Science.gov

Sample records for modern physical theories

  1. Plato's Ideas and the Theories of Modern Particle Physics: Amazing Parallels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2006-05-01

    It is generally known that the question, ``What are the most elementary particles that all matter is made from?'', was already posed in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. However, this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a simple atomism. The characteristic point of modern particle theory is that it is concerned with the symmetries underlying the particles we discover in experiment. More than 2000 years ago, a similar idea was already advanced by the Greek philosopher Plato in his dialogue Timaeus: Geometric symmetries generate the atoms from just a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle theory. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Werner Heisenberg.

  2. Post modern physic (a revolution in modern physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekzadeh, Shahram

    2008-03-01

    When you make a deep Study in Classic and modern physics you will find great and numerous weak points. On the other hand when you want to dismiss a wrong theory you should accept the other maybe incorrect theory so I think that we should write the physics from very beginning. Here I mentioned new theories on each field that can be a start for other scientists. Theories like ``cyclone theory'' which is about light travel or ``matrix theory'' which denotes that the materials are not made only atoms but an external capsule named matrix.

  3. Quantum corrections in modern gauge theories of fundamental interactions and the search for new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchini, R.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the analysis of the quantum effects in gauge theories yields several constraints which may be used to test their internal consistency and physical viability. We have studied, in particular, the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model and tested the universality of the weak interactions and the conserved-vector-current hypothesis. Finally, we have analyzed modular invariance in the closed bosonic string.

  4. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  5. Modern Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Kenneth S.

    1995-08-01

    Bring Modern Physics to Life with a Realistic Software Simulation! Enhance the thorough coverage of Krane's Modern Physics 2e with hands-on, real-world experience! Modern Physics Simulations, developed by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics Software (CUPS), offers complex, realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Important Features Include: * Powerful simulations covering Historic Experiments in Electron Diffraction, Laser Cavities & Dynamics, Classical Scattering, Nuclear Properties & Decays, Special Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and the Hydrogen Atom & the H2+ Molecule. * Pascal source code for all programs and a number of exercises suggesting specific ways the programs can be modified. * Graphical (often animated) displays in most simulations. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine books/software simulations which cover Astrophysics, Electricity and Magnetism, Classical Mechanics, Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Solid State Physics, Thermal and Statistical Physics, and Waves and Optics.

  6. What Happened to Modern Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabajee, Paul; Postlethwaite, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Argues for including the concepts of "twentieth-century physics"--relativity, quantum mechanics, and chaos theory--within the National Curriculum in science for England and Wales, which almost entirely ignores them. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/ASK)

  7. Modern Detectors for Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, Oscar

    2005-10-12

    This paper focus on the necessary requirements for a modern astroparticle physics detector based either on stratospheric balloons, either on satellite. The main technical solutions used to build a reliable detector are described. Finally, the most relevant experiments that have been developed with the INFN contribution and that will be ready in the near future (both for {gamma} and charged cosmic rays detection) are described.

  8. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  9. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  10. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  11. A philosophical theory on human communication and modern physics: e(,2)c(,2)H('2)T energy-exchange and consciousness-change toward humanism, healing, and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne

    This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is

  12. Modern Biological Theories of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in molecular biology and genetics, the mysteries that control human lifespan are yet to be unraveled. Many theories, which fall into two main categories: programmed and error theories, have been proposed to explain the process of aging, but neither of them appears to be fully satisfactory. These theories may interact with each other in a complex way. By understanding and testing the existing and new aging theories, it may be possible to promote successful aging. PMID:21132086

  13. Trends in modern system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1976-01-01

    The topics considered are related to linear control system design, adaptive control, failure detection, control under failure, system reliability, and large-scale systems and decentralized control. It is pointed out that the design of a linear feedback control system which regulates a process about a desirable set point or steady-state condition in the presence of disturbances is a very important problem. The linearized dynamics of the process are used for design purposes. The typical linear-quadratic design involving the solution of the optimal control problem of a linear time-invariant system with respect to a quadratic performance criterion is considered along with gain reduction theorems and the multivariable phase margin theorem. The stumbling block in many adaptive design methodologies is associated with the amount of real time computation which is necessary. Attention is also given to the desperate need to develop good theories for large-scale systems, the beginning of a microprocessor revolution, the translation of the Wiener-Hopf theory into the time domain, and advances made in dynamic team theory, dynamic stochastic games, and finite memory stochastic control.

  14. Set theory and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  15. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  16. Modern Concepts of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, John L.

    1972-01-01

    The author calls for a whole new concept of physical education in the nation's schools. A change of lifestyle is needed, but also necessary are school programs that develop cardiovascular endurance fitness, not muscular fitness. (Editor)

  17. Modern Physics and Warm Friendship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    During the academic year 1941-42 I was a senior in the Physics Department at the National Southwest Associated University in Kunming. The Department was quite small, with about 10 faculty members, 10 instructors, a few graduate students and not more than 20 students in each undergraduate class. When the academic year started in the fall of 1941, a new face appeared, auditing many of the senior and graduate courses and participating in all discussions. That was Huang Kun. He had already received his bachelor's degree in physics from Yenching University in Beiping, and had come to Kunming to join the Southwest Associated University as an instructor. Soon we got to know each other well, and that was the beginning of half of a century of warm friendship...

  18. Oersted Lecture 2014: Physics education research and teaching modern Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean

    2016-08-01

    Modern Physics has been used as a label for most of physics that was developed since the discovery of X-rays in 1895. Yet, we are teaching students who would not use the label "modern" for anything that happened before about 1995, when they were born. So, are we and our students in worlds that differ by a century? In addition to content, sometimes our students and we have differing views about methods and styles of teaching. A modern course in any topic of physics should include applications of contemporary research in physics education and the learning sciences as well as research and developments in methods of delivering the content. Thus, when we consider teaching Modern Physics, we are challenged with deciding what the content should be, how to adjust for the ever increasing information on how students learn physics, and the constantly changing tools that are available to us for teaching and learning. When we mix all of these together, we can teach modern Modern Physics or maybe teach Modern Physics modernly.

  19. Physics and proof theory

    PubMed Central

    Paleo, Bruno Woltzenlogel

    2012-01-01

    Axiomatization of Physics (and science in general) has many drawbacks that are correctly criticized by opposing philosophical views of science. This paper shows that, by giving formal proofs a more prominent role in the formalization, many of the drawbacks can be solved and many of the opposing views are naturally conciliated. Moreover, this approach allows, by means of proof theory, to open new conceptual bridges between the disciplines of Physics and Computer Science. PMID:24976655

  20. Physics as Information Theory

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2010-10-20

    The experience from Quantum Information of the last twenty years has lead theorists to look at Quantum Theory and the whole of Physics from a different angle. A new information-theoretic paradigm is emerging, long time ago prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler with his popular coinage 'It from bit'. Theoretical groups are now addressing the problem of deriving Quantum Theory from informational principles, and similar lines are investigated in new approaches to Quantum Gravity. In my talk I will review some recent advances on these lines. The general idea synthesizing the new paradigm is that there is only Quantum Theory (without quantization rules): the whole Physics--including space-time and relativity--is emergent from quantum-information processing. And, since Quantum Theory itself is made with purely informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms. The review is divided into the following parts: (a) The informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; (b) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; (c) What is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant, and how the quantum field emerges; (d) Observational consequences: mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I then conclude with some possible future research lines.

  1. Interactive Modern Physics Worksheets Methodology and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, Ken; Danforth, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of teaching tools available for use in introductory modern physics classrooms. Determining which teaching tool students support can help the teacher structure classroom instruction to include more effective teaching tools. Student participants were surveyed at the end of four separate semesters after using different teaching…

  2. The gifts of physics to modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sisir K

    2004-01-01

    The advancement of medical science was, and is, and will always be dependent on the progress of fundamental sciences like mathematics, physics and chemistry. It is true that pure science is not rapidly converted to applied science. That has always to depend on further technological advancement and on craftsmen's innovation. The role of physics in the evolution of some modern medical equipment - both diagnostic and therapeutic, is simply unique. A chemical pathology laboratory comprises, overall physics (i.e. laboratory machinery, pressures, radioactivity, voltage,

  3. Mad About Modern Physics: Braintwisters, Paradoxes, and Curiosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Franklin; Jargodzki, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    More mind-bending fun in physics The sequel to the popular Mad About Physics, Mad About Modern Physics promises endless hours of entertaining, challenging fun. With detailed answers to hundreds of questions ("Are fluorescent lights dangerous to your health?", "What is a fuel cell?"), the book is also a treasure trove of fun science trivia. Featuring diagrams and illustrations throughout, this fascinating physics compendium will educate and captivate students, teachers, and science buffs alike. FRANKLIN POTTER, Ph.D., is a retired physicist from the University of California at Irvine. He continues to conduct research in elementary particle physics and cosmology, as well as consult in physics education. CHRISTOPHER JARGODZKI, Ph.D., is Professor of Physics at Central Missouri State University. He is also founder and director of Center for Cooperative Phenomena. He was born and raised in Poland, and received his Ph.D. in quantum field theory from the University of California at Irvine.

  4. On the co-creation of classical and modern physics.

    PubMed

    Staley, Richard

    2005-12-01

    While the concept of "classical physics" has long framed our understanding of the environment from which modern physics emerged, it has consistently been read back into a period in which the physicists concerned initially considered their work in quite other terms. This essay explores the shifting currency of the rich cultural image of the classical/ modern divide by tracing empirically different uses of "classical" within the physics community from the 1890s to 1911. A study of fin-de-siècle addresses shows that the earliest general uses of the concept proved controversial. Our present understanding of the term was in large part shaped by its incorporation (in different ways) within the emerging theories of relativity and quantum theory--where the content of "classical" physics was defined by proponents of the new. Studying the diverse ways in which Boltzmann, Larmor, Poincaré, Einstein, Minkowski, and Planck invoked the term "classical" will help clarify the critical relations between physicists' research programs and their use of worldview arguments in fashioning modern physics.

  5. Aristotle's ethical theory & modern health care.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K

    1996-01-01

    The Greek physician of antiquity - Hippocrates (460-356 B.C.) is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the Hippocratic Oath to which doctors of modern medicine traditionally and formally express their allegiance, forms the basic foundation of medical ethics. The tradition of Western ethical philosophy began with the ancient Greeks. From Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and his immediate successors, Plato (427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), there is a clear line of continuity, through Hellenistic period (from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the end of Ptolemic dynasty (30 B.C.) and the Roman annexation of Egypt - broadly post-Aristotelian and medieval thought to the present day. But the society has qualitatively and quantitatively changed since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Society, today, is just a collection of discrete individuals, each with his or her own purposes and interests. Hence it has become almost imperative to apply the principle of autonomy to issues in the ethics of health care. The aim of this short essay is, therefore, an attempt to explore the relevance, if any, of Aristotelian ethical theory to the modern health care.

  6. Plato's TIMAIOσ (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2005-04-01

    It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIOσ (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

  7. Modern Physics in a Global Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuna, Davor

    Successes of modern physics and consequent technologies have enabled humanity to create our global village. However, despite their thorough training and proven, useful knowledge, physicists are nowadays often treated as a relatively inexpensive 'commodity'. Encouraged by experience of several former students, and by using selected examples, I argue that as a community we should better 'market' our physics profession that, in addition to its primary role - rational understanding of nature - provides: i) the most versatile undergraduate degree, also for those who want to continue studies in management, economy or bio-medicine; ii) fascinating creative opportunities in advanced research and new interdisciplinary technologies and iii) often more relevant insight into workings of the global economy than the 'conventional' economic approach, and especially into smart venture-investments. All these themes are equally relevant for the Croatian society and its welfare in the early 21st century.

  8. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory, and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure in five different ways. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle-group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a long-standing question posed by Kruskal about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no adhoc elements, which is then applied to gyromotion. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A theory motivated by free electron lasers gives new restrictions on the change of area of projected parallelepipeds under canonical transformations.

  9. Reason and Rationalization: A Theory of Modern Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    The author reviews historical attempts--mostly by European thinkers--to characterize modernity and its relationship to play. He discusses ideas from Friederich Schiller to Brian Sutton-Smith, all to set the ground for a theory of play in the modern world. Emphasizing the ideas of Max Weber--in particular his theory of rationalization and its…

  10. The emergence of semiconductors: Nineteenth century modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Frieda A.

    2003-11-01

    Volta's invention of the battery at the end of the eighteenth century generated an era of research devoted to electrical conduction. Classical theory served well for currents in metals, but was contradicted by behavior observed in other materials. Such behavior was labeled anomalous and not understood. Similarities between such substances were known by about 1885; the term Halbleiter (semiconductors) first appeared in the literature in 1911. The twentieth century began with other discoveries that more dramatically contradicted classical theory and drove the development of quantum mechanics. In contrast, the earlier anomalies remained baffling until quantum mechanics could be applied. This converse relationship leads to questions about the coverage of history in modern physics courses.

  11. Actuality of transcendental æsthetics for modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitot, Jean

    1. The more mathematics and physics unify themselves in the physico-mathematical modern theories, the more an objective epistemology becomes necessary. Only such a transcendental epistemology is able to thematize correctly the status of the mathematical determination of physical reality. 2. There exists a transcendental history of the synthetic a priori and of the construction of physical categories. 3. The transcendental approach allows to supersed Wittgenstein's and Carnap's antiplatonist thesis according to which pure mathematics are physically applicable only if they lack any descriptive, cognitive or objective, content and reduce to mere prescriptive and normative devices. In fact, pure mathematics are prescriptive-normative in physics because: (i) the categories of physical objectivity are prescriptive-normative, and (ii) their categorial content is mathematically “constructed” through a Transcendental Aesthetics. Only a transcendental approach make compatible, in the one hand, a grammatical conventionalism of Wittgensteinian or Carnapian type and, on the other hand, a platonist realism of Gödelian type. Mathematics are not a grammar of the world but a mathematical hermeneutics of the intuitive forms and of the categorial grammar of the world.

  12. A Brief Critique of Some Modern Theories of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Tim D. P.

    Six points appear prominently in modern theory of composition: theory basks in the shadow of literary criticism and scholarship; writing is an act involving creativity, of which theory should take account; creativity depends upon the primacy of personal insight, which is also the basis of intellectual development; the grapholect of standard edited…

  13. Gravitational consequences of modern field theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Some gravitational consequences of certain extensions of Einstein's general theory of relativity are discussed. These theories are not alternative theories of gravity in the usual sense. It is assumed that general relativity is the appropriate description of all gravitational phenomena which were observed to date.

  14. Teaching Modern Physics--Misconceptions of the Photon That Can Damage Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, D. G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is how modern physics is usually approached via the photoelectric effect and how this can lead to a physically wrong picture of light. The importance of using the quantum theory developed after 1920 to explain the properties of light is discussed. (KR)

  15. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-04-04

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism.

  16. Thoughts of Modern Women in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsbury, Liz; Heaney, Libby; Hodges, Vicki; Harkness, Laura; Russell, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Women in Physics Group of the Institute of Physics initiated the Very Early Career Woman Physicist of the Year Award. The award seeks to recognise the outstanding achievements of women physicists who are embarking on a career in physics and to promote the career opportunities open to people with physics qualifications. The prize is…

  17. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  18. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

  19. On the classic and modern theories of matching.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2005-07-01

    Classic matching theory, which is based on Herrnstein's (1961) original matching equation and includes the well-known quantitative law of effect, is almost certainly false. The theory is logically inconsistent with known experimental findings, and experiments have shown that its central constant-k assumption is not tenable. Modern matching theory, which is based on the power function version of the original matching equation, remains tenable, although it has not been discussed or studied extensively. The modern theory is logically consistent with known experimental findings, it predicts the fact and details of the violation of the classic theory's constant-k assumption, and it accurately describes at least some data that are inconsistent with the classic theory.

  20. Roles of Magnetic Reconnection and Developments of Modern Theory^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2007-11-01

    The role of reconnection was recognized in Solar and Space Physics and auroral substorms were suggested to originate in the night-side of the Earth's magnetosphere as a result collisionless reconnectionootnotetextB. Coppi, Nature 205, 998 (1965). well before the kind of modern theory employed for this became applied to laboratory plasmas. Experiments have reached low collisionality regimes where, like in space plasmas, the features of the electron distribution and in particular of the electron temperature gradient become important and the factors contributing to the electron thermal energy balance equation (transverse thermal and longitudinal diffusivities, or electron Landau dampingootnotetextB. Coppi, J.W.-K. Mark, L. Sugiyama, G. Bertin, Phys. Rev. Letters 42, 1058 (1978) and J. Drake, et al., Phys. Fluids 26, 2509 (1983). play a key role. For this an asymptotic theory of modes producing macroscopic islands has been developed involving 3 regions, the innermost one related to finite resistivity and the intermediate one to the finite ratio of the to thermal conductivitiesootnotetextB. Coppi, C. Crabtree, and V. Roytershteyn contribution to Paper TH/R2-19, I.A.E.A. Conference 2006.,^4. A background of excited micro-reconnecting modes, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is considered to make this ratio significantootnotetextB. Coppi, in``Collective Phenomena in Macroscopic Systems'' Eds. G. Bertin et al. (World Scientific, 2007) MIT-LNS Report 06/11(2006). ^*Supported in part by the US D.O.E.

  1. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  2. Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J.; Bach, F.; Chokoufé, B.; Kilian, W.; Ohl, T.; Sekulla, M.; Weiss, C.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  3. Feyerabend's 'The concept of intelligibility in modern physics' (1948).

    PubMed

    Kuby, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    This essay introduces the transcription and translation of Paul Feyerabend's Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik [The concept of intelligibility in modern physics] (1948), which is an early essay written by Paul Feyerabend in 1948 on the topic of intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) and visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) of physical theories. The existence of such essay was likely. It is listed in his bibliography as his first publication. Yet the content of the essay was unknown, as no original or copy is extant in Feyerabend's Nachlass and no known published version was available to the community-until now. The essay has both historical and philosophical interest: it is, as far as our current knowledge goes, Feyerabend's earliest extant publication. It documents Feyerabend's philosophical interest as a physicist-to-be, in what he himself called his "positivist" phase; and it gives a rare if fragmentary insight into the early discussions of the 'Third Vienna Circle' and, more generally, the philosophical culture of discussion in Vienna.

  4. Feyerabend's 'The concept of intelligibility in modern physics' (1948).

    PubMed

    Kuby, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    This essay introduces the transcription and translation of Paul Feyerabend's Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik [The concept of intelligibility in modern physics] (1948), which is an early essay written by Paul Feyerabend in 1948 on the topic of intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) and visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) of physical theories. The existence of such essay was likely. It is listed in his bibliography as his first publication. Yet the content of the essay was unknown, as no original or copy is extant in Feyerabend's Nachlass and no known published version was available to the community-until now. The essay has both historical and philosophical interest: it is, as far as our current knowledge goes, Feyerabend's earliest extant publication. It documents Feyerabend's philosophical interest as a physicist-to-be, in what he himself called his "positivist" phase; and it gives a rare if fragmentary insight into the early discussions of the 'Third Vienna Circle' and, more generally, the philosophical culture of discussion in Vienna. PMID:27269262

  5. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  6. Modern theory of van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, John

    2014-03-01

    van der Waals (vdW, dispersion) interactions are important in diverse areas such as colloid, surface and nano science, cohesion of molecular crystals, and biomolecular science. They also provide competition in experiments to discover the fifth fundamental force.While vdW interactions have been understood in principle for a century, their quantitative first-principles prediction and modelling down to chemical contact separations have proven stubbornly difficult because the quantal many-electron problem is involved. After some brief historical material, the current state of the art will be discussed with particular reference to several approaches: pairwise additive, perturbative quantum chemical, vdW-DF, Lifshitz-like scattering, RPA-like, Adiabatic Connection Fluctuation Dissipation / Time Dependent DFT based etc.. A potentially useful classification will be introduced to aid in understanding the physical causes of departures from pairwise additivity, that is from the usual sum of C6R-6 contributions. These departures result in non-standard power law decays of nanostructure vdW interactions as a function of separation D, as well as surprising dependences of the attraction on the number, N, of atoms within each vdW-interacting fragment. Some further recent results on non-additivity will also be presented. Work supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant.

  7. A beginner's guide to the modern theory of polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2012-11-15

    The so-called Modern Theory of Polarization, which rigorously defines the spontaneous polarization of a periodic solid and provides a route for its computation in electronic structure codes through the Berry phase, is introduced in a simple qualitative discussion. - Graphical abstract: Cartoon of Wannier functions in a covalent solid shifting to contribute to the ferroelectric polarization.

  8. A Test of the Formal and Modern Theories of Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Soto, Paul L.; McDowell, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested a formal, or purely mathematical, theory of matching, and a modern account derived by McDowell (1986) that incorporates deviations from strict matching--bias and sensitivity. Six humans pressed a lever for monetary reinforcers on five concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. All schedules were…

  9. Finite machines, mental procedures, and modern physics.

    PubMed

    Lupacchini, Rossella

    2007-01-01

    A Turing machine provides a mathematical definition of the natural process of calculating. It rests on trust that a procedure of reason can be reproduced mechanically. Turing's analysis of the concept of mechanical procedure in terms of a finite machine convinced Gödel of the validity of the Church thesis. And yet, Gödel's later concern was that, insofar as Turing's work shows that "mental procedure cannot go beyond mechanical procedures", it would imply the same kind of limitation on human mind. He therefore deems Turing's argument to be inconclusive. The question then arises as to which extent a computing machine operating by finite means could provide an adequate model of human intelligence. It is argued that a rigorous answer to this question can be given by developing Turing's considerations on the nature of mental processes. For Turing such processes are the consequence of physical processes and he seems to be led to the conclusion that quantum mechanics could help to find a more comprehensive explanation of them.

  10. Effective theories and thresholds in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1991-06-07

    The role of effective theories in probing a more fundamental underlying theory and in indicating new physics thresholds is discussed, with examples from the standard model and more speculative applications to superstring theory. 38 refs.

  11. The Notion of Substance in Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzandt, Joseph David

    The thesis explores the philosophical consequences of adopting the view that the principle of non-contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, and the monistic notion of substance are more closely linked than most modern and contemporary philosophers have supposed. This thesis is then applied to show the connections between the metaphysical views of Spinoza and the view of nature of Albert Einstein. The first chapter is an historical overview of the principles of sufficient reason and non-contradiction, and the notion of substance, followed by a presentation of the reasons that led the author to conclude that the usual treatment of these concepts requires revision. These reasons are based upon substantial cause theory, developed in the 1970s by Richard Cole. The second and third chapters are an interpretation of Book 1 of Spinoza's Ethics from the viewpoint presented in the first chapter. The implicit role of the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason in Spinoza's argument is drawn out through an examination of his definitions, axioms and propositions. The third and fourth chapters are an interpretation and criticism of Immanuel Kant. It is first shown that the common dismissal of Kant's philosophy based upon the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries and the denial of strict causality among some physical events is not well founded; ways in which Kant's framework can accommodate these problems are proposed. It is then argued that Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics is not conclusive. In particular, Kant's arguments against the possibility of an ontological argument are examined and criticisms of his arguments are presented. The sixth and seventh chapters contain an historical account of the development of physics in the 20th century to illustrate the strong tendency toward unification found in science. It is suggested that this natural tendency to seek ever higher levels of unification is evidence that the principle of sufficient reason

  12. Physical foundations of evolutionary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto; Salthe, Stanley

    2010-10-01

    The theory of evolution by natural selection is herein subsumed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The mathematical form of evolutionary theory is based on a re-examination of the probability concept that underlies statistical physics. Probability regarded as physical must include, in addition to isoenergic combinatorial configurations, also energy in conditional circumstances. Consequently, entropy as an additive logarithmic probability measure is found to be a function of the free energy, and the process toward the maximum entropy state is found equivalent to evolution toward the free energy minimum in accordance with the basic maxim of chemical thermodynamics. The principle of increasing entropy when given as an equation of motion reveals that expansion, proliferation, differentiation, diversification, and catalysis are all ways for a system to evolve toward the stationary state in its respective surroundings. Intriguingly, the equation of evolution cannot be solved when there remain degrees of freedom to consume the free energy, and hence evolutionary trajectories of a non-Hamiltonian system remain intractable. Finally, when to-and-from flows of energy are balanced between a system and its surroundings, the system is at the Lyapunov-stable stationary state. The principle of maximal energy dispersal, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to the ubiquitous characteristics, conventions, and regularities found in nature, where thermodynamics makes no demarcation line between animate and inanimate.

