignificant after further adjustment for BMI. Healthy and unhealthy overweight, defined by both criteria, were associated with lower whole grain bread intake (P < 0.001) in all models. Among black men, weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were not associated with food intake in all models. Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary

  14. Insulin resistance is associated with gallstones even in non-obese, non-diabetic Korean men.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Eunju; Ryu, Seungho; Park, Yong-Woo; Jang, Yu Mi; Park, Minseon

    2008-08-01

    It remains unclear as to whether insulin resistance alone or in the presence of wellknown risk factors, such as diabetes or obesity, is associated with gallstones in men. The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is associated independently with gallstone disease in non-diabetic men, regardless of obesity. Study subjects were 19,503 Korean men, aged 30-69 yr, with fasting blood glucose level <126 mg/dL and without a documented history of diabetes. Gallbladder status was assessed via abdominal ultrasonography after overnight fast. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome in the subjects with gallstones were higher than in those without. The prevalence of elevated HOMA (>75 percentile) in subjects with gallstones was significantly higher than in those without, and this association remained even after the obesity stratification was applied. In multiple logistic regression analyses, only age and HOMA proved to be independent predictors of gallstones. Insulin resistance was positively associated with gallstones in non-diabetic Korean men, and this occurred regardless of obesity. Gallstones appear to be a marker for insulin resistance, even in non-diabetic, nonobese men.

  15. Effects of acute resistance exercise on muscle damage and perceptual measures between men who are lean and obese.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Brett A; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Volek, Jeff S; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kupchak, Brian R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Denegar, Craig R; Kraemer, William J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess indices of muscle damage and psychological stress between young, untrained, lean, and obese men. Using a between-subject design, 19 young men (9 lean men [age, 20.1 ± 2.1 years; body mass, 71.7 ± 5.8 kg; height, 177.8 ± 8.7 cm; body fat (BF), 14.7 ± 3.5%], 5 World Health Organization [WHO] class 1 obese men [age, 21.6 ± 2.5 years; body mass, 97.8 ± 8.6 kg; height, 176.3 ± 3.7 cm; BF, 34.7 ± 3.0%], and 5 WHO class 2 or 3 men [age, 20.0 ± 1.4 years; body mass, 120.8 ± 10.5 kg; height, 177.7 ± 5.2 cm; BF, 40.5 ± 5.8%]) volunteered and completed an acute resistance exercise (RE) protocol (6 exercises performed for 3 sets of 10 repetitions at an intensity of 85-95% of a 10 repetition maximum). Plasma myoglobin and serum creatine kinase were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and in recovery (at +110 minutes and +24 hours). Perceptual measures including rating of perceived exertion, pain and soreness, fatigue, and general soreness were assessed at different time points (during exercise for rating of perceived exertion, and for the fatigue and soreness measures before, immediately after, and at 24 hours of recovery from exercise). The primary findings of this investigation were that lean and obese, sedentary, young men do not significantly differ from each other in terms of indirect, humoral measures of muscle damage, or perceptual scales in response to a moderate-intensity acute RE bout, despite using significantly more exercise volume relative to fat mass (FM). We conclude that excess FM during daily activities of life provides a protective effect for muscle damage. When strength training individuals who are obese, practitioners should be aware of how excess FM affects muscle damage and total volume. But these considerations do not preclude individuals who are obese from using well-designed RE workouts which use free-weight, multijoint movements that stimulate all of the major muscle groups.

  16. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    PubMed

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  17. Cultural Variables Underlying Obesity in Latino Men: Design, Rationale and Participant Characteristics from the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Craven, Meredith; Nava, Magdalena; Alonso, Angelica; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Rademaker, Alfred; Xie, Hui

    2017-03-23

    Overweight and obesity are associated with significant health problems and rates of obesity are high among Latino men. This paper describes the design, rationale and participant characteristics of the key demographic variables assessed in an NIH-funded study (R21-CA143636) addressing culture and several obesity-related variables (diet, physical activity, and body image) among Mexican and Puerto Rican men using a community-based participatory research framework. Participants completed objective measures (height, weight, body fat, hip, waist), a health and culture interview, a diet questionnaire, and used an accelerometer to measure their level of physical activity. A total of 203 participants completed the measures and the health and culture interview and 193 completed all study components. Puerto Ricans were older than Mexicans (p < .0001) and there were significant differences in marital status (p < .05), country of birth (p < .05), smoking (p < .05) and work status (p < .001). There were no significant differences in religion, education, health insurance, Body Mass Index, body fat, hip and waist measurements, and the language preference of the interview. Results have implications for the development of a future intervention that incorporates the role of cultural factors into a community participatory obesity intervention for Latino men.

  18. Living with Addicted Men and Codependency: The Moderating Effect of Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Panaghi, Leili; Ahmadabadi, Zohreh; Khosravi, Najmeh; Sadeghi, Mansoureh Sadat; Madanipour, Ali

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the moderating effect of personality traits on the relationship between living with an addicted man and codependency. We selected 140 women (70 wives of addicted men and 70 wives of non-addicted men) through convenience sampling method and asked them to complete Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Codependency score was significantly higher among addicted men's wives. In addition, for these women, there was a strong positive correlation between codependency and neuroticism as well. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant interaction effects of being an addict's wife and personality traits of neuroticism, openness and agreeableness on codependency. Not all addicts' wives experienced codependency; women with a high level of neuroticism and low level of openness and agreeableness were more vulnerable to the stress of living with an addict and to codependency.

  19. Age threshold for moderate and severe periodontitis among Korean adults without diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine an appropriate age threshold at which to recommend the evaluation of moderate and severe periodontitis among Korean adults.This study involved a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2012 to 2014. Incidence rates of periodontitis with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were evaluated. The predictive accuracy of age for periodontitis was determined by calculating the area under curve (AUC) on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.The cutoff value of age was 43 years in men having periodontitis with an AUC of 0.70 with 95% CI of 0.69 to 0.72. The AUC was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.70-0.73), and the cutoff value of age (49 years) was identified for the moderate periodontitis in women. The cutoff values for age with AUCs and 95% CI for individuals with periodontitis were 46 years (0.72 [0.71-0.73]), 43 years (0.73 [0.72, 0.74]), 45 years (0.71 [0.70,0.72]), 43 years (0.73 [0.72, 0.74]), and 45 years (0.74 [0.72, 0.75]) for no obesity, no abdominal obesity, no diabetes mellitus, no hypertension, and no metabolic syndrome groups, respectively.This study proposed the guideline for the appropriate age threshold at which to recommend the evaluation of moderate and severe periodontitis for the general population and additionally added the guideline for the individuals without systemic disease including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. This study suggests that the participants with certain age may be recommended for the regular periodontal evaluation.

  20. Obesity-associated metabolic changes influence resting and peak heart rate in women and men.

    PubMed

    Strandheim, Astrid; Halland, Hilde; Saeed, Sahrai; Cramariuc, Dana; Hetland, Trude; Lønnebakken, Mai Tone; Gerdts, Eva

    2015-01-01

    To study the relationship between obesity and heart rate (HR) in women and men. We studied 241 overweight and obese subjects without known heart disease. All subjects underwent ergospirometry during maximal exercise testing on treadmill and recording of body composition, electrocardiogram and clinic and ambulatory blood pressure. Women (n = 132) were slightly older and had higher fat mass, but lower weight, blood pressure and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than men (n = 109) (all p < 0.05), while prevalences of obesity and hypertension did not differ. A significant interaction between sex and HR was demonstrated (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, female sex (β = 0.99, p < 0.01) predicted higher resting HR independent of confounders. Higher resting HR was particularly associated with presence of MetS, hypertension, higher insulin resistance and lower relative muscle mass in men (all p < 0.05). Female sex also predicted higher peak exercise HR (β = 0.48, p < 0.01) independent of confounders. Higher peak exercise HR was particularly associated with higher exercise capacity and lower age and self-reported physical activity in men, while lower HbA1c and absence of obesity were the main covariates in women in multivariate analyses (all p < 0.05). In our study population, obesity and obesity-associated metabolic changes influenced both resting and peak exercise HR.

  1. [TESTICULAR DEFICIT SYNDROME IN MEN WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES AND OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Luchytskyy, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the level of sex and pituitary hormones in men of older age groups suffering from type 2 diabetes with visceral-abdominal obesity and without it. The study involved 89 men aged 46-76 years with type-2 diabetes. We analyzed the levels of sex hormones (total and free testosterone, estradiol) and lutenizing hormone levels in the blood of men in the survey, depending on the presence/absence of obesity and androgen deficiency. Average levels total and free testosterone were significantly reduced in patients of all groups surveyed. The lowest level of androgens observed in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and androgen. Mid E2 levels only in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity showed a tendency to increase. Coefficient of T/E2 was significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity (63,00±8,20) and to a lesser extent in patients with type 2 diabetes without obesity (112,40±8,16) compared the control group (136,40±11,30). The results indicate the presence of not only absolute, but relative androgendeficiency in men with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Obesity Moderates the Effects of Motivational Interviewing Treatment Outcomes in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kaleth, Anthony S; Slaven, James E; Ang, Dennis C

    2017-03-07

    Obesity is a common comorbid condition among patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was to assess if obesity moderates the treatment benefits of exercise-based motivational interviewing (MI) for FM. This is a secondary data analysis of a completed clinical trial of 198 FM patients who were randomized to receive either MI or attention control (AC). Using body mass index (BMI) to divide participants into obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m) and non-obese (BMI <30 kg m) groups, mixed linear models were used to determine interaction between treatment arms and obesity status with regards to the primary outcome of global FM symptom severity (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, FIQ). Secondary measures included pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory, BPI), 6-minute walk test, and self-reported physical activity (Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors). Of the 198 participants, 91 (46%) were non-obese and 107 (54%) were obese. On global FM symptom severity (FIQ), the interaction between treatment arms and obesity status was significant (P=0.02). In the non-obese group, MI was associated with a greater improvement in FIQ than AC. In the obese group, MI participants reported less improvement in FIQ compared to AC. The interaction analysis was also significant for BPI pain intensity (P=0.01), but not for the walk test and self-reported physical activity. This is the first study to show that obesity negatively affects the treatment efficacy of MI in patients with FM. Our findings suggest that exercise-based MI may be more effective if initiated after weight loss is achieved.

  3. Obesity and screening PSA levels among men undergoing an annual physical exam.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Andrew; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-03-01

    Prior reports suggest that obesity is inversely associated with screening prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and may reduce screening sensitivity. We evaluated data on 10,623 men screened for prostate cancer during an annual physical examination program administered by EHE International, Inc., between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2006. Of these, 3,623 men returned for additional physical exams during this period. We used multivariate linear regression analyses to determine whether higher BMI was inversely associated with PSA, and whether BMI, or change in BMI, was associated with change in PSA levels over time. We also developed a theoretical model for the effect of obesity on PSA levels in which increased plasma volume in the obese dilutes PSA levels. After control for age and race/ethnicity, higher BMI was associated with lower PSA levels; men with a BMI > or =40 had a geometric mean PSA level 0.14 ng/ml lower than men with a BMI <25 (P < 0.001). Prospectively, BMI at initial screening and change in BMI over 2 years were not associated with change in PSA or PSA velocity. Our theoretical model accurately predicted observed PSA levels and suggests that a screening PSA of 4.0 ng/ml in normal weight and overweight men corresponds to 3.5 ng/ml in obese men and 3.1 ng/ml in morbidly obese men. Across the study population, increased BMI was significantly inversely associated with lower PSA. Based on a theoretical model in which increased plasma volume in the obese dilutes PSA levels we propose new cut-points for a positive screening test. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Resting heart rate predicts metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy non-obese Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2014-02-01

    Autonomic nervous dysfunction is considered to be one of the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study is to investigate whether resting heart rate, a marker of autonomic nervous dysfunction, is a predictor of MetS in apparently healthy non-obese [body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2)] Japanese men. This is an observational study through 3 years in apparently healthy Japanese 1,265 men and 793 women without MetS and with no history of cardiovascular disease and no use of antihypertensive, antidiabetic, or antihyperlipidemic medication at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident MetS were calculated for each 1 SD increase in heart rate stratified by gender and obesity. Incidence of MetS for each tertile of heart rate and HRs of MetS for the highest tertile (T3) compared with the lowest tertile (T1) were calculated stratified by gender and obesity. The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of MetS for each 1 SD increase in heart rate were 1.319 (1.035-1.681) (p = 0.025) in non-obese men, 1.172 (0.825-1.665) (p = 0.377) in obese men, 1.115 (0.773-1.608) (p = 0.560) in non-obese women, and 1.401 (0.944-2.078) (p = 0.094) in obese women adjusted for BMI, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. The HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for T3 were 2.138 (1.071-4.269) (p = 0.031) in non-obese men and 1.341 (0.565-3.180) (p = 0.506) in obese men adjusted for pre-existing five components of MetS, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. In conclusion, an increase in resting heart rate was a significant predictor of MetS in non-obese Japanese men.

  5. Race moderates the relationship between obesity and colorectal cancer screening in women

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Lucia A.; Campbell, Marci K.; Satia, Jessie A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Pignone, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if the relationship between obesity and usage of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in women varies when stratifying by race. Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, we examined the relationship between obesity and CRC screening for white and African-American women aged 50 and older. Screening usage variables indicated if a woman was up-to-date for any CRC screening test, colonoscopy, or FOBT. We used multivariable logistic regression models that included interaction terms to determine if race moderates the obesity-screening relationship. We also calculated adjusted up-to-date colonoscopy rates using direct standardization to model covariates. Results The relationship between obesity and screening differed by race for any CRC screening test (P = 0.04 for interaction) and for colonoscopy (P = 0.01 for interaction), but not for FOBT. Obese white women had a lower adjusted colonoscopy rate (30.2%, 95% CI 25.9–34.8) than non-obese white women (39.1%, 95% CI 36.1–42.2). Obese African-American women, on the other hand, had a higher adjusted colonoscopy rate (41.2%, 95% CI 31.6–51.4) than their non-obese counterparts (35.6%, 95% CI 28.3–43.6). Overall, adjusted colonoscopy rates were lowest among obese white women. Conclusions Obesity is associated with lower CRC screening rates in white, but not African-American women. PMID:19941158

  6. 5-HTTLPR moderates naltrexone and psychosocial treatment responses in heavy drinking men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Andrew C.H.; Davis, Christine M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Covault, Jonathan; Kranzler, Henry R.; Morgenstern, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background A functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene has been widely studied as a risk factor and moderator of treatment for a variety of psychopathologic conditions. To evaluate whether 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of treatment to reduce heavy drinking, we studied 112 high-functioning European-American men who have sex with men (MSM). Subjects participated in a randomized clinical trial of naltrexone (NTX) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem drinking. Methods Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with 100 mg/day of oral NTX or placebo. All participants received medical management with adjusted Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Treatment (BBCET) alone or in combination with Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT, an amalgam of motivational interviewing and CBT). Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (i.e., low-activity S′ or high-activity L′ alleles). Results During treatment, the number of weekly heavy drinking days (HDD, defined as 5 or more standard drinks per day) was significantly lower in subjects with the L′L′ (N=26, p=0.015) or L′S′ (N=52, p=0.016) genotype than those with the S′S′ (N=34) genotype regardless of treatment type. There was a significant interaction of genotype with treatment: For subjects with the S′S′ genotype, the effects of MBSCT or NTX on HDD were significantly greater than the minimal intervention (i.e., BBCET or placebo, p=0.007 and p=0.049, respectively). In contrast, for subjects with one or two L′ alleles, the effects of the more intensive psychosocial treatment (MBSCT) or NTX did not significantly differ from BBCET or placebo. Conclusions These preliminary findings support the utility of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism for personalizing treatment selection in problem drinkers. PMID:25070809

  7. Exercise training improves hemodynamic recovery to isometric exercise in obese men with type 2 diabetes but not in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, Jill A; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Franklin, Ruth; Baynard, Tracy; Carhart, Robert L; Weinstock, Ruth S; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-12-01

    Women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) show greater rates of mortality due to ischemic heart disease than men with T2D. We aimed to examine cardiovascular and autonomic function responses to isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise between men and women with T2D, before and after an exercise training program. Hemodynamic responses were measured in 22 men and women with T2D during and following a 3-min IHG test, and before and after 16 wks of aerobic exercise training. Women had a smaller decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (BP) during recovery from IHG (ΔMAP(REC)) than men pre- and post-training (P<0.05). Men showed a greater reduction in diastolic BP during recovery from IHG (P<0.05), and exercise training improved this response in men but not in women (men, pre-training: -13.9±1.8, post-training: -20.5±5.3 mmHg vs. women, pre-training: -10.7±1.7, post-training: -4.1±4.9 mmHg; P<0.05). Men had a greater reduction in sympathetic modulation of vasomotor tone (P<0.05), as estimated by blood pressure variability, following IHG. This response was accentuated after training, while this training effect was not seen in women. Post-training ΔMAP(REC) was correlated with recovery of low frequency component of the BP spectrum (ΔLF(SBPrec), r=0.52, P<0.05). Differences in BP recovery immediately following IHG may be attributed to gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic modulation. An improvement in these responses occurs following aerobic exercise training in obese men, but not in obese women with T2D which reflects a better adaptive autonomic response to exercise training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise training improves hemodynamic recovery to isometric exercise in obese men with type 2 diabetes but not in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Franklin, Ruth; Baynard, Tracy; Carhart, Robert L; Weinstock, Ruth S; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) show greater rates of mortality due to ischemic heart disease than men with T2D. We aimed to examine cardiovascular and autonomic function responses to isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise between men and women with T2D, before and after an exercise training program. Materials/Methods Hemodynamic responses were measured in 22 men and women with T2D during and following a 3-minute IHG test, and before and after 16 wks of aerobic exercise training. Results Women had a smaller decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (BP) during recovery from IHG (ΔMAPREC) than men pre- and post-training (P<0.05). Men showed a greater reduction in diastolic BP during recovery from IHG (P<0.05), and exercise training improved this response in men but not in women (men, pre-training: −13.9±1.8, post-training: −20.5±5.3 mmHg vs. women, pre-training: −10.7±1.7, post-training: −4.1±4.9 mmHg; P<0.05). Men had a greater reduction in sympathetic modulation of vasomotor tone (P<0.05), as estimated by blood pressure variability, following IHG. This response was accentuated after training, while this training effect was not seen in women. Post-training ΔMAPREC was correlated with recovery of low frequency component of the BP spectrum (ΔLFSBPrec, r=0.52, P<0.05). Conclusions Differences in BP recovery immediately following IHG may be attributed to gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic modulation. An improvement in these responses occurs following aerobic exercise training in obese men, but not in obese women with T2D which reflects a better adaptive autonomic response to exercise training. PMID:22902004

  9. Overweight, obesity, steps, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in children

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Victor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to establish cutoff points for the number of steps/day and minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity in relation to the risk of childhood overweight and obesity and their respective associations. In addition, we aim to identify the amount of steps/day needed to achieve the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children from São Caetano do Sul. METHODS In total, 494 children have used an accelerometer to monitor steps/day and the intensity of physical activity (min/day). The moderate to vigorous physical activity has been categorized according to the public health recommendation (≤ 60 versus > 60 min/day). Overweight or obesity is defined as body mass index > +1 SD, based on reference data from the World Health Organization. The data on family income, education of parents, screen time, diet pattern, and sedentary time have been collected by questionnaires. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves have been constructed. RESULTS On average, boys walked more steps/day (1,850) and performed more min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (23.1) than girls. Overall, 51.4% of the children have been classified as eutrophic and 48.6% as overweight or obese. Eutrophic boys walked 1,525 steps/day and performed 18.6 minutes/day more of moderate to vigorous physical activity than those with overweight/obesity (p < 0.05). The same has not been found in girls (p > 0.05). The cutoff points to prevent overweight and obesity in boys and girls were 10,500 and 8,500 steps/day and 66 and 46 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, respectively. The walking of 9,700 steps/day for boys and 9,400 steps/day for girls ensures the scope of the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity. CONCLUSIONS In boys, steps/day and moderate to vigorous physical activity have been negatively associated with body mass index, regardless of race, family income

  10. Psychosocial Moderators of Presurgical Stress Management for Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gilts, Chelsea D.; Parker, Patricia A.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is important to identify factors that predict who will benefit the most from psychosocial interventions in cancer populations. Methods This study examines the moderating effect of baseline social support (Social Support, SS; Dyadic Adjustment DA), distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI; Impact of Event Scale, IES), and coping style (Brief COPE) on quality of life outcomes (SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores(PCS)) 1 year post surgery derived from a presurgical cognitive behavioral stress management program (SM; n = 23), supportive attention (SA; n = 37), or standard care (SC; n = 29). Results Moderation analyses indicated that men who reported low baseline social support (SS) and were in SM had increased PCS one year after surgery compared to men with low SS in the SC group (β = −0.39, p < .01), with SA having a non-significant intermediate effect. Men who reported high distress (BSI) at baseline and were in the SA group had increased PCS one year after surgery compared to those in the SC group (β = 24.80, p = .01), with SM having a non-significant intermediate effect. Mediation analyses suggested that neither SM nor SA improved QOL simply by increasing social support or decreasing general distress. Conclusions Distressed individuals may benefit more from unstructured discussion of distress whereas those low in social support may benefit more from a structured approach to learning coping skills. PMID:23088178

  11. The moderating influence of religion on the behavioral health of formerly incarcerated men.

    PubMed

    Pezzella, Frank S; Vlahos, Sophia

    2014-12-01

    Formerly incarcerated persons have been found to sustain disproportionate rates of infectious and chronic diseases that place them at elevated levels of morbidity and mortality. However, prior research has found that religiosity moderates risks for poor health outcomes. We assess the moderating influence of religiosity on non-compliance with health maintenance and risk behaviors found to be robust predictors of poor health. Findings indicated that religiosity was not significantly associated with health maintenance behaviors. However, religiosity did demonstrate a significant negative relationship with reductions in health risk behaviors including marginal reductions in prior substance dependency and significant reductions in opinions on extramarital and unprotected sex practices contrary to prior research findings of the prevalence of high sexual risk behaviors. Findings validate prior research that found this population at sustained risk for illness. However, the study demonstrated a clear inverse relationship between religion and health risk behaviors found to be prevalent among formerly incarcerated men. Results from this exploratory investigation suggest that the moderating influence of religion on high risk behaviors of formerly incarcerated men should be examined over a much longer study period with controls to tease out the unfettered influence of religion.

  12. Obesity and Hyperglycemia in Korean Men with Klinefelter Syndrome: The Korean Endocrine Society Registry

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Wonjin; Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Yong-ho; Nam, Ji Sun; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Bu Kyung; Lee, Jihyun; Chung, Jin Ook; Kim, Min-Hee; Sohn, Tae-Seo; Choi, Han Seok; Hong, Seong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity in Korean men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and the associated risk factors for obesity and hyperglycemia. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from medical records from 11 university hospitals in Korea between 1994 and 2014. Subjects aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed KS were enrolled. The following parameters were recorded at baseline before treatment: chief complaint, height, weight, fasting glucose level, lipid panel, blood pressure, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, karyotyping patterns, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Data were analyzed from 376 of 544 initially enrolled patients. The rate of the 47 XXY chromosomal pattern was 94.1%. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) in Korean men with KS was 42.6%. The testosterone level was an independent risk factor for obesity and hyperglycemia. Conclusion Obesity is common in Korean men with KS. Hypogonadism in patients with KS was associated with obesity and hyperglycemia. PMID:28029029

  13. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men

    PubMed Central

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. Subjects/Methods: We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Results: Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Conclusions: Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27553712

  14. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men.

    PubMed

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-11-01

    Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  15. Living with Addicted Men and Codependency: The Moderating Effect of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Panaghi, Leili; Ahmadabadi, Zohreh; Khosravi, Najmeh; Sadeghi, Mansoureh Sadat; Madanipour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the moderating effect of personality traits on the relationship between living with an addicted man and codependency. Methods We selected 140 women (70 wives of addicted men and 70 wives of non-addicted men) through convenience sampling method and asked them to complete Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Findings Codependency score was significantly higher among addicted men’s wives. In addition, for these women, there was a strong positive correlation between codependency and neuroticism as well. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant interaction effects of being an addict’s wife and personality traits of neuroticism, openness and agreeableness on codependency. Conclusion Not all addicts’ wives experienced codependency; women with a high level of neuroticism and low level of openness and agreeableness were more vulnerable to the stress of living with an addict and to codependency. PMID:27882207

  16. Sarcopenic Obesity and Its Temporal Associations With Changes in Bone Mineral Density, Incident Falls, and Fractures in Older Men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Seibel, Markus; Cumming, Robert; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Handelsman, David J; Waite, Louise M; Hirani, Vasant

    2017-03-01

    Body composition and muscle function have important implications for falls and fractures in older adults. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between sarcopenic obesity and its components with bone mineral density (BMD) and incident falls and fractures in Australian community-dwelling older men. A total of 1486 men aged ≥70 years from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) study were assessed at baseline (2005-2007), 2-year follow-up (2007-2009; n = 1238), and 5-year follow-up (2010-2013; n = 861). At all three time points, measurements included appendicular lean mass (ALM), body fat percentage and total hip BMD, hand-grip strength, and gait speed. Participants were contacted every 4 months for 6.1 ± 2.1 years to ascertain incident falls and fractures, the latter being confirmed by radiographic reports. Sarcopenic obesity was defined using sarcopenia algorithms of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia (EWGSOP) and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and total body fat ≥30% of total mass. Sarcopenic obese men did not have significantly different total hip BMD over 5 years compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese men (p > 0.05). EWGSOP-defined sarcopenic obesity at baseline was associated with significantly higher 2-year fall rates (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.37), as were non-sarcopenic obesity (1.30; 1.04-1.62) and sarcopenic non-obesity (1.58; 1.14-2.17), compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. No association with falls was found for sarcopenic obesity using the FNIH definition (1.01; 0.63-1.60), but after multivariable adjustment, the FNIH-defined non-sarcopenic obese group had a reduced hazard for any 6-year fracture compared with sarcopenic obese men (hazard ratio 0.44; 95% CI 0.23-0.86). In older men, EWGSOP-defined sarcopenic obesity is associated with increased fall rates over 2 years, and FNIH-defined sarcopenic obese men have increased

  17. The Effects of Solo Status on Women's and Men's Success: The Moderating Role of the Performance Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viallon, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    A considerable body of research has shown that being the only representative of one's gender group (solo status) when performing an activity affects women more than men. The aim of our two experiments was to show that the performance context can moderate the effects of numerical status (majority vs. solo) on performance and that men can also be…

  18. Association of a TFAM haplotype with aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men.

    PubMed

    Granados, Jesús Benítez; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Rojano-Mejía, David; Tapia, André; Canto, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the development of cancer and obesity, being prostate cancer more aggressive in obese men. It has been suggested that the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) plays a central role in these events. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, with the development of aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men. A total of 257 unrelated men with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, of Mexican Mestizo ethnic origin, were included. Body mass index was determined and the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness was demarcated by the D'Amico classification. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. The rs1937, rs1049432, and rs11006132, as well as their haplotypes, were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated; haplotype analysis was performed. A higher risk (D'Amico classification) was documented in 56 patients (21.8%). We did not find a significant association among those polymorphisms analyzed; however, one haplotype was significantly associated with cancer aggressiveness. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first study regarding the relationship of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer in overweight or obese men; the most frequent haplotype was associated with cancer aggressiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  20. How does obesity affect fertility in men - and what are the treatment options?

    PubMed

    Stokes, Victoria J; Anderson, Richard A; George, Jyothis T

    2015-05-01

    Adiposity is associated with reduced fertility in men. The aetiology is multifactorial, with obese men at greater risk of suffering from impaired spermatogenesis, reduced circulating testosterone levels, erectile dysfunction and poor libido. The diagnosis and treatment of reduced fertility observed in obese men therefore requires insight into the underlying pathology, which has hormonal, mechanical and psychosocial aspects. This article summarises the current epidemiological, experimental and clinical trial evidence from the perspective of a practicing clinician. The following conclusions and recommendations can be drawn: Obesity is associated with low serum testosterone concentrations, but treatment with exogenous testosterone is likely to adversely impact on fertility. It is important to discuss this with men prior to initiation of testosterone therapy. Obesity adversely affects sperm concentration and may affect sperm quality. However, whether or not weight loss will correct these factors remain to be established. Oestrogen receptor modulators (and aromatase inhibitors) are unlicensed in the treatment for male hypogonadism and/or infertility. These treatments should hence be considered experimental approach until ongoing clinical trials report their outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The built environment moderates effects of family-based childhood obesity treatment over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Raja, Samina; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Paluch, Rocco A; Wilfley, Denise E; Saelens, Brian E; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests the neighborhood built environment is related to child physical activity and eating. The purpose of this study was to determine if characteristics of the neighborhood environment moderate the relationship between obesity treatment and weight loss, and if outcomes of particular treatments are moderated by built environment characteristics. The relationship between the built environment and standardized BMI (zBMI) changes for 191 8-12-year-old children who participated in one of four randomized, controlled trials of pediatric weight management was assessed using mixed models analysis of covariance. At 2-year follow-up, greater parkland, fewer convenience stores, and fewer supermarkets were associated with greater zBMI reduction across all interventions. No treatments interacted with characteristics of the built environment. Activity- and eating-related built neighborhood characteristics are associated with child success in behavioral obesity treatments. Efficacy may be improved by individualizing treatments based on built environment characteristics.

  4. Role of obesity on cerebral hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory responses in healthy men during repetitive incremental lifting.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Lora A; Maikala, Rammohan V

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify obesity-related differences in systemic physiologic responses and cerebral hemodynamics during physical work to exhaustion. Twenty men, ten who are obese and ten of healthy weight, completed an incremental exercise lifting a box from 25 cm below to 25 cm above knuckle height at 10 lifts/min. The lifting started with a load of 5 kg and was increased by 2 kg every 2 min until participants reached either voluntary fatigue or two of the American College of Sports Medicine endpoints for maximum aerobic capacity. Cardiorespiratory and prefrontal hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously during rest, incremental lifting, and recovery. The non-obese group lifted for ~64 % longer than the obese group. Both groups reached similar peak pulmonary oxygen uptake at the termination of exercise; however, when these responses were expressed relative to their body mass, the obese group had ~60 % reduced oxygen uptake. As the load increased, steady increases in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume responses were observed in both groups up to ~90 % of the lifting trial. In contrast, at higher intensities (near 100 % of the lifting trial), cerebral oxygenation and blood volume decreased in the obese group, whereas it plateaued or slightly increased in the non-obese group, with greatest cerebral oxygen extraction occurring at the cessation of lifting trial. These findings suggest that acute exposure to repetitive lifting exercise decreases cardiorespiratory responses and cerebral hemodynamics in the group who are obese, which may contribute to their reduced lifting capacity.

  5. Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Hupbach, Almut; Fieman, Rachel

    2012-12-01

    Retrieval practice is a powerful memory enhancer. However, in educational settings, test taking is often experienced as a stressful event. While it is known that stress can impair retrieval processes, little is known about the delayed consequences of testing memory for educationally relevant material under stressful conditions, which is the focus of the present study. Participants (38 women, 37 men) memorized a scientific text passage on Day 1. On Day 2, they were either exposed to a stressor (cold pressor test; CPS) or a warm water control, and immediately afterward, they were asked to recall the text passage (i.e., retrieval under stress vs. control). Salivary cortisol was measured as an index of the stress response before, and 20 min after the CPS versus control treatment. The delayed effects of testing under stress were assessed with a final recall test on Day 3. In comparison to the control condition, CPS caused significant increases in salivary cortisol, and, surprisingly resulted in enhanced memory in men. Importantly, this enhancement was not only observed in the test that immediately followed the stressor, but also in the delayed test. In women, CPS caused only marginal increases in cortisol concentrations, and retrieval remained unaffected. Our study suggests that moderate stress can improve memory performance for educationally relevant material in a long-lasting manner in healthy young men.

  6. Elderly men with moderate and intense training lifestyle present sustained higher antibody responses to influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Adriana Ladeira; Silva, Léia Cristina Rodrigues; Fernandes, Juliana Ruiz; Matias, Manuella de Sousa Toledo; Boas, Lucy Santos; Machado, Clarisse Martins; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio; Benard, Gil

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to verify whether different levels of training performed regularly and voluntarily for many years could have an impact on one of the main issues of immunosenescence: the poor response to vaccines. We recruited 61 healthy elderly men (65-85 years old), 23 with a moderate training (MT) lifestyle (for 17.0 ± 3.2 years), 22 with an intense training (IT) lifestyle (for 25.9 ± 3.4 years), and 16 without a training lifestyle (NT). Fitness was evaluated through the IPAQ and VO2max consumption. The participants were evaluated regarding cognitive aspects, nutritional status, depression, and quality of life. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay prior to influenza vaccination and at 6 weeks and 6 months post-vaccination. Strains used were B, H3N2, and H1N1. Our groups were matched for most characteristics, except for those directly influenced by their lifestyles, such as BMI, VO2max, and MET. In general, MT and IT elderly men showed significantly higher antibody titers to the three vaccine strains post-vaccination than NT elderly men. There were also higher titers against B and H1N1 strains in the trained groups before vaccination. Additionally, there were higher proportions of seroprotected (titers ≥1:40) individuals in the pooled trained groups both at 6 weeks (B and H3N2, p < 0.05) and 6 months (H1N1, p < 0.05; B, p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between the MT and IT groups. Either a moderate or an intense training is associated with stronger and longstanding antibody responses to the influenza vaccine, resulting in higher percentages of seroprotected individuals.

  7. Changes of Serum Adiponectin and Testosterone Concentrations Following Twelve Weeks Resistance Training in Obese Young Men.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin and testosterone decrease in obese men and this increases risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to survey changes of serum adiponectin and testosterone concentrations following twelve weeks resistance training in obese young men. In a semi-experimental study, twenty one obese young men were randomly placed in two groups: resistance training (26.5 ± 2.8 years) and control (27.4 ± 2.9 years). General characteristics of subjects and serum levels of adiponectin and testosterone were assessed before and after training. Resistance training protocol consisted of twelve weeks weight training (3 sessions per week, 10 exercises, 3 sets of 8 - 12 repetitions in each exercise, intensity 60% - 80% of one repetition maximum, rest between sets 1 minute and between exercises 2 minutes, duration of main training 20 - 40 minutes per each session). Resistance training had no significant effect on body weight and body mass index (P > 0.05), whereas it decreased body fat percent (P = 0.017). Also, serum adiponectin (8.1 ± 1.8 vs. 10.5 ± 2.3 μg/mL) and testosterone concentrations (6.9 ± 2.4 vs. 8.2 ± 1.7 ng/mL) were increased after resistance training (P = 0.033, P = 0.018 respectively), while there were no significant changes in serum levels of these hormones in control group (P > 0.05). Twelve weeks of resistance training increased serum concentrations of adiponectin and testosterone in obese young men. With respect to inverse associations between changes of adiponectin and testosterone with BFP and insulin level variations after resistance training, it is recommended that obese young men do resistance training to benefit useful decreasing/preventive effects of this type of training against the risks of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

  8. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men.

    PubMed

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-04-19

    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  9. Very low food security predicts obesity predominantly in California Hispanic men and women.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Williams, David R; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    A high prevalence of food insecurity has persisted in the USA for the past two decades. Previous studies suggest that the association between food insecurity and obesity may vary by gender and race/ethnicity. We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, diverse sample of low-income adults. A cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based health survey. We compared the distribution of BMI and obesity by food security levels within gender and racial/ethnic categories. Data were derived from the 2003-2009 waves of the California Health Interview Survey. The study sample included 35 747 non-elderly adults with households ≤200 % of the federal poverty level. Among Hispanic men, very low food security was associated with a 1.0 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI 0.3, 1.7 kg/m2) and a 36 % higher prevalence of obesity (95 % CI 17, 58 %) after multivariate adjustment. Among Hispanic women, very low food security was associated with a 1.1 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI 0.4, 1.9 kg/m2) and a 22 % higher prevalence of obesity (95 % CI 8, 38 %). Positive associations were also observed for Asian women and multi-racial men. No significant associations were observed for non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, Asian men or multi-racial women. Our results suggest that the association of food insecurity and obesity is limited to individuals of certain low-income, minority racial/ethnic groups. Whether targeted interventions to address food insecurity in these individuals may also decrease obesity risk deserves further investigation.

  10. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05). Conclusion Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in

  11. "Outness" as a Moderator of the Association Between Syndemic Conditions and HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Smith, Laramie R; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2016-02-01

    Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or "outness" as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. We recruited a sample of MSM (n = 191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past 2 months), and the degree to which they are "out" about sex with men. Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. This study is the first to provide evidence of "outness" as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that "outness" may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed.

  12. “Outness” as a moderator of the association between syndemic conditions and HIV risk-taking behavior among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Smith, Laramie R.; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. Purpose We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or “outness” as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. Method We recruited a sample of MSM (n=191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past two months), and the degree to which they are “out” about sex with men. Results Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. Conclusions This study is the first to provide evidence of “outness” as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that “outness” may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed. PMID:26324079

  13. Rotating shift work associated with obesity in men from northeastern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Cotterchio, Michelle; Kirsh, Victoria A; Nadalin, Victoria; Lightfoot, Nancy; Kreiger, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    While some studies have suggested associations between shift work and obesity, few have been population-based or considered multiple shift schedules. Since obesity is linked with several chronic health conditions, understanding which types of shift work influence obesity is important and additional work with more detailed exposure assessment of shift work is warranted. Using multivariate polytomous logistic regression, we investigated the associations between shift work (evening/night, rotating and other shift schedules) and overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index cross-sectionally among 1561 men. These men had previously participated as population controls in a prostate cancer case-control study conducted in northeastern Ontario from 1995 to 1999. We obtained information on work history (including shift work), height and weight from the existing self-reported questionnaire data. We observed an association for ever (vs. never) having been employed in rotating shift work for both the overweight (OR [odds ratio] = 1.34; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.05-1.73) and obese (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12-2.21) groups. We also observed nonsignificant associations for ever (vs. never) having been employed in permanent evening/night shifts. In addition, we found a significant trend of increased risk for both overweight and obesity with increasing duration of rotating shift work. Both the positive association between rotating shift work and obesity and the suggested positive association for permanent evening/night shift work in this study are consistent with previous findings. Future population-based research that is able to build on our results while examining additional shift work characteristics will further clarify whether some shift patterns have a greater impact on obesity than others.

  14. Altered Regional Gray Matter Volume in Obese Men: A Structural MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Xiao; Tian, Derun; Wang, Jinhong; Wang, Qiming; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Chunbo; Wang, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of health problems, especial insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Our previous study showed that obese males had decreased neural activity in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and increased activity in the left putamen (Zhang et al., 2015b), which could indicate altered eating behaviors in obesity related to a hyper-functioning striatum and hypo-functioning inhibitory control. Accordingly, our goal of the current study was to determine whether there are alterations in the brain structures within these two neural systems in obese individuals. Twenty obese men (age: 20–28 years) and 20 age-matched lean male subjects were involved in the current study. Plasma glucose and insulin were tested during hunger state, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was based on the blood samples. In the study, we used structural MRI and a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method to investigate regional structures in obese subjects and find out whether there are correlations between the insulin and the brain structures. We found that obese men only showed a significantly increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the left putamen and that the GMV of the left putamen was positively correlated with body mass index, plasma insulin and HOMA-IR. The putamen is a core region participating in insulin signal regulation, and our results showed an abnormal GMV of the putamen is a core alternation in aberrant insulin. Furthermore, the GMV of the OFC was negatively correlated with hunger rating, despite there being no significant difference between the two groups in the OFC. In conclusion, the altered structure and function of the putamen could play important roles in obesity and aberrant insulin. PMID:28197123

  15. Moderators of the mediated effect of intentions, planning, and saturated-fat intake in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Soureti, Anastasia; Hurling, Robert; van Mechelen, Willem; Cobain, Mark; ChinAPaw, Mai

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to advance our understanding of health-related theory, that is, the alleged intention-behavior gap in an obese population. It examined the mediating effects of planning on the intention-behavior relationship and the moderated mediation effects of age, self-efficacy and intentions within this relationship. The study was conducted over a five-week period. Complete data from 571 obese participants were analyzed. The moderated mediation hypothesis was conducted using multiple-regression analysis. To test our theoretical model, intentions (Week 2), action self-efficacy (Week 2), maintenance self-efficacy (Week 5), planning (Week 5), and saturated-fat intake (Weeks 1 and 5) were measured by self-report. As hypothesized, planning mediated the intention-behavior relationship for perceived (two-item scale) and percentage-saturated-fat intake (measured by a food frequency questionnaire). Age, self-efficacy, and intention acted as moderators in the above mediation analysis. In specific, younger individuals, those with stronger intention, and people with higher levels of maintenance self-efficacy at higher levels of planning showed greater reductions in their perceived saturated-fat intake. For successful behavior change, knowledge of its mediators and moderators is needed. Future interventions targeting planning to change saturated-fat intake should be guided by people's intentions, age, and self-efficacy levels.

