Stiegler, Petra; Sparks, S Andrew; Cunliffe, Adam
Maximizing postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation could be of clinical relevance for the treatment of obesity. This study investigated the effect of prior exercise on energy expenditure and substrate utilization after meals containing varying amounts of macronutrients. Eight lean (11.6%+/-4.0% body fat, M+/-SD) and 12 obese (35.9%+/-5.3% body fat) men were randomly assigned to a protein (43% protein, 30% carbohydrate) or a carbohydrate (10% protein, 63% carbohydrate) meal. The metabolic responses to the meals were investigated during 2 trials, when meals were ingested after a resting period (D) or cycling exercise (Ex+D; 65% of oxygen consumption reserve, 200 kcal). Energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and glucose and insulin responses were measured for 4 hr during the postprandial phase. Although postprandial energy expenditure was not affected by prior exercise, the total amount of fat oxidized was higher during Ex+D than during D (170.8+/-60.1 g vs. 137.8+/-50.8 g, p< .05), and, accordingly, the use of carbohydrate as substrate was decreased (136.4+/-45.2 g vs. 164.0+/-42.9 g, p< .05).After the protein meal fat-oxidation rates were higher than after carbohydrate intake (p< .05), an effect independent of prior exercise. Plasma insulin tended to be lower during Ex+D (p= .072) and after the protein meal (p= .066). No statistically significant change in postprandial blood glucose was induced by prior exercise. Exercising before meal consumption can result in a marked increase in fat oxidation, which is independent of the type of meal consumed.
Al-Shayji, Iqbal A R; Caslake, Muriel J; Gill, Jason M R
Prior moderate exercise reduces plasma triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein concentrations, mainly in the large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL₁) fraction, but the mechanism responsible is unclear. We investigated the effects of brisk walking on TG-rich lipoprotein kinetics using a novel method. Twelve overweight/obese middle-aged men underwent two kinetic studies, involving infusion of Intralipid to block VLDL₁ catabolism, in random order. On the afternoon prior to infusion, subjects either walked on a treadmill for 2 h at ∼50% maximal oxygen uptake or performed no exercise. Multiple blood samples were taken during and after infusion for separation of Intralipid (S(f) 400) and VLDL₁ (S(f) 60-400). VLDL₁-TG and -apoB production rates were calculated from their linear rises during infusion; fractional catabolic rates (FCR) were calculated by dividing linear rises by fasting concentrations. Intralipid-TG FCR was determined from the postinfusion exponential decay. Exercise reduced fasting VLDL₁-TG concentration by 30% (P = 0.007) and increased TG enrichment of VLDL₁ particles [30% decrease in cholesteryl ester (CE)/TG ratio (P = 0.007); 26% increase in TG/apoB ratio (P = 0.059)]. Exercise also increased VLDL₁-TG, VLDL₁-apoB, and Intralipid-TG FCRs by 82, 146, and 43%, respectively (all P < 0.05), but had no significant effect on VLDL₁-TG or -apoB production rates. The exercise-induced increase in VLDL₁-apoB FCR correlated strongly with the exercise-induced changes in VLDL₁ CE/TG (r = -0.659, r = 0.020) and TG/apoB (r = 0.785, P = 0.002) ratios. Thus, exercise-induced reductions in VLDL₁ concentrations are mediated by increased catabolism, rather than reduced production, which may be facilitated by compositional changes to VLDL₁ particles that increase their affinity for clearance from the circulation.
Kobayakawa, Akira; Suzuki, Tomoo; Ikami, Takao; Saito, Morio; Yabe, Daisuke; Seino, Yutaka
A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake on fasting plasma glucose level and physical characteristics in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity. Thirty men with mild hyperglycemia (>5.6 mmol/L) and visceral fat accumulation (>100 cm²) ingested 7.5 g/day of dietary fiber for 12 weeks. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed at baseline and at week 12. Blood was drawn every 4 weeks. In the test food group, fasting plasma glucose level was reduced with time, and the difference between the test food group and placebo group was statistically significant at week 12. Body weight and body mass index were also reduced with time, but visceral and subcutaneous fat areas did not change significantly during the study period. The results suggest that even a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake may be beneficial for managing the fasting plasma glucose level concomitant with insulin resistance, body weight, and body mass index in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.
Ipavec-Levasseur, Stephanie; Croci, Ilaria; Choquette, Stéphane; Byrne, Nuala M; Cowin, Gary; O'Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Hickman, Ingrid J
Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are depleted in response to an acute bout of exercise in lean endurance-trained individuals; however, it is unclear whether changes in IMCL content are also seen in response to acute and chronic exercise in obese individuals. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 18 obese men and 5 normal-weight controls to assess IMCL content before and after an hour of cycling at the intensity corresponding with each participant's maximal whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatmax was determined via indirect calorimetry during a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The same outcome measures were reassessed in the obese group after a 16-week lifestyle intervention comprising dietary calorie restriction and exercise training. At baseline, IMCL content decreased in response to 1 h of cycling at Fatmax in controls (2.8 ± 0.4 to 2.0 ± 0.3 A.U., -39%, p = 0.02), but not in obese (5.4 ± 2.1 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 A.U., p = 0.42). The lifestyle intervention lead to weight loss (-10.0 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.001), improvements in maximal aerobic power (+5.2 ± 3.4 mL/(kg·min)), maximal fat oxidation rate (+0.19 ± 0.22 g/min), and a 29% decrease in homeostasis model assessment score (all p < 0.05). However, when the 1 h of cycling at Fatmax was repeated after the lifestyle intervention, there remained no observable change in IMCL (4.6 ± 1.8 vs. 4.6 ± 1.9 A.U., p = 0.92). In summary, there was no IMCL depletion in response to 1 h of cycling at moderate intensity either before or after the lifestyle intervention in obese men. An effective lifestyle intervention including moderate-intensity exercise training did not impact rate of utilisation of IMCL during acute exercise in obese men.
Plat, Jogchum; Jellema, Annemarie; Ramakers, Julian; Mensink, Ronald P
Overweight persons are at risk for cardiovascular diseases, which may relate to a disturbed endothelial function and pro-inflammatory serum profiles. Indeed, weight loss lowers cardiovascular disease risk, but weight maintenance is difficult. Therefore, dietary supplements such as fish oil, which improve endothelial function, are useful. In this study, we evaluated effects of fish oil and moderate weight loss in the same population. For this, 11 normolipidemic healthy, moderately obese men (BMI 30-35 kg/m2) received in random order 1.1 g/d eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) + docosahexanoic acid (DHA) or oleic acid (control) for 6 wk. In the 3rd period, 8 of the 11 subjects consumed low-energy diets (2 MJ/d) for 4 wk followed by 4 wk weight stabilization. Their body weight was reduced by 9.4 +/- 2.0 kg (P < 0.05). On the final day of all 3 periods, a postprandial test was conducted. Weight loss lowered fasting and postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TG) responses (P < 0.001), whereas fish oil reduced only postprandial TG (P = 0.006). Fish oil did not affect soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (s-ICAM), whereas weight loss reduced fasting (P = 0.009) and postprandial s-ICAM responses (P < 0.001). Fasting s-ICAM and TG correlated (r = 0.68; P = 0.029), as did changes in fasting s-ICAM and TG during weight loss (r = 0.80; P = 0.029) and fish oil treatment (r = 0.76; P = 0.009). Fasting (P = 0.027) and postprandial (P < 0.001) serum C-reactive protein were lowered by weight loss. The postprandial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 response was lowered by fish oil and after weight loss (P < 0.001). This indicates that 1.1 g/d EPA+DHA supplied for 6 wk, in contrast to approximately 10 kg weight loss, does not improve markers of endothelial function and inflammation.
Roloff, Michael E.
We investigated factors that might moderate the association between sexual behavior desires and sexual behavior enactments in gay men. Condom eschewal, number of STIs, HIV serostatus, age, and relationship status were each hypothesized to moderate this association. An Internet survey collected data from 219 self-identifying gay men. Results indicated that sexual behavior desires and enactments were highly correlated, and of the five moderators tested, four varied this association. Condom eschewers had a stronger association between desires and enactments than condom users. Gay men with fewer STIs/STDs (excluding HIV) also had a stronger association between the two variables. HIV serostatus did not exclusively moderate the association. Rather, a three-way interaction was produced such that HIV-positive men with STIs had a stronger association between sexual behavior desires and enactments than HIV-negative men with STIs. Finally, gay men in monogamous relationships were least likely to have their desires associated with enactments. Age was not found to be a significant moderator. Overall, we concluded the moderators representing sexual health and sexual health behaviors were most influential over the enactment of sexual behavior desires. PMID:18719988
Epstein, Leonard H; Lin, Henry; Carr, Katelyn A; Fletcher, Kelly D
The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) provides an index of the motivation to eat. Research has shown that RRV(food) is higher in obese individuals than their non-obese peers, is associated with greater energy intake, predicts weight gain and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. This study was designed to determine whether dietary restraint, dietary disinhibition or hunger moderate the effect of RRV(food) on the weight status and energy intake in 273 adults of various body mass index (BMI) levels. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the independent effects of RRV(food) on BMI and energy intake, controlling for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and RRV(reading). Results showed that greater RRV(food), but not RRV(reading), was associated with greater BMI and energy intake. Dietary disinhibition and dietary restraint moderated the relationship between RRV(food) and BMI, with dietary disinhibition being a stronger moderator of this relationship (r(2)=0.20) than dietary restraint (r(2)=0.095). In addition, dietary disinhibition moderated the effect of RRV(food) on energy intake. These results replicate the importance of RRV(food) as a predictor of obesity, and show that psychological factors moderate the effect of food reinforcement on body weight and energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117.
Lee, Sang-Ah; Wen, Wanqing; Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou
Objective To estimate the age-adjusted prevalence of general and centralized obesity among Chinese men living in urban Shanghai. Research Methods and Procedures A cross-sectional study was conducted in 61,582 Chinese men aged 40 to 75. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was used to measure overweight (23≤BMI<27.5) and obesity (BMI≥27.5) based on the WHO recommended criteria for Asians. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was used to measure moderate (75th≤WHR<90th percentile) and severe (WHR≥90th percentile) centralized obesity. Results The average BMI and WHR were 23.7 kg/m2 and 0.90, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 48.6% and obesity, 10.5%. The prevalence of general and centralized obesity was higher in men with high income or who were unemployed, tea drinkers, or non-ginseng users than their counterparts. Men with high education had a higher prevalence of overweight and centralized obesity, but had a lower prevalence of obesity and severe centralized obesity compared to those with lower education. Current smokers or alcohol drinkers had a lower prevalence of general obesity but higher prevalence of centralized obesity than non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Ex-smokers and ex-alcohol drinkers had a higher prevalence of general and centralized obesity compared to non-smokers and non-alcohol drinkers. Prevalence of obesity was associated with high energy intake and low daily physical activity. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity in Chinese men in urban Shanghai was lower than that observed in Western countries but higher than that in other Asian countries, and the prevalence of general and centralized obesity differed by demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. PMID:18356829
Mueller, W H; Joos, S K
The relationship between body fat distribution patterns and somatotype among 824 men was sought from Sheldon, Dupertuis and MacDermott's Atlas of Men (1954). The men were classified photoscopically into obese, overweight and normal weight classes and then into android (central), intermediate and gynoid (generalized) classes of body fat patterning independently and blindly by two observers. Android fat men were found by both observers to be older and more often classed as obese than gynoid fat men. The android obese were significantly more mesomorphic and less endomorphic than the gynoid obese (P less than 0.01). Results suggest that android obesity involves more than an upper body distribution of subcutaneous fat: it is a deep body obesity involving excess lean body mass as well.
Thorpe, Roland J; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas
National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-standing patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. This study examined disparities in obesity among Black and White men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. The findings were compared with the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. In the NHIS, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.12-1.49) than White men. However in the EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.06, 95% confidence interval=0.70-1.62) compared with White men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social environment may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among Black and White men.
Thorpe, Roland J.; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V.; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas
National data indicate that black men have higher rates of obesity than white men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these longstanding patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. We examined disparities in obesity among black and white men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. We compared the findings to a national sample. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, SES and health conditions. In the national sample, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.12–1.49) than white men. However in EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.70–1.62) compared to white men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social context may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among black and white men. PMID:25249452
Shankar, S; Nanda, J P; Bonney, G; Kofie, V
The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-demographic and behavioral differences related to obesity between African-American men and women. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of greater than 27.3 kg/m2 for women and 27.8 kg/m2 for men. Data were collected from 661 African-Americans, 418 women and 243 men, residing in wards 7 and 8 in Washington, DC through telephone interviews. Obesity was prevalent among 38.3% of the women and 20.1% of the men (p < 0.01). For women age 55 or older, annual income over $20K, having less than a high school education, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were associated with being overweight in the initial bivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For men, being 35 years or older and unemployment were significant factors associated with obesity. Our final analysis, when known dietary risk factors were adjusted, revealed that in women, obesity was associated with age, hard liquor consumption and non use of tobacco. For men, older age was a primary association. We concluded that gender, with increasing age, plays a significant role in predicting obesity, as defined by concurrent national standards. African American men 55 years of age or older are the most likely group to be overweight even after predisposing and behavioral risk factors are considered.
Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I
Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content.
Saad, Farid; Aversa, Antonio; Isidori, Andrea M; Gooren, Louis J
Objective: Obesity negatively affects human health. Limiting food intake, while producing some weight loss, results in reduction of lean body mass. Combined with moderate exercise it produces significant weight loss, maintains lean body mass and improves insulin sensitivity, but appears difficult to adhere to. Bariatric surgery is clinically effective for severely obese individuals compared with non-surgical interventions, but has limitations. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have implicated a role for testosterone (T) in the patho-physiology of obesity. Methods: Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: A literature search in PubMed on the role of T in counteracting obesity and its complications. Results: Obesity per se impairs testicular T biosynthesis. Furthermore, lower-than-normal T levels increase accumulation of fat depots, particularly abdominal (visceral) fat. This fat distribution is associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its sequels, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). T treatment reverses fat accumulation with significant improvement in lean body mass, insulin sensitivity and biochemical profiles of cardiovascular risk. The contribution of T to combating obesity in hypogonadal men remains largely unknown to medical professionals managing patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Many physicians associate T treatment in men with risks for prostate malignancy and CVD. These beliefs are not supported by recent insights. Conclusion: While overall treatment of obesity is unsuccessful, T treatment of hypogonadal men may be effective, also because it improves mood, energy, reduces fatigue and may motivate men to adhere to diet and exercise regimens designed to combat obesity. PMID:22268394
Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Musialik, Katarzyna
The obesity affects around 312 million people over the world. In The United States it causes more than 300 000 deaths per year. It leads to many complications, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. It was proven recently that obesity is also an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men. 79% of men presenting erectile disorders have BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater. BMI in the range 25-30 kg/m2 is associated with 1,5 times, and in the range of over 30 kg/m2 with 3 times greater risk of sexual dysfunction. The occurrence of erectile dysfunction in patients with obesity is caused by a number of complications which are characteristic for an excessive amount of fat tissue, in example: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or dyslipidemia. In the United States diabetes and obesity are responsible for 8 million cases of erectile dysfunction. Scientific evidence indicates that excessive body weight should be considered as an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction. This risk increases with increasing BMI. Erectile disorders correlate with the occurrence of obesity at any time during the patient's life. Obesity leads to erectile dysfunction in a considerably greater extent than aging. Mechanisms responsible for the independent influence of obesity on the erectile dysfunction are: hormonal imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, psychological factors and physical inactivity. The basis for erectile dysfunction treatment in obesity is body weight loss. Erectile disorders in obese men are significantly more frequent than in general population. Obesity is beyond any doubts an independent risk factor of erectile dysfunction.
Kitagawa, K; Suzuki, M; Miyashita, M
Anaerobic power output was measured by the staircase climb test in 14 obese, 16 lean, and 21 ordinary men aged from 18--22 years. Fat storage rate (%fat) was estimated by densitometry. The obese group ranked highest with an average power output of 1,012 W. This value was significantly higher than those of the other two groups, 890 W for lean subjects and 855 W for ordinary subjects. The power output per kilogram of lean body mass of the obese group was the highest also. However, the vertical velocity was the lowest although the difference among the three average values was not statistically significant. To investigate the effect of excess fat, eight non-obese subjects engaged in an added-weight experiment. The value obtained was almost the same as for the obese group. The added weights made the vertical velocity decrease but the power output increase. Consequently, it was obvious that the excess fat of an obese man played a role only as an inert mass in the power output measurement. A significantly higher power output of the obese group might be due to more excess fat, and obesity itself was an advantage in the staircase climb test.
Hofmann, Tobias; Weibert, Elena; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas
Phoenixin was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus and initially implicated in reproductive functions. A subsequent study described an anxiolytic effect of the peptide. The aim of the study was to investigate a possible association of circulating phoenixin with anxiety in humans. We therefore enrolled 68 inpatients with a broad spectrum of psychometrically measured anxiety (GAD-7). We investigated men since a menstrual cycle dependency of phoenixin has been assumed. Obese subjects were enrolled since they often report psychological comorbidities. In addition, we also assessed depressiveness (PHQ-9) and perceived stress (PSQ-20). Plasma phoenixin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA. First, we validated the ELISA kit performing a spike-and-recovery experiment showing a variance of 6.7±8.8% compared to the expected concentrations over the whole range of concentrations assessed, while a lower variation of 1.6±0.8% was observed in the linear range of the assay (0.07-2.1ng/ml). We detected phoenixin in the circulation of obese men at levels of 0.68±0.50ng/ml. These levels showed a negative association with anxiety scores (r=-0.259, p=0.043), while no additional associations with other psychometric parameters were observed. In summary, phoenixin is present in the human circulation and negatively associated with anxiety in obese men, a population often to report comorbid anxiety.
Weaver, Nicola F; Hayes, Louise; Unwin, Nigel C; Murtagh, Madeleine J
Background The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore undertook this study in order to inform the process of health promotion and diabetes prevention in this group. Methods A qualitative study in North East England General Practice using a purposive sample of men aged 25 and 45 years (selection process designed to include 'normal', 'overweight' and 'obese' men). One to one audio-recorded semi structured interviews focused on: overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity and diabetes. Transcripts were initially analysed using framework analysis. Emerging themes interlinked. Results The men in this study (n = 17) understand the word obesity differently from the clinical definition; "obesity" was used as a description of those with fat in a central distribution, and understandings of the term commonly take into account fitness as well as weight. Men in their late 30s and early 40s described becoming more aware of health issues. Knowledge of what constitutes a 'healthy lifestyle' was generally good, but men described difficulty acting upon this knowledge for various reasons e.g. increasing responsibilities at home and at work. Knowledge of diabetes and the link between obesity and diabetes was poor. Conclusion Men in this study had a complex understanding of the interlinked importance of weight and fitness in relation to health. Obesity is understood as a description of people with centrally distributed fat, in association with low fitness levels. There is a need to increase understanding of the causes and consequences of diabetes
Kelley, Elizabeth A; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J
The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased significantly and is a particular concern for minority men. Studies focused at the community and national levels have reported that geography can play a substantial role in contributing to obesity, but little is known about how regional influences contribute to obesity among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and obesity among men in the United States and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in obesity within these geographic regions. Data from men, aged 18 years and older, from the National Health Interview Survey were combined for the years 2000 to 2010. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) Logistic regression models were specified to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between geographic region and obesity and for race and obesity within geographic regions. Compared to men living in the Northeast, men living in the Midwest had significantly greater odds of being obese (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.02, 1.17]), and men living in the West had lower odds of being obese (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.76, 0.89]). Racial/ethnic differences were also observed within geographic region. Black men have greater odds of obesity than White men in the South, West, and Midwest. In the South and West, Hispanic men also have greater odds of obesity than White men. In all regions, Asian men have lower odds of obesity than White men.
Adachi, H; Hirai, Y; Fujiura, Y; Imaizumi, T
The amount of alcohol intake has been increasing in Japan. We investigated whether this might affect dietary habits in middle-aged men. In 1989, we conducted a health examination of 809 Japanese males aged 40-69. Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recall. Mean values of total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate were evaluated according to alcohol intake. Consumption of total calories and proteins, especially animal proteins, increased and carbohydrate intake decreased proportionately with the amount of alcohol intake. Meat, fish, and soybean intake were increased in heavy drinker, along with niacin, sodium, and phosphorus intake. Despite their higher caloric intake, moderate and heavy drinkers were not more obese than non- or light-drinkers. Japanese heavy drinkers took more animal protein and sodium instead of carbohydrate compared to non- and light- drinkers. In our series, heavy drinking was not related to obesity.
Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D
Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination.
Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.
Presents results of a study designed to determine effects of schooling and health knowledge on probability of men and women becoming obese. Findings indicate that schooling, but not health knowledge, reduces the probability of male and female obesity. (Contains 29 references.) (PKP)
Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M
This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes.
Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Auguet, Teresa; Berlanga, Alba; Aragonès, Gemma; Aguilar, Carmen; Sabench, Fàtima; Armengol, Sandra; Porras, José Antonio; Martí, Andreu; Jorba, Rosa; Hernández, Mercè; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in human adipose tissue from moderately obese women. We used qRT-PCR and Western Blot to analyze visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue mRNA expression involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, FAS), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, PPARδ) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα), in normal weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m², n = 35) and moderately obese women (BMI 30-38 kg/m², n = 55). In SAT, ACC1, FAS and PPARα mRNA expression were significantly decreased in moderately obese women compared to controls. The downregulation reported in SAT was more pronounced when BMI increased. In VAT, lipogenic-related genes and PPARα were similar in both groups. Only PPARδ gene expression was significantly increased in moderately obese women. As far as inflammation is concerned, TNFα and IL6 were significantly increased in moderate obesity in both tissues. Our results indicate that there is a progressive downregulation in lipogenesis in SAT as BMI increases, which suggests that SAT decreases the synthesis of fatty acid de novo during the development of obesity, whereas in VAT lipogenesis remains active regardless of the degree of obesity.
Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried
The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk.
Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa
Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219
Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia
Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…
Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK
Background: Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. Objective: We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status–metabolic health phenotypes. Methods: Men (n = 4855) aged ≥45 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. Results: MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P < 0.001), whereas HOMA-IR–defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P < 0.0001) compared with healthy normal weight in multivariable-adjusted analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical confounders. However, results were attenuated and became nonsignificant after further adjustment for BMI. Healthy and unhealthy overweight, defined by both criteria, were associated with lower whole grain bread intake (P < 0.001) in all models. Among black men, weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were not associated with food intake in all models. Conclusion: Healthy obesity in men is not associated with
Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Eunju; Ryu, Seungho; Park, Yong-Woo; Jang, Yu Mi; Park, Minseon
It remains unclear as to whether insulin resistance alone or in the presence of wellknown risk factors, such as diabetes or obesity, is associated with gallstones in men. The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is associated independently with gallstone disease in non-diabetic men, regardless of obesity. Study subjects were 19,503 Korean men, aged 30-69 yr, with fasting blood glucose level <126 mg/dL and without a documented history of diabetes. Gallbladder status was assessed via abdominal ultrasonography after overnight fast. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome in the subjects with gallstones were higher than in those without. The prevalence of elevated HOMA (>75 percentile) in subjects with gallstones was significantly higher than in those without, and this association remained even after the obesity stratification was applied. In multiple logistic regression analyses, only age and HOMA proved to be independent predictors of gallstones. Insulin resistance was positively associated with gallstones in non-diabetic Korean men, and this occurred regardless of obesity. Gallstones appear to be a marker for insulin resistance, even in non-diabetic, nonobese men.
Szymanski, Dawn M.
The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the relationship between heterosexist events and psychological distress and (b) the potential moderating roles of social support, avoidant coping, and self-esteem in the relationship between heterosexist events and psychological distress among 210 gay and bisexual men. Findings from the Web-based…
Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Craven, Meredith; Nava, Magdalena; Alonso, Angelica; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Rademaker, Alfred; Xie, Hui
Overweight and obesity are associated with significant health problems and rates of obesity are high among Latino men. This paper describes the design, rationale and participant characteristics of the key demographic variables assessed in an NIH-funded study (R21-CA143636) addressing culture and several obesity-related variables (diet, physical activity, and body image) among Mexican and Puerto Rican men using a community-based participatory research framework. Participants completed objective measures (height, weight, body fat, hip, waist), a health and culture interview, a diet questionnaire, and used an accelerometer to measure their level of physical activity. A total of 203 participants completed the measures and the health and culture interview and 193 completed all study components. Puerto Ricans were older than Mexicans (p < .0001) and there were significant differences in marital status (p < .05), country of birth (p < .05), smoking (p < .05) and work status (p < .001). There were no significant differences in religion, education, health insurance, Body Mass Index, body fat, hip and waist measurements, and the language preference of the interview. Results have implications for the development of a future intervention that incorporates the role of cultural factors into a community participatory obesity intervention for Latino men.
Bird, Brian M; Carré, Justin M; Knack, Jennifer M; Arnocky, Steven
Correlational research has linked low mate value (MV)--one's worth as a mating partner to members of the opposite sex--with aggression in men. In 2 experiments, we examined the effects of self-perceived MV on men's reported willingness to aggress directly toward a hypothetical mate poacher (Experiment 1, N = 60) and observable aggression toward a same-sex rival in a laboratory paradigm (Experiment 2, N = 54). In both experiments, the roles of narcissism in moderating the effect of MV condition on subsequent aggression were examined. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that men randomly assigned to the low MV condition were significantly more willing to report aggressive intention than men in the high MV condition. This relationship was moderated by narcissism such that men in the low MV condition who were also high in narcissism were the most likely to aggress. Results of Experiment 2 similarly showed that men in the low MV condition relative to the high MV condition aggressed more toward a same-sex rival when they were high in narcissism. These findings support evolutionary hypotheses surrounding the importance of self-perceived MV in directing aggressive mating efforts, as situated in the framework of threatened egotism.
Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie
We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention.
Oda, Eiji; Aizawa, Yoshifusa
Autonomic nervous dysfunction is considered to be one of the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study is to investigate whether resting heart rate, a marker of autonomic nervous dysfunction, is a predictor of MetS in apparently healthy non-obese [body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2)] Japanese men. This is an observational study through 3 years in apparently healthy Japanese 1,265 men and 793 women without MetS and with no history of cardiovascular disease and no use of antihypertensive, antidiabetic, or antihyperlipidemic medication at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident MetS were calculated for each 1 SD increase in heart rate stratified by gender and obesity. Incidence of MetS for each tertile of heart rate and HRs of MetS for the highest tertile (T3) compared with the lowest tertile (T1) were calculated stratified by gender and obesity. The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of MetS for each 1 SD increase in heart rate were 1.319 (1.035-1.681) (p = 0.025) in non-obese men, 1.172 (0.825-1.665) (p = 0.377) in obese men, 1.115 (0.773-1.608) (p = 0.560) in non-obese women, and 1.401 (0.944-2.078) (p = 0.094) in obese women adjusted for BMI, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. The HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for T3 were 2.138 (1.071-4.269) (p = 0.031) in non-obese men and 1.341 (0.565-3.180) (p = 0.506) in obese men adjusted for pre-existing five components of MetS, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. In conclusion, an increase in resting heart rate was a significant predictor of MetS in non-obese Japanese men.
Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Wonjin; Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Yong-ho; Nam, Ji Sun; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Bu Kyung; Lee, Jihyun; Chung, Jin Ook; Kim, Min-Hee; Sohn, Tae-Seo; Choi, Han Seok; Hong, Seong Bin
Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity in Korean men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and the associated risk factors for obesity and hyperglycemia. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from medical records from 11 university hospitals in Korea between 1994 and 2014. Subjects aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed KS were enrolled. The following parameters were recorded at baseline before treatment: chief complaint, height, weight, fasting glucose level, lipid panel, blood pressure, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, karyotyping patterns, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Data were analyzed from 376 of 544 initially enrolled patients. The rate of the 47 XXY chromosomal pattern was 94.1%. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) in Korean men with KS was 42.6%. The testosterone level was an independent risk factor for obesity and hyperglycemia. Conclusion Obesity is common in Korean men with KS. Hypogonadism in patients with KS was associated with obesity and hyperglycemia. PMID:28029029
Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M
Background/Objectives: Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. Subjects/Methods: We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Results: Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Conclusions: Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27553712
Leone, Lucia A.; Campbell, Marci K.; Satia, Jessie A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Pignone, Michael P.
Objective To determine if the relationship between obesity and usage of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in women varies when stratifying by race. Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, we examined the relationship between obesity and CRC screening for white and African-American women aged 50 and older. Screening usage variables indicated if a woman was up-to-date for any CRC screening test, colonoscopy, or FOBT. We used multivariable logistic regression models that included interaction terms to determine if race moderates the obesity-screening relationship. We also calculated adjusted up-to-date colonoscopy rates using direct standardization to model covariates. Results The relationship between obesity and screening differed by race for any CRC screening test (P = 0.04 for interaction) and for colonoscopy (P = 0.01 for interaction), but not for FOBT. Obese white women had a lower adjusted colonoscopy rate (30.2%, 95% CI 25.9–34.8) than non-obese white women (39.1%, 95% CI 36.1–42.2). Obese African-American women, on the other hand, had a higher adjusted colonoscopy rate (41.2%, 95% CI 31.6–51.4) than their non-obese counterparts (35.6%, 95% CI 28.3–43.6). Overall, adjusted colonoscopy rates were lowest among obese white women. Conclusions Obesity is associated with lower CRC screening rates in white, but not African-American women. PMID:19941158
Scott, David; Seibel, Markus; Cumming, Robert; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Handelsman, David J; Waite, Louise M; Hirani, Vasant
Body composition and muscle function have important implications for falls and fractures in older adults. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between sarcopenic obesity and its components with bone mineral density (BMD) and incident falls and fractures in Australian community-dwelling older men. A total of 1486 men aged ≥70 years from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) study were assessed at baseline (2005-2007), 2-year follow-up (2007-2009; n = 1238), and 5-year follow-up (2010-2013; n = 861). At all three time points, measurements included appendicular lean mass (ALM), body fat percentage and total hip BMD, hand-grip strength, and gait speed. Participants were contacted every 4 months for 6.1 ± 2.1 years to ascertain incident falls and fractures, the latter being confirmed by radiographic reports. Sarcopenic obesity was defined using sarcopenia algorithms of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia (EWGSOP) and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and total body fat ≥30% of total mass. Sarcopenic obese men did not have significantly different total hip BMD over 5 years compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese men (p > 0.05). EWGSOP-defined sarcopenic obesity at baseline was associated with significantly higher 2-year fall rates (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.37), as were non-sarcopenic obesity (1.30; 1.04-1.62) and sarcopenic non-obesity (1.58; 1.14-2.17), compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. No association with falls was found for sarcopenic obesity using the FNIH definition (1.01; 0.63-1.60), but after multivariable adjustment, the FNIH-defined non-sarcopenic obese group had a reduced hazard for any 6-year fracture compared with sarcopenic obese men (hazard ratio 0.44; 95% CI 0.23-0.86). In older men, EWGSOP-defined sarcopenic obesity is associated with increased fall rates over 2 years, and FNIH-defined sarcopenic obese men have increased
Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.
Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…
Chen, Andrew C.H.; Davis, Christine M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Covault, Jonathan; Kranzler, Henry R.; Morgenstern, Jon
Background A functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene has been widely studied as a risk factor and moderator of treatment for a variety of psychopathologic conditions. To evaluate whether 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of treatment to reduce heavy drinking, we studied 112 high-functioning European-American men who have sex with men (MSM). Subjects participated in a randomized clinical trial of naltrexone (NTX) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem drinking. Methods Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with 100 mg/day of oral NTX or placebo. All participants received medical management with adjusted Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Treatment (BBCET) alone or in combination with Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT, an amalgam of motivational interviewing and CBT). Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (i.e., low-activity S′ or high-activity L′ alleles). Results During treatment, the number of weekly heavy drinking days (HDD, defined as 5 or more standard drinks per day) was significantly lower in subjects with the L′L′ (N=26, p=0.015) or L′S′ (N=52, p=0.016) genotype than those with the S′S′ (N=34) genotype regardless of treatment type. There was a significant interaction of genotype with treatment: For subjects with the S′S′ genotype, the effects of MBSCT or NTX on HDD were significantly greater than the minimal intervention (i.e., BBCET or placebo, p=0.007 and p=0.049, respectively). In contrast, for subjects with one or two L′ alleles, the effects of the more intensive psychosocial treatment (MBSCT) or NTX did not significantly differ from BBCET or placebo. Conclusions These preliminary findings support the utility of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism for personalizing treatment selection in problem drinkers. PMID:25070809
Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki
Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.
Pezzella, Frank S; Vlahos, Sophia
Formerly incarcerated persons have been found to sustain disproportionate rates of infectious and chronic diseases that place them at elevated levels of morbidity and mortality. However, prior research has found that religiosity moderates risks for poor health outcomes. We assess the moderating influence of religiosity on non-compliance with health maintenance and risk behaviors found to be robust predictors of poor health. Findings indicated that religiosity was not significantly associated with health maintenance behaviors. However, religiosity did demonstrate a significant negative relationship with reductions in health risk behaviors including marginal reductions in prior substance dependency and significant reductions in opinions on extramarital and unprotected sex practices contrary to prior research findings of the prevalence of high sexual risk behaviors. Findings validate prior research that found this population at sustained risk for illness. However, the study demonstrated a clear inverse relationship between religion and health risk behaviors found to be prevalent among formerly incarcerated men. Results from this exploratory investigation suggest that the moderating influence of religion on high risk behaviors of formerly incarcerated men should be examined over a much longer study period with controls to tease out the unfettered influence of religion.
Zhang, Bin; Tian, Xiao; Tian, Derun; Wang, Jinhong; Wang, Qiming; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Chunbo; Wang, Jijun
Obesity is associated with a number of health problems, especial insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Our previous study showed that obese males had decreased neural activity in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and increased activity in the left putamen (Zhang et al., 2015b), which could indicate altered eating behaviors in obesity related to a hyper-functioning striatum and hypo-functioning inhibitory control. Accordingly, our goal of the current study was to determine whether there are alterations in the brain structures within these two neural systems in obese individuals. Twenty obese men (age: 20–28 years) and 20 age-matched lean male subjects were involved in the current study. Plasma glucose and insulin were tested during hunger state, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was based on the blood samples. In the study, we used structural MRI and a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method to investigate regional structures in obese subjects and find out whether there are correlations between the insulin and the brain structures. We found that obese men only showed a significantly increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the left putamen and that the GMV of the left putamen was positively correlated with body mass index, plasma insulin and HOMA-IR. The putamen is a core region participating in insulin signal regulation, and our results showed an abnormal GMV of the putamen is a core alternation in aberrant insulin. Furthermore, the GMV of the OFC was negatively correlated with hunger rating, despite there being no significant difference between the two groups in the OFC. In conclusion, the altered structure and function of the putamen could play important roles in obesity and aberrant insulin. PMID:28197123
Panaghi, Leili; Ahmadabadi, Zohreh; Khosravi, Najmeh; Sadeghi, Mansoureh Sadat; Madanipour, Ali
Background This study aimed to determine the moderating effect of personality traits on the relationship between living with an addicted man and codependency. Methods We selected 140 women (70 wives of addicted men and 70 wives of non-addicted men) through convenience sampling method and asked them to complete Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Findings Codependency score was significantly higher among addicted men’s wives. In addition, for these women, there was a strong positive correlation between codependency and neuroticism as well. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant interaction effects of being an addict’s wife and personality traits of neuroticism, openness and agreeableness on codependency. Conclusion Not all addicts’ wives experienced codependency; women with a high level of neuroticism and low level of openness and agreeableness were more vulnerable to the stress of living with an addict and to codependency. PMID:27882207
Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Misono, Maiko; Saito, Yoko; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Maeng-Kyu; Nakata, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ajisaka, Ryuichi
The effect of habitual exercise on vascular function, including central arterial distensibility and endothelial function, in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-age overweight and obese men. A total of 21 overweight and obese men (age 50 +/- 2 years, body mass index 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) completed a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention. Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their body weight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index. After the weight-reduction exercise program, carotid arterial compliance (determined by simultaneous B-mode ultrasonography and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery) significantly increased; and the beta-stiffness index, an index of arterial compliance adjusted for distending pressure, significantly decreased. The concentrations of plasma endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (measured as the stable end product [nitrite/nitrate]), a potent vasodilator produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly increased after the weight-reduction exercise program. In conclusion, weight reduction by aerobic exercise training in overweight and obese men increased the central arterial distensibility. This increase might contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as assessed by a decrease in endothelin-1 and an increase in nitric oxide, after exercise training-induced weight loss.
Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.
Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05). Conclusion Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in
Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.
OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications), aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old). Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345
Kocełak, Piotr; Chudek, Jerzy; Naworska, Beata; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Kotlarz, Barbara; Mazurek, Monika; Madej, Paweł; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Skałba, Piotr; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena
Anovulatory cycles and endometriosis are the main causes of female infertility. The most frequently anovulatory cycles are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly associated with obesity and hormonal disturbances in the course of obesity. Recently published studies revealed that infertility affects about one in six couples during their lifetime and is more frequent in obese. Obesity is also associated with male infertility related to erectile dysfunction, hormonal disturbances and lower semen quality. Any of these above mentioned disorder is the important risk factor of psychological disturbances and poor quality of life among women and men in the reproductive age. On the other hand the mood disorders may exacerbate the hormonal disturbances and worsen the effectiveness of infertility management. Infertility, its therapy with accompanying psychological disturbances may also significantly affect the partners relationships. The review summarize the results described in the current literature on the association between obesity and infertility and psychological disturbances as well as their impact on quality of life and sexual functioning in women and men. Moreover, the impact of infertility and psychological disturbances on partners relationships is discussed. PMID:22844280
Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p < 0.05). Fish oil by itself reduced the postprandial TAG response (p < 0.05) but not postprandial apo B48 kinetics. Individual treatments of fish oil and exercise did not correspond with improvements in fasting plasma TAG and apo B48. Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects. PMID:22314022
Chang, Jung-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Lee, Ching-Chang
Obesity, a risk factor for developing metabolic complications, is a major public health problem. Abdominal obesity is strongly accompanied by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by insulin resistance. The link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and insulin resistance has been investigated in animal and epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine whether insulin resistance is greater in people with abdominal obesity (AO) and concomitant exposure to serum dioxins (PCDD/Fs). We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of 2876 participants living near a PCDD/Fs contaminated area. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners were measured, and then the associations between the main predictor variable, serum TEQDF-1998, abdominal obesity (AO), dependent variables, and insulin resistance were examined. Twelve of the 17 congeners, widely distributed among PCDDs, and PCDFs, had trends for associations with abdominal adiposity. In men, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDF; and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the top five adjusted odds ratios (AORs) + 95% confidence intervals (CIs):[4.2; 2.7-6.4], [3.6; 2.3-5.7], [3.2; 2.1-5.0], [3.0; 2.0-4.5], and [2.9; 1.9-4.7], respectively. In women, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF; and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF had the top three AORs + 95% CIs:[3.0; 1.9-4.7], [2.0; 1.3-3.1], and [1.9; 1.3-2.9], respectively. After confounding factors had been adjusted for, men, but not women, with higher serum TEQDF-1998 levels or abdominal obesity had a significantly (Ptrend < 0.001) greater risk for abnormal insulin resistance. The groups with the highest joint serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity levels were associated with elevated insulin resistance at 5.0 times the odds of the groups with the lowest joint levels (AOR 5.23; 95% CI: 3.53-7.77). We hypothesize that serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity affect the association with insulin resistance in
Chang, Jung-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Lee, Ching-Chang
Obesity, a risk factor for developing metabolic complications, is a major public health problem. Abdominal obesity is strongly accompanied by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by insulin resistance. The link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and insulin resistance has been investigated in animal and epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine whether insulin resistance is greater in people with abdominal obesity (AO) and concomitant exposure to serum dioxins (PCDD/Fs). We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of 2876 participants living near a PCDD/Fs contaminated area. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners were measured, and then the associations between the main predictor variable, serum TEQDF-1998, abdominal obesity (AO), dependent variables, and insulin resistance were examined. Twelve of the 17 congeners, widely distributed among PCDDs, and PCDFs, had trends for associations with abdominal adiposity. In men, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDF; and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the top five adjusted odds ratios (AORs) + 95% confidence intervals (CIs):[4.2; 2.7–6.4], [3.6; 2.3–5.7], [3.2; 2.1–5.0], [3.0; 2.0–4.5], and [2.9; 1.9–4.7], respectively. In women, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF; and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF had the top three AORs + 95% CIs:[3.0; 1.9–4.7], [2.0; 1.3–3.1], and [1.9; 1.3–2.9], respectively. After confounding factors had been adjusted for, men, but not women, with higher serum TEQDF-1998 levels or abdominal obesity had a significantly (Ptrend < 0.001) greater risk for abnormal insulin resistance. The groups with the highest joint serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity levels were associated with elevated insulin resistance at 5.0 times the odds of the groups with the lowest joint levels (AOR 5.23; 95% CI: 3.53–7.77). We hypothesize that serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity affect the association with
Gelber, Rebecca P.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Orav, E. John; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias
Objectives We examined associations between anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) and risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death). Background Controversy exists regarding the optimal approach to measure adiposity, and the utility of BMI has been questioned. Methods Participants included 16,332 men in the Physicians’ Health Study (mean age 61, 1991) and 32,700 women in the Women’s Health Study (mean age 61, 1999). We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for developing CVD according to self-reported anthropometric indices. Results A total of 1505 CVD cases occurred in men, and 414 occurred in women (median follow-up, 14.2 and 5.5 years, respectively). While WHtR demonstrated statistically the strongest associations with CVD and best model fit, CVD risk increased linearly and significantly with higher levels of all indices. Adjusting for confounders, the RR (CI) for CVD was 0.58 (0.32–1.05) for men with the lowest WHtR (<0.45) and 2.36 (1.61–3.47) for the highest WHtR (≥0.69; versus WHtR 0.49-<0.53). Among women, the RR (95% CI) was 0.65 (0.33– 1.31) for those with the lowest WHtR (<0.42) and 2.33 (1.66–3.28) for the highest WHtR (≥0.68; versus WHtR 0.47- <0.52). Conclusions WHtR demonstrated statistically the best model fit and strongest associations with CVD. However, as compared to BMI, differences in cardiovascular risk assessment using other indices were small and likely not clinically consequential. Our findings emphasize that higher levels of adiposity, however measured, confer increased risk of CVD. PMID:18702962
Hupbach, Almut; Fieman, Rachel
Retrieval practice is a powerful memory enhancer. However, in educational settings, test taking is often experienced as a stressful event. While it is known that stress can impair retrieval processes, little is known about the delayed consequences of testing memory for educationally relevant material under stressful conditions, which is the focus of the present study. Participants (38 women, 37 men) memorized a scientific text passage on Day 1. On Day 2, they were either exposed to a stressor (cold pressor test; CPS) or a warm water control, and immediately afterward, they were asked to recall the text passage (i.e., retrieval under stress vs. control). Salivary cortisol was measured as an index of the stress response before, and 20 min after the CPS versus control treatment. The delayed effects of testing under stress were assessed with a final recall test on Day 3. In comparison to the control condition, CPS caused significant increases in salivary cortisol, and, surprisingly resulted in enhanced memory in men. Importantly, this enhancement was not only observed in the test that immediately followed the stressor, but also in the delayed test. In women, CPS caused only marginal increases in cortisol concentrations, and retrieval remained unaffected. Our study suggests that moderate stress can improve memory performance for educationally relevant material in a long-lasting manner in healthy young men.
de Araújo, Adriana Ladeira; Silva, Léia Cristina Rodrigues; Fernandes, Juliana Ruiz; Matias, Manuella de Sousa Toledo; Boas, Lucy Santos; Machado, Clarisse Martins; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio; Benard, Gil
We aimed to verify whether different levels of training performed regularly and voluntarily for many years could have an impact on one of the main issues of immunosenescence: the poor response to vaccines. We recruited 61 healthy elderly men (65-85 years old), 23 with a moderate training (MT) lifestyle (for 17.0 ± 3.2 years), 22 with an intense training (IT) lifestyle (for 25.9 ± 3.4 years), and 16 without a training lifestyle (NT). Fitness was evaluated through the IPAQ and VO2max consumption. The participants were evaluated regarding cognitive aspects, nutritional status, depression, and quality of life. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay prior to influenza vaccination and at 6 weeks and 6 months post-vaccination. Strains used were B, H3N2, and H1N1. Our groups were matched for most characteristics, except for those directly influenced by their lifestyles, such as BMI, VO2max, and MET. In general, MT and IT elderly men showed significantly higher antibody titers to the three vaccine strains post-vaccination than NT elderly men. There were also higher titers against B and H1N1 strains in the trained groups before vaccination. Additionally, there were higher proportions of seroprotected (titers ≥1:40) individuals in the pooled trained groups both at 6 weeks (B and H3N2, p < 0.05) and 6 months (H1N1, p < 0.05; B, p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between the MT and IT groups. Either a moderate or an intense training is associated with stronger and longstanding antibody responses to the influenza vaccine, resulting in higher percentages of seroprotected individuals.
Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Kennett, Mary J; Comstock, Brett A; Maresh, Carl M; Denegar, Craig R; Volek, Jeff S; Hymer, Wesley C
It has been suggested that obese individuals have a blunted growth hormone (GH) response to spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion. The present study was designed to examine the effects of a high-volume, whole body acute resistance exercise (RE) protocol on immunoreactive GH (iGH), bioactive GH (bGH), and GH-binding protein (GHBP) in sedentary lean and obese men. Nine obese (mean ± SD: 20.8 ± 2.1 yr old, 177.0 ± 4.1 cm height, 108.7 ± 15.9 kg body mass, 37.6 ± 5.29% body fat) and nine lean (20.1 ± 2.1 yr old, 177.8 ± 8.7 cm height, 71.7 ± 5.8 kg body mass, 14.7 ± 3.54% body fat) men completed an acute RE protocol (6 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 85-95% of 10 repetitions maximum with 120- and 90-s rest periods), and blood samples were collected before, at the midpoint, and immediately after exercise and during recovery (+50, +70, and +110). In contrast to prior studies, which examined acute responses to cardiovascular exercise protocols, groups did not differ in iGH response to the exercise stimulus. However, bGH concentrations overall were significantly lower in the obese than the lean participants (P < 0.001). Additionally, obese individuals had significantly higher GHBP concentrations (P < 0.001). Results suggest that obese and lean sedentary men performing a high-volume, whole body acute RE protocol demonstrate similar increases in iGH. Blunted bGH and elevated GHBP concentrations are indicative of altered GH activity associated with obesity. Prior research findings of blunted iGH response may be attributable to RE protocols not equated on relative intensity or volume. These results underscore the complexity of pituitary biology and its related mechanisms and may have implications for exercise prescription in the treatment of obesity.
Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J
Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.
Guénard, Frédéric; Tchernof, André; Deshaies, Yves; Pérusse, Louis; Biron, Simon; Lescelleur, Odette; Biertho, Laurent; Marceau, Simon; Vohl, Marie-Claude
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The severely obese population is heterogeneous regarding CVD risk profile. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways potentially associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) through an analysis of overrepresented pathways from differentially methylated genes between severely obese men with (MetS+) and without (MetS-) the MetS. Genome-wide quantitative DNA methylation analysis in VAT of severely obese men was carried out using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Differences in methylation levels between MetS+ (n = 7) and MetS- (n = 7) groups were tested. Overrepresented pathways from the list of differentially methylated genes were identified and visualized with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis system. Differential methylation analysis between MetS+ and MetS- groups identified 8,578 methylation probes (3,258 annotated genes) with significant differences in methylation levels (false discovery rate-corrected DiffScore ≥ |13| ∼ P ≤ 0.05). Pathway analysis from differentially methylated genes identified 41 overrepresented (P ≤ 0.05) pathways. The most overrepresented pathways were related to structural components of the cell membrane, inflammation and immunity and cell cycle regulation. This study provides potential targets associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and development of the MetS.
Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Smith, Laramie R.; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.
Background Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. Purpose We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or “outness” as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. Method We recruited a sample of MSM (n=191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past two months), and the degree to which they are “out” about sex with men. Results Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. Conclusions This study is the first to provide evidence of “outness” as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that “outness” may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed. PMID:26324079
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Smith, Laramie R; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L
Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or "outness" as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. We recruited a sample of MSM (n = 191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past 2 months), and the degree to which they are "out" about sex with men. Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. This study is the first to provide evidence of "outness" as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that "outness" may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed.
Abduljabbar, Tariq; Al-Sahaly, Faisal; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Al-Anazi, Mohammed; Al-Khathami, Mohammed; Javed, Fawad; Vohra, Fahim
The aim of the present cross-sectional retrospective study was to compare the peri-implant clinical and radiographic inflammatory parameters and whole salivary destructive inflammatory cytokine profile among obese and non-obese men. Thirty-five obese and 37 non-obese men were included. Information regarding age, obesity, systemic health status, and habits was collected using a questionnaire. Clinical examination to evaluate peri-implant parameters and radiographic examination to assess marginal bone loss were conducted. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in collected un-stimulated whole saliva were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test. The mean scores of peri-implant bleeding on probing (P<0.05) and peri-implant probing depth (P<0.05) were significantly higher among obese compared with non-obese individuals. The mean marginal bone loss was also statistically significantly higher among individuals in the test-group compared with the control-group (P<0.05). Whole salivary IL-1β (P<0.001) and IL-6 (P<0.001) levels were significantly higher among individuals in the test-group compared with the control-group. Clinical and radiographic peri-implant inflammatory parameters were worse, and whole salivary IL-6 and IL-1β were higher in obese than non-obese subjects. Obese patients are at greater risk of peri-implant inflammation than non-obese healthy subjects. It is highly recommended that clinicians should educate obese patients seeking implant treatment regarding the association between obesity and peri-implant inflammation. In addition, obese patients with osseointegrated implants must follow strict oral hygiene regimen to prevent inflammation and maintain optimum peri-implant tissue health.
Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hii, Michael W; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann; Hennessy, Julie; Thompson, Lisa
Bariatric surgery is now a common weight loss solution for morbidly obese men where meaningful weight reduction and improvements in quality of life have been identified postsurgery. As the majority of surgical candidates are female, there exists a paucity of literature relating to the experience of males undergoing bariatric surgery. In this study, a qualitative descriptive-exploratory design was used to explore body image descriptions, adaptation of a new lifestyle, new boundaries postsurgery, and any barriers seeking consultation for surgery. Six males who had undergone bariatric surgery were recruited in Australia. Data were collected and analyzed using NVivo between May and October 2014. The themes emerging from the data included living in an obese body, life before surgery, decision making for surgery, and life after surgery. The participants collectively reported that life before surgery was challenging. They described the changes the surgery had made in their lives including positive changes to their health, body image, social lives, and self-esteem. Some participants preferred not to tell others their intentions for surgery due to perceived stigma. The men in this study also described a lack of information available to them depicting male perspectives, a possible barrier for men seeking weight loss surgery options. Implications for practice highlighted in these results relate to a greater need for accessible information specific to men based on real-life experiences.
Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.
Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P<0.05), but not NoEx (P>0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (P<0.05), respectively, with no differences between exercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733
Al Masri, Manal; Romain, Ahmed Jerome; Boegner, Catherine; Maimoun, Laurent; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Attalin, Vincent; Leprieur, Elodie; Picandet, Marion; Avignon, Antoine; Sultan, Ariane
Low plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) and high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with obesity and could play a role in the occurrence of complications such as insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the relationship between 25OHD status and phosphocalcic parameters differs between metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and insulin-resistant obese (IRO). This cross-sectional study included 158 consecutive adults (121 females) with obesity (body mass index (BMI) 35.15 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)), aged 43.21 ± 13.6 years. Serum 25OHD, calcemia, phosphatemia, PTH, plasma lipids, fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, and body composition were measured. Participants were classified as MHO (n = 65) or IRO (n = 93) based on homeostatic model assessment insulin-resistance value. IRO patients had a higher BMI (p = 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.03), and trunk fat mass (p = 0.007) than MHO patients. Mean HbA1c (p = 0.03), triglycerides (p = 0.02), and hsCRP (p = 0.04) plasmatic levels were increased in the IRO group. No between-group difference was found on 25OHD, PTH, calcium, or phosphorus plasmatic levels. Only age-predicted 25OHD levels were identified among IRO participants, whereas no factors were identified in MHO. No predictive factors of PTH plasmatic level were identified in the IRO and MHO groups. Although MHO and IRO patients have different metabolic profiles, we did not detect any difference regarding either 25OHD or PTH. Insulin resistance was not a predictive factor of vitamin D status. Our results confirm the absence of link between vitamin D status and insulin resistance in moderate obesity.
Rosa-Caldwell, Megan E; Lee, David E; Brown, Jacob L; Brown, Lemuel A; Perry, Richard A; Greene, Elizabeth S; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R; Washington, Tyrone A; Greene, Nicholas P
Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of hepatic disease; obesity-induced fatty liver can lead to inflammation, steatosis, and cirrhosis and is associated with degeneration of the mitochondria. Lifestyle interventions such as physical activity may ameliorate this condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate regulation of mitochondrial and autophagy quality control in liver following Western diet-induced obesity and voluntary physical activity. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed a Western diet (WD) or normal chow (NC, control) for 4 weeks; afterwards, groups were divided into voluntary wheel running (VWR) or sedentary (SED) conditions for an additional 4 weeks. WD-SED animals had a median histology score of 2, whereas WD-VWR was not different from NC groups (median score 1). There was no difference in mRNA of inflammatory markers Il6 and Tnfa in WD animals. WD animals had 50% lower mitochondrial content (COX IV and Cytochrome C proteins), 50% lower Pgc1a mRNA content, and reduced content of mitochondrial fusion and fission markers. Markers of autophagy were increased in VWR animals, regardless of obesity, as measured by 50% greater LC3-II/I ratio and 40% lower p62 protein content. BNIP3 protein content was 30% less in WD animals compared with NC animals, regardless of physical activity. Diet-induced obesity results in derangements in mitochondrial quality control that appear to occur prior to the onset of hepatic inflammation. Moderate physical activity appears to enhance basal autophagy in the liver; increased autophagy may provide protection from hepatic fat accumulation.
Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan
Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.
Chen, Daniel L T; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G; Greenfield, Jerry R
Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m(2)/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = -0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = -0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men.
Kinsey, Amber W.; Cappadona, Stacy R.; Panton, Lynn B.; Allman, Brittany R.; Contreras, Robert J.; Hickner, Robert C.; Ormsbee, Michael J.
We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep) casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal) or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA) before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone), insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin) were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L), substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03), but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm). CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men. PMID:27472361
Chen, Daniel L. T.; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Greenfield, Jerry R.
Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m2/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = −0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = −0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men. PMID:28293196
Grey, A; Braatvedt, G; Holdaway, I
Dietary salt restriction lowers blood pressure and has been advocated as a population-based strategy to reduce the cardiovascular morbidity associated with hypertension. However, the effect of lowering salt intake on metabolic vascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and levels of atherogenic lipids and fasting insulin is uncertain. We have studied the short-term effect of moderate dietary salt restriction on insulin resistance and serum lipids in 34 nonobese (body mass index [mean +/- SD] 23.4 +/- 1.8 kg/m2), normotensive young white men. Subjects were maintained on a low salt diet ( < 80 mmol/day) for the 2-week study period. In a randomized, cross-over, double-blind fashion, each subject also received 120 mmol of sodium chloride per day during one of the study weeks, and a matching placebo during the other. Insulin resistance, serum insulin, lipids, and blood pressure were measured in the fasting state at the end of each study week. Urinary sodium excretion (185 +/- 46 v 52 +/- 25 mmol/day, P < .001), serum sodium (141.2 +/- 1.2 v 140.1 +/- 1.3 mmol/L, P < .001) and body weight (75.4 +/- 9.1 v 75.0 +/- 9.3 kg, P < .05) were higher during the high salt than the low salt period. Serum creatinine was higher during the low salt period (100 +/- 8 v 90 +/- 9 mumols/L, P < .01). There was no difference in blood pressure, insulin resistance, serum insulin, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol or its subfractions, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, or apolipoprotein B between the high salt and low salt periods. We conclude that short-term, moderate dietary salt restriction does not adversely affect insulin sensitivity or levels of atherogenic lipids in normotensive nonobese men.
Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsitsinakis, George; Siassos, Gerassimos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Galiatsatos, Nikos; Metaxa, Vasiliki; Lazaros, George; Miliou, Antigoni; Giakoumi, Evaggelia; Mylonakis, Charalambos; Zaromytidou, Marina; Economou, Evaggelos; Triantafyllou, Georgia; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos
Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15), while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8 ± 3.5 versus 3.3 ± 3.1, P = .001). Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all P < .05). Regarding fish consumption, 50% of the individuals reported consuming 1-2 times weekly, 32% 3 to 5 times weekly, 11% 2-3 times monthly, while the rest reported rare (4.5%) and everyday (1.2%) consumption. Logistic regression showed that increased fish consumption (>3 times/week versus never/rare) was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4) (odds ratio = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61), after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood. PMID:21197433
Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E
Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.
Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Hetherington, Marion; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo
Our objective was to investigate the psychobiological impact associated with resistance to further weight loss in obese men. Anthropometric and body composition measurements, resting metabolic rate (RMR) measurement, appetite sensation markers, and three questionnaires [Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] were assessed at baseline and after 1 month of body weight loss plateau induced by a supervised diet and exercise clinical intervention in 11 obese men. The weight loss plateau corresponded to 11.2% of initial body weight (93.9% from fat stores). However, this amount of weight loss induced a significant decrease in RMR (P <.05) and a significant increase in hunger (P <.05) and desire to eat (P <.05). Using the SF-36 Health Survey, physical and mental health were shown to be unchanged at plateau as compared to baseline. The TFEQ showed that cognitive dietary restraint increased (P <.001) compared to baseline. Finally, depression risk as measured by the BDI significantly increased at plateau (P <.01) compared to baseline. Weight loss until resistance to further weight loss may be detrimental for some psychobiological variables including depression, which emphasizes the relevance of caution and reasonable objectives when prescribing a weight reduction program for obese individuals.
Thomas, D P; Belko, A Z; Mulroy, G L; Haas, J D; Roe, D A
The current study was designed to assess the contribution of dietary-induced weight reduction on improvements in functional capacity in moderate obesity. Twelve females (means age = 29 yr, means fat percentage = 37%) served as subjects for the study. Subjects trained on a cycle ergometer 30 min.day-1, six day.wk-1 for three or six weeks at 75 to 85 per cent of maximum heart rate (HR max). Improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (delta VO2 max I.min-1) and functional capacity (delta VO2 max ml.kg-1 min-1) were compared in an attempt to separate out training and dietary effects respectively. Measurements were also taken on both the cycle ergometer and treadmill to test for any specificity of training effects. Changes in body composition were assessed by densitometry. Following three weeks of training, there was an average increase in VO2 max ml.kg-1 min-1 on the cycle ergometer and the treadmill of 14 and 19 per cent respectively. By six weeks, this had increased to 18 and 26 per cent respectively. The contribution of weight reduction to the improvements in functional capacity was calculated to range from 20 to 33 per cent. Thus, both energy restriction and exercise training appear to be effective means of improving functional capacity in moderately obese women. PMID:3730763
Cazzola, Roberta; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Trotti, Rosita; Cestaro, Benvenuto
A previous study showed chemical and physical impairment of the erythrocyte membrane of overweight and moderately obese women. The present study investigated the effects of a low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day deficit for 8 weeks) on erythrocyte membrane properties in 70 overweight and moderately obese (body mass index, 25-33 kg/m(2)) normotensive, nondiabetic women. At the end of dietary intervention, 24.3% of women dropped out, 45.7% lost less than 5% of their initial weight (Group I) and only 30% of patients lost at least 5% of their initial body weight (Group II). Group I showed no significant changes in erythrocyte membrane composition and function. The erythrocyte membranes of Group II showed significant reductions in malondialdehyde, lipofuscin, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, palmitic acid and nervonic acid and an increase in di-homo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and membrane fluidity. Moreover, Group II showed an improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia and insulin resistance. These changes in erythrocyte membrane composition could reflect a virtuous cycle resulting from the reduction in insulin resistance associated with increased membrane fluidity that, in turn, results in a sequence of metabolic events that concur to further improve membrane fluidity.
Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular autonomic control. Cardiovascular autonomic control, systolic and diastolic mean BP, and body mass index were obtained from one hundred thirty-two American Indian and Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Men had a significant greater systolic and diastolic BP and were more likely to develop systolic prehypertension and hypertension than women. Obese participants showed greater mean heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic BP than nonobese participants. Obese men also exhibited greater cardiac sympathetic activity and lower cardiovagal control than obese women. These results suggest that obesity and gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic control may contribute to risk for cardiovascular disorders in this sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans. PMID:24024026
Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K
Men who spend a greater proportion of time apart from their female partner since the couple's last copulation are at greater "objective" sperm competition risk. We propose a novel cue to sperm competition risk: the time she spends with her male friends. Four hundred and twenty men in a committed, heterosexual, sexual relationship completed a questionnaire. The results indicate that men at greater objective sperm competition risk report less time desired until the couple's next copulation, greater interest in copulating with their partner, and greater anger, frustration, and upset in response to their partner's sexual rejection, but only among men whose partner spends more time with her male friends. These results remain after controlling statistically for the participant's age and their partner's age. We discuss limitations of the current research, and discuss how research in human sperm competition can inform social issues, including men's partner-directed sexual coercion.
Tagler, Michael J
Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.
Segal, K R; Edaño, A; Blando, L; Pi-Sunyer, F X
Controversy regarding defective thermic effect of food (TEF) in obesity might be related to differences among studies in the caloric loads. To clarify further the role of blunted thermogenesis in obesity, responses to the same absolute caloric load (720 kcal) and a relative load, which was 35% of each subject's resting metabolic rate (RMR), were compared in 11 lean (L) and 11 obese (O) men. The relative load was slightly larger for O than L (752 +/- 27 vs 683 +/- 21 kcal; means +/- SEM, NS). TEF, calculated as 3-h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was greater for L than O for both the 720-kcal (69 +/- 4 vs 31 +/- 3 kcal/3 h, p less than 0.01) and relative loads (64 +/- 4 vs 37 +/- 3 kcal/3 h, p less than 0.01). For L, TEF was greater for the 720-kcal load than for the relative load whereas for O, TEF was greater for the relative than for the 720-kcal meal. However, expressed as a percent of the calories ingested, TEF for the absolute and relative meals was identical for each group, in both cases lower for O (4.2 +/- 0.4% vs. 4.7 +/- 0.3%) than for L (9.7 +/- 0.4% vs 9.3 +/- 0.8%); p less than 0.01. These results demonstrate the impact on thermogenesis of the basis on which the meal is dosed and provide further evidence for defective thermogenesis in obesity.
Levinger, Itamar; Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Jerums, George; Stepto, Nigel K; Serpiello, Fabio R; McConell, Glenn K; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L; Byrnes, Elizabeth; Ebeling, Peter R; Seeman, Ego
Bone remodelling markers (BRMs) are suppressed following a glucose load and during glucose infusion. As exercise increases indices of bone health and improves glucose handling, we hypothesised that, at rest, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp will suppress BRMs in obese men and that exercise prior to the clamp will prevent this suppression. Eleven obese nondiabetic men (age 58.1±2.2 years, body mass index=33.1±1.4 kg m−2 mean±s.e.m.) had a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (HEC) at rest (Control) and 60 min post exercise (four bouts × 4 min cycling at 95% of hazard ratiopeak). Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin, glucose, bone formation markers, total osteocalcin (tOC) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and the bone resorption marker, β-isomerised C-terminal telopeptides (β-CTx). In the control trial (no exercise), tOC, P1NP and β-CTx decreased with HEC by >10% compared with baseline (P<0.05). Fasting serum glucose, but not insulin, tended to correlate negatively with the BRMs (β range −0.57 to −0.66, p range 0.051–0.087). β-CTx, but not OC or P1NP, increased within 60 min post exercise (∼16%, P<0.01). During the post-exercise HEC, the glucose infusion rate was ∼30% higher compared with the no exercise trial. Despite this, BRMs were only suppressed to a similar extent as in the control session (10%). HEC suppressed BRMs in obese men. Exercise did not prevent this suppression of BRMs by HEC but improved glucose handling during the trial. It remains to be tested whether an exercise intervention of longer duration may be able to prevent the effect of HEC on bone remodelling. PMID:26331010
Fernandez-Raudales, Dina; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L.; Bringe, Neal A.; Cox, Stephen B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Miller, Michael J.; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira
The effects of consuming foods on the intestinal microbiome of obese individuals remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming low glycinin soymilk (LGS, 49.5% β-conglycinin/6% glycinin), conventional soymilk (S, 26.5% β-conglycinin/38.7% glycinin) or bovine milk (M, 0% β-conglycinin/0% glycinin) on the intestinal microbiome in overweight and obese men. In a randomized double-blind study, participants (64 men, BMI > 25, 20–45 y old), organized in three groups, consumed 500 mL of LGS, S or M daily for 3 mo. Three fecal samples were collected before (baseline) and after 3 mo of consumption. Dietary energy and macronutrient intake were monitored monthly and remained constant throughout the study (p > 0.05). Microbial composition was analyzed with qPCR and bTEFAP. Within groups, qPCR analysis showed that the total bacteria increased in all treatments over time (p < 0.001). Bacteroides-Prevotella (p = 0.001) and Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) increased in LGS and M, respectively. Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in LGS (p = 0.003) and S (p < 0.001). Bacterial diversity decreased for LGS, S and M (p = 0.004, 0.005, 0.001; respectively). Unweighted UniFrac analysis revealed that the microbial communities were more similar within than between individuals. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased in both LGS and S groups and remained relatively unchanged in the M group (Time p = 0.012; Interaction p = 0.059). Indicator analysis revealed several genera that were indicative of each treatment including Lactobacillus and Prevotella. Consumption of the three beverages differentially altered the microbiota in overweight and obese men including a potentially beneficial alteration of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in both soymilk groups. PMID:22895080
Monteagudo, Patrícia T; Falcão, Adriana A; Verreschi, Ieda T N; Zanella, Maria-Teresa
Obese men may present hypogonadothrofic hypogonadism, mainly related to higher insulinemia and aromatase activity. Our objectives were to evaluate the relationship of sex-hormones profiles and frequency of depressive symptoms in 43 obese men, in a cross-sectional study. They had 19-60 years, and body mass index 30-50 kg/m(2). LH, total and free testosterone (TT and FT), estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol/total testosterone ratio (E2/T) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by "beck depression inventory" (BDI), and significant depression was considered if BDI ≥ 16.Thirty-four (80%) presented low TT levels, but only 4 (14%) had low free testosterone and hypogonadism symptoms; 12 of 43 (28%) presented increased E2. Forty five (56%) presented depressive symptoms, but 16 (28% of the 45) had significant depression. BDI correlated positively with E2 (r = 0.407; p = 0.001) and E2/T (r = 0.473; p = 0.001), but not TT or FT. Patients with significant depressive showed higher levels of estradiol (136 ± 48 versus 103 ± 48 pg/ml, p = 0.02) and E2/T (16.0 ± 9.9 versus 9.8 ± 4.6; p = 0.002) (mean ± SD).In conclusion, obese men may present relatively excess of estradiol and deficiency in testosterone, leading to an imbalance between these two hormones. The greater this imbalance, the more depressive symptoms had our patients.
Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide
This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.
Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474
Khoo, Joan; Dhamodaran, Subbiah; Chen, Dan-Dan; Yap, Siew-Yoon; Chen, Richard Yuan-Tud; Tian, Roger Ho-Heng
The adipokines chemerin and adiponectin are reciprocally related in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Weight loss increases adiponectin and reduces chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammation, but the effects of caloric restriction and physical activity are difficult to separate in combined lifestyle modification. We compared effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on chemerin, adiponectin, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. Eighty abdominally obese Asian men (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2), waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm, mean age 42.6 years) were randomized to reduce daily intake by ~500 kilocalories (n = 40) or perform moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise (200-300 min/week) (n = 40) to increase energy expenditure by a similar amount for 24 weeks. The diet and exercise groups had similar decreases in energy deficit (-456 ± 338 vs. -455 ± 315 kcal/day), weight (-3.6 ± 3.4 vs. -3.3 ± 4.6 kg), and WC (-3.4 ± 4.4 vs. -3.6 ± 3.2 cm). The exercise group demonstrated greater reductions in fat mass (-3.9 ± 3.5 vs. -2.7 ± 5.3 kg), serum chemerin (-9.7 ± 11.1 vs. -4.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml), the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-2.11 ± 3.13 vs. -1.49 ± 3.08 mg/L), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (-2.45 ± 1.88 vs. -1.38 ± 3.77). Serum adiponectin increased only in the exercise group. Exercise-induced fat mass loss was more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation in obese men, underscoring metabolic benefits of increased physical activity.
Ormsbee, Michael J; Choi, Myung Dong; Medlin, Justin K; Geyer, Gabriel H; Trantham, Lauren H; Dubis, Gabriel S; Hickner, Robert C
The effect of acute resistance exercise (RE) on whole body energy expenditure (EE) and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2)-AR) regulation of lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was determined in sedentary lean (LN) and obese (OB) men. Lipolysis was monitored using microdialysis in 10 LN [body mass index (BMI) 20.9 +/- 0.6] and 10 OB (BMI 36.2 +/- 2.7) men before, during, and for 24 h after RE. EE was measured before and immediately after RE for 40 min. Changes in interstitial glycerol were measured in SCAAT with three microdialysis probes perfused with a control solution, phentolamine (alpha(2)-AR antagonist), or propranolol (beta-AR antagonist). EE and fat oxidation (FOX) were significantly (P < 0.001) elevated immediately post-RE compared with pre-RE in LN and OB subjects, with no differences between groups. RE-induced increases in SCAAT glycerol concentrations from rest to peak exercise were greater in LN than in OB men in the control (LN 142.1 +/- 30.8 vs. OB 65.4 +/- 14.2%, P = 0.03) and phentolamine probes (LN 187.2 +/- 29.6 vs. OB 66.7 +/- 11.0%, P = 0.002). Perfusion of propranolol had no effect on interstitial glycerol concentrations over the time course of the experiment in either group. Plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower (P = 0.002) and plasma growth hormone (GH) was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in LN compared with OB men. The mechanism behind RE contributing to improved body composition may in part be due to enhanced SCAAT lipolysis and improved EE and FOX in response to RE in LN and OB men. The blunted SCAAT lipolytic response to RE in OB compared with LN men is unrelated to RE-induced catecholamine activation of the antilipolytic alpha(2)-ARs and may be due to depressed GH in OB subjects.
Padma-Nathan, H; Goldstein, I; Klimberg, I; Coogan, C; Auerbach, S; Lammers, P
The objectives of this study were to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of phentolamine mesylate, an orally active, rapid-acting alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED). It was an open-label study involving more than 2000 patients. Men received phentolamine mesylate 40 mg or 80 mg (10 tablets/month) as needed for up to 13 months and self-assessed erectile performance using two validated questionnaires. Treatment with phentolamine mesylate was associated with increases in Erectile Function Domain score of the IIEF, successful vaginal penetrations, and in overall satisfaction. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and consistent with the known pharmacodynamic properties of phentolamine. In conclusion, phentolamine mesylate is safe and effective in the long-term treatment of men with mild to moderate ED.
Rivas, Miguel; Garay, Ricardo P; Escanero, Jesús F; Cia, Pedro; Cia, Pedro; Alda, José O
Soy-based diets reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but apparently not in hypertensive humans. In the present study, the antihypertensive potential of soy milk (500 mL twice daily) compared with cow's milk was investigated in a 3-mo double-blind randomized study of 40 men and women with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Before initiation of the study, urinary isoflavonoids (measured by HPLC) were undetectable in most cases (for genistein, they were always <100 micromol/L). After 3 mo of soy milk consumption, systolic blood pressure decreased by 18.4 +/- 10.7 mmHg compared with 1.4 +/- 7.2 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure decreased by 15.9 +/- 9.8 mmHg vs. 3.7 +/- 5.0 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure decreased by 16.7 +/- 9.0 mmHg compared with 3.0 +/- 4.6 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001). Urinary genistein was strongly (r = -0.588) and significantly (P = 0.002) correlated with the decrease in blood pressure, particularly for diastolic values. In conclusion, chronic soy milk consumption had modest, but significant hypotensive action in essential hypertensive subjects. This hypotensive action was correlated with the urinary excretion of the isoflavonoid genistein.
Johansson, A; Bergman, H; Corander, J; Waldman, I D; Karrani, N; Salo, B; Jern, P; Algars, M; Sandnabba, K; Santtila, P; Westberg, L
We explored if the disposition to react with aggression while alcohol intoxicated was moderated by polymorphic variants of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Twelve OXTR polymorphisms were genotyped in 116 Finnish men [aged 18-30, M = 22.7, standard deviation (SD) = 2.4] who were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition in which they received an alcohol dose of 0.7 g pure ethanol/kg body weight or a placebo condition. Aggressive behavior was measured using a laboratory paradigm in which it was operationalized as the level of aversive noise administered to a fictive opponent. No main effects of the polymorphisms on aggressive behavior were found after controlling for multiple testing. The interactive effects between alcohol and two of the OXTR polymorphisms (rs4564970 and rs1488467) on aggressive behavior were nominally significant and remained significant for the rs4564970 when controlled for multiple tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study suggesting interactive effects of specific genetic variants and alcohol on aggressive behavior in humans.
Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M
Resistance exercise (RE) is increasingly recommended by health organizations as a weight management tool. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an acute high-volume, whole-body RE protocol on the glucoregulatory and ghrelin response in sedentary obese and lean men. Five World Health Organization (WHO) class 1 obese (body mass index [BMI], 30.00-34.99) (age, 21.6 ± 2.5 years; height, 176.3 ± 3.7 cm; body mass, 97.8 ± 8.58 kg; body fat, 34.7% ± 2.95%), 5 WHO 2 (BMI, 35-39.99)/WHO 3 (BMI, ≥40) obese (age, 20.0 ± 1.4 years; height, 177.7 ± 5.15 cm; body mass, 120.8 ± 10.49 kg; body fat, 40.5% ± 5.82 %), and 9 lean men (age, 20.1 ± 2.1 years; height, 177.8 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 71.7 ± 5.8 kg; body fat, 14.7% ± 3.54 %) completed an acute RE testing protocol (6 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 85%-95% 10-repetition maximum with 120- and 90-second rest periods); and blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately postexercise and during recovery (+50, +70, and +110). Resistance exercise produced differences over time in cortisol, insulin, and glucose. Group differences were observed for ghrelin, with the WHO class 2/3 group having significantly greater ghrelin levels than the lean group (d = 0.28, P = .009) and the WHO class 1 group (d = 0.39, P = .002). Higher ghrelin was significantly associated with lower cortisol only in obese individuals. In addition, higher growth hormone was associated with lower ghrelin in lean individuals. Results suggest that glucoregulatory homeostasis is altered with increasing levels of obesity and that these alterations may mediate the response of cortisol and ghrelin in response to RE.
Ko, Il-Gyu; Choi, Pil-Byung
The purpose of this study was to find the change and correlation between obesity factors and body composition according to regular exercise. Thirty-six sturdy men at twenty years old in ‘K’ university students were participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n= 18 in each group): control group and regular exercise group. Exercise program composed of three programs: warm-up (10 min), work-out (30–60 min), cool-down (10 min), and categorized by five days per week for eight weeks. Aerobic exercise using a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve was performed, and weight training was composed of nine different exercises for the large muscles. Before the performing regular exercise, there was no significant difference between control and regular exercise groups. In the present results, 8 weeks regular exercise significantly decreased leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) more than compared to before performing regular exercise, whereas significantly enhanced lean mass more than compared to before performing regular exercise. Furthermore, regular exercise group reduced leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, WHR, and BMI compared to control group in the post test. In the correlation of obesity-related factors and body composition, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed correlation with weight, lean mass, and fat mass after performing regular exercise. Here in this study, we suggest that regular exercise is a valuable tool for the improvement of health in the sturdy men, because regular exercise suppresses body fat and obesity-related factors. PMID:24278869
Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.
Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417
Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo
We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.
Phinney, Stephen D.; Horton, Edward S.; Sims, Ethan A. H.; Hanson, John S.; Danforth, Elliot; Lagrange, Betty M.
To study the capacity for moderate endurance exercise and change in metabolic fuel utilization during adaptation to a ketogenic diet, six moderately obese, untrained subjects were fed a eucaloric, balanced diet (base line) for 2 wk, followed by 6 wk of a protein-supplemented fast (PSF), which provided 1.2 g of protein/kg ideal body wt, supplemented with minerals and vitamins. The mean weight loss was 10.6 kg. The duration of treadmill exercise to subjective exhaustion was 80% of base line after 1 wk of the PSF, but increased to 155% after 6 wk. Despite adjusting up to base line, with a backpack, the subjects' exercise weight after 6 wk of dieting, the final exercise test was performed at a mean of 60% of maximum aerobic capacity, whereas the base-line level was 76%. Resting vastus lateralis glycogen content fell to 57% of base line after 1 wk of the PSF, but rose to 69% after 6 wk, at which time no decrement in muscle glycogen was measured after >4 h of uphill walking. The respiratory quotient (RQ) during steady-state exercise was 0.76 during base line, and fell progressively to 0.66 after 6 wk of the PSF. Blood glucose was well maintained during exercise in ketosis. The sum of acetoacetate and beta hydroxybutyrate rose from 3.28 to 5.03 mM during exercise after 6 wk of the PSF, explaining in part the low exercise RQ. The low RQ and the fact that blood glucose and muscle glycogen were maintained during exhausting exercise after 6 wk of a PSF suggest that prolonged ketosis results in an adaptation, after which lipid becomes the major metabolic fuel, and net carbohydrate utilization is markedly reduced during moderate but ultimately exhausting exercise. PMID:7000826
Gerweck, Anu V.; Lin, Eleanor; Landa, Melissa G.; Torriani, Martin; Schoenfeld, David A.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Miller, Karen K.
Context: Visceral adiposity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and decreased GH secretion. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of GH administration in abdominally obese young men on body composition, including liver fat, mitochondrial function, and cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. Design and Participants: This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 abdominally obese men (IGF-1 below the mean, no exclusion based on GH level), 21 to 45 years of age. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated abdominal fat depots, thigh muscle and fat (computed tomography), fat and lean mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), mitochondrial function (dynamic phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy), CV risk markers, carotid intimal-medial thickness, and endothelial function. Results: GH administration resulted in a mean IGF-1 SD score increase from −1.9 ± 0.08 to −0.2 ± 0.3 in the GH group and a decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk/extremity fat, intrahepatic lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B/low-density lipoprotein vs placebo after controlling for the increase in weight observed in both groups. There were inverse associations between change in IGF-1 levels and change in VAT, VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk fat, trunk/extremity fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and apolipoprotein B. Mitochondrial function improved in the GH group compared with placebo after controlling for change in glucose. There was no change in thigh fat, muscle mass, intramyocellular lipids, cholesterol, fibrinogen, intimal-medial thickness, or endothelial function. There was no increase in fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c in the GH vs placebo group, although glucose during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test increased slightly. Conclusion: GH replacement in abdominally obese men improves
Chen, Wei; Wang, Hai Jun; Shang, Ning Ning; Liu, Jun; Li, Juan; Tang, Dong Hui; Li, Qiong
Obesity has been associated with the excessive intake of palatable food as well as physical inactivity. To investigate the neurobiological mechanism underlying the exercised-induced prevention and treatment of obesity, the present study examined the effect of treadmill exercise on the preference for palatable food in mice. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system were also analysed, as well as levels of dopamine, dopamine transporter, and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group (CG, n=10) and a high-fat diet group (HG, N=30). Mice of the HG group were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks in order to induce a model of obesity, following which the obese mice were randomly divided into an obese control group (OG, n=11) and an obese+exercise group (OEG, n=12). OEG mice received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise intervention. Our results indicate that, relative to animals in the OG group, OEG mice exhibited significant decreases in the preference for high-fat diets and insulin resistance, along with increases in the preference for sucrose and milk, TH and D2 receptor expression, and levels of dopamine in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system. These results suggest that moderate-intensity treadmill exercise can alter food preference in obese mice, which may be mediated by dopaminergic plasticity of the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens and enhanced insulin sensitivity.
Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S
Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and
Kim, Do Kyung
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine that not only the relationship of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and cardiorespiratory fitness(VO2peak), but also the comparison between measured and predicted results of RMR in obese men. [Methods] 60 obese men (body fat>32%) were recruited for this study. They did not participate in regular exercising programs at least 6 months. The RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry and predicted RMR using Herris-Benedicte equation. The cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by directly measuring the oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise on the treadmill. [Results] The significance for the difference between the measured results and predicted result of RMR were tested by paired t-test. Correlation of measured date was obtained by Pearson correlation coefficient. The value of predicted RMR and measured RMR were significantly different in these obese subjects. (p < 0.001). The difference between RMR cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness showed significant correlation (r=0.67, p < 0.05). [Conclusion] The current formulas of predicted RMR have limited the evaluation of measured RMR for Korean obese men. Therefore, this study suggests that new formula should be designed for Korean in order to obtain more accurate results in obese. PMID:25566436
Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY
The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602
Djousse, Luc; Song, Yiqing; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O.; Matsumoto, Chisa; Manson, JoAnn E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.
Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians' Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years' follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1.30 [1.06–1.59] for BMI 25–<30 kg/m2 and 1.69 [1.24–2.30] for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The risk of diagnosed AAA was significantly higher by 6% with each unit increase in baseline BMI. This association was consistent regardless of the other known AAA risk factors and preexisting vascular diseases. Overall, baseline history of diabetes tended to be associated with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA (HR = 0.79 [0.57–1.11]); this association appeared to vary by follow-up time (HR = 1.56 and 0.63 during ≤ and >2 years' follow-up, resp.). Conclusion. In a large cohort of middle-aged and older men, obesity was associated with a higher risk, while history of diabetes tended to associate with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA, particularly over longer follow-up. PMID:28326193
Obesity prevalence among inmates in the United States is unknown. Since incarceration disproportionately affects minorities, excluding inmates from surveys may bias national obesity estimates. Including inmates may also help explain racial obesity disparities among men. This descriptive study summarizes obesity prevalence among US male inmates and analyzes the effect of incarceration on national prevalence estimates. Data for male inmates came from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails and the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. Data for the non-incarcerated US adult male population came from the 2004 National Health Interview Survey. Self-reported weight and height data were analyzed from men aged 25-59 years for all surveys (obesity equaled BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)). Pooled inmate obesity prevalence was less than non-incarcerated estimates across all race/ethnic-education subgroups. However, unlike non-incarcerated estimates, inmates had obesity disparities between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Merging inmate and non-incarcerated estimates lowered obesity prevalence among men aged 25-39 with lower education levels. Merged estimates showed a positive obesity gradient within Whites by education. This study indicates that the exclusion of inmates from national obesity estimates leads to overestimates in obesity prevalence, particularly for low SES White and Black men.
Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan
Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40 ± .06 and −.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058
Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie
Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces
Segal, K R; Gutin, B; Nyman, A M; Pi-Sunyer, F X
The thermic effect of food at rest, during 30 min of cycle ergometer exercise, and after exercise was studied in eight lean (mean +/- SEM, 10 +/- 1% body fat, hydrostatically-determined) and eight obese men (30 +/- 2% body fat). The lean and obese mean were matched with respect to age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to determine the relationship between thermogenesis and body composition, independent of body weight. All men were overweight, defined as a BMI between 26-34, but the obese had three times more body fat and significantly less lean body mass than the lean men. Metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry under four conditions on separate mornings, in randomized order, after an overnight fast: 3 h of rest in the postabsorptive state; 3 h of rest after a 750-kcal mixed meal (14% protein, 31.5% fat, and 54.5% carbohydrate); during 30 min of cycling and for 3 h post exercise in the postabsorptive state; and during 30 min of cycling performed 30 min after the test meal and for 3 h post exercise. The thermic effect of food, which is the difference between postabsorptive and postprandial energy expenditure, was significantly higher for the lean than the obese men under the rest, post exercise, and exercise conditions: the increments in metabolic rate for the lean and obese men, respectively, were 48 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 4 kcal over 3 h rest (P less than 0.05); 44 +/- 7 vs. 16 +/- 5 kcal over 3 h post exercise (P less than 0.05); and 19 +/- 3 vs. 6 +/- 3 kcal over 30 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). The thermic effect of food was significantly negatively related to body fat content under the rest (r = -0.55), post exercise (r = -0.66), and exercise (r = -0.58) conditions. The results of this study indicate that for men of similar total body weight and BMI, body composition is a significant determinant of postprandial thermogenesis; the responses of obese are significantly blunted compared with those of lean men.
Evans, Amy L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Eastell, Richard; Walsh, Jennifer S
Obesity is associated with greater areal BMD (aBMD) and is considered protective against hip and vertebral fracture. Despite this, there is a higher prevalence of lower leg and proximal humerus fracture in obesity. We aimed to determine if there are site-specific differences in BMD, bone structure, or bone strength between obese and normal-weight adults. We studied 100 individually-matched pairs of normal (body mass index [BMI] 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) men and women, aged 25 to 40 years or 55 to 75 years. We assessed aBMD at the whole body (WB), hip (TH), and lumbar spine (LS) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), LS trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and vBMD and microarchitecture and strength at the distal radius and tibia with high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and micro-finite element analysis. Serum type 1 procollagen N-terminal peptide (P1NP) and collagen type 1 C-telopeptide (CTX) were measured by automated electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA). Obese adults had greater WB, LS, and TH aBMD than normal adults. The effect of obesity on LS and WB aBMD was greater in older than younger adults (p < 0.01). Obese adults had greater vBMD than normal adults at the tibia (p < 0.001 both ages) and radius (p < 0.001 older group), thicker cortices, higher cortical BMD and tissue mineral density, lower cortical porosity, higher trabecular BMD, and higher trabecular number than normal adults. There was no difference in bone size between obese and normal adults. Obese adults had greater estimated failure load at the radius (p < 0.05) and tibia (p < 0.01). Differences in HR-pQCT measurements between obese and normal adults were seen more consistently in the older than the younger group. Bone turnover markers were lower in obese than in normal adults. Greater BMD in obesity is not an artifact of DXA measurement. Obese adults have higher BMD, thicker and denser cortices, and higher
de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Padhye, Nikhil S.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Jacobs, David R.; Mozaffarian, Dariush
Diet guidelines recommend increasing dietary diversity. Yet, metrics for dietary diversity have neither been well-defined nor evaluated for impact on metabolic health. Also, whether diversity has effects independent of diet quality is unknown. We characterized and evaluated associations of diet diversity and quality with abdominal obesity and type II diabetes (T2D) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. At baseline (2000–02), diet was assessed among 5,160 Whites, Hispanic, Blacks, and Chinese age 45–84 y and free of T2D, using a validated questionnaire. Three different aspects of diet diversity were characterized including count (number of different food items eaten more than once/week, a broad measure of diversity), evenness (Berry index, a measure of the spread of the diversity), and dissimilarity (Jaccard distance, a measure of the diversity of the attributes of the foods consumed). Diet quality was characterized using aHEI, DASH, and a priori pattern. Count and evenness were weakly positively correlated with diet quality (r with AHEI: 0.20, 0.04), while dissimilarity was moderately inversely correlated (r = -0.34). In multivariate models, neither count nor evenness was associated with change in waist circumference (WC) or incident T2D. Greater food dissimilarity was associated with higher gain in WC (p-trend<0.01), with 120% higher gain in participants in the highest quintile of dissimilarity scores. Diet diversity was not associated with incident T2D. Also, none of the diversity metrics were associated with change in WC or incident T2D when restricted to only healthier or less healthy foods. Higher diet quality was associated with lower risk of T2D. Our findings provide little evidence for benefits of diet diversity for either abdominal obesity or diabetes. Greater dissimilarity among foods was actually associated with gain in WC. These results do not support the notion that “eating everything in moderation” leads to greater diet quality or
Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A.; Plouffe, Louise J.; Swist, Eleonora
The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet. PMID:27136580
Kranjac, Ashley Wendell
Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children.
Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Peterson, Mark
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions.
Eames, Sarah F.; Businelle, Michael S.; Suris, Alina; Walker, Robrina; Rao, Uma; North, Carol S.; Xiao, Hong; Adinoff, Bryon
Objective This study sought to clarify the relationship between childhood trauma and adversity with later alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of adult psychosocial stress. Method Seventy-seven recently abstinent alcohol-dependent men attending residential treatment programs were assessed. Childhood trauma/adversity was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), drinks per drinking day (DDD) with the TimeLine Follow Back, and chronic psychosocial stress with the UCLA Stress Interview. Drinking and stress were retrospectively assessed for six months prior to the present treatment episode. Direct associations between childhood trauma/adversity and alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of recent psychosocial stress were assessed. All measures were considered as continuous variables. Results Pretreatment drinking severity (DDD) was associated with CTQ Total score (p = .009) and the Emotional Abuse (p < .001) and Physical Abuse (p < .01) subscales. UCLA Total Stress significantly moderated the effects of CTQ Total score on drinking severity (p = .04). Whereas higher CTQ scores were significantly associated with a greater amount of pretreatment drinking in participants with high UCLA stress scores (p = .01), CTQ scores were not associated with the amount of drinking in those with low UCLA stress scores (p = .63). Conclusions Childhood trauma predicts drinking severity in alcohol-dependent men and this effect is stronger in participants with ongoing stress in adult life. These findings suggest that early childhood trauma/adversity may sensitize stress-response systems. PMID:24635549
Harman, E M; Wynne, J W; Block, A J
Four morbidly obese men who had been found to have significant sleep-disordered breathing and oxygen desaturation were restudied after an average weight loss of 108 kg (range 53-155 kg). In all subjects, weight loss was accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of episodes per hour of sleep-disordered breathing events. In three of the four subjects, there was improvment in the severity of desaturation accompanying abnormal breathing. The two subjects with daytime somnolence and hypercapnia prior to weight loss showed the most dramatic improvement in desaturation. This suggests that obesity is a cause, rather than an effect, of the sleep apnea syndrome.
Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Johnson, William D; Champagne, Catherine M; Cefalu, William T
Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m(-2)⋅min(-1)). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants.
Bonfante, Ivan Luiz Padilha; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Duft, Renata Garbellini; Lopes, Wendell Arhur; Bonganha, Valéria; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina
The effects of training on FNDC5/irisin and its association with fitness and metabolic marker improvements induced by training have been poorly investigated in humans. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of combined training (CT) on FNDC5/irisin levels, metabolic markers and fitness adaptations in obese men. Middle-age obese men (age 49.13 ± 5.75, body mass index (BMI) 30.86 ± 1.63) were randomly distributed in the CT group (n = 12) and control group (CG n = 10). The CT consisted of strength followed by aerobic training, 3 times/week, for 24 weeks. Body composition, physical fitness, plasma FNDC5/irisin, biochemical markers and metabolic scores/index were evaluated. CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels (µg/mL) (pre: 4.15 ± 0.32, post: 4.21 ± 0.32; p = .96) and improved body composition, metabolic and physical fitness markers. In the CG, decreased FNDC5/irisin (µg/mL) (pre: 4.36 ± 0.23, post: 3.57 ± 0.94; p = .01) and reduced strength (supine exercise/kg) (pre: 71 ± 14.7, post: 60.1 ± 14.05; p < .01) were observed, along with a trend to increase HOMA-IR (pre: 2.63 ± 1.11, post: 3.14 ± 1.27; p = .07) and other indicators of metabolic deterioration. An inverse correlation was found between the change (Δ%) in levels of FNDC5/irisin and Δ% glucose, Δ% total cholesterol, Δ% triglycerides and Δ% waist circumference, in addition to a positive relation with Δ% muscle strength. In conclusion, CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels and provided metabolic and fitness benefits. The correlation between FNDC5/irisin changes and metabolic parameters, as well as the FNDC5/irisin reduction associated with fitness and metabolic worsening in the CG, suggests a relationship between FNDC5/irisin and a healthy metabolic status in humans.
Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber
This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.
Krings, Franciska; Facchin, Stephanie
This study demonstrated relations between men's perceptions of organizational justice and increased sexual harassment proclivities. Respondents reported higher likelihood to sexually harass under conditions of low interactional justice, suggesting that sexual harassment likelihood may increase as a response to perceived injustice. Moreover, the…
Calderón, Berniza; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia; Galindo, Julio; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I
To study the prevalence of male obesity-secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) in patients with moderate to severe obesity, we performed a prospective prevalence study including 100 male patients with moderate to severe obesity at a university tertiary hospital. Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations among others were assayed in all patients. Serum-free testosterone (FT) concentration was calculated from TT and SHBG levels. Semen analysis was conducted in 31 patients. We found a prevalence of 45% (95% CI: 35-55%) when considering decreased TT and/or FT concentrations. Serum concentrations of TT were correlated negatively with glucose (r = -0.328, p < 0.001) and insulin resistance (r = -0.261, p = 0.011). The same occurred with FT and glucose (r = -0.340, p < 0.001) and insulin resistance (r = -0.246, p = 0.016). Sixty-two percent (95% CI: 39-85%) of the patients with seminogram also presented abnormal results in semen analysis. The frequencies of low TT or low FT values were similar in patients with abnormal or normal semen analysis (p = 0.646 and p = 0.346, respectively). Ejaculate volume inversely correlated with BMI (ρ = -0.400, p = 0.029) and with excess body weight (ρ = -0.464, p = 0.010). Our data show the prevalence of MOSH in patients with moderate to severe obesity is high. Low circulating testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and low ejaculate volume with higher BMI and excess body weight. Semen analysis must be performed in these patients when considering fertility whether or not presenting low circulating testosterone.
Wack, Elizabeth; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey
Most estimates suggest that American youth are spending a large amount of time playing video and computer games, spurring researchers to examine the impact this media has on various aspects of health and psychosocial functioning. The current study investigated relationships between frequency of electronic game play and obesity, the social/emotional context of electronic game play, and academic performance among 219 college-aged males. Current game players reported a weekly average of 9.73 hours of game play, with almost 10% of current players reporting an average of 35 hours of play per week. Results indicated that frequency of play was not significantly related to body mass index or grade point average. However, there was a significant positive correlation between frequency of play and self-reported frequency of playing when bored, lonely, or stressed. As opposed to the general conception of electronic gaming as detrimental to functioning, the results suggest that gaming among college-aged men may provide a healthy source of socialization, relaxation, and coping.
Kemmler, W; Teschler, M; Weißenfels, A; Sieber, C; Freiberger, E; von Stengel, S
The relevance of sarcopenia and sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is rising in our aging societies. Applying recognized definitions to 965 community-dwelling Bavarian men 70 years+ resulted in a prevalence for sarcopenia between 3.7 and 4.9 and between 2.1 and 4.1% for SO. Despite this high consistency, the overlap between the definitions/approaches was <50%.
Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.
Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D.; Peterson, Mark
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions. Key points Heavy loads maximize muscular strength when the numbers of sets are equated. Moderate loads maximize muscle hypertrophy when the number of sets are equated Volume load appears to be more important to increases in muscle hypertrophy compared to absolute strength PMID:27928218
Laichuthai, Nitchakarn; Suwannasrisuk, Preaw; Houngngam, Natnicha; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Snabboon, Thiti
Objective. Obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men. Weight loss has been shown to improve hypogonadism in obese men. This study evaluated the early changes in sex hormones profile after bariatric surgery. Methods. This is a prospective study including 29 morbidly obese men. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (cFT), SHBG, estradiol, adiponectin, and leptin at 1 and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean age of patients was 31 ± 8 years and the mean BMI was 56.8 ± 11.7 kg/m2. Fifteen patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 14 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, 22 patients (75.9%) had either low TT levels (<10.4 nmol/L) or low cFT levels (<225 pmol/L). Total testosterone and SHBG levels increased significantly at 1 month after surgery (p ≤ 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, TT and cFT increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) and 22 patients (75.9%) had normalized TT and cFT levels. There were no changes in estradiol levels at either 1 month or 6 months after surgery. Conclusions. Increases in TT and SHBG levels occurred early at 1 month after bariatric surgery while improvements in cFT levels were observed at 6 months after bariatric surgery. PMID:27725831
Hyatt, Courtland S; Berke, Danielle S; Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos
Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression. Results indicated that misogynistic lyrics and hostile sexism significantly predicted both unprovoked and provoked aggression against a female target. Contrary to expectations, moderating effects of gender role beliefs on the relationship between misogynistic lyrics and men's aggression were not found. Implications are discussed in terms of the costs of misogyny in media for women's lives. Aggr. Behav. 43:123-132, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164210.html Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver ... risk, a new study warns. Efforts to reduce obesity, "should be implemented from an early age to ...
Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz
Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < “ideal BMI” > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302
Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E
Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ± .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between 4-AIT, CME, and 1-AIT. Total EPOC was highest after 4-AIT. These data suggest that exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome.
Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F
Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.
Oh, Sechang; So, Rina; Shida, Takashi; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Kim, Bokun; Akiyama, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Shoda, Junichi
We compared the effects of 12-week programs of resistance training (RT), high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT), and moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (MICT). The primary goal was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the exercise modalities for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 61 sedentary obese men with NAFLD were randomized into one of the following exercise regimens (RT, HIAT, or MICT). Hepatic fat content was decreased to a similar extent in the RT, HIAT, and MICT groups (−14.3% vs. −13.7% vs. −14.3%) without significant changes in weight and visceral fat. The gene expression levels of fatty acid synthesis were significantly decreased in the subjects’ monocytes. Hepatic stiffness was decreased only in the HIAT group (−16.8%). The stiffness change was associated with restored Kupffer cell phagocytic function (+17.8%) and decreased levels of inflammation such as leptin (−13.2%) and ferritin (−14.1%). RT, HIAT, and MICT were equally effective in reducing hepatic fat content, but only HIAT was effective in improving hepatic stiffness and restoring Kupffer cell function. These benefits appeared to be independent of detectable weight and visceral fat reductions; the benefits were acquired through the modulation of in vivo fatty acid metabolism and obesity-related inflammatory conditions. PMID:28223710
Moderate Altitudes THESISIDA#WA49 S. PERFORMING OiG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOI() 0. COTRACT OR GRANT NUMULER() Roberta Louise Russell PERFORMING ORGANIZATION... performing the research. Can you estimate what this research would have cost if it had been accomplished under contract or if it had been done in...being placed on getting maximum performance from our aircrews than ever before. With today’s high performance aircraft, aircrews must now perform more
Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Botas, Patricia; Valdés, Sergio; Ortega, Francisco J; Delgado, Elías; Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Bassols, Judit; Pardo, Gerard; Ricart, Wifredo; Menéndez, Javier A; Fernández-Real, José M
The Val1483Ile polymorphism in the human fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene is located within the interdomain region of the FASN close to the two dynamic active centers of the FASN enzyme and putatively affects FASN action. We aimed to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with obesity phenotypes, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue FASN activity in adult white subjects. The polymorphism was evaluated in association with metabolic variables in two independent studies: in a case-control study of 457 men (229 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 228 with altered glucose tolerance (AGT)); and in 600 population-based NGT subjects (274 men and 326 women). Adipose tissue FASN activity was analyzed using the method of Nepokroeff. The Ile variant was associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a lower increase in weight over a 7-year period in NGT men. In a subset of 147 men, carriers of the Ile variant showed significantly increased insulin sensitivity. BMI (P < 0.001), WHR (P = 0.03), and Val1483Ile (P = 0.03), contributed independently to 37% of insulin sensitivity variance. In men from the population-based study, the Ile variant was associated with a lower BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and systolic blood pressure compared with carriers of the Val variant. In agreement with these results, the adipose tissue FASN activity was significantly lower in subjects with the Ile variant (P = 0.01). In summary, adult white men with the Ile 1483 variant of the FASN gene seem protected from developing central obesity through decreased adipose tissue FASN activity.
Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.
Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937
Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S
A single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise has been shown to produce the same or greater metabolic benefits as continuous endurance exercise with considerably less energy expenditure, but whether this applies to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism is not known. We sought to examine the effect of a single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise on basal VLDL-triglyceride (TG) kinetics 14 and 48 h after exercise cessation to determine the acute and time-dependent effects of this type of exercise on VLDL-TG metabolism. Eight healthy sedentary men (age, 23.6 ± 6.1 years; body mass index, 23.1 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2), peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), 36.3 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in three stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion studies: (i) 14 h and (ii) 48 h after a single bout of high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (60% and 90% of V̇O2peak in 4 min intervals for a total of 32 min; gross energy expenditure ∼500 kcal) and (iii) after an equivalent period of rest, in random order. Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was 20% lower at 14 h (P = 0.046) but not at 48 h (P = 1.000) after exercise compared with the resting trial. VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate increased by 21% at 14 h (P < 0.001) but not at 48 h (P = 0.299) after exercise compared with rest, whereas hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate was not different from rest at any time point after exercise. We conclude that high-intensity interval exercise reduces fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations in non-obese men the next day by augmenting VLDL-TG clearance, just like a single bout of continuous endurance exercise. This effect is short-lived and abolished by 48 h after exercise.
Dudgeon, Wesley David; Jaggers, Jason Reed; Phillips, Kenneth Doyle; Durstine, John Larry; Burgess, Stephanie E.; Lyerly, George William; Davis, John Mark; Hand, Gregory Alan
HIV/AIDS and its treatment often alter body composition and result in poorer physical functioning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate-intensity exercise program on body composition and the hormones and cytokines associated with adverse health outcomes. HIV-infected males (N = 111) were randomized to an exercise group (EX) who completed 6 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise training, or to a nonintervention control group (CON). In pre- and postintervention, body composition was estimated via DXA, peak strength was assessed, and resting blood samples were obtained. There was a decrease in salivary cortisol at wake (P = 0.025) in the EX and a trend (P = 0.07) for a decrease 1 hour after waking. The EX had a significant increase in lean tissue mass (LTM) (P < 0.001) following the intervention. Those in the EX below median body fat (20%) increased LTM (P = 0.014) only, while those above 20% decreased fat mass (P = 0.02), total fat (N = 0.009), and trunk fat (P = 0.001), while also increasing LTM (P = 0.027). Peak strength increased between 14% and 28% on all exercises in the EX group. These data indicate that 6 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise training can decrease salivary cortisol levels, improve physical performance, and improve body composition in HIV-infected men. PMID:24052871
Bae, Woong Jin; Park, Hyo Jung; Koo, Hye Cheong; Kim, Do Ram; Ha, U-Syn; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Sung Yeoun
We evaluated the effects of Seoritae extract (SE) on mild to moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Seventy-six subjects with mild to moderate LUTS suggestive of BPH were prospectively recruited from the urology outpatient clinic and assigned to either SE (4200 mg or 6 tablets 3 times a day) or matching placebo. The primary outcome variable, the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), was evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks. Postvoid residual volume (PVR), maximum urine flow rate (Qmax), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated. IPSSs decreased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks within the SE group. Significant improvements in IPSS voiding scores at 4 and 12 weeks were also observed in the SE group compared to the placebo group. IPSS storage and quality of life scores were also significantly decreased at 12 weeks in the SE group. There was no change in Qmax or PVR in both groups after 12 weeks. Administration of SE for 12 weeks led to significant improvements in LUTS, and it can be concerned as a reasonable and safe alternative for men with mild to moderate LUTS. PMID:27382404
Maki, Kevin C; Carson, Michael L; Miller, Marvin P; Turowski, Maciej; Bell, Marjorie; Wilder, Donna M; Rains, Tia M; Reeves, Matthew S
Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and methylcellulose (MC) are modified cellulose dietary fibers that generate viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study assessed the effects of high viscosity (HV) HPMC, ultra-HV (UHV) HPMC, and medium viscosity MC on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in overweight and obese men and women (n = 50). After overnight fasts, subjects consumed 5 breakfast meals containing 75 g carbohydrate, each of which contained 1 of the following: 1 g HV-HPMC, 2 g HV-HPMC, 2 g UHV-HPMC, 4 g medium-viscosity MC or control (2 g cellulose). Test sequence was randomized and double-blind, except the MC test, which was last and single-blind (46 subjects completed all 5 tests). Glucose and insulin responses were determined pre-meal and for 120 min postprandially. Median (interquartile limits) peak glucose concentration was lower (P = 0.001) after the meal containing 2.0 g UHV-HPMC (7.1, 6.3-8.2 mmol/L) compared with the control meal (7.7, 6.6-8.7 mmol/L). The control did not differ from the other conditions for peak glucose or for any of the HPMC/MC conditions for glucose incremental areas under the curves (IAUC). Peak insulin was reduced (P < 0.05) for all HPMC/MC conditions compared with control. Insulin IAUC was lower than control (P < 0.001) after meals containing 2 g HV-HPMC, 2 g UHV-HPMC, and 4 g MC. GI symptoms did not differ among treatments. These findings indicate that HV-HPMC (1 and 2 g), UHV-HPMC (2 g), and MC (4 g) consumption reduced postprandial insulin excursions consistent with delayed glucose absorption.
Sandhu, Manjinder S; Heude, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth H; Luben, Robert; Luan, Jian'an; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Todd, John; Wareham, Nicholas J
The relevance of the insulin gene (INS) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism to indexes of body size and adult obesity is inconclusive. Given the equivocal reports on the association between the VNTR class genotype at the insulin gene locus and indexes of body size and obesity, we assessed these associations in a series of cohort studies based on 7,999 middle-aged men and women. We found no convincing evidence that INS VNTR class genotype was associated with indexes of body size and adult obesity. These data suggest that INS VNTR class is not an important determinant of size and body weight regulation in middle-aged men and women.
Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.
Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas
Nesfatin-1 is cleaved from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) and implicated in the regulation of hunger and satiety as anorexigenic peptide hormone. Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is elevated in obesity and decreased in anorexia nervosa. In addition, a role in the regulation of stress, anxiety and depression has been demonstrated. First evidence suggested that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Thus, we investigated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels in association with perceived stress, anxiety and depressiveness in obese men and women. We enrolled 140 inpatients (87 female, 53 male; body mass index, BMI, 30.3-81.7 kg/m(2)) hospitalized due to obesity with mental and somatic comorbidities. Perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and depressiveness (PHQ-9) were measured psychometrically, and at the same time NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels by ELISA. Males and females did not differ in terms of age and BMI. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 did not show a correlation with age or BMI. Mean NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (+25%, p<0.001) as well as mean scores for perceived stress (+26%, p < 0.01), anxiety (+54%, p < 0.001) and depressiveness (+32%, p = 0.02) were higher in females compared to males. Scores for perceived stress (r = 0.39; p < 0.001) and depressiveness (r = 0.35; p < 0.01) showed a positive correlation with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in women, while in men no correlation was observed (p>0.19). The strongest association was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and anxiety with a positive correlation in women (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), while in men even an inverse correlation was found (r = -0.32; p = 0.03). This result was reflected in higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in women with high versus low anxiety (+51%, p<0.001) and an opposite alteration in men (-17%, p = 0.04) after a median split into two groups with high and low anxiety. In conclusion, circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 showed a positive correlation with anxiety, perceived stress, and depressiveness in obese women. In men, no
Murton, Andrew J; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Mallinson, Joanne E; Selby, Anna L; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J; Greenhaff, Paul L
Obesity is increasing, yet despite the necessity of maintaining muscle mass and function with age, the effect of obesity on muscle protein turnover in older adults remains unknown. Eleven obese (BMI 31.9 ± 1.1 kg · m(-2)) and 15 healthy-weight (BMI 23.4 ± 0.3 kg · m(-2)) older men (55-75 years old) participated in a study that determined muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and leg protein breakdown (LPB) under postabsorptive (hypoinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and postprandial (hyperinsulinemic hyperaminoacidemic-euglycemic clamp) conditions. Obesity was associated with systemic inflammation, greater leg fat mass, and patterns of mRNA expression consistent with muscle deconditioning, whereas leg lean mass, strength, and work done during maximal exercise were no different. Under postabsorptive conditions, MPS and LPB were equivalent between groups, whereas insulin and amino acid administration increased MPS in only healthy-weight subjects and was associated with lower leg glucose disposal (LGD) (63%) in obese men. Blunting of MPS in the obese men was offset by an apparent decline in LPB, which was absent in healthy-weight subjects. Lower postprandial LGD in obese subjects and blunting of MPS responses to amino acids suggest that obesity in older adults is associated with diminished muscle metabolic quality. This does not, however, appear to be associated with lower leg lean mass or strength.
Vakulin, A.; Baulk, S.D.; Catcheside, P.G.; Anderson, R.; van den Heuvel, C.J.; Banks, S.; McEvoy, R.D.
Study Objectives: To determine the combined effects of sleep restriction and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance, EEG, and subjective levels of sleepiness and performance in the mid-afternoon. Design: Repeated measures with 4 experimental conditions. Normal sleep without alcohol, sleep restriction alone (4 hours) and sleep restriction in combination with 2 different low blood alcohol concentrations (0.025 g/dL and 0.035 g/dL). Setting: Sleep Laboratory, Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health. Participants: Twenty-one healthy young men, aged 18–30 years, mean (±SD) = 22.5(±3.7) years, BMI = 25(±6.7) kg/m2; all had normal sleep patterns and were free of sleep disorders. Measurements: Participants completed a 70-minute simulated driving session, commencing at 14:00. Driving parameters included steering deviation, braking reaction time, and number of collisions. Alpha and theta EEG activity and subjective driving performance and sleepiness were also measured throughout the driving task. Results: All measures were significantly affected by time. Steering deviation increased significantly when sleep restriction was combined with the higher dose alcohol. This combination also resulted in a significant increase in alpha/theta EEG activity throughout the drive, as well as greater subjective sleepiness and negative driving performance ratings compared to control or sleep restriction alone. Discussion: These data indicate that combining low-dose alcohol with moderate sleep restriction results in significant decrements to subjective alertness and performance as well as to some driving performance and EEG parameters. This highlights the potential risks of driving after consumption of low and legal doses of alcohol when also sleep restricted. Citation: Vakulin A; Baulk SD; Catcheside PG; Anderson R; van den Heuvel CJ; Banks S; McEvoy RD. Effects of moderate sleep deprivation and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance and perception in young men. SLEEP
Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini, Daniela; Jovenasso Manzoni, Marla Simone; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Saes Parra Abdalla, Dulcinéia; Aparecida Pinto, Roseli; Rosetto, Daniella; Roberto Valentini, Sandro; Antonio Rossi, Elizeu
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in
Peer, Nasheeta; Lombard, Carl; Steyn, Krisela; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Levitt, Naomi
Objectives To ascertain the prevalence and determinants of overweight/obesity in the 25–74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the changes between 1990 and 2008/09. Methods In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Data were collected by questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analyses. Gender-specific linear regression models evaluated the associations with overweight/obesity. Results There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%) in 2008/09. Mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were 23.7 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.1–24.2) and 84.2 cm (95% CI: 82.8–85.6) in men, and 33.0 kg/m2 (95% CI: 32.3–33.7) and 96.8 cm (95% CI: 95.5–98.1) in women. Prevalence of BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and raised WC were 28.9% (95% CI: 24.1–34.3) and 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9–24.9) in men, and 82.8% (95% CI: 79.3–85.9) and 86.0% (95% CI: 82.9–88.6) in women. Among 25–64-year-olds, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 decreased between 1990 (37.3%, 95% CI: 31.7–43.1) and 2008/09 (27.7%, 95% CI: 22.7–33.4) in men but increased from 72.7% (95% CI: 67.6–77.2) to 82.6% (95% CI: 78.8–85.8) in women. In the regression models for men and women, higher BMI was directly associated with increasing age, wealth, hypertension and diabetes but inversely related to daily smoking. Also significantly associated with rising BMI were raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and being employed compared to unemployed in men, and having >7 years of education in women. Conclusions Overweight/obesity, particularly in urban black women, requires urgent action because of the associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and their serious consequences. PMID:25221948
Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D
Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.
Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu
The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) < 85 cm) and which anthropometric index, dBW or changes in WC (dWC), is more strongly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in men without abdominal obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.
Rastogi, Prateek; Pinto, Denver S; Pai, Mukta R; Kanchan, Tanuj
Atherosclerosis accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular system associated morbidity and mortality. The present autopsy based study is aimed to study the correlation between coronary atherosclerosis and anthropometric measurements/indices of overweight and obesity such as; Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC), Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) in men from southern India. The present research also analyses the correlation between anthropometric measurements/indices of overweight and obesity in men with number of coronaries affected with atherosclerosis in individuals. The study included 50 autopsies conducted in the Government District Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore during March and September 2008. The heart was dissected following standard autopsy protocol and a 5 cm section of the right coronary artery (RCA) in the atrio-ventricular groove from its origin, a 5 cm segment of the left anterior descending artery (LADA) distal to the origin of the circumflex artery, but including the region of origin of the circumflex branch and left coronary artery (LCA) from its origin till the circumflex branch were excised, dissected out, fixed in 10% formalin, marked for identification and sent for histopathological analysis. The study shows a positive correlation of WC and WHR with atherosclerotic changes in the RCA. The number of arteries affected with atherosclerosis is found to be well correlated with WC, BMI and WHR. The study confirms an association between anthropometric measurements/indices of obesity, grade of atherosclerosis in the RCA and the number of arteries affected with atherosclerosis. Anthropometric measurements/indices of obesity can be an effective means to identify high risk cases of atherosclerosis at an early stage that can be effective in reducing the associated cardiac morbidity and mortality.
Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya; Akabaliev, Valentin
Obesity indices. Anthropometry. Men. Factors. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el nivel de obesidad y su relación con la edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física en los hombres adultos búlgaros de zona urbana. Material y métodos: La muestra incluyó hombres 1010, de 18-50 años de edad, de la ciudad de Plovdiv, Bulgaria. El estudio se realizó en el período 2004-2008. Se midieron la circunferencia del cuerpo altura, peso y cintura. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen según los puntos de corte internacional de índice de masa corporal (IMC). La obesidad abdominal fue evaluar las categorías de relación de la altura de la cintura (CT). La edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física de cada persona se investigaron a través de la consulta. Para el análisis estadístico el SPSS paquete fue utilizado. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que 42,1% de los hombres investigados eran sobrepeso y 19,4% de ellos eran obesos. Con CT irregular y obesidad central fueron 66,1% de los casos. El porcentaje de hombres con obesidad general y central aumenta con la edad. En el caso de la obesidad central y general, las diferencias entre los trabajadores físicos e intelectuales son significación, incluso después de controlar la edad.CT tiene un mayor potencial para diferenciar las personas con diversas ocupaciones que BMI. La edad y la ocupación fueron los factores más importantes que afectan la obesidad general y abdominal. El nivel educativo tiene un impacto significativo en la acumulación de grasa abdominal.La conexión entre el nivel de actividad física e IMC y CT fue menor. Conclusiónes: El estudio encuentra que los hombres trabajan y viven en ese particular área urbana tienen diferencias significativas en términos de sobrepeso y obesidad. El nivel educativo, ocupación y edad tienen un potencial grave influenciado su estado nutricional del cuerpo.
Guthrie, LC; Butler, SC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM
Purpose Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales, current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. Analysis We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18–24 years, 25–34 years, and 35 and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Results Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, while higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18 – 24 year olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18 – 24 year olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Conclusion Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision-making. PMID:24200252
Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C; Johansson, Pär I; Secher, Niels H
The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P < 0.05; mean ± SD) and reduced stroke volume (113 ± 12 to 96 ± 14 ml, P < 0.05) leaving cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance unchanged and, furthermore, reduced red blood cell count (4.80 ± 0.33 to 4.64 ± 0.37 × 10(12) cells l(-1), P < 0.05) indicating that 218 ± 173 ml fluid was recruited to the circulation. Withdrawing 450 ml blood reduced the time until initial fibrin formation (R: 6.5 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 1.0 min, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of clot formation increased after withdrawal of 900 ml blood (α-Angle: 66 ± 4 to 70 ± 3 deg, P < 0.01). Clot strength (maximal amplitude: 57 ± 4 mm), clot lysis 30 min after maximal amplitude (LY30: 0.8% [0-3.5%] (median [range])), and platelet count (218 ± 25 × 10(9) l(-1)) were unaffected. For supine males, ∼ 25% of a moderate blood loss is compensated by fluid recruitment to the circulation, which may explain the minor cardiovascular response. Yet, a blood loss of 450 ml accelerates coagulation, and this is further accentuated when blood loss is 900 ml.
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.
This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…
Han, T S; Wu, F C W; Lean, M E J
The rising rate of overweight/obesity among the ever-growing ageing population is imposing massive and rapidly changing burdens of ill health. The observation that the BMI value associated with the lowest relative mortality is slightly higher in older than in younger adults, mainly through its reduced impact on coronary heart disease, has often been misinterpreted that obesity is not as harmful in the elderly, who suffer a large range of disabling consequences of obesity. All medical consequences of obesity are multi-factorial and most alleviated by modest, achievable weight loss (5-10 kg) with an evidence-based maintenance strategy. But severe obesity, e.g. BMI >40 may demand greater weight loss e.g. >15 kg to reverse type 2 diabetes. Since relatively reduced physical activity and reduced muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity) are common in the elderly, combining exercise and modest calorie restriction optimally reduces fat mass and preserves muscle mass - age presents no obstacle and reducing polypharmacy is a valuable outcome. The currently licensed drug orlistat has no age-related hazards and is effective in a low fat diet, but the risks from bariatric surgery begin to outweigh benefits above age 60. For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue liraglutide appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Obesity and sarcopenia should be prevented from younger age and during life-transitions including retiral to improve future health outcomes and quality of life, with a focus on those in "obese families".
Schmidt, Morten; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
The association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and long-term risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been examined for men. We conducted a population-based 36-year cohort study to examine the BMI-associated risk of AF in 12,850 young men who had BMI measured at their examination of fitness for military service. AF was identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. We began follow-up on the twenty-second birthday of each subject and continued until the occurrence of AF, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for education and height. The cohort contributed a total of 375,888 person-years of follow-up and the median follow-up time was 26 years (mean 29 years). The incidence of AF per 100,000 person-years was 53 for men of normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 54 for underweight men (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)), 106 for overweight men (BMI: 25.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), and 144 for obese men (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). With normal weight as the reference group, the adjusted HR for AF was 0.99 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.87) for underweight men, 2.08 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.92) for overweight men, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.46 to 5.62) for obese men. The adjusted HR associating 1 unit increase in BMI with AF was 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.16). In conclusion, overweight and obese young men had more than twice the risk of AF compared with young men of normal weight.
Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz
Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95 %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95 %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95 %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95 %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...
Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.
In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…
Emery, CF; Olson, KL; Lee, VS; Habash, DL; Nasar, JL; Bodine, A
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Prior research indicates that features of the home environment (for example, televisions, exercise equipment) may be associated with obesity, but no prior study has examined objective features of the home food environment (for example, location of food) in combination with behavioral (for example, food purchasing), psychological (for example, self-efficacy) and social factors among obese adults. This study identified factors associated with obesity status from measures of home environment, food purchasing behavior, eating behavior and psychosocial functioning. SUBJECTS/METHODS One hundred community-residing obese (mean body mass index (BMI) = 36.8, s.e. = 0.60) and nonobese (mean BMI = 23.7, s.e. = 0.57) adults (mean age = 42.7, s.e. = 1.50; range = 20–78 years) completed an observational study with 2-h home interview/assessment and 2-week follow-up evaluation of food purchases and physical activity. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and logistic regression, controlling for sex. RESULTS Univariate analyses revealed that homes of obese individuals had less healthy food available than homes of nonobese (F(1,97) = 6.49, P = 0.012), with food distributed across a greater number of highly visible locations (F(1,96) = 6.20, P = 0.01). Although there was no group difference in household income or size, obese individuals reported greater food insecurity (F(1,97) = 9.70, P < 0.001), more reliance on fast food (F(1,97) = 7.63, P = 0.01) and more long-term food storage capacity in number of refrigerators (F(1,97) = 3.79, P = 0.05) and freezers (F(1,97) = 5.11, P = 0.03). Obese individuals also reported greater depressive symptoms (F(1,97) = 10.41, P = 0.002) and lower ability to control eating in various situations (F(1,97) = 20.62, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity status was associated with lower self-esteem (odds ratio (OR) 0.58, P = 0.011), less healthy food consumption (OR 0.94, P = 0.048) and more food
Martínez-Ramos, Elena; Martín-Borràs, Carme; Trujillo, José-Manuel; Giné-Garriga, Maria; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Solà-Gonfaus, Mercè; Castillo-Ramos, Eva; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Rodríguez, Dolors; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Beltran, Angela-Maria; Serra-Paya, Noemi; Gascón-Catalán, Ana; Puig-Ribera, Anna
Background and Objectives Prolonged sitting time has negative consequences on health, although the population is not well aware of these harmful effects. We explored opinions expressed by primary care patients diagnosed as overweight or moderately obese concerning their time spent sitting, willingness to change, and barriers, facilitators, goals and expectations related to limiting this behaviour. Methods A descriptive-interpretive qualitative study was carried out at three healthcare centres in Barcelona, Spain, and included 23 patients with overweight or moderate obesity, aged 25 to 65 years, who reported sitting for at least 6 hours a day. Exclusion criteria were inability to sit down or stand up from a chair without help and language barriers that precluded interview participation. Ten in-depth, semi-structured interviews (5 group, 5 individual) were audio recorded from January to July 2012 and transcribed. The interview script included questions about time spent sitting, willingness to change, barriers and facilitators, and the prospect of assistance from primary healthcare professionals. An analysis of thematic content was made using ATLAS.Ti and triangulation of analysts. Results The most frequent sedentary activities were computer use, watching television, and motorized journeys. There was a lack of awareness of the amount of time spent sitting and its negative consequences on health. Barriers to reducing sedentary time included work and family routines, lack of time and willpower, age and sociocultural limitations. Facilitators identified were sociocultural change, free time and active work, and family surroundings. Participants recognized the abilities of health professionals to provide help and advice, and reported a preference for patient-centred or group interventions. Conclusions Findings from this study have implications for reducing sedentary behaviour. Patient insights were used to design an intervention to reduce sitting time within the frame of
Grimmel, K; Richter, E; Zilly, W
In 7 obese patients with an overweight of 53 +/- 19% of Broca we found a 2-fold enlarged apparent volume of distribution and a nearly 2-fold prolonged elimination halflife of hexobarbital; the hexobarbital plasma clearance however, which is nearly identical with the metabolizing capacity of the liver for hexobarbital, was not decreased. Phenobarbital induced the microsomal drugmetabolizing enzyme system in the fatty liver of genetically obese mice in the same way 2-3-fold as in the non-fatty liver of the lean littermates.
Scott, Katreena; Heslop, Lisa; Kelly, Tim; Wiggins, Kate
Clear directions about best strategies to reduce recidivism among domestic violence offenders have remained elusive. The current study offers an initial evaluation of an RNR (Risk, Needs, and Responsivity)-focused second-responder program for men accused of assaulting their intimate partners and who were judged as being at moderate to high risk for re-offending. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare police outcomes for 40 men attending a second-responder intervention program to 40 men with equivalent levels of risk for re-offense who did not attend intervention (comparison group). Results showed that there were significant, substantial, and lasting differences across groups in all outcome domains. In terms of recidivism, rates of subsequent domestic-violence-related changes were more than double for men in the comparison group as compared with the intervention group in both 1-year (65.9% vs. 29.3%) and 2-year (41.5% vs. 12.2%) follow-up. Changes in the rates of arrest were consistent with reductions in men's general involvement with police, with men in the intervention group receiving fewer charges for violent offenses, administrative offenses, and property offenses over the 2 years following intervention than men in the comparison group. Not surprisingly, these differences result in a much lower estimated amount of police time with intervention men than for comparison men. Results are discussed with reference to the possible impact of sharing information with men about their assessed risk for re-offending within a therapeutic justice context.
Anderson, Anna J.; Andrew, Ruth; Homer, Natalie Z.; Jones, Gregory C.; Smith, Kenneth; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Walker, Brian R.