  13. Physics Buildings Today. A Supplement to Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This supplement to "Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function" is intended as an aid to physics department faculties, administrators, and architects responsible for designing new science buildings. It provides descriptions of 26 new physics buildings and science buildings with physics facilities. Presented are (1) floor plans, (2) photographs,…

  14. Mechanical and physical properties of modern boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of accurate measurements of the modern boron fiber's Young's modulus, flexural modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are reported. Physical property data concerning fiber density, thermal expansion, and resistance obtained during the course of the mechanical studies are also given.

  15. New method of modern physics in research of disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jie

    The quantum method of the modern physics is used to the space between the Sun and Earth. The magnitude equation of earthquake and the principle of trigger earthquake by the energy stored in an isolated wave excited by the tide-generating forces of celestial objects are preliminary discussed.

  16. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  17. A test of the formal and modern theories of matching.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Soto, Paul L; McDowell, J J

    2005-09-01

    The present study tested a formal, or purely mathematical, theory of matching, and a modern account derived by McDowell (1986) that incorporates deviations from strict matching-bias and sensitivity. Six humans pressed a lever for monetary reinforcers on five concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. All schedules were presented during each session. The magnitude on one alternative remained constant, and five magnitudes were presented across sessions on the other alternative. To test the formal account, two absolute response rate equations were fitted to the response and reinforcement rates at each alternative at each magnitude. Although the equations accounted for a high percentage of variance, there was a significant negative correlation between the standardized residuals and the predicted response rates. To test the modern account, an ensemble of four equations was fitted to the data. The equations predicted relative and absolute responding, and the independent variables in each equation were adjusted for bias and sensitivity. The equations accounted for a high percentage of variance, and the standardized residuals were not correlated with the predicted response rates. The values of the parameters were consistent with empirical findings and theoretical predictions, including the prediction that k should remain constant across changes in reinforcer magnitude. The results suggest that the formal theory of matching does not describe the data, and that the modern theory may provide an accurate and coherent description of concurrent and single-alternative responding.

  18. The Architects of Modern Physics & Sigma Pi Sigma Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2004-10-01

    While the tools of modern physics were being honed throughout the last century, physicist Marsh W. White (no relation) served as the installation officer for over 200 chapters of the physics honor society, Sigma Pi Sigma. Years earlier, though, his 1926 thesis ``The Energy of High Velocity Electrons'' served as a direct test of one of Einstein's most radical 1905 ideas. The ``red books'' of Sigma Pi Sigma, into which all inductees pen their names, include some of the most talented quantum mechanics of the 20th century, such as Edward Teller and George Gamow. In this talk, I will review these and other links between Sigma Pi Sigma and some of the architects of modern physics.

  19. Yoichiro Nambu: Visionary theorist who shaped modern particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    Yoichiro Nambu was one of the most influential theoretical physicists of the twentieth century. His deep and unexpected insights often took years for others to understand and fully appreciate. They include: spontaneous symmetry breaking, for which he was awarded half of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics; the theory of quarks and gluons; and string theory...

  20. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) theory principles and applying them to the human element of project management and control is not a new concept. As both the literature on the subject and the real-world applications are neither readily available nor comprehensive with regard to how such principles might be applied, this paper has been written to educate the project manager on the "laws of physics" of his or her project (not to teach a GN&C engineer how to become a project manager) and to provide an intuitive, mathematical explanation as to the control and behavior of projects. This paper will also address how the fundamental principles of modern GN&C were applied to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) space suit project, ensuring the project was managed within cost, schedule, and budget. A project that is akin to a physical system can be modeled and managed using the same over arching principles of GN&C that would be used if that project were a complex vehicle, a complex system(s), or complex software with time-varying processes (at times nonlinear) containing multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. The classic GN&C theory approach could thus be applied to small, well-defined projects; yet when working with larger, multiyear projects necessitating multiple organizational structures, numerous external influences, and a multitude of diverse resources, modern GN&C principles are required to model and manage the project. The fundamental principles of a GN&C system incorporate these basic concepts: State, Behavior, Feedback Control, Navigation, Guidance and Planning Logic systems. The State of a system defines the aspects of the system that can change over time; e.g., position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, and temperature, etc. The Behavior of the system focuses more on what changes are possible within the system; this is denoted in the state

  1. Scintillation counters in modern high-energy physics experiments (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzheev, Yu. N.

    2015-07-01

    Scintillation counters (SCs) based on organic plastic scintillators (OPSs) are widely used in modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. A comprehensive review is given to technologies for production of OPS strips and tiles (extrusion, injection molding, etc.), optical and physical characteristics of OPSs, and methods of light collection based on the use of wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers coupled to multipixel vacuum and silicon PMs. Examples are given of the use of SCs in modern experiments involved in the search for quarks and new particles, including the Higgs boson (D0, CDF, ATLAS, CMS), new states of matter (ALICE), CP violation (LHCb, KLOE), neutrino oscillations (MINOS, OPERA), and cosmic particles in a wide mass and energy interval (AMS-02). Scintillation counters hold great promise for future HEP experiments (at the ILC, NICA, FAIR) due to properties of a high segmentation, WLS fiber light collection, and multipixel silicon PMT readout.

  2. The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2004-06-01

    In 1858, two naturalists, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, independently proposed natural selection as the basic mechanism responsible for the origin of new phenotypic variants and, ultimately, new species. A large body of evidence for this hypothesis was published in Darwin's Origin of Species one year later, the appearance of which provoked other leading scientists like August Weismann to adopt and amplify Darwin's perspective. Weismann's neo-Darwinian theory of evolution was further elaborated, most notably in a series of books by Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, Julian Huxley and others. In this article we first summarize the history of life on Earth and provide recent evidence demonstrating that Darwin's dilemma (the apparent missing Precambrian record of life) has been resolved. Next, the historical development and structure of the "modern synthesis" is described within the context of the following topics: paleobiology and rates of evolution, mass extinctions and species selection, macroevolution and punctuated equilibrium, sexual reproduction and recombination, sexual selection and altruism, endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution, experimental bacterial evolution, and computer simulations (in silico evolution of digital organisms). In addition, we discuss the expansion of the modern synthesis, embracing all branches of scientific disciplines. It is concluded that the basic tenets of the synthetic theory have survived, but in modified form. These sub-theories require continued elaboration, particularly in light of molecular biology, to answer open-ended questions concerning the mechanisms of evolution in all five kingdoms of life. PMID:15241603

  3. The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2004-06-01

    In 1858, two naturalists, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, independently proposed natural selection as the basic mechanism responsible for the origin of new phenotypic variants and, ultimately, new species. A large body of evidence for this hypothesis was published in Darwin's Origin of Species one year later, the appearance of which provoked other leading scientists like August Weismann to adopt and amplify Darwin's perspective. Weismann's neo-Darwinian theory of evolution was further elaborated, most notably in a series of books by Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, Julian Huxley and others. In this article we first summarize the history of life on Earth and provide recent evidence demonstrating that Darwin's dilemma (the apparent missing Precambrian record of life) has been resolved. Next, the historical development and structure of the "modern synthesis" is described within the context of the following topics: paleobiology and rates of evolution, mass extinctions and species selection, macroevolution and punctuated equilibrium, sexual reproduction and recombination, sexual selection and altruism, endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution, experimental bacterial evolution, and computer simulations (in silico evolution of digital organisms). In addition, we discuss the expansion of the modern synthesis, embracing all branches of scientific disciplines. It is concluded that the basic tenets of the synthetic theory have survived, but in modified form. These sub-theories require continued elaboration, particularly in light of molecular biology, to answer open-ended questions concerning the mechanisms of evolution in all five kingdoms of life.

  4. The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    In 1858, two naturalists, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, independently proposed natural selection as the basic mechanism responsible for the origin of new phenotypic variants and, ultimately, new species. A large body of evidence for this hypothesis was published in Darwin's Origin of Species one year later, the appearance of which provoked other leading scientists like August Weismann to adopt and amplify Darwin's perspective. Weismann's neo-Darwinian theory of evolution was further elaborated, most notably in a series of books by Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, Julian Huxley and others. In this article we first summarize the history of life on Earth and provide recent evidence demonstrating that Darwin's dilemma (the apparent missing Precambrian record of life) has been resolved. Next, the historical development and structure of the ``modern synthesis'' is described within the context of the following topics: paleobiology and rates of evolution, mass extinctions and species selection, macroevolution and punctuated equilibrium, sexual reproduction and recombination, sexual selection and altruism, endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution, experimental bacterial evolution, and computer simulations (in silico evolution of digital organisms). In addition, we discuss the expansion of the modern synthesis, embracing all branches of scientific disciplines. It is concluded that the basic tenets of the synthetic theory have survived, but in modified form. These sub-theories require continued elaboration, particularly in light of molecular biology, to answer open-ended questions concerning the mechanisms of evolution in all five kingdoms of life.

  5. Modern Quantum Field Theory II - Proceeeings of the International Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. R.; Mandal, G.; Mukhi, S.; Wadia, S. R.

    1995-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Foreword * 1. Black Holes and Quantum Gravity * Quantum Black Holes and the Problem of Time * Black Hole Entropy and the Semiclassical Approximation * Entropy and Information Loss in Two Dimensions * Strings on a Cone and Black Hole Entropy (Abstract) * Boundary Dynamics, Black Holes and Spacetime Fluctuations in Dilation Gravity (Abstract) * Pair Creation of Black Holes (Abstract) * A Brief View of 2-Dim. String Theory and Black Holes (Abstract) * 2. String Theory * Non-Abelian Duality in WZW Models * Operators and Correlation Functions in c ≤ 1 String Theory * New Symmetries in String Theory * A Look at the Discretized Superstring Using Random Matrices * The Nested BRST Structure of Wn-Symmetries * Landau-Ginzburg Model for a Critical Topological String (Abstract) * On the Geometry of Wn Gravity (Abstract) * O(d, d) Tranformations, Marginal Deformations and the Coset Construction in WZNW Models (Abstract) * Nonperturbative Effects and Multicritical Behaviour of c = 1 Matrix Model (Abstract) * Singular Limits and String Solutions (Abstract) * BV Algebra on the Moduli Spaces of Riemann Surfaces and String Field Theory (Abstract) * 3. Condensed Matter and Statistical Mechanics * Stochastic Dynamics in a Deposition-Evaporation Model on a Line * Models with Inverse-Square Interactions: Conjectured Dynamical Correlation Functions of the Calogero-Sutherland Model at Rational Couplings * Turbulence and Generic Scale Invariance * Singular Perturbation Approach to Phase Ordering Dynamics * Kinetics of Diffusion-Controlled and Ballistically-Controlled Reactions * Field Theory of a Frustrated Heisenberg Spin Chain * FQHE Physics in Relativistic Field Theories * Importance of Initial Conditions in Determining the Dynamical Class of Cellular Automata (Abstract) * Do Hard-Core Bosons Exhibit Quantum Hall Effect? (Abstract) * Hysteresis in Ferromagnets * 4. Fundamental Aspects of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory

  6. The concept of intelligibility in modern physics (1948).

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Paul K

    2016-06-01

    This is an English translation of Paul Feyerabend's earliest extant essay "Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik" (1948). In it, Feyerabend defends positivism as a progressive framework for scientific research in certain stages of scientific development. He argues that in physics visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) and intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) are time-conditioned concepts: what is deemed visualizable in the development of physical theories is relative to a specific historical context and changes over time. He concludes that from time to time the abandonment of visualizability is crucial for progress in physics, as it is conducive to major theory change, illustrating the point on the basis of advances in atomic theory.

  7. Theories and Management of Aging: Modern and Ayurveda Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, S. K.; Paramesh, Rangesh; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    Aging is a complex phenomenon, a sum total of changes that occur in a living organism with the passage of time and lead to decreasing ability to survive stress, increasing functional impairment and growing probability of death. There are many theories of aging and skin remains the largest organ of the study. Skin aging is described as a consequence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The most common amongst visible signs of skin aging are wrinkles and there are various therapies including antiaging cosmeceuticals, sunscreens, chemical peeling, injectable agents, such as botox, fibrel, autologous fat grafting as also few surgical procedures have been used. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional medicine, describes aging with great details. This review provides modern and Ayurvedic perspectives on theories and management of aging. PMID:19233879

  8. Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Mark Robert

    1992-01-01

    By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a "hard" science--that of quantitative, rational thought which was established during the Newtonian era--has been replaced by the "new physics," which integrates the so-called "soft" elements into its paradigm. It presents us with a universe based not exclusively on a series of particle-like interactions, or a "billiard-ball" hypothesis where discrete objects have a measurable position and velocity in absolute space and time, but rather on a combination of these mechanistic properties and those that make up the non-physical side of nature such as intuition, consciousness, and emotion. According to physicists like James Jeans science has been "humanized" to the extent that the universe as a "great machine" has been converted into a "great thought.". In nearly all his collections of essays and short stories, Borges complements the new physics by producing a literature that can be described as "scientized." The abstract, metaphysical implications and concerns of the new world-view, such as space, time, language, consciousness, free will, determinism, etc., appear repeatedly throughout Borges' texts, and are treated in terms that are remarkably similar to those expressed in the scientific texts whose authors include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. As a final comparison, Borges and post-modern physicists address the question of the individual's ability to ever comprehend the universe. They share an attitude of incredulity toward all models and theories of reality simply because they are based on partial information, and therefore seen only as conjectures.

  9. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium on the Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvard Chubaryan, Professor; Aram Saharian, Professor; Armen Sedrakian, Professor

    2014-03-01

    The international conference ''The Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity'' took place in Yerevan, Armenia, from 18-21 September 2013. This was the second in a series of conferences which aim to bring together people working in astrophysics of compact stars, physics of dense matter, gravitation and cosmology, observations of pulsars and binary neutron stars and related fields. The conference was held on the occasion of 100th birthday of the founder of the Theoretical Physics Chair at the Department of Physics of Yerevan State University and prominent Armenian scientist Academician Gurgen S Sahakyan. The field of compact stars has seen extraordinary development since the discovery of pulsars in 1967. Even before this discovery, pioneering work of a number of theoretical groups had laid the foundation for this development. A pioneer of this effort was Professor G S Sahakyan who, together with Professor Victor Ambartsumyan and a group of young scientists, started in the early sixties their fundamental work on the properties of superdense matter and on the relativistic structure of compact stellar objects. This conference explored the vast diversity of the manifestations of compact stars, including the modern aspects of the equation of state of superdense matter, its magnetic and thermal properties, rotational dynamics, superfluidity and superconductivity, phase transition from hadronic to quark matter, etc. The articles on these subjects collected in this volume are evidence of liveliness of the field and of the continuous feedback between theory and the experiment. A part of this volume is devoted to the cosmology and the theories of gravity — the subfields of astrophysics that are of fundamental importance to our understanding of the universe. The reader will find here articles touching on the most diverse aspects of these fields such as modern problems in Einstein's classical theory of gravity and its alternatives, string theory motivated

  10. Medieval and early modern theories of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, R

    1979-04-01

    Historians of medieval and early modern psychiatry have utilized limited source materials in their research. They have focused on printed works, particularly formal treatises by celebrated authors, and neglected manuscript collections. The resulting histories depict early European psychiatric thought as dominated by demonology. Examination of the archives of an early English legal incompetency jurisdiction flatly contradicts this picture. Starting in the 13th century, the English government conducted mental status examinations of psychiatrically disabled individuals, using commonsense, naturalistic criteria of impairment; private, supervised guardians were appointed for such persons. Furthermore, etiological theories entertained by royal officials and laymen relied on physiological and psychological notions of psychiatric illness. These findings raise serious questions about conventional accounts of this period and underline the need for more research using original manuscripts. PMID:371576

  11. Curriculum theory in physical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, Ann E.

    1989-03-01

    Primary current concerns of curriculum theorists in sport and physical education relate to clarification of value orientations underlying curricular decision-making, selection and statement of curriculum goals, identification and organization of programme content, and the process of curriculum change. Disciplinary mastery is the most traditional value orientation and that which is most frequently found in practice. Curriculum theorists have identified four other value orientations for study: social reconstruction, self-actualization, learning process, and ecological validity. Health-related fitness and the development of motor skills have long been the primary goals of physical education. In recent years, however, curriculum specialists have begun to assign higher priorities to goals of personal integration and challenge, of social development and multicultural understanding. There is general agreement that human movement activities constitute the subject-matter of the sport and physical education curriculum. Differences exist, however, as to how learning activities should be selected for particular programmes. The current trend in seeking better understanding of content is toward studying the operational curriculum with particular attention to the historical and social contexts. An important contemporary focus is the need to translate short-term results into lifestyle changes. The curriculum in sports and physical education should be viewed as a multitude of possibilities.

  12. Modern Gravitational Lens Cosmology for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwe, Paul; Field, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Recent and exciting discoveries in astronomy and cosmology have inspired many high school students to learn about these fields. A particularly fascinating consequence of general relativity at the forefront of modern cosmology research is gravitational lensing, the bending of light rays that pass near massive objects. Gravitational lensing enables high-precision mapping of dark matter distributions in galaxies and galaxy clusters, provides insight into large-scale cosmic structure of the universe, aids in the search for exo-planets, and may offer valuable insight toward understanding the evolution of dark energy. In this article we describe a gravitational lensing lab and associated lecture/discussion material that was highly successful, according to student feedback. The gravitational lens unit was developed as part of a two-week summer enrichment class for junior and senior high school students. With minor modifications, this lab can be used within a traditional classroom looking to incorporate topics of modern physics (such as in a unit on optics).

  13. Spinning the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Mindset: A Modern Physics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughani, Bahram

    2010-04-01

    Topics in Modern Physics course from relativity to quantum mechanics were examined in the context of innovation as part of the recent Kettering University program on ``Entrepreneurship Across Curriculum-EAC.'' The main goals were (a) to introduce innovation and entrepreneurship without eliminating any topics from this course, (b) to use EAC as a vehicle for intentional education that produces graduates with innovative mindsets, (c) to enrich the students learning experience aligned with the desired educational outcomes, and (d) to highlight the impact of scientific innovation in the society, while encouraging students to re-think how entrepreneurship mindset could maximize their impact in the society through innovation. Ideas such as principles behind innovation and innovative ideas, disciplines of innovations, formation of innovation teams, and effective methods for analyzing innovative value propositions were introduced in this course. Most of the implementation were achieved through out of class activities, and communicated through in class presentations, papers or weekly laboratory reports.

  14. Modern Fysics Phallacies: The Best Way Not to Unify Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James E.

    Too many physicists believe the `phallacy' that the quantum is more fundamental than relativity without any valid supporting evidence, so the earliest attempts to unify physics based on the continuity of relativity have been all but abandoned. This belief is probably due to the wealth of pro-quantum propaganda and general `phallacies in fysics' that were spread during the second quarter of the twentieth century, although serious `phallacies' exist throughout physics on both sides of the debate. Yet both approaches are basically flawed because both relativity and the quantum theory are incomplete and grossly misunderstood as they now stand. Had either side of the quantum versus relativity controversy sought common ground between the two worldviews, total unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry, theoretical mathematics and classical physics all share one common characteristic that has never been fully explored or explained - a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point (discrete) and an extended length (continuity) in any dimension - and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this paradox relates to each paradigm, all of physics and indeed all of science could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.

  15. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics I. Cw Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. * We first ask, "What is the simplest molecule?" Hydrogen H2 is the simplest, stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-)-pair. An even simpler "molecule" or "radical" is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-)-pair. * To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. * Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c=299,792,458m/s by proving "Evenson's Axiom" named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision-renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology. * The following Talk II applies this approach to relativistic quantum mechanics.

  16. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  17. New gravitational formula as a bridge to join the modern physics and the classical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G mM / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation as a new version of GR. GR can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., Eq.(1) with the adding nonlinearity caused by the variable mass to replace the nonlinearity of Einstein’s equation and the nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved using the classical gradual approximation of alone f _{P} and alone f _{C}. Such as the calculation of advance of the perihelion of QFT, let the gravitational potential U = - G M /r which is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux. From SR we again get Eq.(1): f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c , U = (1 - betaβ (2) )V, V is the Newtonian gravitational potential. f_{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f_{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. In my paper ‘To cross the great gap between the modern physics and classic physics, China Science &Technology Overview 129 85-91(2011)’ with the

  18. The Mechanism of Moxibustion: Ancient Theory and Modern Research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xueyong

    2013-01-01

    The moxibustion has a dual effect of tonification and purgation in TCM theories, which are based on two aspects: the actions of the meridian system and the roles of moxa and fire. Modern research works of the moxibustion mechanism mainly relate to the thermal effects, radiation effects, and pharmacological actions of moxa and its combustion products. Experimental results showed that moxibustion thermal stimulation affects both shallow and deep tissues of the skin, and the warm-heat effects of moxibustion have a close relation to the warm receptors or/and the polymodal receptor. The burning moxa radiation spectrum ranges from 0.8 to 5.6 μm; peak is nearby 1.5 μm, lying within the near infrared portion. There is an amazing consistency in the infrared spectrums of three types of indirect moxibustion and the unified spectrum of acupoints; all have their peaks of radiation near 10 μm. Lots of ingredients had been identified from mugwort leaves and moxa smoke, which have a variety of biological activities; they were considered to participate in the comprehensive effects of moxibustion. Although lots of research works have been carried out and made some progress, there is still a great distance from fully understanding the mechanism of moxibustion. PMID:24159344

  19. Futuristic World Views: Modern Physics and Feminism. Implications for Teaching/Learning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perreault, Gerri

    Modern physics and feminism are two seemingly disparate areas of human endeavor that pose important alternatives to and transformations of contemporary world views. Modern physics is a radical shift from the world view of classical physics, and feminism is a radical shift from the world view of patriarchy. Both emphasize interrelatedness and…

  20. A deeper integration of Selfish Goal Theory and modern evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2014-04-01

    Conceptually integrating Selfish Goal Theory with modern evolutionary psychology amplifies theoretical power. Inconsistency, a key principle of Selfish Goal Theory, illustrates this insight. Conflicting goals of seeking sexual variety and successful mate retention furnish one example. Siblings have evolved goals to cooperate and compete, a second example. Integrating Selfish Goal Theory with evolutionary theory can explain much inconsistent goal-directed behavior.

  1. Physical problems in the theory of stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennadii S.

    A systematic exposition of physical processes occurring in stars is given. Methods and results of evolution calculations for single stars are presented, starting with their formation and continuing to the final stages of the formation of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. Various types of instabilites arising during the course of evolution are also discussed. Recent results in the fields of statistical physics and physical kinetics, suitable for determining equations of state and transport properties in stars are examined; results from the theories of nuclear reactions and weak interactions are also considered. It is noted that the present work can be used as a handbook for the application of modern methods to the study of the internal structure and evolution of stars.

  2. Modern and Postmodern Career Theories: The Unnecessary Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern approaches to career counseling are becoming increasingly popular. Part of the impetus for the postmodern view has involved perceived problems in the assumptions and application of the modern approach. Two points of view have emerged: (a) the modern and postmodern approaches are incompatible, and the postmodern approach is superior to…

  3. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle

    2015-05-01

    A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''

  4. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."

  5. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  6. Unification of quantum theory and classical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1985-07-01

    A program is described for unifying quantum theory and classical physics on the basis of the Copenhagen-interpretation idea of external reality and a recently discovered classical part of the electromagnetic field. The program effects an integration of the intuitions of Heisenberg, Bohr, and Einstein.