  16. Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance in People Exposed to Moderate-to-High Levels of Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for developing metabolic complications, is a major public health problem. Abdominal obesity is strongly accompanied by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by insulin resistance. The link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and insulin resistance has been investigated in animal and epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine whether insulin resistance is greater in people with abdominal obesity (AO) and concomitant exposure to serum dioxins (PCDD/Fs). We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of 2876 participants living near a PCDD/Fs contaminated area. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners were measured, and then the associations between the main predictor variable, serum TEQDF-1998, abdominal obesity (AO), dependent variables, and insulin resistance were examined. Twelve of the 17 congeners, widely distributed among PCDDs, and PCDFs, had trends for associations with abdominal adiposity. In men, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDF; and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the top five adjusted odds ratios (AORs) + 95% confidence intervals (CIs):[4.2; 2.7-6.4], [3.6; 2.3-5.7], [3.2; 2.1-5.0], [3.0; 2.0-4.5], and [2.9; 1.9-4.7], respectively. In women, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF; and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF had the top three AORs + 95% CIs:[3.0; 1.9-4.7], [2.0; 1.3-3.1], and [1.9; 1.3-2.9], respectively. After confounding factors had been adjusted for, men, but not women, with higher serum TEQDF-1998 levels or abdominal obesity had a significantly (Ptrend < 0.001) greater risk for abnormal insulin resistance. The groups with the highest joint serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity levels were associated with elevated insulin resistance at 5.0 times the odds of the groups with the lowest joint levels (AOR 5.23; 95% CI: 3.53-7.77). We hypothesize that serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity affect the association with insulin resistance in

  17. Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance in People Exposed to Moderate-to-High Levels of Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for developing metabolic complications, is a major public health problem. Abdominal obesity is strongly accompanied by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by insulin resistance. The link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and insulin resistance has been investigated in animal and epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine whether insulin resistance is greater in people with abdominal obesity (AO) and concomitant exposure to serum dioxins (PCDD/Fs). We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of 2876 participants living near a PCDD/Fs contaminated area. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners were measured, and then the associations between the main predictor variable, serum TEQDF-1998, abdominal obesity (AO), dependent variables, and insulin resistance were examined. Twelve of the 17 congeners, widely distributed among PCDDs, and PCDFs, had trends for associations with abdominal adiposity. In men, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDF; and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the top five adjusted odds ratios (AORs) + 95% confidence intervals (CIs):[4.2; 2.7–6.4], [3.6; 2.3–5.7], [3.2; 2.1–5.0], [3.0; 2.0–4.5], and [2.9; 1.9–4.7], respectively. In women, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF; and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF had the top three AORs + 95% CIs:[3.0; 1.9–4.7], [2.0; 1.3–3.1], and [1.9; 1.3–2.9], respectively. After confounding factors had been adjusted for, men, but not women, with higher serum TEQDF-1998 levels or abdominal obesity had a significantly (Ptrend < 0.001) greater risk for abnormal insulin resistance. The groups with the highest joint serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity levels were associated with elevated insulin resistance at 5.0 times the odds of the groups with the lowest joint levels (AOR 5.23; 95% CI: 3.53–7.77). We hypothesize that serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity affect the association with

  18. Synergistic steatohepatitis by moderate obesity and alcohol in mice despite increased adiponectin and p-AMPK.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Lai, Keane K Y; Verlinsky, Alla; Lugea, Aurelia; French, Samuel W; Cooper, Marcus P; Ji, Cheng; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2011-09-01

    Mechanisms underlying synergistic liver injury caused by alcohol and obesity are not clear. We have produced a mouse model of synergistic steatohepatitis by recapitulating the natural history of the synergism seen in patients for mechanistic studies. Moderate obesity was induced in mice by 170% overnutrition in calories using intragastric overfeeding of high fat diet. Alcohol (low or high dose) was then co-administrated to determine its effects. Moderate obesity plus alcohol intake causes synergistic steatohepatitis in an alcohol dose-dependent manner. A heightened synergism is observed when a high alcohol dose (32g/kg/d) is used, resulting in plasma ALT reaching 392±28U/L, severe steatohepatitis with pericellular fibrosis, marked M1 macrophage activation, a 40-fold induction of iNos, and intensified nitrosative stress in the liver. Hepatic expression of genes for mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism are significantly downregulated, and hepatic ATP level is decreased. Synergistic ER stress evident by elevated XBP-1, GRP78 and CHOP is accompanied by hyperhomocysteinemia. Despite increased caspase 3/7 cleavage, their activities are decreased in a redox-dependent manner. Neither increased PARP cleavage nor TUNEL positive hepatocytes are found, suggesting a shift of apoptosis to necrosis. Surprisingly, the synergism mice have increased plasma adiponectin and hepatic p-AMPK, but adiponectin resistance is shown downstream of p-AMPK. Nitrosative stress mediated by M1 macrophage activation, adiponectin resistance, and accentuated ER and mitochondrial stress underlie potential mechanisms for synergistic steatohepatitis caused by moderate obesity and alcohol. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of habitual aerobic exercise on body weight and arterial function in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Misono, Maiko; Saito, Yoko; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Maeng-Kyu; Nakata, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2009-09-15

    The effect of habitual exercise on vascular function, including central arterial distensibility and endothelial function, in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-age overweight and obese men. A total of 21 overweight and obese men (age 50 +/- 2 years, body mass index 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) completed a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention. Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their body weight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index. After the weight-reduction exercise program, carotid arterial compliance (determined by simultaneous B-mode ultrasonography and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery) significantly increased; and the beta-stiffness index, an index of arterial compliance adjusted for distending pressure, significantly decreased. The concentrations of plasma endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (measured as the stable end product [nitrite/nitrate]), a potent vasodilator produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly increased after the weight-reduction exercise program. In conclusion, weight reduction by aerobic exercise training in overweight and obese men increased the central arterial distensibility. This increase might contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as assessed by a decrease in endothelin-1 and an increase in nitric oxide, after exercise training-induced weight loss.

  20. Discussions of life expectancy moderate relationships between prognosis and anxiety or depression in men with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Cripe, Larry D; Rawl, Susan M; Schmidt, Karen K; Tong, Yan; Monahan, Patrick O; Rand, Kevin L

    2012-01-01

    Oncologists avoid prognostic discussions due to concerns about increasing patients' anxiety or depression. We sought to determine if perceived prognosis or extent of prognostic discussions predicted anxiety or depression and whether prognostic discussions moderated the relationship between prognosis and anxiety or depression. Men with advanced cancer and their oncologists estimated the likelihood of survival at 6 months and reported extent of prognostic discussions. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Men who died within 6 months reported higher scores on depression but not anxiety. Men who estimated a lower (10%-75%) likelihood of surviving at least 6 months were more depressed and anxious than men who estimated a higher (>90%) likelihood of survival. A similar relationship was seen with oncologists' prognostications. Men who reported having had full prognostic discussions with their oncologist had less depression compared with men who reported having had brief or no discussions. Men for whom the oncologists reported a full discussion had greater anxiety. The relationships between patient-perceived prognosis and depression or anxiety were moderated by extent of prognostic discussions as reported by the patient or oncologist, respectively. Full prognostic discussions are associated with less depression among men who perceive a poor prognosis. Anxiety is increased in men if the oncologists report a full discussion. Oncologists should engage in prognostic discussions but assess for increased anxiety to facilitate coping with advanced cancer.

  1. Lower Cardiac Vagal Tone in Non-Obese Healthy Men with Unfavorable Anthropometric Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications), aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old). Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345

  2. Metabolic syndrome, obesity, and related risk factors among college men and women.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Jesse S; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Burke, Joanne D; Reilly, Ruth A

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional Young Adult Health Risk Screening Initiative project. Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and dietary data were collected. Approximately one-half of men and more than one-quarter of women were overweight or obese. MbS was identified in 9.9% of men and 3.0% of women; 77% of men and 54% of women had at least 1 MbS criterion. Intakes of saturated fat, magnesium, and fiber, as well as body mass index and reported physical activity levels were related to MbS. Because of high rates of overweight/obesity and MbS, college-age adults are at risk for developing chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Inverse association between excessive alcohol drinking and cardiometabolically healthy status in middle-aged men with and without overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-08-25

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between drinking and metabolically healthy status in men with normal weight, overweight and obesity. The subjects were Japanese men aged from 35 to 60 years (n=31781) and they were divided by daily amount of drinking (g ethanol) into light (< 22), moderate (≥22 and <44), heavy (≥44 and <66) and very heavy (≥66) drinkers. Metabolically healthy subjects were defined as those without hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. The percentage of metabolically healthy subjects was much lower in the overweight (BMI≥25 and <30) and obese (BMI≥30) groups than in the normal weight group (BMI≥18.5 and <25) and was much lower in the obese group than in the overweight group. In each of the normal weight and overweight groups, percentages of metabolically healthy subjects were significantly lower in heavy and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and were marginally significantly higher in light drinkers than in nondrinkers. The above associations between drinking and metabolically healthy status were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. In the obese group, the percentage of metabolically healthy subjects was significantly lower in regular drinkers (including all drinker categories) than in nondrinkers, and metabolically healthy subjects were rare (0.56%) among regular drinkers. Regardless of absence and presence of overweight or obesity, excessive alcohol drinking is inversely associated with metabolically healthy status and should be avoided for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychological Disturbances and Quality of Life in Obese and Infertile Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Kocełak, Piotr; Chudek, Jerzy; Naworska, Beata; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Kotlarz, Barbara; Mazurek, Monika; Madej, Paweł; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Skałba, Piotr; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Anovulatory cycles and endometriosis are the main causes of female infertility. The most frequently anovulatory cycles are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly associated with obesity and hormonal disturbances in the course of obesity. Recently published studies revealed that infertility affects about one in six couples during their lifetime and is more frequent in obese. Obesity is also associated with male infertility related to erectile dysfunction, hormonal disturbances and lower semen quality. Any of these above mentioned disorder is the important risk factor of psychological disturbances and poor quality of life among women and men in the reproductive age. On the other hand the mood disorders may exacerbate the hormonal disturbances and worsen the effectiveness of infertility management. Infertility, its therapy with accompanying psychological disturbances may also significantly affect the partners relationships. The review summarize the results described in the current literature on the association between obesity and infertility and psychological disturbances as well as their impact on quality of life and sexual functioning in women and men. Moreover, the impact of infertility and psychological disturbances on partners relationships is discussed. PMID:22844280

  5. Visceral obesity is associated with increased soluble CD163 concentration in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Parkner, Tina; Søndergaard, Esben; Bibby, Bo Martin; Møller, Holger Jon; Nielsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage-specific soluble CD163 (sCD163) concentration is associated with insulin resistance and increases with deteriorating glycemic control independently of BMI. This led to the proposal of the hypothesis that obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation varies between individuals. The objective was to examine the effect of male overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on associations between adiposity parameters and sCD163. A total of 23 overweight/obese non-diabetic men, 16 overweight/obese men with T2DM, and a control group of 20 normal-weight healthy men were included. Body composition and regional body fat distribution were determined by whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. Serum sCD163 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Associations between adiposity parameters and sCD163 were investigated using multiple linear regression analysis. In the normal-weight healthy men, there was no significant association between adiposity parameters and sCD163, whereas in the overweight/obese non-diabetic men, measures of general and regional adiposity were positively associated with sCD163. In the overweight/obese men with T2DM, only visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the ratio of VAT to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), a measure of relative body fat distribution between VAT and SAT depots, were positively associated with sCD163. In a multivariate analysis, including VAT, upper-body SAT, and lower-body fat, adjusted for BMI and age, VAT remained a significant predictor of sCD163 in the overweight/obese T2DM men, but not in the overweight/obese non-diabetic men. Our results indicate that VAT inflammation is exaggerated in men with T2DM, and that propensity to store excess body fat viscerally is particularly detrimental in men with T2DM. PMID:25624106

  6. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p < 0.05). Fish oil by itself reduced the postprandial TAG response (p < 0.05) but not postprandial apo B48 kinetics. Individual treatments of fish oil and exercise did not correspond with improvements in fasting plasma TAG and apo B48. Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects. PMID:22314022

  7. MEASURES OF OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AMONG MEN AND WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, Rebecca P.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Orav, E. John; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations between anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) and risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death). Background Controversy exists regarding the optimal approach to measure adiposity, and the utility of BMI has been questioned. Methods Participants included 16,332 men in the Physicians’ Health Study (mean age 61, 1991) and 32,700 women in the Women’s Health Study (mean age 61, 1999). We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for developing CVD according to self-reported anthropometric indices. Results A total of 1505 CVD cases occurred in men, and 414 occurred in women (median follow-up, 14.2 and 5.5 years, respectively). While WHtR demonstrated statistically the strongest associations with CVD and best model fit, CVD risk increased linearly and significantly with higher levels of all indices. Adjusting for confounders, the RR (CI) for CVD was 0.58 (0.32–1.05) for men with the lowest WHtR (<0.45) and 2.36 (1.61–3.47) for the highest WHtR (≥0.69; versus WHtR 0.49-<0.53). Among women, the RR (95% CI) was 0.65 (0.33– 1.31) for those with the lowest WHtR (<0.42) and 2.33 (1.66–3.28) for the highest WHtR (≥0.68; versus WHtR 0.47- <0.52). Conclusions WHtR demonstrated statistically the best model fit and strongest associations with CVD. However, as compared to BMI, differences in cardiovascular risk assessment using other indices were small and likely not clinically consequential. Our findings emphasize that higher levels of adiposity, however measured, confer increased risk of CVD. PMID:18702962

  8. Moderate dietary salt restriction does not alter insulin resistance or serum lipids in normal men.

    PubMed

    Grey, A; Braatvedt, G; Holdaway, I

    1996-04-01

    Dietary salt restriction lowers blood pressure and has been advocated as a population-based strategy to reduce the cardiovascular morbidity associated with hypertension. However, the effect of lowering salt intake on metabolic vascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and levels of atherogenic lipids and fasting insulin is uncertain. We have studied the short-term effect of moderate dietary salt restriction on insulin resistance and serum lipids in 34 nonobese (body mass index [mean +/- SD] 23.4 +/- 1.8 kg/m2), normotensive young white men. Subjects were maintained on a low salt diet ( < 80 mmol/day) for the 2-week study period. In a randomized, cross-over, double-blind fashion, each subject also received 120 mmol of sodium chloride per day during one of the study weeks, and a matching placebo during the other. Insulin resistance, serum insulin, lipids, and blood pressure were measured in the fasting state at the end of each study week. Urinary sodium excretion (185 +/- 46 v 52 +/- 25 mmol/day, P < .001), serum sodium (141.2 +/- 1.2 v 140.1 +/- 1.3 mmol/L, P < .001) and body weight (75.4 +/- 9.1 v 75.0 +/- 9.3 kg, P < .05) were higher during the high salt than the low salt period. Serum creatinine was higher during the low salt period (100 +/- 8 v 90 +/- 9 mumols/L, P < .01). There was no difference in blood pressure, insulin resistance, serum insulin, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol or its subfractions, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, or apolipoprotein B between the high salt and low salt periods. We conclude that short-term, moderate dietary salt restriction does not adversely affect insulin sensitivity or levels of atherogenic lipids in normotensive nonobese men.

  9. Fish Consumption Moderates Depressive Symptomatology in Elderly Men and Women from the IKARIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsitsinakis, George; Siassos, Gerassimos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Galiatsatos, Nikos; Metaxa, Vasiliki; Lazaros, George; Miliou, Antigoni; Giakoumi, Evaggelia; Mylonakis, Charalambos; Zaromytidou, Marina; Economou, Evaggelos; Triantafyllou, Georgia; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15), while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8 ± 3.5 versus 3.3 ± 3.1, P = .001). Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all P < .05). Regarding fish consumption, 50% of the individuals reported consuming 1-2 times weekly, 32% 3 to 5 times weekly, 11% 2-3 times monthly, while the rest reported rare (4.5%) and everyday (1.2%) consumption. Logistic regression showed that increased fish consumption (>3 times/week versus never/rare) was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4) (odds  ratio = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61), after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood. PMID:21197433

  10. Obesity and future prostate cancer risk among men after an initial benign biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2013-05-01

    In general population studies, obesity has been associated with risk of high-grade prostate cancer, but little is known about obesity and future prostate cancer risk among men with an initial benign biopsy of the prostate; a high-risk population. Within a cohort of 6,692 men followed up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 494 prostate cancer cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy versus TURP and date of procedure. Body mass index at the time of the initial procedure was abstracted from medical records, and initial biopsy specimens were reviewed for the presence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Obesity was associated with the presence of PIN in the initial benign specimen [OR = 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-4.11]. After adjustment for the matching variables, family history of prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at the initial procedure, the number of PSA tests and digital rectal examinations during follow-up, obesity (OR = 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07-2.30) at the time of the initial procedure was associated with prostate cancer incidence during follow-up. Risk associated with obesity was confined to cases with follow-up less than 1,538 days, the median duration of follow-up among cases (OR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.09-3.48). Obesity is associated with the presence of PIN in benign specimens and with future prostate cancer risk after an initial benign finding. Obesity may be a factor to consider when planning clinical follow-up after a benign biopsy.

  11. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, P<0.001). When HR of the 1st quartile was regarded as the reference, HRs for abdominal obesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend <0.001]. Although the risk of incident abdominal obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gut microbiota composition strongly correlates to peripheral insulin sensitivity in obese men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Most, J; Goossens, G H; Reijnders, D; Canfora, E E; Penders, J; Blaak, E E

    2017-08-24

    Gut microbiota composition may play an important role in the development of obesity-related comorbidities. However, only few studies have investigated gender-differences in microbiota composition and gender-specific associations between microbiota or microbial products and insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry), systemic inflammatory markers and microbiota composition (PCR) were determined in male (n=15) and female (n=14) overweight and obese subjects. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes-ratio was higher in men than in women (P=0.001). Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes-ratio was inversely related to peripheral insulin sensitivity only in men (men: P=0.003, women: P=0.882). This association between Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes-ratio and peripheral insulin sensitivity did not change after adjustment for dietary fibre and saturated fat intake, body composition, fat oxidation and markers of inflammation. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes-ratio was not associated with hepatic insulin sensitivity. Men and women differ in microbiota composition and its impact on insulin sensitivity, implying that women might be less sensitive to gut microbiota-induced metabolic aberrations than men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02381145.

  13. Association of general and abdominal obesity with age, endocrine and metabolic factors in Asian men.

    PubMed

    Goh, Victor Hng Hang; Hart, William George

    2016-01-01

    This study made use of the percent abdominal fat to define abdominal obesity (AbO) and examined the differential associations of general obesity (GOb) and AbO with age, metabolic and endocrine factors. Metabolic, endocrine and anthropometric factors and body composition were measured in 481 Asian men. A DEXA-derived ≥25% abdominal fat (PAbdF) was used to define men with AbO. Age was directly associated with PAbdF and percent total body fat (PBF). Exercise intensity was negatively associated with PBF. Both PBF and PAbdF were associated with HDL and LDL, but have opposite correlation with triglyceride. Furthermore, both PBF and PAbdF were associated with the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. Men with GOb had lower levels of percent lean mass (PLM), testosterone and bioavailable testosterone, and higher insulin and glucose levels. Men with AbO had lower arm and leg fat, higher insulin levels and triglycerides. Men with GOb and AbO had different pattern of body composition. Age may be a contributory factor in AbO and a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to GOb. Both GOb and AbO are associated with an increased risk of MetS, with GOb more predispose to risk of diabetes, while AbO more at risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.

  15. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    N’cho, Hammad S.; Green, Carlton E.; Jernigan, Maryam M.; Helms, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n=1,201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n=545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men. PMID:27337623

  16. Plasma apolipoprotein B-48 transport in obese men: a new tracer kinetic study in the postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for impaired chylomicron metabolism have not been adequately investigated in obese subjects. We aimed to compare apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 kinetics in obese and lean men by developing a new model to describe the kinetics of apoB-48 particles in the postprandial state. Seven obese and 13 age-matched lean men were given an oral fat load. apoB-48 tracer to tracee ratios were measured after intravenous d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0-10 hour areas under the curve as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. Compared with lean men, fasting plasma triglyceride (+148%) and apoB-48 (+110%) concentrations as well as plasma total and incremental triglycerides (+184% and +185%, respectively) and apoB-48 (+182% and 224%, respectively) areas under the curve were significantly higher in obese men (P<.05 for all). The obese men also had significantly (P<.05 for all) higher secretion rates of apoB-48 in the fasted state (+145%) as well as at 3 hours (+70%), 4 hours (+82%), 5 hours (+82%), 6 hours (+76%), and 8 hours (+61%) in response to the fat load. This was associated with a greater number of apoB-48-containing particles secreted over the 10-hour study period in the obese men, compared with lean men (+125%, P<.01). The fractional catabolic rate of apoB-48 was significantly lower in the obese men compared with the lean men (-33%, P<.05) CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in central obesity relates to an overproduction and impaired catabolism of apoB-48-containing lipoproteins. These findings are based on a new, physiologically relevant, kinetic model, which describes the non-steady-state postprandial metabolism of apoB-48.

  17. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham; Holst, Jens; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bård; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI.

  18. Influence of nutrition on somatotropic axis: Milk consumption in adult individuals with moderate-severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Orio, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition is the major environmental factor that influences the risk of developing pathologies, such as obesity. Although a number of recent reviews pinpoint a protective effects of milk on body weight and obesity related co-morbidities, an inaccurate estimate of milk might contribute to hamper its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Seven-day food records provide prospective food intake data, reducing recall bias and providing extra details about specific food items. Milk intake stimulates the somatotropic axis at multiple levels by increasing both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion. On the other hand, obesity is associated with reduced spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion and basal IGF-1 levels. Aim of this study was to evaluate the milk consumption by using the 7-days food record in obese individuals and to investigate the association between milk intake and GH secretory status in these subjects. Cross-sectional observational study carried out on 281 adult individuals (200 women and 81 men, aged 18-74 years) with moderate-severe obesity (BMI 35.2-69.4 kg/m(2)). Baseline milk intake data were collected using a 7 day food record. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical profile were determined. The GH/IGF-1 axis was evaluated by peak GH response after GHRH + ARGININE and IGF-1 standard deviation score (SDS). The majority of individuals (72.2%) reported consuming milk; 250 mL low-fat milk was the most frequently serving of milk consumed, while no subjects reported to consume whole milk. Milk consumers vs no milk consumers presented the better anthropometric measurements and metabolic profile. At the bivariate proportional odds ratio model, after adjusting for BMI, age and gender, milk consumption was associated the better GH status (OR = 0.60; p < 0.001). Among milk consumers, subjects consuming 250 mL reduced-fat milk vs 250 mL low-fat milk presented the better anthropometric measurements and metabolic profile

  19. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P<0.05), but not NoEx (P>0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (P<0.05), respectively, with no differences between exercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  20. Immunoreactive and bioactive growth hormone responses to resistance exercise in men who are lean or obese.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Kennett, Mary J; Comstock, Brett A; Maresh, Carl M; Denegar, Craig R; Volek, Jeff S; Hymer, Wesley C

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that obese individuals have a blunted growth hormone (GH) response to spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion. The present study was designed to examine the effects of a high-volume, whole body acute resistance exercise (RE) protocol on immunoreactive GH (iGH), bioactive GH (bGH), and GH-binding protein (GHBP) in sedentary lean and obese men. Nine obese (mean ± SD: 20.8 ± 2.1 yr old, 177.0 ± 4.1 cm height, 108.7 ± 15.9 kg body mass, 37.6 ± 5.29% body fat) and nine lean (20.1 ± 2.1 yr old, 177.8 ± 8.7 cm height, 71.7 ± 5.8 kg body mass, 14.7 ± 3.54% body fat) men completed an acute RE protocol (6 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 85-95% of 10 repetitions maximum with 120- and 90-s rest periods), and blood samples were collected before, at the midpoint, and immediately after exercise and during recovery (+50, +70, and +110). In contrast to prior studies, which examined acute responses to cardiovascular exercise protocols, groups did not differ in iGH response to the exercise stimulus. However, bGH concentrations overall were significantly lower in the obese than the lean participants (P < 0.001). Additionally, obese individuals had significantly higher GHBP concentrations (P < 0.001). Results suggest that obese and lean sedentary men performing a high-volume, whole body acute RE protocol demonstrate similar increases in iGH. Blunted bGH and elevated GHBP concentrations are indicative of altered GH activity associated with obesity. Prior research findings of blunted iGH response may be attributable to RE protocols not equated on relative intensity or volume. These results underscore the complexity of pituitary biology and its related mechanisms and may have implications for exercise prescription in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Determinants of exercise-induced fat oxidation in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2010-03-01

    Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.

  2. The relationship between objective sperm competition risk and men's copulatory interest is moderated by partner's time spent with other men.

    PubMed

    Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2013-12-01

    Men who spend a greater proportion of time apart from their female partner since the couple's last copulation are at greater "objective" sperm competition risk. We propose a novel cue to sperm competition risk: the time she spends with her male friends. Four hundred and twenty men in a committed, heterosexual, sexual relationship completed a questionnaire. The results indicate that men at greater objective sperm competition risk report less time desired until the couple's next copulation, greater interest in copulating with their partner, and greater anger, frustration, and upset in response to their partner's sexual rejection, but only among men whose partner spends more time with her male friends. These results remain after controlling statistically for the participant's age and their partner's age. We discuss limitations of the current research, and discuss how research in human sperm competition can inform social issues, including men's partner-directed sexual coercion.

  3. Vitamin D status is not related to insulin resistance in different phenotypes of moderate obesity.

    PubMed

    Al Masri, Manal; Romain, Ahmed Jerome; Boegner, Catherine; Maimoun, Laurent; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Attalin, Vincent; Leprieur, Elodie; Picandet, Marion; Avignon, Antoine; Sultan, Ariane

    2017-04-01

    Low plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) and high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with obesity and could play a role in the occurrence of complications such as insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the relationship between 25OHD status and phosphocalcic parameters differs between metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and insulin-resistant obese (IRO). This cross-sectional study included 158 consecutive adults (121 females) with obesity (body mass index (BMI) 35.15 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)), aged 43.21 ± 13.6 years. Serum 25OHD, calcemia, phosphatemia, PTH, plasma lipids, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, and body composition were measured. Participants were classified as MHO (n = 65) or IRO (n = 93) based on homeostatic model assessment insulin-resistance value. IRO patients had a higher BMI (p = 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.03), and trunk fat mass (p = 0.007) than MHO patients. Mean HbA1c (p = 0.03), triglycerides (p = 0.02), and hsCRP (p = 0.04) plasmatic levels were increased in the IRO group. No between-group difference was found on 25OHD, PTH, calcium, or phosphorus plasmatic levels. Only age-predicted 25OHD levels were identified among IRO participants, whereas no factors were identified in MHO. No predictive factors of PTH plasmatic level were identified in the IRO and MHO groups. Although MHO and IRO patients have different metabolic profiles, we did not detect any difference regarding either 25OHD or PTH. Insulin resistance was not a predictive factor of vitamin D status. Our results confirm the absence of link between vitamin D status and insulin resistance in moderate obesity.

  4. Moderate physical activity promotes basal hepatic autophagy in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Caldwell, Megan E; Lee, David E; Brown, Jacob L; Brown, Lemuel A; Perry, Richard A; Greene, Elizabeth S; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R; Washington, Tyrone A; Greene, Nicholas P

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of hepatic disease; obesity-induced fatty liver can lead to inflammation, steatosis, and cirrhosis and is associated with degeneration of the mitochondria. Lifestyle interventions such as physical activity may ameliorate this condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate regulation of mitochondrial and autophagy quality control in liver following Western diet-induced obesity and voluntary physical activity. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed a Western diet (WD) or normal chow (NC, control) for 4 weeks; afterwards, groups were divided into voluntary wheel running (VWR) or sedentary (SED) conditions for an additional 4 weeks. WD-SED animals had a median histology score of 2, whereas WD-VWR was not different from NC groups (median score 1). There was no difference in mRNA of inflammatory markers Il6 and Tnfa in WD animals. WD animals had 50% lower mitochondrial content (COX IV and Cytochrome C proteins), 50% lower Pgc1a mRNA content, and reduced content of mitochondrial fusion and fission markers. Markers of autophagy were increased in VWR animals, regardless of obesity, as measured by 50% greater LC3-II/I ratio and 40% lower p62 protein content. BNIP3 protein content was 30% less in WD animals compared with NC animals, regardless of physical activity. Diet-induced obesity results in derangements in mitochondrial quality control that appear to occur prior to the onset of hepatic inflammation. Moderate physical activity appears to enhance basal autophagy in the liver; increased autophagy may provide protection from hepatic fat accumulation.

  5. Differential methylation in visceral adipose tissue of obese men discordant for metabolic disturbances.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Frédéric; Tchernof, André; Deshaies, Yves; Pérusse, Louis; Biron, Simon; Lescelleur, Odette; Biertho, Laurent; Marceau, Simon; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-03-15

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The severely obese population is heterogeneous regarding CVD risk profile. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways potentially associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) through an analysis of overrepresented pathways from differentially methylated genes between severely obese men with (MetS+) and without (MetS-) the MetS. Genome-wide quantitative DNA methylation analysis in VAT of severely obese men was carried out using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Differences in methylation levels between MetS+ (n = 7) and MetS- (n = 7) groups were tested. Overrepresented pathways from the list of differentially methylated genes were identified and visualized with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis system. Differential methylation analysis between MetS+ and MetS- groups identified 8,578 methylation probes (3,258 annotated genes) with significant differences in methylation levels (false discovery rate-corrected DiffScore ≥ |13| ∼ P ≤ 0.05). Pathway analysis from differentially methylated genes identified 41 overrepresented (P ≤ 0.05) pathways. The most overrepresented pathways were related to structural components of the cell membrane, inflammation and immunity and cell cycle regulation. This study provides potential targets associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and development of the MetS.

  6. Differences in fat loss in response to physical activity among severely obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Aadland, Eivind; Jepsen, Randi; Andersen, John Roger; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred

    2014-04-01

    Direct measurement of physical activity may be critical to revealing its relationship with the change in fat mass over time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between accelerometer-determined change in physical activity and change in fat mass in severely obese men and women. A total of 49 severely obese men (n = 12) and women (n = 37) (mean age 42.8 years (standard deviation (SD) 9.6); mean body mass index 42.0 kg/m2 (SD 5.9) participated in a 1-year lifestyle intervention with 4 measurements of physical activity (Actigraph GT1M accelerometer), energy intake (180-item food frequency questionnaire), and body composition. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. In the total group change in both duration and intensity of physical activity were independently related to change in fat mass (partial r = -0.38 to -0.31, p = 0.001-0.007) after adjustment for baseline body weight, gender and change in energy intake. A gender-specific effect of change in physical activity duration was found for change in fat mass (p for change in physical activity duration*gender < 0.001), where the association was significant in men (partial r = -0.53, p < 0.001), but not in women (partial r = -0.17, p = 0.149). Increased intensity of physical activity was associated with loss of fat mass in severely obese men and women, whereas physical activity duration was associated with fat mass loss in men.

  7. 24-h core temperature in obese and lean men and women.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Mindy E; Rodriguez, Sarah M; Zeiss, Dinah M; Wachsberg, Kelley N; Kushner, Robert F; Landsberg, Lewis; Linsenmeier, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Maintenance of core temperature is a major component of 24-h energy expenditure, and its dysregulation could contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity. The relationship among temperature, sex, and BMI, however, has not been fully elucidated in humans. This study investigated core temperature in obese and lean individuals at rest, during 20-min exercise, during sleep, and after food consumption. Twelve lean (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and twelve obese (30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) healthy participants, ages 25-40 years old, were admitted overnight in a clinical research unit. Females were measured in the follicular menstrual phase. Core temperature was measured every minute for 24 h using the CorTemp system, a pill-sized sensor that measures core temperature while in the gastrointestinal tract and delivers the measurement via a radio signal to an external recorder. Core temperature did not differ significantly between the obese and lean individuals at rest, postmeals, during exercise, or during sleep (P > 0.5), but core temperature averaged over the entire study was significantly higher (0.1-0.2 °C) in the obese (P = 0.023). Each individual's temperature varied considerably during the study, but at all times, and across the entire study, women were ~0.4 °C warmer than men (P < 0.0001). These data indicate that obesity is not associated with a lower core temperature but that women have a higher core temperature than men at rest, during sleep, during exercise, and after meals.

  8. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  9. The Obesity Epidemic in the Veterans Health Administration: Prevalence Among Key Populations of Women and Men Veterans.

    PubMed

    Breland, Jessica Y; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Washington, Donna L; Lee, Jimmy; Haskell, Sally; Uchendu, Uchenna S; Saechao, Fay S; Zephyrin, Laurie C; Frayne, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Most US adults are overweight or obese. Understanding differences in obesity prevalence across subpopulations could facilitate the development and dissemination of weight management services. To inform Veterans Health Administration (VHA) weight management initiatives, we describe obesity prevalence among subpopulations of VHA patients. Cross-sectional descriptive analyses of fiscal year 2014 (FY2014) national VHA administrative and clinical data, stratified by gender. Differences ≥5% higher than the population mean were considered clinically significant. Veteran VHA primary care patients with a valid weight within ±365 days of their first FY2014 primary care visit, and a valid height (98% of primary care patients). We used VHA vital signs data to ascertain height and weight and calculate body mass index, and VHA outpatient, inpatient, and fee basis data to identify sociodemographic- and comorbidity-based subpopulations. Among nearly five million primary care patients (347,112 women, 4,567,096 men), obesity prevalence was 41% (women 44%, men 41%), and overweight prevalence was 37% (women 31%, men 38%). Across the VHA's 140 facilities, obesity prevalence ranged from 28% to 49%. Among gender-stratified subpopulations, obesity prevalence was high among veterans under age 65 (age 18-44: women 40%, men 46%; age 45-64: women 49%, men 48%). Obesity prevalence varied across racial/ethnic and comorbidity subpopulations, with high obesity prevalence among black women (51%), women with schizophrenia (56%), and women and men with diabetes (68%, 56%). Overweight and obesity are common among veterans served by the VHA. VHA's weight management initiatives have the potential to avert long-term morbidity arising from obesity-related conditions. High-risk groups-such as black women veterans, women veterans with schizophrenia, younger veterans, and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native veterans-may require particular attention to ensure that

  10. Fat distribution and glucose metabolism in older, obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sophie E; Hays, Nicholas P; Dennis, Richard A; Kortebein, Patrick M; Sullivan, Dennis H; Evans, William J; Coker, Robert H

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have identified relationships between subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), visceral fat (VF), and insulin resistance. In addition, lower muscle attenuation and decreased adiponectin have also been associated with insulin resistance. In order to define these relationships within a group of older, obese adults, we studied 48 individuals (20 men; 71+/-1 years and 28 women; 65+/-1 years) who underwent a single, hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp procedure, computed tomography scan at the L4-L5 level, and whole-body plethysmography or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Endogenous glucose production (basal glucose R(a)) was also measured at baseline and during the clamp procedure using an infusion of [6,6(2)H(2)] glucose. Mean body mass index (BMI; 31+/-1 kg/m(2)) and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; 5.7+/-0.1%) levels were not significantly different between men and women. In men, there was an inverse relationship between SAF and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (ISGD) (r= -.60, p=.01). In addition, there was a trend between thigh muscle attenuation and ISGD in men (r=.41, p=.07). Adiponectin was associated with ISGD in men (r=.46, p=.04) and women (r=.48, p =.01). There were no significant relationships between body fat distribution and basal glucose R(a) in men or women, and no relationships between triglycerides and glucose metabolism. Our results indicate that (i) SAF was negatively associated with ISGD in men, (ii) thigh muscle attenuation demonstrated a trend toward ISGD in men, and (iii) adiponectin was associated with ISGD in men and women.

  11. Personal Descriptions of Life Before and After Bariatric Surgery From Overweight or Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hii, Michael W; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann; Hennessy, Julie; Thompson, Lisa

    2016-02-04

    Bariatric surgery is now a common weight loss solution for morbidly obese men where meaningful weight reduction and improvements in quality of life have been identified postsurgery. As the majority of surgical candidates are female, there exists a paucity of literature relating to the experience of males undergoing bariatric surgery. In this study, a qualitative descriptive-exploratory design was used to explore body image descriptions, adaptation of a new lifestyle, new boundaries postsurgery, and any barriers seeking consultation for surgery. Six males who had undergone bariatric surgery were recruited in Australia. Data were collected and analyzed using NVivo between May and October 2014. The themes emerging from the data included living in an obese body, life before surgery, decision making for surgery, and life after surgery. The participants collectively reported that life before surgery was challenging. They described the changes the surgery had made in their lives including positive changes to their health, body image, social lives, and self-esteem. Some participants preferred not to tell others their intentions for surgery due to perceived stigma. The men in this study also described a lack of information available to them depicting male perspectives, a possible barrier for men seeking weight loss surgery options. Implications for practice highlighted in these results relate to a greater need for accessible information specific to men based on real-life experiences.

  12. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  13. Sex, race, and consideration of bariatric surgery among primary care patients with moderate to severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Wee, Christina C; Huskey, Karen W; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Colten, Mary Ellen; Davis, Roger B; Hamel, Marybeth

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is one of few obesity treatments to produce substantial weight loss but only a small proportion of medically-eligible patients, especially men and racial minorities, undergo bariatric surgery. To describe primary care patients' consideration of bariatric surgery, potential variation by sex and race, and factors that underlie any variation. Telephone interview of 337 patients with a body mass index or BMI > 35 kg/m(2) seen at four diverse primary care practices in Greater-Boston. Patients' consideration of bariatric surgery. Of 325 patients who had heard of bariatric surgery, 34 % had seriously considered surgery. Men were less likely than women and African Americans were less likely than Caucasian patients to have considered surgery after adjustment for sociodemographics and BMI. Comorbid conditions did not explain sex and racial differences but racial differences dissipated after adjustment for quality of life (QOL), which tended to be higher among African American than Caucasian patients. Physician recommendation of bariatric surgery was independently associated with serious consideration for surgery [OR 4.95 (95 % CI 2.81-8.70)], but did not explain variation in consideration of surgery across sex and race. However, if recommended by their doctor, men were as willing and African American and Hispanic patients were more willing to consider bariatric surgery than their respective counterparts after adjustment. Nevertheless, only 20 % of patients reported being recommended bariatric surgery by their doctor and African Americans and men were less likely to receive this recommendation; racial differences in being recommended surgery were also largely explained by differences in QOL. High perceived risk to bariatric surgery was the most commonly cited barrier; financial concerns were uncommonly cited. Single geographic region; examined consideration and not who eventually proceeded with bariatric surgery. African Americans and men were less likely to

  14. Thermal limits of men in moderate to heavy work in tropical farming.

    PubMed

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali; Ashtekar, Shirish Pratap

    2007-01-01

    The farmers in tropical climate are exposed to high heat during the summer months. The study examined the physiological strains of farmers (N=26) to six combined exposures of work and high heat, with moderate and heavy work (26 to 50%, and 51 to 75% VO(2max)) and three ambient conditions, i.e., 34.4 to 42.2 degrees C WBGT (inside) in an environmental chamber. While the cardio-respiratory responses and Tcr were predominantly influenced by the work severity (p<0.001), the environmental warmth greatly influenced the sweating response (p<0.001). The importance was placed on the segmental Tsk as the first rank indicator of the bodily heat strain. Both the environmental warmth and work severity had independent discernable effects on the dynamic equilibrium of the central and peripheral mechanism to regulate the body temperature. The segmental and compartmental (core, muscle, fat and skin) heat balance analysis indicated the span of convergence of the segmental core and muscle temperatures to the divergence of skin and fat temperatures (CORE-SHELL) as a quantitative estimate of the segmental gradient for heat transfer. The summation of heat exchange across the compartments and segments yielded the transient change in Tcr (0.06 to 0.12 degrees C/min), with significant difference between the moderate and heavy work. The Tcr of 39 degrees C was taken as the limit of tolerance for the farmers, and by defining the criteria limit of Tcr of approximately 2.5 degrees C gradient from the basal Tcr and the rate of change in Tcr, the tolerance times were estimated. Corollary to the development of ISO 7933 standard (PHS index), the predictions of tolerance times from the transient change in Tcr or the exponential relationship with the WBGT (tolerance time, min = 1,841 e (-0.103 WBGT)) were useful to suggest the protective limit for men at work in extremely hot environment. The simplicity of prediction lies in using WBGT as a criterion. The exponential equation estimated the tolerance

  15. Comparison of peri-implant clinical and radiographic inflammatory parameters and whole salivary destructive inflammatory cytokine profile among obese and non-obese men.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Al-Sahaly, Faisal; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Al-Anazi, Mohammed; Al-Khathami, Mohammed; Javed, Fawad; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional retrospective study was to compare the peri-implant clinical and radiographic inflammatory parameters and whole salivary destructive inflammatory cytokine profile among obese and non-obese men. Thirty-five obese and 37 non-obese men were included. Information regarding age, obesity, systemic health status, and habits was collected using a questionnaire. Clinical examination to evaluate peri-implant parameters and radiographic examination to assess marginal bone loss were conducted. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in collected un-stimulated whole saliva were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test. The mean scores of peri-implant bleeding on probing (P<0.05) and peri-implant probing depth (P<0.05) were significantly higher among obese compared with non-obese individuals. The mean marginal bone loss was also statistically significantly higher among individuals in the test-group compared with the control-group (P<0.05). Whole salivary IL-1β (P<0.001) and IL-6 (P<0.001) levels were significantly higher among individuals in the test-group compared with the control-group. Clinical and radiographic peri-implant inflammatory parameters were worse, and whole salivary IL-6 and IL-1β were higher in obese than non-obese subjects. Obese patients are at greater risk of peri-implant inflammation than non-obese healthy subjects. It is highly recommended that clinicians should educate obese patients seeking implant treatment regarding the association between obesity and peri-implant inflammation. In addition, obese patients with osseointegrated implants must follow strict oral hygiene regimen to prevent inflammation and maintain optimum peri-implant tissue health.

  16. Acrosome reaction is impaired in spermatozoa of obese men: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Samavat, Jinous; Natali, Ilaria; Degl'Innocenti, Selene; Filimberti, Erminio; Cantini, Giulia; Di Franco, Alessandra; Danza, Giovanna; Seghieri, Giuseppe; Lucchese, Marcello; Baldi, Elisabetta; Forti, Gianni; Luconi, Michaela

    2014-11-01

    To compare spontaneous (Sp-AR) and P-induced acrosome reaction (AR) in spermatozoa of obese and lean subjects. Bariatric unit at a university hospital. Prospective, observational study. Twenty-three obese (mean±SD body mass index [BMI], 44.3±5.9 kg/m2) and 25 age-matched lean (BMI, 24.2±3.0 kg/m2) subjects. None. Spontaneous and P-induced AR in spermatozoa of obese and lean subjects. A statistically significant difference was found between obese and lean cohorts in total T and calculated free T, E2, glycated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoproteins, whereas among the routine semen parameters analyzed, only immotile sperm percentage and ejaculate volume differed significantly. Spermatozoa of obese (n=13) vs. lean men (n=19) showed a higher Sp-AR (17.9%±7.2% vs. 8.3%±4.2%), which resulted in a reduced ability to respond to P evaluated as the AR-after-P-challenge parameter (3.5%±3.2% vs. 17.6%±9.2%). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age revealed a significant correlation between BMI, waist, E2, and glycated hemoglobin with both Sp-AR (age-adjusted r=0.654, r=0.711, r=0.369, and r=0.644, respectively) and AR-after-P-challenge (age-adjusted r=-0.570, r=-0.635, r=-0.507, and r=-0.563, respectively). A significant difference in sperm cholesterol content was reported between obese and lean men (29.8±19.5 vs. 19.1±14.6 ng/μg of proteins). Sperm AR is impaired in obese men, showing reduced response to P and elevated Sp-AR, associated with altered circulating levels of E2 and sperm cholesterol content. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid development of cardiac dysfunction in a canine model of insulin resistance and moderate obesity.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Josiane L; Nelson, Michael D; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Paszkiewicz, Rebecca L; Smith, Laura; Szczepaniak, Edward W; Stefanovski, Darko; Szczepaniak, Lidia S; Bergman, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of obesity and diabetes continues to rise at an alarming rate. A major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes is heart disease, yet the mechanisms that lead to cardiovascular complications remain unclear. We performed cardiac MRI to assess left ventricular morphology and function during the development of moderate obesity and insulin resistance in a well-established canine model (n = 26). To assess the influence of dietary fat composition, we randomised animals to a traditional lard diet (rich in saturated and monounsaturated fat; n = 12), a salmon oil diet (rich in polyunsaturated fat; n = 8) or a control diet (n = 6). High-fat feeding with lard increased body weight and fasting insulin and markedly reduced insulin sensitivity. Lard feeding also significantly reduced left ventricular function, evidenced by a worsening of circumferential strain and impairment in left ventricular torsion. High-fat feeding with salmon oil increased body weight; however, salmon oil feeding did not impair insulin sensitivity or cardiac function. These data emphasise the importance of dietary fat composition on both metabolic and cardiac function, and have important implications for the relationship between diet and health.