Context: The mechanism of action of metformin remains unclear. Given the regulation of the cortisol-regenerating enzyme 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD1) by insulin and the limited efficacy of selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors to lower blood glucose when co-prescribed with metformin, we hypothesized that metformin reduces 11βHSD1 activity. Objective: To determine whether metformin regulates 11βHSD1 activity in vivo in obese men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting: A hospital clinical research facility. Participants: Eight obese nondiabetic (OND) men and eight obese men with type 2 diabetes (ODM). Intervention: Participants received 28 days of metformin (1 g twice daily), placebo, or (in the ODM group) gliclazide (80 mg twice daily) in random order. A deuterated cortisol infusion at the end of each phase measured cortisol regeneration by 11βHSD1. Oral cortisone was given to measure hepatic 11βHSD1 activity in the ODM group. The effect of metformin on 11βHSD1 was also assessed in human hepatocytes and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome adipocytes. Main Outcome Measures: The effect of metformin on whole-body and hepatic 11βHSD1 activity. Results: Whole-body 11βHSD1 activity was approximately 25% higher in the ODM group than the OND group. Metformin increased whole-body cortisol regeneration by 11βHSD1 in both groups compared with placebo and gliclazide and tended to increase hepatic 11βHSD1 activity. In vitro, metformin did not increase 11βHSD1 activity in hepatocytes or adipocytes. Conclusions: Metformin increases whole-body cortisol generation by 11βHSD1 probably through an indirect mechanism, potentially offsetting other metabolic benefits of metformin. Co-prescription with metformin should provide a greater target for selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors. PMID:27459533
Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…
Price, M; Lee, M; Higgs, S
Background/Objectives: The relationship between response inhibition and obesity is currently unclear. This may be because of inconsistencies in methodology, design limitations and the use of narrow samples. In addition, dietary restraint has not been considered, yet restraint has been reported to moderate performance on behavioural tasks of response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate performance on both a food-based and a neutral stimuli go/no-go task, which addresses current design limitations, in lean and overweight/obese adults. The moderating role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body composition, response inhibition and snack intake was also measured. Subjects/Methods: Lean and overweight/obese, males and females (N=116) completed both a food-based and neutral category control go/no-go task, in a fully counterbalanced repeated-measures design. A bogus taste-test was then completed, followed by a self-report measure of dietary restraint. Results: PROCESS moderated-mediation analysis showed that overweight/obese, compared with lean, participants made more errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task, but only when they were low in dietary restraint. Performance on the food-based go/no-go task predicted snack intake across the sample. Increased intake in the overweight, low restrainers was fully mediated by increased errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task. Conclusions: Distinguishing between high and low restrained eaters in the overweight/obese population is crucial in future obesity research incorporating food-based go/no-go tasks. Poor response inhibition to food cues predicts overeating across weight groups, suggesting weight loss interventions and obesity prevention programmes should target behavioural inhibition training in such individuals. PMID:26592733
Background Adult male surgical circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce HIV acquisition in men and is recommended by the WHO for inclusion in comprehensive national HIV prevention programs in high prevalence settings. Only limited research to date has been conducted in countries experiencing moderate burden epidemics, where the acceptability, operational feasibility and potential epidemiological impact of MC remain unclear. Methods A multi-method qualitative research study was conducted at four sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG), with 24 focus group discussions and 65 in-depth interviews carried out among 276 men. Results The majority of men were in favour of MC being introduced for HIV prevention in PNG and considered improved genital hygiene, enhanced sexual pleasure and culturally appropriateness key factors in the acceptability of a future intervention. A minority of men were against the introduction of MC, primarily due to concerns regarding sexual risk compensation and that the intervention went against prevailing cultural and religious beliefs. Conclusion This is one of the first community-based MC acceptability studies conducted in a moderate prevalence setting outside of Africa. Research findings from this study suggest that a future MC program for HIV prevention would be widely accepted by men in PNG. PMID:22264256
Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Dariush; Ahmadi, Slahadin; Salavati, Rashad
Background: Exercise order affects repetition performance and acute hormonal responses to resistance training (RT) programs. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of two different resistance exercise orders (REO) on number of repetitions and serum Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol levels in normal-weight and obese men. Materials and Methods: 25 untrained college-aged men were assigned to either obese (n = 11) or normal-weight (n = 15) groups. Subjects performed two REO protocols in 2 exercise groups. In the first group subjects began with large-muscle group and progressed to small-muscle group (Protocol A), while in the other group subjects performed the same exercise but in reverse sequence (Protocol B). Each activity was performed in 3 consecutive sets of 10 repetitions maximum to near fatigue. Results: REOs did not affect number of repetitions in none of the groups. The average rating of perceived exertion was higher for protocol B in both groups. IGF-1 and testosterone increased immediately post exercise for both protocols and in both groups, however immediately post exercise increase in IGF-1 and testosterone were lower in obese group. Cortisol response to REO was weaker in obese group. Conclusions: Performing large muscle group exercises first in RE training and progressing to small muscle group produced greater anabolic hormonal response relative to reverse sequence in normal-weight young adult men. Anabolic hormonal response to REOs was blunted in the obese group. PMID:27217934
Purpose: We determined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the prevalence, incidence and resolution of bothersome nocturia, increased daytime urinary voiding and urinary incontinence in overweight/obese men with type 2 diabetes after 1 year in the Look AHEAD trial. Materials and Me...
Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Clark, Ross A.; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm
Objectives Intact postural control is essential for safe performance of mountain sports, operation of machinery at altitude, and for piloting airplanes. We tested whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at moderate altitude impairs the static postural control of healthy subjects. Methods In 51 healthy men, median age 24 y (quartiles 20;28), static control was evaluated on a balance platform in Zurich, 490 m, and during a 4-day sojourn in Swiss mountain villages at 1630 m and 2590 m, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Total center of pressure path length (COPL) and sway amplitude measured in two directions by a balance platform, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Data were compared between altitudes. Results Median (quartiles) COPL during standing on both legs with eyes open at 490 m and in the evenings on the first and second days at 1630 and 2590 m, respectively were: 50 (45;57), 55 (48;62), 56 (49;61), 53 (47;59), 54 (48;60) cm, P<0.001 ANOVA. Corresponding arterial oxygen saturation was 97% (96;97), 95% (94;96), 95%(94;96), 92%(90;93), 93%(91;93), P<0.001. Anterior-posterior sway amplitudes were larger at 1630 and 2590 m compared to 490 m, P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher altitudes (1630 and 2590m) were independently associated with increased COPL when controlled for the order of altitude exposure and age (P=0.001). Conclusions Exposure to 1630 and 2590m was associated with impaired static postural control even when visual references were available. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948. PMID:25723529
Prentice, P; Viner, R M
Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche <12 vs ≥12 years) and increased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of 0.34 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.34). Heterogeneity was large (I(2)=92%) but reduced significantly when grouped by outcome age. Late menarche (menarche ≥15 vs <15 years) was associated with decreased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of -0.26 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: -0.36, -0.21) (seven cohorts). Only eight papers included data on childhood BMI; the majority reported that childhood BMI only partially attenuated association between early menarche and later obesity. Although not suitable for meta-analysis, data on cardiometabolic risk factors and puberty suggested negative association between earlier pubertal timing and cardiovascular mortality, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity
Giagulli, V A; Carbone, M D; Ramunni, M I; Licchelli, B; De Pergola, G; Sabbà, C; Guastamacchia, E; Triggiani, V
The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate whether adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin (Met) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), by means of improving weight and glycaemic control, could boost erectile function in type 2 diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a 'real-life setting'. Forty-three obese, diabetic and hypogonadal men (aged 45-59 years) were evaluated because of complaining about the recent onset of ED. They were subdivided into two groups according to whether hypogonadism occurred after puberty (G1; n = 30: 25 with dysfunctional hypogonadism and 5 with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or before puberty (G2; n = 13: 10 with Klinefelter's syndrome and 3 with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). Both G1 and G2 patients were given a combination of testosterone (T) [testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/every 12 weeks] and Met (2000-3000 mg/day) for 1 year. In the poor responders (N) to this therapy in terms of glycaemic target (G1N: n = 16; G2N: n = 10), liraglutide (L) (1.2 μg/day) was added for a second year, while the good responders (Y) to T + Met (G1Y: 14/30 and G2Y: 3/13) continued this two drugs regimen therapy for another year. All patients were asked to fill in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 15) questionnaire before starting TU plus Met (T1) and after 12 months (T2) and 24 months (T3) of treatment. Patients underwent a clinical examination and a determination of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at T1, T2 and T3. At T2, each patient obtained an improvement of ED (p < 0.01) and of the metabolic parameters without reaching, however, the glycaemic goals [HbA1c = >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)], while T turned out to be within the range of young men. L added to TU and Met regimen in G1N and G2N allowed these patients to reach not only the glycaemic target [HbA1c = <7.5% (<58 nmol
Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Lubrano, Carla; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Costantini, Daniela; Nieddu, Luciano; Morano, Susanna; Migliaccio, Silvia; Gnessi, Lucio; Lenzi, Andrea
The "trabecular bone score" (TBS) indirectly explores bone quality, independently of bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the effects of anthropometric and metabolic parameters on TBS in 87 overweight/obese men. We assessed BMD and TBS by DXA, and some parameters of glucose metabolism, sex-and calciotropic hormone levels. Regression models were adjusted for either age and BMI, or age and waist circumference, or age and waist/hip ratio, also considering BMI >35 (y/n) and metabolic syndrome (MS) (y/n). Correlations between TBS and parameters studied were higher when correcting for waist circumference, although not significant in subjects with BMI >35. The analysis of covariance showed that the same model always had a higher adjusted r-square index. BMD at lumbar spine and total hip, fasting glucose, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin are the only covariates having a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the variations of TBS. The presence of MS negatively affected only the association between TBS and BMD at total hip. We did not find any significant effect of BMI >35 on TBS values or significant interaction terms between each covariate and either BMI >35 or the presence of MS. Obesity negatively affected TBS, despite unchanged BMD. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and sex hormone levels seem to influence this relationship, while calciotropic hormones have no role. The effect of waist circumference on TBS is more pronounced than that of BMI.
Carneiro, Gláucia; Togeiro, Sônia Maria; Hayashi, Lílian F; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Ribeiro, Artur Beltrame; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria Teresa
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy (nCPAP) influenced responses. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and overnight cortisol suppression test with 0.25 mg of dexamethasone were performed in 16 obese men with OSAS and 13 obese men controls. Nine men with severe apnea were reevaluated 3 mo after nCPAP therapy. Body mass index and blood pressure of OSAS patients and obese controls were similar. In OSAS patients, the percentage of fall in systolic blood pressure at night (P = 0.027) and salivary cortisol suppression postdexamethasone (P = 0.038) were lower, whereas heart rate (P = 0.022) was higher compared with obese controls. After nCPAP therapy, patients showed a reduction in heart rate (P = 0.036) and a greater cortisol suppression after dexamethasone (P = 0.001). No difference in arterial blood pressure (P = 0.183) was observed after 3 mo of nCPAP therapy. Improvement in cortisol suppression was positively correlated with an improvement in apnea-hypopnea index during nCPAP therapy (r = 0.799, P = 0.010). In conclusion, men with OSAS present increased postdexamethasone cortisol levels and heart rate, which were recovered by nCPAP.
Whyte, Laura J; Gill, Jason M R; Cathcart, Andrew J
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) on metabolic and vascular risk factors in overweight/obese sedentary men. Ten men (age, 32.1 ± 8.7 years; body mass index, 31.0 ± 3.7 kg m(-2)) participated. After baseline metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness measurements, participants completed a 2-week SIT intervention, comprising 6 sessions of 4 to 6 repeats of 30-second Wingate anaerobic sprints on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer, with 4.5-minute recovery between each repetition. Metabolic, anthropometric, and fitness assessments were repeated post-intervention. Both maximal oxygen uptake (2.98 ± 0.15 vs 3.23 ± 0.14 L min(-1), P = .013) and mean Wingate power (579 ± 24 vs 600 ± 19 W, P = .040) significantly increased after 2 weeks of SIT. Insulin sensitivity index (5.35 ± 0.72 vs 4.34 ± 0.72, P = .027) and resting fat oxidation rate in the fasted state (0.13 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.01 g min(-1), P = .019) were significantly higher and systolic blood pressure (121 ± 3 vs 127 ± 3 mm Hg, P = .020) and resting carbohydrate oxidation in the fasted state (0.03 ± 0.01 vs 0.08 ± 0.02 g min(-1), P = .037) were significantly lower 24 hours post-intervention compared with baseline, but these changes were no longer significant 72 hours post-intervention. Significant decreases in waist (98.9 ± 3.1 vs 101.3 ± 2.7 cm, P = .004) and hip (109.8 ± 2.2 vs 110.9 ± 2.2 cm, P = .017) circumferences compared with baseline were also observed after the intervention. Thus, 2 weeks of SIT substantially improved a number of metabolic and vascular risk factors in overweight/obese sedentary men, highlighting the potential for this to provide an alternative exercise model for the improvement of vascular and metabolic health in this population.
Knigge, Anja; Klöting, Nora; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Fasshauer, Mathias; Gärtner, Daniel; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Blüher, Matthias
Genome wide association studies revealed an association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs11708067 within the ADCY5 gene—encoding adenylate cyclase 5—with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and higher fasting glucose. However, it remains unclear whether the association between ADCY5 variants and glycemic traits may involve adipose tissue (AT) related mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ADCY5 mRNA expression in human and mouse AT is related to obesity, fat distribution, T2D in humans and high fat diet (HFD) in mice. We measured ADCY5 mRNA expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from 244 individuals with a wide range of body weight and parameters of hyperglycemia, which have been genotyped for rs11708067. In addition, AT ADCY5 mRNA was assessed in C57BL/6NTac which underwent a 10 weeks standard chow (n = 6) or high fat diet (HFD, n = 6). In humans, visceral ADCY5 expression is significantly higher in obese compared to lean individuals. ADCY5 expression correlates with BMI, body fat mass, circulating leptin, fat distribution, waist and hip circumference, but not with fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Adcy5 expression in mouse AT is significantly higher after a HFD compared to chow (p<0.05). Importantly, rs11708067 is not associated with ADCY5 mRNA expression levels in either fat depot in any of the genetic models tested. Our results suggest that changes in AT ADCY5 expression are related to obesity and fat distribution, but not with impaired glucose metabolism and T2D. However, altered ADCY5 expression in AT does not seem to be the mechanism underlying the association between rs11708067 and increased T2D risk. PMID:25793868
Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Akol'zina, S E; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G
We explored the characteristics of the vitamin status in 471 patients with cardiovascular diseases, according to sex, and BMI values. All patients underwent examination of the system Nutritest-IP: studying their actual meals at home, determined anthropometric measurement, body composition, using biochemical methods evaluated the state of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the functional state of liver and biliary tract, hemostasis, vitamin provision. The results suggest a lack of availability of patients with vitamins C and B group. The number of patients with deficient serum beta-carotene increased proportional to body mass index. The concentration of beta-carotene decreased and vitamin E - increased in blood serum proportionally to increase the degree of obesity. Thus the availability of vitamins in the blood serum depends from sex and body mass index values of the patients. These data suggest that the rate of supply of vitamins are reliable markers to assess the adequacy of the diet consumed by the content of vitamins in people with normal body weight. Appraisingly the content of beta-carotene and vitamin E in the serum of patients it should be taken into account that they have overweight or obese, and abnormality of lipid spectrum of blood serum.
Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease.
Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.
Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598
... In some cases, weight-loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is an option. Weight-loss surgery limits the ... et al. Treatment of obesity: The impact of bariatric surgery. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, & Endoscopy. 2nd ...
Maki, Kevin C; Pelkman, Christine L; Finocchiaro, E Terry; Kelley, Kathleen M; Lawless, Andrea L; Schild, Arianne L; Rains, Tia M
This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in participants with waist circumference ≥89 (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Participants received 0 (control starch), 15, or 30 g/d (double-blind) of HAM-RS2 in random order for 4-wk periods separated by 3-wk washouts. Minimal model S(I) was assessed at the end of each period using the insulin-modified i.v. glucose tolerance test. The efficacy evaluable sample included 11 men and 22 women (mean ± SEM) age 49.5 ± 1.6 y, with a BMI of 30.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference 105.3 ± 1.3 cm. A treatment main effect (P = 0.018) and a treatment × sex interaction (P = 0.033) were present. In men, least squares geometric mean analysis for S(I) did not differ after intake of 15 g/d HAM-RS2 (6.90 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) and 30 g/d HAM-RS2 (7.13 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹), but both were higher than after the control treatment (4.66 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) (P < 0.05). In women, there was no difference among the treatments (overall least squares ln-transformed mean ± pooled SEM = 1.80 ± 0.08; geometric mean = 6.05 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹). These results suggest that consumption of 15-30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves S(I) in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed.
Delmonico, Matthew J; Kostek, Matthew C; Doldo, Neil A; Hand, Brian D; Bailey, Jason A; Rabon-Stith, Karma M; Conway, Joan M; Carignan, Craig R; Lang, Jesse; Hurley, Ben F
The effects of a 10-wk unilateral knee extension strength training (ST) program on peak power (PP) and peak movement velocity (PV), at given absolute (force load) and relative (same % of 1 repetition maximum) resistances (loads), were examined in 30 older men [64 yr (7 SD)] and 32 older women [62 yr (6 SD)]. PP increased significantly in both men and women at the same absolute (P < 0.001) and relative loads (P < 0.01) with ST. Men had a significantly greater increase in relative PP than women with ST at 60% (P < 0.01) and 70% (P < 0.001) of 1 repetition maximum when covarying for baseline differences and age. However, when each subject was tested at the same absolute load and when PP was normalized for the muscle volume of the trained knee extensors (i.e., absolute muscle power quality), women increased by 9% (P < 0.05), whereas men did not change. Both men and women increased their absolute PV (P < 0.001) but decreased their relative PV significantly with ST (P < 0.05). However, when baseline values and age were covaried, women had significantly less of a decrease in relative PV quality with ST than men (P < 0.01), although the difference was small. These normalized data suggest that ST-induced increases in PP depend on muscular hypertrophy in men, but not in women, providing further support for the hypothesis developed from our previous report (Ivey FM, Tracy BL, Lemmer JT, NessAiver M, Metter EJ, Fozard JL and Hurley BF. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55: B152-B157, 2000) that improvements in muscle function with ST result from nonmuscle mass adaptations to a greater extent in women than men.
Sanfilippo, Kristen M; McTigue, Kathleen M; Fidler, Christian J; Neaton, James D; Chang, Yuefang; Fried, Linda F; Liu, Simin; Kuller, Lewis H
Kidney cancer incidence is increasing globally. Reasons for this rise are unclear but could relate to obesity and hypertension. We analyzed longitudinal relationships between hypertension and obesity and kidney cancer incidence in 156 774 participants of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials and observational studies over 10.8 years. In addition, we examined the effect of blood pressure (BP) on kidney cancer deaths for over 25 years among the 353 340 men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). In the Women's Health Initiative, systolic BP (SBP) was categorized in 6 groups from <120 to >160 mm Hg, and body mass index was categorized using standard criteria. In age-adjusted analyses, kidney cancer risk increased across SBP categories (P value for trend <0.0001) and body mass index categories (P value for trend <0.0001). In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, both SBP levels and body mass index were predictors of kidney cancer. In the MRFIT sample, there were 906 deaths after an average of 25 years of follow-up attributed to kidney cancer among the 353 340 participants aged 35 to 57 years at screening. The risk of death from kidney cancer increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing SBP (hazard ratio, 1.87 for SBP>160 versus <120 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.53). Risk was increased among cigarette smokers. Further research is needed to determine the pathophysiologic basis of relationships between both higher BP and the risk of kidney cancer, and whether specific drug therapies for hypertension can reduce kidney cancer risk.
Maffeis, Claudio; Surano, Maria G; Cordioli, Sira; Gasperotti, Sandra; Corradi, Massimiliano; Pinelli, Leonardo
Meal composition is a contributing factor to fat gain. In this study, we investigated the relationship between postprandial nutrient balance, satiety, and hormone changes induced by a high-fat meal vs. a moderate-fat meal. Ten prepubertal obese boys (BMI z-score range: 1.3-3.0) were recruited. Two meals (energy: 590 kcal) were compared: (i) high-fat (HF) meal: 12% protein, 52% fat, 36% carbohydrates; (ii) moderate-fat (MF) meal: 12% protein, 27% fat, 61% carbohydrates. Pre- and postprandial (5 h) substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry), appetite (visual analogue scale), biochemical parameters and gastrointestinal hormone concentrations were measured. Carbohydrate balance was significantly (P < 0.001) lower (31.3 (5.7) g/5 h vs. 66.9 (5.9) g/5 h) and fat balance was significantly (P < 0.001) higher (11.5 (3.3) g/5 h vs. -0.7 (2.9) g/5 h) after HF than MF meal. Appetite (area under the curve (AUC)) was significantly reduced after an MF than an HF meal (494 (55) cm.300 min vs. 595 (57) cm.300 min, P < 0.05). Postprandial triglyceride concentration (AUC) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher after an HF than an MF meal: 141.1 (30.3) mmol.300 min/l vs. 79.3 (23.8) mmol.300 min/l, respectively. Peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin concentrations (AUC) were not significantly different after an HF and MF meal. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher after an HF than after an MF meal (72.3 (9.8) ng/ml vs. 22.7 (7.6) ng/ml, respectively), but it did not affect subjective appetite. In conclusion, an MF meal induced a better postprandial metabolic nutrient balance, triglyceride levels, and appetite suppression than an HF meal. Gastrointestinal hormones were not related to clinically assessed hunger suppression after both meals.
Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni; Borén, Christofer; Eliasson, Björn; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Rivellese, Angela; Riccardi, Gabriele; Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Borén, Jan; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta
Context Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. Objective To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) response to a fat-rich meal. Design Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an OGTT and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5–40.2 kg/m2) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal. Main Outcome Measures Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins. Results The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively). Glucose and insulin AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest. Conclusions In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion was fasting triglycerides. The contribution of endogenous GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP to explaining the variance in postprandial TG excursion was minor. PMID:26752550
Salonen, Anne; Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Holtrop, Grietje; Korpela, Katri; Duncan, Sylvia H; Date, Priya; Farquharson, Freda; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; de Vos, Willem M
There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. In addition, we analyzed fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as a proxy of colonic fermentation, and indices of insulin sensitivity from blood samples. The diet explained around 10% of the total variance in microbiota composition, which was substantially less than the inter-individual variance. Yet, each of the study diets induced clear and distinct changes in the microbiota. Multiple Ruminococcaceae phylotypes increased on the RS diet, whereas mostly Lachnospiraceae phylotypes increased on the NSP diet. Bifidobacteria decreased significantly on the WL diet. The RS diet decreased the diversity of the microbiota significantly. The total 16S ribosomal RNA gene signal estimated by qPCR correlated positively with the three major SCFAs, while the amount of propionate specifically correlated with the Bacteroidetes. The dietary responsiveness of the individual's microbiota varied substantially and associated inversely with its diversity, suggesting that individuals can be stratified into responders and non-responders based on the features of their intestinal microbiota. PMID:24763370
Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality
Bamonti, Patricia M; Price, Elizabeth C; Fiske, Amy
Risk for suicide is elevated among older men. We examined whether value placed on autonomy amplifies the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide risk differently for older men and women. Participants were 98 community-dwelling older adults, M age 73.6 (SD = 8.6), 65.1% female, 93.1% White. Questionnaires measured suicide risk (SBQ-R), depressive symptoms (CESD), and value placed on autonomy (PSI-II autonomy). Among men, depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk only when PSI-II autonomy was elevated. Among women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk at all levels of PSI-II autonomy. Further research on attitudes toward autonomy is warranted.
Fisler, J S; Drenick, E J; Yoshimura, N N; Swendseid, M E
The effects of soy or collagen protein, 1.3 g/kg desirable body weight per day, on fasting and postprandial plasma free amino acid concentrations were evaluated in eight obese men during a 40-day very-low-calorie reducing regimen. The interrelationships among individual plasma amino acids were also examined. In both protein-fed groups, fasting plasma histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine and alanine levels decreased by day 40 whereas glycine increased. The decrease in plasma threonine and increase in plasma glycine were more pronounced in the collagen-fed group (n = 4) than in the soy-fed group (n = 4). Serine increased only in the collagen-fed group. The postprandial increases of all essential amino acids, with the exception of valine and phenylalanine, were less on day 26 than on day zero. Except for threonine levels, plasma amino acid profiles were similar during very-low-calorie dieting and during prolonged fasting. However, essential amino acid levels were better maintained by soy than by collagen protein diets.
Arguin, Hélène; Gagnon-Sweeney, Marlène; Pigeon, Étienne; Tremblay, Angelo
The aim of this study was to verify if the addition of satiating nutrients and a satiating context effect could influence appetite sensations, spontaneous energy intake and food appreciation under conditions of standardized energy density of a meal. Eighteen non-obese men were submitted to a control, a satiating, and a context effect condition composed of a standardized breakfast and an ad libitum test lunch (macaroni entrée plus chocolate cake). The satiating macaroni contained more proteins, unsaturated fats, fibres and calcium than the control macaroni despite similar energy density, appearance and palatability. In the context effect condition, participants believed they were eating "a highly satiating macaroni", but were served the control macaroni. Appreciation of the macaronis, quantities of macaroni and cake consumed and 4-h satiating potential were measured for each condition. Quantities of macaroni and dessert consumed did not differ between conditions. Satiating potential was greater for the context effect meal compared to the control and/or the satiating meals up to 4h after its consumption. The context effect macaroni obtained higher appreciation rates than the control and the satiating macaronis. The context effect may positively influence the appreciation toward a meal and contribute to increase its satiety potential for many hours.
Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Barnett, Tracie A.; Lambert, Marie
Purpose: Identification of factors that relate to physical activity behavior in children at higher risk for weight problems--namely, children with obese parents--is key to informing the development of effective interventions to promote physical activity and reduce obesity. The purpose of our study was to examine children's perceptions of parental…
... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...
Lear, Scott A; Lesser, Iris A
Obesity is increasing in people of Chinese background whether in China or in other countries. The purpose of this review is to discuss the associations of obesity in men and women of Chinese background with cardio-metabolic risk with specific attention to body fat distribution. Evidence suggests that current BMI and WC targets may actually underestimate the cardio-metabolic risk in Chinese compared to European populations from which they were derived. Through a number of investigations, we and others have identified that Chinese men and women tend to have higher cardio-metabolic risk factors at a given body size than people of European background (from which guidelines are generally derived). Our additional investigations have indicated that Chinese men and women have greater amounts of VAT, but similar amounts of DSAT at a given body fat than Europeans and it may be the higher VAT in Chinese people that is, in part, responsible for the greater cardio-metabolic risk in the Chinese. Further investigation of this topic should prove fruitful in shedding light onto the determinants of body fat accumulation and distribution that may help to inform obesity prevention and treatment strategies.
Yassin, Aksam; Nettleship, Joanne E; Talib, Raidh A; Almehmadi, Yousef; Doros, Gheorge
Whether testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a lifelong treatment for men with hypogonadism remains unknown. We investigated long-term TRT and TRT withdrawal on obesity and prostate-related parameters. Two hundred and sixty-two hypogonadal patients (mean age 59.5) received testosterone undecanoate in 12-week intervals for a maximum of 11 years. One hundred and forty-seven men had TRT interrupted for a mean of 16.9 months and resumed thereafter (Group A). The remaining 115 patients were treated continuously (Group B). Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, C-reactive protein (CRP), aging male symptoms (AMS), International Index of erectile function - erectile function (IIEF-EF) and International Prostate Symptoms Scores (IPSS) were measured over the study period with anthropometric parameters of obesity, including weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Prior to interruption, TRT resulted in improvements in residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, CRP, AMS, IIEF-EF, IPSS and obesity parameters while PSA and prostate volume increased. TRT interruption reduced total testosterone to hypogonadal levels in Group A and resulted in worsening of obesity parameters, AMS, IPSS, residual voiding volume and bladder wall thickness, IIEF-EF and PSA while CRP and prostate volume were unchanged until treatment resumed whereby these effects were reversed. TRT interruption results in worsening of symptoms. Hypogonadism may require lifelong TRT.
Weber, U; Oguz, R; Potura, L A; Kimberger, O; Kober, A; Tschernko, E
The aim of our study was to compare leakage pressure, ease and time of insertion of the i-gel and the LMA-Unique laryngeal mask airway in patients with mild to moderate obesity during elective short-term surgery. In this prospective, randomised crossover trial, we included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >25 and <35 kg.m(-2) , and , age >18 years, undergoing elective surgery in the supine position with an expected duration of surgery <2 h. Leakage pressures, insertion difficulty, time and number of insertion attempts were evaluated. We included 50 patients consisting of 29 mildly (BMI>25 and < 30 kg.mg(-2) ) and 21 moderately (BMI>30 and < 35 kg.mg(-2) ) obese patients. Mean (SD) leakage pressures were 23.7 (9.2) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.4 (7.0) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p<0.01). Subgroup analyses showed leakage pressures of 22.2 (9.4) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.5 (7.5) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p=0.013) in the mild subgroup, and 25.7 (8.6) cmH₂O (i-gel) and 17.0 (6.2) cmH₂O (LMA-Unique) (p<0.01), in the moderate subgroup. Insertion of the i-gel was associated with significantly higher leakage pressures compared with the LMA-Unique in mildly and moderately obese patients.
Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen; Sheikh, Shehnaz; Fawad, Asher; Haleem, Muhammad A
A large number of diabetes patients suffer from major depression and are at high risk of mortality. In view of a role of leptin in diabetes, depression and energy homeostasis, the present study concerns circulating levels of leptin in different BMI groups of un-depressed and depressed diabetes patients. Six hundred thirty male and female patients with a primary diagnosis of diabetes were grouped according to BMI and with or without clinical symptoms of depression. Age matched healthy, normal weight male and female volunteers without clinical symptoms of depression or diabetes were taken as controls. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast of 12 h. Serum was stored for the determination of leptin and glucose. We found that there were more female than male diabetes patients with comorbid depression. Fasting leptin was higher in normal weight non-diabetes women than men; but comparable in normal weight men and women diabetes patients. Fasting glucose levels were higher in diabetes than non diabetes groups; values were comparable in men and women. Depression was associated with a decrease and increase in leptin respectively in normal-overweight and obese men and women diabetes patients. Glucose levels were also higher in obese depressed than un-depressed diabetes patients. The results suggested that the female gender is at greater risk to comorbid diabetes with depression. Adipo-insular axis plays an important role in diabetes, associated depression and in the greater risk of the female gender to comorbid diabetes with depression.
Antczak, Andrzej; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Kashyap, Aniruddh; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Górski, Bohdan; Gromowski, Tomasz; Gołąb, Adam; Sikorski, Andrzej; Słojewski, Marcin; Gliniewicz, Bartłomiej; Borkowski, Tomasz; Borkowski, Andrzej; Przybyła, Jacek; Sosnowski, Marek; Małkiewicz, Bartosz; Zdrojowy, Romuald; Sikorska-Radek, Paulina; Matych, Józef; Wilkosz, Jacek; Różański, Waldemar; Kiś, Jacek; Bar, Krzysztof; Janiszewska, Hanna; Stawicka, Małgorzata; Milecki, Piotr; Lubiński, Jan; Narod, Steven A; Cybulski, Cezary
A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Recently, a single SNP in the region of chromosome 8q24 (rs188140481) has been associated with a three-fold increased risk of prostate cancer in Europe and North America. To establish whether rs188140481 is associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Poland, we genotyped 3467 men with prostate cancer and 1958 controls. The A allele of rs188140481 was detected in 44 of 3467 (1.3%) men with prostate cancer and in seven of 1958 (0.4%) controls (odds ratio=3.6; 95% confidence interval 1.6-7.9; P=0.0006). The allele was present in eight of 390 (2.1%) men with familial prostate cancer (odds ratio=5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-16.2; P=0.001). A positive family history of cancers at sites other than the prostate was observed in 27% of men who carried the rs188140481 risk allele and in 44% of noncarriers (P=0.04). No cancer at a site other than the prostate was more common in first-degree or second-degree relatives of carriers of the rs188140481 risk allele than relatives of noncarriers. The rs188140481 polymorphism in the 8q24 region confers a moderate increase in the risk of prostate cancer in Polish men. The SNP does not appear to be associated with susceptibility to cancers of other types.
Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis
Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across
Redman, Leanne M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Rood, Jennifer; Smith, Steven R.; Williamson, Donald; Ravussin, Eric
Summary Lifespan in rodents is prolonged by caloric restriction (CR) and by mutations affecting the somatotropic axis. It is not known if CR can alter the age-associated decline in GH, IGF-1 and GH secretion. Aim To evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on GH secretory dynamics. Methods Forty-three young (36.8±1.0y), overweight (BMI 27.8±0.7) men (n=20) and women (n=23) were randomized into four groups; Control=100% of energy requirements; CR=25% calorie restriction; CR+EX=12.5% CR+12.5% increase in energy expenditure by structured exercise; LCD=low calorie diet until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. At baseline and after six months, body composition (DXA), abdominal visceral fat (CT) 11-h GH secretion (blood sampling every 10 min for 11 hours; 2100h-0800h) and deconvolution analysis were measured. Results After six months, weight (Control:−1±1%, CR:−10±1%, CR+EX:−10±1%, LCD:−14±1%), fat mass (Control:−2±3%, CR:−24±3%, CR+EX:−25±3%, LCD:−31±2%), and visceral fat (Control: −2±4%, CR:−28±4%, CR+EX:−27±3%, LCD:−36±2%) were significantly (p<.001) reduced in the three intervention groups compared to control. Mean 11-h GH concentrations were not changed in CR or control but increased in CR+EX (p<.0001) and LCD (p<.0001) because of increased secretory burst mass (CR+EX: 34±13%, LCD: 27±22%, p<0.05) and amplitude (CR+EX: 34±14%, LCD: 30±20%, p<0.05) but not to changes in secretory burst frequency or GH half-life. Fasting ghrelin was significantly increased from baseline in all three intervention groups however total IGF-1 concentrations were increased only in CR+EX (10±7%, p<0.05) and LCD (19±4%, p<0.001). Conclusion A 25% CR diet for 6 months does not change GH, GH secretion or IGF-1 in non-obese men and women. PMID:19878147
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.
Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M
Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters.
Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne
Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet.
Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Astrup, Arne
Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0–12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13–64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%–12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317
Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T
The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.
Canto, Patricia; Benítez Granados, Jesús; Martínez Ramírez, Mónica Adriana; Reyes, Edgardo; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Zavala, Esperanza; Tapia, André; Rojano-Mejía, David; Méndez, Juan Pablo
Mitochondrial defects have been related to obesity and prostate cancer. We investigated if Mexican-Mestizo men presenting this type of cancer, exhibited somatic mutations of ATP6 and/or ND3.Body mass index (BMI) was determined; the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness was demarcated by the Gleason score. DNA from tumor tissue and from blood leukocytes was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and ATP6 and ND3 were sequenced. We included 77 men: 20 had normal BMI, 38 were overweight and 19 had obesity; ages ranged from 52 to 83. After sequencing ATP6 and ND3, from DNA obtained from leukocytes and tumor tissue, we did not find any somatic mutations. All changes observed, in both genes, were polymorphisms. In ATP6 we identified, in six patients, two non-synonymous nucleotide changes and in ND3 we observed that twelve patients presented non-synonymous polymorphisms. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report where the complete sequences of the ATP6 and ND3 have been analyzed in Mexican-Mestizo men with prostate cancer and diverse BMI. Our results differ with those reported in Caucasian populations, possibly due to ethnic differences.
Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin
Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.
Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin
Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30–65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1–3 times per week; 300–500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms. PMID:27886073
Lee, I-Te; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng
Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, the postprandial BDNF change has not been well investigated. We hypothesized that the BDNF increment after oral glucose challenge is associated with body weight. To address this possibility, man adults with obesity in conjunction with metabolic syndrome were compared with normal weight controls at baseline in the initial cross-sectional protocol. The obese subjects then underwent a 12-week program for body-weight reduction in the prospective protocol. The area under the curve (AUC) of serum BDNF was recorded during a 75 g oral glucose tolerant test and the BDNF AUC index was defined as [(AUC of BDNF) − (fasting BDNF∗2 hours)]/(fasting BDNF∗2 hours). A total of 25 controls and 36 obese subjects completed the study assessments. In the cross-sectional protocol, the BDNF AUC index was significantly higher in the obese subjects than in the controls (9.0 ± 16.5% vs. − 8.0 ± 22.5%, P = 0.001). After weight reduction (from 97.0 ± 12.5 kg to 88.6 ± 12.9 kg, P < 0.001), the percentage change of body weight was significantly associated with the BDNF AUC index after the study (95% CI between 0.21 and 1.82, P = 0.015). Using 6% weight reduction as a cut-off value, a larger weight reduction was able to reliably predict a negative BDNF AUC index. In conclusion, a high BDNF AUC index was observed for obese men in this study, whereas the index value significantly decreased after body-weight reduction. These findings suggest that postprandial BDNF increment may be associated with obesity. PMID:27787389
Lee, I-Te; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, the postprandial BDNF change has not been well investigated. We hypothesized that the BDNF increment after oral glucose challenge is associated with body weight.To address this possibility, man adults with obesity in conjunction with metabolic syndrome were compared with normal weight controls at baseline in the initial cross-sectional protocol. The obese subjects then underwent a 12-week program for body-weight reduction in the prospective protocol. The area under the curve (AUC) of serum BDNF was recorded during a 75 g oral glucose tolerant test and the BDNF AUC index was defined as [(AUC of BDNF) - (fasting BDNF2 hours)]/(fasting BDNF2 hours).A total of 25 controls and 36 obese subjects completed the study assessments. In the cross-sectional protocol, the BDNF AUC index was significantly higher in the obese subjects than in the controls (9.0 ± 16.5% vs. - 8.0 ± 22.5%, P = 0.001). After weight reduction (from 97.0 ± 12.5 kg to 88.6 ± 12.9 kg, P < 0.001), the percentage change of body weight was significantly associated with the BDNF AUC index after the study (95% CI between 0.21 and 1.82, P = 0.015). Using 6% weight reduction as a cut-off value, a larger weight reduction was able to reliably predict a negative BDNF AUC index.In conclusion, a high BDNF AUC index was observed for obese men in this study, whereas the index value significantly decreased after body-weight reduction. These findings suggest that postprandial BDNF increment may be associated with obesity.
Gunga, H C; Kirsch, K; Baartz, F; Steiner, H J; Wittels, P; Röcker, L
To quantify fluid distribution at a moderate altitude (2,315 m) 29 male subjects were studied with respect to tissue thickness changes [front (forehead), sternum, tibia], changes of total body water, changes of plasma volume, total protein concentrations (TPC), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), and electrolytes. Tissue thickness at the forehead showed a significant increase from 4.14 mm to 4.41 mm 48 h after ascent to the Rudolfshuette (2,315 m) (P < 0.05). At 96 h after ascent the tissue thickness at the tibia was decreased to 1.33 mm compared to the control value of 1.59 mm (P < 0.01). Body mass increased from 75.5 kg (control) to 76.2 kg on the last day (P < 0.05) and body water from 44.21 to 45.01 during the week (P < 0.01). The accumulation fluid in the upper part of the body was paralleled by a decrease in TPC and COP. At 48 h after the ascent COP dropped from 29.5 mmHg to 27.5 mmHg (P < 0.01). After 96 h at moderate altitude COP was still significantly decreased compared to the control level. At 1.5 h after the return from the Rudolf-shuette in Saalfelden (744 m) COP was back to the control values. The TPC also showed an initial drop from 7.75 g.dl-1 to 7.48 g.dl-1 after 48 h at altitude and remained below the control value during the whole week (P < 0.01). It seems from our study that even with exposure to moderate altitude measurable fluid shifts to the upper part of the body occurred which were detected by our ultrasound method.
Taverner, D; Craig, K; Mackay, I; Watson, M L
The renal excretory and haemodynamic responses to sustained moderate exertion were investigated in normotensive humans with impaired renal function and normal volunteers. The heart rate increase with exercise was similar in each group. Subjects with impaired renal function showed a significant fall in glomerular filtration rate on exertion, while normals did not. In the presence of renal disease, urine osmolality did not rise with exertion, although it rose markedly in the normal group. Free water clearance became negative after exercise in the normal group only. The diseased kidney is unable to maintain glomerular filtration rate or conserve water under the stress of exertion as well as the normal kidney.
Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Nimptsch, Katharina; Pischon, Tobias
This review outlines the association of obesity with risk of colorectal cancer and the potential underlying mechanisms from an epidemiological perspective. Current research indicates that there is a moderate but consistently reported association between general obesity (as determined by BMI) and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. The relative risk associated with obesity is higher for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum and it is higher in men than in women. By contrast, abdominal adiposity (as determined by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio) is similarly strongly associated with colon cancer in men and women, suggesting that abdominal adiposity is a more important risk factor for colon cancer than general adiposity, at least in women. Putative mechanisms that may account for the link between adiposity and colorectal cancer risk include hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, altered immune response, oxidative stress, as well as disturbances in insulin-like growth factors, adipokines, and sex steroids. Understanding the link between obesity and colorectal cancer may pave the way for targeted prevention of colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality.
McNeil, Jessica; Mamlouk, Mohamed M; Duval, Karine; Schwartz, Alexander; Nardo Junior, Nelson; Doucet, Éric
We examined the variations in eating behavior, appetite ratings, satiety efficiency, energy expenditure, anthropometric and metabolic profile markers prior to, during as well as 1 and 4 months after Ramadan in normal-weight and obese men. Anthropometric, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry and accelerometry), metabolic (fasting blood sample), appetite (visual analogue scales), and eating behavior (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) measurements were performed in 10 normal-weight (age: 25.2 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 24.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 10 obese (age: 27.0 ± 4.5 years; BMI: 34.8 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) men. The satiety quotient (SQ) was calculated 180 minutes after breakfast consumption. All anthropometric variables, as well as resting and total energy expenditure, were greater in obese compared to normal-weight participants (P = 0.02-0.0001). Similarly, obese participants had greater triglycerides, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance concentrations (P = 0.02-0.002). Greater apolipoprotein B, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein concentrations were noted during Ramadan (P = 0.04-0.0001). Dietary restraint scores were also greater during Ramadan (P = 0.0001). No differences in anthropometry, other metabolic profile markers, energy expenditure, appetite ratings, and SQ were noted across sessions. Lastly, changes in anthropometric measurements correlated with delta metabolic profile markers, as well as changes in disinhibition eating behavior trait and dietary restraint scores. The Ramadan fast led to increases in certain metabolic profile markers despite no changes in appetite and anthropometry.
Kobayashi, Makoto; Kawano, Takanori; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Fukuhara, Ikuo
Objective To determine whether ingesting a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults. Design Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Subjects A total of 126 obese subjects (25 ≤ body mass index < 30 kg m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a group receiving green tea beverages without catechins (placebo), or a group receiving green tea beverages with a low or high content of catechins with a galloyl moiety. Each subject ingested 500 mL bottled green tea beverages containing 25, 180, or 279.5 mg green tea catechins (0, 149.5, or 246.5 mg catechins with a galloyl moiety, respectively), at mealtimes for 12 weeks; the subjects were instructed to ingest the beverage during the meal that had the highest fat content on that day. Methods Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis were performed during the run-in period; at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period; and at the end of the withdrawal period. Abdominal fat area was measured by computed tomography at weeks 0, 8, and 12 of the intake period and at the end of the withdrawal period. Results Both the low- and high-dose groups exhibited significant reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas compared to the control group at 12 weeks post-intervention. Conclusion Ingestion of a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a high-fat meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults.