  7. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory

    PubMed Central

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus’ theory. PMID:22984299

  8. Pores and Void in Asclepiades' Physical Theory.

    PubMed

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades' theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus' theory. PMID:22984299

  9. Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed. PMID:24482329

  10. Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed.

  11. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  12. Self-efficacy theory and the theory of planned behavior: teaching physically active physical education classes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control. Grounded in self-efficacy theory, it was hypothesized that program goal importance and hierarchical and barrier self-efficacy would also predict intention. Using a series of hierarchical regression analyses, the theory of planned behavior was supported by accounting for 59% of the variance in intention due to attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. Self-efficacy theory based variables received minimal support.

  13. Modern Psychometric Methodology: Applications of Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Christine A.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A.; Lewis, Allen N.; Armstrong, Amy J.

    2007-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) methodology is introduced as a tool for improving assessment instruments used with people who have disabilities. Need for this approach in rehabilitation is emphasized; differences between IRT and classical test theory are clarified. Concepts essential to understanding IRT are defined, necessary data assumptions are…

  14. Modern Gravitational Lens Cosmology for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwe, Paul; Field, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Recent and exciting discoveries in astronomy and cosmology have inspired many high school students to learn about these fields. A particularly fascinating consequence of general relativity at the forefront of modern cosmology research is gravitational lensing, the bending of light rays that pass near massive objects. Gravitational lensing enables…

  15. Interpretative Modern Dance, Physical Education: 5551.97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carolyn N.

    This course outline is a guide for teaching methods and approaches to interpretive modern dance in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures and discussion, experimentation with movement, films, and tests that focus on exploring approaches to dance creativity, danceable and communicative ideas, performing creative work in class, and…

  16. Physics Without Causality — Theory and Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoup, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The principle of cause and effect is deeply rooted in human experience, so much so that it is routinely and tacitly assumed throughout science, even by scientists working in areas where time symmetry is theoretically ingrained, as it is in both classical and quantum physics. Experiments are said to cause their results, not the other way around. In this informal paper, we argue that this assumption should be replaced with a more general notion of mutual influence — bi-directional relations or constraints on joint values of two or more variables. From an analysis based on quantum entropy, it is proposed that quantum measurement is a unitary three-interaction, with no collapse, no fundamental randomness, and no barrier to backward influence. Experimental results suggesting retrocausality are seen frequently in well-controlled laboratory experiments in parapsychology and elsewhere, especially where a random element is included. Certain common characteristics of these experiments give the appearance of contradicting well-established physical laws, thus providing an opportunity for deeper understanding and important clues that must be addressed by any explanatory theory. We discuss how retrocausal effects and other anomalous phenomena can be explained without major injury to existing physical theory. A modified quantum formalism can give new insights into the nature of quantum measurement, randomness, entanglement, causality, and time.

  17. Topos models for physics and topos theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, Sander

    2014-08-15

    What is the role of topos theory in the topos models for quantum theory as used by Isham, Butterfield, Döring, Heunen, Landsman, Spitters, and others? In other words, what is the interplay between physical motivation for the models and the mathematical framework used in these models? Concretely, we show that the presheaf topos model of Butterfield, Isham, and Döring resembles classical physics when viewed from the internal language of the presheaf topos, similar to the copresheaf topos model of Heunen, Landsman, and Spitters. Both the presheaf and copresheaf models provide a “quantum logic” in the form of a complete Heyting algebra. Although these algebras are natural from a topos theoretic stance, we seek a physical interpretation for the logical operations. Finally, we investigate dynamics. In particular, we describe how an automorphism on the operator algebra induces a homeomorphism (or isomorphism of locales) on the associated state spaces of the topos models, and how elementary propositions and truth values transform under the action of this homeomorphism. Also with dynamics the focus is on the internal perspective of the topos.

  18. Encountering Productive Forms of Complexity in Learning Modern Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrini, Olivia; Fantini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at supporting the claim that some forms of hyper-simplification, by making physics seem easy, are at risk of dangerously distorting the content as well as the process of learning physics. The paper presents examples of dangerous simplifications in the teaching of quantum physics. Then, examples of productive forms of complexity are…

  19. Physics of collisionless shocks: theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockem Novo, A.; Bret, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks occur in various fields of physics. In the context of space and astrophysics they have been investigated for many decades. However, a thorough understanding of shock formation and particle acceleration is still missing. Collisionless shocks can be distinguished into electromagnetic and electrostatic shocks. Electromagnetic shocks are of importance mainly in astrophysical environments and they are mediated by the Weibel or filamentation instability. In such shocks, charged particles gain energy by diffusive shock acceleration. Electrostatic shocks are characterized by a strong electrostatic field, which leads to electron trapping. Ions are accelerated by reflection from the electrostatic potential. Shock formation and particle acceleration will be discussed in theory and simulations.

  20. A modern solvation theory: quantum chemistry and statistical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirofumi

    2013-05-28

    This perspective highlights recent developments in the field of statistical mechanics for molecular liquids, i.e. the integral equation (IE) theory, especially focusing on hybrid approaches incorporating quantum chemistry and IE theory. The electronic structure of solvated molecules is characterized, followed by recent developments and applications. The latter includes for some specific systems: evaluation of acidity, basicity, pH and pKa, chemical equilibrium and molecular structure, chemical reactions, ionization and electron transfer reactions, as well as excited states and their free energy.

  1. Physical Education in the Schools: Ways to Modernize the Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsevich, V. K.

    2005-01-01

    Against the background of the social and economic transformations in the country, physical education in the schools is undergoing a serious crisis. The level of health of the rising generation is low, and the quality of the instruction is failing to foster adolescents' and young adults' desire to learn the values of physical culture and get…

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine: potential approaches from modern dynamical complexity theories.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Zhou, Kehua; Fan, Jing; Sun, Shuchen

    2016-03-01

    Despite the widespread use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinical settings, proving its effectiveness via scientific trials is still a challenge. TCM views the human body as a complex dynamical system, and focuses on the balance of the human body, both internally and with its external environment. Such fundamental concepts require investigations using system-level quantification approaches, which are beyond conventional reductionism. Only methods that quantify dynamical complexity can bring new insights into the evaluation of TCM. In a previous article, we briefly introduced the potential value of Multiscale Entropy (MSE) analysis in TCM. This article aims to explain the existing challenges in TCM quantification, to introduce the consistency of dynamical complexity theories and TCM theories, and to inspire future system-level research on health and disease.

  3. Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Alan

    In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k =| ψ k | 2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129-3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415-438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinism-the notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]-I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.

  4. Non-locality in Modern Physics: Counter Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracklauer, A. F.

    Non-locality, i.e., some sort of instantaneous interaction or correlation determination, has been identified with the theory of Quantum Mechanics in recent times. Being in direct conflict with the basic principles of Relativity Theory, it posses a challenge. Herein various critical arguments raised in the past and judged to be particularly incisive are reviewed. These include, the identification of an error in the derivation of Bell Inequalities, the observation that Bohm inadvertently selected a non-quantum venue for experimental tests of Bell Inequalities and finally, an examination of the complexities that have rendered classical simulations of these experiments unsatisfactory.

  5. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition.

  6. Master IDIFO for In-Service Teacher Training in Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    Within the context of a national project aimed to promote actions against disaffection for scientific studies in Italy, a Master in Didactic Innovation in Physics and Orientation was designed, as a result of researches carried out in this field by PERG of 9 Universities of Italy and aimed at the in-service training of teachers on modern physics.

  7. Enrico Fermi - And the Revolutions of Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Dan

    1999-02-01

    In 1938, at the age of 37, Enrico Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. That same year he emigrated from Italy to the United States and, in the course of his experiments, discovered nuclear fission--a process which forms the basis of nuclear power and atomic bombs. Soon the brilliant physicist was involved in the top secret race to produce the deadliest weapon on Earth. He created the first self-sustaining chain reaction, devised new methods for purifying plutonium, and eventually participated in the first atomic test. This compelling biography traces Fermis education in Italy, his meteoric career in the scientific world, his escape from fascism to America, and the ingenious experiments he devised and conducted at the University of Rome, Columbia University, and the Los Alamos laboratory. The book also presents a mini-course in quantum and nuclear physics in an accessible, fast-paced narrative that invokes all the dizzying passion of Fermis brilliant discoveries.

  8. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E.; Fai, Thomas G.; Podolski, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  9. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines.

  10. Modern integral equation techniques for quantum reactive scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, S.M.

    1993-11-01

    Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D+H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2}/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H+H{sub 2} state resolved integral cross sections {sigma}{sub v{prime}j{prime},vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0,j = 0) to (v{prime} = 1,j{prime} = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence.

  11. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels: Theory, modern advances, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Koetting, Michael C.; Peters, Jonathan T.; Steichen, Stephanie D.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past century, hydrogels have emerged as effective materials for an immense variety of applications. The unique network structure of hydrogels enables very high levels of hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, while at the same time exhibiting the soft physical properties associated with living tissue, making them ideal biomaterials. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels have been especially impactful, allowing for unprecedented levels of control over material properties in response to external cues. This enhanced control has enabled groundbreaking advances in healthcare, allowing for more effective treatment of a vast array of diseases and improved approaches for tissue engineering and wound healing. In this extensive review, we identify and discuss the multitude of response modalities that have been developed, including temperature, pH, chemical, light, electro, and shear-sensitive hydrogels. We discuss the theoretical analysis of hydrogel properties and the mechanisms used to create these responses, highlighting both the pioneering and most recent work in all of these fields. Finally, we review the many current and proposed applications of these hydrogels in medicine and industry. PMID:27134415

  12. Compass models: Theory and physical motivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Zohar; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Compass models are theories of matter in which the couplings between the internal spin (or other relevant field) components are inherently spatially (typically, direction) dependent. A simple illustrative example is furnished by the 90° compass model on a square lattice in which only couplings of the form τixτjx (where {τia}a denote Pauli operators at site i ) are associated with nearest-neighbor sites i and j separated along the x axis of the lattice while τiyτjy couplings appear for sites separated by a lattice constant along the y axis. Similar compass-type interactions can appear in diverse physical systems. For instance, compass models describe Mott insulators with orbital degrees of freedom where interactions sensitively depend on the spatial orientation of the orbitals involved as well as the low-energy effective theories of frustrated quantum magnets, and a host of other systems such as vacancy centers, and cold atomic gases. The fundamental interdependence between internal (spin, orbital, or other) and external (i.e., spatial) degrees of freedom which underlies compass models generally leads to very rich behaviors, including the frustration of (semi-)classical ordered states on nonfrustrated lattices, and to enhanced quantum effects, prompting, in certain cases, the appearance of zero-temperature quantum spin liquids. As a consequence of these frustrations, new types of symmetries and their associated degeneracies may appear. These intermediate symmetries lie midway between the extremes of global symmetries and local gauge symmetries and lead to effective dimensional reductions. In this article, compass models are reviewed in a unified manner, paying close attention to exact consequences of these symmetries and to thermal and quantum fluctuations that stabilize orders via order-out-of-disorder effects. This is complemented by a survey of numerical results. In addition to reviewing past works, a number of other models are introduced and new results

  13. Physical Theory of the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2012-10-01

    I will discuss to theories of the immune system and describe a theory of the immune response to vaccines. I will illustrate this theory by application to design of the annual influenza vaccine. I will use this theory to explain limitations in the vaccine for dengue fever and to suggest a transport-inspired amelioration of these limitations.

  14. Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

  15. Varieties of second modernity: the cosmopolitan turn in social and political theory and research.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ulrich; Grande, Edgar

    2010-09-01

    The theme of this special issue is the necessity of a cosmopolitan turn in social and political theory. The question at the heart of this introductory chapter takes the challenge of 'methodological cosmopolitanism', already addressed in a Special Issue on Cosmopolitan Sociology in this journal (Beck and Sznaider 2006), an important step further: How can social and political theory be opened up, theoretically as well as methodologically and normatively, to a historically new, entangled Modernity which threatens its own foundations? How can it account for the fundamental fragility, the mutability of societal dynamics (of unintended side effects, domination and power), shaped by the globalization of capital and risks at the beginning of the twenty-first century? What theoretical and methodological problems arise and how can they be addressed in empirical research? In the following, we will develop this 'cosmopolitan turn' in four steps: firstly, we present the major conceptual tools for a theory of cosmopolitan modernities; secondly, we de-construct Western modernity by using examples taken from research on individualization and risk; thirdly, we address the key problem of methodological cosmopolitanism, namely the problem of defining the appropriate unit of analysis; and finally,we discuss normative questions, perspectives, and dilemmas of a theory of cosmopolitan modernities, in particular problems of political agency and prospects of political realization.

  16. Attachment-dissociation network: some thoughts about a modern complex theory.

    PubMed

    Bovensiepen, Gustav

    2006-06-01

    The paper revises the complex theory in the light of modern infant research, neurosciences and object relation theory. The author takes up Jean Knox's idea to understand complexes as analogies to the internal working models of attachment theory. The author proposes to understand complexes as dissociated sub-networks out of the network structure of the psyche; these sub-networks contain the internal working models, the characteristic affects and unconscious expectation phantasies. With this network model one can try to understand severe defensive organizations in some patients as a pathological organization of different complexes. This is illustrated by a clinical example. PMID:16712687

  17. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  18. The unification of physics: the quest for a theory of everything.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Gleiser, Marcelo; Freese, Katherine; Tegmark, Max

    2015-12-01

    The holy grail of physics has been to merge each of its fundamental branches into a unified "theory of everything" that would explain the functioning and existence of the universe. The last step toward this goal is to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, a quest that has thus far eluded physicists. Will physics ever be able to develop an all-encompassing theory, or should we simply acknowledge that science will always have inherent limitations as to what can be known? Should new theories be validated solely on the basis of calculations that can never be empirically tested? Can we ever truly grasp the implications of modern physics when the basic laws of nature do not always operate according to our standard paradigms? These and other questions are discussed in this paper.

  19. The unification of physics: the quest for a theory of everything.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Gleiser, Marcelo; Freese, Katherine; Tegmark, Max

    2015-12-01

    The holy grail of physics has been to merge each of its fundamental branches into a unified "theory of everything" that would explain the functioning and existence of the universe. The last step toward this goal is to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, a quest that has thus far eluded physicists. Will physics ever be able to develop an all-encompassing theory, or should we simply acknowledge that science will always have inherent limitations as to what can be known? Should new theories be validated solely on the basis of calculations that can never be empirically tested? Can we ever truly grasp the implications of modern physics when the basic laws of nature do not always operate according to our standard paradigms? These and other questions are discussed in this paper. PMID:26359791

  20. The coincidence theory of consonance: A re-evaluation based on modern scientific evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, Benjamin Dwight

    The coincidence theory was a theory of consonance advocated by many of the scientists of the period 1550-1800, including Galileo, Mersenne, Descartes, and Euler. It was the first truly scientific explanation of consonance, addressing the way that sound waves interact with each other either constructively or destructively. Within the present century, historians of music and science have turned their attention to the coincidence theory and the important role it played in both fields in the 17th century. Many of these same authors have charged the theory with having had serious faults. However, an investigation of modern scientific evidence reveals that these alleged problems are either answerable or irrelevant to the coincidence theory. Furthermore, a survey of the major theories of consonance since the 18th century shows that the premises of the coincidence theory pervade and underlie many of these more recent theories. Examples of such theories include those of Helmholtz, Lipps, Boomsliter and Creel, and Terhardt. In the process of establishing these theses, many relevant secondary issues are addressed. For example, this dissertation contains a discussion of the different meanings of the word consonance, the relationship between integer ratios and musical intervals, and the similarities between pitch perception and rhythmic perception. Also, several different versions of the coincidence theory are identified and evaluated.

  1. Investigation of the Reasons of Negative Perceptions of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Modern Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksakalli, Ayhan; Salar, Riza; Turgut, Umit

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the negative perceptions of undergraduate students regarding modern physics course and the causes of their negative perceptions have been investigated. For this investigation, a qualitative and quantitative method (mix method) was chosen for data collection and analysis. The study group of the research consists of a total of 169…

  2. Brief Introduction to the γ-DETECTOR Array at Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, W.; Zhang, N. T.; Liu, M. L.; Zheng, Y.; Fang, Y. D.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lei, X. G.; Guo, Y. X.

    2013-11-01

    A new γ-detector array at Institute of modern physics in Lanzhou is now in construction. The spherical frame is designed using Solidworks, and is assembled by 4 kinds of irregular polygons. 32 detectors could be placed on this frame in maximum, which are arranged with 4-4-4-8-4-4-4 configuration.

  3. Science against modernism: the relevance of the social theory of Michael Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C

    2001-03-01

    Science, as an institution, is widely taken by sociologists to exemplify the modern tendency towards vesting trust and authority in impersonal offices and procedures, rather than in embodied human individuals. Such views of science face an important challenge in the social philosophy of Michael Polanyi. His work provides important insights into the continuing role of embodied personal authority and tradition in science and, hence, in late modernity. I explicate Polanyi's relevance for social theory, through a comparison with Weber's essay 'Science as a Vocation'. An understanding of the personal dimensions of trust and authority in science suggests practical limits to the position of Giddens on the disembedding of social relations and on the scepticism and reflexivity of modernity.

  4. Science against modernism: the relevance of the social theory of Michael Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C

    2001-03-01

    Science, as an institution, is widely taken by sociologists to exemplify the modern tendency towards vesting trust and authority in impersonal offices and procedures, rather than in embodied human individuals. Such views of science face an important challenge in the social philosophy of Michael Polanyi. His work provides important insights into the continuing role of embodied personal authority and tradition in science and, hence, in late modernity. I explicate Polanyi's relevance for social theory, through a comparison with Weber's essay 'Science as a Vocation'. An understanding of the personal dimensions of trust and authority in science suggests practical limits to the position of Giddens on the disembedding of social relations and on the scepticism and reflexivity of modernity. PMID:11321228

  5. Foundations of Physical Theory, I: Force and Energy. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Nolan E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is one of two units on the foundations of physical theory and the…

  6. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  7. Dirac equation in a de Sitter expansion for massive neutrinos from modern Kaluza-Klein theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Pablo Alejandro; Anabitarte, Mariano; Bellini, Mauricio

    2012-03-01

    Using the modern Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity (or the Induced Matter theory), we study the Dirac equation for massive neutrinos on a de Sitter background metric from a 5D Riemann-flat (and hence Ricci-flat) extended de Sitter metric, on which is defined the vacuum for test massless 1/2-spin neutral fields minimally coupled to gravity and free of any other interactions. We obtain that the effective 4D masses of the neutrinos can only take three possible values, which are related to the (static) foliation of the fifth and noncompact extra dimension.

  8. Modeling transonic aerodynamic response using nonlinear systems theory for use with modern control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation begins with a brief description of the motivation and approach that has been taken for this research. This will be followed by a description of the Volterra Theory of Nonlinear Systems and the CAP-TSD code which is an aeroelastic, transonic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The application of the Volterra theory to a CFD model and, more specifically, to a CAP-TSD model of a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section will be presented.

  9. LENR/"Cold Fusion" and Modern Physics: A Crisis Within a Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F. E.

    2004-03-01

    The primary theorists in the field of Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found, and moreover that it can be explained by hydrided metal lattice structures acting coherently. Though this was an excellent initial hypothesis, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. At the same time, compelling evidence has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplars have been the work Dr. Randell Mills and his colleagues at BlackLight Power Corporation and Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa in Canada.This has led to a crisis within a crisis: Neither "cold fusion" nor "Modern Physics" will be able to explain the full range of experimental data now available---not even the data within "mainstream" cold fusion/LENR per se--- by insisting that the fundamental paradigms of Modern Physics are without significant flaw. The present crisis is of magnitude comparable to the Copernican Revolution. Neither Modern Physics nor Cold Fusion/LENR will survive in their present forms when this long delayed revolution has run its course.

  10. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  11. Preservice teachers' theory development in physical and simulated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Slate Young, Erica

    2006-11-01

    We report a study of three prospective secondary science teachers' development of theories-in-action as they worked together in a group to explore collisions using both physical manipulatives and a computer simulation (Interactive Physics). Analysis of their investigations using an existing theoretical framework indicates that, as the group moved from physical experiments to the computer simulation, their attention shifted from planning their experiments to processing system feedback, which impeded the iterative refinement of their theories-in-action. The nature of the theories they developed also changed. Learners' attitudes toward science and prior experiences affected the exploration process in both environments. In particular, prior instruction in physics and an authoritarian view of science seemed to impede engagement in the development and testing of theories-in-action. Certain features of the computer system itself also impeded exploration.

  12. Is the Pauwels' theory of hip biomechanics still valid? A critical analysis, based on modern methods.

    PubMed

    Kummer, B

    1993-06-01

    The Pauwels' theory of hip biomechanics assuming bending stresses of the proximal femur has been critisized by recent authors. Therefore, the fundamentals of the classic theory have been reviewed, analysed by means of modern methods, and completed. The conclusion is that, hypothetically, a totally bending-free skeletal scaffold could be obtained by muscular tear strings. The analysis of anatomical specimens and considerations on optimisation show, however, that the bending theory of the proximal femur gives still the best explanation for the observations. Furthermore, the classic model has to be completed by two important conditions: 1. The supporting foot must be positioned on the action line of the gravity force of the body, and 2. the abductorial forces on the hip (to balance the momentum of the body weight) is composed by the forces of the lesser glutei (70%) and the muscles tending the tractus iliotibialis (30%).

  13. Physical Theory in Biology: An Interdisciplinary Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Charles J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which explores the relationships between physics and biology in terms of their conceptual structures and mathematical frameworks. Highlights the course content, its system of cross-disciplinary literature resources, and several innovative aspects of the method used for evaluating students. (Author/GA)

  14. Protection motivation theory: is this a worthwhile theory for physical activity promotion?

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Trinh, Linda

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews the published studies in the physical activity domain, which include novel hypothesis from our laboratory, that have tested Rogers' Protection Motivation Theory. Across the various population groups, the theory's coping appraisal is generally supported; however, there is limited support for the theory's threat components. Implications of these findings are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

  15. Brane Physics in Non-Critical Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturla, Mauricio B.

    2010-09-01

    In this Thesis, we focus on the study of the low energy approximation to non-critical string theories. We present an exhaustive study of their solutions, which are divided in three cases: vacuum, NSNS charged, and RR charged solutions. In the first case, we find all possible solutions, including the previously known ones, which are special cases of ours. In the second case, we present the fundamental non-critical string, doubly localized in Minkowski times the cigar vacuum. There are only a few known solutions doubly localized. Also, we completely solve the problem of finding NSNS solutions that fill all the Minkowski space. In the third case, we present new parametric families that contain some of the previously known solutions at particular values of the parameters. For the latter families, we have obtained the gauge duals in the context of the gauge/gravity duality, and we show that, in a particular region of the parameter space, these theories can confine. Finally, we study the obtained YM in D=3 and YM in D=4 theories, and we show the corresponding glueball spectra, that are in very good agreement with those predicted by lattice QCD.

  16. Case Studies of Physics Graduates' Personal Theories of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ke-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an interview case study with two physics doctoral students designed to explore their conceptions about the theory of evolution. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that both students mistakenly constructed a "theory of evolution by environmentally driven adaptation" instead of the commonly accepted "theory…

  17. Psychological adjustment to physical disability: trends in theories.

    PubMed

    Shontz, F C

    1978-06-01

    Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development. PMID:149525

  18. Psychological adjustment to physical disability: trends in theories.

    PubMed

    Shontz, F C

    1978-06-01

    Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development.