  18. Combined effects of exercise and restriction of energy intake on moderately obese women.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D P; Belko, A Z; Mulroy, G L; Haas, J D; Roe, D A

    1986-01-01

    The current study was designed to assess the contribution of dietary-induced weight reduction on improvements in functional capacity in moderate obesity. Twelve females (means age = 29 yr, means fat percentage = 37%) served as subjects for the study. Subjects trained on a cycle ergometer 30 min.day-1, six day.wk-1 for three or six weeks at 75 to 85 per cent of maximum heart rate (HR max). Improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (delta VO2 max I.min-1) and functional capacity (delta VO2 max ml.kg-1 min-1) were compared in an attempt to separate out training and dietary effects respectively. Measurements were also taken on both the cycle ergometer and treadmill to test for any specificity of training effects. Changes in body composition were assessed by densitometry. Following three weeks of training, there was an average increase in VO2 max ml.kg-1 min-1 on the cycle ergometer and the treadmill of 14 and 19 per cent respectively. By six weeks, this had increased to 18 and 26 per cent respectively. The contribution of weight reduction to the improvements in functional capacity was calculated to range from 20 to 33 per cent. Thus, both energy restriction and exercise training appear to be effective means of improving functional capacity in moderately obese women. PMID:3730763

  19. Effects of weight loss on erythrocyte membrane composition and fluidity in overweight and moderately obese women.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Roberta; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Trotti, Rosita; Cestaro, Benvenuto

    2011-04-01

    A previous study showed chemical and physical impairment of the erythrocyte membrane of overweight and moderately obese women. The present study investigated the effects of a low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day deficit for 8 weeks) on erythrocyte membrane properties in 70 overweight and moderately obese (body mass index, 25-33 kg/m(2)) normotensive, nondiabetic women. At the end of dietary intervention, 24.3% of women dropped out, 45.7% lost less than 5% of their initial weight (Group I) and only 30% of patients lost at least 5% of their initial body weight (Group II). Group I showed no significant changes in erythrocyte membrane composition and function. The erythrocyte membranes of Group II showed significant reductions in malondialdehyde, lipofuscin, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, palmitic acid and nervonic acid and an increase in di-homo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and membrane fluidity. Moreover, Group II showed an improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia and insulin resistance. These changes in erythrocyte membrane composition could reflect a virtuous cycle resulting from the reduction in insulin resistance associated with increased membrane fluidity that, in turn, results in a sequence of metabolic events that concur to further improve membrane fluidity.

  20. Depressive Disorder Subtypes as Predictors of Incident Obesity in US Adults: Moderation by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Polanka, Brittanny M; Vrany, Elizabeth A; Patel, Jay; Stewart, Jesse C

    2017-03-22

    We compared the relative importance of atypical major depressive disorder (MDD), nonatypical MDD, and dysthymic disorder in predicting 3-year obesity incidence and change in body mass index and determined whether race/ethnicity moderated these relationships. We examined data from 17,787 initially nonobese adults in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) who were representative of the US population. Lifetime subtypes of depressive disorders were determined using a structured interview, and obesity outcomes were computed from self-reported height and weight. Atypical MDD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 1.97; P < 0.001) and dysthymic disorder (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.12; P < 0.001) were stronger predictors of incident obesity than were nonatypical MDD (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.22; P = 0.027) and no history of depressive disorder. Atypical MDD (B = 0.41 (standard error, 0.15); P = 0.007) was a stronger predictor of increases in body mass index than were dysthymic disorder (B = -0.31 (standard error, 0.21); P = 0.142), nonatypical MDD (B = 0.007 (standard error, 0.06); P = 0.911), and no history of depressive disorder. Race/ethnicity was a moderator; atypical MDD was a stronger predictor of incident obesity in Hispanics/Latinos (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.73, 2.24; P < 0.001) than in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.91; P < 0.001) and blacks (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.26; P < 0.001). US adults with atypical MDD are at particularly high risk of weight gain and obesity, and Hispanics/Latinos may be especially vulnerable to the obesogenic consequences of depressions.

  1. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  2. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated with Liver Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Non-Diabetic Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daniel L. T.; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Greenfield, Jerry R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m2/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = −0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = −0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men. PMID:28293196

  3. The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Amber W.; Cappadona, Stacy R.; Panton, Lynn B.; Allman, Brittany R.; Contreras, Robert J.; Hickner, Robert C.; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep) casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal) or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA) before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone), insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin) were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L), substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03), but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm). CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men. PMID:27472361

  4. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated with Liver Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Non-Diabetic Men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel L T; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G; Greenfield, Jerry R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m(2)/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = -0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = -0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men.

  5. Fear of Personal Death and the MMPI Profile of Middle-Age Men: The Moderating Impact of Personal Losses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Victor; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined association of fear of personal death and aspects of psychological maladjustment and moderating impact of personal losses among 97 middle-aged Israeli men. Found that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profile was significantly related to pattern of fear of personal death. Association only reached significance among subjects who…

  6. Development of 1RM Prediction Equations for Bench Press in Moderately Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Macht, Jordan W; Abel, Mark G; Mullineaux, David R; Yates, James W

    2016-10-01

    Macht, JW, Abel, MG, Mullineaux, DR, and Yates, JW. Development of 1RM prediction equations for bench press in moderately trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2901-2906, 2016-There are a variety of established 1 repetition maximum (1RM) prediction equations, however, very few prediction equations use anthropometric characteristics exclusively or in part, to estimate 1RM strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an original 1RM prediction equation for bench press using anthropometric and performance characteristics in moderately trained male subjects. Sixty male subjects (21.2 ± 2.4 years) completed a 1RM bench press and were randomly assigned a load to complete as many repetitions as possible. In addition, body composition, upper-body anthropometric characteristics, and handgrip strength were assessed. Regression analysis was used to develop a performance-based 1RM prediction equation: 1RM = 1.20 repetition weight + 2.19 repetitions to fatigue - 0.56 biacromial width (cm) + 9.6 (R = 0.99, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 3.5 kg). Regression analysis to develop a nonperformance-based 1RM prediction equation yielded: 1RM (kg) = 0.997 cross-sectional area (CSA) (cm) + 0.401 chest circumference (cm) - 0.385%fat - 0.185 arm length (cm) + 36.7 (R = 0.81, SEE = 13.0 kg). The performance prediction equations developed in this study had high validity coefficients, minimal mean bias, and small limits of agreement. The anthropometric equations had moderately high validity coefficient but larger limits of agreement. The practical applications of this study indicate that the inclusion of anthropometric characteristics and performance variables produce a valid prediction equation for 1RM strength. In addition, the CSA of the arm uses a simple nonperformance method of estimating the lifter's 1RM. This information may be used to predict the starting load for a lifter performing a 1RM prediction protocol or a 1RM testing protocol.

  7. Weight change, obesity and risk of prostate cancer progression among men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Ahearn, Thomas U; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Nguyen, Paul L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI < 25. Weight change and obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Alcohol and aggressive behavior in men--moderating effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Bergman, H; Corander, J; Waldman, I D; Karrani, N; Salo, B; Jern, P; Algars, M; Sandnabba, K; Santtila, P; Westberg, L

    2012-03-01

    We explored if the disposition to react with aggression while alcohol intoxicated was moderated by polymorphic variants of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Twelve OXTR polymorphisms were genotyped in 116 Finnish men [aged 18-30, M = 22.7, standard deviation (SD) = 2.4] who were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition in which they received an alcohol dose of 0.7 g pure ethanol/kg body weight or a placebo condition. Aggressive behavior was measured using a laboratory paradigm in which it was operationalized as the level of aversive noise administered to a fictive opponent. No main effects of the polymorphisms on aggressive behavior were found after controlling for multiple testing. The interactive effects between alcohol and two of the OXTR polymorphisms (rs4564970 and rs1488467) on aggressive behavior were nominally significant and remained significant for the rs4564970 when controlled for multiple tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study suggesting interactive effects of specific genetic variants and alcohol on aggressive behavior in humans.

  9. Soy milk lowers blood pressure in men and women with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Garay, Ricardo P; Escanero, Jesús F; Cia, Pedro; Cia, Pedro; Alda, José O

    2002-07-01

    Soy-based diets reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but apparently not in hypertensive humans. In the present study, the antihypertensive potential of soy milk (500 mL twice daily) compared with cow's milk was investigated in a 3-mo double-blind randomized study of 40 men and women with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Before initiation of the study, urinary isoflavonoids (measured by HPLC) were undetectable in most cases (for genistein, they were always <100 micromol/L). After 3 mo of soy milk consumption, systolic blood pressure decreased by 18.4 +/- 10.7 mmHg compared with 1.4 +/- 7.2 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure decreased by 15.9 +/- 9.8 mmHg vs. 3.7 +/- 5.0 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure decreased by 16.7 +/- 9.0 mmHg compared with 3.0 +/- 4.6 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001). Urinary genistein was strongly (r = -0.588) and significantly (P = 0.002) correlated with the decrease in blood pressure, particularly for diastolic values. In conclusion, chronic soy milk consumption had modest, but significant hypotensive action in essential hypertensive subjects. This hypotensive action was correlated with the urinary excretion of the isoflavonoid genistein.

  10. Long-term safety and efficacy of oral phentolamine mesylate (Vasomax) in men with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Padma-Nathan, H; Goldstein, I; Klimberg, I; Coogan, C; Auerbach, S; Lammers, P

    2002-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of phentolamine mesylate, an orally active, rapid-acting alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED). It was an open-label study involving more than 2000 patients. Men received phentolamine mesylate 40 mg or 80 mg (10 tablets/month) as needed for up to 13 months and self-assessed erectile performance using two validated questionnaires. Treatment with phentolamine mesylate was associated with increases in Erectile Function Domain score of the IIEF, successful vaginal penetrations, and in overall satisfaction. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and consistent with the known pharmacodynamic properties of phentolamine. In conclusion, phentolamine mesylate is safe and effective in the long-term treatment of men with mild to moderate ED.

  11. Psychobiological effects observed in obese men experiencing body weight loss plateau.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Hetherington, Marion; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the psychobiological impact associated with resistance to further weight loss in obese men. Anthropometric and body composition measurements, resting metabolic rate (RMR) measurement, appetite sensation markers, and three questionnaires [Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] were assessed at baseline and after 1 month of body weight loss plateau induced by a supervised diet and exercise clinical intervention in 11 obese men. The weight loss plateau corresponded to 11.2% of initial body weight (93.9% from fat stores). However, this amount of weight loss induced a significant decrease in RMR (P <.05) and a significant increase in hunger (P <.05) and desire to eat (P <.05). Using the SF-36 Health Survey, physical and mental health were shown to be unchanged at plateau as compared to baseline. The TFEQ showed that cognitive dietary restraint increased (P <.001) compared to baseline. Finally, depression risk as measured by the BDI significantly increased at plateau (P <.01) compared to baseline. Weight loss until resistance to further weight loss may be detrimental for some psychobiological variables including depression, which emphasizes the relevance of caution and reasonable objectives when prescribing a weight reduction program for obese individuals.

  12. The clinical importance of serum γ-glutamyltransferase level as an early predictor of obesity development in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Joong-Myung; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2013-04-01

    Serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels are known to be positively associated with obesity. We aimed at verifying an association between baseline GGT levels and the development of obesity in Korean men. This prospective cohort study was performed on 18,510 initially non-obese Korean men. The total follow-up period was 66,993.3 person years and the average follow-up period was 3.62 years (standard deviation [SD], 1.44). Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine hazard ratios for the risk of obesity development. We found a strong positive association between serum GGT levels at baseline and obesity development, after adjusting for multiple covariates. The risk of obesity development was found to be significantly and dose-dependently associated with serum GGT level. Moreover, estimated hazard ratios for severe obesity (BMI (body mass index) ≥30 kg/m(2)) attributable to serum GGT levels were much higher than those for obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). The significant association was also found for WC (waist circumference)-defined obesity (WC > 90 cm). Our findings, which were obtained from a large cohort, indicate that serum GGT is an early predictor of obesity development. Furthermore, this association was remained significant after adjusting for multiple baseline covariates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Obesity in American Indian and Mexican American Men and Women: Associations with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular autonomic control. Cardiovascular autonomic control, systolic and diastolic mean BP, and body mass index were obtained from one hundred thirty-two American Indian and Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Men had a significant greater systolic and diastolic BP and were more likely to develop systolic prehypertension and hypertension than women. Obese participants showed greater mean heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic BP than nonobese participants. Obese men also exhibited greater cardiac sympathetic activity and lower cardiovagal control than obese women. These results suggest that obesity and gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic control may contribute to risk for cardiovascular disorders in this sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans. PMID:24024026

  14. Overweight, obesity, steps, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Victor

    2017-04-27

    The objective of this study is to establish cutoff points for the number of steps/day and minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity in relation to the risk of childhood overweight and obesity and their respective associations. In addition, we aim to identify the amount of steps/day needed to achieve the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children from São Caetano do Sul. In total, 494 children have used an accelerometer to monitor steps/day and the intensity of physical activity (min/day). The moderate to vigorous physical activity has been categorized according to the public health recommendation (≤ 60 versus > 60 min/day). Overweight or obesity is defined as body mass index > +1 SD, based on reference data from the World Health Organization. The data on family income, education of parents, screen time, diet pattern, and sedentary time have been collected by questionnaires. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves have been constructed. On average, boys walked more steps/day (1,850) and performed more min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (23.1) than girls. Overall, 51.4% of the children have been classified as eutrophic and 48.6% as overweight or obese. Eutrophic boys walked 1,525 steps/day and performed 18.6 minutes/day more of moderate to vigorous physical activity than those with overweight/obesity (p < 0.05). The same has not been found in girls (p > 0.05). The cutoff points to prevent overweight and obesity in boys and girls were 10,500 and 8,500 steps/day and 66 and 46 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, respectively. The walking of 9,700 steps/day for boys and 9,400 steps/day for girls ensures the scope of the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity. In boys, steps/day and moderate to vigorous physical activity have been negatively associated with body mass index, regardless of race, family income, education of parents, screen time, diet pattern, and

  15. The imbalance of sex-hormones related to depressive symptoms in obese men.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Patrícia T; Falcão, Adriana A; Verreschi, Ieda T N; Zanella, Maria-Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Obese men may present hypogonadothrofic hypogonadism, mainly related to higher insulinemia and aromatase activity. Our objectives were to evaluate the relationship of sex-hormones profiles and frequency of depressive symptoms in 43 obese men, in a cross-sectional study. They had 19-60 years, and body mass index 30-50 kg/m(2). LH, total and free testosterone (TT and FT), estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol/total testosterone ratio (E2/T) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by "beck depression inventory" (BDI), and significant depression was considered if BDI ≥ 16.Thirty-four (80%) presented low TT levels, but only 4 (14%) had low free testosterone and hypogonadism symptoms; 12 of 43 (28%) presented increased E2. Forty five (56%) presented depressive symptoms, but 16 (28% of the 45) had significant depression. BDI correlated positively with E2 (r = 0.407; p = 0.001) and E2/T (r = 0.473; p = 0.001), but not TT or FT. Patients with significant depressive showed higher levels of estradiol (136 ± 48 versus 103 ± 48 pg/ml, p = 0.02) and E2/T (16.0 ± 9.9 versus 9.8 ± 4.6; p = 0.002) (mean ± SD).In conclusion, obese men may present relatively excess of estradiol and deficiency in testosterone, leading to an imbalance between these two hormones. The greater this imbalance, the more depressive symptoms had our patients.

  16. The effect of hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and exercise on bone remodeling markers in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Levinger, Itamar; Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Jerums, George; Stepto, Nigel K; Serpiello, Fabio R; McConell, Glenn K; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L; Byrnes, Elizabeth; Ebeling, Peter R; Seeman, Ego

    2015-01-01

    Bone remodelling markers (BRMs) are suppressed following a glucose load and during glucose infusion. As exercise increases indices of bone health and improves glucose handling, we hypothesised that, at rest, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp will suppress BRMs in obese men and that exercise prior to the clamp will prevent this suppression. Eleven obese nondiabetic men (age 58.1±2.2 years, body mass index=33.1±1.4 kg m−2 mean±s.e.m.) had a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (HEC) at rest (Control) and 60 min post exercise (four bouts × 4 min cycling at 95% of hazard ratiopeak). Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin, glucose, bone formation markers, total osteocalcin (tOC) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and the bone resorption marker, β-isomerised C-terminal telopeptides (β-CTx). In the control trial (no exercise), tOC, P1NP and β-CTx decreased with HEC by >10% compared with baseline (P<0.05). Fasting serum glucose, but not insulin, tended to correlate negatively with the BRMs (β range −0.57 to −0.66, p range 0.051–0.087). β-CTx, but not OC or P1NP, increased within 60 min post exercise (∼16%, P<0.01). During the post-exercise HEC, the glucose infusion rate was ∼30% higher compared with the no exercise trial. Despite this, BRMs were only suppressed to a similar extent as in the control session (10%). HEC suppressed BRMs in obese men. Exercise did not prevent this suppression of BRMs by HEC but improved glucose handling during the trial. It remains to be tested whether an exercise intervention of longer duration may be able to prevent the effect of HEC on bone remodelling. PMID:26331010

  17. VLDL Triglyceride Kinetics in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Yoshino, Mihoko; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2016-11-01

    High-plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG) concentration and alterations in VLDL-TG metabolism are associated with cardiometabolic disease. This study sought to evaluate the interrelationships among factors purported to regulate VLDL-TG metabolism in a large cohort of men and women with a wide range in body adiposity and fat distribution but without diabetes. We assessed body composition and fat distribution, plasma insulin concentration, free fatty acid availability, and basal VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 (VLDL particle number) kinetics in 233 lean, overweight, and obese men and women. We found that: 1) plasma VLDL-TG concentration is determined primarily by VLDL-TG secretion rate (SR) in men and by VLDL-TG clearance rate in women; 2) there is a dissociation between VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 SRs, and VLDL-apoB-100 SR only explains ∼30% of the variance in VLDL-TG SR; 3) ∼50% of people with obesity have high plasma VLDL-TG concentration due to both an increased VLDL-TG SR and a decreased rate of VLDL-TG plasma clearance, and they have lower plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration and more intra-abdominal and liver fat than those with normal VLDL-TG concentration; and 4) fat-free mass, liver fat content and the rate of free fatty acid release into plasma are independent predictors (with a sex × race interaction) of VLDL-TG SR. The regulation of plasma VLDL-TG concentration is complex and influenced by multiple metabolic factors. Many people with obesity have normal plasma VLDL-TG concentrations and kinetics, whereas those with high plasma VLDL-TG concentrations have increased VLDL-TG SR and other markers of cardiometabolic disease risk.

  18. Consumption of different soymilk formulations differentially affects the gut microbiomes of overweight and obese men

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Raudales, Dina; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L.; Bringe, Neal A.; Cox, Stephen B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Miller, Michael J.; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The effects of consuming foods on the intestinal microbiome of obese individuals remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming low glycinin soymilk (LGS, 49.5% β-conglycinin/6% glycinin), conventional soymilk (S, 26.5% β-conglycinin/38.7% glycinin) or bovine milk (M, 0% β-conglycinin/0% glycinin) on the intestinal microbiome in overweight and obese men. In a randomized double-blind study, participants (64 men, BMI > 25, 20–45 y old), organized in three groups, consumed 500 mL of LGS, S or M daily for 3 mo. Three fecal samples were collected before (baseline) and after 3 mo of consumption. Dietary energy and macronutrient intake were monitored monthly and remained constant throughout the study (p > 0.05). Microbial composition was analyzed with qPCR and bTEFAP. Within groups, qPCR analysis showed that the total bacteria increased in all treatments over time (p < 0.001). Bacteroides-Prevotella (p = 0.001) and Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) increased in LGS and M, respectively. Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in LGS (p = 0.003) and S (p < 0.001). Bacterial diversity decreased for LGS, S and M (p = 0.004, 0.005, 0.001; respectively). Unweighted UniFrac analysis revealed that the microbial communities were more similar within than between individuals. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased in both LGS and S groups and remained relatively unchanged in the M group (Time p = 0.012; Interaction p = 0.059). Indicator analysis revealed several genera that were indicative of each treatment including Lactobacillus and Prevotella. Consumption of the three beverages differentially altered the microbiota in overweight and obese men including a potentially beneficial alteration of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in both soymilk groups. PMID:22895080

  19. Mapping of human brown adipose tissue in lean and obese young men

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Brooks P.; Huang, Shan; Brychta, Robert J.; Duckworth, Courtney J.; Baskin, Alison S.; McGehee, Suzanne; Tal, Ilan; Dieckmann, William; Gupta, Garima; Kolodny, Gerald M.; Pacak, Karel; Herscovitch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be activated to increase glucose uptake and energy expenditure, making it a potential target for treating obesity and metabolic disease. Data on the functional and anatomic characteristics of BAT are limited, however. In 20 healthy young men [12 lean, mean body mass index (BMI) 23.2 ± 1.9 kg/m2; 8 obese, BMI 34.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2] after 5 h of tolerable cold exposure, we measured BAT volume and activity by 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT). Obese men had less activated BAT than lean men (mean, 130 vs. 334 mL) but more fat in BAT-containing depots (mean, 1,646 vs. 855 mL) with a wide range (0.1–71%) in the ratio of activated BAT to inactive fat between individuals. Six anatomic regions had activated BAT—cervical, supraclavicular, axillary, mediastinal, paraspinal, and abdominal—with 67 ± 20% of all activated BAT concentrated in a continuous fascial layer comprising the first three depots in the upper torso. These nonsubcutaneous fat depots amounted to 1.5% of total body mass (4.3% of total fat mass), and up to 90% of each depot could be activated BAT. The amount and activity of BAT was significantly influenced by region of interest selection methods, PET threshold criteria, and PET resolutions. The present study suggests that active BAT can be found in specific adipose depots in adult humans, but less than one-half of the fat in these depots is stimulated by acute cold exposure, demonstrating a previously underappreciated thermogenic potential. PMID:28739898

  20. Long Maximal Incremental Tests Accurately Assess Aerobic Fitness in Class II and III Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake V˙O2peak and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in V˙O2peak (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between V˙O2peak (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. V˙O2peak and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity. PMID:25875746

  1. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  2. Gender stereotypes and drinking cognitions as indicators of moderate and high risk drinking among young women and men.

    PubMed

    Ricciardelli, L A; Connor, J P; Williams, R J; Young, R M

    2001-01-01

    The study examined differences in gender stereotypes, restrained drinking and self-efficacy for alcohol refusal between moderate and high risk drinkers among a university sample of 301 women and 118 men. Both female and male high risk drinkers displayed a response conflict, typified by high scores on restrained drinking but low scores on self-efficacy. This pattern of response conflict was more pronounced for high risk drinking women, who also identified poorly with feminine traits (e.g. 'nurturing', 'love children', 'appreciative'). The findings are discussed in relation to society's double standard that accepts intoxication in men but condemns it in women.

  3. Regulation of fat metabolism during resistance exercise in sedentary lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Choi, Myung Dong; Medlin, Justin K; Geyer, Gabriel H; Trantham, Lauren H; Dubis, Gabriel S; Hickner, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    The effect of acute resistance exercise (RE) on whole body energy expenditure (EE) and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2)-AR) regulation of lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was determined in sedentary lean (LN) and obese (OB) men. Lipolysis was monitored using microdialysis in 10 LN [body mass index (BMI) 20.9 +/- 0.6] and 10 OB (BMI 36.2 +/- 2.7) men before, during, and for 24 h after RE. EE was measured before and immediately after RE for 40 min. Changes in interstitial glycerol were measured in SCAAT with three microdialysis probes perfused with a control solution, phentolamine (alpha(2)-AR antagonist), or propranolol (beta-AR antagonist). EE and fat oxidation (FOX) were significantly (P < 0.001) elevated immediately post-RE compared with pre-RE in LN and OB subjects, with no differences between groups. RE-induced increases in SCAAT glycerol concentrations from rest to peak exercise were greater in LN than in OB men in the control (LN 142.1 +/- 30.8 vs. OB 65.4 +/- 14.2%, P = 0.03) and phentolamine probes (LN 187.2 +/- 29.6 vs. OB 66.7 +/- 11.0%, P = 0.002). Perfusion of propranolol had no effect on interstitial glycerol concentrations over the time course of the experiment in either group. Plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower (P = 0.002) and plasma growth hormone (GH) was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in LN compared with OB men. The mechanism behind RE contributing to improved body composition may in part be due to enhanced SCAAT lipolysis and improved EE and FOX in response to RE in LN and OB men. The blunted SCAAT lipolytic response to RE in OB compared with LN men is unrelated to RE-induced catecholamine activation of the antilipolytic alpha(2)-ARs and may be due to depressed GH in OB subjects.

  4. Exercise-Induced Weight Loss is More Effective than Dieting for Improving Adipokine Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation in Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Joan; Dhamodaran, Subbiah; Chen, Dan-Dan; Yap, Siew-Yoon; Chen, Richard Yuan-Tud; Tian, Roger Ho-Heng

    2015-12-01

    The adipokines chemerin and adiponectin are reciprocally related in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Weight loss increases adiponectin and reduces chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammation, but the effects of caloric restriction and physical activity are difficult to separate in combined lifestyle modification. We compared effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on chemerin, adiponectin, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. Eighty abdominally obese Asian men (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2), waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm, mean age 42.6 years) were randomized to reduce daily intake by ~500 kilocalories (n = 40) or perform moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise (200-300 min/week) (n = 40) to increase energy expenditure by a similar amount for 24 weeks. The diet and exercise groups had similar decreases in energy deficit (-456 ± 338 vs. -455 ± 315 kcal/day), weight (-3.6 ± 3.4 vs. -3.3 ± 4.6 kg), and WC (-3.4 ± 4.4 vs. -3.6 ± 3.2 cm). The exercise group demonstrated greater reductions in fat mass (-3.9 ± 3.5 vs. -2.7 ± 5.3 kg), serum chemerin (-9.7 ± 11.1 vs. -4.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml), the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-2.11 ± 3.13 vs. -1.49 ± 3.08 mg/L), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (-2.45 ± 1.88 vs. -1.38 ± 3.77). Serum adiponectin increased only in the exercise group. Exercise-induced fat mass loss was more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation in obese men, underscoring metabolic benefits of increased physical activity.

  5. Physical fitness profiles of young men: associations between physical fitness, obesity and health.

    PubMed

    Kyröläinen, Heikki; Santtila, Matti; Nindl, Bradley C; Vasankari, Tommi

    2010-11-01

    Obesity in youth has increased during the last 10 years in Western countries. Several studies have investigated physical activity and its effects on obesity and health, showing that regular physical activity combined with improved physical fitness reduces the risk of obesity and several metabolic problems (e.g. diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, heart disease) and also improves overall health. However, there is only limited scientific information available concerning the changes in the physical fitness profiles of youth. It is obvious that only slight changes observed in endurance-type physical activity can also be observed in aerobic capacity. Today and in the future, a major public health concern for teenage and young adults is the combination of increasing body fatness together with decreasing physical fitness. In order to evaluate overall fitness level, it is particularly essential to examine both aerobic and neuromuscular fitness. Therefore, in clinical practice work and health behaviour education, a person's physical fitness should be measured more frequently with various measures. Furthermore, population-based surveys should be combined with regular measurement of physical fitness to study sedentary lifestyles, particularly in young people. This article presents a review of current physical fitness profiles of male children, adolescents and young adults, which hopefully initiates further studies in this relevant scientific field. In addition, the importance of physical fitness level is evaluated in relation to obesity and health. Collectively, studies examining physical fitness profiles of young men suggest a disturbing worldwide trend of decreased aerobic fitness and increased obesity. Continued efforts to foster improved physical fitness and healthy lifestyles should be encouraged to combat these trends. Such efforts should include frequent and objective assessment of physical fitness rather than solely relying on subjective assessment of physical

  6. Association of short sleep duration with obesity, diabetes, fatty liver and behavioral factors in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shiun Dong; Muto, Takashi; Murase, Toshio; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Arase, Yasuji

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is one of the major means to maintain health. The association of short sleep duration with obesity, diabetes, fatty liver and behavioral factors requires further exploration. A total of 8157 Japanese men who underwent health evaluations were divided into 3 groups by sleep duration <5 hours, 5~<7 hours and ≥7 hours. Poor sleep was self-reported, being defined as difficulty of getting to sleep or awakening easily. The age-adjusted and age and poor sleep-adjusted odds ratios of the 3 groups for obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, mental stress, poor sleep, regular exercise and late dinner time were investigated. Compared to the sleep duration 5~<7 hours group, the age-adjusted odds ratios of the <5 hours group were significantly higher for obesity (1.42), diabetes (1.63), mental stress (1.75), poor sleep (1.85), late dinner time (1.47), and significantly lower for regular exercise (0.61); while those of the ≥7 hours group were significantly lower for obesity (0.73), fatty liver (0.82), mental stress (0.73), poor sleep (0.69), late dinner time (0.45), and significantly higher for regular exercise (1.27). Above significances still existed after adjustment for age and poor sleep. Short sleep duration is associated with obesity, diabetes, fatty liver and multiple behavioral factors. The optimal sleep duration for health promotion and effective actions for obtaining optimal sleep, including modifications of behavioral and environmental factors, should be one of the major concerns of public health.

  7. One day of mixed meal overfeeding reduces hepatic insulin sensitivity and increases VLDL particle but not VLDL-triglyceride secretion in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2013-08-01

    The exact mechanisms responsible for increased plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration in obese people are unclear, and it is not known whether excess energy intake per se is involved in the pathophysiology of this abnormality. The purpose of our study was to examine how excess energy intake from a balanced diet for 1 day affects very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG kinetics and its putative regulators hepatic insulin sensitivity and plasma free fatty acid availability. We used stable isotope-labeled tracer methods to evaluate glucose and lipid kinetics in 8 overweight and obese men (age, 38 ± 3 years; body mass index, 33.7 ± 1.7 kg/m(2); means ± SEM) on 2 occasions (randomized crossover design): once, the day after they consumed a balanced diet that provided an amount of energy that matched their energy expenditure, and another time, the day after they consumed a balanced diet that provided 30% excess calories. Eight healthy, lean men (34 ± 1 years; 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) were studied under isocaloric conditions only to provide a reference for normal lipid kinetics. VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) concentrations and secretion rates were significantly greater (P < .01) in overweight/obese compared with lean men. Hypercaloric, compared with isocaloric, feeding in overweight/obese men increased glucose rate of appearance in plasma (904 ± 21 vs 873 ± 26 μmol/min), the hepatic insulin resistance index (10.9 ± 2.2 vs 8.3 ± 1.8), and VLDL-apoB-100 concentration and secretion rate (1.91 ± 0.24 vs. 1.53 ± 0.13 nmol/min), whereas VLDL-apoB-100 plasma clearance rate, VLDL-TG secretion and plasma clearance rates, and free fatty acid rate of appearance in plasma were not affected by overfeeding. One day of moderate overfeeding (30% excess energy intake) stimulates hepatic glucose and VLDL-apo B-100 secretion rates but has no effect on hepatic and adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in overweight/obese men.

  8. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  9. Prevalence of 'obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction' in severely obese men and women and its resolution after bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Morreale, Hector F; Santacruz, Elisa; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Botella Carretero, José I

    2017-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism manifests noticeably in obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction. In women, obesity is associated with androgen excess disorders, mostly the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whereas androgen deficiency is frequently present in obese men in what has been termed as male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH). Obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction, consisting of PCOS in women and MOSH in men, is a frequent finding in patients with severe obesity and it may be ameliorated or even resolve with marked weight loss, especially after bariatric surgery. We aimed to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction among women and men presenting with severe obesity and to evaluate the response to bariatric surgery in terms of resolution and/or improvement of this condition and changes in circulating sex hormone concentrations. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles published up to June 2016. After deleting duplicates, the abstract of 757 articles were analyzed. We subsequently excluded 712 articles leaving 45 studies for full-text assessment of eligibility. Of these, 16 articles were excluded. Hence, 29 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis and in the different meta-analyses. Quality of the studies was assessed using the Quality index for prevalence studies and the Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies With No Control Group available from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. For meta-analyses including more than 10 studies, we used funnel and Doi plots to estimate publication bias. In severely obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery, obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction was very prevalent: PCOS was present in 36% (95CI 22-50) of women and MOSH was present in 64% (95CI 50-77) of men. After bariatric surgery, resolution of PCOS was found in 96% (95CI 89-100) of affected women and resolution of MOSH occurred in 87% (95CI 76-95) of affected men. Sex hormone

  10. Physical health-related quality of life in relation to metabolic health and obesity among men and women in Germany.

    PubMed

    Truthmann, Julia; Mensink, Gert B M; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Hapke, Ulfert; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schienkiewitz, Anja

    2017-06-10

    This study examined sex-specific differences in physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across subgroups of metabolic health and obesity. We specifically asked whether (1) obesity is related to lower HRQoL independent of metabolic health status and potential confounders, and (2) whether associations are similar in men and women. We used cross-sectional data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey 2008-11. Physical HRQoL was measured using the Short Form-36 version 2 physical component summary (PCS) score. Based on harmonized ATPIII criteria for the definition of the metabolic health and a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) to define obesity, individuals were classified as metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Sex-specific analyses including multivariable linear regression analyses were based on PCS as the dependent variable, metabolic health and obesity category as the independent variable with three categories and MHNO as the reference, and age, education, lifestyle and comorbidities as confounders. This study included 6860 participants (3298 men, 3562 women). Compared to MHNO, all other metabolic health and obesity categories had significantly lower PCS in both sexes. As reflected by the beta coefficients [95% confidence interval] from bivariable linear regression models, a significant inverse association with PCS was strongest for MUO (men: -7.0 [-8.2; -5.8]; women: -9.0 [-10.2; -7.9]), intermediate for MUNO (men: -4.2 [-5.3; -3.1]; women: -5.6 [-6.8; -4.4]) and least pronounced for MHO (men: -2.2 [-3.6; -0.8]; women -3.9 [-5.4; -2.5]). Differences in relation to MHNO remained statistically significant for all groups after adjusting for confounders, but decreased in particular for MUNO (men:-1.3 [-2.3; -0.3]; women: -1.5 [-2.7; -0.3]. Obesity was significantly related to lower physical HRQoL, independent of metabolic

  11. Obesity and weight gain as risk factors for erosive oesophagitis in men.

    PubMed

    Nam, S Y; Choi, I J; Nam, B H; Park, K W; Kim, C G

    2009-05-01

    Although obesity and weight gain increase the risk for symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, their association with erosive oesophagitis is still unclear in the male population. To evaluate, in men, the association of body mass index (BMI) and weight gain with endoscopically proven erosive oesophagitis. A total of 8571 Korean men in a comprehensive screening cohort were enrolled. Effects of BMI and abdominal obesity on erosive oesophagitis were estimated with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression analysis. We also evaluated the association between erosive oesophagitis and BMI change after 1-3 years. The prevalence of erosive oesophagitis was 6.4% (552/8571). In univariate analysis, the ORs for erosive oesophagitis increased as BMI or waist circumference increased (P for trend <0.001, both). In multivariate analysis, OR for erosive oesophagitis increased as BMI increased (P for trend = 0.002), while the significance of waist circumference was attenuated (P for trend = 0.13). Increase in BMI (>or=1 kg/m2) was associated with persistence of erosive oesophagitis (OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.01-7.92, P = 0.04) and new development of the disease (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.38-3.28, P = 0.001) compared with BMI change less than 1 kg/m2. Elevated BMI and weight gain have a significant association with erosive oesophagitis.

  12. Capacity for Moderate Exercise in Obese Subjects after Adaptation to a Hypocaloric, Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Stephen D.; Horton, Edward S.; Sims, Ethan A. H.; Hanson, John S.; Danforth, Elliot; Lagrange, Betty M.

    1980-01-01

    To study the capacity for moderate endurance exercise and change in metabolic fuel utilization during adaptation to a ketogenic diet, six moderately obese, untrained subjects were fed a eucaloric, balanced diet (base line) for 2 wk, followed by 6 wk of a protein-supplemented fast (PSF), which provided 1.2 g of protein/kg ideal body wt, supplemented with minerals and vitamins. The mean weight loss was 10.6 kg. The duration of treadmill exercise to subjective exhaustion was 80% of base line after 1 wk of the PSF, but increased to 155% after 6 wk. Despite adjusting up to base line, with a backpack, the subjects' exercise weight after 6 wk of dieting, the final exercise test was performed at a mean of 60% of maximum aerobic capacity, whereas the base-line level was 76%. Resting vastus lateralis glycogen content fell to 57% of base line after 1 wk of the PSF, but rose to 69% after 6 wk, at which time no decrement in muscle glycogen was measured after >4 h of uphill walking. The respiratory quotient (RQ) during steady-state exercise was 0.76 during base line, and fell progressively to 0.66 after 6 wk of the PSF. Blood glucose was well maintained during exercise in ketosis. The sum of acetoacetate and beta hydroxybutyrate rose from 3.28 to 5.03 mM during exercise after 6 wk of the PSF, explaining in part the low exercise RQ. The low RQ and the fact that blood glucose and muscle glycogen were maintained during exhausting exercise after 6 wk of a PSF suggest that prolonged ketosis results in an adaptation, after which lipid becomes the major metabolic fuel, and net carbohydrate utilization is markedly reduced during moderate but ultimately exhausting exercise. PMID:7000826

  13. Effects of resistance exercise and obesity level on ghrelin and cortisol in men.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

    2012-06-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) is increasingly recommended by health organizations as a weight management tool. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an acute high-volume, whole-body RE protocol on the glucoregulatory and ghrelin response in sedentary obese and lean men. Five World Health Organization (WHO) class 1 obese (body mass index [BMI], 30.00-34.99) (age, 21.6 ± 2.5 years; height, 176.3 ± 3.7 cm; body mass, 97.8 ± 8.58 kg; body fat, 34.7% ± 2.95%), 5 WHO 2 (BMI, 35-39.99)/WHO 3 (BMI, ≥40) obese (age, 20.0 ± 1.4 years; height, 177.7 ± 5.15 cm; body mass, 120.8 ± 10.49 kg; body fat, 40.5% ± 5.82 %), and 9 lean men (age, 20.1 ± 2.1 years; height, 177.8 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 71.7 ± 5.8 kg; body fat, 14.7% ± 3.54 %) completed an acute RE testing protocol (6 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 85%-95% 10-repetition maximum with 120- and 90-second rest periods); and blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately postexercise and during recovery (+50, +70, and +110). Resistance exercise produced differences over time in cortisol, insulin, and glucose. Group differences were observed for ghrelin, with the WHO class 2/3 group having significantly greater ghrelin levels than the lean group (d = 0.28, P = .009) and the WHO class 1 group (d = 0.39, P = .002). Higher ghrelin was significantly associated with lower cortisol only in obese individuals. In addition, higher growth hormone was associated with lower ghrelin in lean individuals. Results suggest that glucoregulatory homeostasis is altered with increasing levels of obesity and that these alterations may mediate the response of cortisol and ghrelin in response to RE.

  14. Regular exercise modulates obesity factors and body composition in sturdy men

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Choi, Pil-Byung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the change and correlation between obesity factors and body composition according to regular exercise. Thirty-six sturdy men at twenty years old in ‘K’ university students were participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n= 18 in each group): control group and regular exercise group. Exercise program composed of three programs: warm-up (10 min), work-out (30–60 min), cool-down (10 min), and categorized by five days per week for eight weeks. Aerobic exercise using a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve was performed, and weight training was composed of nine different exercises for the large muscles. Before the performing regular exercise, there was no significant difference between control and regular exercise groups. In the present results, 8 weeks regular exercise significantly decreased leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) more than compared to before performing regular exercise, whereas significantly enhanced lean mass more than compared to before performing regular exercise. Furthermore, regular exercise group reduced leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, WHR, and BMI compared to control group in the post test. In the correlation of obesity-related factors and body composition, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed correlation with weight, lean mass, and fat mass after performing regular exercise. Here in this study, we suggest that regular exercise is a valuable tool for the improvement of health in the sturdy men, because regular exercise suppresses body fat and obesity-related factors. PMID:24278869

  15. Country of birth, acculturation status and abdominal obesity in a national sample of Mexican-American women and men.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, J; Winkleby, M

    2000-06-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of country of birth and acculturation status on indicators of obesity using national samples of Mexican-American women and men. We analysed data for 1387 Mexican-American women and 1404 Mexican- American men, ages 25-64, from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). We examined whether waist circumference and abdominal obesity varied by country of birth and acculturation status (primary language spoken), and whether among those with abdominal obesity, number of associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors varied by country of birth and acculturation status. Both country of birth and, to a lesser degree, acculturation status were significantly associated with waist circumference and abdominal obesity. Mexican-born women and men had the smallest waist circumference (90.4 cm, 94.0 cm respectively), US-born English-speaking women and men had intermediate waist circumference (93.6 cm, 97.3 cm), and US-born Spanish-speaking women and men had the largest waist circumference (96.9 cm, 97.7 cm), after accounting for age, education, per cent of energy from dietary fat, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking. All women had high prevalences of abdominal obesity, particularly US-born Spanish-speaking women (68.7%). In addition, US-born Spanish-speaking women with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have one or more of the following CVD risk factors: high serum insulin, non-insulin dependent diabetes, high blood lipids, and/or hypertension. These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the Mexican-American population and suggest that country of birth and lack of acculturation to the majority culture, as well as secondary lifestyle changes, may explain the significant clinical differences observed in abdominal obesity within Mexican-American population subgroups.