Zarzycka, Beata; Rybarski, Radosław; Sliwak, Jacek
The aim of the research was to analyze the relationships of religious comfort and struggle with state anxiety and satisfaction with life in homosexual and heterosexual samples of men. A hundred and eight men aged between 18 and 43 participated in the research in total, 54 declared themselves as homosexual and 54 as heterosexual. The Religious Comfort and Strain Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were applied to the research. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that sexual orientation moderated the relationships of religious comfort and struggle with state anxiety and satisfaction with life. The highest state anxiety was observed in homosexual participants with high negative social interactions surrounding religion scores. Negative religious social interactions with fellow congregants and religious leaders, including disapproval and criticism, create anxiety among homosexual people. It seems that homosexual participants are engaged in a trade-off between valued and necessary religious engagement and the harassment and persecution they may be forced to endure in order to access that engagement.
Simpson, Courtney C; Sutter, Megan; Perrin, Paul B
This study examined the connections between heterosexism, mental health, body appreciation and community consciousness in sexual minority men (SMM). Participants (n = 89) completed a national online survey. Simultaneous multiple regressions found that heterosexism explained 9.4% of the variance in body appreciation and 25.8% of the variance in mental health; mental health accounted for 28.0% of the variance in body appreciation. Within these models, harassment/rejection heterosexism was a unique positive predictor of mental health problems and a unique negative predictor of body appreciation; depression was a unique negative predictor of body appreciation. A moderated mediational model found that depression mediated the relationship between harassment/rejection heterosexism and body appreciation, but only in men who endorsed high community consciousness. Intervention research might benefit from helping SMM explore the ways in which body image is affected by heterosexism and mental health, as well as the ways that contemporary Western gay communities might contribute to these connections.
Those who adhere to system justifying beliefs benefit from a palliative function that buffers negative effects on psychological well-being. This has been consistently observed for high-status groups, whereas for members of low-status groups, it remains rather unclear whether system justification exerts a positive or a negative effect. This study tested the palliative effect of system justification on symptoms of anxiety-depression in a gay men and lesbian sample (N = 467) in Chile. Results from moderated mediation analyses revealed that system justification beliefs buffer symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, system justification enhances anxious and depressive symptoms through internalized homonegativity; this mediation effect was significant for gay men. We pose that justifying the social order comprises two contradictory functions: system justification as a coping source, and otherwise, as source of distress under conditions of in-group derogation, posing a threat to well-being among members of low-status groups (as observed in gay and lesbian individuals). Implications of the opposing effects, and gender differences are further discussed in this study.
Puga, Guilherme M.; Meyer, Christian; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Katsanos, Christos S.
Adverse effects on health mediated by increased plasma FFA concentrations are well established and older individuals are particularly susceptible to these effects. We sought to determine the effects of the amount of dietary fat on increasing the plasma FFA concentrations as a result of “spillover” of dietary fat into the plasma FFA pool during the postprandial period in older men. Healthy, older participants (63–71 y old) were studied in a randomized, crossover design following ingestions of low (LF) and moderate (MF) amounts of [1,1,1-13C]-triolein-labeled fat, corresponding to 0.4 and 0.7 g of fat/kg body weight, respectively. Spillover of dietary fatty acids into plasma during the 8-h postprandial period (AUC; mmol · L−1 · h) after MF ingestion was 1.2 times greater than that after LF ingestion (2.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1; P < 0.05). The spillover of dietary fatty acids following the MF, but not the LF, ingestion was correlated with the percent body fat (rs = −0.89) and percent body fat-free mass (rs = 0.94) of the men (P < 0.05). After adjusting to the amount of ingested fat, the spillover of dietary fatty acids in the MF trial was disproportionally higher than that in the LF trial (P < 0.05), but the corresponding postprandial plasma TG responses did not differ between trials. In conclusion, spillover of dietary lipid into plasma is disproportionally increased at higher doses of dietary fat and this response is inversely related to adiposity in healthy men of advanced age. PMID:22955513
Davidson, Michael H; Maki, Kevin C; Dicklin, Mary R; Feinstein, Steven B; Witchger, Marysue; Bell, Marjorie; McGuire, Darren K; Provost, Jean-Claude; Liker, Harley; Aviram, Michael
This randomized, double-blind, parallel trial assessed the influence of pomegranate juice consumption on anterior and posterior carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression rates in subjects at moderate risk for coronary heart disease. Subjects were men (45 to 74 years old) and women (55 to 74 years old) with > or =1 major coronary heart disease risk factor and baseline posterior wall CIMT 0.7 to 2.0 mm, without significant stenosis. Participants consumed 240 ml/day of pomegranate juice (n = 146) or a control beverage (n = 143) for up to 18 months. No significant difference in overall CIMT progression rate was observed between pomegranate juice and control treatments. In exploratory analyses, in subjects in the most adverse tertiles for baseline serum lipid peroxides, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, TGs/HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B100, those in the pomegranate juice group had significantly less anterior wall and/or composite CIMT progression versus control subjects. In conclusion, these results suggest that in subjects at moderate coronary heart disease risk, pomegranate juice consumption had no significant effect on overall CIMT progression rate but may have slowed CIMT progression in subjects with increased oxidative stress and disturbances in the TG-rich lipoprotein/HDL axis.
Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.
The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664
Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M
The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.
Cabral-Santos, C; Giacon, T R; Campos, E Z; Gerosa-Neto, J; Rodrigues, B; Vanderlei, L C M; Lira, F S
The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) recovery after two iso-volume (5 km) exercises performed at different intensities. 14 subjects volunteered (25.17±5.08 years; 74.7±6.28 kg; 175±0.05 cm; 59.56±5.15 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), the subjects completed 2 random experimental trials: high-intensity exercise (HIE - 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak), and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MIE - 70% sVO2Peak). HRV and RR intervals were monitored before, during and after the exercise sessions together with, the HRV analysis in the frequency domains (high-frequency - HF: 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and low-frequency - LF: 0.04 to 0.15 Hz components) and the ratio between them (LF/HF). Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIE and MIE were performed using a mixed model. Both exercise sessions modified LFlog, HFlog, and LF/HF (F=16.54, F=19.32 and F=5.17, p<0.05, respectively). A group effect was also found for LFlog (F=23.91, p<0.05), and HFlog (F=57.55, p< 0.05). LF/HF returned to resting value 15 min after MIE exercise and 20 min after HIE exercise. This means that the heavy domain (aerobic and anaerobic threshold) induces dissimilar autonomic modification in physically active subjects. Both HIE and MIE modify HRV, and generally HIE delays parasympathetic autonomic modulation recovery after iso-volume exercise.
Gerosa-Neto, José; Antunes, Barbara M.M.; Campos, Eduardo Z.; Rodrigues, Jhennyfer; Ferrari, Gustavo D.; Rosa Neto, José C.; Bueno, Carlos R.; Lira, Fábio S.
Obesity is a risk factor able to trigger several inflammatory alterations and the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine productions. Physical exercise is an important strategy for reduction of inflammatory established process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of three exercise training programs in the inflammatory profile and insulin resistance in overweight/obesity. Thirty two men and women (46.4±10.1 years; 162.0±9.1 cm; 82.0±13.6 kg) were divided into three groups for training on a treadmill: continuous at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax) 5 times a week (CONT); 1×4 min (1-bout) and 4×4 min (high intensity interval training, HIIT) at 90% HRmax 3 times a week. Interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), insulin and adiponectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance was calculated. After 16 weeks of training blood concentrations of IL-6 decreased in the HIIT group (P=0.035), TNF-α decreased in the CONT (P=0.037) and increased in HIIT (P=0.001) and adiponectin decreased in the three training models. There was a trend towards decreased body weight and body mass index (BMI) after HIIT only (P=0.059 and P=0.060, respectively). Despite the decrease of adiponectin and the increase of TNF-α in HIIT group, insulin sensitivity showed a trend for improvement (P=0.08). HIIT program decreased IL-6 at rest and although not significant was the only who tended to decrease total body weight and BMI. Taken together, our data suggest that both HIIT as well as CONT exercises training program promotes changes in inflammatory profile in overweight/obesity, but dissimilar response is seen in TNF-α levels. PMID:28119880
Gerosa-Neto, José; Antunes, Barbara M M; Campos, Eduardo Z; Rodrigues, Jhennyfer; Ferrari, Gustavo D; Rosa Neto, José C; Bueno, Carlos R; Lira, Fábio S
Obesity is a risk factor able to trigger several inflammatory alterations and the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine productions. Physical exercise is an important strategy for reduction of inflammatory established process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of three exercise training programs in the inflammatory profile and insulin resistance in overweight/obesity. Thirty two men and women (46.4±10.1 years; 162.0±9.1 cm; 82.0±13.6 kg) were divided into three groups for training on a treadmill: continuous at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax) 5 times a week (CONT); 1×4 min (1-bout) and 4×4 min (high intensity interval training, HIIT) at 90% HRmax 3 times a week. Interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), insulin and adiponectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance was calculated. After 16 weeks of training blood concentrations of IL-6 decreased in the HIIT group (P=0.035), TNF-α decreased in the CONT (P=0.037) and increased in HIIT (P=0.001) and adiponectin decreased in the three training models. There was a trend towards decreased body weight and body mass index (BMI) after HIIT only (P=0.059 and P=0.060, respectively). Despite the decrease of adiponectin and the increase of TNF-α in HIIT group, insulin sensitivity showed a trend for improvement (P=0.08). HIIT program decreased IL-6 at rest and although not significant was the only who tended to decrease total body weight and BMI. Taken together, our data suggest that both HIIT as well as CONT exercises training program promotes changes in inflammatory profile in overweight/obesity, but dissimilar response is seen in TNF-α levels.
Chou, Louisa; Brady, Sharmayne R E; Urquhart, Donna M; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Wluka, Anita E
Low back pain (LBP) and obesity are major public health problems; however, the relationship between body composition and low back pain in men is unknown. This study aims to examine the association between body composition and LBP and disability in a population-based sample of men, as well as the factors that may affect this relationship. Nine hundred seventy-eight male participants from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study were invited to participate in a follow-up study in 2006. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics and health status. Low back pain was determined using the validated Chronic Back Pain Grade Questionnaire and the presence of an emotional disorder was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of the 820 respondents (84% response rate), 124 (15%) had high-intensity low back pain and/or disability (back pain). Low back pain was associated with higher body mass index (28.7 ± 0.4 vs 27.3 ± 0.2 kg/m2, P = 0.02) and waist-hip ratio (0.97 ± 0.006 vs 0.96 ± 0.006, P = 0.04), with increased tendency toward having a higher fat mass index (8.0 vs 7.6 kg/m2, P = 0.08), but not fat-free mass index (P = 0.68). The associations between back pain and measures of obesity were stronger in those with an emotional disorder, particularly for waist-hip ratio (P = 0.05 for interaction) and fat mass index (P = 0.06 for interaction).In a population-based sample of men, high-intensity LBP and/or disability were associated with increased levels of obesity, particularly in those with an emotional disorder. This provides evidence to support a biopsychosocial interaction between emotional disorders and obesity with low back pain.
Casazza, K.; Durant, N. H.
Summary This study evaluated body composition outcomes following a 3-month exercise program for overweight/obese Black women. BMI decreased over the 3-month study despite an observed increase in body fat. Enhancements in bone marrow density and muscle density were also observed. Results show promising yet hypothesis-generating findings to explore in future research. Introduction Few studies have evaluated the relationship between aerobic physical activity (PA) and body composition among young adult overweight/obese African American (AA) women. Purpose The current study evaluated the effect of a 3-month moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity intervention for overweight and obese young adult women on bone, lean, and fat mass. Methods Participants (n=15) were a randomly selected subset of AA female college students (M age=21.7 years; M BMI= 33.3) enrolled in a larger PA promotion pilot study (n=31). Study protocol required participants to engage in four 30–60-min moderate-intensity aerobic PA sessions each week. Whole body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess additional quantitative and qualitative assessment of the radius. Results BMI decreased over the duration of the study (P=.034), reflected by a marginal decrease in body weight (P=.057). However, unexpectedly, increases in adipose tissue measures were observed, including total body fat (P=.041), percent body fat (P=.044), trunk fat (P=.031), and percent trunk fat (P=.041). No changes in DXA-measured bone outcomes were observed (i.e., bone mineral density, P=.069; bone mineral content, P=.211). Results from the pQCT assessment showed that bone marrow density increased (P=.011), but cortical density remained stable (P=.211). A marginally significant increase in muscle density (P=.053) and no changes in muscle area (P=.776) were observed. Conclusions A 3-month moderate-intensity PA program was associated
Miller, Matthew B.; Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Cahill, Farrell; McCarthy, Heather; Stratton, Shane B. D.; Noftall, Jennifer C.; Buckle, Steven; Basset, Fabien A.; Sun, Guang; Button, Duane C.
The objective of this study was to determine how a high-intensity circuit-training (HICT) program affects key physiological health markers in sedentary obese men. Eight obese (body fat percentage >26%) males completed a four-week HICT program, consisting of three 30-minute exercise sessions per week, for a total of 6 hours of exercise. Participants' heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rating of perceived exertion, total work (TW), and time to completion were measured each exercise session, body composition was measured before and after HICT, and fasting blood samples were measured before throughout, and after HICT program. Blood sample measurements included total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Statistical significance was set to P < 0.05. Data analyses revealed significant (P < 0.05) improvements in resting HR (16% decrease), systolic BP (5.5% decrease), TW (50.7%), fat tissue percentage (3.6%), lean muscle tissue percentage (2%), cholesterol (13%), triacylglycerol (37%), and insulin (18%) levels from before to after HICT program. Overall, sedentary obese males experienced a significant improvement in biochemical, physical, and body composition characteristics from a HICT program that was only 6 hours of the total exercise. PMID:24707476
Parker, Lewan; Stepto, Nigel K; Shaw, Christopher S; Serpiello, Fabio R; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L; Levinger, Itamar
Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1-3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160(Ser588), were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE.
Parker, Lewan; Stepto, Nigel K.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Serpiello, Fabio R.; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L.; Levinger, Itamar
Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1–3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE. PMID:27695421
Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj
High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men.
de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Meunier, Sophie; Cyr, Caroline; Coulombe, Simon; Tremblay, Gilles; Auger, Nathalie; Roy, Bernard; Gaboury, Isabelle; Lavoie, Brigitte; Dion, Harold; Houle, Janie
The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the association between weight status and men's positive mental health, defined as the presence of symptoms of emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and (2) evaluate the moderating effect of marital status. A total of 645 men aged between 19 and 71 years self-reported their height and weight and answered a questionnaire measuring their emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Analysis of variance revealed that mean levels of emotional, psychological, and social well-being did not significantly differ according to men's weight status. Moderation analyses indicated that, for men in a relationship (married or living common-law), there were no significant associations between overweight, obesity, and the three components of positive mental health. However, for single men, overweight was marginally associated with higher emotional well-being, while obesity was associated with lower psychological well-being and marginally associated with lower social well-being. Results of the present study suggest that health professionals and researchers should take the characteristics (such as marital status) of men with obesity and overweight into account when working with them. Mental health researchers may need to examine men in each weight category separately (e.g. obesity vs. overweight), since the association with positive mental health can differ from one category to another.
Palou, Mariona; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina
In rats, 20% gestational energy restriction programmes offspring for higher food intake, which in adulthood results in higher body weight in males but not in females. Here, we aimed to assess whether the effects of moderate energy restriction during gestation and the sex-related outcomes on adult body weight may be related to the metabolic programming of sirtuin expression in different tissues. For this purpose, 25-d-old offspring of control and 20% energy-restricted (ER) rats (from days 1-12 of pregnancy) were studied. Body weight and the weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) depots and liver were recorded and mRNA expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and selected genes in the WAT, liver, muscle and hypothalamus were analysed. No differences were found in body weight or the weight of WAT and liver between the control and ER animals. A similar pattern of SIRT1 mRNA expression was found in the WAT, liver and skeletal muscle of ER animals, but in a sex-dependent manner: ER males showed lower SIRT1 mRNA levels than the controls, while no differences were found in females. A sex-different pattern was also observed in the hypothalamus. ER males, but not females, also showed lower mRNA levels of adipose TAG lipase (ATGL) and uncoupling protein 2 in WAT and of sterol response element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in the liver. Both sexes of ER animals showed lower mRNA levels of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and ATGL in the liver. In conclusion, moderate maternal energy restriction during gestation programmes a particular, sex-dependent gene expression profile of SIRT1 in different peripheral tissues, which may be related to obesity predisposition in adulthood; therefore SIRT1 expression emerges as a potential early biomarker of obesity susceptibility.
Bertinato, Jesse; Wu Xiao, Chao; Ratnayake, W. M. Nimal; Fernandez, Lois; Lavergne, Christopher; Wood, Carla; Swist, Eleonora
Background A large proportion of adults in North America are not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Women and people of South Asian race may be at higher risk for Mg deficiency because of lower Mg intakes relative to requirements and increased susceptibility to diabetes, respectively. Objective This study compared serum Mg concentrations in South Asian (n=276) and white (n=315) Canadian women and men aged 20–79 years living in Canada's Capital Region and examined the relationship with diabetes, glucose control, insulin resistance, and body mass index. Results Serum Mg concentration was lower in women of both races and South Asians of both genders. Racial differences in serum Mg were not significant after controlling for use of diabetes medication. A substantial proportion of South Asian (18%) and white (9%) women had serum Mg <0.75 mmol/L indicating hypomagnesemia. Use of diabetes medication and indicators of poorer glucose control, insulin resistance, and obesity were associated with lower serum Mg in women, but not in men. Conclusions These results suggest that the higher incidence of diabetes in South Asians increases their risk for Mg deficiency and that health conditions that increase Mg requirements have a greater effect on Mg status in women than men. PMID:25947295
Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention.
Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0–2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880
Zwirska-Korczala, K; Konturek, S J; Sodowski, M; Wylezol, M; Kuka, D; Sowa, P; Adamczyk-Sowa, M; Kukla, M; Berdowska, A; Rehfeld, J F; Bielanski, W; Brzozowski, T
Metabolic syndrome (MS), defined as central obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance, has been associated with inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular diseases. This study was carried out on three groups of women; lean controls, moderately obese with MS (OB-MS) and morbidly obese with MS (MOB-MS). The main objectives were: 1. to analyze the plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin and insulin levels under basal conditions and in response to a standard mixed meal, and 2. to elucidate the relationship between the plasma levels of these gut peptides and metabolic syndrome parameters. Plasma levels of the gut hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays at time 0 just before the meal and at 30, 60 and 120 min after a meal ingestion. Traditional lipid profile and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), the strongest biomarker of inflammation were also determined in OB-MS and MOB-MS. When compared to OB-MS, MOB-MS exhibited much higher anthropometric parameters such as waist circumference, higher fat mass and higher plasma levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and hs-CRP. Both these obese groups revealed significantly higher values of body mass index (BMI), fat mass, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance (IR) calculated from homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) and hs-CRP compared to the values recorded in lean subjects. Fasting PYY(3-36) level was lower, while fasting acylated ghrelin was higher in MOB-MS than in OB-MS. Plasma total and acylated ghrelin levels were significantly lower in OB-MS compared to lean women. In MOB-MS women the fasting PYY(3-36) levels were lower compared to lean controls and OB-MS, whilst postprandially in both OB-MS and MOB-MS, it was much lower than in lean women. The fasting plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin and their postprandial decrease
Kressler, Jochen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Roos, Bernard A; Friedlander, Anne L; Perry, Arlette C; Signorile, Joseph F; Jacobs, Kevin A
Sildenafil improves oxygen delivery and maximal exercise capacity at very high altitudes (≥ 4,350 m), but it is unknown whether sildenafil improves these variables and longer-duration exercise performance at moderate and high altitudes where competitions are more common. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular hemodynamics, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), peak exercise capacity (W (peak)), and 15-km time trial performance in endurance-trained subjects at simulated moderate (MA; ~2,100 m, 16.2% F(I)O(2)) and high (HA; ~3,900 m, 12.8% F(I)O(2)) altitudes. Eleven men and ten women completed two HA W (peak) trials after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. Subjects then completed four exercise trials (30 min at 55% of altitude-specific W (peak) + 15-km time trial) at MA and HA after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. All trials were performed in randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion. Sildenafil had little influence on cardiovascular hemodynamics at MA or HA, but did result in higher SaO(2) values (+3%, p < 0.05) compared to placebo during steady state and time trial exercise at HA. W (peak) at HA was 19% lower than SL (p < 0.001) and was not significantly affected by sildenafil. Similarly, the significantly slower time trial performance at MA (28.1 ± 0.5 min, p = 0.016) and HA (30.3 ± 0.6 min, p < 0.001) compared to SL (27.5 ± 0.6 min) was unaffected by sildenafil. We conclude that sildenafil is unlikely to exert beneficial effects at altitudes <4,000 m for a majority of the population.
Blackman, A; Foster, G D; Zammit, G; Rosenberg, R; Aronne, L; Wadden, T; Claudius, B; Jensen, C B; Mignot, E
Background: Obesity is strongly associated with prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and weight loss has been shown to reduce disease severity. Objective: To investigate whether liraglutide 3.0 mg reduces OSA severity compared with placebo using the primary end point of change in apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) after 32 weeks. Liraglutide's weight loss efficacy was also examined. Subjects/Methods: In this randomized, double-blind trial, non-diabetic participants with obesity who had moderate (AHI 15–29.9 events h−1) or severe (AHI ⩾30 events h−1) OSA and were unwilling/unable to use continuous positive airway pressure therapy were randomized for 32 weeks to liraglutide 3.0 mg (n=180) or placebo (n=179), both as adjunct to diet (500 kcal day−1 deficit) and exercise. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (mean age 48.5 years, males 71.9%, AHI 49.2 events h−1, severe OSA 67.1%, body weight 117.6 kg, body mass index 39.1 kg m−2, prediabetes 63.2%, HbA1c 5.7%). Results: After 32 weeks, the mean reduction in AHI was greater with liraglutide than with placebo (−12.2 vs −6.1 events h−1, estimated treatment difference: −6.1 events h−1 (95% confidence interval (CI), −11.0 to −1.2), P=0.0150). Liraglutide produced greater mean percentage weight loss compared with placebo (−5.7% vs −1.6%, estimated treatment difference: −4.2% (95% CI, −5.2 to −3.1%), P<0.0001). A statistically significant association between the degree of weight loss and improvement in OSA end points (P<0.01, all) was demonstrated post hoc. Greater reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were seen with liraglutide versus placebo (both P<0.001). The safety profile of liraglutide 3.0 mg was similar to that seen with doses ⩽1.8 mg. Conclusions: As an adjunct to diet and exercise, liraglutide 3.0 mg was generally well tolerated and produced significantly greater reductions than placebo in AHI
Schmidt, Morten; Johannesdottir, Sigrun A; Lemeshow, Stanley; Lash, Timothy L; Ulrichsen, Sinna P; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Toft Sørensen, Henrik
Objectives To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and cardiovascular risks, including venous thromboembolism, before 55 years of age. Design Cohort study using population-based medical databases. Setting Outcomes registered from all hospitals in Denmark from 1977 onwards. Participants 6502 men born in 1955 and eligible for conscription in Northern Denmark. Main outcome measures Follow-up began at participants’ 22nd birthday and continued until death, emigration or 55 years of age, whichever came first. Using regression analyses, we calculated the risks and HRs, adjusting for cognitive test score and years of education. Results 48% of all obese young men (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were either diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke or venous thromboembolism or died before reaching 55 years of age. Comparing obese men with normal weight men (BMI 18.5 to <25.0 kg/m2), the risk difference for any outcome was 28% (95% CI 19% to 38%) and the HR was 3.0 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.0). Compared with normal weight, obesity was associated with an event rate that was increased more than eightfold for type 2 diabetes, fourfold for venous thromboembolism and twofold for hypertension, myocardial infarction and death. Conclusions In this cohort of young men, obesity was strongly associated with adverse cardiometabolic events before 55 years of age, including venous thromboembolism. Compared with those of normal weight, young obese men had an absolute risk increase for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular morbidity or premature death of almost 30%. PMID:23628994
Meydani, Simin N.; Das, Sai K.; Pieper, Carl F.; Lewis, Michael R.; Klein, Sam; Dixit, Vishwa D.; Gupta, Alok K.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Huang, Megan; Fuss, Paul J.; Roberts, Susan B.; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi
Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR. CR induced a 10.4% weight loss over the 2-y period. Relative to AL group, CR reduced circulating inflammatory markers, including total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1 and leptin. Serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations were about 40% and 50% lower in CR group, respectively. CR had no effect on the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response or antibody response to vaccines, nor did it cause difference in clinically significant infections. In conclusion, long-term moderate CR without malnutrition induces a significant and persistent inhibition of inflammation without impairing key in vivo indicators of cell-mediated immunity. Given the established role of these pro-inflammatory molecules in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases, these CR-induced adaptations suggest a shift toward a healthy phenotype. PMID:27410480
Staab, Janet E; Beidleman, Beth A; Muza, Stephen R; Fulco, Charles S; Rock, Paul B; Cymerman, Allen
To determine if residence at moderate (~2000 m) compared to low (<50 m) altitude reduces acute mountain sickness (AMS) in men during subsequent rapid ascent to a higher altitude. Nine moderate-altitude residents (MAR) and 18 sea-level residents (SLR) completed the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) at their respective baseline residence and again at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h at 4300 m to assess the severity and prevalence of AMS. AMS cerebral factor score (AMS-C) was calculated from the ESQ at each time point. AMS was judged to be present if AMS-C was ≥0.7. Resting end-tidal CO2 (PETco2) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) were assessed prior to and at 24, 48, and 72 h at 4300 m. Resting venous blood samples were collected prior to and at 72 h at 4300 m to estimate plasma volume (PV) changes. MAR compared to SLR: 1) AMS severity at 4300 was lower (p<0.05) at 12 h (0.50±0.69 vs. 1.48±1.28), 24 h (0.15±0.19 vs. 1.39±1.19), 48 h (0.10±0.18 vs. 1.37±1.49) and 72 h (0.08±0.12 vs. 0.69±0.70); 2) AMS prevalence at 4300 was lower (p<0.05) at 12 h (22% vs. 72%), 24 h (0% vs. 56%), 48 h (0% vs. 56%), and 72 h (0% vs. 45%); 3) resting Sao2 (%) was lower (p<0.05) at baseline (95±1 vs. 99±1) but higher (p<0.05) at 4300 at 24 h (86±2 vs. 81±5), 48 h (88±3 vs. 83±6), and 72 h (88±2 vs. 83±5); and 4) PV (%) did not differ at 72 h at 4300 m in the MAR (4.5±6.7) but was reduced for the SLR (-8.1±10.4). These results suggest that ventilatory and hematological acclimatization acquired while living at moderate altitude, as indicated by a higher resting Sao2 and no reduction in PV during exposure to a higher altitude, is associated with greatly reduced AMS after rapid ascent to high altitude.
Sekikawa, Akira; Kadowaki, Takashi; Curb, J David; Evans, Rhobert W; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Abbott, Robert D; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Okamura, Tomonori; Shin, Chol; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kadota, Aya; Choo, Jina; El-Saed, Aiman; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kuller, Lewis H
This study examines the differences in circulating levels of cytokines among Japanese in Japan (JJ), Japanese Americans (JA), and whites and their associations with obesity and marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) in a cross-sectional population-based study of 297 men aged 40-49 (100 JJ, 99 whites, and 98 JA). Experimental studies show that cytokines are associated with obesity positively and marine n-3 FA inversely. Serum interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1 receptor agonist (IL-1ra), IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, inducible protein-10 (IP-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and marine n-3 FA were determined. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and computed tomography-measured visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were determined. The JJ had significantly lower levels of IL-1alpha, IL-4, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha than whites and JA. Whites and JA had similar levels of IL-1alpha, IL-4, and IL-8 whereas whites had significantly higher levels of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha than JA. The JJ were least obese (BMI (kg/m(2)), mean +/- standard deviation) 23.6 +/- 2.8, 27.9 +/- 4.6, and 27.9 +/- 4.5 for JJ, whites, and JA, respectively. The JJ had marine n-3 FA about 100% higher than whites and JA (serum marine n-3 FA (%), median (interquartile range) 8.79 (7.41, 11.16), 3.47 (2.63, 4.83), and 4.44 (3.33, 6.01) for JJ, whites, and JA, respectively). Generally cytokines had weak and nonsignificant associations with indices of obesity and nonsignificant associations with marine n-3 FA. BMI had significant inverse associations with IL-1alpha, IL-4, and IL-8 in JA (P < 0.05). Marine n-3 FA had marginally significant inverse associations with IL-8 in JJ (P = 0.055) and TNF-alpha in whites (P = 0.076). The JJ had lower levels of many cytokines than whites and JA. Generally cytokines had weak and nonsignificant associations with indices of obesity and marine n-3 FA. Further investigation is needed to determine why JJ had lower circulating
Mäntele, Simone; Otway, Daniella T; Middleton, Benita; Bretschneider, Silvia; Wright, John; Robertson, M Denise; Skene, Debra J; Johnston, Jonathan D
Melatonin and leptin exhibit daily rhythms that may contribute towards changes in metabolic physiology. It remains unclear, however, whether this rhythmicity is altered in obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We tested the hypothesis that 24-hour profiles of melatonin, leptin and leptin mRNA are altered by metabolic status in laboratory conditions. Men between 45-65 years old were recruited into lean, obese-non-diabetic or obese-T2DM groups. Volunteers followed strict sleep-wake and dietary regimes for 1 week before the laboratory study. They were then maintained in controlled light-dark conditions, semi-recumbent posture and fed hourly iso-energetic drinks during wake periods. Hourly blood samples were collected for hormone analysis. Subcutaneous adipose biopsies were collected 6-hourly for gene expression analysis. Although there was no effect of subject group on the timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration was significantly higher in obese-non-diabetic subjects compared to weight-matched T2DM subjects (p<0.01) and lean controls (p<0.05). Two T2DM subjects failed to produce any detectable melatonin, although did exhibit plasma cortisol rhythms comparable to others in the group. Consistent with the literature, there was a significant (p<0.001) effect of subject group on absolute plasma leptin concentration and, when expressed relative to an individual's 24-hour mean, plasma leptin showed significant (p<0.001) diurnal variation. However, there was no difference in amplitude or timing of leptin rhythms between experimental groups. There was also no significant effect of time on leptin mRNA expression. Despite an overall effect (p<0.05) of experimental group, post-hoc analysis revealed no significant pair-wise effects of group on leptin mRNA expression. Altered plasma melatonin rhythms in weight-matched T2DM and non-diabetic individuals supports a possible role of melatonin in T2DM aetiology. However, neither obesity nor T2DM
Kaikkonen, J; Porkkala-Sarataho, E; Tuomainen, T P; Nyyssönen, K; Kosonen, L; Ristonmaa, U; Lakka, H M; Salonen, R; Korpela, H; Salonen, J T
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of exhaustive exercise (marathon run) on different lipid peroxidation measurements, including copper-induced serum lipids and VLDL + LDL oxidation susceptibility, and on plasma total antioxidative capacity (TRAP), muscular damage and plasma antioxidants in healthy moderately trained male (n = 21) and female (n = 25) volunteers. Blood samples were taken before and just after the 42-km run. In women, baseline levels of several antioxidative compounds (serum albumin and uric acid, plasma free thiols and blood glutathione) were lower, resulting in 21.5% lower plasma total antioxidative capacity and 70.3% higher serum oxidation susceptibility, compared to men. To compare effects in men and women, the exercise-induced variable changes were adjusted for their baseline levels. After this adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences between the genders in the extent of muscular damage (serum creatine kinase, (CK)), or in the change in serum lipids or VLDL + LDL oxidation susceptibility, or that of plasma antioxidative capacity. A possible beneficial effect of exercise was that serum HDL cholesterol levels increased significantly in both genders, but especially in women. In the group of pooled genders (n=46), the increases in serum CK and in plasma lactate were 190% (95% CI, 133% to 246%) and 109% (95% CI, 65% to 175%), respectively. On the basis of our lipid peroxidation and TRAP measurements, uric acid was observed to be the most important plasma antioxidant. The effect of exercise was to decrease the oxidation susceptibility of serum lipids by 24.8% (95% CI 13.4% to 36.2%) and to elevate plasma TRAP by 14.6% (95% CI, 11.4% to 17.7%). Nonetheless, the oxidation susceptibility of the VLDL + LDL fraction increased by 11.0% (95% CI, 1.9% to 20.2%). Our results suggest that there are no gender-based differences in exhaustive exercise-induced lipid peroxidation or muscular damage. Secondly, even though
Obisesan, Olawunmi; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Brunet, Michael; Obisesan, Adekunle; Akinola, Olubusayo; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne
Obesity is a highly prevalent cardiovascular disease risk factor globally and in African-descent populations. A cross-sectional study of obesity among a Nigerian immigrant sample population in the United States was conducted. Data was obtained through a web-based survey. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were used to determine sociodemographic and behavioral determinants of obesity. The results showed no significant relationship between obesity and education, socioeconomic status, length of stay, and level of physical activity. However, we identified a significant association between weekly consumption of alcohol and all obesity (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.091, 2.919), and moderate/morbid obesity (OR 2.46, 95 % CI 1.213, 4.999), and between gender and moderate/morbid obesity-men were less likely (OR .030, 95 % CI .001, .733) to be obese. These findings provide strong evidence to inform targeted screening for excessive alcohol consumption along with other primary prevention strategies that may reduce the prevalence of obesity among the Nigerian immigrant population.
Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E; Wright, Amy E; Wright, Wendi; Manders, Ralph J F
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m(2)) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following day's breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner when compared with control (HIIT = 110 ± 35, CMI = 125 ± 34, control = 162 ± 46 mmol/L × 2 h, p < 0.05). The PPG AUC (HIIT = 125 ± 53, CMI = 186 ± 55, control = 194 ± 96 mmol/L × 2 h) and the PPG spike (HIIT = Δ2.1 ± 0.9, CMI = Δ3.0 ± 0.9, control = Δ3.0 ± 1.5 mmol/l) following breakfast on the following day were significantly lower following HIIT compared with both CMI and control (p < 0.05). Absolute AUC and absolute glucose spikes were not different between HIIT, CMI, or control for any meal (p > 0.05 for all). We conclude that a single session of HIIT has greater and more lasting effects on reducing incremental PPG when compared with CMI.
Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057
Villani, R G; Gannon, J; Self, M; Rich, P A
L-Carnitine (L-C) transports fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation and is marketed as a weight loss supplement. In a double-blind investigation to test the weight loss efficacy of L-C, 36 moderately overweight premenopausal women were pair matched on Body Mass Index (BMI) and randomly assigned to two groups (N = 18). For 8 weeks the L-C group ingested 2 g twice daily of L-C, while the placebo (P) group ingested the same amount of lactose. All subjects walked for 30 min (60-70% maximum heart rate) 4 days/week. Body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate utilization were estimated before and after treatment. For the subjects who completed the study (15 P, 13 L-C), no significant changes in mean total body mass (TBM), fat mass FM, and resting lipid utilization occurred over time, nor were there any significant differences between groups for any variable. Conversely REE increased significantly for all subjects, but no between group differences existed. Five of the L-C group experienced nausea or diarrhea and consequently did not complete the study. Eight weeks of L-C ingestion and walking did not significantly alter the TBM or FM of overweight women, thereby casting doubt on the efficacy of L-C supplementation for weight loss.
Oshima, Shunji; Haseba, Takeshi; Masuda, Chiaki; Abe, Yuko; Sami, Manabu; Kanda, Tomomasa; Ohno, Youkichi
Studies on metabolisms of alcohol and the metabolites (e.g.:acetaldehyde) after drinking give basic and important information to recognize the physiological influence of drinking to human bodies. The aims of these studies were to clarify the influences of ALDH2 genotype difference, kinds of alcohol beverages, and fasted or prandial state to alcohol metabolisms at moderate drinking. The studies were conducted by a randomized cross-over design. After overnight fast, fifteen of ALDH2*1/*1 (Experiment 1) and twenty of ALDH21/*2 (Experiment 2) in Japanese healthy men aged 40 to 59 years old drank beer or shochu at a dose of 0.32g ethanol / kg body weight with or without test meal (460 kcal). The peak of blood ethanol (C(max)) was higher with shochu than with beer in the fasted condition in both ALDH2 genotypes, however, the difference between two types of alcohol beverages went out in the prandial condition. Simultaneous ingestion of test meal with alcohol beverage significantly decreased blood ethanol concentrations and increased ethanol disappearance rate (EDR) in the both genotypes. EDR values were significantly higher in ALDH2*1/*1 type than in ALDH2*1/*2 type in the both beverages with and without meal, whereas beta values showed no significant difference between two genotypes. The concentrations of blood acetaldehyde in ALDH2*1/*2 type were higher in prandial condition than in fasted condition with shochu. These results indicate that meal modified the differences of alcohol metabolism between beer and shochu and also between ALDH2 genotypes. Thus, alcohol metabolism in daily drinking is shown to be regulated by various combinatorial drinking conditions.
He, Feng; Zuo, Li; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J
The purposes were to compare the effects of a: (1) 12-week P-CR weight loss (WL) diet (Phase 1) between obese men and women and; (2) 52-week modified P-CR (mP-CR) vs. heart healthy (HH) weight maintenance (WM) diet (Phase 2) on serum PCBs and oxidative stress biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC) in 40 obese participants (men, n = 21; women, n = 19). Participants received dietary counseling and monitoring of compliance. PCBs, TBARS, and TAC were assessed at weeks -1 (CON), 12 (WL), and 64 (WM). Following WL (Week 12), concomitant with reductions in TBARS (0.24 ± 0.15 vs. 0.18 ± 0.11 µM; p < 0.01), PCB serum concentrations (86.7 ± 45.6 vs. 115.6 ± 65.9 ng/g lipid; p < 0.01) and TAC (18.9 ± 2.6 vs. 19.9 ± 2.3 nmol/mL; p < 0.02) were increased similarly in men and women. At the end of WM (Week 64), a significant effect of time × group interaction was observed for % change in PCB 170 and 187; whereby mP-CR values were higher compared to HH (PCB170: 19.31% ± 26.48% vs. -6.61% ± 28.88%, p = 0.02; PCB187: -3.04% ± 17.78% vs. -21.4% ± 27.31%, p = 0.04). PCB changes were positively correlated with TBARS levels (r > 0.42, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with body weight, fat mass, and abdominal fat (r < -0.46, p < 0.02). Our results support mobilization of stored PCBs as well as enhanced redox status following a 12-week P-CR WL diet. Additionally, a 52-week mP-CR WM diet demonstrated an advantage in preventing weight gain relapse accompanied by an increase in circulating PCBs compared to a traditional HH diet.
He, Feng; Zuo, Li; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J.
The purposes were to compare the effects of a: (1) 12-week P-CR weight loss (WL) diet (Phase 1) between obese men and women and; (2) 52-week modified P-CR (mP-CR) vs. heart healthy (HH) weight maintenance (WM) diet (Phase 2) on serum PCBs and oxidative stress biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC) in 40 obese participants (men, n = 21; women, n = 19). Participants received dietary counseling and monitoring of compliance. PCBs, TBARS, and TAC were assessed at weeks −1 (CON), 12 (WL), and 64 (WM). Following WL (Week 12), concomitant with reductions in TBARS (0.24 ± 0.15 vs. 0.18 ± 0.11 µM; p < 0.01), PCB serum concentrations (86.7 ± 45.6 vs. 115.6 ± 65.9 ng/g lipid; p < 0.01) and TAC (18.9 ± 2.6 vs. 19.9 ± 2.3 nmol/mL; p < 0.02) were increased similarly in men and women. At the end of WM (Week 64), a significant effect of time × group interaction was observed for % change in PCB 170 and 187; whereby mP-CR values were higher compared to HH (PCB170: 19.31% ± 26.48% vs. −6.61% ± 28.88%, p = 0.02; PCB187: −3.04% ± 17.78% vs. −21.4% ± 27.31%, p = 0.04). PCB changes were positively correlated with TBARS levels (r > 0.42, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with body weight, fat mass, and abdominal fat (r < −0.46, p < 0.02). Our results support mobilization of stored PCBs as well as enhanced redox status following a 12-week P-CR WL diet. Additionally, a 52-week mP-CR WM diet demonstrated an advantage in preventing weight gain relapse accompanied by an increase in circulating PCBs compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:28075418
Kramer, F M; Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L; Snell, M K
Maintenance of weight loss continues to be a critical concern in behavioral treatment programs. Problems with the acquisition and/or application of behavioral skills are a likely contributor to relapse. However, biological models, especially the hypothesis of a body weight setpoint, are being offered increasingly as alternative explanations for maintenance failure. Within the context of these sometimes opposing viewpoints the present study describes long-term weight outcomes for 114 men and 38 women assessed annually for 4 or 5 years following completion of a 15 week behavioral weight loss program. Although significant mean weight loss was evident at long-term follow-up, a negatively accelerating pattern of weight regain was the predominant outcome. Less than 3 percent of the subjects were at or below their posttreatment weight on all follow-up visits. Consistent sex differences were found, with women having better weight loss maintenance than men. Implications and potential future directions are discussed.
Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K
This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p < 0.05) body mass (BM), BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF). Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p < 0.05, ES = 0.53 and ES = 0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p < 0.05) in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p = 0.021, ES = 0.67 and p = 0.011, ES = 0.73) and in RPE (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76 and p = 0.017, ES = 0.57) in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p < 0.001) and VO2max (p < 0.01) in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p < 0.01) in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity. PMID:27274107
Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K
This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p < 0.05) body mass (BM), BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF). Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p < 0.05, ES = 0.53 and ES = 0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p < 0.05) in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p = 0.021, ES = 0.67 and p = 0.011, ES = 0.73) and in RPE (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76 and p = 0.017, ES = 0.57) in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p < 0.001) and VO2max (p < 0.01) in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p < 0.01) in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.