  19. ``Who Thinks Abstractly?'': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-01

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-à-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of "physical fact" and of the concept of "physical concept," in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features—1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  20. 'Who Thinks Abstractly?': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-28

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-a-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of ''physical fact'' and of the concept of 'physical concept', in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features - 1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  1. Students' Notions regarding "Covariance" of a Physical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    A physical theory is said to be covariant with respect to a certain class of transformations when its basic equations retain their "form" under those transformations. It is one of the basic notions encountered in physics, particularly in the domain of relativity. In this paper we study in some detail how students deal with this notion in different…

  2. Density functional theory across chemistry, physics and biology.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Tanja; Bühl, Michael; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2014-03-13

    The past decades have seen density functional theory (DFT) evolve from a rising star in computational quantum chemistry to one of its major players. This Theme Issue, which comes half a century after the publication of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems that laid the foundations of modern DFT, reviews progress and challenges in present-day DFT research. Rather than trying to be comprehensive, this Theme Issue attempts to give a flavour of selected aspects of DFT.

  3. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients.

  4. Modern money theory and ecological tax reform: A functional finance approach to energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Scott L. B.

    This dissertation contributes to heterodox economics by developing a theoretical and policy-relevant link that will promote the conservation of energy while driving the value of the domestic currency. The analysis relies upon the theoretical foundation of modern money theory and functional finance, which states that "taxes-drive-money" where the value of a sovereign nation's currency is imputed through the acceptance by the sovereign nation of the currency in payment of taxation. This theoretical perspective lends itself to various public policy prescriptions, such as government employment policies or the employer of last resort (ELR), which has been discussed at length elsewhere (Wray 1998; Tcherneva 2007, Forstater 2003). This research contributes to this overall program by arguing that the basis for taxation under modern money theory allows public policy makers various alternatives regarding the make-up of the tax system in place. In particular, following functional finance, taxes do not have the sole purpose of paying for government spending, but rather drive the value of the currency and may be designed to perform other functions as well, such as penalizing socially undesirable behavior. The focus in this dissertation is on the amelioration of pollution and increasing energy conservation. The research question for this dissertation is this: what federally implemented tax would best serve the multiple criteria of 1) driving the value of the currency, 2) promoting energy conservation and 3) ameliorating income and wealth disparities inherent in a monetary production economy? This dissertation provides a suggestion for such a tax that would be part of a much larger overall policy program based upon the tenets of modern money theory and functional finance. Additionally, this research seeks to provide an important theoretical contribution to the emerging Post Keynesian and ecological economics dialog.

  5. Estimation theory and statistical physics. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mitter, S.K.

    1985-12-01

    The construction of a nonlinear filter involves an integration over function space which is exactly analogous to the construction of a measure on path space via the Feynman-Kac-Nelson formula. In Kalman-Bucy filtering problem the filtering of Gauss-Markov processes in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise occupies the same role as the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process (finite or infinite-dimensional) in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory. That this analogy is borne out by the fact that a solvable Lie algebra, the oscillator algebra which contains the Heisenberg algebra as a derived algebra is intrinsically attached to the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem. The problem of nonlinear filtering of diffusion processes was shown to admit a stochastic variational interpretation. The objective of this paper is to strengthen these analogies further with a view to showing the close relationship of estimation theory to statistical mechanics. The motivation for this comes from problems of estimation and inverse problems related to image processing. In order to carry out this program it is necessary to generalize these ideas to filtering problems for infinite-dimensional processes. There are two types of processes involved: continuous processes such as infinite-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes and their L2-functionals which represent intensities of images and processes of a discrete nature which will represent boundaries of images. The most interesting models are obtained when these processes are coupled according to a probabilistic mechanisms. The discrete processes should be thought of as gauge fields and will be a process on connection forms.

  6. Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.

  7. Physical Theories of Winds From Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Cool stars in the late stages of their evolution generally lose mass at a prodigious rate. This includes low mass stars on the red giant branch, on the asymptotic giant branch, and those transiting from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase, as well as massive supergiants. All of these objects are surrounded by dense circumstellar gas and often dust envelopes. This mass loss is an important source of gas and dust for the interstellar medium. For some of these objects, the mass loss rate exceeds the nuclear burning rate and, hence, mass loss determines the subsequent evolution of the star. A variety processes have been invoked to explain the mass loss of these objects. A consensus has developed over the last decade: photospheric processes create an extended atmosphere which extends to several stellar radii. At this height above the photosphere, dust grains can form and radiation pressure drives the dust out. The gas is dragged along by friction. While the detailed processes involved, in particular those lifting the atmosphere, may differ from object to object, this paradigm seems applicable to all of these objects. The process of mass loss breaks up into three parts: 1) The formation of the extended atmosphere; 2) the nucleation and condensation of dust; and 3) The radiation pressure driven wind. Each of these processes will be discussed with an emphasis on those processes that play a role in the mass loss from asymptotic giant branch stars for which the most detailed theories have been developed.

  8. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-06-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  9. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A

    1997-01-01

    Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last) Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you).

  10. The Subject-Object Approach as a Direction of the Learning Theory in the Context of Modern Linguistic Education Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkhanova, Zhanat H.; Lee, Valentine S.; Tumanova, Ainakul B.; Zhusanbaeva, Aida T.

    2016-01-01

    The research object is the activity-based learning theory. The purpose of the study is to prove the assumption that the subject-object approach as a direction of the learning theory is the most effective one in the context of development of modern paradigms of linguistic education. The authors believe that the main content of the learning activity…

  11. Introduction to Gyrokinetic Theory with Applications in Magnetic Confinement Research in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    W.M. Tang

    2005-01-03

    The present lecture provides an introduction to the subject of gyrokinetic theory with applications in the area of magnetic confinement research in plasma physics--the research arena from which this formalism was originally developed. It was presented as a component of the ''Short Course in Kinetic Theory within the Thematic Program in Partial Differential Equations'' held at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science (24 March 2004). This lecture also discusses the connection between the gyrokinetic formalism and powerful modern numerical simulations. Indeed, simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential modern tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was enabled by two key factors: (i) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (ii) access to powerful new computational resources.

  12. Adjoint Function: Physical Basis of Variational & Perturbation Theory in Transport

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Importance: The Adjoint Function: The Physical Basis of Variational and Perturbation Theory in Transport and Diffusion Problems, North-Holland Publishing Company - Amsterdam, 582 pages, 1966 Introduction: Continuous Systems and the Variational Principle 1. The Fundamental Variational Principle 2. The Importance Function 3. Adjoint Equations 4. Variational Methods 5. Perturbation and Iterative Methods 6. Non-Linear Theory

  13. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  14. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  15. Physical effects underlying the transition from primitive to modern cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Budin, Itay; Szostak, Jack W

    2011-03-29

    To understand the emergence of Darwinian evolution, it is necessary to identify physical mechanisms that enabled primitive cells to compete with one another. Whereas all modern cell membranes are composed primarily of diacyl or dialkyl glycerol phospholipids, the first cell membranes are thought to have self-assembled from simple, single-chain lipids synthesized in the environment. We asked what selective advantage could have driven the transition from primitive to modern membranes, especially during early stages characterized by low levels of membrane phospholipid. Here we demonstrate that surprisingly low levels of phospholipids can drive protocell membrane growth during competition for single-chain lipids. Growth results from the decreasing fatty acid efflux from membranes with increasing phospholipid content. The ability to synthesize phospholipids from single-chain substrates would have therefore been highly advantageous for early cells competing for a limited supply of lipids. We show that the resulting increase in membrane phospholipid content would have led to a cascade of new selective pressures for the evolution of metabolic and transport machinery to overcome the reduced membrane permeability of diacyl lipid membranes. The evolution of phospholipid membranes could thus have been a deterministic outcome of intrinsic physical processes and a key driving force for early cellular evolution. PMID:21402937

  16. Outlining social physics for modern societies—locating culture, economics, and politics: The Enlightenment reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Iberall, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    A groundwork is laid for a formulation of the modern human social system as a field continuum. As in a simple material physical field, the independent implied relationships of materials or processes in flux have to be based on local conservations of mass, energy, and momentum. In complex fields, the transport fluctuations of momentum are transformed into action modes (e.g., [unk] pdq = ΣHi = H, a characteristic quantum of action over a characteristic cycle time). In complex living systems, a fourth local conservation of population number, the demographic variable, has to be added as a renormalized variable. Modern man, settled in place via agriculture, urbanized, and engaged largely in trade and war, invents a fifth local conservation—value-in-trade, the economic variable. The potentials that drive these five fluxes are also enumerated. Among the more evident external and internal physical-chemical potentials, the driving potentials include a sheaf of internal potential-like components that represent the command-control system emergent as politics. In toto, culture represents the social solvent with the main processes of economics and politics being driven by a social pressure. PMID:16593594

  17. The Beauty of Lattice Perturbation Theory: the Role of Lattice Perturbation Theory in B Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    As new experimental data arrive from the LHC the prospect of indirectly detecting new physics through precision tests of the Standard Model grows more exciting. Precise experimental and theoretical inputs are required to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix and to search for new physics effects in rare decays. Lattice QCD calculations of non-perturbative inputs have reached a precision at the level of a few percent; in many cases aided by the use of lattice perturbation theory. This review examines the role of lattice perturbation theory in B physics calculations on the lattice in the context of two questions: how is lattice perturbation theory used in the different heavy quark formalisms implemented by the major lattice collaborations? And what role does lattice perturbation theory play in determinations of non-perturbative contributions to the physical processes at the heart of the search for new physics? Framing and addressing these questions reveals that lattice perturbation theory is a tool with a spectrum of applications in lattice B physics.

  18. Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R J; Chand, K K; Clouse, C J; Ferencz, R M; Grandy, J M; Henshaw, W D; Kramer, K J; Parsons, I D

    2007-02-26

    To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport.

  19. O the Use of Modern Control Theory for Active Structural Acoustic Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, William Richard

    A modern control theory formulation of Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) of simple structures radiating acoustic energy into light or heavy fluid mediums is discussed in this dissertation. ASAC of a baffled, simply-supported plate subject to mechanical disturbances is investigated. For the case of light fluid loading, a finite element modelling approach is used to extend previous ASAC design methods. Vibration and acoustic controllers are designed for the plate. Comparison of the controller performance shows distinct advantages of the ASAC method for minimizing radiated acoustic power. A novel approach to the modelling of the heavy fluid-loaded plate is developed here. Augmenting structural and acoustic dynamics using state vector formalism allows the design of both vibration and ASAC controllers for the fluid-loaded plate. This modern control approach to active structural acoustic control is unique in its ability to suppress both persistent and transient disturbances on a plate in a heavy fluid. Numerical simulations of the open-loop and closed-loop plate response are provided to support the theoretical developments.

  20. The role of modern control theory in the design of controls for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    The development, applications, and current research in modern control theory (MCT) are reviewed, noting the importance for fuel-efficient operation of turbines with variable inlet guide vanes, compressor stators, and exhaust nozzle area. The evolution of multivariable propulsion control design is examined, noting a basis in a matrix formulation of the differential equations defining the process, leading to state space formulations. Reports and papers which appeared from 1970-1982 which dealt with problems in MCT applications to turbine engine control design are outlined, including works on linear quadratic regulator methods, frequency domain methods, identification, estimation, and model reduction, detection, isolation, and accommodation, and state space control, adaptive control, and optimization approaches. Finally, NASA programs in frequency domain design, sensor failure detection, computer-aided control design, and plant modeling are explored

  1. Role Socialization Theory: The Sociopolitical Realities of Teaching Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, K. Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about the socialization of physical education (PE) teachers using occupational socialization theory (OST). However, important to understanding any socialization process is explaining how the roles that individuals play are socially constructed and contextually bound. OST falls short of providing a comprehensive overview of…

  2. Physical and hydraulic properties of modern sinter deposits: El Tatio, Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Saez, Carolina; Saltiel, Seth; Manga, Michael; Nguyen, Chinh; Gonnermann, Helge

    2016-10-01

    Sinters are siliceous, sedimentary deposits that form in geothermal areas. Formation occurs in two steps. Hot water circulates in the subsurface and dissolves silica from the host rock, usually rhyolites. Silica then precipitates after hot water is discharged and cools. Extensive sinter formations are linked to up-flow areas of fluids originating from high temperature (> 175 °C) deep reservoirs. Fluid geochemistry, microbial communities, and environmental conditions of deposition determine the texture of sinter and pore framework. Porosity strongly influences physical and hydraulic properties of rocks. To better understand the properties controlling the transport of fluids, and interpret geophysical observations in geothermal systems, we studied 17 samples of modern geyserite sinter deposits (< 10 ka) from the active El Tatio geothermal field in northern Chile. We measured the physical properties (hydraulic, seismic, and electrical), and internal microstructure (using μX-Ray computed tomography). We find that the pore structure, and thus hydraulic and physical properties, is controlled by the distribution of microbial matter. Based on velocity-porosity relationships, permeability-porosity scaling, and image analysis of the 3D pore structure; we find that the physical and hydraulic properties of sinter more closely resemble those of vesicular volcanic rocks and other material formed by precipitation in geothermal settings (i.e., travertine) than clastic sedimentary rocks.

  3. On the physical basis of a theory of human thermoregulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.; Schindler, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical study of the physical factors which are responsible for thermoregulation in nude resting humans in a physical steady state. The behavior of oxidative metabolism, evaporative and convective thermal fluxes, fluid heat transfer, internal and surface temperatures, and evaporative phase transitions is studied by physiological/physical modeling techniques. The modeling is based on the theories that the body has a vital core with autothermoregulation, that the vital core contracts longitudinally, that the temperature of peripheral regions and extremities decreases towards the ambient, and that a significant portion of the evaporative heat may be lost underneath the skin. A theoretical basis is derived for a consistent modeling of steady-state thermoregulation on the basis of these theories.

  4. Life at the interface of particle physics and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2013-10-01

    If the results of the first LHC run are not betraying us, many decades of particle physics are culminating in a complete and consistent theory for all nongravitational physics: the standard model. But despite this monumental achievement there is a clear sense of disappointment: many questions remain unanswered. Remarkably, most unanswered questions could just be environmental, and disturbingly to some the existence of life may depend on that environment. Meanwhile there has been increasing evidence that the seemingly ideal candidate for answering these questions, string theory, gives an answer few people initially expected: a large “landscape” of possibilities that can be realized in a multiverse and populated by eternal inflation. At the interface of “bottom-up” and “top-down” physics, a discussion of anthropic arguments becomes unavoidable. Developments in this area are reviewed, focusing especially on the last decade.

  5. [Discussion on the key points of building modern theory of acupuncture treatment].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang

    2013-10-01

    Acupuncture treatment is different from treatment of materia medica. However, syndrome differentiation system of internal medicine is adopted all the time for the present acupuncture textbooks. It is held that the characteristics of acupuncture can not be fully reflexed, and advantages of acupuncture can not be brought into full play. Therefore, it's urgent to build up a modem theory on acupuncture treatment which is fit for the clinical practice of acupuncture and can give a better play for the treatment of acupuncture. A clear target is one of the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. And it is based on the understanding of the location of disease, therefore, disease differentiation is held as the basis of acupuncture treatment. The aim of meridian differentiation is to select distal effective points on the base of diseases differentiation, which is also taken as the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. Syndrome differentiation is a process of understanding the general pathological states of the human body, it is an important process to enhance the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. Thus, the key point for establishing the modern acupuncture theory is clarifying the values of disease differentiation, meridian differentiation and syndrome differentiation.

  6. The Standard Model as a 2T-Physics Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, I.

    2007-04-01

    New developments in 2T-physics, that connect 2T-physics field theory directly to the real world, are reported in this talk. An action is proposed in field theory in 4+2 dimensions which correctly reproduces the Standard Model (SM) in 3+1 dimensions (and no junk). Everything that is known to work in the SM still works in the emergent 3+1 theory, but some of the problems of the SM get resolved. The resolution is due to new restrictions on interactions inherited from 4+2 dimensions that lead to some interesting physics and new points of view not discussed before in 3+1 dimensions. In particular the strong CP violation problem is resolved without an axion, and the electro-weak symmetry breakdown that generates masses requires the participation of the dilaton, thus relating the electro-weak phase transition to other phase transitions (such as evolution of the universe, vacuum selection in string theory, etc.) that also require the participation of the dilaton. The underlying principle of 2T-physics is the local symmetry Sp(2,R) under which position and momentum become indistinguishable at any instant. This principle inevitably leads to deep consequences, one of which is the two-time structure of spacetime in which ordinary 1-time spacetime is embedded. The proposed action for the Standard Model in 4+2 dimensions follows from new gauge symmetries in field theory related to the fundamental principles of Sp(2,R). These gauge symmetries thin out the degrees of freedom from 4+2 to 3+1 dimensions without any Kaluza-Klein modes.

  7. Precision Higgs Boson Physics and Implications for Beyond the Standard Model Physics Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James

    2015-06-10

    The discovery of the Higgs boson is one of science's most impressive recent achievements. We have taken a leap forward in understanding what is at the heart of elementary particle mass generation. We now have a significant opportunity to develop even deeper understanding of how the fundamental laws of nature are constructed. As such, we need intense focus from the scientific community to put this discovery in its proper context, to realign and narrow our understanding of viable theory based on this positive discovery, and to detail the implications the discovery has for theories that attempt to answer questions beyond what the Standard Model can explain. This project's first main object is to develop a state-of-the-art analysis of precision Higgs boson physics. This is to be done in the tradition of the electroweak precision measurements of the LEP/SLC era. Indeed, the electroweak precision studies of the past are necessary inputs to the full precision Higgs program. Calculations will be presented to the community of Higgs boson observables that detail just how well various couplings of the Higgs boson can be measured, and more. These will be carried out using state-of-the-art theory computations coupled with the new experimental results coming in from the LHC. The project's second main objective is to utilize the results obtained from LHC Higgs boson experiments and the precision analysis, along with the direct search studies at LHC, and discern viable theories of physics beyond the Standard Model that unify physics to a deeper level. Studies will be performed on supersymmetric theories, theories of extra spatial dimensions (and related theories, such as compositeness), and theories that contain hidden sector states uniquely accessible to the Higgs boson. In addition, if data becomes incompatible with the Standard Model's low-energy effective lagrangian, new physics theories will be developed that explain the anomaly and put it into a more unified framework beyond

  8. Physical Theory of Vaccine Design for Influenza and Dengue Fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2009-03-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. I will introduce a physical theory of the evolutionary dynamics that occurs in the antibody-mediated and T cell-mediated immune responses. The theory will be used to provide a mechanism for original antigenic sin, wherein an initial exposure to antigen can degrade the response of the immune system upon subsequent exposure to related, but different, antigens. A new order parameter to characterize antigenic distance will be introduced from the theory. This order parameter predicts effectiveness of the influenza vaccine more reliably than do results from animal model studies currently used by world health authorities. I will discuss how this order parameter might be a valuable new tool for making vaccine-related public health policy decisions. Next, I will briefly discuss dengue fever. Infection with, or vaccination against, one of the four serotypes of dengue fever typically increases susceptibility to dengue hemorrhagic fever from one of the other three serotypes. I will present a physical theory of this immunodominance and use this theory to quantify the predicted mitigation of immunodominance in a novel formulation of the dengue vaccine.

  9. [Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.

  10. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE-FG02-06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.-based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  11. The gatekeepers of modern physics: periodicals and peer review in 1920s Britain.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Imogen

    2015-03-01

    This essay analyzes the processes behind the publication of physics papers in two British journals in the 1920s: the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Series A and the Philosophical Magazine. On the surface, it looked as though the Philosophical Magazine was managed very informally, while the Proceedings had in place a seemingly rigid system of committee approval and peer review. This essay shows, however, that in practice the two journals were both influenced by networks of expertise that afforded small groups of physicists considerable control over the content of these prestigious scientific publications. This study explores the nature of peer review, suggesting how a historical approach can contribute to contemporary debates. In studying these relationships, the essay also considers the interplay of "classical" and "modern" ideas and physicists in 1920s Britain and cautions against an anachronistic approach to this classification.

  12. [Modern approaches to the use of neurotropic physical therapy in arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, E M; Konchugova, T V; Kul'chitskaya, D B; Korchazhkina, N B; Egorova, L A; Chuich, N G

    2016-01-01

    The development and introduction into clinical practice of non-pharmacological methods for the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension is a primary objective of modern physical therapy, especially as regards the neurotropic influences. This article was designed to report the results of the investigation into the hypotensive effect of transcerebral magnetic therapy obtained during the treatment of 60 patients presenting with arterial hypertension. The study included the comparative examination of two randomly formed groups containing 30 patients each. The patients of the main group received transcerebral magnetic therapy (to the frontal region) while those in the group of comparison were given magnetotherapy at the collar region. The study has demonstrated that transcerebral magnetic therapy given to the patients of the main group was a more efficient treatment than magnetotherapy at the collar region since it produced a more pronounced hypotensive effect irrespective of the initial hemodynamic type. PMID:27271835

  13. Physical and chemical weathering in modern and Permian proximal fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Leslie Jo

    Chapter 1 Inferring paleoclimate from ancient fluvial strata can be challenging, and conflicting interpretations for a given system are common in the literature. This research uses a combination of physical and chemical weathering signals in an attempt to better define the paleoclimatic interpretations for the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, Colorado (Chapter 3) and the Post Oak Conglomerate in the Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma (Chapter 4), both Permian units. Chapter 4 includes a comparison of weathering signals from modern sediments in the Wichita Mountains. A methodology for pretreatment techniques used for grain-size analysis was evaluated during the course of the research and is the topic of Chapter 2. This dissertation is organized as three stand-alone manuscripts and a brief summary of each is presented below. Chapter 2 Pretreatment drying of mud-sized sediment (<63 im) resulted in clayrich (>39%) samples exhibiting more sensitivity to drying techniques than clay-poor (<39%) samples. This demonstrates an influence of the drying technique on the granulometric results. Employing freeze drying for sample drying yielded the most consistent results. However, for samples with <39% clay-sized material, all drying techniques are equally effective, and no apparent need exists for the extra effort (and expense) that accompanies freeze drying. Chapter 3 Scanning Electron Microscopy is a useful tool in the study of quartz grain microtextures. Microtextures on quartz grains from the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, CO were documented for the presence/absence of 18 distinct microtextures. Averaging of presence/absence data for the samples provided a means to use more quantitative techniques than previously employed for SEM microtextural analysis. These continuous quantitative variables were utilized for non-metric multidimensional scaling, a purely quantitative technique that does not rely on initial assumptions of what environments produce specific

  14. The foundation of Piaget's theories: mental and physical action.

    PubMed

    Beilin, H; Fireman, G

    1999-01-01

    Piaget's late theory of action and action implication was the realization of a long history of development. A review of that history shows the central place of action in all of his theoretical assertions, despite the waxing and waning of other important features of his theories. Action was said to be the primary source of knowledge with perception and language in secondary roles. Action is for the most part not only organized but there is logic in action. Action, which is at first physical, becomes internalized and transformed into mental action and mental representation, largely in the development of the symbolic or semiotic function in the sensorimotor period. A number of alternative theories of cognitive development place primary emphasis on mental representation. Piaget provided it with an important place as well, but subordinated it to mental action in the form of operations. In this, as Russell claims, he paralleled Schopenhauer's distinction between representation and will. Piaget's theory of action was intimately related to the gradual development of intentionality in childhood. Intentions were tied to actions by way of the conscious awareness of goals and the means to achieve them. Mental action, following the sensorimotor period, was limited in its logical form to semilogical or one-way functions. These forms were said by Piaget to lack logical reversibility, which was achieved only in the sixth or seventh year, in concrete operations. Mental action was not to be fully realized until the development of formal operations, with hypothetical reasoning, in adolescence, according to the classical Piagetian formulation. This view of the child's logical development, which relied heavily on truth-table (extensional) logic, underwent a number of changes. First from the addition of other logics: category theory and the theory of functions among them. In his last theory, however, an even more radical change occurred. With the collaboration of R. Garcia, he proposed

  15. The foundation of Piaget's theories: mental and physical action.

    PubMed

    Beilin, H; Fireman, G

    1999-01-01

    Piaget's late theory of action and action implication was the realization of a long history of development. A review of that history shows the central place of action in all of his theoretical assertions, despite the waxing and waning of other important features of his theories. Action was said to be the primary source of knowledge with perception and language in secondary roles. Action is for the most part not only organized but there is logic in action. Action, which is at first physical, becomes internalized and transformed into mental action and mental representation, largely in the development of the symbolic or semiotic function in the sensorimotor period. A number of alternative theories of cognitive development place primary emphasis on mental representation. Piaget provided it with an important place as well, but subordinated it to mental action in the form of operations. In this, as Russell claims, he paralleled Schopenhauer's distinction between representation and will. Piaget's theory of action was intimately related to the gradual development of intentionality in childhood. Intentions were tied to actions by way of the conscious awareness of goals and the means to achieve them. Mental action, following the sensorimotor period, was limited in its logical form to semilogical or one-way functions. These forms were said by Piaget to lack logical reversibility, which was achieved only in the sixth or seventh year, in concrete operations. Mental action was not to be fully realized until the development of formal operations, with hypothetical reasoning, in adolescence, according to the classical Piagetian formulation. This view of the child's logical development, which relied heavily on truth-table (extensional) logic, underwent a number of changes. First from the addition of other logics: category theory and the theory of functions among them. In his last theory, however, an even more radical change occurred. With the collaboration of R. Garcia, he proposed

  16. Betelgeusean Physics: A Possible Ansatz to a Unified Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz Vrba, Anton

    I use spherical-numbers to model and study interacting wave functions, and recover known physical laws. A wavefunction interacts with and changes space; the natural forces and quantum properties emerge. The study describes an absolute reality that withstands the tests of relativity. A Bohr-like model of the hydrogen atom dilates the transition frequencies. This alternate approach could provide an ansatz for a unified field theory, however it has a price; most present-day accepted truths need revision.