  16. The whole body cryostimulation modifies irisin concentration and reduces inflammation in middle aged, obese men.

    PubMed

    Dulian, Katarzyna; Laskowski, Radosław; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kujach, Sylwester; Flis, Damian J; Smaruj, Mirosław; Ziemann, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect induced by exposure to low temperature might trigger the endocrine function of muscle and fat tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the whole body cryostimulation (CRY) on irisin, a myokine which activates oxygen consumption in fat cells as well as thermogenesis. In addition, the relationship between hepcidin (Hpc) - hormone regulating iron metabolism, and inflammation was studied. A group of middle aged men (n = 12, 38 ± 9 years old, BMI > 30 kg m(-2)) participated in the study. Subjects were exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (once a day at 9:30 am, for 3 min, at temperature -110 °C). Blood samples were collected before the first cryostimulation and after completing the last one. Prior to treatment body composition and fitness level were determined. The applied protocol of cryostimulation lead to rise the blood irisin in obese non-active men (338.8 ± 42.2 vs 407.6 ± 118.5 ng mL(-1)), whereas has no effect in obese active men (371.5 ± 30.0 vs 343.3 ± 47.6 ng mL(-1)). Values recorded 24 h after the last cryo-session correlated significantly with the fat tissue, yet inversely with the skeletal muscle mass. Therefore, we concluded the subcutaneous fat tissue to be the main source of irisin in response to cold exposures. The applied cold treatment reduced the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hpc concentration confirming its anti-inflammatory effect.

  17. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  18. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-27

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Moderate intensity treadmill exercise alters food preference via dopaminergic plasticity of ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Hai Jun; Shang, Ning Ning; Liu, Jun; Li, Juan; Tang, Dong Hui; Li, Qiong

    2017-02-22

    Obesity has been associated with the excessive intake of palatable food as well as physical inactivity. To investigate the neurobiological mechanism underlying the exercised-induced prevention and treatment of obesity, the present study examined the effect of treadmill exercise on the preference for palatable food in mice. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system were also analysed, as well as levels of dopamine, dopamine transporter, and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group (CG, n=10) and a high-fat diet group (HG, N=30). Mice of the HG group were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks in order to induce a model of obesity, following which the obese mice were randomly divided into an obese control group (OG, n=11) and an obese+exercise group (OEG, n=12). OEG mice received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise intervention. Our results indicate that, relative to animals in the OG group, OEG mice exhibited significant decreases in the preference for high-fat diets and insulin resistance, along with increases in the preference for sucrose and milk, TH and D2 receptor expression, and levels of dopamine in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system. These results suggest that moderate-intensity treadmill exercise can alter food preference in obese mice, which may be mediated by dopaminergic plasticity of the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens and enhanced insulin sensitivity.

  20. Everything in Moderation--Dietary Diversity and Quality, Central Obesity and Risk of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Otto, Marcia C de Oliveira; Padhye, Nikhil S; Bertoni, Alain G; Jacobs, David R; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Diet guidelines recommend increasing dietary diversity. Yet, metrics for dietary diversity have neither been well-defined nor evaluated for impact on metabolic health. Also, whether diversity has effects independent of diet quality is unknown. We characterized and evaluated associations of diet diversity and quality with abdominal obesity and type II diabetes (T2D) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. At baseline (2000-02), diet was assessed among 5,160 Whites, Hispanic, Blacks, and Chinese age 45-84 y and free of T2D, using a validated questionnaire. Three different aspects of diet diversity were characterized including count (number of different food items eaten more than once/week, a broad measure of diversity), evenness (Berry index, a measure of the spread of the diversity), and dissimilarity (Jaccard distance, a measure of the diversity of the attributes of the foods consumed). Diet quality was characterized using aHEI, DASH, and a priori pattern. Count and evenness were weakly positively correlated with diet quality (r with AHEI: 0.20, 0.04), while dissimilarity was moderately inversely correlated (r = -0.34). In multivariate models, neither count nor evenness was associated with change in waist circumference (WC) or incident T2D. Greater food dissimilarity was associated with higher gain in WC (p-trend<0.01), with 120% higher gain in participants in the highest quintile of dissimilarity scores. Diet diversity was not associated with incident T2D. Also, none of the diversity metrics were associated with change in WC or incident T2D when restricted to only healthier or less healthy foods. Higher diet quality was associated with lower risk of T2D. Our findings provide little evidence for benefits of diet diversity for either abdominal obesity or diabetes. Greater dissimilarity among foods was actually associated with gain in WC. These results do not support the notion that "eating everything in moderation" leads to greater diet quality or better

  1. Effects of GH on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Young Men With Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gerweck, Anu V.; Lin, Eleanor; Landa, Melissa G.; Torriani, Martin; Schoenfeld, David A.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visceral adiposity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and decreased GH secretion. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of GH administration in abdominally obese young men on body composition, including liver fat, mitochondrial function, and cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. Design and Participants: This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 abdominally obese men (IGF-1 below the mean, no exclusion based on GH level), 21 to 45 years of age. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated abdominal fat depots, thigh muscle and fat (computed tomography), fat and lean mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), mitochondrial function (dynamic phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy), CV risk markers, carotid intimal-medial thickness, and endothelial function. Results: GH administration resulted in a mean IGF-1 SD score increase from −1.9 ± 0.08 to −0.2 ± 0.3 in the GH group and a decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk/extremity fat, intrahepatic lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B/low-density lipoprotein vs placebo after controlling for the increase in weight observed in both groups. There were inverse associations between change in IGF-1 levels and change in VAT, VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk fat, trunk/extremity fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and apolipoprotein B. Mitochondrial function improved in the GH group compared with placebo after controlling for change in glucose. There was no change in thigh fat, muscle mass, intramyocellular lipids, cholesterol, fibrinogen, intimal-medial thickness, or endothelial function. There was no increase in fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c in the GH vs placebo group, although glucose during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test increased slightly. Conclusion: GH replacement in abdominally obese men improves

  2. Adaptive reduction in thermogenesis and resistance to lose fat in obese men.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Adaptive thermogenesis is defined as a greater than predicted change in energy expenditure in response to changes in energy balance. This issue is particularly relevant in the context of a weight-reducing programme in which diminished thermogenesis can be sufficient to compensate for a prescribed decrease in daily energy intake. In the present pilot study, we investigated the adaptive reduction in thermogenesis in resting state that appears to favour resistance to further weight loss. Eight obese men (mean BMI: 33.4 kg/m2, mean age: 38 years) participated in this repeated-measures, within-subject, clinical intervention. They were subjected to a weight-loss programme that consisted of a supervised diet (-2930 kJ/d) and exercise clinical intervention. The phases investigated were as follows: (i) baseline, (ii) after 5 (SE 1) kg loss of body weight (phase 1), (iii) after 10 (SE 1) kg weight loss (phase 2) and (iv) at resistance to further weight loss (plateau). At each phase of the weight-reducing programme, body weight and composition as well as RMR were measured. A regression equation was established in a control population of the same age to predict RMR in obese men at each phase of the weight-loss programme. We observed that body weight and fat mass (FM) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while fat-free mass remained unchanged throughout the programme. In phase 1, measured RMR had fallen by 418 kJ/d, more than predicted (P < 0.05), and this difference reached 706 kJ/d at plateau (P < 0.05 v. phase 1). A positive association (r 0.64, P < 0.05) was observed between the reduction in thermogenesis and the degree of FM depletion at plateau. The adaptive reduction in thermogenesis at plateau was substantial and represented 30.9% of the compensation in energy balance that led to resistance to further lose body weight. In conclusion, these results show that adaptive reduction in thermogenesis may contribute to the occurrence of resistance to lose fat in obese men

  3. A Mixed-Methods Examination of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Overweight and Obese South Asian Men Living in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Emadian, Amir; Thompson, Janice

    2017-03-27

    South Asian men living in the UK have higher rates of central obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) compared with their white British counterparts. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) are important risk factors for the development of T2DM. The purpose of this study was to objectively measure PA, ST, and to explore the factors influencing these behaviours in this high-risk population. A mixed-methods cross-sectional research design was employed, including the quantification of PA and ST using the self-report International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-long form and accelerometry in overweight and obese UK South Asian men (n = 54), followed by semi-structured interviews in a purposive sub-sample to explore the factors influencing PA and ST (n = 31). Accelerometer-derived moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and ST were 298.9 ± 186.6 min/week and 551.4 ± 95.0 min/day, respectively. IPAQ-derived MVPA was significantly lower than accelerometer-derived MVPA (p < 0.001). IPAQ-derived ST was significantly higher than accelerometer-derived ST (p < 0.001). Lack of time and family commitments were identified as the main barriers to being more physically active, with group exercise identified as an important facilitator to being more active. A cultural norm of focusing on promoting education over sport participation during childhood was identified as an important factor influencing long-term PA behaviours. Work commitments and predominantly sedentary jobs were identified as the main barriers to reducing ST. Healthcare professionals and researchers need to consider the socio-cultural factors which affect PA engagement in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the UK, to ensure that advice and future interventions are tailored to address the needs of this population.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40 ± .06 and −.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

  5. Differential Effects of Heavy Versus Moderate Loads on Measures of Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Peterson, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions.

  6. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A; Nguyen, Amy D; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)-(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative to energy

  7. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  8. Stress Moderates the Effect of Childhood Trauma and Adversity on Recent Drinking in Treatment-seeking Alcohol-dependent Men

    PubMed Central

    Eames, Sarah F.; Businelle, Michael S.; Suris, Alina; Walker, Robrina; Rao, Uma; North, Carol S.; Xiao, Hong; Adinoff, Bryon

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to clarify the relationship between childhood trauma and adversity with later alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of adult psychosocial stress. Method Seventy-seven recently abstinent alcohol-dependent men attending residential treatment programs were assessed. Childhood trauma/adversity was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), drinks per drinking day (DDD) with the TimeLine Follow Back, and chronic psychosocial stress with the UCLA Stress Interview. Drinking and stress were retrospectively assessed for six months prior to the present treatment episode. Direct associations between childhood trauma/adversity and alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of recent psychosocial stress were assessed. All measures were considered as continuous variables. Results Pretreatment drinking severity (DDD) was associated with CTQ Total score (p = .009) and the Emotional Abuse (p < .001) and Physical Abuse (p < .01) subscales. UCLA Total Stress significantly moderated the effects of CTQ Total score on drinking severity (p = .04). Whereas higher CTQ scores were significantly associated with a greater amount of pretreatment drinking in participants with high UCLA stress scores (p = .01), CTQ scores were not associated with the amount of drinking in those with low UCLA stress scores (p = .63). Conclusions Childhood trauma predicts drinking severity in alcohol-dependent men and this effect is stronger in participants with ongoing stress in adult life. These findings suggest that early childhood trauma/adversity may sensitize stress-response systems. PMID:24635549

  9. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  10. Associations of obesity with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and elderly men: European Male Aging Study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Lee, D M; Lean, M E J; Finn, J D; O'Neill, T W; Bartfai, G; Forti, G; Giwercman, A; Kula, K; Pendleton, N; Punab, M; Rutter, M K; Vanderschueren, D; Huhtaniemi, I T; Wu, F C W; Casanueva, F F

    2015-01-01

    Social and lifestyle influences on age-related changes in body morphology are complex because lifestyle and physiological response to social stress can affect body fat differently. In this study, we examined the associations of socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors with BMI and waist circumference (WC) in middle-aged and elderly European men. A cross-sectional study of 3319 men aged 40-79 years recruited from eight European centres. We estimated relative risk ratios (RRRs) of overweight/obesity associated with unfavourable SES and lifestyles. The prevalence of BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) or WC ≥ 102 cm rose linearly with age, except in the eighth decade when high BMI, but not high WC, declined. Among men aged 40-59 years, compared with non-smokers or most active men, centre and BMI-adjusted RRRs for having a WC between 94 and 101.9 cm increased by 1.6-fold in current smokers, 2.7-fold in least active men and maximal at 2.8-fold in least active men who smoked. Similar patterns but greater RRRs were observed for men with WC ≥ 102 cm, notably 8.4-fold greater in least active men who smoked. Compared with men in employment, those who were not in employment had increased risk of having a high WC by 1.4-fold in the 40-65 years group and by 1.3-fold in the 40-75 years group. These relationships were weaker among elderly men. Unfavourable SES and lifestyles associate with increased risk of obesity, especially in middle-aged men. The combination of inactivity and smoking was the strongest predictor of high WC, providing a focus for health promotion and prevention at an early age. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Associations of Diabetes and Obesity with Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men

    PubMed Central

    Djousse, Luc; Song, Yiqing; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O.; Matsumoto, Chisa; Manson, JoAnn E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians' Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years' follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1.30 [1.06–1.59] for BMI 25–<30 kg/m2 and 1.69 [1.24–2.30] for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The risk of diagnosed AAA was significantly higher by 6% with each unit increase in baseline BMI. This association was consistent regardless of the other known AAA risk factors and preexisting vascular diseases. Overall, baseline history of diabetes tended to be associated with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA (HR = 0.79 [0.57–1.11]); this association appeared to vary by follow-up time (HR = 1.56 and 0.63 during ≤ and >2 years' follow-up, resp.). Conclusion. In a large cohort of middle-aged and older men, obesity was associated with a higher risk, while history of diabetes tended to associate with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA, particularly over longer follow-up. PMID:28326193

  12. Abdominal obesity and inflammation predicts hypertension among prehypertensive men and women: the ATTICA Study.

    PubMed

    Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Lentzas, Yannis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the 5-year incidence of hypertension and its predictors among prehypertensive adults. Under the context of the ATTICA Study, data from 1188 individuals, free of cardiovascular disease, but with defined high blood pressure levels (prehypertension) at baseline examination (during 2001-2002) were retrieved. In 2006, the 5-year follow-up of the study was performed, and 798 of the prehypertensive participants were allocated. In this work, incidence and determinants of developing hypertension were evaluated. The 5-year ageadjusted incidence of hypertension was 18.7% in men and 24.6% in women (P = 0.05); while almost one half of prehypertensive individuals at the age of 55-65 years developed hypertension, and approximately 6 out of 10 people over 65 years of age developed the disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased age (odds ratio [OR] per 1 year = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.12), male sex (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.68), high education status (OR per 1 year of school = 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.98), waist circumference (OR per 1 cm = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) and C-reactive protein (OR per 1 mg/l = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.20), were positively associated with the development of hypertension. Moreover, greater adherence to Mediterranean diet seems to protect only prehypertensive, with abdominal obesity patients prone to develop hypertension (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98). Annual incidence of hypertension was roughly 4% in men and women. Older people, with low education, abdominal obesity, lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and increased inflammation, constitute a model of prehypertensive individuals that are prone to develop hypertension.

  13. Accuracy of predicted resting metabolic rate and relationship between resting metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine that not only the relationship of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and cardiorespiratory fitness(VO2peak), but also the comparison between measured and predicted results of RMR in obese men. [Methods] 60 obese men (body fat>32%) were recruited for this study. They did not participate in regular exercising programs at least 6 months. The RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry and predicted RMR using Herris-Benedicte equation. The cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by directly measuring the oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise on the treadmill. [Results] The significance for the difference between the measured results and predicted result of RMR were tested by paired t-test. Correlation of measured date was obtained by Pearson correlation coefficient. The value of predicted RMR and measured RMR were significantly different in these obese subjects. (p < 0.001). The difference between RMR cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness showed significant correlation (r=0.67, p < 0.05). [Conclusion] The current formulas of predicted RMR have limited the evaluation of measured RMR for Korean obese men. Therefore, this study suggests that new formula should be designed for Korean in order to obtain more accurate results in obese. PMID:25566436

  14. Accuracy of predicted resting metabolic rate and relationship between resting metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine that not only the relationship of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and cardiorespiratory fitness(VO2peak), but also the comparison between measured and predicted results of RMR in obese men. 60 obese men (body fat>32%) were recruited for this study. They did not participate in regular exercising programs at least 6 months. The RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry and predicted RMR using Herris-Benedicte equation. The cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by directly measuring the oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise on the treadmill. The significance for the difference between the measured results and predicted result of RMR were tested by paired t-test. Correlation of measured date was obtained by Pearson correlation coefficient. The value of predicted RMR and measured RMR were significantly different in these obese subjects. (p < 0.001). The difference between RMR cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness showed significant correlation (r=0.67, p < 0.05). The current formulas of predicted RMR have limited the evaluation of measured RMR for Korean obese men. Therefore, this study suggests that new formula should be designed for Korean in order to obtain more accurate results in obese.

  15. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  16. Organizational Justice and Men's Likelihood to Sexually Harass: The Moderating Role of Sexism and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krings, Franciska; Facchin, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrated relations between men's perceptions of organizational justice and increased sexual harassment proclivities. Respondents reported higher likelihood to sexually harass under conditions of low interactional justice, suggesting that sexual harassment likelihood may increase as a response to perceived injustice. Moreover, the…

  17. A population-based comparison of weight and weight perceptions among overweight and obese Mexican and Mexican-American men.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C Haskin; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-01-01

    To examine actual and perceived weight in national cohorts of Mexican-origin adult men in Mexico and the United States (US). We used the 2001-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (OO) in Mexicans was 65% and in Mexican-Americans was 72%. OO Mexican-American men were more likely than OO Mexican men (56 vs. 49%) to perceive themselves as "overweight". Among OO men from both populations, those who had been screened for OO by a health provider were almost seven times more likely to have accurate weight perceptions. Only 9% of OO men in Mexico and 25% in the US recalled having been screened for weight. Weight misperceptions were common in both populations but more prevalent in Mexico; low screening by providers may contribute to poor weight control in both countries.

  18. Everything in Moderation - Dietary Diversity and Quality, Central Obesity and Risk of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Padhye, Nikhil S.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Jacobs, David R.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Diet guidelines recommend increasing dietary diversity. Yet, metrics for dietary diversity have neither been well-defined nor evaluated for impact on metabolic health. Also, whether diversity has effects independent of diet quality is unknown. We characterized and evaluated associations of diet diversity and quality with abdominal obesity and type II diabetes (T2D) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. At baseline (2000–02), diet was assessed among 5,160 Whites, Hispanic, Blacks, and Chinese age 45–84 y and free of T2D, using a validated questionnaire. Three different aspects of diet diversity were characterized including count (number of different food items eaten more than once/week, a broad measure of diversity), evenness (Berry index, a measure of the spread of the diversity), and dissimilarity (Jaccard distance, a measure of the diversity of the attributes of the foods consumed). Diet quality was characterized using aHEI, DASH, and a priori pattern. Count and evenness were weakly positively correlated with diet quality (r with AHEI: 0.20, 0.04), while dissimilarity was moderately inversely correlated (r = -0.34). In multivariate models, neither count nor evenness was associated with change in waist circumference (WC) or incident T2D. Greater food dissimilarity was associated with higher gain in WC (p-trend<0.01), with 120% higher gain in participants in the highest quintile of dissimilarity scores. Diet diversity was not associated with incident T2D. Also, none of the diversity metrics were associated with change in WC or incident T2D when restricted to only healthier or less healthy foods. Higher diet quality was associated with lower risk of T2D. Our findings provide little evidence for benefits of diet diversity for either abdominal obesity or diabetes. Greater dissimilarity among foods was actually associated with gain in WC. These results do not support the notion that “eating everything in moderation” leads to greater diet quality or

  19. Greater than predicted decrease in energy expenditure during exercise after body weight loss in obese men.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Eric; Imbeault, Pascal; St-Pierre, Sylvie; Alméras, Natalie; Mauriège, Pascale; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    This study was performed retrospectively to investigate whether exercise energy expenditure (EE) measured during a standardized treadmill protocol (4.5 km/h at 0% grade) falls below predicted values after body weight loss in obese men. A reference equation was established to predict net exercise EE in a control sample of 83 obese individuals (27 kg/m(2)< or = body mass index <45 kg/m(2)), using age, fat mass and fat-free mass as independent variables. This equation was then used to predict net exercise EE in another group of 11 obese men before and after a 15-week drug-based weight loss programme that was coupled with energy restriction [-2929 kJ/day (-700 kcal/day)]. Body weight and body composition were determined by hydrodensitometry. Net exercise EE, insulin, leptin, 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine were measured after an overnight fast at baseline and 2-4 weeks after the end of the programme, when subjects were weight stable. Body weight was significantly reduced (-11%; P <0.01) at the end of the weight loss programme. At baseline, measured net exercise EE was similar to that predicted from the regression equation [19.6 and 19.8 kJ/min (4.69 and 4.74 kcal/min) respectively; not significant]. However, after the end of the intervention, measured net exercise EE was significantly below the predicted value [15.5 and 17.3 kJ/min (3.71 and 4.14 kcal/min) respectively; P <0.01]. The difference between the predicted and the measured fall in net exercise EE was significantly associated with changes in leptin concentration ( r =0.79, P <0.01), even after correction for changes in fat mass and insulin. These observations suggest that net exercise EE falls below predicted values after body weight loss. In addition, this greater than predicted decrease in net exercise EE was associated with changes in leptin.

  20. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  1. Obesity disparities among disadvantaged men: national adult male inmate prevalence pooled with non-incarcerated estimates, United States, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Houle, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Obesity prevalence among inmates in the United States is unknown. Since incarceration disproportionately affects minorities, excluding inmates from surveys may bias national obesity estimates. Including inmates may also help explain racial obesity disparities among men. This descriptive study summarizes obesity prevalence among US male inmates and analyzes the effect of incarceration on national prevalence estimates. Data for male inmates came from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails and the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. Data for the non-incarcerated US adult male population came from the 2004 National Health Interview Survey. Self-reported weight and height data were analyzed from men aged 25-59 years for all surveys (obesity equaled BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)). Pooled inmate obesity prevalence was less than non-incarcerated estimates across all race/ethnic-education subgroups. However, unlike non-incarcerated estimates, inmates had obesity disparities between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Merging inmate and non-incarcerated estimates lowered obesity prevalence among men aged 25-39 with lower education levels. Merged estimates showed a positive obesity gradient within Whites by education. This study indicates that the exclusion of inmates from national obesity estimates leads to overestimates in obesity prevalence, particularly for low SES White and Black men.

  2. Differential Effects of Heavy Versus Moderate Loads on Measures of Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D.; Peterson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions. Key points Heavy loads maximize muscular strength when the numbers of sets are equated. Moderate loads maximize muscle hypertrophy when the number of sets are equated Volume load appears to be more important to increases in muscle hypertrophy compared to absolute strength PMID:27928218

  3. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25 kg/m(2) were randomized to either a boxing group or a brisk walking (control) group for 12 weeks. Each group engaged in 4 training sessions per week, equated for total physical activity. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, assessment of training intensities, adherence and adverse events. Effectiveness was assessed pre and post intervention via pertinent obesity-, cardiovascular-, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes. Nineteen individuals expressed an interest and 63% (n = 12) consented. Recruitment was slower than anticipated (1.3 participants/week). The boxing group trained at a significantly higher intensity each week versus the brisk walking group (p < 0.05). Two participants in the boxing group experienced an adverse event; both continued to exercise with modifications to the exercise program. No other adverse events were noted. The boxing group attended more sessions (79% vs. 55%) and had a lower attrition rate (n = 0 vs. n = 2) than the walking group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the boxing group significantly improved body fat percentage (p = 0.047), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026), augmentation index (AIx; p < 0.001), absolute VO2max (p = 0.015), and Physical Functioning (p = 0.042) and Vitality (p = 0.024) domains of HRQoL over time. The walking group did not improve any clinical outcomes, and experienced a worsening of Vitality (p = 0.043). Boxing training (HIIT) in adults with abdominal obesity is

  4. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A.; Plouffe, Louise J.; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet. PMID:27136580

  6. Thermic effect of food at rest, during exercise, and after exercise in lean and obese men of similar body weight.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, K R; Gutin, B; Nyman, A M; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1985-01-01

    The thermic effect of food at rest, during 30 min of cycle ergometer exercise, and after exercise was studied in eight lean (mean +/- SEM, 10 +/- 1% body fat, hydrostatically-determined) and eight obese men (30 +/- 2% body fat). The lean and obese mean were matched with respect to age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to determine the relationship between thermogenesis and body composition, independent of body weight. All men were overweight, defined as a BMI between 26-34, but the obese had three times more body fat and significantly less lean body mass than the lean men. Metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry under four conditions on separate mornings, in randomized order, after an overnight fast: 3 h of rest in the postabsorptive state; 3 h of rest after a 750-kcal mixed meal (14% protein, 31.5% fat, and 54.5% carbohydrate); during 30 min of cycling and for 3 h post exercise in the postabsorptive state; and during 30 min of cycling performed 30 min after the test meal and for 3 h post exercise. The thermic effect of food, which is the difference between postabsorptive and postprandial energy expenditure, was significantly higher for the lean than the obese men under the rest, post exercise, and exercise conditions: the increments in metabolic rate for the lean and obese men, respectively, were 48 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 4 kcal over 3 h rest (P less than 0.05); 44 +/- 7 vs. 16 +/- 5 kcal over 3 h post exercise (P less than 0.05); and 19 +/- 3 vs. 6 +/- 3 kcal over 30 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). The thermic effect of food was significantly negatively related to body fat content under the rest (r = -0.55), post exercise (r = -0.66), and exercise (r = -0.58) conditions. The results of this study indicate that for men of similar total body weight and BMI, body composition is a significant determinant of postprandial thermogenesis; the responses of obese are significantly blunted compared with those of lean men. Images PMID:4044828

  7. Gender, age, and place of residence as moderators of the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation among Australian gay men and lesbians.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.

  8. Obesity Is Associated With Increased Morbidity in Moderate to Severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Allison A; Putcha, Nirupama; Drummond, M Bradley; Boriek, Aladin M; Hanania, Nicola A; Kim, Victor; Kinney, Gregory L; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Brigham, Emily P; Wise, Robert A; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is prevalent in the United States; however, the impact of obesity on COPD morbidity is unclear. We hypothesized that obesity is associated with worse outcomes in COPD. We examined 3,631 participants from the multicenter prospective cohort study Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) who had spirometry-confirmed COPD, a postbronchodilator FEV1 < 80% predicted, and a BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2). We conducted logistic and linear regression analyses to determine the association between COPD outcomes and obesity class, adjusting for relevant confounders. The referent for obesity classes included normal/overweight individuals (BMI range, 18.5-29.9 kg/m(2)). Overall, 35% of participants were obese, with 21% class I (BMI range, 30-34.9 kg/m(2)), 9% class II (BMI range, 35-39.9 kg/m(2)), and 5% class III (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)). The number of comorbidities increased with increasing obesity class (P < .001). Increasing obesity class was independently associated with worse respiratory-specific and general quality of life (QOL) (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and Short Form-36 score version 2, respectively), reduced 6-min walk distance (6MWD), increased dyspnea (Modified Medical Research Council score ≥ 2), and greater odds of severe acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). The associations between obesity and worse outcomes were independent of the presence of comorbidities, except in the case of SF-36 and severe exacerbations. Obesity is prevalent among individuals with COPD and associated with worse COPD-related outcomes, ranging from QOL and dyspnea to 6MWD and severe AECOPD. These associations were strengthened when obesity was analyzed as a dose-dependent response. Obesity in patients with COPD may contribute to a worse COPD-related course. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone density, microstructure and strength in obese and normal weight men and women in younger and older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Evans, Amy L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Eastell, Richard; Walsh, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with greater areal BMD (aBMD) and is considered protective against hip and vertebral fracture. Despite this, there is a higher prevalence of lower leg and proximal humerus fracture in obesity. We aimed to determine if there are site-specific differences in BMD, bone structure, or bone strength between obese and normal-weight adults. We studied 100 individually-matched pairs of normal (body mass index [BMI] 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) men and women, aged 25 to 40 years or 55 to 75 years. We assessed aBMD at the whole body (WB), hip (TH), and lumbar spine (LS) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), LS trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and vBMD and microarchitecture and strength at the distal radius and tibia with high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and micro-finite element analysis. Serum type 1 procollagen N-terminal peptide (P1NP) and collagen type 1 C-telopeptide (CTX) were measured by automated electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA). Obese adults had greater WB, LS, and TH aBMD than normal adults. The effect of obesity on LS and WB aBMD was greater in older than younger adults (p < 0.01). Obese adults had greater vBMD than normal adults at the tibia (p < 0.001 both ages) and radius (p < 0.001 older group), thicker cortices, higher cortical BMD and tissue mineral density, lower cortical porosity, higher trabecular BMD, and higher trabecular number than normal adults. There was no difference in bone size between obese and normal adults. Obese adults had greater estimated failure load at the radius (p < 0.05) and tibia (p < 0.01). Differences in HR-pQCT measurements between obese and normal adults were seen more consistently in the older than the younger group. Bone turnover markers were lower in obese than in normal adults. Greater BMD in obesity is not an artifact of DXA measurement. Obese adults have higher BMD, thicker and denser cortices, and higher

  10. Social relationships, depressive symptoms and suicidality in Korea: Examining mediating and moderating effects in men and women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2016-02-01

    It has been widely recognized that social relationships and depressive symptoms predict suicidality. However, there are few empirical studies examining relationships among these three factors using an integrative approach. This study aimed to examine the effects of perceived quality of social relationships and depressive symptoms on suicidality and to analyze whether the effect of perceived quality of social relationships on suicidality is mediated by depressive symptoms or whether the perceived quality of social relationships has a moderating effect on the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidality in men and women. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey. Multiple regression models and subsample analyses were conducted according to gender. A higher perceived quality of social relationships decreased suicidality while depressive symptoms increased suicidality. The effect of perceived quality of social relationships was partially mediated by depressive symptoms. Perceived quality of social relationships also significantly interacted with depressive symptoms, suggesting that the harmful effect of depressive symptoms was ameliorated as perceived quality of social relationships increased. A subsample analysis according to gender, however, indicated a significant gender difference in that the perceived quality of social relationships moderated the effect of depressive symptoms only in women. The findings suggest that enhanced quality of social relationships can protect people from suicidal risk and are more effective for women with depressive symptoms than for men with the same symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Do beliefs about gender roles moderate the relationship between exposure to misogynistic song lyrics and men's female-directed aggression?

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Courtland S; Berke, Danielle S; Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos

    2017-04-01

    Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression. Results indicated that misogynistic lyrics and hostile sexism significantly predicted both unprovoked and provoked aggression against a female target. Contrary to expectations, moderating effects of gender role beliefs on the relationship between misogynistic lyrics and men's aggression were not found. Implications are discussed in terms of the costs of misogyny in media for women's lives. Aggr. Behav. 43:123-132, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Plasma Catecholamines and Stress Assessment in Men Exposed to Moderate Altitudes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Moderate Altitudes THESISIDA#WA49 S. PERFORMING OiG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOI() 0. COTRACT OR GRANT NUMULER() Roberta Louise Russell PERFORMING ORGANIZATION... performing the research. Can you estimate what this research would have cost if it had been accomplished under contract or if it had been done in...being placed on getting maximum performance from our aircrews than ever before. With today’s high performance aircraft, aircrews must now perform more

  13. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between 4-AIT, CME, and 1-AIT. Total EPOC was highest after 4-AIT. These data suggest that exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Weight management for overweight and obese men delivered through professional football clubs: a pilot randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing, but men are less likely than women to attend existing weight management programmes. We have taken a novel approach to reducing perceived barriers to weight loss for men by using professional football (soccer) clubs to encourage participation in a weight management group programme, gender-sensitised in content and style of delivery. Football Fans in Training (FFIT) provides 12 weeks of weight loss, physical activity and healthy eating advice at top professional football clubs in Scotland. This pilot randomized trial explored the feasibility of using these clubs as a setting for a randomized controlled trial of 12 month weight loss following men’s participation in FFIT. Methods A two-arm pilot trial at two Scottish Premier League football clubs (one large, one smaller), with 103 men (aged 35–65, body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2) individually randomized to the intervention (n=51, received the pilot programme (p-FFIT) immediately) and waitlist comparison (n=52, received p-FFIT after four months) groups. Feasibility of recruitment, randomization, data collection and retention were assessed. Objective physical measurements (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, body composition) and questionnaires (self-reported physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, psychological outcomes) were obtained from both groups by fieldworkers trained to standard protocols at baseline and 12 weeks, and from the intervention group at 6 and 12 months. Qualitative methods elicited men’s experiences of participation in the pilot trial. Results Following a short recruitment period, the recruitment target was achieved at the large, but not smaller, club. Participants’ mean age was 47.1±8.4 years; mean BMI 34.5±5.0 kg/m2. Retention through the trial was good (>80% at 12 weeks and 6 months; >75% at 12 months), and 76% attended at least 80% of available programme delivery sessions. At 12 weeks, the intervention group lost

  15. Obesity and thyroid cancer risk among U.S. men and women: a pooled analysis of five prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Cari M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Hsing, Ann W; Linet, Martha S; Park, Yikyung; Schairer, Catherine; Schatzkin, Arthur; Shikany, James M; Berrington de González, Amy

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has risen dramatically in the United States since the early 1980s. Although the prevalence of obesity has doubled during this time period, the relationship between obesity and thyroid cancer is uncertain. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of five prospective U.S. studies, including 413,979 women and 434,953 men. Proportional hazards models with attained age as the time metric were adjusted for education, race, marital status, smoking, alcohol intake, and (where appropriate) cohort and sex. Over follow-up (mean=10.3 years), 768 women and 388 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The risk of thyroid cancer was greater with increasing BMI [per 5 kg/m2: HR in women, 1.16 (95% CI, 1.08-1.24); HR in men, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.97-1.49)]. There was no significant heterogeneity between studies (both P>0.05). For women and men combined, the HRs for overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (≥30 kg/m2) compared with normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04-1.38) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.31-1.79), respectively. We found no significant effect modification by other factors, and the results did not differ significantly by histologic type. A significant positive association for BMI in young adulthood (ages 18-20) with thyroid cancer risk was also observed [per 5-kg/m2 increase: HR, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03-1.35)]. BMI was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk in both men and women. Our study provides strong evidence that obesity is an independent risk factor for thyroid cancer. ©2011 AACR.

  16. Independent effects of weight change and attained body weight on prevalence of arterial hypertension in obese and non-obese men.

    PubMed Central

    Sonne-Holm, S.; Sørensen, T. I.; Jensen, G.; Schnohr, P.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relations among prevalence of arterial hypertension, history of weight change, and current body weight in the range from normal weight to severe obesity. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of medical records of men registered with Danish military authorities from 1943 to 1977 and followed up four to 40 years later. SETTING--Draft board of Copenhagen and surrounding counties and the rest of Sjaelland and surrounding islands. SUBJECTS--964 Men who were severely obese (body mass index greater than or equal to kg/m2 at the first examination) and 1134 random controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Blood pressure and weight. RESULTS--Hypertension was more prevalent in subjects with an unchanged body mass index as that index increased over the range studied. At any body mass index hypertension was more prevalent in subjects who had increased to this index and less common in those who had decreased to it than in those who had stayed the same weight since the first examination. Hypertension among controls was most common in those subjects who had become obese during adulthood. CONCLUSIONS--Changes in body weight have a great influence on arterial hypertension independent of the effect of attained weight, particularly in obese subjects. PMID:2508915

  17. Changes in Regional Adiposity and Cardio-Metabolic Function Following a Weight Loss Program with Sibutramine in Obese Men with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Craig L.; Yee, Brendon J.; Trenell, Mike I.; Magnussen, John S.; Wang, David; Banerjee, Dev; Berend, Norbert; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly linked with obesity, both conditions have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension independent of one another. Weight loss is known to improve both cardiovascular risk and OSA severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular and metabolic changes, including compartment-specific fat loss in obese OSA subjects undergoing a weight loss program. Design: Observational study. Participants: 93 men with moderate-severe OSA. Interventions: 6-month open-label weight loss trial combining sibutramine (a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) with a 600-kcal deficit diet and exercise. Measurements and Results: At baseline and following 6 months of weight loss, OSA was assessed together with CT-quantified intra-abdominal and liver fat and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular function. At 6 months, weight loss and improvements in OSA were accompanied by improved insulin resistance (HOMA), increased HDL cholesterol, and reduced total cholesterol/HDL ratio. There were also reductions in measures of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat. Reductions in liver fat and sleep time spent below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation partly explained the improvement in HOMA (R2 = 0.18). In contrast, arterial stiffness (aortic augmentation index), heart rate, blood pressure, and total cholesterol did not change. Conclusions: Weight loss with sibutramine was associated with improvements in metabolic and body composition risk factors but not blood pressure or arterial stiffness. Improved insulin resistance was partly associated with reductions in liver fat and hypoxemia associated with sleep apnea. Citation: Phillips CL; Yee BJ; Trenell MI; Magnussen JS; Wang D; Banerjee D; Berend N; Grunstein RR. Changes in regional adiposity and cardio-metabolic function following a weight loss program with sibutramine in obese men with

  18. Efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion program following diet modification for fat loss in Japanese obese men.

    PubMed

    Eto, Miki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkubo, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion (PAP) program following a diet modification program for fat loss. Fifty obese men, aged 51.4±7.0 y, received a 6-mo regimen consisting of 2 phases. Weekly 90-min free-living PAP sessions were provided for 3 mo immediately after a 3-mo diet modification phase. Fat mass (FM) was measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6 using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was monitored by a validated single-axis accelerometer. The total energy intake of all participants was assessed at baseline and during weeks 9 and 10 of both the diet modification and PAP programs. The change (Δ) in FM was -1.4±1.9 kg (p<0.05) during the PAP program after the diet modification program (-4.3±2.9 kg, p<0.01). Although there was no significant relationship between ΔFM and ΔMVPA during the PAP phase (p=0.11), MVPA was significantly increased during the PAP phase (+76.0±146.5 min/wk, p<0.01). However, a significant correlation was observed between energy intake/weight and MVPA during the PAP program (r=0.39). Our results suggest that the magnitude of expected FM loss induced by an increase in PA may be suppressed as a result of increased energy intake, even during a PAP program after a diet modification program.

  19. Moderators of the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice in men: friendship, gender self-esteem, same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism.

    PubMed

    Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F

    2014-04-01

    Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.

  20. Prevalence of male secondary hypogonadism in moderate to severe obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance and excess body weight.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Berniza; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia; Galindo, Julio; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2016-01-01

    To study the prevalence of male obesity-secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) in patients with moderate to severe obesity, we performed a prospective prevalence study including 100 male patients with moderate to severe obesity at a university tertiary hospital. Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations among others were assayed in all patients. Serum-free testosterone (FT) concentration was calculated from TT and SHBG levels. Semen analysis was conducted in 31 patients. We found a prevalence of 45% (95% CI: 35-55%) when considering decreased TT and/or FT concentrations. Serum concentrations of TT were correlated negatively with glucose (r = -0.328, p < 0.001) and insulin resistance (r = -0.261, p = 0.011). The same occurred with FT and glucose (r = -0.340, p < 0.001) and insulin resistance (r = -0.246, p = 0.016). Sixty-two percent (95% CI: 39-85%) of the patients with seminogram also presented abnormal results in semen analysis. The frequencies of low TT or low FT values were similar in patients with abnormal or normal semen analysis (p = 0.646 and p = 0.346, respectively). Ejaculate volume inversely correlated with BMI (ρ = -0.400, p = 0.029) and with excess body weight (ρ = -0.464, p = 0.010). Our data show the prevalence of MOSH in patients with moderate to severe obesity is high. Low circulating testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and low ejaculate volume with higher BMI and excess body weight. Semen analysis must be performed in these patients when considering fertility whether or not presenting low circulating testosterone. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Bioactives in Blueberries Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese, Insulin-Resistant Men and Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Cash, Katherine C.; Johnson, William D.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Cefalu, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m−2⋅min−1). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants’ body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM−1⋅min−1) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM−1⋅min−1) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants. PMID:20724487

  2. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Johnson, William D; Champagne, Catherine M; Cefalu, William T

    2010-10-01

    Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m(-2)⋅min(-1)). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants.

  3. The effect of weight loss on sleep-disordered breathing and oxygen desaturation in morbidly obese men.

    PubMed

    Harman, E M; Wynne, J W; Block, A J

    1982-09-01

    Four morbidly obese men who had been found to have significant sleep-disordered breathing and oxygen desaturation were restudied after an average weight loss of 108 kg (range 53-155 kg). In all subjects, weight loss was accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of episodes per hour of sleep-disordered breathing events. In three of the four subjects, there was improvment in the severity of desaturation accompanying abnormal breathing. The two subjects with daytime somnolence and hypercapnia prior to weight loss showed the most dramatic improvement in desaturation. This suggests that obesity is a cause, rather than an effect, of the sleep apnea syndrome.

  4. Moderate-Intensity Exercise Improves Body Composition and Improves Physiological Markers of Stress in HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Wesley David; Jaggers, Jason Reed; Phillips, Kenneth Doyle; Durstine, John Larry; Burgess, Stephanie E.; Lyerly, George William; Davis, John Mark; Hand, Gregory Alan

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and its treatment often alter body composition and result in poorer physical functioning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate-intensity exercise program on body composition and the hormones and cytokines associated with adverse health outcomes. HIV-infected males (N = 111) were randomized to an exercise group (EX) who completed 6 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise training, or to a nonintervention control group (CON). In pre- and postintervention, body composition was estimated via DXA, peak strength was assessed, and resting blood samples were obtained. There was a decrease in salivary cortisol at wake (P = 0.025) in the EX and a trend (P = 0.07) for a decrease 1 hour after waking. The EX had a significant increase in lean tissue mass (LTM) (P < 0.001) following the intervention. Those in the EX below median body fat (20%) increased LTM (P = 0.014) only, while those above 20% decreased fat mass (P = 0.02), total fat (N = 0.009), and trunk fat (P = 0.001), while also increasing LTM (P = 0.027). Peak strength increased between 14% and 28% on all exercises in the EX group. These data indicate that 6 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise training can decrease salivary cortisol levels, improve physical performance, and improve body composition in HIV-infected men. PMID:24052871

  5. The Effect of Seoritae Extract in Men with Mild to Moderate Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Park, Hyo Jung; Koo, Hye Cheong; Kim, Do Ram; Ha, U-Syn; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Sung Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of Seoritae extract (SE) on mild to moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Seventy-six subjects with mild to moderate LUTS suggestive of BPH were prospectively recruited from the urology outpatient clinic and assigned to either SE (4200 mg or 6 tablets 3 times a day) or matching placebo. The primary outcome variable, the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), was evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks. Postvoid residual volume (PVR), maximum urine flow rate (Qmax), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated. IPSSs decreased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks within the SE group. Significant improvements in IPSS voiding scores at 4 and 12 weeks were also observed in the SE group compared to the placebo group. IPSS storage and quality of life scores were also significantly decreased at 12 weeks in the SE group. There was no change in Qmax or PVR in both groups after 12 weeks. Administration of SE for 12 weeks led to significant improvements in LUTS, and it can be concerned as a reasonable and safe alternative for men with mild to moderate LUTS. PMID:27382404

  6. Combined training, FNDC5/irisin levels and metabolic markers in obese men: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Ivan Luiz Padilha; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Duft, Renata Garbellini; Lopes, Wendell Arhur; Bonganha, Valéria; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2017-06-01

    The effects of training on FNDC5/irisin and its association with fitness and metabolic marker improvements induced by training have been poorly investigated in humans. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of combined training (CT) on FNDC5/irisin levels, metabolic markers and fitness adaptations in obese men. Middle-age obese men (age 49.13 ± 5.75, body mass index (BMI) 30.86 ± 1.63) were randomly distributed in the CT group (n = 12) and control group (CG n = 10). The CT consisted of strength followed by aerobic training, 3 times/week, for 24 weeks. Body composition, physical fitness, plasma FNDC5/irisin, biochemical markers and metabolic scores/index were evaluated. CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels (µg/mL) (pre: 4.15 ± 0.32, post: 4.21 ± 0.32; p = .96) and improved body composition, metabolic and physical fitness markers. In the CG, decreased FNDC5/irisin (µg/mL) (pre: 4.36 ± 0.23, post: 3.57 ± 0.94; p = .01) and reduced strength (supine exercise/kg) (pre: 71 ± 14.7, post: 60.1 ± 14.05; p < .01) were observed, along with a trend to increase HOMA-IR (pre: 2.63 ± 1.11, post: 3.14 ± 1.27; p = .07) and other indicators of metabolic deterioration. An inverse correlation was found between the change (Δ%) in levels of FNDC5/irisin and Δ% glucose, Δ% total cholesterol, Δ% triglycerides and Δ% waist circumference, in addition to a positive relation with Δ% muscle strength. In conclusion, CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels and provided metabolic and fitness benefits. The correlation between FNDC5/irisin changes and metabolic parameters, as well as the FNDC5/irisin reduction associated with fitness and metabolic worsening in the CG, suggests a relationship between FNDC5/irisin and a healthy metabolic status in humans.