Gusi, Narcis; Reyes, Maria C; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Jose L; Herrera, Emilio; Garcia, Jose M
Background There is a considerable public health burden due to physical inactivity, because it is a major independent risk factor for several diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, moderate mood disorders neurotic diseases such as depression, etc.). This study assesses the cost utility of the adding a supervised walking programme to the standard "best primary care" for overweight, moderately obese, or moderately depressed elderly women. Methods One-hundred six participants were randomly assigned to an interventional group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 51). The intervention consisted of an invitation, from a general practitioner, to participate in a 6-month walking-based, supervised exercise program with three 50-minute sessions per week. The main outcome measures were the healthcare costs from the Health System perspective and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) using EuroQol (EQ-5D.) Results Of the patients invited to participate in the program, 79% were successfully recruited, and 86% of the participants in the exercise group completed the programme. Over 6 months, the mean treatment cost per patient in the exercise group was €41 more than "best care". The mean incremental QALY of intervention was 0.132 (95% CI: 0.104–0.286). Each extra QALY gained by the exercise programme relative to best care cost €311 (95% CI, €143–€394). The cost effectiveness acceptability curves showed a 90% probability that the addition of the walking programme is the best strategy if the ceiling of inversion is €350/QALY. Conclusion The invitation strategy and exercise programme resulted in a high rate of participation and is a feasible and cost-effective addition to best care. The programme is a cost-effective resource for helping patients to increase their physical activity, according to the recommendations of general practitioners. Moreover, the present study could help decision makers enhance the preventive role of primary care and optimize health
Crane, Melissa M.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Tate, Deborah F.
Objective To test the efficacy of a weight loss intervention designed to appeal to men. Design and methods A randomized trial tested the efficacy of the REFIT (Rethinking Eating and FITness) weight loss program compared to a waitlist control. The six-month intervention was delivered via two face-to-face sessions followed by Internet contacts. REFIT encouraged participants to create calorie deficits by making six 100-calorie changes to their eating daily while increasing physical activity and the program encouraged customization through selection of specific diet strategies evaluated each week. Results Participants (N=107, 44.2 years, 31.4 kg/m2, 76.6% white) were randomized into the study and 90.6% provided data at six months. REFIT participants lost -5.0 kg (95% CI: -6.1, -3.9) at three months, which was maintained through six months (-5.3 kg, 95% CI: -6.5, -4.2); this was greater than the control group (p<0.001; 6-month: -0.6, 95% CI: -1.8, 0.5). More REFIT participants (49%) achieved a 5% weight loss than control participants (19%; OR 9.4; 95% CI: 3.2, 27.4). An average of 11.2 (±2.7) of 13 of the online intervention contacts were completed. Conclusions The novel REFIT intervention produced clinically significant weight losses. This approach holds promise as an alternative to traditional behavioral therapy for men. PMID:26727117
Bailey, Tom G; Perissiou, Maria; Windsor, Mark; Russell, Fraser D; Golledge, Jonathan; Green, Daniel J; Askew, Christopher D
Impaired endothelial function is observed with ageing and with low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) whilst improvements in both are suggested to be reliant on higher-intensity exercise in the elderly. This may be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise of varying intensity. We examined the hypothesis that exercise-intensity alters the FMD response in healthy elderly adults, and would be modulated by VO2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower- (VO2peak = 24.3±2.9 ml.kg(-1)min(-1), n=27) and higher-fit groups (VO2peak = 35.4±5.5 ml.kg(-1)min(-1), n=20) after a test of cycling peak power output (PPO). In randomised order, participants undertook 27 min moderate-intensity continuous (MICE; 40% PPO) or high-intensity interval cycling exercise (HIIE; 70% PPO), or no-exercise control. Brachial FMD was assessed at rest, 10 and 60 min after exercise. In control, FMD reduced in both groups (P=0.05). FMD increased after MICE in both groups [increase of 0.86 % (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.56), P=0.01], and normalised after 60 min. In the lower-fit, FMD reduced after HIIE [reduction of 0.85 % (95% CI, 0.12 to 1.58), P=0.02), and remained decreased at 60 min (P=0.05). In the higher-fit FMD was unchanged immediately after HIIE and increased after 60 min [increase of 1.52 % (95% CI, 0.41 to 2.62), P<0.01], which was correlated with VO2peak (r =0.41; P<0.01). Exercise-intensity alters the FMD response in elderly adults, and VO2peak modulates the FMD response following HIIE, but not MICE. The sustained decrease in FMD in the lower-fit may represent a signal for vascular adaptation or endothelial fatigue.
Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A
We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P < 0.01) similarly after HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT.
van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P
Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.
Xu, Jianping; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Yuxiu; Zheng, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Zhixin
We evaluated the effect of chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration by having volunteers to chew sugarless gum. Our intention was to explore the neural mechanisms regulating the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1). After fasting for 12 h, 12 healthy male, non-obese volunteers (18 < BMI < 30), were asked to chew sugarless gum at a frequency of 80 times every 2 min for a total of 30 min. Blood samples were collected before the start of chewing and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after the start of chewing. Satiety and hunger were evaluated on a scale from 0 to 100 at each time point. Compared with the control group, the test group's satiety was increased at 15, 25, and 30 min (p = 0.043, p = 0.014 and p = 0.018, respectively) after they began chewing sugarless gum 80 times every 2 min. The blood GLP-1 level of the test group at 30 min was 49.6 ± 20.3 pmol/l, significantly higher than that of the control group (38.9 ± 20.9 pmol/l; p = 0.031). There was no significant difference in the test group's GLP-1 concentration at each time point. In the control group, compared to baseline, the GLP-1 concentrations at 15, 25, and 30 min were significantly decreased (p = 0.042, p = 0.0214 and p = 0.012, respectively). No significant differences in the blood concentration of glucose, insulin and GIP or hunger were observed between groups. Our study suggests that fasting sugarless gum chewing can increase satiety and reduce the decrease in GLP-1 concentration.
obese and normal weight women indicate similar overall dietary composition (carbohydrate, protein, and fat ), but greater caloric intake among obese...dietary changes . For example, many weight reduction programs promote decreasing caloric intake and decreasing the overall percentage of dietary fat to 25...Information Table 3: Intercorrelations Between BMI, Food Intake Information, and Hedonic Ratings Mean Hedonic Ratings of High and Low Fat Puddings
Montgomery, Polly S.
We compared the changes in ambulatory outcomes between men and women with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) following completion of a supervised, on-site, treadmill exercise program, and we determined whether exercise training variables and baseline clinical characteristics were predictive of changes in ambulatory outcomes in men and women. Twenty-three men and 25 women completed the supervised exercise program, consisting of intermittent walking to mild-to-moderate claudication pain for three months. Men and women significantly increased claudication onset time (COT) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, resp.) and peak walking time (PWT) (p < 0.001 for each group). However, change in PWT was less in women (54%) than in men (77%) (p < 0.05). Neither group significantly changed 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). In women, baseline COT was the only predictor for the change in COT (p = 0.007) and the change in PWT (p = 0.094). In men, baseline COT (p < 0.01) and obesity (p < 0.10) were predictors for the change in COT, and obesity was the only predictor for the change in PWT (p = 0.002). Following a supervised, on-site, treadmill exercise program, women had less improvement in PWT than men, and neither men nor women improved submaximal, overground 6MWD. Furthermore, obese men and patients with lower baseline COT were least responsive to supervised exercise. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov, unique identifier: NCT00618670. PMID:28116164
Leaper, Campbell; Robnett, Rachael D.
Robin Lakoff proposed that women are more likely than men to use tentative speech forms (e.g., hedges, qualifiers/disclaimers, tag questions, intensifiers). Based on conflicting results from research testing Lakoff's claims, a meta-analysis of studies testing gender differences in tentative language was conducted. The sample included 29 studies…
Devassy, Jessay G; Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Ibrahim, Naser H M; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D; Aukema, Harold M
Obesity is increasing worldwide, and high-protein (HP) diets are widely used for weight loss. However, the overall safety of HP diets is not well established in obese individuals, who make up a significant proportion of the population. To evaluate the health effects of an HP diet in obesity, obesity-prone (OP) Sprague-Dawley rats were given high-fat diets for 12 weeks to induce obesity. Following this, for 8 more weeks, these rats were given either a normal-protein (NP) (15% of energy) or an HP (35% of energy) diet ad libitum, or the NP diet at a restricted level to achieve body weights similar to those of the HP group (pair-weighted (PW) group). Obesity-resistant (OR) control rats were also given the NP diet throughout the feeding period. The HP-OP group had higher food intake but lower body weight, improved glucose handling, and lowered serum haptoglobin compared with the NP-OP group. These benefits were also observed in PW-OP rats. In addition, PW-OP rats had less fat accumulation when compared with NP-OP rats, and an improved Lee index, lower liver size, and lower serum alanine aminotransferase when compared with HP-OP rats. On the other hand, kidney size, proteinuria, and serum homocysteine were increased in HP-OP rats compared with NP-OP rats, whereas PW-OP rats did not experience these effects. These results indicate that in obese rats, more benefits are obtained via dietary restriction with an NP diet and without some of the potentially detrimental effects of an HP diet.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profile in obese boys who followed a moderate energy-restricted diet: differences between high and low responders at baseline and after the intervention.
Rendo-Urteaga, Tara; García-Calzón, Sonia; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Milagro, Fermín I; Chueca, María; Oyarzabal, Mirentxu; Azcona-Sanjulián, M Cristina; Martínez, J Alfredo; Marti, Amelia
The present study analyses the gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from obese boys. The aims of the present study were to identify baseline differences between low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) after 10 weeks of a moderate energy-restricted dietary intervention, and to compare the gene expression profile between the baseline and the endpoint of the nutritional intervention. Spanish obese boys (age 10-14 years) were advised to follow a 10-week moderate energy-restricted diet. Participants were classified into two groups based on the association between the response to the nutritional intervention and the changes in BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS): HR group (n 6), who had a more decreased BMI-SDS; LR group (n 6), who either maintained or had an even increased BMI-SDS. The expression of 28,869 genes was analysed in PBMC from both groups at baseline and after the nutritional intervention, using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST 24-Array plate microarray. At baseline, the HR group showed a lower expression of inflammation and immune response-related pathways, which suggests that the LR group could have a more developed pro-inflammatory phenotype. Concomitantly, LEPR and SIRPB1 genes were highly expressed in the LR group, indicating a tendency towards an impaired immune response and leptin resistance. Moreover, the moderate energy-restricted diet was able to down-regulate the inflammatory 'mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway' in the HR group, as well as some inflammatory genes (AREG and TNFAIP3). The present study confirms that changes in the gene expression profile of PBMC in obese boys may help to understand the weight-loss response. However, further research is required to confirm these findings.
Harreiter, Jürgen; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra
Obesity influences reproduction in men and women at all ages. The increasing prevalence of obesity is associated with rising numbers of reproductive disorders in both sexes. Obesity influences menstrual cycle and ovulation irregularities, increases pregnancy complications and complication rates in assisted reproductive technologies in women and in men obesity is associated with lower semen parameters. Weight loss through lifestyle changes or bariatric surgery has positive effects on hormonal parameters and fertility in both men and women.
Moran, Lisa J.; Brinkworth, Grant D.; Martin, Sean; Wycherley, Thomas P.; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Lutze, Janna; Clifton, Peter M.; Wittert, Gary A.; Noakes, Manny
Introduction Obesity is associated with reduced testosterone and worsened erectile and sexual function in men. Weight loss improves these outcomes. High protein diets potentially offer anthropometric and metabolic benefits, but their effects on reproductive and sexual outcomes is not known. Aim To examine the long-term effects of weight loss with a higher protein or carbohydrate diet on testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire in overweight and obese men. Methods One-hundred and eighteen overweight or obese men (body mass index 27–40 kg/m2, age 20–65 years) were randomly assigned to an energy restricted higher protein low fat (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate, 25% fat; n = 57) or higher carbohydrate low fat diet (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 25% fat, n = 61) diet for 52 weeks (12 weeks weight loss, 40 weeks weight maintenance). Primary outcomes were serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone. Secondary outcomes were erectile function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) (total score and erectile function domain), lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire. Results Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone increased (P<0.001) and the total IIEF increased (P = 0.017) with no differences between diets (P≥0.244). Increases in testosterone (P = 0.037) and sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.001) and improvements in the total IIEF (P = 0.041) occurred from weeks 0–12 with a further increase in testosterone from week 12–52 (P = 0.002). Increases in free testosterone occurred from week 12–52 (p = 0.002). The IIEF erectile functon domain, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire did not change in either group (P≥0.126). Conclusions In overweight and obese men, weight loss with both high protein and carbohydrate diets improve testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and overall
Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.
Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…
Genetics is behind our circadian machinery. CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) 3111T/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been previously related to obesity and weight loss. However, phenotypic association and functionality of CLOCK 3111 locus is still unknown. The aim of this stu...
Nielsen, Soren; Guo, ZengKui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D.
Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obesity phenotypes, taken together with healthy, lean women (n = 12) and men (n = 12), were studied. Systemic, splanchnic, and leg FFA kinetics were measured. The results showed that plasma FFA concentrations were approximately 20% greater in obese men and obese women. The contribution of splanchnic lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery ranged from less than 10% to almost 50% and increased as a function of visceral fat in women (r = 0.49, P = 0.002) and in men (r = 0.52, P = 0.002); the slope of the relationship was greater in women than in men (P < 0.05). Leg and splanchnic tissues contributed a greater portion of systemic FFA release in obese men and women than in lean men and women. We conclude that the contribution of visceral adipose tissue lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery increases with increasing visceral fat in humans and that this effect is greater in women than in men. PMID:15173884
Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Datcu, M D
Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with major cardiovascular diseases and reduced overall survival. This paper reviews the metabolic and vascular consequences of dysfunctional adipocytokines in obesity as well as the pathological effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular structure and function. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese population with established cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis. There are potential explanations offered by literature for these puzzling data. For obese hypertensive patients the paradox is possibly linked to the lower systemic vascular resistance and plasma renin activity. In heart failure the excess body weight may confer some protective effects on mortality, due to a more metabolic reserve, higher levels of arterial pressure compatible with higher doses of cardioprotective medications, and a specific neuroendocrine profile with lower levels of circulating natriuretic atrial peptides, attenuated sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin responses. For coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease the mechanisms are still uncertain. There are discussed a lesser severity of coronary lesions and left ventricular dysfunction, or a reduced prevalence of moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients selected for surgery. On the other hand, the constellation of data which supports purposeful weight reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, induces a controversial position regarding this new concept.
Obesity is an increasing public health problem, with two-thirds of the adult population in many Western countries now being either overweight or obese. Male obesity is associated with late onset hypogonadism, a condition characterised by decreased serum testosterone, sperm quality plus diminished fertility and quality of life. In this paper we propose a novel theory underlying the development of obesity related hypogonadism- the GELDING theory (Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function). Several observational studies have previously reported an association between obesity related hypogonadism (low testosterone) and systemic inflammation. However, for the first time we postulate that the trans-mucosal passage of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut lumen into the circulation is a key inflammatory trigger underlying male hypogonadism. Obesity and a high fat/high calorie diet are both reported to result in changes to gut bacteria and intestinal wall permeability, leading to the passage of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide- LPS) from within the gut lumen into the circulation (metabolic endotoxaemia), where it initiates systemic inflammation. Endotoxin is known to reduce testosterone production by the testis, both by direct inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic pathways and indirectly by reducing pituitary LH drive, thereby also leading to a decline in sperm production. In this paper we also highlight the novel evolutionary benefits of the GELDING theory. Testosterone is known to be a powerful immune-suppressive, decreasing a man's ability to fight infection. Therefore we postulate that the male reproductive axis has evolved the capacity to lower testosterone production during times of infection and resulting endotoxin exposure, decreasing the immunosuppressive influence of testosterone, in turn enhancing the ability to fight infection. While this response is adaptive in times of sepsis, it becomes maladaptive in the setting of "non
Ferrara, Cynthia M; Goldberg, Andrew P; Nicklas, Barbara J; Sorkin, John D; Ryan, Alice S
Controversy exists as to whether there are differences in insulin action between older men and women, and what factors contribute to these differences. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in regional fat distribution contribute to a disparity in insulin sensitivity in older men vs. older women. Healthy, older (50-71 years), sedentary men (n = 28) and women (n = 29) were recruited to participate in the study. Body fat, fat-free mass (FFM), and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue areas were measured by DXA and computed tomography (CT). For measurements of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M), insulin was infused at a constant rate of 240 pmol.m(-2).min(-1), and M was calculated between the 90th and 120th min of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The men weighed 16% more and had 16% higher waist and 4% lower hip circumferences than women (p < 0.05 for all). Total fat mass and SAT were 21% and 33% lower and FFM was 49% higher in men than in women, whereas waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and VAT:SAT ratio were 21% and 56% higher in men than in women (p < 0.05 for all). Although insulin concentrations during the glucose clamp were higher in men, M was 47% lower in men vs. women (21.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 46.7 +/- 3.1 micromol.L(-1).kg FFM(-1).min(-1), p < 0.05). The sex-related differences in M persisted after controlling for insulin concentrations during the glucose clamp, for waist, WHR, and VAT:SAT. Older men are more insulin resistant than women, despite lower body fat and subcutaneous abdominal fat. This difference in insulin sensitivity is not explained by abdominal fat distribution, therefore other metabolic factors contribute to the sex differences in insulin sensitivity.
Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio
Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.
Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack
Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) <120/80 mmHg)] men and women (age 23±1 years) who underwent 30 min of intensity-matched cycling and swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (P<0.05). Trained individuals did not exhibit a PEH response following swimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (P<0.05). The absence of PEH after swimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (P<0.05)] and a slower return of vagal tone, consistent with a significant increase in HR between modalities at all time points (P<0.05). These results suggest that training may limit the potential for an effective post-exertional hypotensive response to aerobic swimming.
Santos, Carolina C.; Diniz, Tiego A.; Inoue, Daniela S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Panissa, Valéria L.G.; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Campos, Eduardo Z.; Hofmann, Peter; Lira, Fábio S.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence to acute exercises performed in different intensities with volume equalized (5 km) on indices of cardio-inflammatory health. Twelve physically active male subjects (age, 23.22±5.47 years; height, 174.75±5.80 m; weight, 75.13±6.61 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 52.92 mL/kg/min), after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), completed two randomly experimental trials: high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE: 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE: 70% sVO2Peak). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adiponectin and plasminogen inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) data were analyzed pre, immediately, and 60 min after the exercise session. Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIIE and MICE were performed using a mixed model and statistical and significance was set at <5%. PAI-1 presented an effect for time from pre to immediately after exercise moment (P<0.018) and from immediately to 60 min after exercise moment (P<0.001) only in MICE. BDNF presented an effect for time from pre to immediately after exercise to HIIE (P<0.022) and from immediately to 60 min after exercise to MICE (P<0.034). HIIE promotes BDNF increase and that there is negative correlation between PAI-1 concentrations and BDNF in both protocols in healthy sportsmen, favoring an anti-atherogenic profile. PMID:28119886
Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-cen...
Kawashima, Aiko; Sugawara, Shiori; Okita, Misako; Akahane, Takemi; Fukui, Kennichi; Hashiuchi, Maiko; Kataoka, Chieko; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo
To examine predictive factors for abdominal obesity or metabolic syndrome, we investigated the association of plasma fatty acid composition, estimated desaturase activity, and nutrient intakes, with abdominal obesity or metabolic syndrome in Japanese males. Clinical characteristics, the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters, and energy and nutrient intakes were analyzed in 3 groups: metabolic syndrome (MS, n=24), abdominal obesity (OB, n=43), and control (n=27). The estimated desaturase activities were calculated by the ratio of 16:1n-7/16:0, 18:3n-6/18:2n-6, and 20:4n-6/20:3n-6 in plasma cholesteryl esters as surrogates of the measure of the delta 9, delta 6, delta 5 desaturase (D9-16D, D6D and D5D) activities, respectively. Plasma fatty acid composition did not differ significantly between the OB group and the control group. The MS group had higher levels of palmitoleic, oleic, and gamma-linolenic acids, but a lower level of linoleic acid than the control. Stronger D6D activity and weaker D5D activity were observed in the OB group. A higher level of D9-16D activity as well as a higher level of D6D activity and a lower level of D5D activity was observed in the MS group. A logistic regression analysis showed that the low D5D activity and high D9-16D activity were predictive of the development of abdominal obesity from controls (odds ratio=0.39, p<0.05) and metabolic syndrome from abdominal obesity (odds ratio=2.44, p<0.05), respectively. In the multiple linear regression analysis, D5D activity positively correlated with the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In conclusion, the estimated D5D activity was a predictive factor for abdominal obesity and the estimated D9-16D activity was a predictive factor for developing metabolic syndrome from abdominal obesity in Japanese male subjects. Dietary intake of EPA would play an important role in preventing abdominal obesity and the development of metabolic syndrome.
Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce
Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review.
Yau, Adora M W; Moss, Andrew D; James, Lewis John; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason J; Evans, Gethin H
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and bradykinin receptor B2 (B2R) genetic variation may affect thirst because of effects on angiotensin II production and bradykinin activity, respectively. To examine this, 45 healthy Caucasian men completed 60 min of cycle exercise at 62% ± 5% peak oxygen uptake in a room heated to 30.5 ± 0.3 °C with ad libitum fluid intake. Blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately post-cycle. Fluid intake, body mass loss (BML), sweat loss (determined via changes in body mass and fluid intake), and thirst sensation were recorded. All participants were genotyped for the ACE insert fragment (I) and the B2R insert sequence (P). Participants were homozygous for the wild-type allele (WW or MM), heterozygous (WI or MP) or homozygous for the insert (II or PP). No differences between genotype groups were found in mean (±SD) voluntary fluid intake (WW: 613 ± 388, WI: 753 ± 385, II: 862 ± 421 mL, p = 0.31; MM: 599 ± 322, MP: 745 ± 374, PP: 870 ± 459 mL, p = 0.20), percentage BML or any other fluid balance variables for both the ACE and B2R genes, respectively. Mean thirst perception in the B2R PP group, however, was higher (p < 0.05) than both MM and MP at 30, 45, and 60 min. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that voluntary fluid intake and fluid balance in healthy men performing 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat are not predominantly influenced by ACE or B2R genetic variation.
Combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin in men with moderate-to-severe benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate enlargement: the CombAT (Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin) trial rationale and study design.
Siami, Paul; Roehrborn, Claus G; Barkin, Jack; Damiao, Ronaldo; Wyczolkowski, Marek; Duggan, Annette; Major-Walker, Kim; Morrill, Betsy B
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent condition in aging men, which can be progressive and lead to acute urinary retention (AUR) and the need for surgery. It is commonly treated with alpha-blockers and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), both of which improve the symptoms of BPH. Long-term treatment with 5ARIs can also reduce the risk of developing AUR and the need for surgery. The landmark Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) trial demonstrated that over 4 years the combination of the type 2-specific 5ARI, finasteride and the alpha-blocker doxazosin was more effective than either agent alone in reducing overall clinical progression. Since the initiation of MTOPS, it has been shown that patients with larger prostates and higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are at greater risk of BPH progression, and are therefore arguably more likely to benefit from combination therapy. The Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAT) trial is a 4-year, global, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study designed to investigate the benefits of combination therapy with the dual 5ARI dutasteride and the alpha-blocker tamsulosin compared with each monotherapy in improving symptoms and long-term outcomes in men with moderate-to-severe symptoms of BPH and prostate enlargement. Symptoms and long-term outcomes (AUR and surgery) will be assessed as separate primary endpoints at 2 and 4 years, respectively. Eligible patients were at least 50 years old with prostate volume > or =30 cm(3) and PSA level > or =1.5 ng/mL. A total of 4838 subjects have been enrolled. This paper describes the rationale, design and baseline data of the CombAT study.
Minami, J; Kawano, Y; Ishimitsu, T; Matsuoka, H; Takishita, S
We examined the acute and chronic effects of a nutritionally balanced, moderately hypocaloric diet on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability in mildly-to-moderately obese patients with essential hypertension. We enrolled 16 obese patients with essential hypertension [age: 51-76 years, body mass index (BMI): 26-32 kg/m2]. For the initial week, a standard diet of 2,000 kcal/day was given, followed by a 3-week of a hypocaloric diet of 850 kcal/day. In the last period of the standard diet and in the first and the last periods of the hypocaloric diet, each subject's 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate and R-R intervals of the electrocardiogram were recorded, and electrolytes and catecholamines in 24-hour urine samples were also measured. A power spectral analysis of the heart-rate variability was performed over a 24-hour period based on the autoregressive method. The subjects lost 3.7+/-0.3 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.) of body weight during the 3-week hypocaloric diet period. The 24-hour blood pressure did not differ between the last period of the standard diet and the first period of the hypocaloric diet; however, it showed a significant reduction after 3 weeks of the hypocaloric diet. The decrease in the 24-hour blood pressure during the study period was 10.5+/-1.5 mm Hg systole and 4.3+/-1.8 mm Hg diastole. In contrast, the 24-hour heart rate was significantly reduced in the first period of the hypocaloric diet, although the body weight and blood pressure did not change, and the rate was maintained even in the last period of the hypocaloric diet. The decrease in the 24-hour heart rate during the study period was 2.8+/-0.9 beats per minute. The hypocaloric diet did not change any autonomic indices obtained from a power spectral analysis of the heart-rate variability. In conclusion, different responses to a hypocaloric diet were observed between the blood pressure and the heart rate in obese hypertensive patients. The changes in
Bendsen, Nathalie T; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else M; Kok, Frans J; Sierksma, Aafje; Raben, Anne; Astrup, Arne
A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed towards a positive association or no association between beer intake and waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in men, whereas results for women were inconsistent. Data from a subset of studies indicated that beer intake > 500 mL/day may be positively associated with abdominal obesity. Regarding general obesity, most observational studies pointed towards an inverse association or no association between beer intake and body weight in women and a positive association or no association in men. Data from six experimental studies in men, in which alcoholic beer was compared with low-alcoholic beer, suggested that consumption of alcoholic beer (for 21-126 days) results in weight gain (0.73 kg; P < 0.0001), but data from four studies comparing intake of alcoholic beer with intake of no alcohol did not support this finding. Generally, experimental studies had low-quality data. In conclusion, the available data provide inadequate scientific evidence to assess whether beer intake at moderate levels (<500 mL/day) is associated with general or abdominal obesity. Higher intake, however, may be positively associated with abdominal obesity.
Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.
Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre
The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.
Bagnoli, Silvia; Lelli, Lorenzo; Balsamo, Michela; Mancini, Milena; Nacmias, Benedetta; Ricca, Valdo; Sorbi, Sandro; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Stanghellini, Giovanni
Eating Disorders (EDs) show a multifactorial etiopathogenesis including environmental, psychological and biological factors. In the present study, we propose a model of interactions between genetic vulnerability—represented by Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene—and stable psychopathological traits, such as bodily disorders and emotion dysregulation for EDs patients. The distribution of a polymorphism of the FTO (rs9939609 T>A) was evaluated in a series of 250 EDs patients and in a group of 119 healthy control subjects. Clinical data were collected through a face-to-face interview and several self-reported questionnaires were applied, including the Emotional Eating Scale and the IDentity and EAting disorders (IDEA) questionnaire for bodily disorders and self-identity. The A-allele was associated with an increased vulnerability to EDs (AA+AT genotypes frequency 72.8% in EDs vs. 52.9% in controls). The presence of the A-allele was associated with binge eating behavior, higher emotional eating and higher IDEA scores. Finally, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was found to influence the relationship between these variables, as an association between disorder of corporeality and emotional eating was found only in A-allele carriers. A-allele seems to represent a potential additive risk factor for EDs persons, with bodily disorders to develop emotional eating and binge eating behaviors. PMID:28282466
... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...
Saslow, Laura R; Kim, Sarah; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, Judith T; Phinney, Stephen D; Goldman, Veronica; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Cox, Rachel M; Moran, Patricia; Hecht, Fredrick M
We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%). We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR) consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18) or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16). We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p = 0.04). Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p = 0.03); 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p = 0.05). The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p = 0.09). Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.
Background Obesity is a public health problem of alarming proportions, including among the university population in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the self-reported body mass index and the associated drug use and health-risk behaviors. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive study of 3,311 Chilean university students (17–24 years). The variables weight, height, frequency of physical activity, diet quality index, and drug use were evaluated by way of a self-report questionnaire. Results 16.7% of students were overweight and 2.1% were obese. Higher rates of overweight and obesity were observed in the men compared to women. There was a significant but moderate association between self-perceived obesity and being men and higher age, and just low with greater use of analgesics and tranquilizers with or without a prescription. Conclusions The punctual prevalence rates of self-reported obesity, in this sample, are consistent with other Latin American studies. The risk behaviors associated with perceived obesity in terms of gender, particularly the different pattern of drug use, highlight the importance of considering gender when designing strategies to promote health in a university setting. PMID:24383608
Wang, Li; Bordi, Peter L.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hill, Alison M.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.
Background Avocados are a nutrient‐dense source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) that can be used to replace saturated fatty acids (SFA) in a diet to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C). Well‐controlled studies are lacking on the effect of avocado consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Results A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was conducted with 45 overweight or obese participants with baseline LDL‐C in the 25th to 90th percentile. Three cholesterol‐lowering diets (6% to 7% SFA) were fed (5 weeks each): a lower‐fat diet (LF: 24% fat); 2 moderate‐fat diets (34% fat) provided similar foods and were matched for macronutrients and fatty acids: the avocado diet (AV) included one fresh Hass avocado (136 g) per day, and the moderate‐fat diet (MF) mainly used high oleic acid oils to match the fatty acid content of one avocado. Compared with baseline, the reduction in LDL‐C and non‐high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on the AV diet (−13.5 mg/dL, −14.6 mg/dL) was greater (P<0.05) than the MF (−8.3 mg/dL, −8.7 mg/dL) and LF (−7.4 mg/dL, −4.8 mg/dL) diets. Furthermore, only the AV diet significantly decreased LDL particle number (LDL‐P, −80.1 nmol/L, P=0.0001), small dense LDL cholesterol (LDL3+4, −4.1 mg/dL, P=0.04), and the ratio of LDL/HDL (−6.6%, P<0.0001) from baseline. Conclusions Inclusion of one avocado per day as part of a moderate‐fat, cholesterol‐lowering diet has additional LDL‐C, LDL‐P, and non‐HDL‐C lowering effects, especially for small, dense LDL. Our results demonstrate that avocados have beneficial effects on cardio‐metabolic risk factors that extend beyond their heart‐healthy fatty acid profile. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01235832. PMID:25567051
Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael; Bazazi, Alexander R; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L
Although it is well established that HIV-related stigma, depression, and lack of social support are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLH), no studies to date have examined how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect HRQoL among incarcerated PLH. We, therefore, incorporated a moderated mediation model (MMM) to explore whether depression mediates the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL as a function of the underlying level of social support. Incarcerated HIV-infected men with opioid dependence (N = 301) were recruited from the HIV units in Kajang prison in Malaysia. Participants completed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, HIV-related stigma, depression, social support, and HRQoL. Results showed that the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL was mediated via depression (a1:β = 0.1463, p < 0.001; b1:β = -0.8392, p < 0.001), as demonstrated by the two-tailed significance test (Sobel z = -3.8762, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the association between social support and HRQoL was positive (β = 0.4352, p = 0.0433), whereas the interaction between HIV-related stigma and depression was negatively associated with HRQOL (β = -0.0317, p = 0.0133). This indicated that the predicted influence of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL via depression had negative effect on HRQoL for individuals with low social support. The results suggest that social support can buffer the negative impact of depression on HRQoL and highlights the need for future interventions to target these psychosocial factors in order to improve HRQoL among incarcerated PLH.
Lacaria, Melanie; Saha, Pradip; Potocki, Lorraine; Bi, Weimin; Yan, Jiong; Girirajan, Santhosh; Burns, Brooke; Elsea, Sarah; Walz, Katherina; Chan, Lawrence; Lupski, James R; Gu, Wenli
The functional contribution of CNV to human biology and disease pathophysiology has undergone limited exploration. Recent observations in humans indicate a tentative link between CNV and weight regulation. Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), manifesting obesity and hypercholesterolemia, results from a deletion CNV at 17p11.2, but is sometimes due to haploinsufficiency of a single gene, RAI1. The reciprocal duplication in 17p11.2 causes Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS). We previously constructed mouse strains with a deletion, Df(11)17, or duplication, Dp(11)17, of the mouse genomic interval syntenic to the SMS/PTLS region. We demonstrate that Dp(11)17 is obesity-opposing; it conveys a highly penetrant, strain-independent phenotype of reduced weight, leaner body composition, lower TC/LDL, and increased insulin sensitivity that is not due to alteration in food intake or activity level. When fed with a high-fat diet, Dp(11)17/+ mice display much less weight gain and metabolic change than WT mice, demonstrating that the Dp(11)17 CNV protects against metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, Df(11)17/+ mice with the deletion CNV have increased weight, higher fat content, decreased HDL, and reduced insulin sensitivity, manifesting a bona fide metabolic syndrome. These observations in the deficiency animal model are supported by human data from 76 SMS subjects. Further, studies on knockout/transgenic mice showed that the metabolic consequences of Dp(11)17 and Df(11)17 CNVs are not only due to dosage alterations of Rai1, the predominant dosage-sensitive gene for SMS and likely also PTLS. Our experiments in chromosome-engineered mouse CNV models for human genomic disorders demonstrate that a CNV can be causative for weight/metabolic phenotypes. Furthermore, we explored the biology underlying the contribution of CNV to the physiology of weight control and energy metabolism. The high penetrance, strain independence, and resistance to dietary influences associated with the CNVs in this study
Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M
Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.
Mascali, A; Franzese, O; Nisticò, S; Campia, U; Lauro, D; Cardillo, C; Di Daniele, N; Tesauro, M
In industrialized countries, overweight and obesity account for approximately 13.8% and 24.9% of the kidney disease observed in men and women, respectively. Moreover, obesity-associated glomerulopathy is now considered as "an emerging epidemic." Kidney function can be negatively impacted by obesity through several mechanisms, either direct or indirect. While it is well established that obesity represents the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, awareness that obesity is associated with direct kidney damage independently of hypertension and diabetes is still not widespread. In this paper we will discuss the emerging role of adipose tissue, particularly in the visceral depot, in obesity-induced chronic kidney damage.
Background With the obesity pandemic sweeping the globe and alcohol use on the rise worldwide, there is growing interest in how the two might be linked epidemiologically. The aim of the study was to use data from the NHANES registry from 1999-2002 to analyze the association between obesity and alcohol use. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between alcohol use and obesity. Risk was assessed separately for men and women. Results Of the 9,193 individuals (49% males), 26.8% of males and 33.6% of females were obese. About 17% of males and 12% of females were never drinkers (less than 12 drinks in their lifetime). After adjusting for age, race, marital status, highest level of education of the individual and spouse, country of origin, annual household income and duration of physical activity in the past 30 days, the odds of obesity were higher in never drinkers compared to ever drinkers in both men and women. Consumption of alcohol for more than 45 days, binge drinking (>5 drinks/day) for more than 90 days and being “ever binge drinker” were associated with significantly higher odds of obesity (in both genders) than those who drank for shorter duration or were “never binge drinkers”. Consumption of alcohol more than the recommended limit for moderate drinking (3 drinks/day in females and 4 drinks/day in males) was associated with increased (OR 1.074, 95% CI 1.072-1.076) and decreased (OR 0.970, 95%CI 0.968-0.972) obesity in females and males respectively. Conclusion Frequent or heavy alcohol consumption is associated with greater odds of being obese. PMID:24974978
Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K
Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m(-2); mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (-6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: -33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: -25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (-37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (-8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (-9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese
Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Stepto, Nigel K.
Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m−2; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (−6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: −33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: −25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (−5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (−37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (−8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (−9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in
Background The present study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient dietary supplement (MIDS) containing caffeine, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), green tea, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) taken for 8 weeks on body composition, blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in overweight and obese men and women. Methods Twenty-two participants completed the study (PL, n = 11; 7 women, 4 men; age, 34 ± 3.5 years; height, 169.2 ± 3.3 cm; body mass, 96.9 ± 6.8 kg; BMI, 34.1 ± 1.8 kg/m2; MIDS, n = 11; 9 women, 2 men; age, 36 ± 3.4 years; height, 173.2 ± 2.9 cm; body mass, 91.9 ± 5.6 kg; BMI, 30.0 ± 1.5 kg/m2). Participants were randomly assigned and stratified by body fat percentage to two groups: 1) a soybean oil placebo (PL) or 2) MIDS. Each group consumed two pills with breakfast and two pills with lunch. Body composition and android fat, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. Results There were no significant changes for any of the variables of body composition. Feelings of hunger were significantly higher in MIDS versus PL with no changes observed in satiety or desire to eat. Heart rate and blood pressure were unaltered in MIDS after 8 weeks of supplementation. Furthermore, lipid profile, food intake, mood state variables, fasting blood glucose, and endocrine markers did not significantly change regardless of group. Conclusion MIDS intake does not appear to alter body composition or markers of cardiovascular health versus PL. Moreover, MIDS may actually increase feelings of hunger versus PL. PMID:25093015
Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta
Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.
Does continuous endurance exercise in water elicit a higher release of ANP and BNP and a higher plasma concentration of FFAs in pre-obese and obese men than high intensity intermittent endurance exercise? – Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) and Brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) stimulate fat cell plasma membrane receptors. They are potent lipolytic agents on isolated fat cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The physiological effects of continuous endurance exercise on ANP release and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations have been well described. The enhancement of fat metabolism using high intensity intermittent exercise protocols has been assessed in more recent investigations. The combined effects of endurance exercise and water immersion on ANP and FFA plasma concentration and the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) might be further enhanced by choosing the most effective exercise protocol. Exercise modalities may play a significant role in the future prevention and treatment of obesity. Methods/design The two testing trials will be performed according to a randomized and cross-over design. Twenty healthy sedentary pre-obese and obese class-1 men will be scrutinized with regard to their metabolic responses to continuous exercise in water and to high intensity endurance exercise in water. Both trials will be matched for energy expenditure. After preliminary testing, the tests will be conducted as repeated measurements. The two different exercise protocols will be compared. The aims of the study are to investigate (1) whether continuous endurance exercise or high intensity intermittent endurance exercise in water elicits both a higher release of ANP and BNP and a higher plasma concentration of glycerol and (2) to determine whether continuous endurance exercise in water or a high intensity intermittent endurance exercise in water would lead to a more pronounced short term (two hours) EPOC effect. Discussion If our hypothesis would be confirmed, the most effective exercise protocol based on the combined effects of high intensity endurance exercise and water immersion on ANP and BNP release and glycerol plasma concentrations
Williams, R L; Wood, L G; Collins, C E; Callister, R
Effective strategies are required to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity; however, the effectiveness of current weight loss programmes is variable. One contributing factor may be the difference in weight loss success between men and women. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether the effectiveness of weight loss interventions differs between men and women. Randomized controlled trials published up until March 2014 were included. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) were used to examine the difference in weight outcomes between men and women. A total of 58 studies met the eligibility criteria with 49 studies of higher quality included in the final data synthesis. Eleven studies that directly compared weight loss in men and women reported a significant sex difference. Ten of these reported that men lost more weight than women; however, women also lost a significant amount of weight. Analysis of effect sizes found small differences in weight loss favouring men for both diet (g = 0.489) and diet plus exercise (g = 0.240) interventions. There is little evidence from this review to indicate that men and women should adopt different weight loss strategies. Current evidence supports moderate energy restriction in combination with exercise for weight loss in both men and women. PMID:25494712
Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen
Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.
Crujeiras, Ana B; Campion, Javier; Díaz-Lagares, Angel; Milagro, Fermin I; Goyenechea, Estíbaliz; Abete, Itziar; Casanueva, Felipe F; Martínez, J Alfredo
Specific methylation of appetite-related genes in leukocytes could serve as a useful biomarker to predict weight regain after an energy restriction program. We aimed to evaluate whether the pre-intervention DNA methylation patterns involved in the epigenetic control of appetite-regulatory genes in leukocytes are associated with the weight regain process. Eighteen men who lost ≥5% of body weight after an 8-week nutritional intervention were categorized as "regainers" (≥10% weight regain) and "non-regainers" (<10% weight regain) 32weeks after stopping dieting. At baseline, leukocytes were isolated and DNA was analyzed for epigenetic methylation patterns of appetite-related gene promoters by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Regainers showed higher methylation levels than non-regainers in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) CpG sites +136bp and +138bp (fold change from non-regainers=26%; p=0.020) and lower methylation of the whole analyzed region of neuropeptide Y (NPY; fold change from non-regainers=-22%; p=0.033), as well as of several individual NPY-promoter CpG sites. Importantly, total baseline NPY methylation was associated with weight-loss regain (r=-0.76; p<0.001), baseline plasma ghrelin levels (r=0.60; p=0.011) and leptin/ghrelin ratio (r=-0.52; p=0.046). Lower methylation levels of POMC CpG sites +136bp and +138bp were associated with success in weight-loss maintenance (odds ratio=0.042 [95% CI 0.01-0.57]; p=0.018), whereas lower total methylation levels in NPY promoter were associated with higher risk of weight regain (odds ratio=14.0 [95% CI 1.13-172]; p=0.039). Therefore, the study of leukocyte methylation levels reflects a putative epigenetic regulation of NPY and POMC, which might be implicated in the weight regain process and be used as biomarkers for predicting weight regain after dieting.
Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J
Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1
Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng
This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237
Hammoud, Ahmad O; Meikle, A Wayne; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Gibson, Mark; Peterson, C Matthew; Carrell, Douglas T
Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity in the developed world. In addition to impaired semen quality, fertility among obese men may be affected by decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. This spectrum of expression of hypogonadism among obese men originates from multiple interacting factors including reduced levels of gonadotropins and testosterone, altered androgen-to-estrogen ratios, insulin resistance, and sleep apnea. No evidence-based treatment that increases the likelihood of pregnancy for the infertility associated with male obesity has been demonstrated to date. Interventions associated with improvement of intermediate outcomes that include the endocrine profile, semen parameters, and sexual function may be appropriately selected based on history, physical findings, as well as endocrine and metabolic evaluation. Among these interventions are weight loss through lifestyle change, relief from sleep apnea, use of aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropin administration, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and insulin-sensitizing agents.