  17. Rare Decays Probing Physics Beyond the Standard Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubert, Frederic

    2016-10-01

    In the last 50 years we have seen how an initially ad hoc and not widely accepted theory of the strong and electroweak interactions (Standard Theory: ST) has correctly predicted the entire accelerator based experimental observations with incredible accuracy. Decays of the ST particles (quarks and leptons), which are rare due to some symmetry of the theory, have played an important role in the making of the ST. These rare decays have been powerful tools to search for interactions of the ST particles with new particles which not necessarily have the same symmetries. In this article, I will describe the indirect search for evidence of new physics (NP) using quark and lepton flavour changing neutral decays, which are highly suppressed within the ST and constitute strong probes of potential new flavour structures.

  18. Dual Ginzburg--Landau Theory and Quark Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, H.; Suganuma, H.; Fukushima, M.; Amemiya, K.; Tanaka, A.; Umisedo, S.; Sakai, T.

    1998-09-01

    The fundamental building blocks of matter are quarks. Hence, it is fundamental to describe hadrons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons, the subject of which is called Quark Nuclear Physics. The quark--gluon dynamics is described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our interest is the non-perturbative aspect of QCD as confinement, chiral symmetry breaking, hadronization ITALIC etc. We introduce the dual Ginzburg--Landau theory (DGL), where the color monopole fields and their condensation in the QCD vacuum, play essential roles in describing these non-perturbative phenomena. We apply the DGL theory to various observables. We discuss then the connection of the monopole fields with instantons, which are the classical solutions of the non-abelian gauge theory.

  19. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  20. Size counts: evolutionary perspectives on physical activity and body size from early hominids to modern humans.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations.

  1. Women in Physics in Australia as the Expectations of the Modern Researcher Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    Publicly funded science, which employs the majority of research scientists in Australia, has since 1988 had significant shifts in the basis for funding with the expectation that all research, regardless of how fundamental, should have a plan or potential for impact for the community's benefit. This may be solving major problems for Australia (e.g., climate change and provision of water and energy) to creating new technologies and industries to boost the Australian economy. At the same time, there has been some improvement in the status of women in science in Australia. There is recognition that women bring diversity to research teams, making teams more effective, and this is being embraced. However, other issues are still creating difficulties for women from the drop in the quality of child care while its costs increase; the need to juggle family and career, particularly balancing the need for travel; the poorly paid maternity leave provisions; and the difficulty in restarting a career in science if time is taken out for child rearing. The changing expectations of the modern researcher, the status of women in Australian physics as a specific example, and the issues that are limiting women's opportunities in a ``well meaning'' culture that does not realize the limitations it is creating are reported, along with what the Australian Institute of Physics is doing to overcome them.

  2. Hydraulic and Physical properties of modern sinter deposits: El Tatio, Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Saez, C.; Saltiel, S.; Manga, M.; Nguyen, C. T.; Gonnermann, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sinters are sedimentary, siliceous deposits, and are common in geothermal areas. Formation occurs in two steps. Hot water circulates underground, and dissolves silica from the host rock. Silica then precipitates at the surface as water is discharged from hot springs. Extensive sinter formations are linked to up-flow areas of fluids originated in high temperature (>175 °C) reservoirs. Sinter samples provide a guide for geothermal and epithermal ore deposit exploration. Fluid geochemistry, microbial communities, and environmental conditions of deposition determine the texture of sinter. To better understand the water balance in geothermal systems, and interpret geophysical observations, we studied 21 samples of modern geyserite sinter deposits (<10,000 years) from an active geothermal field located in the north of Chile, El Tatio. We measured the physical properties (hydraulic, seismic, and electrical), and internal micro-structure (using X-Ray micro- tomography). The pore structure, and thus hydraulic and physical properties, are controlled by the distribution of microbial matter. Based on velocity-porosity relationships, permeability-porosity scaling, and image analysis of the 3D pore structure, we find that the sinter more closely resembles vesicular volcanic rocks than clastic sedimentary rocks.

  3. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo

    2016-06-21

    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties.

  4. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo

    2016-06-21

    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties. PMID:27229870

  5. On the quantum physical theory of subjective antedating.

    PubMed

    Wolf, F A

    1989-01-01

    This paper explores the question of mental events causing neural events through the actions of the quantum physical probability field. After showing how quantum mechanical descriptions pertain to the influence that mental events have upon neural events, the question of Libet's "delay-and-antedating" observation is examined in the light of quantum mechanical description, specifically in the action of the probability field. The probability field is the product of two quantum wave functions. According to the transactional interpretation (TI) of quantum physics these wave functions can be pictured as offer and echo waves--the offer wave passing from an initial event to a future event and the echo wave passing from the future event back in time towards the initial event. I propose that two events so correlated are experienced as one and the same event; that is, any two quantum physically correlated events separated in time or space will constitute a single experience--an event in "consciousness." Using the TI then suggests a quantum physical resolution of the "delay-and-antedating" hypothesis/paradox put forward by Libet, B., Wright, E. W., Feinstein, B., & Pearl, D. K. (Brain, 1979, 102, 193). It also offers a first step towards the development of a quantum physical theory of subjective antedating based on the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics.

  6. Principles and the Development of Physical Theory: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, Robert Corby

    Three separate articles make up the chapters of this dissertation. They were written with different aims and audiences in mind, but each deals in some way with one or more "principles" that have been invoked in argumentation and explanation in the physical sciences. The principles of concern are propositions which have an "aesthetic" or "foundational" or "philosophical" character and which are (or have been) generally believed to be widely applicable or particularly powerful--for example, the Principle of Plenitude, the Principle of Mathematical Beauty, Occam's Razor, the Cosmological Principle, and the Copernican Principle. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the nature and uses of principles in scientific reasoning and examines in some detail the use of the Principle of Plenitude in the introduction of "tachyons" (faster-than-light particles) into theoretical physics during the 1960s. Chapter 2 is a short biography of P. A. M. Dirac (1902-1984), one of the founders of quantum mechanics, who believed that the Principle of Mathematical Beauty should serve as physicists' guide to truth. Chapter 3 traces the history of the idea of faster-than-light particles in physics since the late 1800s; this idea matured with the rise of the subfield of tachyon physics in the 1960s, and (as mentioned above) physicists appealed to the Principle of Plenitude to argue for the existence of the particles, which are still only hypothetical. According to the thesis developed in these chapters, the epistemological status of principles has evolved over the history of science. While they were once hallowed as a priori truths, in modern science they have increasingly been employed critically, in light of the results of scientific inquiry. That is, science has moved toward making principles testable, subject to rejection or revision, on a par with other scientific propositions.

  7. Problems of Quantum Theory may be Solved by an Emulation Theory of Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woesler, Richard

    2005-02-01

    The emulation interpretation of quantum theory is described which may solve problems of the Copenhagen interpretation finally. According to Kolmogorov complexity theory it is conceivable that a bit string exists encoding our world which can be computed by an appropriate generalized Turing machine. In this case the computation would emulate the world, therefore this can be called an emulation theory of quantum physics, and the emulation interpretation of quantum theory. The probability of a string is dominated by the probabilities of its shortest programs which is known as the `coding theorem'. This leads to the suggestion that there may be a relatively short shortest program by which our world may be run. This suggestion appears to be in accordance with our world. The world exhibits a number of symmetries. It is plausible that the shortest algorithm for our special world is shorter than those for worlds where symmetries are broken more often than in our world, because each further deviation from a symmetry has to be encoded within the algorithm which would enlarge its length. Therefore, laws of physics may be identical rather globally in spacetime. Further, in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory it is defined, how to compute probabilities for, e.g., measurement results when conducting measurements on variables of quantum systems. In a completely satisfactory theory of everything this would not be sufficient, but such a theory should give a reason why the values of the probabilities seem, as far as it is known, to be identical also in all different regions of the observed world. The emulation interpretation suggests that all deviations from this symmetry of the probabilities would enlarge the shortest program of the world, and, therefore, we would probably not live in a world with such deviations. A second question arises from the attempt to combine the theory of black holes, thermodynamics and quantum theory. Bekenstein derives a holography principle

  8. Dual Ginzburg-Landau theory and quark nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, H.; Suganuma, H.; Ichie, H.; Monden, H.; Umisedo, S.; Tanaka, A.; Fukushima, M.; Araki, F.; Sasaki, S.

    1998-02-01

    In Quark Nuclear Physics (QNP), where hadrons and nuclei are described in terms of quarks and gluons, confinement and chiral symmetry breaking are the most fundamental phenomena. The dual Ginzburg-Landau (DGL) theory, which contains monopole fields as the most essential degrees of freedom and their condensation in the vacuum, is able to describe both phenomena. We discuss also the recovery of the chiral symmetry and the deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature in the DGL theory. As for the connection to QCD, we study the instanton configurations in the abelian gauge a la 't Hooft. We find a close connection between instantons and QCD monopoles. We demonstrate also the signature of confinement as the appearance of long monopole trajectories in the MA gauge for the case of dense instanton configurations.

  9. Physical criteria for distinguishing sandy tsunami and storm deposits using modern examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Modern subaerial sand beds deposited by major tsunamis and hurricanes were compared at trench, transect, and sub-regional spatial scales to evaluate which attributes are most useful for distinguishing the two types of deposits. Physical criteria that may be diagnostic include: sediment composition, textures and grading, types and organization of stratification, thickness, geometry, and landscape conformity. Published reports of Pacific Ocean tsunami impacts and our field observations suggest that sandy tsunami deposits are generally 30 cm thick, generally extend The distinctions between tsunami and storm deposits are related to differences in the hydrodynamics and sediment-sorting processes during transport. Tsunami deposition results from a few high-velocity, long-period waves that entrain sediment from the shoreface, beach, and landward erosion zone. Tsunamis can have flow depths greater than 10 m, transport sediment primarily in suspension, and distribute the load over a broad region where sediment falls out of suspension when flow decelerates. In contrast, storm inundation generally is gradual and prolonged, consisting of many waves that erode beaches and dunes with no significant overland return flow until after the main flooding. Storm flow depths are commonly

  10. Modern prescription theory and application: realistic expectations for speech recognition with hearing AIDS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Earl E

    2013-01-01

    A major decision at the time of hearing aid fitting and dispensing is the amount of amplification to provide listeners (both adult and pediatric populations) for the appropriate compensation of sensorineural hearing impairment across a range of frequencies (e.g., 160-10000 Hz) and input levels (e.g., 50-75 dB sound pressure level). This article describes modern prescription theory for hearing aids within the context of a risk versus return trade-off and efficient frontier analyses. The expected return of amplification recommendations (i.e., generic prescriptions such as National Acoustic Laboratories-Non-Linear 2, NAL-NL2, and Desired Sensation Level Multiple Input/Output, DSL m[i/o]) for the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and high-frequency audibility were traded against a potential risk (i.e., loudness). The modeled performance of each prescription was compared one with another and with the efficient frontier of normal hearing sensitivity (i.e., a reference point for the most return with the least risk). For the pediatric population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while DSL m[i/o] was more efficient for high-frequency audibility. For the adult population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while the two prescriptions were similar with regard to high-frequency audibility. In terms of absolute return (i.e., not considering the risk of loudness), however, DSL m[i/o] prescribed more outright high-frequency audibility than NAL-NL2 for either aged population, particularly, as hearing loss increased. Given the principles and demonstrated accuracy of desensitization (reduced utility of audibility with increasing hearing loss) observed at the group level, additional high-frequency audibility beyond that of NAL-NL2 is not expected to make further contributions to speech intelligibility (recognition) for the average listener. PMID:24253361

  11. Future planning and evaluation for automated adaptive minehunting: a roadmap for mine countermeasures theory modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gregory A.; Wettergren, Thomas A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a discussion of U.S. naval mine countermeasures (MCM) theory modernization in light of advances in the areas of autonomy, tactics, and sensor processing. The unifying theme spanning these research areas concerns the capability for in situ adaptation of processing algorithms, plans, and vehicle behaviors enabled through run-time situation assessment and performance estimation. Independently, each of these technology developments impact the MCM Measures of Effectiveness1 [MOE(s)] of time and risk by improving one or more associated Measures of Performance2 [MOP(s)]; the contribution of this paper is to outline an integrated strategy for realizing the cumulative benefits of these technology enablers to the United States Navy's minehunting capability. An introduction to the MCM problem is provided to frame the importance of the foundational research and the ramifications of the proposed strategy on the MIW community. We then include an overview of current and future adaptive capability research in the aforementioned areas, highlighting a departure from the existing rigid assumption-based approaches while identifying anticipated technology acceptance issues. Consequently, the paper describes an incremental strategy for transitioning from the current minehunting paradigm where tactical decision aids rely on a priori intelligence and there is little to no in situ adaptation or feedback to a future vision where unmanned systems3, equipped with a representation of the commander's intent, are afforded the authority and ability to adapt to environmental perturbations with minimal human-in-the-loop supervision. The discussion concludes with an articulation of the science and technology issues which the MCM research community must continue to address.

  12. Modern Prescription Theory and Application: Realistic Expectations for Speech Recognition With Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A major decision at the time of hearing aid fitting and dispensing is the amount of amplification to provide listeners (both adult and pediatric populations) for the appropriate compensation of sensorineural hearing impairment across a range of frequencies (e.g., 160–10000 Hz) and input levels (e.g., 50–75 dB sound pressure level). This article describes modern prescription theory for hearing aids within the context of a risk versus return trade-off and efficient frontier analyses. The expected return of amplification recommendations (i.e., generic prescriptions such as National Acoustic Laboratories—Non-Linear 2, NAL-NL2, and Desired Sensation Level Multiple Input/Output, DSL m[i/o]) for the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and high-frequency audibility were traded against a potential risk (i.e., loudness). The modeled performance of each prescription was compared one with another and with the efficient frontier of normal hearing sensitivity (i.e., a reference point for the most return with the least risk). For the pediatric population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while DSL m[i/o] was more efficient for high-frequency audibility. For the adult population, NAL-NL2 was more efficient for SII, while the two prescriptions were similar with regard to high-frequency audibility. In terms of absolute return (i.e., not considering the risk of loudness), however, DSL m[i/o] prescribed more outright high-frequency audibility than NAL-NL2 for either aged population, particularly, as hearing loss increased. Given the principles and demonstrated accuracy of desensitization (reduced utility of audibility with increasing hearing loss) observed at the group level, additional high-frequency audibility beyond that of NAL-NL2 is not expected to make further contributions to speech intelligibility (recognition) for the average listener. PMID:24253361

  13. Symmetries in Physics: Guidelines for Theories and for Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jerzy; Góźdź, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The works of Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, of their few predecessors and of their many followers addressed over the years the studies of the atomic nuclei - the smallest objects in the Universe which are unique in that they are governed simultaneously by the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. In this article we focus on the concept and nature of symmetries, their omni-presence in physics and their impact on the behaviour of the physical systems. Beginning with a short historical overview covering quickly the birth of certain concepts in the ancient times and their evolution until the most modern ones we cover, on an introductory level, the question of space-time symmetries, the connection between the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the spatial behaviour of quantum particles as well as the question of symmetry-induced conservation-laws. We discuss shortly examples of continuous and discrete symmetry groups, the constraints imposed on the energy spectra (degeneracy of levels) by the symmetries of the underlying Hamiltonians, to end with the question of transitions and symmetry imposed selection rules. The article terminates with a short discussion of the symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking and phase-transition induced symmetry-changes.

  14. An Experimental Study to Determine the Change in Attitude Toward Science of College Physics Students in Traditional and Modern Physics Content Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, William Ralph

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of an instructional strategy on prospective elementary school teachers receiving a course in the modern concepts of physics. The study involved two classes, both of which were taught with the same teaching method. The concepts presented were different. Those considered as traditional content…

  15. "Organic Rhetoric": The Growth of a Trope in Modern Composition Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshbarger, Scott

    The proposition can be offered that the notion of "the plant" should be the paradigmatic metaphor for modern conceptions of the composing process. Various forms of the metaphor are found in classical and eighteenth century writings alike. A modern shift in focus from writing product to process has brought to the fore the dynamic organicism view…

  16. Topics in Lattice Gauge Theory and Theoretical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijani, Javad

    This dissertation contains two completely independent parts. In Part 1, I investigate effective field theories and their applications in lattice gauge theory. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as a part of the standard model (SM) describes the physics of quarks and gluons. There are several numerical and analytical methods to tackle the QCD problems. Lattice QCD is the dominant numerical method. Effective field theories, on the other hand, provide analytic methods to describe the low-energy dynamics of QCD. To use the effective theories in lattice QCD, I develop chiral perturbation theory for heavy-light mesons with staggered quarks---an implementation of fermions on lattice. I use this effective chiral theory to study the pattern of taste splitting in masses of the mesons with staggered quarks. I also calculate the leptonic decay constant of the heavy-light mesons with staggered quarks to one-loop order in the chiral expansion. The resulting chiral formula provides a suitable fit form to combine and analyze a large number of decay constants of heavy-light mesons computed from different lattice ensembles with various choices of input parameters. I perform a comprehensive chiral fit to the lattice data for D mesons computed by the MILC collaboration. Consequently, I determine the physical values of the decay constants of D mesons. These precise results place narrow restrictions on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements. In Part 2, I introduce the concept of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem by investigating three nonlinear differential equations. First, equation y'(x) = cos[pixy(x)] is investigated. A discrete set of initial conditions y(0) = an, leading to unstable separatrix behavior, are identified as the eigenvalues of the problem. I calculate the asymptotic behavior of the initial conditions an and their corresponding solutions for large n by reducing the equation to a linear one-dimensional random-walk problem. Second, I investigate equation y''(x)=6[y( x

  17. Perspective: Sloppiness and emergent theories in physics, biology, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Transtrum, Mark K; Machta, Benjamin B; Brown, Kevin S; Daniels, Bryan C; Myers, Christopher R; Sethna, James P

    2015-07-01

    Large scale models of physical phenomena demand the development of new statistical and computational tools in order to be effective. Many such models are "sloppy," i.e., exhibit behavior controlled by a relatively small number of parameter combinations. We review an information theoretic framework for analyzing sloppy models. This formalism is based on the Fisher information matrix, which is interpreted as a Riemannian metric on a parameterized space of models. Distance in this space is a measure of how distinguishable two models are based on their predictions. Sloppy model manifolds are bounded with a hierarchy of widths and extrinsic curvatures. The manifold boundary approximation can extract the simple, hidden theory from complicated sloppy models. We attribute the success of simple effective models in physics as likewise emerging from complicated processes exhibiting a low effective dimensionality. We discuss the ramifications and consequences of sloppy models for biochemistry and science more generally. We suggest that the reason our complex world is understandable is due to the same fundamental reason: simple theories of macroscopic behavior are hidden inside complicated microscopic processes.

  18. Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (59th, Las Vegas, Nevada, April 11-13, 1987). No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M., Ed.; Eckert, Helen M., Ed.

    Eleven conference papers explore physical activity in ancient societies as well as human adaptation of physical activities in modern society. The following papers are included: (1) "Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations: An Evolutionary View" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "How Active Were Early Populations? or Squeezing the Fossil Record"…

  19. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  20. Causal theories of evolution and wave propagation in mathematical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kranys, M. )

    1989-11-01

    There are still many phenomena, especially in continuum physics, that are described by means of parabolic partial differential equations whose solution are not compatible with the causality principle. Compatibility with this principle is required also by the theory of relativity. A general form of hyperbolic operators for the most frequently occurring linear governing equations in mathematical physics is written down. It is then easy to convert any given parabolic equation to the hyperbolic form without necessarily entering into the cause of the inadequacy of the governing equation. The method is verified on the well-known example of Timoshenko's correction of the Bernoulli-Euler-Rayleigh beam equation for flexural motion. The Love-Rayleigh fourth-order differential equations for the longitudinal and torsional wave propagation in the rod is generalized with this method. The hyperbolic version (not to mention others) of the linear Korteweg-deVries equation and of the telegraph equation governing electromagnetic wave propagation through relaxing material are given. Lagrangians of all the equations studied are listed. For all the reasons given the author believes the hyperbolic governing equations to be physically and mathematically more realistic and adequate.

  1. Opening up Learning Theory to Social Theory in Research on Sport and Physical Education through a Focus on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on pedagogy in physical education and sport has increasingly been informed by contemporary learning theory with the socio-cultural perspective being prominent. Over a similar period research on the social dimensions of physical education and youth sport has drawn on a range of social theory yet there has been little systematic…

  2. Using modern stellar observables to constrain stellar parameters and the physics of the stellar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Saders, Jennifer L.

    2014-05-01

    The current state and future evolution of a star is, in principle, specified by a only a few physical quantities: the mass, age, hydrogen, helium, and metal abundance. These same fundamental quantities are crucial for reconstructing the history of stellar systems ranging in scale from planetary systems to galaxies. However, the fundamental parameters are rarely directly observable, and we are forced to use proxies that are not always sensitive or unique functions of the stellar parameters we wish to determine. Imprecise or inaccurate determinations of the fundamental parameters often limit our ability to draw inferences about a given system. As new technologies, instruments, and observing techniques become available, the list of viable stellar observables increases, and we can explore new links between the observables and fundamental quantities in an effort to better characterize stellar systems. In the era of missions such as Kepler, time-domain observables such as the stellar rotation period and stellar oscillations are now available for an unprecedented number of stars, and future missions promise to further expand the sample. Furthermore, despite the successes of stellar evolution models, the processes and detailed structure of the deep stellar interior remains uncertain. Even in the case of well-measured, well understood stellar observables, the link to the underlying parameters contains uncertainties due to our imperfect understanding of stellar interiors. Model uncertainties arise from sources such as the treatment of turbulent convection, transport of angular momentum and mixing, and assumptions about the physical conditions of stellar matter. By carefully examining the sensitivity of stellar observables to physical processes operating within the star and model assumptions, we can design observational tests for the theory of stellar interiors. I propose a series of tools based on new or revisited stellar observables that can be used both to constrain

  3. The Clifford algebra of physical space and Dirac theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Jayme, Jr.

    2016-09-01

    The claim found in many textbooks that the Dirac equation cannot be written solely in terms of Pauli matrices is shown to not be completely true. It is only true as long as the term β \\psi in the usual Dirac factorization of the Klein–Gordon equation is assumed to be the product of a square matrix β and a column matrix ψ. In this paper we show that there is another possibility besides this matrix product, in fact a possibility involving a matrix operation, and show that it leads to another possible expression for the Dirac equation. We show that, behind this other possible factorization is the formalism of the Clifford algebra of physical space. We exploit this fact, and discuss several different aspects of Dirac theory using this formalism. In particular, we show that there are four different possible sets of definitions for the parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation operations for the Dirac equation.