  7. Effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Quist, J S; Rosenkilde, M; Petersen, M B; Gram, A S; Sjödin, A; Stallknecht, B

    2017-10-10

    Aerobic exercise is recommended for weight management but energy balance is often less negative than predicted from exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). To examine effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity. We randomized 130 younger, physically inactive women and men with overweight and obesity (body mass index: 25-35 kg/m(2)) to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (CON, n=18), active commuting (BIKE, n=35), or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, 50% VO2peak reserve, n=39) or vigorous intensity (VIG, 70% VO2peak reserve, n=38). The primary outcome was change in fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry which was analyzed intention-to-treat. Accumulated energy balance was calculated based on changes in body composition, and ExEE was calculated based on heart rate monitoring during exercise. Testing at 3 and 6 months was completed by 95 and 90 participants, respectively. Fat mass was reduced after 3 and 6 months in BIKE (3 months: -3.6 [-5.5; -1.7] kg (mean [95% CI]); 6 months: -4.2 [-6.6; -1.9] kg; both: P<0.001), MOD (3 months: -2.2 [-3.9; -0.4] kg; 6 months: -2.6 [-4.8; -0.5] kg, both: P<0.02), and VIG (3 months: -3.4 [-5.2; -1.7] kg; 6 months: -4.5 [-6.6; -2.3] kg; both: P<0.001) compared with CON. Furthermore, fat loss was greater in VIG compared with MOD (6 months: -1.8 [-3.6; -0.1] kg, P=0.043). Based on the ExEE and the accumulated energy balance MOD compensated for the ExEE (77 [48; 106] %) but not BIKE (38 [-18; 95] %) and VIG (21 [-14; 55] %). A meaningful fat loss was obtained by 6 months of active commuting and leisure-time exercise, but fat loss was greater with vigorous compared to moderate intensity exercise. Active commuting is an alternative to leisure-time exercise in the management of overweight and obesity. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01962259 (main trial) and NCT01973686 (energy metabolism sub-study).International Journal of Obesity accepted

  8. Intermittent energy restriction improves weight loss efficiency in obese men: the MATADOR study.

    PubMed

    Byrne, N M; Sainsbury, A; King, N A; Hills, A P; Wood, R E

    2017-08-17

    The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total). Forty-seven participants completed a 4-week baseline phase and commenced the intervention (CON: N=23, 39.4±6.8 years, 111.1±9.1 kg, 34.3±3.0 kg( )m(-2); INT: N=24, 39.8±9.5 years, 110.2±13.8 kg, 34.1±4.0 kg( )m(-2)). During ER, energy intake was equivalent to 67% of weight maintenance requirements in both groups. Body weight, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured throughout the study. For the N=19 CON and N=17 INT who completed the intervention per protocol, weight loss was greater for INT (14.1±5.6 vs 9.1±2.9 kg; P<0.001). INT had greater FM loss (12.3±4.8 vs 8.0±4.2 kg; P<0.01), but FFM loss was similar (INT: 1.8±1.6 vs CON: 1.2±2.5 kg; P=0.4). Mean weight change during the 7 × 2-week INT energy balance blocks was minimal (0.0±0.3 kg). While reduction in absolute REE did not differ between groups (INT: -502±481 vs CON: -624±557 kJ d(-1); P=0.5), after adjusting for changes in body composition, it was significantly lower in INT (INT: -360±502 vs CON: -749±498 kJ d(-1); P<0.05). Greater weight and fat loss was achieved with intermittent ER. Interrupting ER with energy balance 'rest periods' may reduce compensatory metabolic responses and, in turn, improve weight loss efficiency.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.206.

  9. Moderate concentrations of supplemental oxygen worsen hypercapnia in obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Hollier, Carly Ann; Harmer, Alison Rosemary; Maxwell, Lyndal Jane; Menadue, Collette; Willson, Grant Neville; Unger, Gunnar; Flunt, Daniel; Black, Deborah Ann; Piper, Amanda Jane

    2014-04-01

    In people with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), breathing 100% oxygen increases carbon dioxide (PCO2), but its effect on pH is unknown. This study investigated the effects of moderate concentrations of supplemental oxygen on PCO2, pH, minute ventilation (VE) and physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) among people with stable untreated OHS, with comparison to healthy controls. In a double-blind randomised crossover study, participants breathed oxygen concentrations (FiO2) 0.28 and 0.50, each for 20 min, separated by a 45 min washout period. Arterialised-venous PCO2 (PavCO2) and pH, VE and VD/VT were measured at baseline, then every 5 min. Data were analysed using general linear model analysis. 28 participants were recruited (14 OHS, 14 controls). Among OHS participants (mean ± SD arterial PCO2 6.7 ± 0.5 kPa; arterial oxygen 8.9 ± 1.4 kPa) FiO2 0.28 and 0.50 maintained oxygen saturation 98-100%. After 20 min of FiO2 0.28, PavCO2 change (ΔPavCO2) was 0.3 ± 0.2 kPa (p = 0.013), with minimal change in VE and rises in VD/VT of 1 ± 5% (p = 0.012). FiO2 0.50 increased PavCO2 by 0.5 ± 0.4 kPa (p = 0.012), induced acidaemia and increased VD/VT by 3 ± 3% (p = 0.012). VE fell by 1.2 ± 2.1 L/min within 5 min then recovered individually to varying degrees. A negative correlation between ΔVE and ΔPavCO2 (r = -0.60, p = 0.024) suggested that ventilatory responses were the key determinant of PavCO2 rises. Among controls, FiO2 0.28 and 0.50 did not change PavCO2 or pH, but FiO2 0.50 significantly increased VE and VD/VT. Commonly used oxygen concentrations caused hypoventilation, PavCO2 rises and acidaemia among people with stable OHS. This highlights the potential dangers of this common intervention in this group.

  10. Leptin as an important link between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ekmen, Nergis; Helvaci, Aysen; Gunaldi, Meral; Sasani, Hadi; Yildirmak, Sembol Turkmen

    2016-01-01

    The levels of leptin, a major regulator of lipid metabolism, may increase in obesity, and contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. Leptin is produced by adipose tissue and is a peptide hormone, which has strong association with obesity, elevated cardiovascular risk, and morbidity. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationships between leptin levels, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors in men with acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-four obese and twenty-three nonobese male patients, who had experienced their first myocardial infarction, were included in the study. Their leptin levels, biochemical parameters, and anthropometric measures were obtained. Mean leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese group compared to the nonobese group (2.53ng/mL versus 1.23ng/mL; p<0.01). Leptin levels correlated positively with anthropometric measurements, triglyceride, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, and uric acid levels, and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Findings indicate high leptin levels to be positively correlated with obesity and diastolic blood pressure in male patients with myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships between electronic game play, obesity, and psychosocial functioning in young men.

    PubMed

    Wack, Elizabeth; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2009-04-01

    Most estimates suggest that American youth are spending a large amount of time playing video and computer games, spurring researchers to examine the impact this media has on various aspects of health and psychosocial functioning. The current study investigated relationships between frequency of electronic game play and obesity, the social/emotional context of electronic game play, and academic performance among 219 college-aged males. Current game players reported a weekly average of 9.73 hours of game play, with almost 10% of current players reporting an average of 35 hours of play per week. Results indicated that frequency of play was not significantly related to body mass index or grade point average. However, there was a significant positive correlation between frequency of play and self-reported frequency of playing when bored, lonely, or stressed. As opposed to the general conception of electronic gaming as detrimental to functioning, the results suggest that gaming among college-aged men may provide a healthy source of socialization, relaxation, and coping.

  12. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < "ideal BMI" > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  13. Narcissism as a Moderator of Satisfaction with Body Image in Young Women with Extreme Underweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < “ideal BMI” > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302

  14. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older German men using recognized definitions: high accordance but low overlap!

    PubMed

    Kemmler, W; Teschler, M; Weißenfels, A; Sieber, C; Freiberger, E; von Stengel, S

    2017-02-20

    The relevance of sarcopenia and sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is rising in our aging societies. Applying recognized definitions to 965 community-dwelling Bavarian men 70 years+ resulted in a prevalence for sarcopenia between 3.7 and 4.9 and between 2.1 and 4.1% for SO. Despite this high consistency, the overlap between the definitions/approaches was <50%.

  15. Neck Circumference Is a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Short-Sleeping Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Piaggi, Paolo; Mattingly, Megan; Zhao, Xiongce; Lucassen, Eliane; Rother, Kristina I.; Sumner, Anne E.; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The constellation of metabolic syndrome, although controversial with regard to its clinical usefulness, is epidemiologically related to increased diabetes risk and cardiovascular mortality. Our goal was to investigate the associations among neck circumference (NC), obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS), and metabolic syndrome in obese men and women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese men and premenopausal obese women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. We enrolled 120 individuals (92 women), age 40.5±6.9 years and body mass index (BMI) 38.6±6.5 kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome severity was assessed by a score and OSAS was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥5. Metabolic end endocrine parameters were measured, and sleep duration was determined by actigraphy and validated questionnaires. Results: Metabolic syndrome was found in 41% and OSAS in 58% (28% had both). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were 3 years older and more often Caucasian; they had higher RDI scores, larger NC, more visceral fat, lower serum adiponectin, higher 24-hr urinary norepinephrine (NE) excretion, and lower growth hormone concentrations. A NC of ≥38 cm had a sensitivity of 54% and 58% and a specificity of 70% and 79% in predicting the presence of metabolic syndrome and OSAS, respectively. RDI, adiponectin, and NC accounted for approximately 30% of the variability in the metabolic syndrome score, as estimated by an age-, gender-, and race-corrected multivariate model (R2=0.376, P<0.001). Conclusion: Greater NC is associated with OSAS and metabolic syndrome in short-sleeping obese men and premenopausal obese women. Addition of NC to the definition of metabolic syndrome should be considered and needs to be validated in future studies. PMID:24571423

  16. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Daniela Cardoso Umbelino; Manzoni, Marla Simone Jovenasso; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra; Pinto, Roseli Aparecida; Rosetto, Daniella; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio

    2016-01-19

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host's metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-10(10) CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP-probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in lipid profile and antioxidant properties.

  17. Effects Of Moderate Sleep Deprivation and Low-Dose Alcohol On Driving Simulator Performance and Perception In Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Vakulin, A.; Baulk, S.D.; Catcheside, P.G.; Anderson, R.; van den Heuvel, C.J.; Banks, S.; McEvoy, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the combined effects of sleep restriction and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance, EEG, and subjective levels of sleepiness and performance in the mid-afternoon. Design: Repeated measures with 4 experimental conditions. Normal sleep without alcohol, sleep restriction alone (4 hours) and sleep restriction in combination with 2 different low blood alcohol concentrations (0.025 g/dL and 0.035 g/dL). Setting: Sleep Laboratory, Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health. Participants: Twenty-one healthy young men, aged 18–30 years, mean (±SD) = 22.5(±3.7) years, BMI = 25(±6.7) kg/m2; all had normal sleep patterns and were free of sleep disorders. Measurements: Participants completed a 70-minute simulated driving session, commencing at 14:00. Driving parameters included steering deviation, braking reaction time, and number of collisions. Alpha and theta EEG activity and subjective driving performance and sleepiness were also measured throughout the driving task. Results: All measures were significantly affected by time. Steering deviation increased significantly when sleep restriction was combined with the higher dose alcohol. This combination also resulted in a significant increase in alpha/theta EEG activity throughout the drive, as well as greater subjective sleepiness and negative driving performance ratings compared to control or sleep restriction alone. Discussion: These data indicate that combining low-dose alcohol with moderate sleep restriction results in significant decrements to subjective alertness and performance as well as to some driving performance and EEG parameters. This highlights the potential risks of driving after consumption of low and legal doses of alcohol when also sleep restricted. Citation: Vakulin A; Baulk SD; Catcheside PG; Anderson R; van den Heuvel CJ; Banks S; McEvoy RD. Effects of moderate sleep deprivation and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance and perception in young men. SLEEP

  18. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini, Daniela; Jovenasso Manzoni, Marla Simone; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Saes Parra Abdalla, Dulcinéia; Aparecida Pinto, Roseli; Rosetto, Daniella; Roberto Valentini, Sandro; Antonio Rossi, Elizeu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in

  19. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life? Analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of Danish men.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-04-15

    Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early-onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between 1943 and 1977, all obese men (BMI ≥31 kg/m(2), N=1930) were identified along with a random 1% sample of the others (N=3601). Our analysis includes 2392 of these men attending a research clinic in mid-life (mean age 42). For 613 of these men, data on childhood BMI are available. We summarised childhood BMI growth (7-13 years) using a multilevel model. Early-onset obesity was defined as obesity at examination for national service. We defined metabolic health at the mid-life clinic as non-fasting serum cholesterol <6.6 mmol/L, non-fasting glucose <8.39 mmol/L and pulse pressure <48 mm Hg. Participants were categorised into four groups according to their obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and metabolic health in mid-life. 297 of 1097 (27.1%) of obese men were metabolically healthy; 826 of 1295 (63.8%) non-obese men had at least one metabolic abnormality. There was no evidence that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). We found no robust evidence that early-onset obesity or rapid BMI growth in childhood is protective for cardiometabolic health.

  20. Changes in Testosterone Levels and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Extremely Obese Men after Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Laichuthai, Nitchakarn; Suwannasrisuk, Preaw; Houngngam, Natnicha; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Snabboon, Thiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men. Weight loss has been shown to improve hypogonadism in obese men. This study evaluated the early changes in sex hormones profile after bariatric surgery. Methods. This is a prospective study including 29 morbidly obese men. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (cFT), SHBG, estradiol, adiponectin, and leptin at 1 and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean age of patients was 31 ± 8 years and the mean BMI was 56.8 ± 11.7 kg/m2. Fifteen patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 14 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, 22 patients (75.9%) had either low TT levels (<10.4 nmol/L) or low cFT levels (<225 pmol/L). Total testosterone and SHBG levels increased significantly at 1 month after surgery (p ≤ 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, TT and cFT increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) and 22 patients (75.9%) had normalized TT and cFT levels. There were no changes in estradiol levels at either 1 month or 6 months after surgery. Conclusions. Increases in TT and SHBG levels occurred early at 1 month after bariatric surgery while improvements in cFT levels were observed at 6 months after bariatric surgery. PMID:27725831

  1. Age-related changes in resting energy expenditure in normal weight, overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Siervo, Mario; Oggioni, Clio; Lara, Jose; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Mathers, John C; Battezzati, Alberto; Leone, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Anna; Spadafranca, Angela; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-04-01

    Aging is associated with changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition. We investigated the association between age and changes in REE in men and women stratified by body mass index (BMI) categories (normal weight, overweight and obesity). We also examined whether the age-related decline in REE was explained by concomitant changes in body composition and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional. 3442 adult participants (age range: 18-81 y; men/women: 977/2465) were included. The BMI range was 18.5-60.2 kg/m(2). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry in fasting conditions and body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Regression models were used to evaluate age-related changes in REE in subjects stratified by sex and BMI. Models were adjusted for body composition (fat mass, fat free mass), smoking, disease count and physical activity. In unadjusted models, the rate of decline in REE was highest in obese men (slope=-8.7±0.8 kcal/day/year) whereas the lowest rate of decline was observed in normal weight women (-2.9±0.3 kcal/day/year). Gender differences were observed for the age of onset of REE adaptive changes (i.e., not accounted by age related changes in body composition and lifestyle factors). In women, adaptive changes appeared to occur in middle-age (∼47 y) across all BMI groups whereas changes seemed to be delayed in obese men (∼54 y) compared to overweight (∼43 y) and normal weight (∼39 y) men. Sex and BMI influenced the rate and degree of the age-related decline in REE. Critical age windows have been identified for the onset of putative mechanisms of energy adaptation. These findings require confirmation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.

  3. Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164210.html Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver ... risk, a new study warns. Efforts to reduce obesity, "should be implemented from an early age to ...

  4. Moderate vitamin D deficiency and inflammation related markers in overweight/obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Andrés, Pedro; Ortega, Rosa M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with vitamin D deficiency and increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the dysregulation of adipokines and inflammation. The aim of the present work was to examine the association of vitamin D status [25(OH)D] on inflammatory related markers in overweight/obese children. A total of 137 Spanish schoolchildren between 9 and 12 years of age (31.4% with overweight/obesity) were studied. Being overweight was defined as BMI≥85th percentile and obesity as BMI≥97th percentile using the reference tables of Hernández. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by chemiluminescent assay. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by immunoenzyme assay. Serum adiponectin was determined using an ELISA kit. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-PCR) was tested by immunonephelometry. IL-6 concentrations were higher in the overweight/obese children with deficient serum 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL) than in those in this group but whose serum 25(OH)D concentrations were adequate (≥20 ng/mL). Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with IL-6 concentrations in the overweight/obese subjects taking into account different covariates; thus, for every 1 ng/mL rise in the former, the latter fell by 0.160 pg/mL (β=-0.160±0.068; R2=0.131; p=0.023). The obese subjects with concentrations of ≥25 ng/mL had lower hs-CRP values compared to those with concentrations of <25 ng/mL (0.053±0.035 vs. 0.356±0.613 mg/dL; p=0.035). Low serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated high serum IL-6 in overweight/obese children, and with increased hs-CRP in obese children.

  5. Risky substance use and peer pressure in Swiss young men: Test of moderation effects.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Grazioli, Véronique S; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-11-01

    Peer pressure (PP) toward misconduct is a well-known risk factor for substance use. However, the way it interacts with social factors and the associations of the aspects of PP other than PP toward misconduct have been understudied. This study examined the associations of three aspects of PP with risky substance use and tested whether the associations of PP toward misconduct were moderated by social factors. A representative sample of 5,680 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing risky alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use, PP toward misconduct, toward peer involvement, and toward peer conformity, as well as social support (SS) and neighbourhood cohesion. Multinomial logistic regression models were used. PP toward misconduct was positively associated with all substance use outcomes. The PP toward misconduct-risky alcohol use association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of PP toward peer involvement, SS, and neighbourhood cohesion. The PP toward misconduct-risky cannabis use association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of SS and neighbourhood cohesion. The PP toward misconduct-smoking association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of PP toward peer involvement. The risk for substance use associated with PP toward misconduct varies as a function of social factors. Being well connected with others (high level of PP toward peer involvement and SS), and living in a cohesive neighbourhood may amplify the risk for risky substance use associated with PP toward misconduct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Chen, Kong Y; Guo, Juen; Lam, Yan Y; Leibel, Rudolph L; Mayer, Laurel Es; Reitman, Marc L; Rosenbaum, Michael; Smith, Steven R; Walsh, B Timothy; Ravussin, Eric

    2016-08-01

    The carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity posits that habitual consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet sequesters fat within adipose tissue because of hyperinsulinemia and results in adaptive suppression of energy expenditure (EE). Therefore, isocaloric exchange of dietary carbohydrate for fat is predicted to result in increased EE, increased fat oxidation, and loss of body fat. In contrast, a more conventional view that "a calorie is a calorie" predicts that isocaloric variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat will have no physiologically important effects on EE or body fat. We investigated whether an isocaloric low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is associated with changes in EE, respiratory quotient (RQ), and body composition. Seventeen overweight or obese men were admitted to metabolic wards, where they consumed a high-carbohydrate baseline diet (BD) for 4 wk followed by 4 wk of an isocaloric KD with clamped protein. Subjects spent 2 consecutive days each week residing in metabolic chambers to measure changes in EE (EEchamber), sleeping EE (SEE), and RQ. Body composition changes were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Average EE during the final 2 wk of the BD and KD periods was measured by doubly labeled water (EEDLW). Subjects lost weight and body fat throughout the study corresponding to an overall negative energy balance of ∼300 kcal/d. Compared with BD, the KD coincided with increased EEchamber (57 ± 13 kcal/d, P = 0.0004) and SEE (89 ± 14 kcal/d, P < 0.0001) and decreased RQ (-0.111 ± 0.003, P < 0.0001). EEDLW increased by 151 ± 63 kcal/d (P = 0.03). Body fat loss slowed during the KD and coincided with increased protein utilization and loss of fat-free mass. The isocaloric KD was not accompanied by increased body fat loss but was associated with relatively small increases in EE that were near the limits of detection with the use of state-of-the-art technology. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01967563. © 2016

  7. High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Improves Both Hepatic Fat Content and Stiffness in Sedentary Obese Men with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sechang; So, Rina; Shida, Takashi; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Kim, Bokun; Akiyama, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Shoda, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    We compared the effects of 12-week programs of resistance training (RT), high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT), and moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (MICT). The primary goal was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the exercise modalities for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 61 sedentary obese men with NAFLD were randomized into one of the following exercise regimens (RT, HIAT, or MICT). Hepatic fat content was decreased to a similar extent in the RT, HIAT, and MICT groups (−14.3% vs. −13.7% vs. −14.3%) without significant changes in weight and visceral fat. The gene expression levels of fatty acid synthesis were significantly decreased in the subjects’ monocytes. Hepatic stiffness was decreased only in the HIAT group (−16.8%). The stiffness change was associated with restored Kupffer cell phagocytic function (+17.8%) and decreased levels of inflammation such as leptin (−13.2%) and ferritin (−14.1%). RT, HIAT, and MICT were equally effective in reducing hepatic fat content, but only HIAT was effective in improving hepatic stiffness and restoring Kupffer cell function. These benefits appeared to be independent of detectable weight and visceral fat reductions; the benefits were acquired through the modulation of in vivo fatty acid metabolism and obesity-related inflammatory conditions. PMID:28223710

  8. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men.

    PubMed

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C; Johansson, Pär I; Secher, Niels H

    2014-09-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P < 0.05; mean ± SD) and reduced stroke volume (113 ± 12 to 96 ± 14 ml, P < 0.05) leaving cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance unchanged and, furthermore, reduced red blood cell count (4.80 ± 0.33 to 4.64 ± 0.37 × 10(12) cells l(-1), P < 0.05) indicating that 218 ± 173 ml fluid was recruited to the circulation. Withdrawing 450 ml blood reduced the time until initial fibrin formation (R: 6.5 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 1.0 min, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of clot formation increased after withdrawal of 900 ml blood (α-Angle: 66 ± 4 to 70 ± 3 deg, P < 0.01). Clot strength (maximal amplitude: 57 ± 4 mm), clot lysis 30 min after maximal amplitude (LY30: 0.8% [0-3.5%] (median [range])), and platelet count (218 ± 25 × 10(9) l(-1)) were unaffected. For supine males, ∼ 25% of a moderate blood loss is compensated by fluid recruitment to the circulation, which may explain the minor cardiovascular response. Yet, a blood loss of 450 ml accelerates coagulation, and this is further accentuated when blood loss is 900 ml.

  9. Val1483Ile in FASN gene is linked to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in adult white men.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Botas, Patricia; Valdés, Sergio; Ortega, Francisco J; Delgado, Elías; Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Bassols, Judit; Pardo, Gerard; Ricart, Wifredo; Menéndez, Javier A; Fernández-Real, José M

    2009-09-01

    The Val1483Ile polymorphism in the human fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene is located within the interdomain region of the FASN close to the two dynamic active centers of the FASN enzyme and putatively affects FASN action. We aimed to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with obesity phenotypes, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue FASN activity in adult white subjects. The polymorphism was evaluated in association with metabolic variables in two independent studies: in a case-control study of 457 men (229 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 228 with altered glucose tolerance (AGT)); and in 600 population-based NGT subjects (274 men and 326 women). Adipose tissue FASN activity was analyzed using the method of Nepokroeff. The Ile variant was associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a lower increase in weight over a 7-year period in NGT men. In a subset of 147 men, carriers of the Ile variant showed significantly increased insulin sensitivity. BMI (P < 0.001), WHR (P = 0.03), and Val1483Ile (P = 0.03), contributed independently to 37% of insulin sensitivity variance. In men from the population-based study, the Ile variant was associated with a lower BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and systolic blood pressure compared with carriers of the Val variant. In agreement with these results, the adipose tissue FASN activity was significantly lower in subjects with the Ile variant (P = 0.01). In summary, adult white men with the Ile 1483 variant of the FASN gene seem protected from developing central obesity through decreased adipose tissue FASN activity.

  10. Acute post-exercise oxygen uptake, hormone and plasma metabolite response in obese men.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, S; Codecasa, F; Cornacchia, M; Maestrini, S; Salvadori, A; Fanari, P; Brunani, A; Malatesta, D

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare oxygen uptake (  VO2), hormone and plasma metabolite responses during the 30 min after submaximal incremental exercise (Incr) performed at the same relative/absolute exercise intensity and duration in lean (L) and obese (O) men. Eight L and 8 O men (BMI: 22.9 ± 0.4; 37.2 ± 1.8 kg · m(-2)) completed Incr and were then seated for 30 min.   VO2 was monitored during the first 10 min and from the 25-30(th) minutes of recovery. Blood samples were drawn for the determination of hormone (catecholamines, insulin) and plasma metabolite (NEFA, glycerol) concentrations. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) magnitude during the first 10 min was similar in O and in L (3.5 ± 0.4; 3.4 ± 0.3 liters, respectively, p=0.86). When normalized to percent change (  VO2END=100%), %   VO2END during recovery was significantly higher from 90-120 s in O than in L (p ≤ 0.04). There were no significant differences in catecholamines (p ≥ 0.24), whereas insulin was significantly higher in O than in L during recovery (p=0.01). The time-course of glycerol was similar from 10-30 min of recovery (-42% for L; -41% for O, p=0.85), whereas significantly different patterns of NEFA were found from 10-30 min of recovery between groups (-18% for L; +8% for O, p=0.03). Despite similar EPOC, a difference in   VO2 modulation between groups was observed, likely due to faster initial rates of   VO2 decline in L than in O. The different patterns of NEFA between groups may suggest a lower NEFA reesterification during recovery in O, which was not involved in the rapid EPOC component. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  12. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  13. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-08-01

    A single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise has been shown to produce the same or greater metabolic benefits as continuous endurance exercise with considerably less energy expenditure, but whether this applies to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism is not known. We sought to examine the effect of a single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise on basal VLDL-triglyceride (TG) kinetics 14 and 48 h after exercise cessation to determine the acute and time-dependent effects of this type of exercise on VLDL-TG metabolism. Eight healthy sedentary men (age, 23.6 ± 6.1 years; body mass index, 23.1 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2), peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), 36.3 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in three stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion studies: (i) 14 h and (ii) 48 h after a single bout of high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (60% and 90% of V̇O2peak in 4 min intervals for a total of 32 min; gross energy expenditure ∼500 kcal) and (iii) after an equivalent period of rest, in random order. Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was 20% lower at 14 h (P = 0.046) but not at 48 h (P = 1.000) after exercise compared with the resting trial. VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate increased by 21% at 14 h (P < 0.001) but not at 48 h (P = 0.299) after exercise compared with rest, whereas hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate was not different from rest at any time point after exercise. We conclude that high-intensity interval exercise reduces fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations in non-obese men the next day by augmenting VLDL-TG clearance, just like a single bout of continuous endurance exercise. This effect is short-lived and abolished by 48 h after exercise.

  14. "Macho" Beliefs Moderate the Association Between Negative Sexual Episodes and Activation of Incompetence Schemas in Sexual Context, in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings

  15. Lifetime productivity losses associated with obesity status in early adulthood: a population-based study of Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Neovius, Kristian; Rehnberg, Clas; Rasmussen, Finn; Neovius, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for sick leave, disability pension and premature death. Obesity is therefore presumably related to increased productivity losses. The aim of this study was to estimate the lifetime productivity losses to society associated with obesity status. This study was based on a 38-year follow-up of a nationwide cohort of 45 920 Swedish men performing mandatory military conscription tests at age 18.7 ± 0.5 years. Body mass index (BMI) based on measured height and weight at the time of military conscription tests was used to define underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (≥30.0 kg/m(2)). Data on sick leave, disability pension and premature death were retrieved from national registers. The calculations were adjusted for socioeconomic index, smoking and muscular strength. Using the human capital approach, the lifetime productivity losses were calculated as 55.6 (95% CI 50.7, 62.0) × €1000 and 55.6 (95% CI 50.9, 61.4) × €1000 for underweight and normal weight, respectively, and 72.6 (95% CI 66.3, 80.7) × €1000 and 95.4 (95% CI 89.0, 102.9) × €1000 for overweight and obesity, respectively. If using the friction cost method instead, the estimated productivity losses were reduced by about 80%. Obesity is associated with almost twice as high productivity losses to society as for normal weight over a lifetime. These costs are important to include in health economic analyses of obesity intervention programmes in order to ensure an effective allocation of resources from a societal perspective.

  16. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    PubMed

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and methylcellulose consumption reduce postprandial insulinemia in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Carson, Michael L; Miller, Marvin P; Turowski, Maciej; Bell, Marjorie; Wilder, Donna M; Rains, Tia M; Reeves, Matthew S

    2008-02-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and methylcellulose (MC) are modified cellulose dietary fibers that generate viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study assessed the effects of high viscosity (HV) HPMC, ultra-HV (UHV) HPMC, and medium viscosity MC on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in overweight and obese men and women (n = 50). After overnight fasts, subjects consumed 5 breakfast meals containing 75 g carbohydrate, each of which contained 1 of the following: 1 g HV-HPMC, 2 g HV-HPMC, 2 g UHV-HPMC, 4 g medium-viscosity MC or control (2 g cellulose). Test sequence was randomized and double-blind, except the MC test, which was last and single-blind (46 subjects completed all 5 tests). Glucose and insulin responses were determined pre-meal and for 120 min postprandially. Median (interquartile limits) peak glucose concentration was lower (P = 0.001) after the meal containing 2.0 g UHV-HPMC (7.1, 6.3-8.2 mmol/L) compared with the control meal (7.7, 6.6-8.7 mmol/L). The control did not differ from the other conditions for peak glucose or for any of the HPMC/MC conditions for glucose incremental areas under the curves (IAUC). Peak insulin was reduced (P < 0.05) for all HPMC/MC conditions compared with control. Insulin IAUC was lower than control (P < 0.001) after meals containing 2 g HV-HPMC, 2 g UHV-HPMC, and 4 g MC. GI symptoms did not differ among treatments. These findings indicate that HV-HPMC (1 and 2 g), UHV-HPMC (2 g), and MC (4 g) consumption reduced postprandial insulin excursions consistent with delayed glucose absorption.

  18. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  19. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  20. INS VNTR class genotype and indexes of body size and obesity: population-based studies of 7,999 middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Manjinder S; Heude, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth H; Luben, Robert; Luan, Jian'an; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Todd, John; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2005-09-01

    The relevance of the insulin gene (INS) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism to indexes of body size and adult obesity is inconclusive. Given the equivocal reports on the association between the VNTR class genotype at the insulin gene locus and indexes of body size and obesity, we assessed these associations in a series of cohort studies based on 7,999 middle-aged men and women. We found no convincing evidence that INS VNTR class genotype was associated with indexes of body size and adult obesity. These data suggest that INS VNTR class is not an important determinant of size and body weight regulation in middle-aged men and women.

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.

  2. Sex-specific regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1: Differential implication in anxiety in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 is cleaved from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) and implicated in the regulation of hunger and satiety as anorexigenic peptide hormone. Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is elevated in obesity and decreased in anorexia nervosa. In addition, a role in the regulation of stress, anxiety and depression has been demonstrated. First evidence suggested that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Thus, we investigated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels in association with perceived stress, anxiety and depressiveness in obese men and women. We enrolled 140 inpatients (87 female, 53 male; body mass index, BMI, 30.3-81.7 kg/m(2)) hospitalized due to obesity with mental and somatic comorbidities. Perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and depressiveness (PHQ-9) were measured psychometrically, and at the same time NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels by ELISA. Males and females did not differ in terms of age and BMI. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 did not show a correlation with age or BMI. Mean NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (+25%, p<0.001) as well as mean scores for perceived stress (+26%, p < 0.01), anxiety (+54%, p < 0.001) and depressiveness (+32%, p = 0.02) were higher in females compared to males. Scores for perceived stress (r = 0.39; p < 0.001) and depressiveness (r = 0.35; p < 0.01) showed a positive correlation with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in women, while in men no correlation was observed (p>0.19). The strongest association was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and anxiety with a positive correlation in women (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), while in men even an inverse correlation was found (r = -0.32; p = 0.03). This result was reflected in higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in women with high versus low anxiety (+51%, p<0.001) and an opposite alteration in men (-17%, p = 0.04) after a median split into two groups with high and low anxiety. In conclusion, circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 showed a positive correlation with anxiety, perceived stress, and depressiveness in obese women. In men, no

  3. Body mass index and prostate cancer severity: do obese men harbor more aggressive disease on prostate biopsy?

    PubMed

    Chamie, Karim; Oberfoell, Stephanie; Kwan, Lorna; Labo, Jessica; Wei, John T; Litwin, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    To examine the association of obesity with the prebiopsy prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, clinical stage, and D'Amico tumor risk in 2 independent cohorts of men with prostate cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer from California's Improving Access, Counseling and Treatment for Californians with Prostate Cancer program and from a random sample of men treated at the University of Michigan. We performed multivariate analyses to examine the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with the prebiopsy PSA level, Gleason score, clinical stage, and D'Amico tumor risk, while controlling for demographics. The mean age was 61.5 years, and the median prebiopsy PSA level was 6.7 ng/mL. Greater than 70% of men were at least overweight. On univariate analysis, the BMI was not associated with prebiopsy PSA levels, Gleason score, or D'Amico tumor risk. On multivariate analysis, we found no association between BMI and log-transformed PSA, Gleason score, clinical T stage, or D'Amico risk. Advancing age was associated with a greater risk of a higher prebiopsy PSA level, Gleason score, and D'Amico tumor risk. Obese men with prostate cancer were no more likely to have a higher prebiopsy PSA level, Gleason score, clinical T stage, or D'Amico risk than those of normal weight. Although we do not know whether the BMI affected the prebiopsy PSA values in those without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, our findings suggest that the BMI does not affect the interpretation of the prebiopsy PSA levels in those with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time perspective and exercise, obesity, and smoking: moderation of associations by age.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Lori C; Butler, Stephen C; Lessl, Kristen; Ochi, Onyinyechukwu; Ward, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects were 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures used were the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales and current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18-24 years, 25-34 years, and 35 years and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, whereas higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18- to 24-year-olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18- to 24-year-olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision making.

  5. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND EXERCISE, OBESITY AND SMOKING: MODERATION OF ASSOCIATIONS BY AGE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Butler, SC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales, current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. Analysis We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18–24 years, 25–34 years, and 35 and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Results Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, while higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18 – 24 year olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18 – 24 year olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Conclusion Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision-making. PMID:24200252

  6. Differing Patterns of Overweight and Obesity among Black Men and Women in Cape Town: The CRIBSA Study

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Nasheeta; Lombard, Carl; Steyn, Krisela; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the prevalence and determinants of overweight/obesity in the 25–74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the changes between 1990 and 2008/09. Methods In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Data were collected by questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analyses. Gender-specific linear regression models evaluated the associations with overweight/obesity. Results There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%) in 2008/09. Mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were 23.7 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.1–24.2) and 84.2 cm (95% CI: 82.8–85.6) in men, and 33.0 kg/m2 (95% CI: 32.3–33.7) and 96.8 cm (95% CI: 95.5–98.1) in women. Prevalence of BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and raised WC were 28.9% (95% CI: 24.1–34.3) and 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9–24.9) in men, and 82.8% (95% CI: 79.3–85.9) and 86.0% (95% CI: 82.9–88.6) in women. Among 25–64-year-olds, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 decreased between 1990 (37.3%, 95% CI: 31.7–43.1) and 2008/09 (27.7%, 95% CI: 22.7–33.4) in men but increased from 72.7% (95% CI: 67.6–77.2) to 82.6% (95% CI: 78.8–85.8) in women. In the regression models for men and women, higher BMI was directly associated with increasing age, wealth, hypertension and diabetes but inversely related to daily smoking. Also significantly associated with rising BMI were raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and being employed compared to unemployed in men, and having >7 years of education in women. Conclusions Overweight/obesity, particularly in urban black women, requires urgent action because of the associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and their serious consequences. PMID:25221948

  7. The Occurrence of Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence on Days of Men's Drinking: The Moderating Effects of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…

  8. The Occurrence of Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence on Days of Men's Drinking: The Moderating Effects of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…

  9. Impact of obesity on the predictive accuracy of prostate-specific antigen density and prostate-specific antigen in native Korean men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Lee, Kwang Woo; Lee, Chang Ho; Song, Yun Seob; Jeon, Yoon Su; Kim, Min Eui; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of obesity on the biopsy detection of prostate cancer. We retrospectively reviewed data of 1182 consecutive Korean patients (≥50 years) with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL who underwent initial extended 12-cores biopsy from September 2009 to March 2013. Patients who took medications that were likely to influence the prostate-specific antigen level were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density predicting cancer status among non-obese and obese men. A total of 1062 patients (mean age 67.1 years) were enrolled in the analysis. A total of 230 men (21.7%) had a positive biopsy. In the overall study sample, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of serum prostate-specific antigen for predicting prostate cancer on biopsy were 0.584 and 0.633 for non-obese and obese men, respectively (P = 0.234). However, the area under the curve for prostate-specific antigen density in predicting cancer status showed a significant difference (non-obese 0.696, obese 0.784; P = 0.017). There seems to be a significant difference in the ability of prostate-specific antigen density to predict biopsy results between non-obese and obese men. Obesity positively influenced the overall ability of prostate-specific antigen density to predict prostate cancer. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Metformin Increases Cortisol Regeneration by 11βHSD1 in Obese Men With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Anna J; Andrew, Ruth; Homer, Natalie Z; Jones, Gregory C; Smith, Kenneth; Livingstone, Dawn E; Walker, Brian R; Stimson, Roland H

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism of action of metformin remains unclear. Given the regulation of the cortisol-regenerating enzyme 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD1) by insulin and the limited efficacy of selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors to lower blood glucose when co-prescribed with metformin, we hypothesized that metformin reduces 11βHSD1 activity. To determine whether metformin regulates 11βHSD1 activity in vivo in obese men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. A hospital clinical research facility. Eight obese nondiabetic (OND) men and eight obese men with type 2 diabetes (ODM). Participants received 28 days of metformin (1 g twice daily), placebo, or (in the ODM group) gliclazide (80 mg twice daily) in random order. A deuterated cortisol infusion at the end of each phase measured cortisol regeneration by 11βHSD1. Oral cortisone was given to measure hepatic 11βHSD1 activity in the ODM group. The effect of metformin on 11βHSD1 was also assessed in human hepatocytes and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome adipocytes. The effect of metformin on whole-body and hepatic 11βHSD1 activity. Whole-body 11βHSD1 activity was approximately 25% higher in the ODM group than the OND group. Metformin increased whole-body cortisol regeneration by 11βHSD1 in both groups compared with placebo and gliclazide and tended to increase hepatic 11βHSD1 activity. In vitro, metformin did not increase 11βHSD1 activity in hepatocytes or adipocytes. Metformin increases whole-body cortisol generation by 11βHSD1 probably through an indirect mechanism, potentially offsetting other metabolic benefits of metformin. Co-prescription with metformin should provide a greater target for selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors.

  11. Anthropometric obesity indices in relation to age, educational level, occupation and physical activity in Bulgarian men.

    PubMed

    Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya; Akabaliev, Valentin

    2014-09-12

    Obesity indices. Anthropometry. Men. Factors. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el nivel de obesidad y su relación con la edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física en los hombres adultos búlgaros de zona urbana. Material y métodos: La muestra incluyó hombres 1010, de 18-50 años de edad, de la ciudad de Plovdiv, Bulgaria. El estudio se realizó en el período 2004-2008. Se midieron la circunferencia del cuerpo altura, peso y cintura. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen según los puntos de corte internacional de índice de masa corporal (IMC). La obesidad abdominal fue evaluar las categorías de relación de la altura de la cintura (CT). La edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física de cada persona se investigaron a través de la consulta. Para el análisis estadístico el SPSS paquete fue utilizado. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que 42,1% de los hombres investigados eran sobrepeso y 19,4% de ellos eran obesos. Con CT irregular y obesidad central fueron 66,1% de los casos. El porcentaje de hombres con obesidad general y central aumenta con la edad. En el caso de la obesidad central y general, las diferencias entre los trabajadores físicos e intelectuales son significación, incluso después de controlar la edad.CT tiene un mayor potencial para diferenciar las personas con diversas ocupaciones que BMI. La edad y la ocupación fueron los factores más importantes que afectan la obesidad general y abdominal. El nivel educativo tiene un impacto significativo en la acumulación de grasa abdominal.La conexión entre el nivel de actividad física e IMC y CT fue menor. Conclusiónes: El estudio encuentra que los hombres trabajan y viven en ese particular área urbana tienen diferencias significativas en términos de sobrepeso y obesidad. El nivel educativo, ocupación y edad tienen un potencial grave influenciado su estado nutricional del cuerpo.