Circulating Concentrations of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, and Soluble Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 in Overweight/Obese Men and Women Consuming Fructose- or Glucose-Sweetened Beverages for 10 Weeks
Cox, Chad L.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Schwarz, Jean Marc; Graham, James L.; Hatcher, Bonnie; Griffen, Steven C.; Bremer, Andrew A.; Berglund, Lars; McGahan, John P.; Keim, Nancy L.
Context: Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on circulating levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of 10 wk of dietary fructose or glucose consumption on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, and IL-6. Design and Setting: This was a parallel-arm study with two inpatient phases (2 wk baseline, final 2 wk intervention), conducted in a clinical research facility, and an outpatient phase (8 wk) during which subjects resided at home. Participants: Participants were older (40–72 yr), overweight/obese (body mass index = 25–35 kg/m2) men (n = 16) and women (n = 15). Interventions: Participants consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 wk. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during the 10th week of intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Fasting concentrations of MCP-1 (P = 0.009), PAI-1 (P = 0.002), and E-selectin (P = 0.048) as well as postprandial concentrations of PAI-1 (P < 0.0001) increased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed in either group. Conclusions: Consumption of fructose for 10 wk leads to increases of MCP-1, PAI-1, and E-selectin. These findings suggest the possibility that fructose may contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome via effects on proinflammatory and prothrombotic mediators. PMID:21956423
Simonyi, Gábor; Kollár, Réka
The frequency of hypertension and obesity is gradually growing in Hungary. At present 68.5% of men and 78% of women are obese. Hypertension and obesity are the most important risk factors of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relationship between increased sympathetic activity and hypertension is well known. Waist circumference and body fat mass correlate significantly with sympathetic activity, in which hyperlipidemia plays also a role. The increased activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system via its vascular and renal effects also contributes to an increase of blood pressure. Increased sympathetic activity with decreasing vagal tone accompanying the imbalance of the autonomous nervous system is independent and significant risk factor of cardiovascular events including sudden cardiac death.
Funayama, Takashi; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Kawaguchi, Minako; Kakehi, Saori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Furukawa, Yasuhiko; Kaga, Hideyoshi; Yamamoto, Risako; Kanazawa, Akio; Fujitani, Yoshio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka
It has been demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption provides protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, several other reports suggested that moderate alcohol intake may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in non-obese Japanese. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 1-week alcohol abstinence on hepatic insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in non-obese Japanese men. We recruited 8 non-obese Japanese men with mildly elevated FPG and drinking habits alcohol (mean frequency; 5.6 ± 2.5 times/week, mean alcohol consumption; 32.1 ± 20.0 g/day). Before and after the 1-week alcohol abstinence, we used the 2-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP) and insulin sensitivity (IS) in muscle and liver. One-week alcohol abstinence significantly reduced both FPG by 7% (from 105.5 ± 11.7 to 98.2 ± 7.8 mg/dl, P < 0.01) and fasting EGP by 6% (from 84.1 ± 4.2 to 77.6 ± 1.6 mg/m2 per min, P < 0.01), respectively. Two–step clamp study showed that alcohol abstinence significantly improved hepatic-IS, but not muscle-IS. In conclusion, one week alcohol abstinence improved hepatic IS and FPG in non-obese Japanese men with mildly elevated FPG and drinking habits alcohol. PMID:28067302
Taking responsibility for your own health has been a central tenet of public health policy internationally for a number of decades. Governments in the UK and internationally continue to promote a plethora of health promotion strategies, encouraging individuals and communities to adopt healthy lifestyle choices. Although it is widely recognised that men are not as proactive in seeking out medical help or taking on health promotion advice as women, limited gender-sensitive research exists in the field of intellectual disability. Despite many health promotion policy and practice strategies targeted at this population, little research exists exploring whether men with intellectual disability acknowledge health promotion advice. The study aimed to explore how men with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability understood and perceived their health and what health promotion messages they acted upon. The study was based on a participatory approach which enabled 11 men with intellectual disability to contribute as steering group members and as participants through one-to-one interviews. Data were collected between September 2011 and July 2012. Thematic analysis was undertaken. The participants demonstrated a capacity to understand their own health. This was inclusive of a concern about associating being obese with being unhealthy. The participants reported good relationships with their general practitioners (GPs) and felt valued, in particular when the GP was prepared to offer specific intellectual disability and health promotion advice. More gendered research inclusive of the views of this male population is required and the study reiterates the importance of promoting the health of men and women with intellectual disability.
Haidar, Yarah M.; Cosman, Bard C.
Obesity has progressed in a few decades from a public health footnote in developed countries to a top-priority international issue. Because obesity implies increased morbidity and mortality from chronic, debilitating disorders, it is a major burden on individuals and health systems in both developing and developed countries. Obesity is a complex disorder unequally affecting all age groups and socioeconomic classes. Of special concern is increasing childhood obesity. This review presents the extent of the obesity epidemic and its impact worldwide by way of introduction to a discussion of colon and rectal surgery in the obese patient. PMID:23204935
James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M
The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...
Snodgrass, J Josh; Leonard, William R; Sorensen, Mark V; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Alekseev, Vasili P; Krivoshapkin, Vadim
Once considered a disease of affluence and confined to industrialized nations, obesity is currently emerging as a major health concern in nearly every country in the world. Available data suggest that the prevalence rate of obesity has reached unprecedented levels in most developing countries, and is increasing at a rate that far outpaces that of developed nations. This increase in obesity has also been documented among North American circumpolar populations and is associated with lifestyle changes related to economic development. While obesity has not been well studied among indigenous Siberians, recent anthropological studies indicate that obesity and its associated comorbidities are important health problems.The present study examines recent adult body composition data from four indigenous Siberian populations (Evenki, Ket, Buriat, and Yakut) with two main objectives: 1) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among these groups, and 2) to assess the influence of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors on the development of excess body fat. The results of this study indicate that obesity has emerged as an important health issue among indigenous Siberians, and especially for women, whose obesity rates are considerably higher than those of men (12% vs. 7%). The present study investigated the association between lifestyle and body composition among the Yakut, and documented substantial sex differences in lifestyle correlates of obesity. Yakut men with higher incomes and who owned more luxury consumer goods were more likely to have excess body fat while, among Yakut women, affluence was not strongly associated with overweight and obesity.
Vassallo, J.; Calleja, N.; Camilleri, R.; Borg, A.; Bonnici, G.; Zhang, Y.; Pace, N.; Mamo, J.
Summary Background Obesity is a global epidemic with the Mediterranean island of Malta being no exception. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Malta as one of the European countries with the highest obesity prevalence. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted (2014–2016) under the auspices of the University of Malta. The prevalence of overweight‐obesity in Malta was calculated and then age stratified for comparisons with previous studies. Results The study identified 69.75% (95% CI: 68.32–71.18) of the Maltese population to be either overweight or obese. The men overweight/obese prevalence (76.28% 95% CI: 74.41–78.14) was statistically higher than that for women (63.06% 95% CI: 60.92–65.20) (p = 0.0001). Age stratification revealed that both genders had the highest overweight prevalence rates between 55 and 64 years (Men = 23.25% 95% CI: 20.43–26.33; Women = 24.68% 95% CI: 21.44–28.22). Men obesity prevalence rates were highest in the 35 to 44 years group (22.52% 95% CI: 19.65–25.68) while for women it was highest in the 55 to 64 years group (28.90%, 95% CI: 25.44–30.63). Conclusion Over a 35‐year period, an overall decrease in the normal and overweight BMI categories occurred with an increase in the prevalence of obesity. An exception was observed in the women, where the prevalence of normal BMI increased over this time period. Also, it appears that while the total population obesity prevalence increased (for 2016), a percentage of the women have shifted from an obese to an overweight status. PMID:28090352
Skretteberg, Per Torger; Grundvold, Irene; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Engeseth, Kristian; Liestøl, Knut; Erikssen, Gunnar; Erikssen, Jan; Gjesdal, Knut; Bodegard, Johan
Exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) predicts coronary heart disease (CHD) in the general population. We tested whether changes in exercise SBP during 7 years predict CHD (including angina pectoris, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal CHD) and mortality over the following 28 years. Peak SBP at 100 W workload (=5.5 METS [metabolic equivalents]; completed by all participants) was measured among 1392 apparently healthy men in 1972-75 and repeated in 1979-82. The men were divided into quartiles (Q1-Q4) of exercise SBP change. Relative risks were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for family history of CHD, age, smoking status, resting SBP, peak SBP at 100 W, total cholesterol at first examination (model 1), and further for physical fitness and change in physical fitness (model 2). The highest quartile, Q4, was associated with a 1.55-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.03) adjusted (model 1) risk of CHD and a 1.93-fold (1.24-3.02) risk of coronary heart death compared with the lowest, Q1. Q4 had a 1.40-fold (1.06-1.85) risk of CHD and a 1.70-fold (1.08-2.68) risk of coronary heart death using model 2. Q4 was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death and all-cause death compared with Q1 in model 1, but not in model 2. Our results indicate that an increase in exercise SBP at 100 W over 7 years is independently associated with increased long-term risk of CHD and substantiate our previous finding that high exercise SBP is an important risk factor for CHD in healthy men.
Keller, U; van der Werf, H; Stohler, R
Obesity continues as before to be a widespread condition. Obesity is defined as a body weight of over 120% of the ideal weight, corresponding roughly to the 85th percentile of the weight distribution. According to the "Build Study" (1979), the ideal weight is assumed to be rather higher than formerly; in men it is 8%, in women 6% less than the so-called normal weight. The latter corresponds roughly to the average weight and is defined as: height (cm) minus 100 in kg. In obese subjects both somatic and psychological complications arise; these are related exponentially to the degree of overweight. More recent findings in the Framingham Study show that obesity leads to coronary heart disease and premature death independently of the classical risk factors. Evaluation of the patient should include a personal and familial history of the obesity, together with individual eating habits and the degree of physical activity indulged in. As assessment should be made of the body fat distribution (android or gynoid obesity); android obesity carries a relatively high risk. Complications should be looked for, together with other risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and on the motivation. In general, it should consist of a moderate reduction in the caloric value of the food intake together with advice on eating habits and an increase in bodily activity. Group therapy often gives good results on account of the dynamic interactions within groups. Patients with morbid obesity will profit from a very hypocaloric, "ketogenic" diet (ca. 600-700 kcal/day). One of the author's own studies showed that a very hypocaloric diet resulted in mood elevation and a reduction in the need for sleep. Conservative measures such dietary weight reduction, changes in eating habits and encouragement of bodily activity are to be preferred to surgical treatment (eg, gastric stapling). Weight reductions in hospital do not lead to a change in eating habits and
Matsuura, Bunzo; Nunoi, Hiroaki; Miyake, Teruki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu
In Japan, the prevalence of obesity in adult men has increased since the 1970s, while that in adult women has not changed. The prevalence of obesity in 5-, 8-, 11-, and 14-year-old boys and girls increased from the late 1980s to late 1990 s and has decreased since 2000, while that in 17-year-old girls increased in 2002, similar to that for boys, but has since decreased. In 2009, 33.3% of adult men and 25.0% of adult women were obese, and 8-10% of children (age, 5-17 years) were obese. The prevalence of visceral obesity in adults was 50.8% of men and 18.0% of women. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, affects insulin resistance and increases metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]) and various cancers. In Japan, with a body mass index (BMI) of 23-25 as the reference category, the hazard ratio of total mortality is 1.36 for a BMI of 30-40 in men and 1.37 with a BMI of 30-40 in women. The frequency of patients with NAFLD has gradually increased in proportion to the increase in the population with obesity. From recent studies in Japan, the number of NAFLD patients is estimated to be 10 million, and around 2 million are considered to have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Dietary and behavioral modification is effective for body weight loss and for improvement of obesity-related gastrointestinal liver diseases. If necessary, bariatric surgery is useful for obesity treatment.
De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José
People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition.
Michalakis, K; Goulis, D G; Vazaiou, A; Mintziori, G; Polymeris, A; Abrahamian-Michalakis, A
As the population is ageing globally, both ageing and obesity are recognized as major public health challenges. The aim of this narrative review is to present and discuss the current evidence on the changes in body composition, energy balance and endocrine environment that occur in the ageing man. Obesity in the ageing man is related to changes in both body weight and composition due to alterations in energy intake and total energy expenditure. In addition, somatopenia (decreased GH secretion), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), changes in thyroid and adrenal function, as well as changes in appetite-related peptides (leptin, ghrelin) and, most importantly, insulin action are related to obesity, abnormal energy balance, redistribution of the adipose tissue and sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass). A better understanding of the complex relationship of ageing-related endocrine changes and obesity could lead to more effective interventions for elderly men.
Monteiro, Mariana P
Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight.
Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq
Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410
Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne W; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A
Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005) from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis). A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes), separation/divorce (asthma), unemployment (cancer), high waist circumference (diabetes), elevated cholesterol (angina) and a family history of obesity (angina). Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated) should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives. PMID:18664294
Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John
Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate activity (P < .001), and vigorous activity (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women.
Kim, Mee Kyoung; Lee, Won-Young; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kang, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Bom Taeck; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Eun Mi; Suh, Sang-Hoon; Shin, Hye Jung; Lee, Kyu Rae; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Seon Yeong; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Chang Beom; Chung, Sochung; Jeong, In Kyung; Hur, Kyung Yul
The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its accompanying comorbidities are major health concerns in Korea. Obesity is defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 in Korea. Current estimates are that 32.8% of adults are obese: 36.1% of men and 29.7% of women. The prevalence of being overweight and obese in national surveys is increasing steadily. Early detection and the proper management of obesity are urgently needed. Weight loss of 5% to 10% is the standard goal. In obese patients, control of cardiovascular risk factors deserves the same emphasis as weight-loss therapy. Since obesity is multifactorial, proper care of obesity requires a coordinated multidisciplinary treatment team, as a single intervention is unlikely to modify the incidence or natural history of obesity. PMID:25559568
Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…
Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha
Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at "ectopic" sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m(2) for overweight and ≥ 25 kg/m(2) for obesity, WC ≥ 80 cm for women and ≥ 90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on
Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Luly, Jason; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Andriole, Gerald L.; Kibel, Adam S.
Purpose Urinary incontinence is one of the most commonly reported and distressing side effects of radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma. Several studies have suggested that symptoms may be worse in obese men but to our knowledge no research has addressed the joint effects of obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. We evaluated the association of obesity and lack of physical activity with urinary incontinence in a sample of men who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Height and weight were abstracted from charts, and obesity was defined as body mass index 30 kg/m2 or greater. Men completed a questionnaire before surgery that included self-report of vigorous physical activity. Men who reported 1 hour or more per week of vigorous activities were considered physically active. Men reported their incontinence to the surgeon at their urology visits. Information on incontinence was abstracted from charts at 6 and 58 weeks after surgery. Results At 6 weeks after surgery 59% (405) of men were incontinent, defined as any pad use. At 58 weeks after surgery 22% (165) of men were incontinent. At 58 weeks incontinence was more prevalent in men who were obese and physically inactive (59% incontinent). Physical activity may offset some of the negative consequences of being obese because the prevalence of incontinence at 58 weeks was similar in the obese and active (25% incontinent), and nonbese and inactive (24% incontinent) men. The best outcomes were in men who were nonobese and physically active (16% incontinent). Men who were not obese and were active were 26% less likely to be incontinent than men who were obese and inactive (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52–1.06). Conclusions Pre-prostatectomy physical activity and obesity may be important factors in post-prostatectomy continence levels. Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and decreasing weight in patients with prostate cancer may improve quality of life by offsetting the negative side effects
Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study
Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael
Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636
Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.
Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael
Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.
Nielson, Carrie M; Marshall, Lynn M; Adams, Annette L; LeBlanc, Erin S; Cawthon, Peggy M; Ensrud, Kristine; Stefanick, Marcia L; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S
Low body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for fracture, but little is known about the association between high BMI and fracture risk. We evaluated the association between BMI and fracture in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS), a cohort of 5995 US men 65 years of age and older. Standardized measures included weight, height, and hip bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); medical history; lifestyle; and physical performance. Only 6 men (0.1%) were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)); therefore, men in this category were excluded. Also, 27% of men had normal BMI (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 52% were overweight (25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)), 18% were obese I (30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)), and 3% were obese II (35 to 39.9 kg/m(2)). Overall, nonspine fracture incidence was 16.1 per 1000 person-years, and hip fracture incidence was 3.1 per 1000 person-years. In age-, race-, and BMD-adjusted models, compared with normal weight, the hazard ratio (HR) for nonspine fracture was 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.25] for overweight, 1.29 (95% CI 1.00-1.67) for obese I, and 1.94 (95% CI 1.25-3.02) for obese II. Associations were weaker and not statistically significant after adjustment for mobility limitations and walking pace (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.23, for overweight; HR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.46, for obese I, and HR = 1.44, 95% CI 0.90-2.28, for obese II). Obesity is common among older men, and when BMD is held constant, it is associated with an increased risk of fracture. This association is at least partially explained by worse physical function in obese men.
Combination therapy for erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, cross-over study of the pharmacodynamics and safety of combined oral formulations of apomorphine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate and papaverine hydrochloride in men with moderate to severe erectile dysfunction.
Lammers, P I; Rubio-Aurioles, E; Castell, R; Castaneda, J; Ponce de Leon, R; Hurley, D; Lipezker, M; Loehr, L A; Lowrey, F
Oral therapy has become first line treatment for patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED). Studies have shown that sildenafil may not be effective in all patients, and has been associated with a variety of adverse effects and an adverse interaction with nitrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of three different oral combinations with the highest dose of sildenafil in men with moderate to severe ED. Randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, Phase II study was carried out at three sites in Mexico. After a 4-week placebo run-in period, patients received all four of the following treatments using a 4-way cross-over design: 40 mg phentolamine (PM) +6 mg apomorphine (Apo); 40 mg PM +150 mg papaverine (Pap); 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo +150 mg Pap (Tricombo); 100 mg sildenafil (SC). With the exception of sildenafil tablets, all study medication was blinded. Moderate to severe ED was defined as a less than 50% vaginal penetration success rate during the placebo run-in period. A total of 44 patients were enrolled, of whom 36 completed all four treatment periods. All treatments produced a significant effect in primary efficacy variable (Sexual Encounter Profile) compared to baseline, however, no statistically significant differences were found between treatments. A significant period effect was observed. Also, the four treatments were found not to differ significantly in five out of six secondary efficacy variables. The lowest incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AE) occurred in the 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo group (9.8%), followed by 100 mg SC (15%), and the other two combinations (16.7 and 17.5%, respectively). Nasocongestion and headache were the most frequently reported AE. An oral combination of vasoactive agents may provide an alternative approach to sildenafil. Based on these results a combination of phentolamine and apomorphine warrants further clinical investigation.
Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Elks, Cathy E.; Ong, Ken K.
Clinical summary Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to disease risks, and limited evidence on the most effective components of interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This article reviews the trends in childhood obesity, its genetic, nutritional and other risk factors, and preventative and treatment strategies. Particular emphasis is given to early-onset obesity in pre-school children, which, as a precursor to later childhood and adult obesity, provides insights into the developmental and genetic origins of obesity and also offers the potential for early preventative approaches with long-lasting benefits. PMID:23027812
Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F
We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.
Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J
Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m(2)). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ(2) = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p < .001; normed χ(2) = 1.9; comparative fit index = 0.96; standardized root mean residual = 0.059) and explained 65% of the variance in MVPA at Time 2. At Time 2, self-efficacy demonstrated the largest direct and total effects on MVPA (βdirect = .45, p < .001; βtotal = .67, p = .002). A small-to-medium effect was observed from intention to MVPA, but not from outcome expectations or social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination.
Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Uwakwe, Laura; Rashid, Farzana
Approximately 36% of adult women in the United States are obese. Although obesity affects women similarly to men in terms of prevalence, there seem to be gender-specific differences in the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of obesity. Obesity is linked to comorbid diseases involving multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, like gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatty liver disease, and gallstones. This article focuses on obesity in women, specifically the impact of obesity on gastrointestinal diseases and reproductive health, as well as the treatment of obesity in women.
Traish, Abdulmaged M; Zitzmann, Michael
Testosterone deficiency (TD) is a well-established and recognized medical condition that contributes to several co-morbidities, including metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). More importantly, obesity is thought to contribute to TD. This complex bidirectional interplay between TD and obesity promotes a vicious cycle, which further contributes to the adverse effects of TD and obesity and may increase the risk of CVD. Testosterone (T) therapy for men with TD has been shown to be safe and effective in ameliorating the components of the metabolic syndrome (Met S) and in contributiong to increased lean body mass and reduced fat mass and therefore contributes to weight loss. We believe that appropriate T therapy in obese men with TD is a novel medical approach to manage obesity in men with TD. Indeed, other measures of lifestyle and behavioral changes can be used to augment but not fully replace this effective therapeutic approach. It should be noted that concerns regarding the safety of T therapy remain widely unsubstantiated and considerable evidence exists supporting the benefits of T therapy. Thus, it is paramount that clinicians managing obese men with TD be made aware of this novel approach to treatment of obesity. In this review, we discuss the relationship between TD and obesity and highlight the contemporary advancement in management of obesity with pharmacological and surgical approaches, as well as utilization of T therapy and how this intervention may evolve as a novel approach to treatment of obesity in men with TD .
There is a global obesity pandemic. However, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among men and women varies greatly within and between countries, and overall, more women are obese than men. These gender disparities in overweight and obesity are exacerbated among women in developing countries, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, in developed countries, more men are overweight than women. Current knowledge suggests that myriad sociocultural dynamics throughout the world exacerbate gender disparities in excess weight gain. Different contextual factors drive gender differences in food consumption, and women often report consuming healthier foods, yet may consume more sugar-laden foods, than men. Acculturation, through complex sociocultural pathways, affects weight gain among both men and women. The nutrition transition taking place in many developing countries has also affected excess weight gain among both genders, but has had an even greater impact on the physical activity levels of women. Furthermore, in some countries, cultural values favor larger body size among women or men as a sign of fertility, healthfulness, or prosperity. As the global obesity pandemic continues, more research on gender disparities in overweight and obesity will improve the understanding of this pandemic. PMID:22797984
Hale, H B; Ellis, J P; Williams, E W
Multifactor stress was studied, using obese men subjected to long-term (49 d) semistarvation in either a temperate or a not climate. The study was wide in scope, fiving information on endocrine-metabolic effects of a) uncomplicated obesity, b) ovesity in combination with climatic heat, c) obesity plus semistarvation, and d) ovesity combined with semistarvation plus climatic heat. The test subjects--groups of 12 to 13 obese men--remained on a diet which provided 335-400 kcal/d and contained at least 45 g protein, 14 g carbohydrate, and 11 g fat. Overnight urine specimens collected at 7-d intervals were analyzed for epinephrine, norepinephrine, 17-OHCS, ketones, urea, uric acid, creatinine, inorganic phosphate, sodium, and potassium. There was transitory hyperketonuria which related inversely to environmental thermal levels. Most of the physiologic response patterns in the triple-stressor circumstance (obesity plus climatic heat plus semistarvation) were unlike those in the double-stressor situation (obesity plus semistarvation). Thus, there was evidence of compounding of stressor effects. Evidence of diminished sensitivity to heat appeared when obesity was lessened.
Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta
Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p < 0.001). Participants with low or moderate intake of fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.
Sammarco, R.; Marra, M.; Montagnese, C.; De Rosa, E.; Onufrio, M.; Amato, V.; Santarpia, L.; De Caprio, C.; Contaldo, F.; Pasanisi, F.
Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SM) and function which can also be found in obese adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in 1 245 obese women (18 - 67 years, weight 114.7±24.5 kg; BMI 44.1±9.2 fat mass 49.0±6.2%) from Southern Italy. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and SM calculated by using Janssen's equation; therefore the sex-specific cut-off points of percentage skeletal muscle index were used. The whole population was divided in two age groups: A (18-40 years; n. 808; weight 115.4±23.5 kg; BMI 43.8±8.8 kg/m2) and B (41-67 years; n. 438; weight 113.4±26.3 kg; BMI 44.8±9.9 kg/m2). In all the sample there was 2.7% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia; in group A, 1.9% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia whilst in group B 4.3% moderate and 0.7% severe sarcopenia. The results of our study suggest that, based on a screening examination by BIA, moderate/severe sarcopenia can be detected in an unselected middle-aged obese population. Further studies are required to clarify the diagnosis with functional tests.
Macia, Enguerran; Gueye, Lamine; Duboz, Priscilla
Background Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem in many sub-Saharan African countries, but data on the main cardiovascular risk factors–hypertension and obesity–are almost nonexistent in Senegal. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to report the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in Dakar, (ii) to assess the prevalence of general and central obesity, and (iii) to analyze the association between hypertension and general and central obesity. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2015 on a representative sample of 1000 dwellers of the Senegalese capital aged 20–90. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.7%. Among hypertensive respondents, 28.4% were aware of their condition; 16.0% were on antihypertensive medication; 4.9% had controlled blood pressure. The frequency of doctor visits was a significant predictor of awareness (OR = 2.16; p<0.05) and treatment (OR = 2.57; p<0.05) of hypertension. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and general obesity were 12.6%, 19.2% and 9.7% respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was 26% by WC and 39.8% by WHtR. General obesity and central obesity by WHtR significantly predicted HTN among men and women, but not central obesity by WC. Conclusions This study has demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertension in Dakar and a high prevalence of obesity among women–particularly among older women. The awareness, treatment, and effective control of hypertension are unacceptably low. The blood pressure of women with general obesity, and men with central obesity, in the community should be monitored regularly to limit the burden of cardiovascular disease in Senegal. PMID:27622534
El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Robinson, Margaret; Daoud, Farah; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.
Introduction Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic’s characteristics differ between men and women. PMID:25299980
... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...
to bariatric surgery and the improvement of diabetes from the full evidence-based analysis of bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity completed by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) in January 2005. To view the full report, please visit the MAS website at: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/techmn.html. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Obesity is defined as an excessive accumulation of body fat as measured by the body mass index (BMI) and calculated as body weight in kilograms (kg) divided by height in metres squared (m2). People with a BMI over 30 kg/m2 are considered obese in most countries. The condition is associated with the development of several diseases, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes), hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, obstructive sleep apnea, depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon. Clinically severe, or morbid obesity, is commonly defined by a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2, or a BMI of at least 35 kg/m2 if there are comorbid conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or arthritis. The prevalence of morbid obesity among people with type 2 diabetes has been examined and of 2,460 patients with type 2 diabetes, 52% (n = 1,279) were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 23% (n = 561) had a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Bariatric Surgery Men and women with morbid obesity may be eligible for surgical intervention. There are numerous surgical options available, all of which can be divided into two general types, both of which can be performed either as open surgery or laparoscopically: malabsorptive - bypassing parts of the gastrointestinal tract to limit the absorption of food, and restrictive - decreasing the size of the stomach in order for the patient to feel satiated with a smaller amount food Surgery for morbid obesity is usually considered a last resort for people who have attempted first-line medical management (e.g. diet, behaviour modification
Shea, M. Kyla; Booth, Sarah L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Peterson, James W.; Waddell, Catherine; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Saltzman, Edward
Increased adiposity is associated with increased storage of several fat-soluble nutrients. However, the extent to which vitamin K is stored in fat and the association between vitamin K status and adiposity are unknown. Our objectives in this study were to determine whether vitamin K is stored in human adipose tissue and the association between vitamin K status and body fat in older men and women. In study A, the vitamin K concentration of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue was quantified in samples taken from 16 gastric bypass patients [13 women, 3 men, age 40 ± 10 y (mean ± SD)] using HPLC. In study B, cross-sectional associations between percent body fat (%BF) and circulating measures of vitamin K status were examined in 260 women and 183 men [age = 68 ± 5 y]. The phylloquinone (K1) concentrations in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were 148.2 ± 71.8 and 175 ± 112 nmol/kg, respectively, which is higher than the reported concentrations of other organs known to store vitamin K. There was an inverse association between %BF and plasma K1 in women (P-trend < 0.001). Higher %BF was associated with greater circulating concentrations of uncarboxylated prothrombin, indicative of lower hepatic utilization of vitamin K in both men (P-trend = 0.02) and women (P-trend = 0.002) but not with the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Adipose tissue contained high concentrations of vitamin K, and increased adiposity was associated with poorer vitamin K status in older adults. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relationships among body fat, storage of vitamin K in adipose tissue, and implications for vitamin K status and function. PMID:20237066
This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…
Springer, Kristen W; Mouzon, Dawne M
The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health care is unknown. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the authors conduct a population-based assessment of masculinity beliefs and preventive health care, including whether these relationships vary by SES. The results show that men with strong masculinity beliefs are half as likely as men with more moderate masculinity beliefs to receive preventive care. Furthermore, in contrast to the well-established SES gradient in health, men with strong masculinity beliefs do not benefit from higher education and their probability of obtaining preventive health care decreases as their occupational status, wealth, and/or income increases. Masculinity may be a partial explanation for the paradox of men's lower life expectancy, despite their higher SES.
Sanborn, Margaret D.; Manske, Stephen R.; Schlegel, Ronald P.
Obesity is a common condition which has important effects on health status and longevity. This review examines the efficacy of treatments for both moderate and severe obesity. A plan of treatment combining diet, exercise, and behavioral strategies is outlined. Surgery and its complications are reviewed. Eight management issues, including rate of weight loss, self-help groups, and fringe therapies, are presented. Management recommendations are based on a critical review of the weight loss literature. PMID:21283350
Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Silvia, Macedo
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe obesity prevalence in a Brazilian city; (2) test the association between obesity and socio-demographic variables; and (3) compare results with a survey in the same city in 1994. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a random sample of 1,968 20-69-year-olds residing in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2). Age and sex-adjusted obesity prevalence was 19.4%. Schooling was not associated with obesity in men. Obesity prevalence was higher in middle-income men. Women with more schooling had lower obesity rates. There was a non-statistically significant reduction in obesity rates compared to a similar study from 1994.
Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi
During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.
Saboor Aftab, S A; Kumar, S; Barber, T M
Obesity, secondary (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism (SH), sleep disorders [such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)] and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in men have complex interlinks both with respect to mutual aetiopathogenesis as well as therapeutics. Correction of the attendant hypogonadism in obese men may serve to break this link and have beneficial effects beyond restoration of normal sexual function. Male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) should be regarded as a distinct clinical entity and subtype of SH. A high index of suspicion for the presence of MOSH must be maintained by clinicians when assessing obese men. The pathogenesis of MOSH remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the optimal management of MOSH and its associated sequelae will require long-term prospective studies that in turn will inform the development of future clinical guidelines for this important and prevalent condition.
Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S
The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity.
Dubeux, Victor T.; Renovato, Thaisa; Esteves, Ana Clara; André, Lialyz; de Oliveira, Aylana; Penna, Ivan Araújo
Introduction Obesity has become a major problem in most developed countries. Infertility ranks high among the issues brought by excessive weight gain, particularly as it may affect male sexual function. This study investigated a population of Brazilian infertile men in an attempt to establish a relationship between obesity and infertility. Methods A total of 153 infertile men had their anthropometric data collected and were divided into groups according to their body mass index and waist circumference measurements. Sperm parameters including sperm count, concentration, morphology, and motility were compared. Results Multivariate analysis failed to show a positive correlation between excessive weight gain or increased waist circumference, and sperm alterations in a population of infertile men. Conclusions The findings described in this study support the idea that there is no association between obesity and semen alterations in a population of infertile men. PMID:27584607
Mundi, Manpreet S.; Koutsari, Chistina
Context: A portion of free fatty acids (FFA) released from adipose tissue lipolysis are re-stored in adipocytes via direct uptake. Rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage are much greater in women than men, but women also have greater systemic FFA flux and more body fat. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that experimental increases in FFA in men would equalize the rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage in men and women. Design: We used a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA in men to levels seen in post-absorptive women. Direct FFA storage (μmol·kg fat−1·min−1) rates in abdominal and femoral fat was assessed using stable isotope tracer infusions to measure FFA disappearance rates and an iv FFA radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Setting: These studies were performed in a Clinical Research Center. Participants: Data from 13 non-obese women was compared with that from eight obese and eight non-obese men. Intervention: The men received a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the rates of direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Results: The three groups were similar in age and FFA flux by design; obese men had similar body fat percentage as non-obese women. Despite matching for FFA concentrations and flux, FFA storage per kg abdominal (P < .01) and femoral (P < .001) fat was less in both lean and obese men than in non-obese women. Abdominal FFA storage rates were correlated with proteins/enzymes in the FFA uptake/triglyceride synthesis pathway in men. Conclusion: The lesser rates of direct FFA adipose tissue in men compared with women cannot be explained by reduced FFA availability. PMID:25192251
Lindelof, Anders; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Pedersen, Birthe D.
The aim of this study was to explore obese adolescents’ and their parents’ views on the former's obesity; especially to gain knowledge about barriers and motivational factors that influence obese adolescents’ ability to lose weight. This is a qualitative study involving field observation and semi-structured interviews with obese adolescents and their parents. The analysis takes a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Fifteen obese adolescents aged 13–16 years and their parents/grandparents participated in this study (one father, seven mothers, five sets of parents and two sets of grandparents). The results showed that obese adolescents’ are aware that they have unhealthy eating habits and they wish they were able to attain to a healthier diet. Although in poor physical shape, obese adolescents perceive their daily level of exercise as moderate. Obese adolescents blame themselves for being obese and blame their parents for an unhealthy diet, and for being unsupportive regarding exercise. Parents blame their obese child of lacking will power to change eating and exercise habits. As a consequence, the homely atmosphere is often characterised by quarrels and negative feelings. The conclusion is that despite obese adolescents’ intention of reducing weight, underlying issues interfere with this goal. This is particularly related to quarrels with parents, self-blame and misguided understanding of eating and exercising habits. These matters need to be addressed when treating obesity among adolescents. PMID:20640019
Lindelof, Anders; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Pedersen, Birthe D
The aim of this study was to explore obese adolescents' and their parents' views on the former's obesity; especially to gain knowledge about barriers and motivational factors that influence obese adolescents' ability to lose weight. This is a qualitative study involving field observation and semi-structured interviews with obese adolescents and their parents. The analysis takes a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Fifteen obese adolescents aged 13-16 years and their parents/grandparents participated in this study (one father, seven mothers, five sets of parents and two sets of grandparents). The results showed that obese adolescents' are aware that they have unhealthy eating habits and they wish they were able to attain to a healthier diet. Although in poor physical shape, obese adolescents perceive their daily level of exercise as moderate. Obese adolescents blame themselves for being obese and blame their parents for an unhealthy diet, and for being unsupportive regarding exercise. Parents blame their obese child of lacking will power to change eating and exercise habits. As a consequence, the homely atmosphere is often characterised by quarrels and negative feelings. The conclusion is that despite obese adolescents' intention of reducing weight, underlying issues interfere with this goal. This is particularly related to quarrels with parents, self-blame and misguided understanding of eating and exercising habits. These matters need to be addressed when treating obesity among adolescents.
Welty, Francine K; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Schaefer, Ernst J; Marsh, Julian B
The effect of body mass index (BMI) and obesity on apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels and kinetics was examined by gender. Apo A-I kinetics were determined with a primed, constant infusion of deuterated leucine in the fed state in 19 men and 13 postmenopausal women. Compared with nonobese men, nonobese women had a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apo A-I due to a 48% higher apo A-I production rate (PR) (P = .05). Obesity had no significant effects on apo A-I kinetics in women. In contrast, compared with nonobese men, obese men had a 9% lower apo A-I level due to a 64% higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) partially offset by a 47% higher PR. Obese women had a 52% higher HDL-C than obese men (50 vs 33 mg/dL, respectively; P = .012), a finding related to the faster apo A-I FCR in obese men. BMI was directly correlated with apo A-I FCR (r = 0.84, P < .001) and PR (r = 0.79, P < .001) in men but not in women. Sixty-two percent of the variability in PR and 71% of the variability in FCR were due to BMI in men and only 3% and 23%, respectively, in women. In conclusion, BMI has a significant effect on apo A-I PR and FCR in men but not in women.
Chen, Qi; Zhuang, Hengguo; Liu, Yanhui
Accumulating epidemiological studies have supported the link between increased body mass index, central obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma. This association appears stronger than that for other types of obesity-related cancers. Central obesity or visceral fat, more often observed in men, is much more strongly associated with adenocarcinoma than body mass index alone, possibly contributing to the imbalance of disease occurrence between the sexes. Potential mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma have been recently identified, including the insulin-like growth factor pathway, adipokines and sex hormone disturbances. These findings are summarized in this review; however, more research is warranted before these mechanisms are conclusively established.
Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman
OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167
Case, Anne; Menendez, Alicia
Globally, men and women face markedly different risks of obesity. In all but of handful of (primarily Western European) countries, obesity is much more prevalent among women than men. We examine several potential explanations for this phenomenon. We analyze differences between men and women in reports and effects of potential underlying causes of obesity—childhood and adult poverty, depression, and attitudes about obesity. We evaluate the evidence for each explanation using data collected in an urban African township in the Cape Town metropolitan area. Three factors explain the greater obesity rates we find among women. Women who were nutritionally deprived as children are significantly more likely to be obese as adults, while men who were deprived as children face no greater risk. In addition, women of higher adult socioeconomic status are significantly more likely to be obese, which is not true for men. These two factors – childhood circumstances and adult SES – can fully explain the difference in obesity rates between men and women that we find in our sample. More speculatively, in South Africa, women’s perceptions of an ‘ideal’ female body are larger than men’s perceptions of the ‘ideal’ male body, and individuals with larger ‘ideal’ body images are significantly more likely to be obese. PMID:19664973
Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa
Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710
Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…
Bazzano, Lydia; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Calandrelli, Matias; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Manfredi, Jose A.; Seron, Pamela; Mores, Nora; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Olivera, Hector; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma E.
Background Obesity is a major determinant of cardiovascular disease in South America. However, population-based data are limited. Methods A total of 7,524 women and men, aged 35 to 74 years old, were randomly selected from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America between February 2010 and December 2011. Obesity clinical measurements and cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methodology. Results The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were 35.7% and 52.9%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were higher in women, and even higher in women with lower education compared with women with higher education. In men and women obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, odds ratio (OR) 2.38 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.86 to 3.05) and 3.01 (95%CI 2.42 to 3.74) respectively, hypertension (OR 2.79 (95%CI 2.32 to 3.36) and 2.40 (95%CI 2.05 to 2.80) respectively, dyslipidemia (OR 1.83 (95%CI 1.50 to 2.24) and 1.69 (95%CI 1.45 to 1.98), respectively, low physical activity (OR 1.38(95%CI 1.14 to 1.68) and 1.38 (95%CI 1.18 to 1.62) respectively and a lower prevalence of smoking (OR, 0.65 (95%CI 0.53 to 0.80) and 0.58(95%CI 0.48 to 0.70) respectively. Conclusions Obesity and central obesity are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America and are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factor prevalence. These data suggest that efforts toward prevention, treatment, and control of obesity should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:27741247
Oh, Min-Su; Kim, Sorina; Jang, Joon-Hyuck; Park, Jong Yoon; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Lee, Mu Sook
Purpose To analyze the associations among the degrees of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ultrasonography and metabolic syndrome, degrees of obesity in children, and degrees of parental obesity. Methods A total of 198 children with obesity who visited a pediatric obesity clinic were prospectively enrolled in this study. The severity of NAFLD based on ultrasonography was classified into no, mild, moderate, or severe NAFLD group. The degree of obesity based on the percentage over standard weight for height per sex was classified into mild, moderate, or severe. Results Of 132 patients evaluated for the degree of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome, the p-value of correlation between the two factors was 0.009. Therefore, metabolic syndrome might significantly affect the degree of NAFLD. Of 158 patients evaluated for the degree of NAFLD and the degree of obesity, the p-value of correlation between the two factors was 0.122. Of 154 patients evaluated for the degree of obesity and father's obesity, the p-value was 0.076. Of 159 patients evaluated for the degree of obesity and mother's obesity, the p-value was 0.000, indicating that mother's obesity could significantly affect the degree of obesity in children. Of 142 patients evaluated for the degree of obesity and metabolic syndrome, the p-value was 0.288. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome might significantly affect the degree of nonalcoholic fatty liver in children. In addition, mother's obesity might be a significant factor that affects the degree of obesity in children. PMID:27738602
Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José
It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.
Taha, Emad A; Sayed, Sohair K; Gaber, Hisham D; Abdel Hafez, Hatem K; Ghandour, Nagwa; Zahran, Asmaa; Mostafa, Taymour
The effect of being overweight on seminal variables was assesed in 165 fertile men. Participants were divided into three groups: fertile men with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), fertile overweight men (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and fertile obese men (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). Medical history was taken, a clinical examination conducted. Semen analysis was undertaken and BMI measured. Seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by chemiluminescent assay, sperm vitality by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and sperm DNA fragmentation by propidium iodide staining with flowcytometry. Fertile obese men had significantly lower sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility and sperm normal morphology, with significantly higher seminal ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation compared with fertile normal-weight men and overweight men (all P < 0.05). BMI was negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.091; P = 0.014), progressive sperm motility (r = -0.697; P = 0.001), normal sperm morphology (r = -0.510; P = 0.001), sperm vitality (r = -0.586; P = 0.001), but positively correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation percentage (r = 0.799; P = 0.001) and seminal ROS (r = 0.673; P = 0.001). Increased BMI was found to affect semen parameters negatively even in fertile men.
Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi
The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.
King, Lauren K; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila
The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.
Gardner, Rick M
Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures
Gardner, Rick M
Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures
The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...