  4. The Clifford algebra of physical space and Dirac theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Jayme, Jr.

    2016-09-01

    The claim found in many textbooks that the Dirac equation cannot be written solely in terms of Pauli matrices is shown to not be completely true. It is only true as long as the term β \\psi in the usual Dirac factorization of the Klein-Gordon equation is assumed to be the product of a square matrix β and a column matrix ψ. In this paper we show that there is another possibility besides this matrix product, in fact a possibility involving a matrix operation, and show that it leads to another possible expression for the Dirac equation. We show that, behind this other possible factorization is the formalism of the Clifford algebra of physical space. We exploit this fact, and discuss several different aspects of Dirac theory using this formalism. In particular, we show that there are four different possible sets of definitions for the parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation operations for the Dirac equation.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's General Theory of Relativity—with Modern Applications in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrabès, C.

    2008-09-01

    The increasing prominence of general relativity in astrophysics and cosmology is reflected in the growing number of texts, particularly at the undergraduate level. A natural attitude before opening a new one is to ask i) what makes this different from those already published? And ii) does it follow the 'physics-first approach' as for instance the book by Hartle where the basic physical concepts are introduced first with as little formalism as possible, or does it follow the more traditional 'math-first approach' for which the mathematical formalism comes first and is then applied to phyics? As announced in the title, a distinctive feature of the book by Gron and Hervik is the space (almost half the book) devoted to cosmology and in particular to some of the most recent developments in this rapidly evolving field. It is also apparent that the authors have chosen, like the majority of current books on general relativity, the 'math-first approach'. The book is divided into six parts, each of them subdivided into chapters with part VI containing a few short technical appendices. The first part of the book briefly presents in chapter I the principles of relativity, Newtonian mechanics and the Newtonian theory of gravity. In chapter II, a short introduction to special relativity is given. It seems at first surprising that the four-dimensional structure of space-time is not more fully exploited so that the reader would gain familiarity early on with notions like 4-velocity, 4-momentum and the stress energy tensor. This is in fact postponed to part II as an illustration of the mathematical formalism. The second part is devoted to those elements of differential geometry needed in this kind of course. The authors' presentation is somewhat similar to that of the books by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and by Straumann (2nd edition). Vectors and forms are treated separately and the formalism of differential forms is introduced in detail. The various kinds of differentiation on

  6. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Distance Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of distance theory to patterns of cooperation among nations. Distance theory implies that international relations systems (nations, organizations, individuals, etc.) can be…

  7. Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical--An Investigation into Student and Expert Perspectives on the Physical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, with Implications for Modern Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles Raymond

    2011-01-01

    A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory students, and…

  8. The Physical Content of Eigenvalues from Density Functional Theory (DFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayoko, D.; Franklin, L.; Ekuma, C.; Malozovsky, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) of Hohenberg and Kohn rests on the energy functional Ev[n] assuming its minimum for the correct density n(r), with the admissible functions restricted by the condition N[n] = ∫ n(r) dr = N , where N is the number of particles in the system under study. We show that, for such a system, there is an infinite number of basis sets (of localized orbitals) for which N is fixed while the density is not necessarily the correct one. Consequently, the eigenvalues obtained with self consistent DFT calculations using a single basis set do not necessarily have any particular physical content. The physical content is ensured only by the search and utilization of the optimal basis set that yields the minima of the occupied energies and physically meaningful values of low laying unoccupied energies. Further, by virtue of the Rayleigh theorem, there exist many basis sets larger than the optimal one [and that contain it] for which some unoccupied energies are lowered on account of a mathematical artifact. We illustrate these points in the cases of ZnO, TiO2, and SrTiO3. The calculated band gaps and other properties of these materials are in excellent agreement with experiment. Work funded by in part by the National Science Foundation, through LASiGMA [NSF AwardEPS-1003897, No. NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR, and No. HRD-1002541], LONI [Award No. 2-10915], and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSPACE).

  9. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of English Teachers' Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the Modern Systems School in Jordan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explain the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by English female teachers in Modern Systems School in Jordan. Viewed from the lens of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the study examined and reported teachers' use of IWB and its features that have impact on their decisions to adopt it in Modern Systems School . The…

  10. 19th Century Roots of Modern Interpretation Theory: Dickens as a Platform Performer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, John Samuel

    Charles Dickens was not only a master novelist but was also a master in the art of performance. His distinctive reading style was in marked contrast to the standard practices of mid-nineteenth century elocution, but his unique readings and performance philosophy closely resemble the text-centered approach of modern oral interpretation. Considered…

  11. The Orbital Distribution of Meteorites Based on High Temperature Thermoluminescence. 1; Theory and Modern Falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2001-01-01

    Like 250 C Thermoluminescence (TL) data, 400 C TL levels of modern falls largely reflect solar heating, and thus perihelia. The 400 C data offers additional constraints on orbital information for ordinary chondrites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  13. Surviving death-anxieties in liquid modern times: examining Zygmunt Bauman's cultural theory of death and dying.

    PubMed

    Higo, Masa

    2012-01-01

    Despite his prominence as a leading contemporary social theorist, Zygmunt Bauman's long-term writing on the cultural theory of death and dying has largely been overlooked in the sociological literature of death and dying, particularly in the United States. Bauman uniquely theorizes how we survive death-anxieties today: Contemporary, liquid modern culture has engaged us in ceaseless pursuit of the unattainable consumer sensation of bodily fitness as a way to suppress and thus survive our death-anxieties. Bauman also argues that the prevalence of this cultural formula to survive death-anxieties has simultaneously increased, more than ever before in social history, the volume of individual responsibility for restlessly coping with existential anxieties in the societies of consumers. While unique and insightful, his theoretical argument has a limitation; largely succeeding Freud's classic view of mortality, Bauman's contemporary theory may lead us to neglect potentially important social, cultural, and historical variations in how mortality has been understood.

  14. Surviving death-anxieties in liquid modern times: examining Zygmunt Bauman's cultural theory of death and dying.

    PubMed

    Higo, Masa

    2012-01-01

    Despite his prominence as a leading contemporary social theorist, Zygmunt Bauman's long-term writing on the cultural theory of death and dying has largely been overlooked in the sociological literature of death and dying, particularly in the United States. Bauman uniquely theorizes how we survive death-anxieties today: Contemporary, liquid modern culture has engaged us in ceaseless pursuit of the unattainable consumer sensation of bodily fitness as a way to suppress and thus survive our death-anxieties. Bauman also argues that the prevalence of this cultural formula to survive death-anxieties has simultaneously increased, more than ever before in social history, the volume of individual responsibility for restlessly coping with existential anxieties in the societies of consumers. While unique and insightful, his theoretical argument has a limitation; largely succeeding Freud's classic view of mortality, Bauman's contemporary theory may lead us to neglect potentially important social, cultural, and historical variations in how mortality has been understood. PMID:23057247

  15. General theory of regular biorthogonal pairs and its physical operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, H.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general theory of regular biorthogonal sequences and its physical operators. Biorthogonal sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H are said to be regular if Span {ϕn} and Span {ψn} are dense in H . The first purpose is to show that there exists a non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf in H defined by an orthonormal basis (ONB) f ≡ {fn} in H such that ϕn = Tffn and ψ n = Tf - 1 f n , n = 0, 1, …, and such an ONB f is unique. The second purpose is to define and study the lowering operators Af and Bf † , the raising operators Bf and Af † , and the number operators Nf and Nf † determined by the non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf. These operators connect with quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics and its relatives. This paper clarifies and simplifies the mathematical structure of this framework and minimizes the required assumptions.

  16. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L

    2001-01-01

    For the last thirty years, progress in the field of physics, known as "Chaos theory"--or more precisely: non-linear dynamical systems theory--has increased our understanding of complex systems dynamics. This framework's formalism is general enough to be applied in other domains, such as biology or psychology, where complex systems are the rule rather than the exception. Our goal is to show here that this framework can become a valuable tool in scientific fields such as neuroscience and psychiatry where objects possess natural time dependency (i.e. dynamical properties) and non-linear characteristics. The application of non-linear dynamics concepts on these topics is more precise than a loose metaphor and can throw a new light on mental functioning and dysfunctioning. A class of neural networks (recurrent neural networks) constitutes an example of the implementation of the dynamical system concept and provides models of cognitive processes (15). The state of activity of the network is represented in its state space and the time evolution of this state is a trajectory in this space. After a period of time those networks settle on an equilibrium (a kind of attractor). The strength of connections between neurons define the number and relations between those attractors. The attractors of the network are usually interpreted as "mental representations". When an initial condition is imposed to the network, the evolution towards an attractor is considered as a model of information processing (27). This information processing is not defined in a symbolic manner but is a result of the interaction between distributed elements. Several properties of dynamical models can be used to define a way where the symbolic properties emerge from physical and dynamical properties (28) and thus they can be candidates for the definition of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Nevertheless, mental properties can also be considered as the result of an

  17. Assessing the effect of manual physical activity on proximal hand phalanges using Hellenistic and modern skeletal samples from Greece.

    PubMed

    Karakostis, F A; Le Quéré, E; Vanna, V; Moraitis, K

    2016-04-01

    In humans, physical activity is an important regulator of bone size. Furthermore, hand bones have been proposed as a potential avenue for assessing patterns of manual activity. However, there are very few studies presenting a metric comparison of proximal hand phalanges among different populations. Moreover, an osteoarchaeological approach to the manual activities performed by an ancient population is yet to be made. In this framework, this study aims at assessing and interpreting the metric variation in these bones between a documented modern Greek sample (20th century) and a Hellenistic sample from Demetrias (3rd-1st century BCE), in terms of size and sexual dimorphism. Ancient males were significantly larger than females for ten phalangeal measurements out of 35. Even though the degree of sexual dimorphism was lower in the Hellenistic material (the maximum sexual dimorphism observed - 12.46%) than in modern sample (the maximum observed - 21.19%), the ranking of rays and bone parts by sexual dimorphism was similar in both populations. No metric difference was observed between modern and ancient males, whereas ancient females were larger than modern females in seven dimensions (the maximum variation observed was 11.58%), which involved the bases and midshafts of phalanges. Given that these dimensions are affected by the degree of muscular recruitment for the formation of various hand grips, it is suggested that ancient females were involved in manual activities of greater grasping variance than modern females. Indeed, the historical and archaeological sources suggest that sexual distribution of labour in the Hellenistic society seems to explain the differences estimated between the sexes and the two populations under study.

  18. MODERN THEORIES OF CARBON-BASED ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS: A SHORT REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Feng, Guang; Huang, Jingsong; Qiao, Rui; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models for electrochemical capacitors range from the original Helmholtz model and mean-field continuum models, to the surface curvature-based post-Helmholtz models, and to modern atomistic simulations. Here, we review current theoretical models that have been useful at shedding light on experimental findings but also provide predictive capabilities that are needed to achieve the optimization of supercapacitors. Due to the non-planar surface of materials at the nanoscale, the original Helmholtz model is gradually found to be outdated, in particular for carbon materials. We show that the surface curvature-based models provide a better description of the interfacial behavior of carbon materials.

  19. Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Brian Quinn

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark

  20. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L

    2001-01-01

    For the last thirty years, progress in the field of physics, known as "Chaos theory"--or more precisely: non-linear dynamical systems theory--has increased our understanding of complex systems dynamics. This framework's formalism is general enough to be applied in other domains, such as biology or psychology, where complex systems are the rule rather than the exception. Our goal is to show here that this framework can become a valuable tool in scientific fields such as neuroscience and psychiatry where objects possess natural time dependency (i.e. dynamical properties) and non-linear characteristics. The application of non-linear dynamics concepts on these topics is more precise than a loose metaphor and can throw a new light on mental functioning and dysfunctioning. A class of neural networks (recurrent neural networks) constitutes an example of the implementation of the dynamical system concept and provides models of cognitive processes (15). The state of activity of the network is represented in its state space and the time evolution of this state is a trajectory in this space. After a period of time those networks settle on an equilibrium (a kind of attractor). The strength of connections between neurons define the number and relations between those attractors. The attractors of the network are usually interpreted as "mental representations". When an initial condition is imposed to the network, the evolution towards an attractor is considered as a model of information processing (27). This information processing is not defined in a symbolic manner but is a result of the interaction between distributed elements. Several properties of dynamical models can be used to define a way where the symbolic properties emerge from physical and dynamical properties (28) and thus they can be candidates for the definition of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Nevertheless, mental properties can also be considered as the result of an

  1. Physical theories, eternal inflation, and the quantum universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2011-11-01

    Infinities in eternal inflation have long been plaguing cosmology, making any predictions highly sensitive to how they are regulated. The problem exists already at the level of semi-classical general relativity, and has a priori nothing to do with quantum gravity. On the other hand, we know that certain problems in semi-classical gravity, for example physics of black holes and their evaporation, have led to understanding of surprising, quantum natures of spacetime and gravity, such as the holographic principle and horizon complementarity. In this paper, we present a framework in which well-defined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We propose that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single "observer," who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is "gauge invariant," i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a model of "initial conditions" for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal "mega-multiverse," in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness

  2. Energy-momentum tensors in classical field theories — A modern perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicu, Nicoleta

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a general geometric approach to energy-momentum tensors in Lagrangian field theories, based on a global Hilbert-type definition. The approach is consistent with the ones defining energy-momentum tensors in terms of hypermomentum maps given by the diffeomorphism invariance of the Lagrangian — and, in a sense, complementary to these, with the advantage of an increased simplicity of proofs and also, opening up new insights on the topic. A special attention is paid to the particular cases of metric and metric-affine theories.

  3. Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed.

  4. Innovative Ways to Use Modern Technology to Enhance, Rather than Hinder, Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole J.; Ameluxen-Coleman, Evan J.; Heinrichs, Derikk M.

    2015-01-01

    It is recommended that each day youth get 60 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that includes aerobic, muscle, and bone strengthening activities. The majority of youth, however, do not meet these physical activity guidelines. Children and adolescents spend on average seven hours engaging in sedentary "screen-based"…

  5. The Conceptual Framework of the Eastern Approach in Physical Education: Ancient Wisdom for Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Nancy; Lu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern approach has been identified as an alternative approach in Western physical education. The why and how to integrate the Eastern approach in physical education has been addressed in the literature, while the what deserves scholarly attention. The objective of this paper is to present four core concepts and key elements that construct…

  6. [Weizsäcker's cosmogony, Farm Hall and the origin of modern turbulence theory].

    PubMed

    Eckert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The modem statistical theory of turbulence was originated by Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903-1987), Lars Onsager (1903-1976), Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953), Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) und Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912-2007). With the exception of Kolmogorovs theory which was published in 1941 but became widely known only after the war, these contributions emerged largely independently from another in a "remarkable series of coincidences" (Batchelor 1946). Heisenberg and Weizäscker developed their theories during their detention at Farm Hall. Their work was motivated by von Weizsäcker's interest in astrophysics. Weizsäcker aimed at an understanding of the role of turbulence for the motion of interstellar matter for his theory about the origin of the planetary system which he had published in 1943. Weizsäcker's work on cosmogony and turbulence illustrates an early interaction between the disciplines of astronomy and fluid mechanics that became characteristic for astrophysics in the second half of the twentieth century. PMID:24974597

  7. From Weber to Parsons and Shutz: The Eclipse of History in Modern Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaret, David

    1980-01-01

    Compares the relationship between theoretical synthesis and historical research in light of research by Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, and Alfred Schutz. Traces theoretical developments within one subfield of sociology (action theory) and relates these developments to research problems confronting contemporary theoretical work in sociology. (DB)

  8. Uniting the Spheres: Modern Feminist Theory and Classic Texts in AP English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Simao J. A.; Bosnic, Brenda G.

    2008-01-01

    High school teachers Simao J. A. Drew and Brenda G. Bosnic help familiarize students with gender role analysis and feminist theory. Students examine classic literature and contemporary texts, considering characters' historical, literary, and social contexts while expanding their understanding of how patterns of identity and gender norms exist and…

  9. PREFACE: 2nd International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics (IWTCP-2): Modern Methods and Latest Results in Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and the 39th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-39)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Ky, Nguyen Anh; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2015-06-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics (IWTCP-2): Modern Methods and Latest Results in Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and the 39th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-39). Both the workshop and the conference were held from 28th - 31st July 2014 in Dakruco Hotel, Buon Ma Thuot, Dak Lak, Vietnam. The NCTP-39 and the IWTCP-2 were organized under the support of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society, with a motivation to foster scientific exchanges between the theoretical and computational physicists in Vietnam and worldwide, as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. The IWTCP-2 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). About 100 participants coming from nine countries participated in the workshop and the conference. At the IWTCP-2 workshop, we had 16 invited talks presented by international experts, together with eight oral and ten poster contributions. At the NCTP-39, three invited talks, 15 oral contributions and 39 posters were presented. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the workshop and the conference successful. Trinh Xuan Hoang, Nguyen Anh Ky, Nguyen Tri Lan and Nguyen Ai Viet

  10. Modern application of evolutionary theory to psychology: key concepts and clarifications.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Aaron T; Shackelford, Todd K

    2006-01-01

    Darwinian selection has become the centerpiece of biology, and in the past few decades many psychologists and anthropologists have recognized the value of using an evolutionary perspective to guide their work. With a focus on evolved psychological mechanisms and associated information processing features, evolutionary psychology has risen as a compelling and fruitful approach to the study of human psychology and behavior. In this article we review the instrument of evolution: natural selection, the products of evolution, and the impact of evolutionary thinking on modern psychological science. We conclude that as prejudicial barriers are overcome, as more evolutionary psychological work is conducted, and as hypothesized psychological mechanisms are substantiated in other disciplines, evolutionary psychology will emerge as the metatheory for psychology.

  11. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-01

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  12. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-15

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  13. From the Infinity (Apeiron) of Anaximander in Ancient Greece to the Theory of Infinite Universes in Modern Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    The notion of the infinite, with the modern meaning of the term, was first introduced by the Greek philosopher Anaximander (6th Century BC). Anaximander introduced the apeiron (the boundless) as the beginning of everything (the first principle). According to his theory, the apeiron is undefined and ever moving. It gives birth to the contradictory terms of warm and cold, and of moist and dry, and their perpetual strife. Man is able to comprehend the result of this eternal process from the vast plurality of things and the infinite number of Universes. The cosmological aspect in Anaximander's theory is beautiful; innumerable worlds are born from the apeiron and absorbed by it, once they are destroyed. Thus, the apeiron is related to the eternal, through out time, cosmological procedure. The cosmological problem of the vastness of the Universe or of the innumerability of Universes is an elementary philosophical problem, while the Theory of Big Bang bounded with the notion of time-space, is a starting point for understanding the models that describe our Universe.

  14. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  15. Theory of physical libration of the Moon caused by a liquid core: Cassini's motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2016-07-01

    This is the first part of a study to develop a modern theory of physical libration of the Moon caused by a liquid core. We use a special approach to studying Moon's rotation relying on Poincaré's planetary model and special forms of equations of motion in Andoyer and Poincaré variables. We construct expansions of the force function of the problem (the second harmonic of the selenopotential) in Andoyer and Poincaré variables for a high-precision description of disturbed orbital motion of the Moon. We investigate the main regularities in lunar rotational motion taken as a body with a solid nonspherical mantle and an ellipsoidal liquid core. The motion of the ideal liquid of the core is simple according to Poincaré. The Cassini laws can be dinamically interpreted for the motion of a synchronous satellite with a liquid core. The Cassini angle (the inclination of the rotation axis relative to the normal to the ecliptic plane) determined by us is very consistent with its determinations from laser observations.

  16. A Genome-Wide Study of Modern-Day Tuscans: Revisiting Herodotus's Theory on the Origin of the Etruscans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Amigo, Jorge; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background The origin of the Etruscan civilization (Etruria, Central Italy) is a long-standing subject of debate among scholars from different disciplines. The bulk of the information has been reconstructed from ancient texts and archaeological findings and, in the last few years, through the analysis of uniparental genetic markers. Methods By meta-analyzing genome-wide data from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature, we were able to compare the genomic patterns (>540,000 SNPs) of present day Tuscans (N = 98) with other population groups from the main hypothetical source populations, namely, Europe and the Middle East. Results Admixture analysis indicates the presence of 25–34% of Middle Eastern component in modern Tuscans. Different analyses have been carried out using identity-by-state (IBS) values and genetic distances point to Eastern Anatolia/Southern Caucasus as the most likely geographic origin of the main Middle Eastern genetic component observed in the genome of modern Tuscans. Conclusions The data indicate that the admixture event between local Tuscans and Middle Easterners could have occurred in Central Italy about 2,600–3,100 years ago (y.a.). On the whole, the results validate the theory of the ancient historian Herodotus on the origin of Etruscans. PMID:25230205

  17. The new model of the Big Bang and the Universe expansion. A comparison with modern observational data and cosmological theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiko, A. N.; Valiyev, Kh. F.

    2016-10-01

    The new model of the Big Bang and the Universe expansion is constructed. It is based on solutions in classical and in relativistic statements of problem on the dispersion into the void of the gas compressed into a point or in a finite, but for further negligible, volume. If to restrict in relativistic statement gas speed value v by the speed of light (υ =| v | modern cosmological theories with the dark energy and the dark matter. The conclusion is drawn on uselessness of the dark energy.

  18. Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayi; Yao, Zheng; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-07-20

    In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer.

  19. Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayi; Yao, Zheng; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer. PMID:27447648

  20. Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayi; Yao, Zheng; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer. PMID:27447648

  1. Concerning the alignment of modern telescopes: theory, practice, and tolerances illustrated by the ESO NTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Ray N.; Delabre, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    A recent paper by Bhatia (1995) suggest from calculations based on the optical geometry of the NTT that the zero-coma condition is a necessary but insufficient condition for the alignment of modern telescopes and that analysis of separate decenter effects is necessary to cope with decentering astigmatism aberrations near the field c enter. We show here that, while Bhatia's calculations are quite correct, their basis shows a misunderstanding of how the NTT was actually aligned and that this "passive" alignment was sufficiently good that the decentering astigmatism effects he indicates were negligible. More dangerous are the wide-field effects of decentering astigmatism discussed by McLeod (1996). However, we show that these effects, linear with field, are also negligible with the NTT alignment quality achieved, provided the correct effective shift of the astigmatic field center is allowed for int he active correction software. This is of great importance in the NTT because the image analyser operates at the edge of the field and the correct field astigmatism must be subtracted to give the necessary active correction at the mechanical field center. This approach is valid for the technical use of the edge field of an aplanatic (RC) telescope limited by field astigmatism. Decentering astigmatism will be much more critical at the field edge for anastigmatic telescopes is a wide field is also used for astronomical observation. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  2. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  3. Geophysics contributed to the radical change from classical to modern physics 100 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, W.; Wiederkehr, K. H.

    Several major developments in the 1890s resulted in radical changes in physics. These developments included the discovery of X rays and of uranium radiation, or Becquerel rays, and the confirmation of electricity's substantial character—an idea considered by most physicists at that time as obsolete and without foundation. The first measurements of e/m (negative elementary charge divided by mass of the electron) also were taken and, before the decade was over, the elementary charge of an electron was shown to exist.Research in geophysics, especially the research about the formation of fog and atmospheric electricity, found new paths because of these discoveries. However, work in geophysics also led to the further development of atomic and nuclear physics. It was a give and take situation, benefiting both geophysics and physics.