  12. An autopsy study of coronary atherosclerosis and its relation to anthropometric measurements/indices of overweight and obesity in men.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Prateek; Pinto, Denver S; Pai, Mukta R; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular system associated morbidity and mortality. The present autopsy based study is aimed to study the correlation between coronary atherosclerosis and anthropometric measurements/indices of overweight and obesity such as; Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC), Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) in men from southern India. The present research also analyses the correlation between anthropometric measurements/indices of overweight and obesity in men with number of coronaries affected with atherosclerosis in individuals. The study included 50 autopsies conducted in the Government District Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore during March and September 2008. The heart was dissected following standard autopsy protocol and a 5 cm section of the right coronary artery (RCA) in the atrio-ventricular groove from its origin, a 5 cm segment of the left anterior descending artery (LADA) distal to the origin of the circumflex artery, but including the region of origin of the circumflex branch and left coronary artery (LCA) from its origin till the circumflex branch were excised, dissected out, fixed in 10% formalin, marked for identification and sent for histopathological analysis. The study shows a positive correlation of WC and WHR with atherosclerotic changes in the RCA. The number of arteries affected with atherosclerosis is found to be well correlated with WC, BMI and WHR. The study confirms an association between anthropometric measurements/indices of obesity, grade of atherosclerosis in the RCA and the number of arteries affected with atherosclerosis. Anthropometric measurements/indices of obesity can be an effective means to identify high risk cases of atherosclerosis at an early stage that can be effective in reducing the associated cardiac morbidity and mortality.

  13. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) < 85 cm) and which anthropometric index, dBW or changes in WC (dWC), is more strongly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in men without abdominal obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  14. Normalization of visceral adiposity is required to normalize plasma apolipoprotein B levels in response to a healthy eating/physical activity lifestyle modification program in viscerally obese men.

    PubMed

    Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Arsenault, Benoit J; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about how visceral adipose tissue (VAT) influences circulating apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels, which reflect atherogenic risk. We have examined the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on plasma apoB levels in viscerally obese men and compared post-intervention levels to those of a reference group of lean healthy men. Fasting plasma apoB levels were measured in 107 non-diabetic, viscerally obese men, before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention program aiming at improving nutritional and physical activity/exercise habits. After the intervention, subjects significantly decreased their volume of VAT (Δ = -26 ± 18%, p < 0.0001) measured by computed tomography and significantly, but modestly reduced their fasting apoB levels (Δ = -3 ± 14%, p = 0.04). When compared to the reference group, men in the intervention group still had higher apoB levels suggesting that they did not "normalize" their apoB concentrations to the level of the healthy non-obese reference men. To further explore the relationship between VAT and apoB, men in the intervention group were stratified according to quartiles of VAT achieved after the intervention. Only men of the lowest quartile of VAT (corresponding to 844 ± 42 cm(3), similar to the value of the reference group; 809 ± 52 cm(3) of VAT) showed plasma apoB levels which were similar to those of the reference group (0.98 ± 0.21 vs. 0.99 ± 0.24 g/L, NS, for lowest VAT quartile and reference group, respectively). These results suggest that, in order to "normalize" apoB levels in response to a lifestyle modification program, viscerally obese dyslipidemic men need to achieve levels of VAT similar to healthy non-obese men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does obesity affect the accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for predicting prostate cancer among men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong J; Jeong, Seong J; Lee, Byung K; Jeong, Chang W; Byun, Seok-Soo; Hong, Sung K; Lee, Sang E

    2013-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and what does the study add?: As most urologist known, obesity significantly lowers serum PSA levels. So there is some concern about delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer in obese men. In the present study, we found that the accuracy level of PSA for detecting prostate cancer was not significantly different between different obesity levels. A well-designed study adjusting for several factors, e.g. diet, exercise, medication and comorbidity, which may possibly compensate for the associated effects on PSA levels, is needed for confirmation of the present findings. To investigate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) accuracy in detecting prostate cancer according to body mass index (BMI) in Asian men with a PSA level of <30 ng/mL using contemporary multicore (≥ 12) prostate biopsy. We reviewed the records of 3471 patients, whose initial PSA levels were <30 ng/mL, who underwent multicore (≥ 12) transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy between January 2004 and May 2011. BMI was categorised as performed previously for the Asian population: <23, 23-24.9, 25-29.9, and ≥ 30 kg/m(2) . PSA accuracy for detecting prostate cancer in each BMI group was assessed based on the receiver operating characteristics-derived area under the curve. The mean age and median PSA level were inversely associated with BMI; the median PSA level in each BMI category was 7.84, 7.75, 7.33 and 5.79 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). In all, prostate cancer was detected from biopsy in 1102 (31.7%) patients. The PSA accuracy for predicting prostate cancer in all patients was estimated to be 0.607, and PSA accuracies in each BMI category were 0.638, 0.572, 0.613 and 0.544, respectively; there was no significant difference among the groups in terms of PSA accuracy. The accuracy of PSA in predicting prostate cancer did not change regardless of BMI category in Asian men. However, as patients with higher BMIs had lower PSA levels than those with lower BMIs, it can therefore

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of active commuting and leisure time exercise in overweight and obese women and men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Quist, Jonas Salling; Petersen, Martin Bæk; Rosenkilde, Mads; Stallknecht, Bente

    2017-10-01

    Physical inactivity is linked to low-grade inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine effects of active commuting and leisure time exercise on markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial function in overweight and obese women and men. We randomized 130 younger (20-45 years), physically inactive, healthy, overweight and obese (BMI: 25-35 kg/m(2)) women and men recruited from the Copenhagen area, Denmark, to either 6 months of habitual lifestyle (CON, n = 18), active commuting (BIKE, n = 35), or leisure time exercise of moderate (MOD, ∼50% VO2peak, n = 39) or vigorous intensity (VIG, ∼70% VO2peak, n = 38). Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, 3, and 6 months and analyzed for concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (vWF), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and 90 participants (CON, n = 16; BIKE, n = 19; MOD, n = 31, VIG, n = 24) were included in a per-protocol analysis. We observed lower concentrations of CRP in MOD compared with CON at 6 months (p = 0.013) and within-group decreases in CRP in BIKE (3 months: p = 0.045) and MOD (3 months: p = 0.061; 6 months: p = 0.038) corresponding to a 30% decrease in BIKE and 19% in MOD from baseline till 6 months. No effects of exercise were observed on fibrinogen, vWF, t-PA, PAI-1 or the t-PA/PAI-1 ratio within or between groups. Our findings suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of active commuting and moderate, but not vigorous, intensity leisure time exercise, but no alterations in endothelial function during 6 months of intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Three definitions of metabolic syndrome applied to a sample of young obese men and their relation with plasma testosterone.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, N P; Katsya, G V; Chagina, N A; Gooren, L J

    2008-09-01

    This study tested 60 men, aged <40 years, with a BMI 27-35 kg/m(2) to determine whether they had metabolic syndrome. The three definitions used to test this were from the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Further, the relationship between a positive definition and plasma testosterone (T) and calculated free T was analysed. Using the above three definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS), there was a large degree of overlap of identifying obese men as having the syndrome, but there were quantitatively significant differences as well. So, it is relevant in studies to identify which of the present definitions of the syndrome has been used. With aging there is an increasing prevalence of the syndrome and age itself might be a factor in the lower T levels encountered in these men. But low plasma total T and calculated free T were also consistent features of men <40 years with metabolic syndrome, regardless of which definition had been applied. Including low T levels in the definition of metabolic syndrome, may be helpful.

  18. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men: A bi-directional mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wallaschofski, Henri; Lorentzen, Erik; Hansen, Torben; Mellström, Dan; Pedersen, Oluf; Nauck, Matthias; Lorentzon, Mattias; Nystrup Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Völzke, Henry; Karlsson, Magnus; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Linneberg, Allan; Ohlsson, Claes

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. Bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. BMI and serum testosterone adjusted for age, smoking, time of blood sampling and site. 1 SD genetically instrumented increase in BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD decrease in serum testosterone (IV ratio: -0.25, 95% CI: -0.42--0.09, p = 2.8*10-3). For a body weight reduction altering the BMI from 30 to 25 kg/m2, the effect would equal a 13% increase in serum testosterone. No association was seen for genetically instrumented testosterone with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using large-scale data from the GIANT consortium (n = 104349). Our results suggest that there is a causal effect of BMI on serum testosterone in men. Population level interventions to reduce BMI are expected to increase serum testosterone in men.

  19. Obesity and weight management in the elderly: a focus on men.

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Wu, F C W; Lean, M E J

    2013-08-01

    The rising rate of overweight/obesity among the ever-growing ageing population is imposing massive and rapidly changing burdens of ill health. The observation that the BMI value associated with the lowest relative mortality is slightly higher in older than in younger adults, mainly through its reduced impact on coronary heart disease, has often been misinterpreted that obesity is not as harmful in the elderly, who suffer a large range of disabling consequences of obesity. All medical consequences of obesity are multi-factorial and most alleviated by modest, achievable weight loss (5-10 kg) with an evidence-based maintenance strategy. But severe obesity, e.g. BMI >40 may demand greater weight loss e.g. >15 kg to reverse type 2 diabetes. Since relatively reduced physical activity and reduced muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity) are common in the elderly, combining exercise and modest calorie restriction optimally reduces fat mass and preserves muscle mass - age presents no obstacle and reducing polypharmacy is a valuable outcome. The currently licensed drug orlistat has no age-related hazards and is effective in a low fat diet, but the risks from bariatric surgery begin to outweigh benefits above age 60. For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue liraglutide appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Obesity and sarcopenia should be prevented from younger age and during life-transitions including retiral to improve future health outcomes and quality of life, with a focus on those in "obese families".

  20. Interaction of sex steroid hormones and obesity on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Lai, Hong; Chen, Shaoguang; Zhu, Hong; Lai, Shenghan

    2017-02-01

    We examined interaction of sex steroid hormones and obesity with regard to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) by using nationally representative data from the US. Data of 1461 men aged ≥20years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Multiplicative interaction was calculated by cross-product interaction terms in multivariable logistic regression models. Additive interaction was assessed by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, the odds of IR were greatest among obese men with low free testosterone and high androstanediol glucuronide. Multiplicative interactions for total testosterone, free testosterone, and free estradiol index (FEI) were statistically significant with central obesity but not with overweight and obesity regarding to T2D (P<0.05). Significant additive interactions with obesity or central obesity were detected for total testosterone (RERI=2.75, 95% CI=0.92,4.59), SHBG (RERI=5.71, 95% CI=0.77,10.64), and FEI (RERI=-9.96, 95% CI=-19.18,-0.74) with regard to IR, beta-cell dysfunction, and T2D. Our findings add to the evidence suggesting that low testosterone and high estradiol may be associated greater risks of IR and T2D by interacting with overall and central obesity in adult men. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Karen B; Herrin, Jeph; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2011-06-01

    We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute(-1) for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (p<0.001). The NOW children had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers.

  2. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children

    PubMed Central

    DORSEY, KAREN B.; HERRIN, JEPH; KRUMHOLZ, HARLAN M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. Methods We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute−1 for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. Results The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus 17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (p < 0.001). The NOW children had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers. PMID:20883127

  3. Prolonged Sitting Time: Barriers, Facilitators and Views on Change among Primary Healthcare Patients Who Are Overweight or Moderately Obese

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ramos, Elena; Martín-Borràs, Carme; Trujillo, José-Manuel; Giné-Garriga, Maria; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Solà-Gonfaus, Mercè; Castillo-Ramos, Eva; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Rodríguez, Dolors; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Beltran, Angela-Maria; Serra-Paya, Noemi; Gascón-Catalán, Ana; Puig-Ribera, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged sitting time has negative consequences on health, although the population is not well aware of these harmful effects. We explored opinions expressed by primary care patients diagnosed as overweight or moderately obese concerning their time spent sitting, willingness to change, and barriers, facilitators, goals and expectations related to limiting this behaviour. Methods A descriptive-interpretive qualitative study was carried out at three healthcare centres in Barcelona, Spain, and included 23 patients with overweight or moderate obesity, aged 25 to 65 years, who reported sitting for at least 6 hours a day. Exclusion criteria were inability to sit down or stand up from a chair without help and language barriers that precluded interview participation. Ten in-depth, semi-structured interviews (5 group, 5 individual) were audio recorded from January to July 2012 and transcribed. The interview script included questions about time spent sitting, willingness to change, barriers and facilitators, and the prospect of assistance from primary healthcare professionals. An analysis of thematic content was made using ATLAS.Ti and triangulation of analysts. Results The most frequent sedentary activities were computer use, watching television, and motorized journeys. There was a lack of awareness of the amount of time spent sitting and its negative consequences on health. Barriers to reducing sedentary time included work and family routines, lack of time and willpower, age and sociocultural limitations. Facilitators identified were sociocultural change, free time and active work, and family surroundings. Participants recognized the abilities of health professionals to provide help and advice, and reported a preference for patient-centred or group interventions. Conclusions Findings from this study have implications for reducing sedentary behaviour. Patient insights were used to design an intervention to reduce sitting time within the frame of

  4. Prolonged Sitting Time: Barriers, Facilitators and Views on Change among Primary Healthcare Patients Who Are Overweight or Moderately Obese.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramos, Elena; Martín-Borràs, Carme; Trujillo, José-Manuel; Giné-Garriga, Maria; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Solà-Gonfaus, Mercè; Castillo-Ramos, Eva; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Rodríguez, Dolors; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Beltran, Angela-Maria; Serra-Paya, Noemi; Gascón-Catalán, Ana; Puig-Ribera, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged sitting time has negative consequences on health, although the population is not well aware of these harmful effects. We explored opinions expressed by primary care patients diagnosed as overweight or moderately obese concerning their time spent sitting, willingness to change, and barriers, facilitators, goals and expectations related to limiting this behaviour. A descriptive-interpretive qualitative study was carried out at three healthcare centres in Barcelona, Spain, and included 23 patients with overweight or moderate obesity, aged 25 to 65 years, who reported sitting for at least 6 hours a day. Exclusion criteria were inability to sit down or stand up from a chair without help and language barriers that precluded interview participation. Ten in-depth, semi-structured interviews (5 group, 5 individual) were audio recorded from January to July 2012 and transcribed. The interview script included questions about time spent sitting, willingness to change, barriers and facilitators, and the prospect of assistance from primary healthcare professionals. An analysis of thematic content was made using ATLAS.Ti and triangulation of analysts. The most frequent sedentary activities were computer use, watching television, and motorized journeys. There was a lack of awareness of the amount of time spent sitting and its negative consequences on health. Barriers to reducing sedentary time included work and family routines, lack of time and willpower, age and sociocultural limitations. Facilitators identified were sociocultural change, free time and active work, and family surroundings. Participants recognized the abilities of health professionals to provide help and advice, and reported a preference for patient-centred or group interventions. Findings from this study have implications for reducing sedentary behaviour. Patient insights were used to design an intervention to reduce sitting time within the frame of the SEDESTACTIV clinical trial.

  5. Intervening to prevent repeat offending among moderate- to high-risk domestic violence offenders: a second-responder program for men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katreena; Heslop, Lisa; Kelly, Tim; Wiggins, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Clear directions about best strategies to reduce recidivism among domestic violence offenders have remained elusive. The current study offers an initial evaluation of an RNR (Risk, Needs, and Responsivity)-focused second-responder program for men accused of assaulting their intimate partners and who were judged as being at moderate to high risk for re-offending. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare police outcomes for 40 men attending a second-responder intervention program to 40 men with equivalent levels of risk for re-offense who did not attend intervention (comparison group). Results showed that there were significant, substantial, and lasting differences across groups in all outcome domains. In terms of recidivism, rates of subsequent domestic-violence-related changes were more than double for men in the comparison group as compared with the intervention group in both 1-year (65.9% vs. 29.3%) and 2-year (41.5% vs. 12.2%) follow-up. Changes in the rates of arrest were consistent with reductions in men's general involvement with police, with men in the intervention group receiving fewer charges for violent offenses, administrative offenses, and property offenses over the 2 years following intervention than men in the comparison group. Not surprisingly, these differences result in a much lower estimated amount of police time with intervention men than for comparison men. Results are discussed with reference to the possible impact of sharing information with men about their assessed risk for re-offending within a therapeutic justice context.

  6. Motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic region improve respiratory function in obese men. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bezzoli, Emanuela; Andreotti, Dianne; Pianta, Lucia; Mascheroni, Martina; Piccinno, Lorena; Puricelli, Luca; Cimolin, Veronica; Salvadori, Alberto; Codecasa, Franco; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2016-11-10

    Obese subjects have decreased pulmonary function. The hypothesis of our study was that poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic musculature secondary to obesity may hinder the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. The aim of the paper was to evaluate whether specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature were able to improve respiratory function. Twenty obese male patients underwent a rehabilitation program including adapted physical activity and respiratory physiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to a Specific Motor Control Exercise Group (SG) and a Control Group (CG). SG followed a protocol according to the SMARTERehab concept aimed at improving posture, intra-abdominal pressure, rib cage mobility, and perception of correct muscle activation. CG performed an exercise training protocol to improve aerobic capacity and muscle strength. After intervention, both groups showed similar changes in body weight, fat, and fat-free mass. Respiratory function indexes improved in SG due to improved proprioception and coordination of the deep lumbar-pelvic muscles. Our study provides preliminary evidence that breathing, postural control, and spinal stability are intertwined. Positive respiratory effects in obese men can be obtained by prescribing specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic muscles. Implications for rehabilitation Obese subjects present with decreased pulmonary function and postural changes. Poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic muscles affects posture and the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. Specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature can improve respiratory function. Breathing and postural control are intertwined: positive respiratory effects can be obtained by enhancing motor control of the lumbar-pelvic muscles.

  7. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-08-23

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Obesity is associated with castration-resistant disease and metastasis in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database

    PubMed Central

    Keto, Christopher J.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Presti, Joseph C.; Kane, Christopher J.; Amling, Christopher L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether obesity predicts poor outcomes in men starting androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) before metastasis, since previous studies found worse outcomes after surgery and radiation for obese men. METHODS A retrospective review was carried out of 287 men in the SEARCH database treated with radical prostatectomy between 1988 and 2009.Body mass index (BMI) was categorized to <25, 25–29.9 and ≥30 kg/m2.Proportional hazards models were used to test the association between BMI and time to castration-resistant prostate cancer (PC), metastases and PC-specific mortality adjusting for demographic and clinicopathological data. RESULTS During a median 73-month follow-up after radical prostatectomy, 403 men (14%) received early ADT.Among 287 men with complete data, median BMI was 28.3 kg/m2.Median follow-up from the start of ADT was 52 months during which 44 men developed castration-resistant PC, 34 developed metastases and 24 died from PC.In multivariate analysis, higher BMI was associated with a trend for greater risk of progression to castration-resistant PC (P = 0.063), a more than threefold increased risk of developing metastases (P = 0.027) and a trend toward worse PC-specific mortality (P = 0.119).Prognostic biomarkers did not differ between BMI groups. CONCLUSIONS Among men treated with early ADT, our results suggest that obese men may have increased risk of PC progression.These data support the general hypothesis that obesity is associated with aggressive PC, although validation of these findings and further study of the mechanisms linking obesity and poor PC outcomes are required. PMID:22094083

  9. Impaired Postural Control in Healthy Men at Moderate Altitude (1630 M and 2590 M): Data from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Clark, Ross A.; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intact postural control is essential for safe performance of mountain sports, operation of machinery at altitude, and for piloting airplanes. We tested whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at moderate altitude impairs the static postural control of healthy subjects. Methods In 51 healthy men, median age 24 y (quartiles 20;28), static control was evaluated on a balance platform in Zurich, 490 m, and during a 4-day sojourn in Swiss mountain villages at 1630 m and 2590 m, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Total center of pressure path length (COPL) and sway amplitude measured in two directions by a balance platform, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Data were compared between altitudes. Results Median (quartiles) COPL during standing on both legs with eyes open at 490 m and in the evenings on the first and second days at 1630 and 2590 m, respectively were: 50 (45;57), 55 (48;62), 56 (49;61), 53 (47;59), 54 (48;60) cm, P<0.001 ANOVA. Corresponding arterial oxygen saturation was 97% (96;97), 95% (94;96), 95%(94;96), 92%(90;93), 93%(91;93), P<0.001. Anterior-posterior sway amplitudes were larger at 1630 and 2590 m compared to 490 m, P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher altitudes (1630 and 2590m) were independently associated with increased COPL when controlled for the order of altitude exposure and age (P=0.001). Conclusions Exposure to 1630 and 2590m was associated with impaired static postural control even when visual references were available. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948. PMID:25723529

  10. "Now we are in a different time; various bad diseases have come." understanding men's acceptability of male circumcision for HIV prevention in a moderate prevalence setting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult male surgical circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce HIV acquisition in men and is recommended by the WHO for inclusion in comprehensive national HIV prevention programs in high prevalence settings. Only limited research to date has been conducted in countries experiencing moderate burden epidemics, where the acceptability, operational feasibility and potential epidemiological impact of MC remain unclear. Methods A multi-method qualitative research study was conducted at four sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG), with 24 focus group discussions and 65 in-depth interviews carried out among 276 men. Results The majority of men were in favour of MC being introduced for HIV prevention in PNG and considered improved genital hygiene, enhanced sexual pleasure and culturally appropriateness key factors in the acceptability of a future intervention. A minority of men were against the introduction of MC, primarily due to concerns regarding sexual risk compensation and that the intervention went against prevailing cultural and religious beliefs. Conclusion This is one of the first community-based MC acceptability studies conducted in a moderate prevalence setting outside of Africa. Research findings from this study suggest that a future MC program for HIV prevention would be widely accepted by men in PNG. PMID:22264256

  11. Rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucoside fraction decreases elevated blood LDL cholesterol level in obese Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Matsuoka, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    People who frequently consume whole grains show a lower incidence of arteriosclerotic disease than people who consume primarily refined grains. We examined whether or not rice bran extract containing the acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) fraction decreases blood LDL cholesterol levels in obese Japanese men with high blood levels of LDL cholesterol. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. A total of 51 subjects were randomly allocated to either a rice bran extract containing ASG fraction (RB-ASG) group or a placebo group. Subjects in the RB-ASG group received 30-50 mg/day of RB-ASG, and the placebo group took 9 capsules/day for 12 weeks. Before and after intake, height, weight, body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, blood was collected, and visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and abdominal circumference were determined based on umbilical computed tomography. Percentage decreases in blood LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat area were significantly better in the RB-ASG group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that RB-ASG fraction may reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis in obese Japanese men with high LDL cholesterol levels.

  12. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boschmann, Michael; Thielecke, Frank

    2007-08-01

    The development of obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose tissue mass and by concomitant and profound changes in almost all organ functions leading to diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Recent data from human studies indicate that the consumption of green tea and green tea extracts may help reduce body weight, mainly body fat, by increasing postprandial thermogenesis and fat oxidation. However, human studies investigating the metabolic effects of the most predominant tea catechin, EGCG, alone are absent. In a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study, six overweight men were given 300 mg EGCG/d for 2d. Fasting and postprandial changes in energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation were assessed. Resting EE did not differ significantly between EGCG and placebo treatments, although during the first postprandial monitoring phase, respiratory quotient (RQ) values were significantly lower with EGCG compared to the placebo. These findings suggest that EGCG alone has the potential to increase fat oxidation in men and may thereby contribute to the anti-obesity effects of green tea. However, more studies with a greater sample size and a broader range of age and BMI are needed to define the optimum dose.

  13. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95   %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95   %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95   %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95   %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.

  14. Impacts of Long-Term Obesity on the Health Status of Samoan and Tongan Men in the United States: Results from the Pacific Islander Health Study.

    PubMed

    Panapasa, Sela V; McNally, James W; Heeringa, Steven G; Williams, David R

    2015-08-07

    To examine the impacts of long-standing obesity (BMIs ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) on health outcomes among Samoan and Tongan men (aged ≥ 18 years) in California using a life course perspective. Cross-sectional analysis of 103 males from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS), a probability sample modeled after the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Urban residential neighborhoods in San Mateo and Los Angeles counties using a multistage, cluster sample design. BMI, diabetes, hypertension, total cholesterol, smoking, drinking, arthritis, gout and migraines. Bivariate analysis shows high rates of poor health outcomes distributed throughout the obese and non-obese sample. Logistic analysis finds that being obese does not significantly increase observed negative health outcomes. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the presence of obesity results in non-significant findings for hypertension (OR=1.02; CI: .21, 4.91), and high cholesterol (OR=.52; CI: .10, 2.73), while obesity significantly reduces the risk of diabetes by 60% (OR=.40; CI: .14, 1.17). When applying disease counts, obese men have a significantly lower risk of reporting multiple health conditions (OR=.72; CI: .52, 1.00). Overall, the health of Samoan and Tongan males in California is uniformly poor and obesity alone does not significantly increase risks of poor health outcomes. Using a life course perspective, the analysis offers new insights on the basic health of this understudied population.

  15. Comparison of the frequency of atrial fibrillation in young obese versus young nonobese men undergoing examination for fitness for military service.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-03-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and long-term risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been examined for men. We conducted a population-based 36-year cohort study to examine the BMI-associated risk of AF in 12,850 young men who had BMI measured at their examination of fitness for military service. AF was identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. We began follow-up on the twenty-second birthday of each subject and continued until the occurrence of AF, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for education and height. The cohort contributed a total of 375,888 person-years of follow-up and the median follow-up time was 26 years (mean 29 years). The incidence of AF per 100,000 person-years was 53 for men of normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 54 for underweight men (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)), 106 for overweight men (BMI: 25.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), and 144 for obese men (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). With normal weight as the reference group, the adjusted HR for AF was 0.99 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.87) for underweight men, 2.08 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.92) for overweight men, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.46 to 5.62) for obese men. The adjusted HR associating 1 unit increase in BMI with AF was 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.16). In conclusion, overweight and obese young men had more than twice the risk of AF compared with young men of normal weight.

  16. Effect of a very-low-calorie diet on body composition and resting metabolic rate in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Burgess, N S

    1991-04-01

    Very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) provide a rapid decrease in total body weight, but limited data are available regarding the extent of fat loss and whether body fat distribution is altered. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, body fat distribution, and resting metabolic rate in obese men and women and to compare bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with hydrodensitometry before and after 12 weeks of treatment in a VLCD program. Body composition was assessed by hydrodensitometry and BIA. Circumference measures were used to determine waist:hip and waist:thigh ratios. Seventeen subjects lost a mean of 24.2 kg. A mean of 75.5% of the weight loss was adipose tissue as measured by hydrodensitometry. BIA underestimated body fat percentage compared with hydrodensitometry in this obese population. Waist:hip and waist:thigh ratios showed a small but significant decrease, implying a decreased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease after weight loss. Resting metabolic rate, as measured by oxygen consumption, dropped 23.8% during the 12 weeks of the VLCD. The findings indicate that a VLCD can provide a rapid weight loss of more than 75% fat and a concomitant decrease in waist:hip and waist:thigh ratios. The findings also indicate that BIA may not be a useful tool in assessing fat loss in obese subjects. Finally, it appears that the decrease in resting metabolic rate that occurs during treatment with VLCD does not correlate with changes in lean body mass.

  17. Differential obesity indices identify the metabolic syndrome in Black men and women in Cape Town: the CRIBSA study.

    PubMed

    Peer, N; Steyn, K; Levitt, N

    2016-03-01

    To determine the obesity indices, specifically waist circumference (WC), that identified ≥2 other metabolic syndrome (MS) components (2009 criteria) in 25- to 74-year-old Africans in Cape Town. Data were collected from a cross-sectional sample by administered questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analyses. The obesity cut points were estimated by the Youden Index. Logistic regression analyses determined whether obesity cut points identifying ≥2 MS components occurred at true inflection points. Among the 1099 participants, the calculated cut points and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were: men, WC 83.9 cm (81.6-86.2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) 0.89 (0.87-0.90), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) 0.50 (0.48-0.52) and body mass index (BMI) 24.1 kg/m(2) (22.0-26.1); women, WC 94.0 cm (92.6-95.3), WHR 0.85 (0.83-0.87), WHtR 0.59 (0.57-0.60) and BMI 32.1 kg/m(2) (29.7-34.6). Raised WC was significantly associated with ≥2 MS components in men: WC 84.0-93.9 cm (odds ratio (OR): 3.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73-5.85) and WC ≥94.0 cm (OR: 8.50, 95% CI: 4.44-16.25) compared with WC <84.0 cm, and in women: WC 80.0-93.9 cm (OR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.32-6.54) and WC ≥94.0 cm (OR: 5.33, 95% CI: 2.40-11.85) compared with WC <80.0 cm. In the logistic model with BMI for women, obesity (OR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.82-7.10) but not overweight (P = 0.063) was significantly associated with ≥2 MS components. Obesity cut points for Africans should be re-evaluated and adjusted accordingly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Modifying Alcohol Consumption to Reduce Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study of a Complex Community-based Intervention for Men.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Cunningham, Kathryn B; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Norrie, John; Melson, Ambrose J; Jones, Claire; Rice, Peter; Slane, Peter W; Achison, Marcus; McKenzie, Andrew; Dimova, Elena D; Allan, Sheila

    2017-09-18

    Being obese and drinking more than 14 units of alcohol per week places men at very high risk of developing liver disease. This study assessed the feasibility of a trial to reduce alcohol consumption. It tested the recruitment strategy, engagement with the intervention, retention and study acceptability. Men aged 35-64 years who drank >21 units of alcohol per week and had a BMI > 30 were recruited by two methods: from GP patient registers and by community outreach. The intervention was delivered by a face to face session followed by a series of text messages. Trained lay people (Study Coordinators) delivered the face to face session. Participants were followed up for 5 months from baseline to measure weekly alcohol consumption and BMI. The recruitment target of 60 was exceeded, with 69 men recruited and randomized. At baseline, almost all the participants (95%) exceeded the threshold for a 19-fold increase in the risk of dying from liver disease. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. A very high follow-up rate was achieved (98%) and the outcomes for the full trial were measured. Process evaluation showed that participants responded as intended to key steps in the behaviour change strategy. The acceptability of the study methods was high: e.g. 80% of men would recommend the study to others. This feasibility study identified a group at high risk of liver disease. It showed that a full trial could be conducted to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Current controlled trials: ISRCTN55309164. National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment (NIHR HTA). This feasibility study recruited 69 men at high risk of developing liver disease. The novel intervention, to reduce alcohol consumption through the motivation of weight loss, was well received. A very high follow-up rate was achieved. Process evaluation showed that participants engaged with key components of the behaviour change strategy.

  19. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Unfavorable Disease in Men with Low Risk Prostate Cancer and its Relationship with Anatomical Location of Tumor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Gab; Yoo, Sangjun; Lee, Chunwoo; Kim, Myong; You, Dalsan; Song, Cheryn; Park, Sungchan; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the influence of obesity on unfavorable disease in men with low risk prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance and verified the underlying relationship with tumor location. We analyzed the records of 890 patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer via multicore (12 or more) biopsy at our institution. Unfavorable disease was defined as primary Gleason pattern 4 or greater, or pathological stage T3 or greater. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with unfavorable disease. The association of unfavorable disease with anatomical location of the index tumor was assessed. Overall 216 (24.3%), 544 (61.1%) and 130 men (14.6%) had a body mass index of less than 23 (normal), 23 to 27.5 (overweight) and 27.5 kg/m(2) or greater (obese), respectively, according to established cutoff points for Asian men. Multivariate analysis showed that age, prostate volume and body mass index were independent factors for predicting unfavorable disease regardless of the various active surveillance criteria used. For Johns Hopkins Hospital criteria the risk of unfavorable disease was higher in obese patients than in normal weight patients (OR 3.30, p = 0.022). Unfavorable disease was more frequent in cases of transition zone cancer than nontransition zone cancer across all criteria for active surveillance (all p <0.01). Among men fulfilling Johns Hopkins Hospital criteria the proportion of transition zone cancer was 4.2% for normal weight, 11.6% for overweight and 16.7% for obesity, respectively (p = 0.022). Obese men with low risk prostate cancer who are eligible for active surveillance are at higher risk for unfavorable pathological features. Obese men more frequently had transition zone cancer, which was associated with unfavorable pathology findings in those with very low risk prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  20. Is there an obesity paradox in the Japanese elderly population? A community-based cohort study of 13 280 men and women.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kenji; Suzuki, Etsuji; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ohta, Toshiki; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Despite increased interest in an obesity paradox (i.e. a survival advantage of being obese), evidence remains sparse in Japanese populations. We aimed to verify this phenomenon among community-dwelling older adults in Japan. Older adults aged 65-84 years randomly chosen from all 74 municipalities in Shizuoka Prefecture completed questionnaires including body mass index information. Participants were followed from 1999 to 2009. Following World Health Organization guidelines, participants were classified using an appropriate body mass index for Asian populations as follows: <18.5 kg/m(2) (underweight), 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2) (normal weight), 23.0-27.5 kg/m(2) (overweight) and ≥27.5 kg/m(2) (obesity). We estimated hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality, controlling for sex, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Compared with normal-weight participants, overweight/obese participants tended to have lower hazard ratios; the multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 0.86 (0.62-1.19) for obesity, 0.83 (0.73-0.94) for overweight and 1.60 (1.40-1.82) for underweight. In subgroup analyses by sex and age, the hazard ratios tended to be lower among obese men, albeit not significantly; hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 0.56 (0.25-1.27) in men aged 65-74 years, and 0.78 (0.41-1.45) in men aged 75-84 years. The present study provides evidence of a conservative obesity paradox among older Japanese people, using the appropriate body mass index cut-off points for Asian populations. In particular, obese older men tend to have a lower risk of all-cause mortality. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1257-1264. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Best single-slice measurement site for estimating visceral adipose tissue volume after weight loss in obese, Japanese men.

    PubMed

    So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Eto, Miki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Saotome, Kousaku; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-06-14

    Although the measurement site at L4-L5 for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been commonly accepted, some researchers suggest that additional upper sites (i.e., L1-L2 and L2-L3) are useful for estimating VAT volume. Therefore, determining the optimum measurement site remains challenging and has become important in determining VAT volume. We investigated the influence of a single-slice measurement site on the prediction of VAT volume and changes in VAT volume in obese Japanese men. Twenty-four men, aged 30-65 years with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m2, were included in a 12-week weight loss program. We obtained continuous T1-weighted abdominal magnetic resonance images from T9 to S1 with a 1.5-T system to measure the VAT area. These VAT areas were then summed to determine VAT volume before and after the program. Single-slice images at 3-11 cm above L4-L5 had significant and high correlations with VAT volume at baseline (r=0.94-0.97). The single-slice image with the highest correlation coefficient with respect to VAT volume was located at 5 cm above L4-L5 (r=0.97). The highest correlation coefficient between the individual changes in VAT area and changes in VAT volume was located at 6 cm above L4-L5 (r=0.90). Individual measurement sites have different abilities to estimate VAT volume and changes in VAT volume in obese Japanese men. Best zone located at 5-6 cm above L4-L5 may be a better predictor of VAT volume than the L4-L5 image in terms of both baseline and changes with weight loss.

  2. Longitudinal associations between body composition, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, disability, institutionalisation and mortality in community-dwelling older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    to explore the longitudinal associations between body composition measures, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) disability, institutionalisation and mortality. men aged ≥ 70 years (2005-07) from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project were assessed at baseline (n = 1,705), 2 (n = 1,366) and 5 years (n = 954). The main outcome measures were frailty (adapted Fried criteria), ADL, including personal care and mobility and IADL disability (ability to perform tasks for independent living), institutionalisation and mortality. The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health cut-points were used for low muscle mass: appendicular lean mass (ALM):Body Mass Index (BMI) ratio (ALMBMI) <0.789 and obesity was defined as >30% fat. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine the longitudinal associations between the independent variables (obesity alone, low muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity) and frailty, ADL and IADL disability. in unadjusted, age adjusted and fully adjusted analysis, men with low muscle mass showed increased risk of frailty and IADL disability. In fully adjusted analysis, men with sarcopenic obesity had an increased risk of frailty (odds ratio (OR): 2.00 (95% confidence of interval (CI): 1.42, 2.82)) ADL disability (OR: 1.58 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.24)) and IADL disability (OR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.76)). Obesity alone was protective for institutionalisation (OR: 0.51 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.84)) but was not associated with any other outcomes. low muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity were associated with poor functional outcomes, independent of confounders. This would suggest that future trials on frailty and disability prevention should be designed to intervene on both muscle mass and fat mass.

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid May Improve Liver and Muscle but Not Adipose Tissue Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kars, Marleen; Yang, Ling; Gregor, Margaret F.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Pietka, Terri A.; Finck, Brian N.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Horton, Jay D.; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Klein, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is commonly associated with obesity. Studies conducted in obese mouse models found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to insulin resistance, and treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid derivative that acts as a chemical chaperone to enhance protein folding and ameliorate ER stress, increases insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TUDCA therapy on multiorgan insulin action and metabolic factors associated with insulin resistance in obese men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty obese subjects ([means ± SD] aged 48 ± 11 years, BMI 37 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with TUDCA (1,750 mg/day) or placebo. A two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusions and muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were used to evaluate in vivo insulin sensitivity, cellular factors involved in insulin signaling, and cellular markers of ER stress. RESULTS Hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity increased by ∼30% (P < 0.05) after treatment with TUDCA but did not change after placebo therapy. In addition, therapy with TUDCA, but not placebo, increased muscle insulin signaling (phosphorylated insulin receptor substrateTyr and AktSer473 levels) (P < 0.05). Markers of ER stress in muscle or adipose tissue did not change after treatment with either TUDCA or placebo. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that TUDCA might be an effective pharmacological approach for treating insulin resistance. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the target cells and mechanisms responsible for this effect. PMID:20522594

  4. Influence of sex on total and regional fat loss in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kuk, J L; Ross, R

    2009-06-01

    To determine the influence of sex on the association between reductions in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) with reductions in total (TAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in response to lifestyle-based interventions. Changes in TAT, SAT and VAT were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 81 men and 72 women who had participated in various diet and/or exercise interventions at Queen's University, Ontario, Canada. Reductions in BW and WC were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with TAT, SAT and VAT loss in men and women. For a given weight loss, men had a significantly greater decrease in WC than women, and the sex difference in WC reduction increased with increasing weight loss (P<0.05). Similarly, for a given reduction in BW or WC, men have significantly greater reductions in VAT, but smaller reductions in total and lower body SAT than women, differences that progressively increased in magnitude with the increasing BW or WC loss (P<0.05). Accordingly, there were no sex differences in the TAT reduction for a given BW or WC reduction (P>0.05). Reductions in BW and WC were both independent predictors of VAT loss. These observations suggest that for a given reduction in BW or WC, men lose more VAT and less SAT than women; however, the TAT loss observed for a given reduction in BW or WC in men and women is not different.

  5. Prospective associations between peer teasing in childhood and young men's obesity.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Gini, Gianluca

    2017-08-12

    Being teased and otherwise victimised by peers during childhood increases risk for obesity. However, few prospective studies have considered whether risk extends to adulthood. We tested whether being teased in childhood predicted higher body mass index (BMI) and increased odds of obesity in early adulthood in a community sample of American males. Boys (n=206) were classified as victims of peer teasing or non-victims (n=55 and 151, respectively) based on mother, father, and teacher reports at ages 10-12 years. BMI was assessed at ages 24 or 32 years for 203 of the participants. Family income, parent and child depressive symptoms, child antisocial behaviour, and childhood BMI were assessed at ages 10-13 years and served as control variables. In unadjusted comparisons, childhood victims did not differ significantly from non-victims on BMI (mean [SD]=27.49 [4.53] and 26.97 [4.60], respectively) or rates of obesity (42% and 31%, respectively) in early adulthood. In adjusted models, no group differences emerged for BMI (β [95% confidence interval (CI)]=.02 [-.09 to .13], p=.77) or obesity (odds ratio [95% CI]=1.58 [.67-3.71], p=.30). Peer victimization has been associated with immediate and long-term maladjustment outcomes that are in some cases life threatening. However, our null results do not support that peer victimization significantly increases long-term risk for obesity, and findings are consistent with two other long-term prospective studies of this issue. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Food-specific response inhibition, dietary restraint and snack intake in lean and overweight/obese adults: a moderated-mediation model

    PubMed Central

    Price, M; Lee, M; Higgs, S

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The relationship between response inhibition and obesity is currently unclear. This may be because of inconsistencies in methodology, design limitations and the use of narrow samples. In addition, dietary restraint has not been considered, yet restraint has been reported to moderate performance on behavioural tasks of response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate performance on both a food-based and a neutral stimuli go/no-go task, which addresses current design limitations, in lean and overweight/obese adults. The moderating role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body composition, response inhibition and snack intake was also measured. Subjects/Methods: Lean and overweight/obese, males and females (N=116) completed both a food-based and neutral category control go/no-go task, in a fully counterbalanced repeated-measures design. A bogus taste-test was then completed, followed by a self-report measure of dietary restraint. Results: PROCESS moderated-mediation analysis showed that overweight/obese, compared with lean, participants made more errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task, but only when they were low in dietary restraint. Performance on the food-based go/no-go task predicted snack intake across the sample. Increased intake in the overweight, low restrainers was fully mediated by increased errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task. Conclusions: Distinguishing between high and low restrained eaters in the overweight/obese population is crucial in future obesity research incorporating food-based go/no-go tasks. Poor response inhibition to food cues predicts overeating across weight groups, suggesting weight loss interventions and obesity prevention programmes should target behavioural inhibition training in such individuals. PMID:26592733

  7. Perceptions of Men With Moderate to Severe Hemophilia Regarding the Management of Their Chronic Disorder and Utilization of Community-Based Support.