Donkin, Ida; Versteyhe, Soetkin; Ingerslev, Lars R; Qian, Kui; Mechta, Mie; Nordkap, Loa; Mortensen, Brynjulf; Appel, Emil Vincent R; Jørgensen, Niels; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Hansen, Torben; Workman, Christopher T; Zierath, Juleen R; Barrès, Romain
Obesity is a heritable disorder, with children of obese fathers at higher risk of developing obesity. Environmental factors epigenetically influence somatic tissues, but the contribution of these factors to the establishment of epigenetic patterns in human gametes is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that weight loss remodels the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa in human obesity. Comprehensive profiling of the epigenome of sperm from lean and obese men showed similar histone positioning, but small non-coding RNA expression and DNA methylation patterns were markedly different. In a separate cohort of morbidly obese men, surgery-induced weight loss was associated with a dramatic remodeling of sperm DNA methylation, notably at genetic locations implicated in the central control of appetite. Our data provide evidence that the epigenome of human spermatozoa dynamically changes under environmental pressure and offers insight into how obesity may propagate metabolic dysfunction to the next generation.
McClure, Kimberly J; Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A
News coverage of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, and research shows that media content may contribute to negative public attitudes toward obese people. However, no work has assessed whether photographic portrayals of obese people that accompany news stories affect attitudes. In the present study, the authors used a randomized experimental design to test whether viewing photographic portrayals of an obese person in a stereotypical or unflattering way (versus a nonstereotypical or flattering portrayal) could increase negative attitudes about obesity, even when the content of an accompanying news story is neutral. The authors randomly assigned 188 adult participants to read a neutral news story about the prevalence of obesity that was paired with 1 of 4 photographic portrayals of an obese adult (or no photograph). The authors subsequently assessed attitudes toward obese people using the Fat Phobia Scale. Participants in all conditions expressed a moderate level of fat phobia (M = 3.83, SD = 0.58). Results indicated that participants who viewed the negative photographs expressed more negative attitudes toward obese people than did those who viewed the positive photographs. Implications of these findings for the media are discussed, with emphasis on increasing awareness of weight bias in health communication and journalistic news reporting.
Archibald, Daryll; Douglas, Flora; Hoddinott, Pat; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Stewart, Fiona; Robertson, Clare; Boyers, Dwayne; Avenell, Alison
Objectives To investigate what weight management interventions work for men, with which men, and under what circumstances. Design Realist synthesis of qualitative studies. Data sources Sensitive searches of 11 electronic databases from 1990 to 2012 supplemented by grey literature searches. Study selection Studies published between 1990 and 2012 reporting qualitative research with obese men, or obese men in contrast to obese women and lifestyle or drug weight management were included. The studies included men aged 16 years or over, with no upper age limit, with a mean or median body mass index of 30 kg/m2 in all settings. Results 22 studies were identified, including 5 qualitative studies linked to randomised controlled trials of weight maintenance interventions and 8 qualitative studies linked to non-randomised intervention studies, and 9 relevant UK-based qualitative studies not linked to any intervention. Health concerns and the perception that certain programmes had ‘worked’ for other men were the key factors that motivated men to engage with weight management programmes. Barriers to engagement and adherence with programmes included: men not problematising their weight until labelled ‘obese’; a lack of support for new food choices by friends and family, and reluctance to undertake extreme dieting. Retaining some autonomy over what is eaten; flexibility about treats and alcohol, and a focus on physical activity were attractive features of programmes. Group interventions, humour and social support facilitated attendance and adherence. Men were motivated to attend programmes in settings that were convenient, non-threatening and congruent with their masculine identities, but men were seldom involved in programme design. Conclusions Men's perspectives and preferences within the wider context of family, work and pleasure should be sought when designing weight management services. Qualitative research is needed with men to inform all aspects of intervention
Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998
Wierzejska, Ewelina; Zielińska, Alicja
Introduction Apart from its medical dimension, the current problem with obesity has acquired social urgency. This serious lifestyle disease has a negative impact on a number of life processes in the body, causing distortions and damaging different structures. It also contributes to clinical complications, lowers the quality of life and reduces life expectancy. Apart from health-related consequences, it can bring such unfavourable results as social, mental and emotional disorders. Material and methods A systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies on obesity in Poland relative to selected countries in Europe and the world over the past 15 years was conducted. Also an attempt was made at forecasting the development of the obesity problem. Results The analysed results demonstrated that the percentage of obese people among the adult population of Poland was on the rise in the period under investigation. Taking into account the estimated growth rate, we can assume that the percentage of obese people in Poland right now might total 23.7% for men and 23.3% for women. If no changes are introduced in this respect, in 2020 we can expect a rise to, respectively, 30.3% and 27.3%, and in 2030 to 37% for men and 31.4% for women. Conclusions The increase in the percentage of obese people among the adult population in Poland is most likely connected with a positive energy balance. In comparison to other European countries Poland has the highest percentage of obese men and women. PMID:25861287
Kassab, Sawsan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Abdul Aziz, Noorizan
highly protein bound; the effects of these physiologic differences should be considered when administrating antimicrobial agents in obese patients. Conclusion: Generally this patient was moderately well managed in view of inappropriate combination of antibiotic, duplication or unnecessary use of antibiotic for treatment of sepsis, more clinical studies are needed to determine antibiotic dose in obese patient.
Cox, Nicholas; Resnic, Frederic S; Popma, Jeffrey J; Simon, Daniel I; Eisenhauer, Andrew C; Rogers, Campbell
In this retrospective review of 5,234 cardiac catheterizations and percutaneous coronary interventions, the rate of vascular complications was highest in extremely thin and morbidly obese patients and lowest in moderately obese patients, consistent with the previously reported "obesity paradox." The use of transradial access and arterial access closure devices was associated with reduced vascular complications in the population of obese patients.
Leonard, Mary B; Zemel, Babette S; Wrotniak, Brian H; Klieger, Sarah B; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas
Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, biomarkers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI>97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI>5th and <85th percentiles). Results were converted to sex- and race-specific Z-scores relative to age. Cortical structure, muscle area and muscle strength (by dynamometry) Z-scores were further adjusted for bone length. Obese participants had greater height Z-scores (p<0.001), and advanced skeletal maturity (p<0.0001), compared with non-obese participants. Tibia cortical section modulus and calf muscle area Z-scores were greater in obese participants (1.07 and 1.63, respectively, both p<0.0001). Tibia and radius trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced skeletal maturity, and physical activity (by accelerometry) were positively associated with tibia cortical section modulus Z-scores (all p<0.01). Adjustment for muscle area Z-score attenuated differences in tibia section modulus Z-scores between obese and non-obese participants from 1.07 to 0.28. After multivariate adjustment for greater calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced maturity, and less moderate to vigorous physical activity, tibia section modulus Z-scores were 0.32 (95% CI -0.18, 0.43, p=0.06) greater in obese, vs. non-obese participants. Radius cortical section modulus Z-scores were 0.45 greater (p=0.08) in obese vs. non-obese participants; this difference was attenuated to 0.14 with adjustment for advanced maturity. These findings suggest that greater tibia cortical section modulus in obese adolescents is
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Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
Fowke, Jay H.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E.
Background BPH is a common disease associated with age and obesity. However, the biological pathways between obesity and BPH are unknown. Our objective was to investigate biomarkers of systemic and prostate tissue inflammation as potential mediators of the obesity and BPH association. Methods Participants included 191 men without prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. Trained staff measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis. Systemic inflammation was estimated by serum IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α; and by urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGE-M), F2-isoprostane (F2iP), and F2-isoprostane metabolite (F2iP-M) levels. Prostate tissue was scored for grade, aggressiveness, extent, and location of inflammatory regions, and also stained for CD3 and CD20 positive lymphocytes. Analyses investigated the association between multiple body composition scales, systemic inflammation, and prostate tissue inflammation against BPH outcomes, including prostate size at ultrasound and LUTS severity by the AUA-symptom index (AUA-SI). Results Prostate size was significantly associated with all obesity measures. For example, prostate volume was 5.5 to 9.0 mls larger comparing men in the 25th vs. 75th percentile of % body fat, fat mass (kg) or lean mass (kg). However, prostate size was not associated with proinflammatory cytokines, PGE-M, F2iP, F2iP-M, prostate tissue inflammation scores or immune cell infiltration. In contrast, the severity of prostate tissue inflammation was significantly associated with LUTS, such that there was a 7 point difference in AUA-SI between men with mild vs. severe inflammation (p = 0.004). Additionally, men with a greater waist-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly more likely to have severe prostate tissue inflammation (p = 0.02), and a high WHR was significantly associated with moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 2.56, p = 0.03) among those participants with prostate tissue inflammation. Conclusion
Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Nash, Rachel; Younge, Sinead; Head, Sara
Objective: To identify associations between engaging in oral sex and perceived risk of oral cancer among college men. Also, to identify associations, and their moderating factors, between oral sex and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance. Methods: Young men were recruited from 2 university campuses in the South (N = 150). Men completed an…
Segar, Michelle L.; Updegraff, John A.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Richardson, Caroline R.
The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife. PMID:22701782
Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R
The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.
Barber, Christopher F
This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.
Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...
Owen-Smith, Amanda; Donovan, Jenny; Coast, Joanna
Although there has been extensive research around the etiology of moderate obesity, there are still important questions relating to the development and lived experience of extreme obesity. We present a synthesis of data from two in-depth qualitative studies in which morbidly obese participants (N = 31) were able to explain the development of the condition in their own terms. We identified consistent themes in the two datasets, and undertook a detailed data synthesis. Particularly salient themes in the development of morbid obesity related to family structures and early socialization experiences, and the role of emotional distress was dominant in both initial weight gain and ongoing cycles of loss and regain. All informants accepted some responsibility for their health state, but identified a number of mitigating factors that limited personal culpability that were often related to the fulfillment of gendered social expectations.
Lee, Duck-chul; Shook, Robin P; Drenowatz, Clemens; Blair, Steven N
Sarcopenic obesity is the coexistance of sarcopenia and obesity. Modern sarcopenia definition includes low muscle mass, weak muscle strength (handgrip strength) and poor physical function (slow walking), although the clinical definition of each varies worldwide. The cut-points for low muscle mass for men and women using appendicular lean mass divided by height (kg/m2) are ≤7.0 and ≤5.4 in Asians, and ≤7.23 and ≤5.67 in Caucasians, respectively. The cut-points for weak handgrip strength (kg) for men and women are <26 and <18 in Asians, and <30 and <20 in Caucasians, respectively. The cut-point for slow walking is ≤0.8 m/s in men and women. Current data suggest the potential benefits of physical activity and fitness on sarcopenic obesity in older adults. PMID:28031974
Snyder, P.J.; Bhasin, S.; Cunningham, G.R.; Matsumoto, A.M.; Stephens-Shields, A.J.; Cauley, J.A.; Gill, T.M.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Swerdloff, R.S.; Wang, C.; Ensrud, K.E.; Lewis, C.E.; Farrar, J.T.; Cella, D.; Rosen, R.C.; Pahor, M.; Crandall, J.P.; Molitch, M.E.; Cifelli, D.; Dougar, D.; Fluharty, L.; Resnick, S.M.; Storer, T.W.; Anton, S.; Basaria, S.; Diem, S.J.; Hou, X.; Mohler, E.R.; Parsons, J.K.; Wenger, N.K.; Zeldow, B.; Landis, J.R.; Ellenberg, S.S.
BACKGROUND Serum testosterone concentrations decrease as men age, but benefits of raising testosterone levels in older men have not been established. METHODS We assigned 790 men 65 years of age or older with a serum testosterone concentration of less than 275 ng per deciliter and symptoms suggesting hypoandrogenism to receive either testosterone gel or placebo gel for 1 year. Each man participated in one or more of three trials — the Sexual Function Trial, the Physical Function Trial, and the Vitality Trial. The primary outcome of each of the individual trials was also evaluated in all participants. RESULTS Testosterone treatment increased serum testosterone levels to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age. The increase in testosterone levels was associated with significantly increased sexual activity, as assessed by the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire (P<0.001), as well as significantly increased sexual desire and erectile function. The percentage of men who had an increase of at least 50 m in the 6-minute walking distance did not differ significantly between the two study groups in the Physical Function Trial but did differ significantly when men in all three trials were included (20.5% of men who received testosterone vs. 12.6% of men who received placebo, P=0.003). Testosterone had no significant benefit with respect to vitality, as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue scale, but men who received testosterone reported slightly better mood and lower severity of depressive symptoms than those who received placebo. The rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic men 65 years of age or older, raising testosterone concentrations for 1 year from moderately low to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age had a moderate benefit with respect to sexual function and some benefit with respect to mood and depressive symptoms but no benefit with respect to vitality or
Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie
We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.
Pujante, Pedro; Abreu, Cristina; Moreno, Jose; Barrero, Eduardo Alegria; Azcarate, Pedro; Campo, Arantxa; Urrestarazu, Elena; Silva, Camilo; Maria, Jesus Gil; Tebar, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Salvador, Javier
Objective: To evaluate the relation between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and left ventricular mass (LVM) in morbid obesity and the influence of gender, menopausal status, anthropometry, body composition, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors in this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: Polysomnographic and echocardiographic studies were performed in a cohort of 242 patients (86 men, 100 premenopausal (PreM) and 56 postmenopausal (PostM) women), with grade II obesity and above (BMI: 43.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) to investigate OSA and LVM respectively. Anthropometry, body composition, glucose tolerance, and blood pressure were also recorded. Results: OSA to different degrees was diagnosed in 76.2% of the patients (n: 166), its prevalence being 90.9% (n: 70) for men, and 76% (n: 38) and 63.8% (n: 58) for PostM and PreM women, respectively (p < 0.01). LVM excess was greatest for PostM women (90.2%), followed by men (81.9%) and PreM females (69.6%) (p < 0.01). LVM values increased in accordance to OSA severity (absence, 193.7 ± 6.9 g; mild, 192.6 ± 7.8 g; moderate, 240.5 ± 12.5 g; severe, 273.6 ± 14.6 g; p < 0.01). LVM magnitude correlated with the menopausal state, age, central adiposity, hypertension (HT), type 2 diabetes (DM), desaturation index (DI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The relationship between LVM and AHI persisted in the multivariate analysis (β = 0.25; p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, gender, menopausal state, BMI, waist circumference, neck circumference, DI, fasting plasma glucose, DM, and HT. But if tobacco habits are included, the statistical difference disappears (β = 0.22; p = 0.06). Conclusions: Morbid obesity is frequently associated with abnormal LVM, particularly in patients with OSA; this association is independent of HT, BMI, body composition, and other clinical factors, supporting a direct role of OSA on LVM in morbid obesity. This suggests that OSA and LVM might be taken as
Mama, Scherezade K.; Soltero, Erica G.; Ledoux, Tracey A.; Gallagher, Martina R.; Lee, Rebecca E.
Science and Community: Ending Obesity Improving Health (S&C) aimed to reduce obesity in Houston by developing community partnerships to identify research priorities and develop a sustainable obesity reduction program. Partnership members were recruited from S&C events and invited to participate in in-depth interviews to gain insight into obesity prevalence, causes, and solutions. Members (n = 22) completed a 60–90-min in-depth interview. The interview guide consisted of 30 questions about pressing health problems in the community, potential solutions to health problems and obesity and how the environment has impacted obesity and health behaviors in the community. Interviewees (n = 12 women and 10 men) were mostly Hispanic/Latino (n = 9) and African American (n = 7). Common problems identified were childhood obesity, balancing a healthy diet and physical inactivity. Interviewees identified obesity as a major problem in their communities and cited access to quality food and physical activity resources as both a problem and a solution. Additional emergent themes focused on solutions, including increasing awareness and education, coordinated efforts among organizations and using an ecologic approach to combat obesity. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to enhance relevance and sustainability of programs developed to reduce obesity and suggests possible avenues for participatory research and intervention. PMID:24372868
Medanić, Darija; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna
Obesity is a major health problem today that grows into a global epidemic. According to the World Health Organization report, 1.5 billion adults were overweight, over 500 million of them were obese, and the prevalence of obesity is expected to rise in the years to come. A similar situation is recorded in Croatia, where there are 25.3% of obese men and 34.1% of obese women. There are multiple factors that cause obesity. Accelerated lifestyle, fast food, unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle are considered as the major risk factors of overweight and obesity development. Accumulation of fat tissue, especially visceral fat tissue has been demonstrated to be associated with some chronic changes and diseases of different organ systems. Some anthropometric measurements, especially body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, have been used to diagnose obesity and estimate the health risk. Developing well-structured prevention programs that would encourage people to become aware of obesity as a disease and that imbalanced dietary habits and physical activity are important for obesity prevention and health, is a major public health challenge.
Mama, Scherezade K; Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey A; Gallagher, Martina R; Lee, Rebecca E
"Science and Community: Ending Obesity Improving Health" (S&C) aimed to reduce obesity in Houston by developing community partnerships to identify research priorities and develop a sustainable obesity reduction program. Partnership members were recruited from S&C events and invited to participate in in-depth interviews to gain insight into obesity prevalence, causes, and solutions. Members (n = 22) completed a 60-90-min in-depth interview. The interview guide consisted of 30 questions about pressing health problems in the community, potential solutions to health problems and obesity and how the environment has impacted obesity and health behaviors in the community. Interviewees (n = 12 women and 10 men) were mostly Hispanic/Latino (n = 9) and African American (n = 7). Common problems identified were childhood obesity, balancing a healthy diet and physical inactivity. Interviewees identified obesity as a major problem in their communities and cited access to quality food and physical activity resources as both a problem and a solution. Additional emergent themes focused on solutions, including increasing awareness and education, coordinated efforts among organizations and using an ecologic approach to combat obesity. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to enhance relevance and sustainability of programs developed to reduce obesity and suggests possible avenues for participatory research and intervention.
Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.
Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606
Allen, G. M.; Broome, T. A.; Burridge, R. A.; Cragg, D.; Hall, R.; Haynes, D.; Hirst, J.; Hogston, J. R.; Jones, H. H.; Sexton, J.; Wright, P.
ISIS is a pulsed spallation neutron source where neutrons are produced by the interaction of a 160 kW proton beam of energy 800 MeV in a water-cooled Tantalum Target. The fast neutrons produced are thermalized in four moderators: two ambient water, one liquid methane operating at 100K and a liquid hydrogen moderator at 20 K. This paper gives a description of the construction of both cold moderator systems, details of the operating experience and a description of the current development program.
Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan
Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773
Lahmam, A; Baali, A; Hilali, M K; Cherkaoui, M; Chapuis-Lucciani, N; Boetsch, G
In order to study the prevalence of obesity and overweight and to understand how the human body is perceived among Moroccan mountain populations, we carried out a survey that covered a sample of 436 Amazigh individuals aged 20 years and more from the High Moroccan Atlas. Through this survey, we noticed that obesity is still low among men (2.4%), whereas the prevalence of obesity among women is alarming and reaches 13.3%. The prevalence of overweight is also high, especially among women, with 32.8% vs. 21.8% among men. Obesity prevalence, especially overweight, is higher than that recorded in the national rural level. The high prevalence of overweight that can develop to obesity should be taken into account mainly when dealing with women that still value overweight. In fact, women in our sample underestimate their overweight more than men and wish to have a heavier body.
Drewa, Tomasz; Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota; Chlosta, Piotr
Controversy surrounds testosterone replacement therapy in obese ageing due to no generally accepted lower limits of normal testosterone level and high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the ageing male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Late onset hypogonadism is a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age, often coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome. High fat and carbohydrates (fructose) consumption is responsible for development of obesity and metabolic syndrome which is one of risk factors for hypogonadism in older men. High fructose intake has been shown to cause dyslipidemia and to impair hepatic insulin sensitivity. Obesity and lack of physical activity negatively influence testosterone level. Low testosterone level should be regarded as an effect of obesity, but reverse relationship has not been proved yet. The management of late-onset hypogonadism symptoms has to be treated by a change of a life style and prevented with healthy nutrition and physical activity. The question related to rational indications for testosterone replacement therapy in obese males seems to be still actual.
Kunesová, M; Hainer, V; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Fried, M
A group of 318 obese patients followed-up at the Obesity Unit in Prague in 1995-1997 was included into a study. Their treatment was based on the standard combination of a weight reduction diet, physical activity and behavioural intervention. In patients with more severe degrees of óbesity VLCD in one daily portion, pharmacotherapy, in-patient regimen lasting 24 days, including VLCD (1,500 kJ/day), exercise and group psychotherapy; or bariatric surgery (mostly laparoscopic gastric banding) were used, if necessary. Patients were divided into two groups according to their compliance to the weight reducing regimen. Group A dropped out before 2 years of follow-up, group B was followed-up 2 years or more. The groups did not differ significantly in their mean age, initial body weight, initial BMI and fat content and in percentage of males and females. Weight, BMI, fat content, essential anthropometric indices (waist circumference, WHR, subscapular and triceps skinfolds) and blood pressure are presented in this study. The maximum weight loss was significantly higher in group B. We did not find any other significant differences between group A and group B. The most significant predictor of compliance expressed as duration of follow-up (evaluated by multiple regression with stepwise variable selection) was the maximum BMI decrease (p < 0.005). The most significant predictors of the weight loss at the end of the follow-up were maximum weight loss and maximum decrease of BMI (p < 0.001). Family history of obesity (obese one or both parents) was significantly more often in group B (p < 0.05). This trend was expressed predominantly in females (p < 0.01), where also family history of obesity in mother was significantly more often in group B (p < 0.05). The frequency of methods used in individual patients was estimated. Standard combination of diet, enhanced physical activity and behavioural intervention was used in all patients. All other methods were used significantly more
Aranceta Bartrina, J
Obesity is one of the main public health problems in developed countries. It is considered to be a risk factor associated with the genesis or development of the major chronic diseases. The classification of a population by weight and the awareness of its determining factors are essential elements in order to undertake health planning programmes and health promotion projects. In Europe, the prevalence of obesity (BMI 30) is greater in northern countries (7% in men and 9% in women in the Netherlands; 5.3% and 9.1% respectively in Sweden) than in southern countries (Spain: 11.5% in men and 15.2% for women) or further east (Germany: 10.6% in men and 11.6% among women). In the United States, obesity is taking on alarming proportions, with an increase of 8 percentage points between 1976 and 1994, placing the problem at a level of 22.5% of the population classified as obese. The prevalence of obesity in Spain is 13.4%, higher after the age of 45 years, among women and in individuals with a lower educational level. The pattern of geographical distribution evidences a greater prevalence towards the south and south-east, with statistical significance among males. It is necessary to analyze in further depth the factors involved in the genesis of obesity and to institutionalize community health programmes for its prevention, monitoring and treatment.
Salaün, Hélène; Thariat, Juliette; Vignot, Marina; Merrouche, Yacine; Vignot, Stéphane
The proportion of people affected by obesity is increasing and this finding emphasizes several issues in oncology: obesity as a risk factor for cancer, prognostic value of obesity in cancer patients, nutritional assessment in overweight patients and impact of obesity on treatment management. It is important to remember the common underevaluation of malnutrition in overweight or obese patients. Every caregiver must be especially careful about the management of comorbidities in these patients.
Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A
This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988
Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Sugenoya, Junichi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Iwase, Satoshi
Obese subjects may be more vulnerable to injury from heat stress, and appear to be less efficient at thermoregulation. Sweat rate, tympanic temperature and osmolality in obese subjects were investigated in Japan during two seasons. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between obesity, thermoregulatory response and season. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9'E. The average atmospheric temperature was 29.1 ± 1.0 °C in summer and 3.3 ± 1.4 °C in winter. Tympanic temperature and sweat rate were measured during leg water immersion at 42 °C for 30 min. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma osmolality. The relationship between tympanic temperature and sweat rate decreased significantly in obese compared to in non-obese subjects in both seasons, there being a lowered sweat rate for any core temperature in obese subjects. Plasma osmolality was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese subjects in both seasons. Thermal sensation increased significantly in non-obese than in obese in winter but not in summer. Our data show that thermoregulatory responses are attenuated in obese subjects compared with controls, suggesting that obese people are at increased risk of heat-related illnesses.
Cai, Shubing; Rahman, Momotazur; Intrator, Orna
Objectives To examine the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with pressure ulcers among nursing home (NH) populations, and whether such relationship varies with certified nursing assistant (CNA) level in NHs. Data and study population The 1999–2009 nationwide Minimum Data Sets were linked with Online Survey of Certification and Reporting records. We identified newly admitted NH residents who became long-stayers and followed them up to 1 year. Analyses The outcome variable was presence of pressure ulcers during the 1-year follow-up period. Residents were categorized as normal (18.5<=BMI<30 kg/m2), mild obesity (30 <=BMI <35 kg/m2) and moderate or severe obesity (BMI>=35 kg/m2). Pooled and stratified analyses were performed to examine the relationship between obesity and pressure ulcers, and how it varied by facility CNA level. Results The prevalence of obesity increased from 16.9% to 25.8% among newly admitted NH residents over the last decade. Obesity was associated with higher risks of pressure ulcers among long-stay residents. The relationship between obesity and pressure ulcers persisted after accounting for individual health conditions at the baseline and facility-level variations. Further, the within-facility relationship between obesity and pressure ulcers varied by facility CNA levels. The odds of pressure ulcers were 18.9% higher for residents with moderate or severe obesity than for non-obese residents within NHs with low CNA levels. The percents for medium and high CNA level facilities were 14.0% and 12.8%, respectively. Conclusion To prepare for the growing obesity epidemic in NHs, policies should focus on strategies to improve care provided for obese residents. PMID:23666490
Qian, Jiahui; Li, Ningxiu; Ren, Xiaohui
We examined the controversial relationship between obesity and depression among Chinese people aged 45 and over using data from the 2013 follow-up survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the CES-D 10; overweight and obesity were defined using WHO, Asian and Chinese criteria. The proportion of depressive symptoms was 19.9% and 33.2% in men and women, respectively. Depressive symptoms decreased as BMI increased in both men and women (P < 0.05). Obese women were less likely to suffer from depressive symptoms than normal weight women according to WHO, Asian and Chinese criteria (P < 0.05). Obese men were less likely to suffer from depressive symptoms than normal weight men under the Chinese criteria (P < 0.05). The results indicate that there is an inverse association between obesity and depressive symptoms among Chinese men and women, supporting the “jolly fat” hypothesis in China, and suggest that individuals and medical providers should pay attention to underweight as well as obesity. In addition, our study illustrates the importance of establishing appropriate obesity cut-off points for individual countries. PMID:28378748
Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J
The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.
Marston, Albert R.; And Others
Balanced groups of obese and thin persons, men and women, lone eaters and group eaters, were unobtrusively observed. Observers noted occurrence of extraneous responses, counted bites and chews, and rated tension, mood, and food enjoyment. Results were reported at the International Congress on Obesity, London, October 1974. (Author)
The, Natalie S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
BMI is highly correlated between spouses; however, less is understood about the underlying mechanism(s) by which the development of obesity in one individual increases the risk of obesity in his/her spouse. The objective of this study is to investigate whether romantic partnership and duration of cohabitation are related to incident obesity and obesity-promoting behaviors. We used two data sets from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: (i) 6,949 US adolescents (wave II, 1996) followed into adulthood (wave III, 2001-2002) and (ii) 1,293 dating, cohabiting, and married romantic couples from wave III, including measured anthropometry and self-report behavior data. In the longitudinal cohort, we used sex-stratified logistic regression models to examine the risk of incident obesity by longitudinal romantic relationship status and duration of time spent living with a romantic partner. In the Couples Sample, we used multinomial logistic regression to predict concordance in outcomes: obesity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and screen time by romantic partnership and duration of time living with a romantic partner. Individuals who transitioned from single/dating to cohabiting or married were more likely to become obese than those who were dating at both waves. Partner concordance for negative, obesity-related behaviors was strongest for married couples and couples who lived together > or =2 years. The shared household environment may increase the likelihood of becoming obese, influence partner concordance, and may be an important target for obesity intervention.
Sumner, L W
This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable.
Popovich, P M; Everton, W J; Campbell, K L; Godinho, R M; Kramer, K M; Mangan, M R
Researchers have speculated that employers are less likely to hire obese persons for more publicly visible jobs, although this hypothesis remains untested. In the present study, 54 undergraduate students rated 40 jobs on several items, including the likelihood they would hire an obese person for each job. Multidimensional scaling showed a one-dimensional solution, labeled as physical activity, with participants less likely to hire obese persons for more active jobs. For hiring likelihood ratings for jobs at either end of the dimension appear to be most similar for men and individuals with more positive attitudes toward obese persons versus women and individuals with more negative attitudes toward obese persons. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed.
Du Plessis, Stefan S; Cabler, Stephanie; McAlister, Debra A; Sabanegh, Edmund; Agarwal, Ashok
The results of several studies point to an increased likelihood of abnormal semen parameters among overweight men, and an elevated risk for subfertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. Obesity is, therefore, associated with a higher incidence of male factor infertility. Several mechanisms might account for the effect of obesity on male infertility, both directly and indirectly, by inducing sleep apnea, alterations in hormonal profiles (reduced inhibin B and androgen levels accompanied by elevated estrogen levels) and increased scrotal temperatures, ultimately manifesting as impaired semen parameters (decreased total sperm count, concentration and motility; increased DNA fragmentation index). Neither the reversibility of obesity-associated male infertility with weight loss nor effective therapeutic interventions have been studied in-depth. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its effects on fertility, better understanding of underlying mechanisms, and exploration into avenues of treatment.
Brooks, Virginia L; Shi, Zhigang; Holwerda, Seth W; Fadel, Paul J
Abundant evidence obtained largely from male human and animal subjects indicates that obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which contributes to hypertension development. However, recent studies that included women reported that the strong relationships between muscle SNA and waist circumference or body mass index (BMI) found in men are not present in overweight and obese women. A similar sex difference in the association between adiposity and hypertension development has been identified in animal models of obesity. In this brief review, we consider two possible mechanisms for this sex difference. First, visceral adiposity, leptin, insulin, and angiotensin II have been identified as potential culprits in obesity-induced sympathoexcitation in males. We explore if these factors wield the same impact in females. Second, we consider if sex differences in vascular reactivity to sympathetic activation contribute. Our survey of the literature suggests that premenopausal females may be able to resist obesity-induced sympathoexcitation and hypertension in part due to differences in adipose disposition as well as its muted inflammatory response and reduced production of pressor versus depressor components of the renin-angiotensin system. In addition, vascular responsiveness to increased SNA may be reduced. However, more importantly, we identify the urgent need for further study, not only of sex differences per se, but also of the mechanisms that may mediate these differences. This information is required not only to refine treatment options for obese premenopausal women but also to potentially reveal new therapeutic avenues in obese men and women.
Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E
Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women.
This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...
Cao, Jay J
obesity rates have doubled since 1980 and as of 2007, 33% of men and 35% of women in the US are obese. Obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers. It is estimated that the direct medical cost associated with obesity in the United States is ~$100 billion per year.Bone mass and strength decrease during adulthood, especially in women after menopause. These changes can culminate in osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration resulting in increased bone fracture risk. It is estimated that there are about 10 million Americans over the age of 50 who have osteoporosis while another 34 million people are at risk of developing the disease. In 2001, osteoporosis alone accounted for some $17 billion in direct annual healthcare expenditure. Several lines of evidence suggest that obesity and bone metabolism are interrelated. First, both osteoblasts (bone forming cells) and adipocytes (energy storing cells) are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell and agents inhibiting adipogenesis stimulated osteoblast differentiation and vice versa, those inhibiting osteoblastogenesis increased adipogenesis. Second, decreased bone marrow osteoblastogenesis with aging is usually accompanied with increased marrow adipogenesis. Third, chronic use of steroid hormone, such as glucocorticoid, results in obesity accompanied by rapid bone loss. Fourth, both obesity and osteoporosis are associated with elevated oxidative stress and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. At present, the mechanisms for the effects of obesity on bone metabolism are not well defined and will be the focus of this review.
Fraas, A.P.; Tudor, J.J.
An improved moderator structure for nuclear reactors consists of moderator blocks arranged in horizontal layers to form a multiplicity of vertically stacked columns of blocks. The blocks in each vertical column are keyed together, and a ceramic grid is disposed between each horizontal layer of blocks. Pressure plates cover- the lateral surface of the moderator structure in abutting relationship with the peripheral terminal lengths of the ceramic grids. Tubular springs are disposed between the pressure plates and a rigid external support. The tubular springs have their axes vertically disposed to facilitate passage of coolant gas through the springs and are spaced apart a selected distance such that at sonae preselected point of spring deflection, the sides of the springs will contact adjacent springs thereby causing a large increase in resistance to further spring deflection. (AEC)
Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A
This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.
Lucas, A. T.
The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, up–grading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.
Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu
Due to differences in food cultures, dietary quality measures, such as the Mediterranean Diet Score, may not be easily adopted by other countries. Recently, the Baltic Sea Diet Pyramid was developed to illustrate healthy choices for the diet consumed in the Nordic countries. We assessed whether the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) based on the Pyramid is associated with a decreased risk of obesity and abdominal obesity. The population-based cross-sectional study included 4720 Finns (25-74 years) from the National FINRISK 2007 study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, ratio of PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat (percentage of energy), and alcohol. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured and BMI values were calculated. In a multivariable model, men in the highest v. lowest BSDS quintile were more likely to have normal WC (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·29, 0·80). In women, this association was similar but not significant (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·09). The association appeared to be stronger in younger age groups (men: OR 0·23, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·62; women: OR 0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·58) compared with older age groups. Nordic cereals and alcohol were found to be the most important BSDS components related to WC. No association was observed between the BSDS and BMI. The present study suggests that combination of Nordic foods, especially cereals and moderate alcohol consumption, is likely to be inversely associated with abdominal obesity.
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02–2.19) to 6.50 (6.19–6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79–2.10) to 3.25 (3.05–3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:28145639
Kim, Mi Hyun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ko, Hyeonyoung; Song, Yun Mi
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02-2.19) to 6.50 (6.19-6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79-2.10) to 3.25 (3.05-3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Shcherbakova, M Iu; Poriagina, G I; Kovaleva, E A
In this article presented modern data on the definition of obesity in childhood and its prevalence. Were reflected the basic diagnostic criteria for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed genetic changes, hormonal factors, influence lifestyle of modern man as the reasons of the obesity. Are also was considered data on the relation of obesity and its complications such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Was reflected the views of various specialists (cardiologists, endocrinologists, gastroenterologists, pediatricians) to the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Were presented modern data on the approaches to the treatment of obesity in children.
Lim, K G
A literature search of articles as detailed in the paper Bibliography of clinical research in Malaysia: methods and brief results, using the MESH terms Obesity; Obesity, Abdominal; and Overweight; covering the years 2000 till 2015 was undertaken and 265 articles were identified. Serial population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increased rapidly in Malaysia in the last decade of the twentieth century. This follows the rising availability of food per capita which had been begun two to three decades previously. Almost every birth cohort, even up to those in their seventh decade increased in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1996 and 2006. However, the rise in prevalence in obesity appears to have plateaued after the first decade of the twentieth century. Women are more obese than men and Malays and Indians are more obese than Chinese. The Orang Asli (Aborigines) are the least obese ethnic group in Malaysia but that may change with socioeconomic development. Neither living in rural areas nor having low income protects against obesity. On the contrary, a tertiary education and an income over RM4,000/month is associated with less obesity. Malaysians are generally not physically active enough, in the modes of transportation they use and how they use their leisure time. Other criteria and measures of obesity have been investigated, such as the relevance of abdominal obesity, and the Asian criteria or Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs value of 23.0 kg/m(2) for overweight and 27.0 kg/m(2) for obesity, with the view that the risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases start to increase at lower values in Asians compared to Europeans. Nevertheless the standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for obesity are still most widely used and hence is the best common reference. Guidelines for the management of obesity have been published and projects to combat obesity are being run. However, more effort needs to be invested. Studies on intervention
Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Cass, Kamila M; Ford, Jennifer A
This study examined biopsychosocial factors related to body dissatisfaction in young men within multivariate and moderator contexts. A female sample was included as a gender comparison. Male (n=111) and female (n=236) undergraduates filled out self-report questionnaires assessing body mass index (BMI), media influence, a history of weight-related teasing, and socially prescribed perfectionism, along with various indices of body dissatisfaction. Perceived pressure from the media was consistently related to body dissatisfaction in men whereas multiple biopsychosocial variables accounted for body dissatisfaction in women. Socially prescribed perfectionism and a history of weight teasing each moderated the relationship between BMI and male body dissatisfaction, identifying men low in body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate that applying a biopsychosocial framework to the study of body dissatisfaction in men is useful and suggest the need for including other factors, such as male peers and sports involvement, in understanding contributors to male body image.
Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seok Jun; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Lee, Seung Gwan; Shin, Chol
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) has been recognized as a common health problem, and increasing obesity rates have led to further remarkable increases in the prevalence of OSA, along with more prominent cardiovascular morbidities. Though previous studies have reported an independent relationship between elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels and OSA, the issue remains controversial owing to inadequate consideration of obesity and various confounding factors. So far, few population based studies of association between OSA and hsCRP levels have been published. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether OSA is associated with increased hsCRP levels independent of obesity in a large population-based study. A total of 1,835 subjects (968 men and 867 women) were selected from a larger cohort of the ongoing Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Overnight polysomnography was performed on each participant. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses, including analysis of lipid profiles and hsCRP levels. Based on anthropometric data, body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated and fat mass (FM) were measured by means of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Mild OSA and moderate to severe OSA were defined by an AHI >5 and ≥15, respectively. The population was sub-divided into 3 groups based on the tertile cut-points for the distribution of hsCRP levels. The percentage of participants in the highest tertile of hsCRP increased dose-dependently according to the severity of OSA. After adjustment for potential confounders and obesity-related variables (BMI, WHR, and body fat) in a multiple logistic model, participants with moderate to severe OSA had 1.73-, 2.01-, and 1.61-fold greater risks of being in the highest tertile of hsCRP levels than participants with non-OSA, respectively. Interaction between obesity (BMI ≥25kg/m2) and the
Wang, Youfa; Beydoun, May A; Liang, Lan; Caballero, Benjamin; Kumanyika, Shiriki K
We projected future prevalence and BMI distribution based on national survey data (National Health and Nutrition Examination Study) collected between 1970s and 2004. Future obesity-related health-care costs for adults were estimated using projected prevalence, Census population projections, and published national estimates of per capita excess health-care costs of obesity/overweight. The objective was to illustrate potential burden of obesity prevalence and health-care costs of obesity and overweight in the United States that would occur if current trends continue. Overweight and obesity prevalence have increased steadily among all US population groups, but with notable differences between groups in annual increase rates. The increase (percentage points) in obesity and overweight in adults was faster than in children (0.77 vs. 0.46-0.49), and in women than in men (0.91 vs. 0.65). If these trends continue, by 2030, 86.3% adults will be overweight or obese; and 51.1%, obese. Black women (96.9%) and Mexican-American men (91.1%) would be the most affected. By 2048, all American adults would become overweight or obese, while black women will reach that state by 2034. In children, the prevalence of overweight (BMI >/= 95th percentile, 30%) will nearly double by 2030. Total health-care costs attributable to obesity/overweight would double every decade to 860.7-956.9 billion US dollars by 2030, accounting for 16-18% of total US health-care costs. We continue to move away from the Healthy People 2010 objectives. Timely, dramatic, and effective development and implementation of corrective programs/policies are needed to avoid the otherwise inevitable health and societal consequences implied by our projections .
... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...
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Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Owens, William A.
The author suggests that it is more efficient to cluster subjects on the basis of their profiles across several dimensions of significance and to seek "between" subgroup correlates, than to search for a moderator variable "within" levels of which criterion relationships may vary in nonrandom fashion. (Author/RK)
Kanauchi, Masao; Kanauchi, Kimiko
Background The Mediterranean diet (MD) is well known as a healthy diet that protects against several chronic diseases. However, there is no appropriate and easy index to assess adherence to the MD pattern in Japan. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a novel instrument to measure MD adherence adapted to a Japanese diet and to examine its association with overweight/obesity risk. Methods A cross-sectional nutritional survey provided the data for construction of a novel MD score. In total, 1,048 subjects who were employees and university students, aged 18–68 years (645 men and 403 women), completed a 58-item brief-type self-administered dietary history questionnaire. We constructed a Japanese-adapted MD score (jMD score) focusing on 13 components. Adherence to the jMD was categorized as low (score 0–4), moderate (5–7), or high (8–13). Results Men had higher jMD scores than women, and adherence to the jMD score increased with age. Only 11.6% of subjects showed high adherence to the jMD, whereas 29.6% showed low adherence. A higher jMD adherence was associated with a higher intake of favorable nutrients with the exception of salt. The jMD adherence was significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of having overweight/obesity for the highest category compared with lowest category (odds ratio [OR] 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30–0.85, p-trend=0.017) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and hypertension. A two-point increment in jMD score was related to a reduced likelihood of having overweight/obesity with an odds ratio of 0.76 (95% CI 0.65–0.90, p=0.002). Conclusions Our novel jMD score confirmed reasonable associations with nutrient intakes, and higher MD adherence was associated with a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity. PMID:27806831
Elizabeth Redden, author of the "Inside Higher Ed" article, "Lost Men on Campus," succinctly articulated the growing concerns about many college men at postsecondary institutions. Her review of results and issues presented at the "ND Conference on College Men" highlighted decreased rates of enrollment for men, underrepresentation of men in campus…
Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun
Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152
In the GDR about 20% of the males and 40% of the females were estimated to be obese. In the country obesity is more spread than in the town. Increased disablement of obese persons leads to reduction of the national income. With higher expenses for nutrition the frequency of obestiy increases. Hypophages and hyperphages are differently distributed in persons with normal weight and obese ones, so that the average establishments do not reflect the differentiated situation in nutrition. Obesity correlates with the type of structure; with increasing obesity dominate pyknomorphous tendencies of growth. Also in normal weight pyknomorphous persons have a higher proportion of fat. We should speak of obesity in such a case, when, taking into consideration biological differentiations, the normal proportion of the fat in the body is increased by more than 1/3. For epidemiological serial examinations the degrees of relative weight basing on optimum weight are a favourable basis for the classification of obesity.
Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane
Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients.
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... 6 percent were considered extremely obesese. Source: Ogden & Carroll, 2010; Flegal et al., 2012 **Data for 1960– ... clinical-guidelines-obesity-adults-evidence-report Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity ...
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Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...