  4. How enzymes work: analysis by modern rate theory and computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Viloca, Mireia; Gao, Jiali; Karplus, Martin; Truhlar, Donald G

    2004-01-01

    Advances in transition state theory and computer simulations are providing new insights into the sources of enzyme catalysis. Both lowering of the activation free energy and changes in the generalized transmission coefficient (recrossing of the transition state, tunneling, and nonequilibrium contributions) can play a role. A framework for understanding these effects is presented, and the contributions of the different factors, as illustrated by specific enzymes, are identified and quantified by computer simulations. The resulting understanding of enzyme catalysis is used to comment on alternative proposals of how enzymes work.

  5. Instructors' Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Teaching Undergraduate Physical Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Paulo Jose Barbosa Gutierres; Monteiro, Maria Dolores Alves Ferreira; da Silva, Rudney; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze adapted physical education instructors' views about the application of the theory of planned behavior (TpB) in teaching physical education undergraduate courses. Participants ("n" = 17) were instructors of adapted physical activity courses from twelve randomly selected institutions of higher…

  6. Physical Knowledge in Preschool Education: Implications of Piaget's Theory. Reissued with a New Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance; DeVries, Rheta

    Guided by Piaget's constructivist theory on how children learn, this book explores an innovative approach to teaching physical knowledge in preschool. Part 1 differentiates between "science education" and "physical-knowledge" activities, noting that physical-knowledge activities involve primarily movements of objects and changes in objects. This…

  7. Supersonic freefall—a modern adventure as a topic for the physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilmann, Florian; Apolin, Martin

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates some of the physics behind the remarkable supersonic freefall of Felix Baumgartner accomplished with the Red Bull Stratos project on 14 October 2012. The underlying problem is complex: a freefall with air resistance through a medium of changing density. We developed a model for the motion within the framework of classroom physics and present a numerical approach for the dynamic solution that can be implemented by students. Our approach provides both interesting qualitative insights and accurate quantitative results for the resulting speed.

  8. Revisioning Fordham's 'Defences of the self' in light of modern relational theory and contemporary neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kalsched, Donald E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the evolution of Michael Fordham's ideas concerning 'defences of the self', including his application of this concept to a group of 'difficult' adult patients in his famous 1974 paper by the same name. After tracing the relevance of Fordham's ideas to my own discovery of a 'self-care system' in the psychological material of early trauma patients (Kalsched ), I describe how Fordham's seminal notions might be revisioned in light of contemporary relational theory as well as early attachment theory and affective neuroscience. These revisionings involve an awareness that the severe woundings of early unremembered trauma are not transformable through interpretation but will inevitably be repeated in the transference, leading to mutual 'enactments' between the analytic partners and, hopefully, to a new outcome. A clinical example of one such mutual enactment between the author and his patient is provided. The paper concludes with reflections on the clinical implications of this difficult case and what it means to become a 'real person' to our patients. Finally, Jung's alchemical views on transference are shown to be useful analogies in our understanding of the necessary mutuality in the healing process with these patients.

  9. Revisioning Fordham's 'Defences of the self' in light of modern relational theory and contemporary neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kalsched, Donald E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the evolution of Michael Fordham's ideas concerning 'defences of the self', including his application of this concept to a group of 'difficult' adult patients in his famous 1974 paper by the same name. After tracing the relevance of Fordham's ideas to my own discovery of a 'self-care system' in the psychological material of early trauma patients (Kalsched ), I describe how Fordham's seminal notions might be revisioned in light of contemporary relational theory as well as early attachment theory and affective neuroscience. These revisionings involve an awareness that the severe woundings of early unremembered trauma are not transformable through interpretation but will inevitably be repeated in the transference, leading to mutual 'enactments' between the analytic partners and, hopefully, to a new outcome. A clinical example of one such mutual enactment between the author and his patient is provided. The paper concludes with reflections on the clinical implications of this difficult case and what it means to become a 'real person' to our patients. Finally, Jung's alchemical views on transference are shown to be useful analogies in our understanding of the necessary mutuality in the healing process with these patients. PMID:26274848

  10. Looking for (and Finding) Modern Day Pioneers in Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For most people, the word "pioneer" conjures up romantic visions of sturdy, courageous people who crossed physical frontiers of land and/or water alone, or who took their families, communities, and cultures with them into those uncharted territories. Once settled, their pioneering efforts shifted to starting new societies with new laws and new…

  11. Modern Teaching Methods in Physics with the Aid of Original Computer Codes and Graphical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Anisoara; Neacsu, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the possibility and advantages of utilizing simple computer codes to complement the teaching techniques for high school physics. The authors have begun working on a collection of open source programs which allow students to compare the results and graphics from classroom exercises with the correct solutions and further more to…

  12. Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

  13. School Violence: Social Bond Theory and Physical Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemmetz, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical fighting in school is a concern for school administrators, juvenile justice professionals, and students. This quantitative study examined the involvement of physical fights at school among 5,674 adolescents across the United States via a casual comparative design with a correlational subcomponent. Differences were discovered between…

  14. Hyperbolicity of physical theories with application to general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilditch, David; Richter, Ronny

    2016-08-01

    We consider gauge theories from the free evolution point of view, in which initial data satisfying constraints of a theory are given, and because the constraints satisfy a closed evolution system, they remain so. We study a model constrained Hamiltonian theory and identify a particular structure in the equations of motion which we call the standard gauge freedom. The pure gauge subsystem of this model theory is identified, and the manner in which the gauge variables couple to the field equations is presented. We demonstrate that the set of gauge choices that can be coupled to the field equations to obtain a strongly hyperbolic formulation is exactly the set of strongly hyperbolic pure gauges. Consequently we analyze a parametrized family of formulations of general relativity. The generalization of the harmonic gauge formulation to a five parameter family of gauge conditions is obtained.

  15. Semiclassical atom theory applied to solid-state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Lucian A.; Terentjevs, Aleksandrs; Della Sala, Fabio; Cortona, Pietro; Fabiano, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Using the semiclassical neutral atom theory, we extend to fourth order the modified gradient expansion of the exchange energy of density functional theory. This expansion can be applied both to large atoms and solid-state problems. Moreover, we show that it can be employed to construct a simple and nonempirical generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functional competitive with state-of-the-art GGAs for solids, but also reasonably accurate for large atoms and ordinary chemistry.

  16. The Bild Conception of Physical Theory: Helmholtz, Hertz, and Schrödinger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Salvo

    2004-12-01

    Hermann von Helmholtz (1821 1894) criticized the objective conception of physical theory, denying that theoretical concepts are “images” of physical objects. Heinrich Hertz (1857 1894) and Erwin Schrödinger (1887 1961) used the term Bild to designate their conception of physical theory, meaning an intellectual construct whose relationship to phenomena was to be analyzed. The main features of their Bild conception were an outspoken anti-inductivism and an affirmation of a partial separation of physical theory and experimental observations. Once accepted, the Bild conception loosened the bonds that still justified the attempts at the end of the nineteenth century, such Helmholtz’s and Hertz’s, to unify physics through a generalized form of mechanics and opened the way to the innovations of Einstein’s theory of relativity.

  17. A modern behavioral perspective on child conduct disorder: integrating behavioral momentum and matching theory.

    PubMed

    Strand, P S

    2000-08-01

    It has been suggested that knowledge produced within the operant laboratory is of little or no use to clinicians. I argue, on the contrary, that laboratory science has provided clinicians with two general principles that may expand the focus of behavioral family therapy to incorporate a wide range of clinical interventions that have heretofore been considered nonbehavioral. These principles, matching theory and behavioral momentum, outline the relativity of reinforcement and the persistence of behavior in the absence of reinforcement, respectively. These principles make specific predictions concerning clinical interventions aimed not only at identified reinforcement contingencies, but also the context within which reinforcement contingencies are operative. This expanded behavioral formulation allows both the clinician and the researcher a framework for designing, implementing, and assessing techniques that target cognition, affect, and interpersonal relationships, as well as specific behaviors.

  18. Rethinking Technology-Enhanced Physics Teacher Education: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses how modern technology, such as electronic response systems, PeerWise system, data collection and analysis tools, computer simulations, and modeling software can be used in physics methods courses to promote teacher-candidates' professional competencies and their positive attitudes about mathematics and science education. We…

  19. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The origin of life and thinking from the viewpoint of modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernavskiĭ, Dmitrii S.

    2000-02-01

    Attempts at a physical picture of how living creatures emerge from nonliving matter are beset with difficulties due to a low probability of some of the stages of the process. It is shown that these difficulties arise from the misconstruction of the term 'coding' and that they are overcome by assuming that the polynucleotide catalized rather than 'coded' the formation of protein in primary organisms (hypercycles). A realistic scenario including the emergence of a unified code is considered for such a process. A physical mechanism of thinking and the basis of a necessary evolutionary change are discussed, for which purpose the concepts of information, valuable information, and information generation are analyzed. It is shown that thinking reduces largely to pattern recognition. A possible molecular mechanism of recognition is considered which is shown to be quite likely to have appeared in the course of evolution.

  20. From Stories to Scientific Models and Back: Narrative framing in modern macroscopic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Hans U.

    2015-04-01

    Narrative in science learning has become an important field of inquiry. Most applications of narrative are extrinsic to science-such as when they are used for creating affect and context. Where they are intrinsic, they are often limited to special cases and uses. To extend the reach of narrative in science, a hypothesis of narrative framing of natural and technical scenes is formulated. The term narrative framing is used in a double sense, to represent (1) the enlisting of narrative intelligence in the perception of phenomena and (2) the telling of stories that contain conceptual elements used in the creation of scientific models of these phenomena. The concrete case for narrative framing is made by conceptual analyses of simple stories of natural phenomena and of products related to modern continuum thermodynamics that reveal particular figurative structures. Importantly, there is evidence for a medium-scale perceptual gestalt called force of nature that is structured metaphorically and narratively. The resulting figurative conceptual structure gives rise to the notion of natural agents acting and suffering in storyworlds. In order to show that formal scientific models are deeply related to these storyworlds, a link between using (i.e. simulating) models and storytelling is employed. This link has recently been postulated in studies of narrative in computational science and economics.

  1. Student performance in computer modeling and problem solving in a modern introductory physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlmyer, Matthew Adam

    Matter & Interactions, an innovative introductory physics curriculum developed by Ruth Chabay and Bruce Sherwood, emphasizes computer modeling and fundamental physical principles. Two think-aloud protocol studies were conducted to investigate the performance of students from this curriculum in solving physics problems that require computer modeling. Experiment 1 examined whether Matter & Interactions students would, given the choice, use computer modeling to solve difficult problems that required predicting motion, and how their solution approaches differed from those of students from a traditional introductory physics course. Though they did not overwhelmingly choose computer modeling, some M&I students did write computer models successfully or apply the iterative algorithm by hand. The solution approaches of M&I students and traditional course students differed qualitatively in their use of the momentum principle and pre-derived special case formulas. In experiment 2, Matter & Interactions students were observed while they wrote programs in the VPython language in order to examine their difficulties with computer modeling. Areas of difficulty included determining initial conditions, distinguishing between simulated time and the time step, and updating momentum and position. Especially troublesome for students was the multistep procedure for calculating a force that changes with time. Students' understanding of the structure of a computer model improved by the end of the semester as shown by their performance on a line sorting task. Students with fewer difficulties proceeded through the computer model in a more linear, straightforward fashion. Instruction was revised based on initial findings from the first phase of the experiment. Students in the second phase of the experiment, who had used the revised instruction, had fewer difficulties on the same tasks, though other factors may have been involved in the improvement.

  2. Modern meta-heuristics based on nonlinear physics processes: A review of models and design procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2016-10-01

    Meta-heuristic algorithms are problem-solving methods which try to find good-enough solutions to very hard optimization problems, at a reasonable computation time, where classical approaches fail, or cannot even been applied. Many existing meta-heuristics approaches are nature-inspired techniques, which work by simulating or modeling different natural processes in a computer. Historically, many of the most successful meta-heuristic approaches have had a biological inspiration, such as evolutionary computation or swarm intelligence paradigms, but in the last few years new approaches based on nonlinear physics processes modeling have been proposed and applied with success. Non-linear physics processes, modeled as optimization algorithms, are able to produce completely new search procedures, with extremely effective exploration capabilities in many cases, which are able to outperform existing optimization approaches. In this paper we review the most important optimization algorithms based on nonlinear physics, how they have been constructed from specific modeling of a real phenomena, and also their novelty in terms of comparison with alternative existing algorithms for optimization. We first review important concepts on optimization problems, search spaces and problems' difficulty. Then, the usefulness of heuristics and meta-heuristics approaches to face hard optimization problems is introduced, and some of the main existing classical versions of these algorithms are reviewed. The mathematical framework of different nonlinear physics processes is then introduced as a preparatory step to review in detail the most important meta-heuristics based on them. A discussion on the novelty of these approaches, their main computational implementation and design issues, and the evaluation of a novel meta-heuristic based on Strange Attractors mutation will be carried out to complete the review of these techniques. We also describe some of the most important application areas, in

  3. Using classical and modern measurement theories to explore rater, domain, and gender influences on student writing ability.

    PubMed

    Gyagenda, Ismail S; Engelhard, George

    2009-01-01

    This study i) examined the rater, domain, and gender influences on the assessed quality of student's writing ability and ii) described and compared different approaches for examining these influences based on classical and modern measurement theories. Twenty raters were randomly selected from a group of 87 trained raters contracted to rate essays of the annual Georgia High School Writing Test. Each rater scored the entire set of 375 essays on a 1-4 rating scale (366 essays were used in the analyses because nine cases had missing values and were dropped). Two approaches, the classical approach and the item response theory-based Rasch model, were used to conduct psychometric measures of reliability and inter-rater reliability, and statistical analyses with rater and gender as the predictor variables and the total and domain scores as the dependent variables. To achieve the second purpose, the Classical Test Model and the Rasch model were compared and contrasted and their strengths and limitations discussed as they related to student writing assessment. Analyses from both approaches indicated statistically significant rater and gender effects on student writing. Using domain scores as the dependent variables, there was a statistically significant rater by gender interaction effect at the multivariate level, but not at the univariate level. The Rasch analysis indicated a statistically significant rater by gender effect. The comparison between the two approaches highlighted their strengths and limitations, their different measurement and statistical models, and their different procedures.

  4. The Harmony of Physics, Mathematics, and Music: A discovery in mathematical music theory is found to apply in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2009-10-01

    Although it is common practice to borrow tools from mathematics to apply to physics or music, it is unusual to use tools developed in music theory to mathematically describe physical phenomena. So called ``Maximally Even Set'' theory fits this unusual case. In this poster, we summarize, by example, the theory of Maximally Even (ME) sets and show how this formalism leads to the distribution of black and white keys on the piano keyboard. We then show how ME sets lead to a generalization of the well-known ``Cycle-of-Fifths'' in music theory. Subsequently, we describe ordering in one-dimensional spin-1/2 anti-ferromagnets using ME sets showing that this description leads to a fractal ``Devil's Staircase'' magnetic phase diagram. Finally, we examine an extension of ME sets, ``Iterated Maximally Even'' sets that describes chord structure in music.

  5. The Harmony of Physics, Mathematics, and Music: A discovery in mathematical music theory is found to apply in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2009-05-01

    Although it is common practice to borrow tools from mathematics to apply to physics or music, it is unusual to use tools developed in music theory to mathematically describe physical phenomena. So called ``Maximally Even Set'' theory fits this unusual case. In this poster, we summarize, by example, the theory of Maximally Even (ME) sets and show how this formalism leads to the distribution of black and white keys on the piano keyboard. We then show how ME sets lead to a generalization of the well-known ``Cycle-of-Fifths'' in music theory. Subsequently, we describe ordering in one-dimensional spin-1/2 anti-ferromagnets using ME sets showing that this description leads to a fractal ``Devil's Staircase'' magnetic phase diagram. Finally, we examine an extension of ME sets, ``Iterated Maximally Even Sets'' that describes chord structure in music.

  6. Children’s Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580–1720

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Summary Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors’ casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of ‘children’s physic’ existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children’s physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child’s humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children’s bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature. PMID:26306061

  7. Contributions of modern measurement theory to measuring executive function in early childhood: An empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Wirth, R J; Blair, Clancy B

    2011-03-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from low-income and African American families. IRT models were applied to a select set of tasks to demonstrate empirically (a) a principled method for item evaluation, including the utility of item characteristic curves; (b) how to explicitly test whether the measurement properties of executive function tasks are invariant across mutually exclusive subgroups of youths; (c) how the precision of measurement of a given task can vary according to underlying child ability; and (d) the utility of using IRT-based versus percentage correct scores. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of developing psychometrically sound and scalable instruments that facilitate the measurement of interindividual differences in intraindividual change of executive function across the early childhood period. PMID:20553690

  8. Application of modern control theory to the design of optimum aircraft controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis procedure presented is based on the solution of the output regulator problem of linear optimal control theory for time-invariant systems. By this technique, solution of the matrix Riccati equation leads to a constant linear feedback control law for an output regulator which will maintain a plant in a particular equilibrium condition in the presence of impulse disturbances. Two simple algorithms are presented that can be used in an automatic synthesis procedure for the design of maneuverable output regulators requiring only selected state variables for feedback. The first algorithm is for the construction of optimal feedforward control laws that can be superimposed upon a Kalman output regulator and that will drive the output of a plant to a desired constant value on command. The second algorithm is for the construction of optimal Luenberger observers that can be used to obtain feedback control laws for the output regulator requiring measurement of only part of the state vector. This algorithm constructs observers which have minimum response time under the constraint that the magnitude of the gains in the observer filter be less than some arbitrary limit.

  9. Experimental bound on the maximum predictive power of physical theories.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Terence E; Slater, Joshua A; Colbeck, Roger; Renner, Renato; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2012-07-13

    The question of whether the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical predictions can be alleviated by supplementing the wave function with additional information has received a lot of attention during the past century. A few specific models have been suggested and subsequently falsified. Here we give a more general answer to this question: We provide experimental data that, as well as falsifying these models, cannot be explained within any alternative theory that could predict the outcomes of measurements on maximally entangled particles with significantly higher probability than quantum theory. Our conclusion is based on the assumptions that all measurement settings have been chosen freely (within a causal structure compatible with relativity theory), and that the presence of the detection loophole did not affect the measurement outcomes.

  10. Implicit theories of the body among college women: implications for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Claire; Kaufman, Annette R; Rima, Brandi

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the relationship between implicit theories of the body (ITB) and self-reported physical activity. ITB are beliefs about the malleability of the body. Individuals may hold entity ITB (that body appearance is fixed) or incremental ITB (that body appearance can be changed). Female undergraduate students (N = 313) completed an online survey assessing ITB, physical activity, and discrepancy between actual and ideal body weight. Participants endorsing incremental ITB reported more physical activity. A significant ITB by weight discrepancy interaction emerged. Developing interventions targeting implicit theories of the body may be one way to increase physical activity. PMID:24271689

  11. The Maya ball game. Comparison of the physical load with modern ball games.

    PubMed

    Blümchen, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The Maya ball game (MBG) originated more than 3,000 years ago. As best as is now known from archaeological and iconographical sources as well as the structure of the sport courts, this was a very physically taxing and important part of Mayan culture. The objective of this paper was to determine the physical load on those who participated in MBG as best as could be done from present perspectives. The load appears to be similar to that observed in soccer-tennis, in which heart rate rises to 140-160 beats/min and systolic blood pressure to 150-170 mm Hg. This is considered a light-to-moderate workload (4.5-5.5 metabolic equivalents) comparable to intensities reached in baseball, cycling (10 km/h), cross-country skiing (7 km/h), tournament dancing, swimming (2 km/h), doubles tennis and hiking (7 km/h). Thus, the cardiovascular demands of popular sports seem to have remained relatively similar through several millennia.

  12. The Maya ball game. Comparison of the physical load with modern ball games.

    PubMed

    Blümchen, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The Maya ball game (MBG) originated more than 3,000 years ago. As best as is now known from archaeological and iconographical sources as well as the structure of the sport courts, this was a very physically taxing and important part of Mayan culture. The objective of this paper was to determine the physical load on those who participated in MBG as best as could be done from present perspectives. The load appears to be similar to that observed in soccer-tennis, in which heart rate rises to 140-160 beats/min and systolic blood pressure to 150-170 mm Hg. This is considered a light-to-moderate workload (4.5-5.5 metabolic equivalents) comparable to intensities reached in baseball, cycling (10 km/h), cross-country skiing (7 km/h), tournament dancing, swimming (2 km/h), doubles tennis and hiking (7 km/h). Thus, the cardiovascular demands of popular sports seem to have remained relatively similar through several millennia. PMID:19246899

  13. Administrative Theory and Practice in Physical Education and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Earle F., Ed.; Spaeth, Marcia J., Ed.

    This collection of writings attempts to fulfill the need for practical preparation for administrative leadership. It provides alternative methods to the usual trial-and-error procedures by suggesting methods based on current management principles and the most recent theories of administration. Practical aspects of decision-making, planning,…

  14. Schr"odinger's Unified Field Theory: Physics by Public Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2009-05-01

    We will explore the circumstances surrounding Erwin Schr"odinger's announcement in January 1947 that he had developed a comprehensive unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. We will speculate on Schr"odinger's motivations for the mode and tone of his statements, consider the reaction of the international press within the context of the postwar era, and examine Einstein's response.

  15. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-01-01

    The background of the study is the theory of "basis models of teaching and learning", a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what…

  16. Effective field theory as the bridge between lattice QCD and nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, David B.

    2007-02-27

    A confluence of theoretical and technological developments are beginning to make possible contributions to nuclear physics from lattice QCD. Effective field theory plays a critical role in these advances. I give several examples.

  17. On estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and statistical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, M.A. |

    1994-05-01

    The authors present a method for estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and Statistical Physics. They are able to obtain reliable error-bars for each estimate. The results, in all cases, are excellent.

  18. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  19. The Frontier of Modern Calorimetry: Hardware Advances and Application in Particle Physics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Tatiana

    While the last missing components of the SM puzzle seem to be successfully found, particle physicists remain hungry for what might be there, beyond the cosy boundaries of the well studies elementary particle world. However, the sophisticated technique of data analysis and acute Monte Carlo simulations remain fruitless. It appears that the successful intrusion into the realm, in which we were not welcome so far, may require a very different implication of effort. All those results might suggest, though banal, that we need an improvement on the hardware side. Indeed, the hadronic calorimeter of CMS is no competitor to its other state-of-art components. This obstacle in many cases significantly complicates the flow of the physics analysis. Besides, the era of high luminosity LHC operation in the offing is calling for the same. After exploration of the analysis debri with 8TeV collision data, we investigate various approaches for better calorimetry for the CMS detector.

  20. Investigation of possible observable e ects in a proposed theory of physics

    SciTech Connect

    Freidan, Daniel

    2015-03-31

    The work supported by this grant produced rigorous mathematical results on what is possible in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory is the well-established mathematical language for fundamental particle physics, for critical phenomena in condensed matter physics, and for Physical Mathematics (the numerous branches of Mathematics that have benefitted from ideas, constructions, and conjectures imported from Theoretical Physics). Proving rigorous constraints on what is possible in quantum field theories thus guides the field, puts actual constraints on what is physically possible in physical or mathematical systems described by quantum field theories, and saves the community the effort of trying to do what is proved impossible. Results were obtained in two dimensional qft (describing, e.g., quantum circuits) and in higher dimensional qft. Rigorous bounds were derived on basic quantities in 2d conformal field theories, i.e., in 2d critical phenomena. Conformal field theories are the basic objects in quantum field theory, the scale invariant theories describing renormalization group fixed points from which all qfts flow. The first known lower bounds on the 2d boundary entropy were found. This is the entropy- information content- in junctions in critical quantum circuits. For dimensions d > 2, a no-go theorem was proved on the possibilities of Cauchy fields, which are the analogs of the holomorphic fields in d = 2 dimensions, which have had enormously useful applications in Physics and Mathematics over the last four decades. This closed o the possibility of finding analogously rich theories in dimensions above 2. The work of two postdoctoral research fellows was partially supported by this grant. Both have gone on to tenure track positions.