    PubMed

    Rolstad, Erik B

    2015-11-01

    Hemophilia is a genetic bleeding disorder that almost exclusively affects men. There is a nationwide network of nonprofit organizations providing support to men with hemophilia, which are affiliated with localized agencies that serve affected individuals within specific regions of the country. This community-based study was implemented in response to a local Utah agency's concern that men with hemophilia may be disengaged from and underserved by their local support network. The goal of the study was to gain a better understanding of the (a) unique challenges, (b) adaptations, and (c) physical, financial, psychological, and social needs of adult men with moderate to severe hemophilia from the local community. Over a period of 9 months, verbal qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 affected individuals, and written interviews were obtained from 3 additional participants. Using a grounded-theory approach, six themes were identified, based on men's commentary from interviews, across a spectrum of physical, social, communal, personal, medical, and vocational dimensions. Resilience theory, which explores internal resources that assist in coping with adverse situations, was used as a framework for interpreting research results. Findings indicate that men value the array of educational, social, and medical services that are available to them but choose to manage their hemophilia independently from the community and access support according to their individual needs. Understanding this dynamic may be helpful in developing services that are more specifically tailored to the physical and psychosocial needs of adult men with hemophilia and, potentially, men with other chronic health disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Metformin Increases Cortisol Regeneration by 11βHSD1 in Obese Men With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Anna J.; Andrew, Ruth; Homer, Natalie Z.; Jones, Gregory C.; Smith, Kenneth; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Walker, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The mechanism of action of metformin remains unclear. Given the regulation of the cortisol-regenerating enzyme 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD1) by insulin and the limited efficacy of selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors to lower blood glucose when co-prescribed with metformin, we hypothesized that metformin reduces 11βHSD1 activity. Objective: To determine whether metformin regulates 11βHSD1 activity in vivo in obese men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting: A hospital clinical research facility. Participants: Eight obese nondiabetic (OND) men and eight obese men with type 2 diabetes (ODM). Intervention: Participants received 28 days of metformin (1 g twice daily), placebo, or (in the ODM group) gliclazide (80 mg twice daily) in random order. A deuterated cortisol infusion at the end of each phase measured cortisol regeneration by 11βHSD1. Oral cortisone was given to measure hepatic 11βHSD1 activity in the ODM group. The effect of metformin on 11βHSD1 was also assessed in human hepatocytes and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome adipocytes. Main Outcome Measures: The effect of metformin on whole-body and hepatic 11βHSD1 activity. Results: Whole-body 11βHSD1 activity was approximately 25% higher in the ODM group than the OND group. Metformin increased whole-body cortisol regeneration by 11βHSD1 in both groups compared with placebo and gliclazide and tended to increase hepatic 11βHSD1 activity. In vitro, metformin did not increase 11βHSD1 activity in hepatocytes or adipocytes. Conclusions: Metformin increases whole-body cortisol generation by 11βHSD1 probably through an indirect mechanism, potentially offsetting other metabolic benefits of metformin. Co-prescription with metformin should provide a greater target for selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors. PMID:27459533

  9. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  10. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  11. Vitamin C status is related to proinflammatory responses and impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy, college-aged lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Matos, Manuel D; Kawiecki, Diana; Ballard, Kevin; Guo, Yi; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-05-01

    Vitamin C supplementation has been suggested to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. However, no studies have examined the relationship between vitamin C status and vascular dysfunction in lean and obese individuals in the absence of supplementation. We examined whether vascular function is interrelated with vitamin C status and inflammation in healthy, college-aged lean and obese men with no history of dietary supplementation. A cross-sectional study was conducted during winter 2008 in lean and obese men aged 21±3 years (n=8/group). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured to determine vascular endothelial function. Plasma antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and thiols), inflammatory proteins (C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], and cytokines), and cellular adhesion molecules were measured. Participants also completed 3-day food records on the days preceding their vascular testing. Group differences were evaluated by t tests, and correlation coefficients were determined by linear regression. FMD was 21% lower (P<0.05) in obese men. They also had 51% lower vitamin C intakes and 38% lower plasma vitamin C concentrations. Obese men had greater plasma concentrations of CRP, MPO, inflammatory cytokines, and cellular adhesion molecules. Participants' CRP and MPO were each inversely related (P<0.05) to FMD (r=-0.528 and -0.625) and plasma vitamin C (r=-0.646 and -0.701). These data suggest that low vitamin C status is associated with proinflammatory responses and impaired vascular function in lean and obese men. Additional study is warranted to determine whether improving dietary vitamin C intakes from food attenuate vascular dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  13. Leptin predicts a decline in moderate to vigorous physical activity in minority female children at risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Belcher, B R; Chou, C-P; Nguyen-Rodriguez, S T; Hsu, Y-W; Byrd-Williams, C E; McClain, A D; Weigensberg, M J; Spuijt-Metz, D

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Physical activity declines as children enter puberty. Leptin is cross-sectionally associated with physical activity, but there are conflicting findings on the magnitude and direction of this association. Leptin concentrations fluctuate during puberty, and may impact energy balance. What this study adds Leptin predicts the decline in physical activity during the start of puberty independent of central adiposity. Based on a median split of leptin, girls with low leptin levels have higher levels of physical activity than girls with high leptin levels at the start of puberty. Leptin levels at the start of puberty may provide a biological basis for the age-related physical activity decline in girls. Leptin may influence moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at the start of puberty. The direction and magnitude of this association are unclear. To determine the effect of baseline leptin on MVPA over 1 year in minority girls at high risk for obesity. Data came from TRANSITIONS, a longitudinal observational study on the age-related MVPA decline. Fifty peripubertal girls aged 8-11 years at baseline participated. Baseline leptin (ng mL(-1) ) was collected via a duplicated assay using a double antibody radio immune assay. MVPA (min d(-1) ) was measured using accelerometers for at least four 10-h days on a quarterly basis for up to 1 year. Continuous leptin was negatively related to MVPA (P = 0.001) independent of central adiposity at baseline and predicted the MVPA decline over 1 year (P = 0.002). For descriptive purposes, baseline leptin was dichotomized at the sample median into 'high leptin' and 'low leptin' categories to determine whether MVPA trajectories differed between these groups. Girls with 'low leptin' at baseline had significantly higher levels of MPVA at baseline, visit 1 and visit 2 compared to girls with 'high leptin'. High leptin levels predicted nearly a 12.6% decline in MVPA over 1 year. These findings provide

  14. The SHED-IT community trial study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of weight loss programs for overweight and obese men

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major cause of preventable death in Australia with prevalence increasing at an alarming rate. Of particular concern is that approximately 68% of men are overweight/obese, yet are notoriously difficult to engage in weight loss programs, despite being more susceptible than women to adverse weight-related outcomes. There is a need to develop and evaluate obesity treatment programs that target and appeal to men. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of two relatively low intensity weight loss programs developed specifically for men. Methods and Design The study design is an assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised controlled trial that recruited 159 overweight and obese men in Newcastle, Australia. Inclusion criteria included: BMI 25-40 (kg/m2); no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire and pre-exercise risk assessment; available for assessment sessions; access to a computer with e-mail and Internet facilities; and own a mobile phone. Men were recruited to the SHED-IT (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Internet Technology) study via the media and emails sent to male dominated workplaces. Men were stratified by BMI category (overweight, obese class I, obese class II) and randomised to one of three groups: (1) SHED-IT Resources - provision of materials (DVD, handbooks, pedometer, tape measure) with embedded behaviour change strategies to support weight loss; (2) SHED-IT Online - same materials as SHED-IT Resources plus access to and instruction on how to use the study website; (3) Wait-list Control. The intervention programs are three months long with outcome measures taken by assessors blinded to group allocation at baseline, and 3- and 6-months post baseline. Outcome measures include: weight (primary outcome), % body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, objectively measured physical activity, self-reported dietary intake, sedentary

  15. Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Levine, Hagai; Hauser, Russ; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that occupational or environmental pesticide exposure can affect male fertility. There is less evidence, however, regarding any potentially adverse effects of pesticide residues in foods on markers of male fertility potential. We examined the relations between fruit and vegetable intake, considering pesticide residue status, and semen quality and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones in healthy young men. The Rochester Young Men's Study is a cross-sectional study that recruited men aged 18-22 y (n = 189) in Rochester, New York. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, and underwent a physical examination at enrollment. Semen samples were analyzed for total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology, motility, ejaculate volume, total motile count, and total normal count. Dietary intake during the previous year was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fruit and vegetables were categorized as having high [Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) ≥4] or low-to-moderate (PRBS <4) pesticide residues on the basis of data from the USDA Pesticide Data Program. Linear regression models were used to analyze the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with semen variables and reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounding factors. The total intake of fruit and vegetables was unrelated to semen quality. However, the intake of fruit and vegetables with low-to-moderate pesticide residues was associated with a higher total sperm count and sperm concentration, whereas the intake of fruit and vegetables with high pesticide residues was unrelated to semen quality. On average, men in the highest quartile of low-to-moderate-pesticide fruit and vegetable intake (≥2.8 servings/d) had a 169% (95% CI: 45%, 400%) higher total sperm count and a 173% (95% CI: 57%, 375%) higher sperm concentration than did men in the lowest quartile (<1.1 servings/d; P-trend = 0.003 and

  16. Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men123

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Mendiola, Jaime; Levine, Hagai; Hauser, Russ; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have shown that occupational or environmental pesticide exposure can affect male fertility. There is less evidence, however, regarding any potentially adverse effects of pesticide residues in foods on markers of male fertility potential. Objectives: We examined the relations between fruit and vegetable intake, considering pesticide residue status, and semen quality and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones in healthy young men. Methods: The Rochester Young Men's Study is a cross-sectional study that recruited men aged 18–22 y (n = 189) in Rochester, New York. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, and underwent a physical examination at enrollment. Semen samples were analyzed for total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology, motility, ejaculate volume, total motile count, and total normal count. Dietary intake during the previous year was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fruit and vegetables were categorized as having high [Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) ≥4] or low-to-moderate (PRBS <4) pesticide residues on the basis of data from the USDA Pesticide Data Program. Linear regression models were used to analyze the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with semen variables and reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The total intake of fruit and vegetables was unrelated to semen quality. However, the intake of fruit and vegetables with low-to-moderate pesticide residues was associated with a higher total sperm count and sperm concentration, whereas the intake of fruit and vegetables with high pesticide residues was unrelated to semen quality. On average, men in the highest quartile of low-to-moderate-pesticide fruit and vegetable intake (≥2.8 servings/d) had a 169% (95% CI: 45%, 400%) higher total sperm count and a 173% (95% CI: 57%, 375%) higher sperm concentration than did men in the lowest

  17. Obesity Appears to Be Associated With Altered Muscle Protein Synthetic and Breakdown Responses to Increased Nutrient Delivery in Older Men, but Not Reduced Muscle Mass or Contractile Function.

    PubMed

    Murton, Andrew J; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Mallinson, Joanne E; Selby, Anna L; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is increasing, yet despite the necessity of maintaining muscle mass and function with age, the effect of obesity on muscle protein turnover in older adults remains unknown. Eleven obese (BMI 31.9 ± 1.1 kg · m(-2)) and 15 healthy-weight (BMI 23.4 ± 0.3 kg · m(-2)) older men (55-75 years old) participated in a study that determined muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and leg protein breakdown (LPB) under postabsorptive (hypoinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and postprandial (hyperinsulinemic hyperaminoacidemic-euglycemic clamp) conditions. Obesity was associated with systemic inflammation, greater leg fat mass, and patterns of mRNA expression consistent with muscle deconditioning, whereas leg lean mass, strength, and work done during maximal exercise were no different. Under postabsorptive conditions, MPS and LPB were equivalent between groups, whereas insulin and amino acid administration increased MPS in only healthy-weight subjects and was associated with lower leg glucose disposal (LGD) (63%) in obese men. Blunting of MPS in the obese men was offset by an apparent decline in LPB, which was absent in healthy-weight subjects. Lower postprandial LGD in obese subjects and blunting of MPS responses to amino acids suggest that obesity in older adults is associated with diminished muscle metabolic quality. This does not, however, appear to be associated with lower leg lean mass or strength. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Waist circumference measures: cutoff analyses to detect obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men population--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alessandro; Cocate, Paula G; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Bressan, Josefina; de Silva, Mateus Freitas; Rodrigues, Joel Alves; Natali, Antônio José

    2014-09-01

    Low-cost practical and reliable tools to evaluated obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases are of clinical practice and public heath relevance worldwide. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the anatomical point of waist circumference that best identify overweight, obesity and central obesity in Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men and to test the relationships of its cutoff points with metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Three hundred men [age: 51 (47-54)] underwent anthropometric, body composition, clinical, sociodemographic and blood plasma biochemical evaluations. The umbilical line circumference (WCUL) was the best predictor for overweight (total body fat ≥ 20%; cutoff point: 88.8 cm), obesity (total body fat ≥ 25%; cutoff point: 93.4 cm) and central obesity (abdominal area fat ≥ 34.6%; cutoff point: 95.6 cm) as measured by dual beam X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects with WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm or ≥ 93.4 cm showed significantly higher values for MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure). The occurrence of WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm was positively associated (p <0.01) with the prevalence of MetS and cardiometabolic risk factors and increased the central obesity prevalence by 19.3% while that of WCUL ≥ 93.4 cm was associated with the prevalence of MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors. WCUL measure seems to be the best predictor for overweight, obesity and central obesity in urban residents Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men; and the WCUL cutoff point (88.8 cm) is significantly associated with MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors in the studied population.

  19. The food environment and diet quality of urban-dwelling older women and men: Assessing the moderating role of diet knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mercille, Geneviève; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Shatenstein, Bryna; Daniel, Mark; Payette, Hélène

    2016-06-09

    The relationships between local food environments and dietary patterns are important for older adults and could be different in men and women. We examined associations between exposure to neighbourhood food sources and food consumption and the moderating role of diet knowledge separately among older women and men living in Montreal in 2003-2005 (n = 722). The proportion of fast-food outlets relative to all restaurants (%FFO) and the proportion of healthy food stores relative to all stores (%HFS) were estimated for 500 m buffers around participants' homes. Two dietary patterns, designated "Western" and "prudent", reflecting lower- and higher-quality diets respectively, were identified from food frequency questionnaire data. The unique and interactive effects of diet knowledge and food-source exposure on diet scores were tested with separate linear regression models for women and men. For men, greater %FFO exposure was related to lower prudent diet scores (β = -0.18, p = 0.02), but no effect of %HFS exposure was observed and no interactions were statistically significant. For women, an inverse relationship between %FFO and prudent diet scores was strongest among those with low diet knowledge (β = -0.22, p < 0.01). No other associations were statistically significant. Older men's diet patterns may reflect unhealthy cues associated with fast-food outlets. Among women, diet knowledge potentiated both negative and positive relationships with the food environment. In the absence of consistent main effects of the food environment on diet scores, subgroup analysis is a promising avenue for research.

  20. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche <12 vs ≥12 years) and increased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of 0.34 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.34). Heterogeneity was large (I(2)=92%) but reduced significantly when grouped by outcome age. Late menarche (menarche ≥15 vs <15 years) was associated with decreased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of -0.26 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: -0.36, -0.21) (seven cohorts). Only eight papers included data on childhood BMI; the majority reported that childhood BMI only partially attenuated association between early menarche and later obesity. Although not suitable for meta-analysis, data on cardiometabolic risk factors and puberty suggested negative association between earlier pubertal timing and cardiovascular mortality, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity

  1. Effect of growth hormone on body composition and visceral adiposity in middle-aged men with visceral obesity.

    PubMed

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Dejonge, Lilian; Redman, Stephen; Smith, Steven R

    2007-11-01

    GH replacement in GH-deficient adults results in an improvement in metabolic status. GH might also decrease visceral adiposity in obese adults that are not GH deficient. Our objective was to determine the effects of supraphysiological GH therapy on the metabolic syndrome and visceral adiposity in men with low blood levels of IGF-I and the durability of these effects after stopping GH therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month intervention trial followed by a blinded follow-up period of 6 months. Thirty nondiabetic middle-aged men with central adiposity (body mass index > 27 kg/m(2); waist circumference > 102 cm) participated. After 6 months of GH therapy, we observed an increase in weight and lean body mass (2.5 +/- 0.6 kg, P < 0.05 compared with baseline and placebo) and 8.8% reduction in visceral adiposity. GH increased resting energy expenditure by 172.5 +/- 41.6 kcal/24 h after 6 months of therapy. Fasting insulin, glucose, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for insulin resistance increased during GH therapy. The effects of GH on fatness and visceral adiposity disappeared shortly after GH withdrawal, but weight remained increased over baseline and when compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). These data suggest that GH therapy is associated with small but statistically significant decreases in visceral adiposity and an increase in lean mass and body weight. In viscerally obese subjects, supraphysiological GH administration is not an effective treatment; however, additional studies are needed to evaluate the effects of low-dose, physiological GH treatment.

  2. Imposed rate and extent of weight loss in obese men and adaptive changes in resting and total energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Siervo, Mario; Faber, Peter; Lara, Jose; Gibney, Eileen R; Milne, Eric; Ritz, Patrick; Lobley, Gerald E; Elia, Marinos; Stubbs, R James; Johnstone, Alexandra M

    2015-08-01

    Weight loss (WL) is associated with a decrease in total and resting energy expenditure (EE). We aimed to investigate whether (1) diets with different rate and extent of WL determined different changes in total and resting EE and if (2) they influenced the level of adaptive thermogenesis, defined as the decline in total or resting EE not accounted by changes in body composition. Three groups of six, obese men participated in a total fast for 6 days to achieve a 5% WL and a very low calorie (VLCD, 2.5 MJ/day) for 3 weeks or a low calorie (LCD, 5.2 MJ/day) diet for 6 weeks to achieve a 10% WL. A four-component model was used to measure body composition. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting EE. Total EE was measured by doubly labelled water (VLCD, LCD) and 24-hour whole-body calorimetry (fasting). VLCD and LCD showed a similar degree of metabolic adaptation for total EE (VLCD = -6.2%; LCD = -6.8%). Metabolic adaptation for resting EE was greater in the LCD (-0.4 MJ/day, -5.3%) compared to the VLCD (-0.1 MJ/day, -1.4%) group. Resting EE did not decrease after short-term fasting and no evidence of adaptive thermogenesis (+0.4 MJ/day) was found after 5% WL. The rate of WL was inversely associated with changes in resting EE (n = 30, r = 0.-42, p=0.01). The rate of WL did not appear to influence the decline in total EE in obese men after 10% WL. Approximately 6% of this decline in total EE was explained by mechanisms of adaptive thermogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Horgan, Graham W; Murison, Sandra D; Bremner, David M; Lobley, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    Altering the macronutrient composition of the diet influences hunger and satiety. Studies have compared high- and low-protein diets, but there are few data on carbohydrate content and ketosis on motivation to eat and ad libitum intake. We aimed to compare the hunger, appetite, and weight-loss responses to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate [(LC) ketogenic] and those to a high-protein, medium-carbohydrate [(MC) nonketogenic] diet in obese men feeding ad libitum. Seventeen obese men were studied in a residential trial; food was provided daily. Subjects were offered 2 high-protein (30% of energy) ad libitum diets, each for a 4-wk period-an LC (4% carbohydrate) ketogenic diet and an MC (35% carbohydrate) diet-randomized in a crossover design. Body weight was measured daily, and ketosis was monitored by analysis of plasma and urine samples. Hunger was assessed by using a computerized visual analogue system. Ad libitum energy intakes were lower with the LC diet than with the MC diet [P=0.02; SE of the difference (SED): 0.27] at 7.25 and 7.95 MJ/d, respectively. Over the 4-wk period, hunger was significantly lower (P=0.014; SED: 1.76) and weight loss was significantly greater (P=0.006; SED: 0.62) with the LC diet (6.34 kg) than with the MC diet (4.35 kg). The LC diet induced ketosis with mean 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of 1.52 mmol/L in plasma (P=0.036 from baseline; SED: 0.62) and 2.99 mmol/L in urine (P<0.001 from baseline; SED: 0.36). In the short term, high-protein, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets.

  4. Effects of moderate-velocity strength training on peak muscle power and movement velocity: do women respond differently than men?

    PubMed

    Delmonico, Matthew J; Kostek, Matthew C; Doldo, Neil A; Hand, Brian D; Bailey, Jason A; Rabon-Stith, Karma M; Conway, Joan M; Carignan, Craig R; Lang, Jesse; Hurley, Ben F

    2005-11-01

    The effects of a 10-wk unilateral knee extension strength training (ST) program on peak power (PP) and peak movement velocity (PV), at given absolute (force load) and relative (same % of 1 repetition maximum) resistances (loads), were examined in 30 older men [64 yr (7 SD)] and 32 older women [62 yr (6 SD)]. PP increased significantly in both men and women at the same absolute (P < 0.001) and relative loads (P < 0.01) with ST. Men had a significantly greater increase in relative PP than women with ST at 60% (P < 0.01) and 70% (P < 0.001) of 1 repetition maximum when covarying for baseline differences and age. However, when each subject was tested at the same absolute load and when PP was normalized for the muscle volume of the trained knee extensors (i.e., absolute muscle power quality), women increased by 9% (P < 0.05), whereas men did not change. Both men and women increased their absolute PV (P < 0.001) but decreased their relative PV significantly with ST (P < 0.05). However, when baseline values and age were covaried, women had significantly less of a decrease in relative PV quality with ST than men (P < 0.01), although the difference was small. These normalized data suggest that ST-induced increases in PP depend on muscular hypertrophy in men, but not in women, providing further support for the hypothesis developed from our previous report (Ivey FM, Tracy BL, Lemmer JT, NessAiver M, Metter EJ, Fozard JL and Hurley BF. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55: B152-B157, 2000) that improvements in muscle function with ST result from nonmuscle mass adaptations to a greater extent in women than men.

  5. Intensive lifestyle intervention reduces urinary incontinence in overweight/obese men with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the look AHEAD trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: We determined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the prevalence, incidence and resolution of bothersome nocturia, increased daytime urinary voiding and urinary incontinence in overweight/obese men with type 2 diabetes after 1 year in the Look AHEAD trial. Materials and Me...

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Resistance Exercise Orders on Number of Repetitions, Serum IGF-1, Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in Normal-Weight and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Dariush; Ahmadi, Slahadin; Salavati, Rashad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise order affects repetition performance and acute hormonal responses to resistance training (RT) programs. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of two different resistance exercise orders (REO) on number of repetitions and serum Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol levels in normal-weight and obese men. Materials and Methods: 25 untrained college-aged men were assigned to either obese (n = 11) or normal-weight (n = 15) groups. Subjects performed two REO protocols in 2 exercise groups. In the first group subjects began with large-muscle group and progressed to small-muscle group (Protocol A), while in the other group subjects performed the same exercise but in reverse sequence (Protocol B). Each activity was performed in 3 consecutive sets of 10 repetitions maximum to near fatigue. Results: REOs did not affect number of repetitions in none of the groups. The average rating of perceived exertion was higher for protocol B in both groups. IGF-1 and testosterone increased immediately post exercise for both protocols and in both groups, however immediately post exercise increase in IGF-1 and testosterone were lower in obese group. Cortisol response to REO was weaker in obese group. Conclusions: Performing large muscle group exercises first in RE training and progressing to small muscle group produced greater anabolic hormonal response relative to reverse sequence in normal-weight young adult men. Anabolic hormonal response to REOs was blunted in the obese group. PMID:27217934

  7. Adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin and testosterone therapy boosts erectile function in diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Giagulli, V A; Carbone, M D; Ramunni, M I; Licchelli, B; De Pergola, G; Sabbà, C; Guastamacchia, E; Triggiani, V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate whether adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin (Met) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), by means of improving weight and glycaemic control, could boost erectile function in type 2 diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a 'real-life setting'. Forty-three obese, diabetic and hypogonadal men (aged 45-59 years) were evaluated because of complaining about the recent onset of ED. They were subdivided into two groups according to whether hypogonadism occurred after puberty (G1; n = 30: 25 with dysfunctional hypogonadism and 5 with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or before puberty (G2; n = 13: 10 with Klinefelter's syndrome and 3 with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). Both G1 and G2 patients were given a combination of testosterone (T) [testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/every 12 weeks] and Met (2000-3000 mg/day) for 1 year. In the poor responders (N) to this therapy in terms of glycaemic target (G1N: n = 16; G2N: n = 10), liraglutide (L) (1.2 μg/day) was added for a second year, while the good responders (Y) to T + Met (G1Y: 14/30 and G2Y: 3/13) continued this two drugs regimen therapy for another year. All patients were asked to fill in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 15) questionnaire before starting TU plus Met (T1) and after 12 months (T2) and 24 months (T3) of treatment. Patients underwent a clinical examination and a determination of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at T1, T2 and T3. At T2, each patient obtained an improvement of ED (p < 0.01) and of the metabolic parameters without reaching, however, the glycaemic goals [HbA1c = >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)], while T turned out to be within the range of young men. L added to TU and Met regimen in G1N and G2N allowed these patients to reach not only the glycaemic target [HbA1c = <7.5% (<58 nmol

  8. Nedd4 haploinsufficient mice display moderate insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, and protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Jing; Ferry, Robert J; Diao, Shiyong; Xue, Bingzhong; Bahouth, Suleiman W; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2015-04-01

    Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (Nedd4) is the prototypical protein in the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase (E3) family, which governs ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis and/or degradation of plasma membrane proteins. Loss of Nedd4 results in embryonic or neonatal lethality in mice and reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling in embryonic fibroblasts. To delineate the roles of Nedd4 in vivo, we examined the phenotypes of heterozygous knockout mice using a high-fat diet-induced obesity (HFDIO) model. We observed that Nedd4+/- mice are moderately insulin resistant but paradoxically protected against HFDIO. After high-fat diet feeding, Nedd4+/- mice showed less body weight gain, less fat mass, and smaller adipocytes vs the wild type. Despite ameliorated HFDIO, Nedd4+/- mice did not manifest improvement in glucose tolerance vs the wild type in both genders. Nedd4+/- male, but not female, mice displayed significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels and serum insulin levels. Under obesogenic conditions, Nedd4+/- mice displayed elevated stimulated lipolytic activity, primarily through a β2-adrenergic receptor. Combined, these data support novel complex roles for Nedd4 in metabolic regulation involving altered insulin and β-adrenergic signaling pathways.

  9. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Fraterrigo, Gemma; Yoshino, Jun; Luecking, Courtney; Kirbach, Kyleigh; Kelly, Shannon C; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; He, Songbing; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2016-04-12

    Although 5%-10% weight loss is routinely recommended for people with obesity, the precise effects of 5% and further weight loss on metabolic health are unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of 5.1% ± 0.9% (n = 19), 10.8% ± 1.3% (n = 9), and 16.4% ± 2.1% (n = 9) weight loss and weight maintenance (n = 14) on metabolic outcomes. 5% weight loss improved adipose tissue, liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, and β cell function, without a concomitant change in systemic or subcutaneous adipose tissue markers of inflammation. Additional weight loss further improved β cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle and caused stepwise changes in adipose tissue mass, intrahepatic triglyceride content, and adipose tissue expression of genes involved in cholesterol flux, lipid synthesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that moderate 5% weight loss improves metabolic function in multiple organs simultaneously, and progressive weight loss causes dose-dependent alterations in key adipose tissue biological pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Balancing risk and pleasure: sexual self-control as a moderator of the influence of sexual desires on sexual risk-taking in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Adam, P C G; Teva, I; de Wit, J B F

    2008-11-01

    To assess the extent to which sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men (MSM) is influenced by their sexual desires, as reflected in sexual sensation seeking, and to establish whether men's sexual self-control moderates the influence of sexual sensation seeking. An online survey in the Netherlands recruited 1613 MSM; 1129 men who had sex with casual partners and reported full data were included in this study. Potential sexual risk-taking in the preceding 12 months was indexed by number of casual partners (<10 vs > or =10), unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (UAI-C; no vs yes) and sexually transmitted infections (no vs yes). Potential sexual risk-taking with casual partners was highly prevalent in this online sample of MSM; 51.0% had 10 or more casual sex partners, 38.8% had engaged in UAI-C and 22.9% reported having had a sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that sexual sensation seeking was significantly related to more risk-taking according to each outcome variable, while all effects of sexual self-control were significantly protective. As expected, sexual self-control attenuated the effects of high sexual sensation seeking on UAI-C, but not on numbers of partners and infection with a sexually transmitted infection. Although MSM who are higher in sexual sensation seeking are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking, some men successfully self-regulate the influence of their sexual desires on UAI-C. While men high in sexual self-control may spontaneously control their sexual desires, men low in sexual self-control may benefit from a generation of prevention tools that promote planning ahead of time.

  11. Assessment of trabecular bone score (TBS) in overweight/obese men: effect of metabolic and anthropometric factors.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Lubrano, Carla; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Costantini, Daniela; Nieddu, Luciano; Morano, Susanna; Migliaccio, Silvia; Gnessi, Lucio; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The "trabecular bone score" (TBS) indirectly explores bone quality, independently of bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the effects of anthropometric and metabolic parameters on TBS in 87 overweight/obese men. We assessed BMD and TBS by DXA, and some parameters of glucose metabolism, sex-and calciotropic hormone levels. Regression models were adjusted for either age and BMI, or age and waist circumference, or age and waist/hip ratio, also considering BMI >35 (y/n) and metabolic syndrome (MS) (y/n). Correlations between TBS and parameters studied were higher when correcting for waist circumference, although not significant in subjects with BMI >35. The analysis of covariance showed that the same model always had a higher adjusted r-square index. BMD at lumbar spine and total hip, fasting glucose, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin are the only covariates having a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the variations of TBS. The presence of MS negatively affected only the association between TBS and BMD at total hip. We did not find any significant effect of BMI >35 on TBS values or significant interaction terms between each covariate and either BMI >35 or the presence of MS. Obesity negatively affected TBS, despite unchanged BMD. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and sex hormone levels seem to influence this relationship, while calciotropic hormones have no role. The effect of waist circumference on TBS is more pronounced than that of BMI.

  12. Independent and joint effects of moderate alcohol consumption and smoking on the risks of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiyi; Xu, Yanyan; Tang, Yuhan; Du, Min; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jian; Xiao, Lin; He, Meian; Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Wu, Tangchun; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Whether cigarette smoking and moderate drinking are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)has not been fully described. This study investigated the separate and joint effects of smoking and moderate drinking on Chinese men with NAFLD. Across-sectional assay from DFTJ Cohort study was performed with a size of 9432 elderly Chinese men excluding excessive alcohol consumption (<210g/week). Fatty liver was diagnosed by standardized ultrasonographic inspection. The odds ratio (OR) of alcohol consumption and smoking for the prevalence of NAFLD were analyzed using multiple logistic regression with multiple adjustments. The prevalence of NAFLD in current smokers (pack-year≥40) and drinkers (80~210g/week or drinking duration≥35years) was significantly higher than that in non-smokers and non-drinkers, respectively. The combination of current smoking (pack-year≥40) and drinking (80~210g/week) was associated with the highest risk of NAFLD (OR 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.68;P<0.01). The similar combined effect was found in participants with pack-year≥40 and drinking duration≥35 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.34;P<0.01). Moreover, an interaction was observed between current smoking and moderate drinking in NAFLD. In elderly Chinese men, cigarette smoking and moderate alcohol consumption exerts an evident joint effect and interaction on the prevalence of NAFLD, although both are significantly and independently associated with NAFLD prevalence. Such findings highlight particular significance of avoidance of cigarette and alcohol on NAFLD prevention.

  13. Dairy foods and dairy protein consumption is inversely related to markers of adiposity in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karen J; Crichton, Georgina E; Dyer, Kathryn A; Coates, Alison M; Pettman, Tahna L; Milte, Catherine; Thorp, Alicia A; Berry, Narelle M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Howe, Peter R C

    2013-11-20

    A number of intervention studies have reported that the prevalence of obesity may be in part inversely related to dairy food consumption while others report no association. We sought to examine relationships between energy, protein and calcium consumption from dairy foods (milk, yoghurt, cheese, dairy spreads, ice-cream) and adiposity including body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and direct measures of body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (% body fat and abdominal fat) in an opportunistic sample of 720 overweight/obese Australian men and women. Mean (SD) age, weight and BMI of the population were 51 ± 10 year, 94 ± 18 kg and 32.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, respectively. Reduced fat milk was the most commonly consumed dairy product (235 ± 200 g/day), followed by whole milk (63 ± 128 g/day) and yoghurt (53 ± 66 g/day). Overall dairy food consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with BMI, % body fat and WC (all p < 0.05). Dairy protein and dairy calcium (g/day) were both inversely associated with all adiposity measures (all p < 0.05). Yoghurt consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with % body fat, abdominal fat, WC and HC (all p < 0.05), while reduced fat milk consumption was inversely associated with BMI, WC, HC and % body fat (all p < 0.05). Within a sample of obese adults, consumption of dairy products, dairy protein, and calcium was associated with more favourable body composition.

  14. Dairy Foods and Dairy Protein Consumption Is Inversely Related to Markers of Adiposity in Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Karen J.; Crichton, Georgina E.; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Coates, Alison M.; Pettman, Tahna L.; Milte, Catherine; Thorp, Alicia A.; Berry, Narelle M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Noakes, Manny; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2013-01-01

    A number of intervention studies have reported that the prevalence of obesity may be in part inversely related to dairy food consumption while others report no association. We sought to examine relationships between energy, protein and calcium consumption from dairy foods (milk, yoghurt, cheese, dairy spreads, ice-cream) and adiposity including body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and direct measures of body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (% body fat and abdominal fat) in an opportunistic sample of 720 overweight/obese Australian men and women. Mean (SD) age, weight and BMI of the population were 51 ± 10 year, 94 ± 18 kg and 32.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, respectively. Reduced fat milk was the most commonly consumed dairy product (235 ± 200 g/day), followed by whole milk (63 ± 128 g/day) and yoghurt (53 ± 66 g/day). Overall dairy food consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with BMI, % body fat and WC (all p < 0.05). Dairy protein and dairy calcium (g/day) were both inversely associated with all adiposity measures (all p < 0.05). Yoghurt consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with % body fat, abdominal fat, WC and HC (all p < 0.05), while reduced fat milk consumption was inversely associated with BMI, WC, HC and % body fat (all p < 0.05). Within a sample of obese adults, consumption of dairy products, dairy protein, and calcium was associated with more favourable body composition. PMID:24264228

  15. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation decreases very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion in obese men.

    PubMed

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Ooi, Esther M M; Ng, Theodore W K; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2013-03-13

    Dysregulated VLDL-TAG (very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol) metabolism in obesity may account for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and increased cardiovascular disease. ω-3 FAEEs (omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters) decrease plasma TAG and VLDL concentrations, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we carried out a 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled study to examine the effect of high-dose ω-3 FAEE supplementation (3.2 g/day) on the metabolism of VLDL-TAG in obese men using intravenous administration of d5-glycerol. We also explored the relationship of VLDL-TAG kinetics with the metabolism of VLDL-apo (apolipoprotein) B-100 and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-apoA-I. VLDL-TAG isotopic enrichment was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Compared with placebo, ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly lowered plasma concentrations of total (-14%, P<0.05) and VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.05), as well as hepatic secretion of VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.03). The FCR (fractional catabolic rate) of VLDL-TAG was not altered by ω-3 FAEEs. There was a significant association between the change in secretion rates of VLDL-TAG and VLDL-apoB-100 (r=0.706, P<0.05). However, the change in VLDL-TAG secretion rate was not associated with change in HDL-apoA-I FCR (r=0.139, P>0.05). Our results suggest that the TAG-lowering effect of ω-3 FAEEs is associated with the decreased VLDL-TAG secretion rate and hence lower plasma VLDL-TAG concentration in obesity. The changes in VLDL-TAG and apoB-100 kinetics are closely coupled.

  16. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and 24-h blood pressure profile in obese men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Gláucia; Togeiro, Sônia Maria; Hayashi, Lílian F; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Ribeiro, Artur Beltrame; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy (nCPAP) influenced responses. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and overnight cortisol suppression test with 0.25 mg of dexamethasone were performed in 16 obese men with OSAS and 13 obese men controls. Nine men with severe apnea were reevaluated 3 mo after nCPAP therapy. Body mass index and blood pressure of OSAS patients and obese controls were similar. In OSAS patients, the percentage of fall in systolic blood pressure at night (P = 0.027) and salivary cortisol suppression postdexamethasone (P = 0.038) were lower, whereas heart rate (P = 0.022) was higher compared with obese controls. After nCPAP therapy, patients showed a reduction in heart rate (P = 0.036) and a greater cortisol suppression after dexamethasone (P = 0.001). No difference in arterial blood pressure (P = 0.183) was observed after 3 mo of nCPAP therapy. Improvement in cortisol suppression was positively correlated with an improvement in apnea-hypopnea index during nCPAP therapy (r = 0.799, P = 0.010). In conclusion, men with OSAS present increased postdexamethasone cortisol levels and heart rate, which were recovered by nCPAP.

  17. Effects of low calorie diet-induced weight loss on post-exercise heart rate recovery in obese men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Maeng Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) after maximum exercise is a reactivation function of vagus nerve and an independent risk factor that predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality. Weight loss obtained through dietary programs has been employed as a therapy to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Eighteen subjects of middle aged obese men (age 44.8 ± 1.6 yrs, BMI 29.7 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were selected for this study. As a weight loss direction, the nutritional direction of low-calorie diet mainly consisted of carbohydrate, protein, and fat has been conducted for 3 months. Blood pressure was measured after overnight fasting, and blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and after weight loss program. All the pre- and post-exercise 'HRR decay constant's were assessed by using values of HRR (heart recovery rate; 2 minutes) and HR measured after reached to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) exploited the bicycle ergometer. After the completion of weight loss program, body weight and BMI were significantly decreased, but the Heart Rate (HR) after maximum exercise and in steady state were not changed significantly (p > 0.05). The post-exercise HRR after the weight loss did not show significant changes in perspectives of 30 seconds (-16.6 ± 2.3 to -20.2 ± 2.1 beats/min, p > 0.05) and 60 seconds (-33.5 ± 3.4 to -34.6 ± 2.8 beats/min, p > 0.05) respectively but in perspectives of 90 seconds (-40.9 ± 2.6 to -48.1 ± 3.1 beats/min, p < 0.05) and 120 seconds (-48.6 ± 2.6 to -54.3 ± 3.5 beats/min, p < 0.05), they were decreased significantly. Pre-'HRR decay constant's of 0.294 ± 0.02 %/second were significantly increased to post-values of 0.342 ± 0.03 %/second (p = 0.026). Changes in 'HRR decay constant' were significantly correlated with changes in blood glucose (r = -0.471, p < 0.05) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, r = 0.505, p < 0.05) respectively. The low-calorie diet directed to obese middle aged men for 3 months significantly

  18. Collective Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptomatology in Lesbians and Gay Men: A Moderated Mediation Model of Self-Stigma and Psychological Abuse.

    PubMed

    Longares, Lara; Escartín, Jordi; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Álvaro

    2016-08-17

    The context of stigma, in which lesbians and gay men live in most countries, exposes them to possible discrimination and promotes the internalization of negative attitudes about their own sexual orientation, which may have negative consequences for their mental health. Their psychological distress may increase when lesbians and gay men are exposed to other sources of stress such as intimate partner violence. With the aim of analysing the relationship between these variables, this study intends to present a moderated mediation model that proposes: a) self-stigma mediates the relationship between private collective self-esteem and depressive symptomatology; b) receiving psychological abuse within same-sex couples moderates the relationship between self-stigma and depressive symptomatology. For this purpose we conducted an online survey with a sample of 357 Spanish lesbians and gay men. Our findings show that self-stigma mediates the relationship between private collective self-esteem and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, participants who had higher levels of self-stigma and received more psychological abuse by the partner showed stronger negative effects on depressive symptomatology. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and psychopathic traits moderate the effect of exogenous testosterone on socio-cognitive processes in men.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Ortiz, Triana L; Labine, Brandy; Moreau, Benjamin J P; Viding, Essi; Neumann, Craig S; Goldfarb, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that testosterone is negatively correlated with empathic processes in both men and women. Also, administration of testosterone to young women impairs socio-cognitive performance as assessed using the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task", especially among those exposed to elevated testosterone concentrations prenatally. However, the extent to which testosterone plays a similar causal role in socio-cognitive abilities in men is currently unknown. Here, using a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject design, we investigated the extent to which a single administration of testosterone to healthy young men (N=30) would impair socio-cognitive abilities assessed using the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task" (RMET). Also, we investigated whether individual differences in 2D:4D ratio and psychopathic traits would moderate the effect of testosterone on task performance. Results indicated that testosterone administration on its own did not impair RMET performance. However, variability in both 2D:4D ratio and psychopathic traits moderated the effect of testosterone on task performance. Specifically, testosterone impaired RMET performance among individuals with relatively low (i.e., masculinized) 2D:4D ratio and among individuals scoring relatively low on the interpersonal/affective facet (i.e., Factor 1) of psychopathy. Our findings highlight the importance of considering theoretically- and empirically-based individual difference factors when attempting to characterize the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Agalliu, Ilir; Lin, Daniel W; Stanford, Janet L; Kristal, Alan R

    2007-03-15

    Current research is inconclusive regarding the effect of obesity on outcomes after a prostate cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to examine associations between obesity and the risks of developing metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer. Seven hundred fifty-two middle-aged men with prostate cancer who were enrolled in a case-control study and remain under long-term follow-up for disease progression and mortality formed the study cohort. Body mass index (BMI) in the year before diagnosis was obtained at the time of initial interview. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of prostate cancer metastasis and mortality associated with obesity, controlling for age, race, smoking status, Gleason score, stage at diagnosis, diagnostic prostate-specific antigen level, and primary treatment. Obesity (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) was associated with a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.18-5.92). Among men who were diagnosed with local- or regional-stage disease, obesity also was associated with an increased risk of developing metastasis (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.73-7.51). Associations generally were consistent across strata defined by Gleason score (2-6 or 7 [3 + 4] vs 7 [4 + 3] or 8-10), stage (local vs regional/distant for mortality), and primary treatment (androgen-deprivation therapy use: yes vs no). Obesity at the time of diagnosis was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death. The increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastasis associated with obesity largely was independent of key clinical prognostic factors at diagnosis.

  1. Effect of 2 weeks of sprint interval training on health-related outcomes in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Laura J; Gill, Jason M R; Cathcart, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) on metabolic and vascular risk factors in overweight/obese sedentary men. Ten men (age, 32.1 ± 8.7 years; body mass index, 31.0 ± 3.7 kg m(-2)) participated. After baseline metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness measurements, participants completed a 2-week SIT intervention, comprising 6 sessions of 4 to 6 repeats of 30-second Wingate anaerobic sprints on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer, with 4.5-minute recovery between each repetition. Metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness assessments were repeated post-intervention. Both maximal oxygen uptake (2.98 ± 0.15 vs 3.23 ± 0.14 L min(-1), P = .013) and mean Wingate power (579 ± 24 vs 600 ± 19 W, P = .040) significantly increased after 2 weeks of SIT. Insulin sensitivity index (5.35 ± 0.72 vs 4.34 ± 0.72, P = .027) and resting fat oxidation rate in the fasted state (0.13 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.01 g min(-1), P = .019) were significantly higher and systolic blood pressure (121 ± 3 vs 127 ± 3 mm Hg, P = .020) and resting carbohydrate oxidation in the fasted state (0.03 ± 0.01 vs 0.08 ± 0.02 g min(-1), P = .037) were significantly lower 24 hours post-intervention compared with baseline, but these changes were no longer significant 72 hours post-intervention. Significant decreases in waist (98.9 ± 3.1 vs 101.3 ± 2.7 cm, P = .004) and hip (109.8 ± 2.2 vs 110.9 ± 2.2 cm, P = .017) circumferences compared with baseline were also observed after the intervention. Thus, 2 weeks of SIT substantially improved a number of metabolic and vascular risk factors in overweight/obese sedentary men, highlighting the potential for this to provide an alternative exercise model for the improvement of vascular and metabolic health in this population.

  2. Serum prostate-specific antigen concentration and hemodilution among Chinese middle-aged obese men: a hematocrit-based equation for plasma volume estimation is induced.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Shen, Zhenhai; Lu, Yun; Yun, Jingting; Fan, Yupeng

    2012-10-01

    A hematocrit (HCT)-based and a body surface area (BSA)-based equations were applied for plasma volume (PV) estimation, respectively, to confirm and quantify the hemodilution effect in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening among obese men. The agreement between the equations was additionally investigated. A total of 1,444 men were retrospectively collected, with ages 40 to 65 years, PSA 0 to 4 ng/mL, and no prostate cancer. PSA mass was calculated as PSA concentration multiplied by PV. Multivariable linear regression models, theoretical models, and the Bland-Altman method were used. PSA concentration significantly decreased with increasing body mass index (BMI; β = -0.011, P < 0.001); however, PSA mass estimated by HCT- (β = 0.004, P = 0.132) and BSA (β = -0.003, P = 0.094)-based equations remained consistent. A screening PSA of 4.0 ng/mL in nonobese men was found to be corresponding to 3.32 and 3.68 ng/mL in obese men extrapolated by PV on the basis of HCT and BSA, respectively. Moreover, the mean (95% confidence interval) difference of PV between the two equations was 0.33 (-0.06 to 0.73) L. The inverse relationship between PSA concentration and BMI might be explained by a hemodilution effect among obese men. There is significant variation in PV calculated by the two equations. A value between 3.32 and 3.68 ng/mL might be recommended for PSA screening in middle-aged obese Asian men. 2012 AACR

  3. ADCY5 Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue Is Related to Obesity in Men and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Knigge, Anja; Klöting, Nora; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Fasshauer, Mathias; Gärtner, Daniel; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies revealed an association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs11708067 within the ADCY5 gene—encoding adenylate cyclase 5—with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and higher fasting glucose. However, it remains unclear whether the association between ADCY5 variants and glycemic traits may involve adipose tissue (AT) related mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ADCY5 mRNA expression in human and mouse AT is related to obesity, fat distribution, T2D in humans and high fat diet (HFD) in mice. We measured ADCY5 mRNA expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from 244 individuals with a wide range of body weight and parameters of hyperglycemia, which have been genotyped for rs11708067. In addition, AT ADCY5 mRNA was assessed in C57BL/6NTac which underwent a 10 weeks standard chow (n = 6) or high fat diet (HFD, n = 6). In humans, visceral ADCY5 expression is significantly higher in obese compared to lean individuals. ADCY5 expression correlates with BMI, body fat mass, circulating leptin, fat distribution, waist and hip circumference, but not with fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Adcy5 expression in mouse AT is significantly higher after a HFD compared to chow (p<0.05). Importantly, rs11708067 is not associated with ADCY5 mRNA expression levels in either fat depot in any of the genetic models tested. Our results suggest that changes in AT ADCY5 expression are related to obesity and fat distribution, but not with impaired glucose metabolism and T2D. However, altered ADCY5 expression in AT does not seem to be the mechanism underlying the association between rs11708067 and increased T2D risk. PMID:25793868

  4. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Methods Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999–2001, Augsburg region/Germany). Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively). Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Results Overall, being dissatisfied with one’s body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3%) than in men (33.2%). In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one’s body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.8), middle and high educational level (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7), high income (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR = 1

  5. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey.

    PubMed

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Mielck, Andreas

    2012-05-09

    Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999-2001, Augsburg region/Germany). Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively). Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Overall, being dissatisfied with one's body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3%) than in men (33.2%). In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one's body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4-3.8), middle and high educational level (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7), high income (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6). Among preobese women

  6. Depressive symptoms and suicide risk in older adults: value placed on autonomy as a moderator for men but not women.

    PubMed

    Bamonti, Patricia M; Price, Elizabeth C; Fiske, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Risk for suicide is elevated among older men. We examined whether value placed on autonomy amplifies the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide risk differently for older men and women. Participants were 98 community-dwelling older adults, M age 73.6 (SD = 8.6), 65.1% female, 93.1% White. Questionnaires measured suicide risk (SBQ-R), depressive symptoms (CESD), and value placed on autonomy (PSI-II autonomy). Among men, depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk only when PSI-II autonomy was elevated. Among women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk at all levels of PSI-II autonomy. Further research on attitudes toward autonomy is warranted.

  7. Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Lincoln, Karen D; Adler, Nancy E; Syme, S Leonard

    2010-09-01

    Studies examining associations between racial discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes have been inconsistent, with some studies finding the highest risk of hypertension among African Americans who report no discrimination. A potential explanation of the latter is that hypertension and other cardiovascular problems are fostered by internalization and denial of racial discrimination. To explore this hypothesis, the current study examines the role of internalized negative racial group attitudes in linking experiences of racial discrimination and history of cardiovascular disease among African American men. We predicted a significant interaction between reported discrimination and internalized negative racial group attitudes in predicting cardiovascular disease. Weighted logistic regression analyses were conducted among 1216 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001-2003). We found no main effect of racial discrimination in predicting history of cardiovascular disease. However, agreeing with negative beliefs about Blacks was positively associated with cardiovascular disease history, and also moderated the effect of racial discrimination. Reporting racial discrimination was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease among African American men who disagreed with negative beliefs about Blacks. However, among African American men who endorsed negative beliefs about Blacks, the risk of cardiovascular disease was greatest among those reporting no discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial group attitudes are both risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African American men. Furthermore, the combination of internalizing negative beliefs about Blacks and the absence of reported racial discrimination appear to be associated with particularly poor cardiovascular health. Steps to address racial discrimination as well as programs aimed at developing a positive

  8. [Peculiarities of vitamin status in men and women with cardiovascular disease and obesity].

    PubMed

    Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Akol'zina, S E; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G

    2012-01-01

    We explored the characteristics of the vitamin status in 471 patients with cardiovascular diseases, according to sex, and BMI values. All patients underwent examination of the system Nutritest-IP: studying their actual meals at home, determined anthropometric measurement, body composition, using biochemical methods evaluated the state of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the functional state of liver and biliary tract, hemostasis, vitamin provision. The results suggest a lack of availability of patients with vitamins C and B group. The number of patients with deficient serum beta-carotene increased proportional to body mass index. The concentration of beta-carotene decreased and vitamin E - increased in blood serum proportionally to increase the degree of obesity. Thus the availability of vitamins in the blood serum depends from sex and body mass index values of the patients. These data suggest that the rate of supply of vitamins are reliable markers to assess the adequacy of the diet consumed by the content of vitamins in people with normal body weight. Appraisingly the content of beta-carotene and vitamin E in the serum of patients it should be taken into account that they have overweight or obese, and abnormality of lipid spectrum of blood serum.

  9. A high-fat vs. a moderate-fat meal in obese boys: nutrient balance, appetite, and gastrointestinal hormone changes.

    PubMed

    Maffeis, Claudio; Surano, Maria G; Cordioli, Sira; Gasperotti, Sandra; Corradi, Massimiliano; Pinelli, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    Meal composition is a contributing factor to fat gain. In this study, we investigated the relationship between postprandial nutrient balance, satiety, and hormone changes induced by a high-fat meal vs. a moderate-fat meal. Ten prepubertal obese boys (BMI z-score range: 1.3-3.0) were recruited. Two meals (energy: 590 kcal) were compared: (i) high-fat (HF) meal: 12% protein, 52% fat, 36% carbohydrates; (ii) moderate-fat (MF) meal: 12% protein, 27% fat, 61% carbohydrates. Pre- and postprandial (5 h) substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry), appetite (visual analogue scale), biochemical parameters and gastrointestinal hormone concentrations were measured. Carbohydrate balance was significantly (P < 0.001) lower (31.3 (5.7) g/5 h vs. 66.9 (5.9) g/5 h) and fat balance was significantly (P < 0.001) higher (11.5 (3.3) g/5 h vs. -0.7 (2.9) g/5 h) after HF than MF meal. Appetite (area under the curve (AUC)) was significantly reduced after an MF than an HF meal (494 (55) cm.300 min vs. 595 (57) cm.300 min, P < 0.05). Postprandial triglyceride concentration (AUC) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher after an HF than an MF meal: 141.1 (30.3) mmol.300 min/l vs. 79.3 (23.8) mmol.300 min/l, respectively. Peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin concentrations (AUC) were not significantly different after an HF and MF meal. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher after an HF than after an MF meal (72.3 (9.8) ng/ml vs. 22.7 (7.6) ng/ml, respectively), but it did not affect subjective appetite. In conclusion, an MF meal induced a better postprandial metabolic nutrient balance, triglyceride levels, and appetite suppression than an HF meal. Gastrointestinal hormones were not related to clinically assessed hunger suppression after both meals.

  10. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Haff, Guy G; Häkkinen, Keijo; Newton, Robert U

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64-75 y). Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first) with short rest intervals (30-60 s between sets) at an intensity of 50-60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 15-20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM) and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests). Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. -3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05). But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: -5 ± 7% vs. -4 ± 3%, women: -5 ± 6% vs. -2 ± 5% both P > 0.05). While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  11. Resistant starch from high-amylose maize increases insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Pelkman, Christine L; Finocchiaro, E Terry; Kelley, Kathleen M; Lawless, Andrea L; Schild, Arianne L; Rains, Tia M

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in participants with waist circumference ≥89 (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Participants received 0 (control starch), 15, or 30 g/d (double-blind) of HAM-RS2 in random order for 4-wk periods separated by 3-wk washouts. Minimal model S(I) was assessed at the end of each period using the insulin-modified i.v. glucose tolerance test. The efficacy evaluable sample included 11 men and 22 women (mean ± SEM) age 49.5 ± 1.6 y, with a BMI of 30.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference 105.3 ± 1.3 cm. A treatment main effect (P = 0.018) and a treatment × sex interaction (P = 0.033) were present. In men, least squares geometric mean analysis for S(I) did not differ after intake of 15 g/d HAM-RS2 (6.90 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) and 30 g/d HAM-RS2 (7.13 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹), but both were higher than after the control treatment (4.66 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) (P < 0.05). In women, there was no difference among the treatments (overall least squares ln-transformed mean ± pooled SEM = 1.80 ± 0.08; geometric mean = 6.05 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹). These results suggest that consumption of 15-30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves S(I) in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed.

  12. Impact of brisk walking on perceived health evaluated by a novel short questionnaire in sedentary and moderately obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Gaubert, Isabelle; Joffroy, Sandra; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2013-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of brisk walking on moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m) postmenopausal women's perceived health, assessed through a novel short perceived health questionnaire (SPHQ), and to verify whether improvements in six items examined were related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and/or fat mass changes (study 1). The second objective of this study was to test the SPHQ against validated generic instruments (study 2). From the 270 women included in study 1, 181 participants were subjected to three 45-minute walking sessions per week at 60% of their heart rate reserve, whereas 58 women remained inactive for 4 months. Perceived health assessed through the SPHQ, body composition, and CRF were determined before and after the 4-month study period. Another sample of 20 women was selected to validate the SPHQ (study 2). Despite a lack of between-group differences in the amelioration of four perceived health items, ideal weight and stress level were improved in women subjected to our walking program exclusively (P < 0.0001). Improved perceived healthy balanced diet was positively correlated to fat mass reduction in the walking group (r = 0.15; P < 0.05) only (study 1). The SPHQ shows good reproducibility for five of six items (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.89; P < 0.0001), and three of them were validated against generic tools (0.45 < r < 0.54; P < 0.05; study 2). Additional studies are needed to more accurately determine the relationships between changes in perceived health and changes in body fatness and/or CRF after endurance training and to continue the validation of the SPHQ.

  13. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease.

  14. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  15. Drug use moderates associations between location of sex and unprotected anal intercourse in men who have sex with men: nested cross-sectional study of dyadic encounters with new partners.

    PubMed

    Melendez-Torres, G J; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2016-02-01

    This nested cross-sectional study of dyadic sexual encounters with new male partners reported by men living in England who have sex with men tested moderation between drug use and location of sex in associations with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Data were drawn from two waves of a longitudinal monthly internet survey of men living in England who have sex with men conducted in 2011. Using generalised estimating equations and logit link, we tested the relationship with UAI of any respondent drug use before sex, specific respondent drug use before sex, location of sex (distinguishing private, sex-on-premises venue and cruising locations) and location-drug use interactions. Any respondent drug use (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.88) was associated with increased odds of UAI. Relative to encounters in private locations, encounters in sex-on-premises venues (0.69, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91), but not cruising locations, were associated with decreased odds of UAI. Any respondent drug use, respondent use of poppers and respondent use of alcohol were each associated with increased UAI in sex-on-premises venues. This analysis presents evidence of moderation between drug use and location of sex in associations with UAI. Though this analysis used a large sample, it relied on community-recruited respondents. Our findings may reflect either 'totalising' effects of drug use across venues or site-specific use of drugs as a mechanism for cognitive escape. Additional qualitative research is necessary to understand these findings in context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Obesity.

    PubMed

    González-Muniesa, Pedro; Mártinez-González, Miguel-Angel; Hu, Frank B; Després, Jean-Pierre; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Loos, Ruth J F; Moreno, Luis A; Bray, George A; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2017-06-15

    Excessive fat deposition in obesity has a multifactorial aetiology, but is widely considered the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Despite specific public health policies and individual treatment efforts to combat the obesity epidemic, >2 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese. The central nervous system circuitry, fuel turnover and metabolism as well as adipose tissue homeostasis are important to comprehend excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities. Obesity has a profound impact on quality of life, even in seemingly healthy individuals. Diet, physical activity or exercise and lifestyle changes are the cornerstones of obesity treatment, but medical treatment and bariatric surgery are becoming important. Family history, food environment, cultural preferences, adverse reactions to food, perinatal nutrition, previous or current diseases and physical activity patterns are relevant aspects for the health care professional to consider when treating the individual with obesity. Clinicians and other health care professionals are often ill-equipped to address the important environmental and socioeconomic drivers of the current obesity epidemic. Finally, understanding the epigenetic and genetic factors as well as metabolic pathways that take advantage of 'omics' technologies could play a very relevant part in combating obesity within a precision approach.

  17. Is there a bi-directional relationship between depression and obesity among adult men and women? Systematic review and bias-adjusted meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Munim; Mamun, Abdullah; Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of both obesity and depression represent two major public health concerns worldwide. But the evidence regarding the direction and strength of the association between these two disorders, for both adult men and women, are remain inconclusive. We systematically reviewed publications from five different databases: Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS, CINAHL and PsychINFO. A total of 21 articles were included for the systematic review and 19 of them for the meta-analysis using a bias-adjusted (quality effect) model. This resulted in the inclusion of approximately 226,063 (33.7% men) participants. Those who were depressed had a 37% (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.48) increased risk of being obese, and who were obese had an 18% increased risk of being depressed (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35). Those who were depressed had a 2% (RD: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03) excess risk of obesity, however, the reciprocal associations were not significant. The association between overweight and depression was not found significant in either direction. Both men and women were at risk of obesity and depression bi-directionally. In sensitivity analyses bi-directional associations were more pronounced among young and middle aged adults and in studies with longer follow-up. The findings of this study suggest that the strength of the association is greater for the direction leading from depression to obesity and this link was more pronounced for young and middle aged women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Hypogonadal obese men with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 lose weight and show improvement in cardiovascular risk factors when treated with testosterone: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ahmad; Saad, Farid; Doros, Gheorghe; Gooren, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of obesity with diet and exercise may have short-term success but longer-term maintenance of weight loss is less successful. Obesity is associated with a reduction of serum testosterone, and, vice versa, a reduction in serum testosterone is associated with obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome. To investigate whether restoring serum testosterone to normal in hypo-gonadal obese men is beneficial with regard to weight loss and improvement of the metabolic syndrome. A prospective registry accumulated to 181 men over five years (mean serum testosterone 10.06±1.3 nmol/L (N>12.1), body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. Of these men, 72 had diabetes mellitus type 2. All received parenteral testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg/12 weeks for up to five years. Waist circumference (cm) decreased from 111.2±7.54 to 100.46±7.1, weight (kg) from 114.71±11.59 to 93.2±8.49, BMI (kg/m2) from 36.72±3.72 to 30.2±2.59 (all variables statistically significant vs. baseline (p<0.0001) and each year compared to the previous year (p<0.0001)). In the 72 diabetic men, waist circumference (cm) decreased from 112.93±7.16 to 101.48±7.24, weight (kg) from 116.94±11.62 to 94.42±9.42, BMI (kg/m2) from 37.71±3.5 to 30.95±2.69 (all variables statistically significant vs. baseline (p<0.0001) and each year compared to the previous year (p<0.0001)). In all men serum glucose, HbA1c, lipid profiles and blood pressure improved significantly. Testosterone treatment as assessed by hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and occurrence of prostate cancer was acceptably safe. Normalizing serum testosterone in obese hypogonadal men, also in those with diabetes type 2, improved their metabolic state. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetics Moderate Alcohol and Intimate Partner Violence Treatment Outcomes in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Hazardous Drinking Men in Batterer Intervention Programs: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Gregory L.; McGeary, John; Shorey, Ryan C.; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined whether a cumulative genetic score (CGS) containing MAOA and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms moderated drinking and intimate partner violence (IPV) treatment outcomes in hazardous drinking men receiving batterer intervention or batterer intervention plus a brief alcohol intervention. Method We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 97 hazardous drinking men who had a relationship partner and were in batterer intervention programs. Participants were randomized to receive 40 hours of standard batterer program (SBP) or the SBP plus a 90-minute alcohol intervention (SBP+BAI). Data were collected at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, with follow-up rates of 99.0%, 97.9%, and 93.8%, respectively. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva. Substance use was measured with the Timeline Followback Interview; IPV was assessed with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales. The primary outcomes were drinks per drinking day (DDD), percentage of days abstinent from alcohol (PDA), frequency of physical IPV, and injuries to partners. Results Consistent with hypotheses, analyses demonstrated significant treatment condition by CGS interactions for PDA, physical violence, and injuries, but not for DDD. At high levels of the CGS, men in SBP+BAI had greater PDA (B=.16, 95%CI=.04–.27, p=.01), less physical violence perpetration (B=−1.21, 95%CI=−2.21–−.21, p=.02), and fewer injuries to partners (B=−2.37, 95%CI=−3.19–−.82, p=.00) than men in SBP. No differences between the groups in PDA, physical violence, or injuries were observed at low levels of the CGS. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the potential importance of MAOA and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms in the treatment of IPV and drinking in men in batterer intervention programs. PMID:27018532

  20. The variant allele of the rs188140481 polymorphism confers a moderate increase in the risk of prostate cancer in Polish men.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Andrzej; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Kashyap, Aniruddh; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Górski, Bohdan; Gromowski, Tomasz; Gołąb, Adam; Sikorski, Andrzej; Słojewski, Marcin; Gliniewicz, Bartłomiej; Borkowski, Tomasz; Borkowski, Andrzej; Przybyła, Jacek; Sosnowski, Marek; Małkiewicz, Bartosz; Zdrojowy, Romuald; Sikorska-Radek, Paulina; Matych, Józef; Wilkosz, Jacek; Różański, Waldemar; Kiś, Jacek; Bar, Krzysztof; Janiszewska, Hanna; Stawicka, Małgorzata; Milecki, Piotr; Lubiński, Jan; Narod, Steven A; Cybulski, Cezary

    2015-03-01

    A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Recently, a single SNP in the region of chromosome 8q24 (rs188140481) has been associated with a three-fold increased risk of prostate cancer in Europe and North America. To establish whether rs188140481 is associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Poland, we genotyped 3467 men with prostate cancer and 1958 controls. The A allele of rs188140481 was detected in 44 of 3467 (1.3%) men with prostate cancer and in seven of 1958 (0.4%) controls (odds ratio=3.6; 95% confidence interval 1.6-7.9; P=0.0006). The allele was present in eight of 390 (2.1%) men with familial prostate cancer (odds ratio=5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-16.2; P=0.001). A positive family history of cancers at sites other than the prostate was observed in 27% of men who carried the rs188140481 risk allele and in 44% of noncarriers (P=0.04). No cancer at a site other than the prostate was more common in first-degree or second-degree relatives of carriers of the rs188140481 risk allele than relatives of noncarriers. The rs188140481 polymorphism in the 8q24 region confers a moderate increase in the risk of prostate cancer in Polish men. The SNP does not appear to be associated with susceptibility to cancers of other types.

  1. Hypertension and obesity and the risk of kidney cancer in 2 large cohorts of US men and women.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Kristen M; McTigue, Kathleen M; Fidler, Christian J; Neaton, James D; Chang, Yuefang; Fried, Linda F; Liu, Simin; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-05-01

    Kidney cancer incidence is increasing globally. Reasons for this rise are unclear but could relate to obesity and hypertension. We analyzed longitudinal relationships between hypertension and obesity and kidney cancer incidence in 156 774 participants of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials and observational studies over 10.8 years. In addition, we examined the effect of blood pressure (BP) on kidney cancer deaths for over 25 years among the 353 340 men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). In the Women's Health Initiative, systolic BP (SBP) was categorized in 6 groups from <120 to >160 mm Hg, and body mass index was categorized using standard criteria. In age-adjusted analyses, kidney cancer risk increased across SBP categories (P value for trend <0.0001) and body mass index categories (P value for trend <0.0001). In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, both SBP levels and body mass index were predictors of kidney cancer. In the MRFIT sample, there were 906 deaths after an average of 25 years of follow-up attributed to kidney cancer among the 353 340 participants aged 35 to 57 years at screening. The risk of death from kidney cancer increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing SBP (hazard ratio, 1.87 for SBP>160 versus <120 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.53). Risk was increased among cigarette smokers. Further research is needed to determine the pathophysiologic basis of relationships between both higher BP and the risk of kidney cancer, and whether specific drug therapies for hypertension can reduce kidney cancer risk.

  2. Systematic reviews of and integrated report on the quantitative, qualitative and economic evidence base for the management of obesity in men.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Clare; Archibald, Daryll; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Hoddinott, Pat; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Boyers, Dwayne; Stewart, Fiona; Boachie, Charles; Fioratou, Evie; Wilkins, David; Street, Tim; Carroll, Paula; Fowler, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Obesity increases the risk of many serious illnesses such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis. More men than women are overweight or obese in the UK but men are less likely to perceive their weight as a problem and less likely to engage with weight-loss services. The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence-based management strategies for treating obesity in men and investigate how to engage men in obesity services by integrating the quantitative, qualitative and health economic evidence base. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database were searched from inception to January 2012, with a limited update search in July 2012. Subject-specific websites, reference lists and professional health-care and commercial organisations were also consulted. Six systematic reviews were conducted to consider the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and qualitative evidence on interventions for treating obesity in men, and men in contrast to women, and the effectiveness of interventions to engage men in their weight reduction. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with follow-up data of at least 1 year, or any study design and length of follow-up for UK studies, were included. Qualitative and mixed-method studies linked to RCTs and non-randomised intervention studies, and UK-based, men-only qualitative studies not linked to interventions were included. One reviewer extracted data from the included studies and a second reviewer checked data for omissions or inaccuracies. Two reviewers carried out quality assessment. We undertook meta-analysis of quantitative data and a realist approach to integrating the qualitative and quantitative evidence synthesis. From a total of 12,764 titles reviewed, 33 RCTs with 12 linked reports, 24 non-randomised reports, five economic evaluations with two

  3. Changes in muscle strength after diet-induced weight reduction in adult men with obesity: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bokun; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of weight reduction for musculoskeletal disorders are well understood. Steep declines in muscle mass following considerable weight reduction can decrease muscle strength and, consequently, physical performance. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the changes in muscle mass and strength in the context of interventional weight reduction programs. Thus, we investigated the influence of muscle mass decrease caused by diet-induced weight reduction on muscle strength in obese men. A total of 24 men with obesity (body mass index [BMI]: 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m(2); age: 52.4 ± 10.0 years) attended a 12-week weight reduction program that implemented dietary restrictions. Each participant underwent assessments of body weight (by a digital scale), body composition (by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]), and upper and lower extremity muscle strength (by a hand-held dynamometer and a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, respectively) before and after the program. The program led to significant reductions of 10.5% of weight and 6.1% of lower extremity muscle mass. Similarly, lower extremity muscle strength (measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer) was significantly decreased (isometric 60° peak torque decreased by 10% and isokinetic 60°/s peak torque decreased by 9.4%); however, the level of body weight-normalized lower extremity muscle strength did not significantly change (increased by +1.2% and +1.4%). The decrease in muscle strength was related to but did not entirely depend on decrease in muscle mass. Although handgrip strength did not significantly differ (-2.2%), the weight-normalized level of this parameter significantly improved (+9.1%). In addition, decrease in the percentage of whole-body fat mass and increase in the percentage of muscle mass index were observed. We recommend performing exercise after diet-induced weight reduction to regain muscle mass and strength and improve body weight-normalized lower extremity muscle

  4. Severe maternal stress exposure due to bereavement before, during and after pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in young adult men: a Danish National Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06) was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively). Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31). There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.

  5. Obesity and onset of significant depressive symptoms: results from a prospective community-based cohort study of older men and women.

    PubMed

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Brenes, Gretchen A; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-04-01

    Although several cross-sectional studies have linked obesity and depression, less is known about their longitudinal association and about the relative influence of obesity subtypes. We prospectively examined whether obesity (specifically, abdominal) increased the risk of onset of depression in a population-based sample of older persons. Participants were 2,547 nondepressed, well-functioning white and black persons, aged 70-79 years, enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study. Baseline measurements were conducted between April 1997 and June 1998. Overall obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), whereas abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computer tomography). Onset of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression 10-item score > or = 10 at any annual follow-up over 5 years and/or new antidepressant medication use. Persistent depression was defined as depression at 2 consecutive follow-up visits. Over 5 years, significant depressive symptoms emerged in 23.7% of initially nondepressed persons. In men, both overall (BMI: hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) and abdominal obesity (visceral fat: HR per SD increase = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33) predicted onset of depressive symptoms after adjustment for sociodemographics. When BMI and visceral fat were adjusted for each other, only visceral fat was significantly associated with depression onset (HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.34). Stronger associations were found for persistent depressive symptoms. No associations were found in women. This study shows that obesity, in particular visceral fat, increases the risk of onset of significant depressive symptoms in men. These results suggest that specific mechanisms might relate visceral fat to the onset of

  6. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni; Borén, Christofer; Eliasson, Björn; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Rivellese, Angela; Riccardi, Gabriele; Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Borén, Jan; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Context Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. Objective To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) response to a fat-rich meal. Design Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an OGTT and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5–40.2 kg/m2) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal. Main Outcome Measures Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins. Results The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively). Glucose and insulin AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest. Conclusions In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion was fasting triglycerides. The contribution of endogenous GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP to explaining the variance in postprandial TG excursion was minor. PMID:26752550

  7. A randomized trial testing the efficacy of a novel approach to weight loss among men with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Crane, Melissa M; Lutes, Lesley D; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-12-01

    To test the efficacy of a weight loss intervention designed to appeal to men. A randomized trial tested the efficacy of the Rethinking Eating and FITness (REFIT) weight loss program compared to a wait-list control. The 6-month intervention was delivered via two face-to-face sessions followed by Internet contacts. REFIT encouraged participants to create calorie deficits by making six 100-calorie changes to their eating daily while increasing physical activity, and the program encouraged customization through selection of specific diet strategies evaluated each week. Participants (N = 107, 44.2 years, 31.4 kg/m(2) , 76.6% white) were randomized into the study, and 90.6% provided data at 6 months. REFIT participants lost -5.0 kg (95% CI: -6.1, -3.9) at 3 months, which was maintained through 6 months (-5.3 kg, 95% CI: -6.5, -4.2); this was greater than the control group (p < 0.001; 6 months: -0.6, 95% CI: -1.8, 0.5). More REFIT participants (49%) achieved a 5% weight loss than control participants (19%; OR 9.4; 95% CI: 3.2, 27.4). An average of 11.2 (±2.7) of 13 of the online intervention contacts were completed. The novel REFIT intervention produced clinically significant weight losses. This approach holds promise as an alternative to traditional behavioral therapy for men. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Perceived Parental Social Support and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Children at Risk of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Barnett, Tracie A.; Lambert, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of factors that relate to physical activity behavior in children at higher risk for weight problems--namely, children with obese parents--is key to informing the development of effective interventions to promote physical activity and reduce obesity. The purpose of our study was to examine children's perceptions of parental…

  9. Perceived Parental Social Support and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Children at Risk of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Barnett, Tracie A.; Lambert, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of factors that relate to physical activity behavior in children at higher risk for weight problems--namely, children with obese parents--is key to informing the development of effective interventions to promote physical activity and reduce obesity. The purpose of our study was to examine children's perceptions of parental…

  10. Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Anne; Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Holtrop, Grietje; Korpela, Katri; Duncan, Sylvia H; Date, Priya; Farquharson, Freda; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. In addition, we analyzed fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as a proxy of colonic fermentation, and indices of insulin sensitivity from blood samples. The diet explained around 10% of the total variance in microbiota composition, which was substantially less than the inter-individual variance. Yet, each of the study diets induced clear and distinct changes in the microbiota. Multiple Ruminococcaceae phylotypes increased on the RS diet, whereas mostly Lachnospiraceae phylotypes increased on the NSP diet. Bifidobacteria decreased significantly on the WL diet. The RS diet decreased the diversity of the microbiota significantly. The total 16S ribosomal RNA gene signal estimated by qPCR correlated positively with the three major SCFAs, while the amount of propionate specifically correlated with the Bacteroidetes. The dietary responsiveness of the individual's microbiota varied substantially and associated inversely with its diversity, suggesting that individuals can be stratified into responders and non-responders based on the features of their intestinal microbiota.

  11. Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Anne; Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Holtrop, Grietje; Korpela, Katri; Duncan, Sylvia H; Date, Priya; Farquharson, Freda; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. In addition, we analyzed fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as a proxy of colonic fermentation, and indices of insulin sensitivity from blood samples. The diet explained around 10% of the total variance in microbiota composition, which was substantially less than the inter-individual variance. Yet, each of the study diets induced clear and distinct changes in the microbiota. Multiple Ruminococcaceae phylotypes increased on the RS diet, whereas mostly Lachnospiraceae phylotypes increased on the NSP diet. Bifidobacteria decreased significantly on the WL diet. The RS diet decreased the diversity of the microbiota significantly. The total 16S ribosomal RNA gene signal estimated by qPCR correlated positively with the three major SCFAs, while the amount of propionate specifically correlated with the Bacteroidetes. The dietary responsiveness of the individual's microbiota varied substantially and associated inversely with its diversity, suggesting that individuals can be stratified into responders and non-responders based on the features of their intestinal microbiota. PMID:24763370

  12. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women: post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein that impairs insulin-signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with fetuin-A, data from clinical trials are lacking. Thus, we evaluated whether moderate alcohol consumption decreases circulating levels of fetuin-A. Methods We analyzed data of three separate open-label, randomized, crossover trials: 1) 36 postmenopausal women consuming 250 ml white wine (25 g alcohol) or white grape juice daily for 6 weeks, 2) 24 premenopausal women consuming 660 ml beer (26 g alcohol) or alcohol-free beer daily for 3 weeks, and 3) 24 young men consuming 100 ml vodka (30 g alcohol) orange juice or only orange juice daily for 4 weeks. After each treatment period fasting blood samples were collected. Results Circulating fetuin-A concentrations decreased in men after vodka consumption (Mean ± SEM: 441 ± 11 to 426 ± 11 μg/ml, p = 0.02), but not in women after wine (448 ± 17 to 437 ± 17 μg/ml, p = 0.16) or beer consumption (498 ± 15 to 492 ± 15 μg/ml, p = 0.48) compared to levels after each corresponding alcohol-free treatment. Post-hoc power analyses indicated that the statistical power to detect a similar effect as observed in men was 30% among the postmenopausal women and 31% among the premenopausal women. Conclusions In these randomized crossover trials, moderate alcohol consumption decreased fetuin-A in men but not in women. This sex-specific effect may be explained by the relatively short intervention periods or the low statistical power in the trials among women. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID no’s: NCT00285909, NCT00524550, NCT00918918. PMID:24548643

  13. Implicit racial bias as a moderator of the association between racial discrimination and hypertension: a study of Midlife African American men.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Empirical findings on racial discrimination and hypertension risk have been inconsistent. Some studies have found no association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes, whereas others have found moderated or curvilinear relationships. The current cross-sectional study examined whether the association between racial discrimination and hypertension is moderated by implicit racial bias among African American midlife men. This study examined the data on 91 African American men between 30 and 50 years of age. Primary variables were self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and unconscious racial bias as measured by the Black-White Implicit Association Test. Modified Poisson regression models were specified, examining hypertension, defined as a mean resting systolic level of at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic level of at least 90 mm Hg, or self-reported history of cardiovascular medication use with a physician diagnosis of hypertension. No main effects for discrimination or implicit racial bias were found, but the interaction of the two variables was significantly related to hypertension (χ(2)(1) = 4.89, p < .05). Among participants with an implicit antiblack bias, more frequent reports of discrimination were associated with a higher probability of hypertension, whereas among those with an implicit problack bias, it was associated with lower risk. The combination of experiencing racial discrimination and holding an antiblack bias may have particularly detrimental consequences on hypertension among African American midlife men, whereas holding an implicit problack bias may buffer the effects of racial discrimination. Efforts to address both internalized racial bias and racial discrimination may lower cardiovascular risk in this population.

  14. Disability and self-rated health among older women and men in rural Guatemala: The role of obesity and chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, John; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented population aging in poorer settings is coinciding with the rapid spread of obesity and other chronic conditions. These conditions predict disability and poor self-rated health and often are more prevalent in women than men. Thus, gender gaps in obesity and other chronic conditions may account for older women's greater disability and worse self-rated health in poor, rural populations, where aging, obesity, and chronic conditions are rapidly emerging. In a survey of 604 adults 50 years and older in rural Guatemala, we assessed whether gender gaps in obesity and other chronic conditions accounted for gender gaps in disability and self-rated health. Obesity strongly predicted gross-mobility (GM) disability, and the number of chronic conditions strongly predicted all outcomes, especially in women. Controlling for gender gaps in body mass index (BMI) and especially the number of chronic conditions eliminated gender gaps in GM disability, and controlling for gender gaps in the number of chronic conditions eliminated gender gaps in self-rated health. We recommend conducting longitudinal cohort studies to explore interventions that may mitigate adult obesity and chronic conditions among poor, rural older adults. Such interventions also may reduce gender gaps in later-life disability and self-rated health. PMID:20813446

  15. Functional food and satiety. Impact of a satiating context effect on appetite control of non-obese men.

    PubMed

    Arguin, Hélène; Gagnon-Sweeney, Marlène; Pigeon, Étienne; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the addition of satiating nutrients and a satiating context effect could influence appetite sensations, spontaneous energy intake and food appreciation under conditions of standardized energy density of a meal. Eighteen non-obese men were submitted to a control, a satiating, and a context effect condition composed of a standardized breakfast and an ad libitum test lunch (macaroni entrée plus chocolate cake). The satiating macaroni contained more proteins, unsaturated fats, fibres and calcium than the control macaroni despite similar energy density, appearance and palatability. In the context effect condition, participants believed they were eating "a highly satiating macaroni", but were served the control macaroni. Appreciation of the macaronis, quantities of macaroni and cake consumed and 4-h satiating potential were measured for each condition. Quantities of macaroni and dessert consumed did not differ between conditions. Satiating potential was greater for the context effect meal compared to the control and/or the satiating meals up to 4h after its consumption. The context effect macaroni obtained higher appreciation rates than the control and the satiating macaronis. The context effect may positively influence the appreciation toward a meal and contribute to increase its satiety potential for many hours.

  16. Plasma concentration of amino acids in obese men consuming very-low-calorie diets composed of soy or collagen protein.

    PubMed

    Fisler, J S; Drenick, E J; Yoshimura, N N; Swendseid, M E

    1985-01-01

    The effects of soy or collagen protein, 1.3 g/kg desirable body weight per day, on fasting and postprandial plasma free amino acid concentrations were evaluated in eight obese men during a 40-day very-low-calorie reducing regimen. The interrelationships among individual plasma amino acids were also examined. In both protein-fed groups, fasting plasma histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine and alanine levels decreased by day 40 whereas glycine increased. The decrease in plasma threonine and increase in plasma glycine were more pronounced in the collagen-fed group (n = 4) than in the soy-fed group (n = 4). Serine increased only in the collagen-fed group. The postprandial increases of all essential amino acids, with the exception of valine and phenylalanine, were less on day 26 than on day zero. Except for threonine levels, plasma amino acid profiles were similar during very-low-calorie dieting and during prolonged fasting. However, essential amino acid levels were better maintained by soy than by collagen protein diets.

  17. Comparison of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique laryngeal mask airway in patients with mild to moderate obesity during elective short-term surgery.

    PubMed

    Weber, U; Oguz, R; Potura, L A; Kimberger, O; Kober, A; Tschernko, E

    2011-06-01

    The aim of our study was to compare leakage pressure, ease and time of insertion of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique laryngeal mask airway in patients with mild to moderate obesity during elective short-term surgery. In this prospective, randomised crossover trial, we included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >25 and <35 kg.m(-2) , and , age >18 years, undergoing elective surgery in the supine position with an expected duration of surgery <2 h. Leakage pressures, insertion difficulty, time and number of insertion attempts were evaluated. We included 50 patients consisting of 29 mildly (BMI>25 and < 30 kg.mg(-2) ) and 21 moderately (BMI>30 and < 35 kg.mg(-2) ) obese patients. Mean (SD) leakage pressures were 23.7 (9.2) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.4 (7.0) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p<0.01). Subgroup analyses showed leakage pressures of 22.2 (9.4) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.5 (7.5) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p=0.013) in the mild subgroup, and 25.7 (8.6) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.0 (6.2) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p<0.01), in the moderate subgroup. Insertion of the i-gel was associated with significantly higher leakage pressures compared with the LMA-Unique in mildly and moderately obese patients.

  18. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  19. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.

  20. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ActiTrainer-determined segmented moderate-to-vigorous physical activity patterns among normal-weight and overweight-to-obese Czech schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Snoblová, Romana; Gecková, Andrea Madarásová

    2014-03-01

    This study uncovered the patterns of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in normal-weight and overweight/obese children before, during, and after school lessons. ActiTrainer-based MVPA was assessed over 2 school days (with and without a physical education lesson [PEL] in a sample of three hundred thirty-eight 9- to 11-year-old children (50.3 % female; 29.6 % overweight/obese), in the Czech Republic, during spring 2012. MVPA was quantified based on the step count (number), MVPA duration, and MVPA heart-rate response (minutes). No differences in the MVPA based on the time during the school day were confirmed in normal-weight versus overweight/obese girls, whereas normal-weight boys significantly exceed their overweight/obese peers in step count and after-school and daylong MVPA. Active participation in PEL contributes to a significantly higher step count, exercise duration, and MVPA heart-rate response in normal-weight and overweight/obese boys (p < 0.001) and normal-weight (p < 0.001) and overweight/obese (p < 0.04) girls during school time. Moreover, active participation in PEL significantly (p < 0.04) increases the overall daily step count, duration, and MVPA heart-rate response in normal-weight boys and overweight/obese girls. Active exercise during PEL accounted for 16.7 % of the total number of steps, 25.1 % of overall MVPA duration, and 24.1 % of the MVPA heart-rate response in 9- to 11-year-old children. During days with a PEL, a significantly (p < 0.02) higher number of overweight/obese girls and a higher number of normal-weight boys achieved the duration of 60 min/day of MVPA compared with days without a PEL. Adding one PEL or an equivalent amount of MVPA to the daily school routine appears to be a promising strategy to effectively increase daily MVPA, particularly among overweight/obese girls.

  2. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Becattini, Barbara; Zani, Fabio; Breasson, Ludovic; Sardi, Claudia; D'Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Choo, Min-Kyung; Provenzani, Alessandro; Park, Jin Mo; Solinas, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress, which may be implicated in the progression of obesity-related diseases. The kinase JNK1 has emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. JNK1 is also a key mediator of the oxidative stress response, which can promote cell death or survival, depending on the magnitude and context of its activation. In this article, we describe a study in which the long-term effects of JNK1 inactivation on glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in obese mice were investigated for the first time. Mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1(-/-)) were fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) for a long period. JNK1(-/-) mice fed an HFD for the long term had reduced expression of antioxidant genes in their skin, more skin oxidative damage, and increased epidermal thickness and inflammation compared with the effects in control wild-type mice. However, we also observed that the protection from obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, steatosis, and insulin resistance, conferred by JNK1 ablation, was sustained over a long period and was paralleled by decreased oxidative damage in fat and liver. We conclude that compounds targeting JNK1 activity in brain and adipose tissue, which do not accumulate in the skin, may be safer and most effective.-Becattini, B., Zani, F., Breasson, L., Sardi, C., D'Agostino, V. G., Choo, M.-K., Provenzani, A., Park, J. M., Solinas, G. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage. © FASEB.

  3. PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms are associated with aggressive prostate cancer in Mexican-Mestizo men with overweight or obesity.

    PubMed

    Canto, Patricia; Granados, Jesús Benítez; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Tapia, André; Rojano-Mejía, David; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2017-07-04

    Obesity constitutes a risk factor for the development of aggressive forms of prostate cancer. It has been proposed, that prostate cancer has a genetic predisposition and that PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms play a role in the development of this condition. To analyse the association of two PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms as well as their haplotypes, with the development of aggressive prostate cancer in Mexican-Mestizo men with overweight or obesity. Two hundred fifty seven men with prostate cancer of Mexican-Mestizo origin were included. Body mass index (BMI) was determined and the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness by the D'Amico classification. DNA was obtained. Rs7665116 and rs2970870 of PPARGC1A, and rs266729 and rs1501299 of ADIPOQ were studied by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium, between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated and haplotype analysis was performed. A higher-risk (D'Amico classification) was observed in 21.8% of patients. An association of cancer aggressiveness with rs2970870 of PPARGC1A, and rs501299 of ADIPOQ, as well as with one haplotype of ADIPOQ was documented. This is the first study regarding the relationship of PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms, and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men with overweight or obesity.

  4. A review of obesity and body fat distribution and its relationship to cardio-metabolic risk in men and women of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Lear, Scott A; Lesser, Iris A

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is increasing in people of Chinese background whether in China or in other countries. The purpose of this review is to discuss the associations of obesity in men and women of Chinese background with cardio-metabolic risk with specific attention to body fat distribution. Evidence suggests that current BMI and WC targets may actually underestimate the cardio-metabolic risk in Chinese compared to European populations from which they were derived. Through a number of investigations, we and others have identified that Chinese men and women tend to have higher cardio-metabolic risk factors at a given body size than people of European background (from which guidelines are generally derived). Our additional investigations have indicated that Chinese men and women have greater amounts of VAT, but similar amounts of DSAT at a given body fat than Europeans and it may be the higher VAT in Chinese people that is, in part, responsible for the greater cardio-metabolic risk in the Chinese. Further investigation of this topic should prove fruitful in shedding light onto the determinants of body fat accumulation and distribution that may help to inform obesity prevention and treatment strategies.

  5. Fluid distribution and tissue thickness changes in 29