  1. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  2. Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.

    This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem solving,…

  3. Korean immigrant women's physical activity experience: a situation-specific theory.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Nguyen, Giang; Stringer, Lynn; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    To develop successful physical activity promotion programs for midlife immigrant women, especially for Korean immigrant midlife women, concrete theoretical bases are needed. However, virtually no theoretical frameworks and/or theories exist that can explain the influences of immigration transition on the physical activity experience of midlife immigrant women in general or Korean immigrant midlife women in specific. The purpose of this article is to present a situation-specific theory on physical activity experience of Korean immigrant midlife women (SPAKIM) with its development process. An integrative approach was used to develop the theory based on the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity (MAPA) theory, the transitions theory, a review of the relevant literature, and two studies on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The proposed theory includes nature of transitions, nonmodifiable and modifiable transition conditions, contexts of daily life, patterns of response, and nursing therapeutics as major concepts, and each major concept includes several related subconcepts. Because several concepts of the theory were developed mainly based on the literature review, the major concepts and related subconcepts need to be further developed and evaluated in future studies.

  4. Theory and experiment testing flux-line cutting physics

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, John R.; Weigand, Marcus; Durrell, J. H.; Campbell, A. M.

    2011-03-29

    We discuss predictions of five proposed theories for the critical state of type-II superconductors accounting for both flux cutting and flux transport (depinning). The theories predict different behaviours for the ratio E{sub y}/E{sub z} of the transverse and parallel components of the in-plane electric field produced just above the critical current of a type-II superconducting slab as a function of the angle of an in-plane applied magnetic field. We present experimental results measured using an epitaxially grown YBCO thin film favouring one of the five theories, i.e. the extended elliptic critical-state model. We conclude that when the current density J is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the local magnetic flux density B, both flux cutting and flux transport occur simultaneously when J exceeds the critical current density J{sub c}, indicating an intimate relationship between flux cutting and depinning. We also conclude that the dynamical properties of the superconductor when J exceeds J{sub c} depend in detail upon two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting ({rho}{sub c}) and flux flow ({rho}{sub f}) and their ratio r = {rho}{sub c}/{rho}{sub f}.

  5. Utilizing History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) to Teach Physics: The Case of Electromagnetic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Wei-Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Here the paper provides a historical and philosophical analysis of the development of electromagnetic theory in physics teaching for the benefit of scientific literacy. The analysis is described by the paradigms offered by Kuhn. A number of scientists' work in electromagnetic theory which is embedded in the tension between engaging in…

  6. Theory and Practice in the Context of Practicum: The Perspectives of Norwegian Physical Education Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Øyvind Førland; Moen, Kjersti Mordal; Moe, Vegard Fusche

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that student teachers value the practicum over other parts of physical education teacher education and that they experience a gap between theory and practice in their education. The purpose of this study was to provide more knowledge about the theory-practice relations in the context of the practicum of physical…

  7. A Pedagogical Understanding of the Self-Determination Theory in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang

    2010-01-01

    Learner motivation is considered an important premise for learning achievement. One of the theories used to explain learner motivation in physical education is the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Different from others, SDT acknowledges the controlling nature of institutionalized education and builds its application around externally imposed…

  8. "What is a Thing?": Topos Theory in the Foundations of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, A.; Isham, C.

    The goal of this article is to summarise the first steps in developing a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. In doing so we provide a new answer to Heidegger's timeless question "What is a thing?".

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Guidebook for Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…

  10. From the Law of Large Numbers to Large Deviation Theory in Statistical Physics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Fabio; Cencini, Massimo; Puglisi, Andrea; Vergni, Davide; Vulpiani, Angelo

    This contribution aims at introducing the topics of this book. We start with a brief historical excursion on the developments from the law of large numbers to the central limit theorem and large deviations theory. The same topics are then presented using the language of probability theory. Finally, some applications of large deviations theory in physics are briefly discussed through examples taken from statistical mechanics, dynamical and disordered systems.

  11. Dingle and de Sitter Against the Metaphysicians, or Two Ways to Keep Modern Cosmology Physical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, George

    It would be hard to find two more radically different personalities than the irascible Herbert Dingle and the courtly Willem de Sitter. Yet, when it came to their philosophy of science, these two otherwise-so-different men were united against a common enemy, those they both called the "metaphysicians." Right from 1917, de Sitter attempted always to keep cosmology tightly bound to real observations made upon a real world. In Kosmos, written near the end of his life, he re-affirms most strongly his principle that "there is nothing an orthodox physicist abhors more than metaphysics." Dingle, for his part, accepts early on the positivist use of the verifiability principle to eliminate metaphysics from science, and continuously wields the principle as a weapon against those errant cosmologists who would sacrifice science for a sort of mysticism. Both men reject the strict and literal use of the term "universe," and for the same reasons: there is no observation, no verification, of statements containing that term. Both men reject the "cosmological principle" as Milne and others use it, on the grounds, as de Sitter puts it, that "we have . . . no means of communicating with other observers, situated on faraway stars." Eddington, although always closely associated with de Sitter personally, comes in for his own fine share of criticism. After de Sitter's death, Dingle carried on the battle alone, always on the bases that he and de Sitter had earlier established. The two peaks in Dingle's long struggle were the notorious 1937 controversy in the pages of Nature, a nasty dogfight which managed to involve almost every single important physicist in Britain; thirteen years later, the long war with the metaphysicians ended with the pyrrhic victory of Dingle's Royal Astronomical Society Presidential Address' invective against the latest and greatest metaphysical creation, Bondi's steady state universe theory. In the end, however, it would be a mistake to believe that the campaign

  12. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation.

  13. Physical approach to the theory of constrained motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-Ping

    1981-08-01

    A mathematically elementary approach based entirely on Newton's laws of motion and physical arguments to the problem of constrained motion subjected to general velocity-dependent constraints is presented. Natures of constraint forces are extracted from constraint relations and, consequently, the equations of motion in Newton's, Lagrange's, and Appell's form are obtained. D'Alembert's principle is proved to be true for and only for holonomic constraints and constraints homogeneous in velocity dependence.

  14. Sexuality in young people with physical disabilities: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, D

    2012-09-01

    Sexuality and sexual function are important to persons with disabilities just as they are to their able-bodied counterparts, but knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among persons with disabilities is frequently inadequate. Adolescents and young adults with physical disabilities are less active socially, and have difficulties in developing intimate relationships. Thus, despite greater needs for SRH education and service delivery than persons without disabilities, dedicated services regarding sexuality and physical disabilities are scantly reported. Together with a literature survey on sexuality and disability in adolescents, a unique comprehensive SRH service for young people with physical disabilities is described in this review. Despite being interdisciplinary, the utilization of the service was limited due to difficulties in transportation to the clinic and in finding escort for aid in accessibility to public transportation. Health authorities should provide the resources for the development of accessible comprehensive multidisciplinary SRH services dedicated to young people with disabilities, and thus fulfill the United Nations General Assembly declaration on the rights of persons with disabilities.

  15. Base units of the SI, fundamental constants and modern quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Bordé, Christian J

    2005-09-15

    Over the past 40 years, a number of discoveries in quantum physics have completely transformed our vision of fundamental metrology. This revolution starts with the frequency stabilization of lasers using saturation spectroscopy and the redefinition of the metre by fixing the velocity of light c. Today, the trend is to redefine all SI base units from fundamental constants and we discuss strategies to achieve this goal. We first consider a kinematical frame, in which fundamental constants with a dimension, such as the speed of light c, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k(B) or the electron mass m(e) can be used to connect and redefine base units. The various interaction forces of nature are then introduced in a dynamical frame, where they are completely characterized by dimensionless coupling constants such as the fine structure constant alpha or its gravitational analogue alpha(G). This point is discussed by rewriting the Maxwell and Dirac equations with new force fields and these coupling constants. We describe and stress the importance of various quantum effects leading to the advent of this new quantum metrology. In the second part of the paper, we present the status of the seven base units and the prospects of their possible redefinitions from fundamental constants in an experimental perspective. The two parts can be read independently and they point to these same conclusions concerning the redefinitions of base units. The concept of rest mass is directly related to the Compton frequency of a body, which is precisely what is measured by the watt balance. The conversion factor between mass and frequency is the Planck constant, which could therefore be fixed in a realistic and consistent new definition of the kilogram based on its Compton frequency. We discuss also how the Boltzmann constant could be better determined and fixed to replace the present definition of the kelvin.

  16. Using the Theory of Successful Intelligence as a Framework for Developing Assessments in AP Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemler, Steven E.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Sharpes, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    A new test of Advanced Placement Physics, explicitly designed to balance both content and cognitive-processing skills, was developed using Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence. The test was administered to 281 AP Physics students from 10 schools during the 2006-2007 school year. Six empirically distinguishable profiles of strengths and…

  17. Design of the Model of Constructivist Learning Theory for Moral Education in Physical Education Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chenyu

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve better effect of moral education in physical education teaching, this article employed constructivist learning theory to design the model of moral education according to the characteristics of physical education teaching, in order that the majority of P.E. teachers draw lessons from it in their teaching practice, and service to…

  18. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  19. Motivating Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in School Physical Education: The Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katartzi, Ermioni S.; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the…

  20. "The environment as a cause of disease in children": Josef Friedjung's transnational influence on modern child welfare theory.

    PubMed

    Danto, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    Josef K. Friedjung's Advanced Pediatrics--A Companion to Traditional Textbooks (Erlebte Kinderheilkunde--eine Ergänzung er gebräuchlichen Lehrbucher), published in 1919 in Vienna, has cast a long but nearly-vanished shadow over modern child welfare theory. The originality of his focus on "the whole child" was in some ways a commentary on Sigmund Freud, but its overtly progressive political character gave Friedjung's argument visible applicability within the field of urban social welfare. As a pediatrician and an ardent cosmopolitan, Friedjung was willing to consider conflicting values between traditional family systems and the state. Had the Nazis not forced him into exile in Palestine, where he died in 1946, Friedjung's pioneering oeuvre would have joined our child welfare narrative long ago. Fortunately today archival evidence on which this study draws, fragmented as it is in both German and English, does confirm that the first and second generation psychoanalysts, Friedjung among them, built a mental health movement around a social justice core closely allied to the cultural context of central Europe from 1918 to 1933. In many ways, child welfare as we know it emerged as a practical implementation of that ideology.

  1. Optimizing cropland cover for stable food production in Sub-Saharan Africa using simulated yield and Modern Portfolio Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, P.; Olin, S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.

    2014-12-01

    Food security can be defined as stable access to food of good nutritional quality. In Sub Saharan Africa access to food is strongly linked to local food production and the capacity to generate enough calories to sustain the local population. Therefore it is important in these regions to generate not only sufficiently high yields but also to reduce interannual variability in food production. Traditionally, climate impact simulation studies have focused on factors that underlie maximum productivity ignoring the variability in yield. By using Modern Portfolio Theory, a method stemming from economics, we here calculate optimum current and future crop selection that maintain current yield while minimizing variance, vs. maintaining variance while maximizing yield. Based on simulated yield using the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model, the results show that current cropland distribution for many crops is close to these optimum distributions. Even so, the optimizations displayed substantial potential to either increase food production and/or to decrease its variance regionally. Our approach can also be seen as a method to create future scenarios for the sown areas of crops in regions where local food production is important for food security.

  2. Assessment of factors that predict physical activity among Oklahoma clergy: a theory of planned behavior approach.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Shannon; Taylor, E Laurette; Branscum, Paul; Hofford, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of physical activity among clergy members in Oklahoma, using the theory of planned behavior. A 51-item valid and reliable instrument, measuring theory of planned behavior constructs and physical activity, was developed and administered to 141 clergy members. Results indicated that the majority of those surveyed were white (93%), college educated (97%), and overweight or obese (84%). Stepwise multiple regression analysis found that intentions accounted for 13.8% of the variance of physical activity whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 54.8% of the variance of intention. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  3. In search of a physical theory of time.

    PubMed Central

    Hsü, K J

    1992-01-01

    The variable time considered in science is a measurement. The relation of time to other variables is expressed in rates, and the variable time is seldom explicitly included in equations describing chemical reactions or radioactive decays. Recalling that the Greek word atom is applicable to indivisible particles in both spatial and temporal worlds, the term chronon is proposed to designate elementary particles of time in parallel to the atom in space. Considerations of interactions of chronons with material and nonmaterial objects could promote understanding of several paradoxes in physical and biological sciences. PMID:11607336

  4. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-05-19

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  5. The Temporary factor in the Physical theory of meteor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. A.

    The physical processes accompanying development of the meteor phenomenon, proceed in various temporary scales. For example, frequently meeting double final flares at meteors of a flow Perseid's occur in time, smaller 0,05 seconds. However, care of heat at the expense of energy of a driven meteor 1 gramme of substance for his evaporation needs time, on the order greater. Thus is explained significant inertness in movement of meteors and independence of light flares of meteor plasma of mechanical changes of structure of meteoroid's.

  6. The impasses of modern "physically-based" hydrological modelling: example of an alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Yu. B.; Semenova, O.

    2009-04-01

    The following five stubborn problems are distinguished in physically based distributed hydrological modelling (K.Beven, 2001) - nonlinearity, uniqueness, uncertainty, equifinality and scale. Mainly they are related to methods of mathematical description of water movement from the places of runoff generation to the basin outlet. Three main tasks of which a correct methodological solution has principal significance are: 1) infiltration, water movement in the soil layer, formation of classical surface and subsurface flow; 2) slope (surface, subsurface and underground) inflow to channel network; 3) channel flow and lag time. An initial and at the same time an important stage of mathematical model construction is getting a clear idea about the modelling object formulated in the language of hydrology. The chief requirement (as a matter of fact, the modelling law) which can be demanded of the mathematical model is its adequacy to a real object, process, or phenomena. Therefore, it is inadmissible to apply the principles and approaches which are successfully used for description of phenomena of completely different character to the specification of other processes that have only formal resemblance. We consider the use of the following equations widely spread in hydrology - the Richard's equation, the Saint-Venant or kinematic wave equations and the Boussinesq equation - to be the direct violation of this law. We believe that the idea of developing approaches to calculate the runoff movement at the slopes, channel net and aquifers using non-existent data about inclinations, morphometry, roughness and etc. is utopic. The methodology of reverse estimation leads to unreserved illusions since parameters of applied models evaluated in such a way are the subject not of systematization, nor generalization, neither normalization; often they are not even realistic. Different idealization of runoff generation and its transformation phenomena is the basis of alternative approach which

  7. Applications of Effective Field Theory Techniques to Jet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Simon M.

    In this thesis we study jet production at large energies from leptonic collisions. We use the framework of effective theories of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) to examine the properties of jets and systematically improve calculations. We first develop a new formulation of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), the appropriate effective theory for jets. In this formulation, soft and collinear degrees of freedom are described using QCD fields that interact with each other through light-like Wilson lines in external currents. This formulation gives a more intuitive picture of jet processes than the traditional formulation of SCET. In particular, we show how the decoupling of soft and collinear degrees of freedom that occurs at leading order in power counting is explicit to next-to-leading order and likely beyond. We then use this formulation to write the thrust rate in a factorized form at next-to-leading order in the thrust parameter. The rate involves an incomplete sum over final states due to phase space cuts that is enforced by a measurement operator. Subleading corrections require matching onto not only the next-to-next-to leading order SCET operators, but also matching onto subleading measurement operators. We derive the appropriate hard, jet, and soft functions and show they reproduce the expected subleading thrust rate. Next, we renormalize the next-to-leading order dijet operators used for the subleading thrust rate. Constraints on matching coefficients from current conservation and reparametrization invariance are shown. We also discuss the subtleties involved in regulating the infrared divergences of the individual loop diagrams in order to extract the ultraviolet divergences. The results can be used to increase the theoretical precision of the thrust rate. Finally, we study the (exclusive) k_perp and C/A jet algorithms in SCET. Regularizing the virtualites and rapidities of the individual graphs, we are able to write the order(alpha_s) dijet cross section

  8. Applications of Effective Field Theory Techniques to Jet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Simon M.

    In this thesis we study jet production at large energies from leptonic collisions. We use the framework of effective theories of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) to examine the properties of jets and systematically improve calculations. We first develop a new formulation of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), the appropriate effective theory for jets. In this formulation, soft and collinear degrees of freedom are described using QCD fields that interact with each other through light-like Wilson lines in external currents. This formulation gives a more intuitive picture of jet processes than the traditional formulation of SCET. In particular, we show how the decoupling of soft and collinear degrees of freedom that occurs at leading order in power counting is explicit to next-to-leading order and likely beyond. We then use this formulation to write the thrust rate in a factorized form at next-to-leading order in the thrust parameter. The rate involves an incomplete sum over final states due to phase space cuts that is enforced by a measurement operator. Subleading corrections require matching onto not only the next-to-next-to leading order SCET operators, but also matching onto subleading measurement operators. We derive the appropriate hard, jet, and soft functions and show they reproduce the expected subleading thrust rate. Next, we renormalize the next-to-leading order dijet operators used for the subleading thrust rate. Constraints on matching coefficients from current conservation and reparametrization invariance are shown. We also discuss the subtleties involved in regulating the infrared divergences of the individual loop diagrams in order to extract the ultraviolet divergences. The results can be used to increase the theoretical precision of the thrust rate. Finally, we study the (exclusive) k⊥ and C/A jet algorithms in SCET. Regularizing the virtualities and rapidities of the individual graphs, we are able to write the O(alpha s) dijet cross section as the

  9. The XXth International Workshop High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Workshop continues a series of workshops started by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in 1985 and conceived with the purpose of presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders. Traditionally the list of workshop attendees includes a great number of active young scientists and students from Russia and other countries. This year Workshop is organized jointly by the SINP MSU and the Southern Federal University (SFedU) and will take place in the holiday hotel "Luchezarniy" (Effulgent) situated on the Black Sea shore in a picturesque natural park in the suburb of the largest Russian resort city Sochi - the host city of the XXII Olympic Winter Games to be held in 2014. The main topics to be covered are: Experimental results from the LHC. Tevatron summary: the status of the Standard Model and the boundaries on BSM physics. Future physics at Linear Colliders and super B-factories. Extensions of the Standard Model and their phenomenological consequences at the LHC and Linear Colliders: SUSY extensions of the Standard Model; particle interactions in space-time with extra dimensions; strings, quantum groups and new ideas from modern algebra and geometry. Higher order corrections and resummations for collider phenomenology. Automatic calculations of Feynman diagrams and Monte Carlo simulations. LHC/LC and astroparticle/cosmology connections. Modern nuclear physics and relativistic nucleous-nucleous collisions.

  10. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement.

  11. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement. PMID:26524097

  12. Rastall's and related theories are conservative gravitational theories although physically inequivalent to general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.

  13. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models.

  14. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models. PMID:25571577

  15. Physics of the tumor vasculature: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Heiko; Fredrich, Thierry; Welter, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Growing solid tumors recruit the blood vessel network of the host tissue for nutrient supply, continuous growth and gain of metastatic potential. Consequently the tumor vasculature has been a major target of anti cancer therapies since four decades. The main underlying strategic concepts range from "starving a tumor to death" over "blood vessel normalization" to "blood vessel growth promotion" for improved drug delivery and oxygenation for increased success rates of radiation therapy. A mechanistic understanding of the these strategies is often elusive and call for a quantitative analysis of the underlying physics. Oxygen supply as well as drug delivery is determined by blood and interstitial fluid flow, for which reason such an analysis must focus on the relation between the intra- and extra-vascular transport characteristics and the tumor vasculature morphology. Here we review the current status of theoretical concepts and computational analysis of physical determinants of the tumor vasculature and the emerging predictions for blood flow, oxygen distribution, interstitial fluid pressure and efficiency of drug delivery.

  16. Questioning the gender critical mass theory in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, Vanessa L.

    It has been reported recently that the United States position as leader of innovation is at risk partly due to a weakening interest in and lessening participation in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. In addition, the Bureau of Labor Statistics is forecasting a deficit in the number of scientists available to fill the open STEM positions as early as 2014. The National Science Board and the National Academy of Sciences have reported concern for the impact such a change could have on our economic future. Due to these facts it is important to study areas where we can increase interest in STEM fields and decrease student attrition rates. Though the participation of women has increased in science over the last 40 years, the representation of women in physics is still low in physics. This study uses regression analysis to explore the effects of having a critical mass of females in graduate research groups on female physicists during their graduate study. The sample used in this study showed gains in the number of publications they participated in, though no other influences were found. Analysis of the data show mixed implications of the research group size.

  17. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  18. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  19. Towards understanding the behavior of physical systems using information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quax, Rick; Apolloni, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-09-01

    One of the goals of complex network analysis is to identify the most influential nodes, i.e., the nodes that dictate the dynamics of other nodes. In the case of autonomous systems or transportation networks, highly connected hubs play a preeminent role in diffusing the flow of information and viruses; in contrast, in language evolution most linguistic norms come from the peripheral nodes who have only few contacts. Clearly a topological analysis of the interactions alone is not sufficient to identify the nodes that drive the state of the network. Here we show how information theory can be used to quantify how the dynamics of individual nodes propagate through a system. We interpret the state of a node as a storage of information about the state of other nodes, which is quantified in terms of Shannon information. This information is transferred through interactions and lost due to noise, and we calculate how far it can travel through a network. We apply this concept to a model of opinion formation in a complex social network to calculate the impact of each node by measuring how long its opinion is remembered by the network. Counter-intuitively we find that the dynamics of opinions are not determined by the hubs or peripheral nodes, but rather by nodes with an intermediate connectivity.

  20. Nonperturbative Quantum Physics from Low-Order Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Mera, Héctor; Pedersen, Thomas G; Nikolić, Branislav K

    2015-10-01

    The Stark effect in hydrogen and the cubic anharmonic oscillator furnish examples of quantum systems where the perturbation results in a certain ionization probability by tunneling processes. Accordingly, the perturbed ground-state energy is shifted and broadened, thus acquiring an imaginary part which is considered to be a paradigm of nonperturbative behavior. Here we demonstrate how the low order coefficients of a divergent perturbation series can be used to obtain excellent approximations to both real and imaginary parts of the perturbed ground state eigenenergy. The key is to use analytic continuation functions with a built-in singularity structure within the complex plane of the coupling constant, which is tailored by means of Bender-Wu dispersion relations. In the examples discussed the analytic continuation functions are Gauss hypergeometric functions, which take as input fourth order perturbation theory and return excellent approximations to the complex perturbed eigenvalue. These functions are Borel consistent and dramatically outperform widely used Padé and Borel-Padé approaches, even for rather large values of the coupling constant.

  1. String Theory and M-Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.

    String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line

  2. Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Valberg, P A; Butler, J P

    1987-01-01

    Body tissues are not ferromagnetic, but ferromagnetic particles can be present as contaminants or as probes in the lungs and in other organs. The magnetic domains of these particles can be aligned by momentary application of an external magnetic field; the magnitude and time course of the resultant remanent field depend on the quantity of magnetic material and the degree of particle motion. The interpretation of magnetometric data requires an understanding of particle magnetization, agglomeration, random motion, and both rotation and translation in response to magnetic fields. We present physical principles relevant to magnetometry and suggest models for intracellular particle motion driven by thermal, elastic, or cellular forces. The design principles of instrumentation for magnetizing intracellular particles and for detecting weak remanent magnetic fields are described. Such magnetic measurements can be used for noninvasive studies of particle clearance from the body or of particle motion within body tissues and cells. Assumptions inherent to this experimental approach and possible sources of artifact are considered and evaluated. PMID:3676435

  3. Progress of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source using evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Cao, R.; Ruan, L.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A new room temperature ECR ion source, Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4 (LECR4, previously named DRAGON), is under intense construction at Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 is designed to operate with 18 GHz microwave frequency. The maximum axial magnetic fields are 2.3 T at injection and 1.3 T at extraction, and the radial field at the plasma chamber wall of 76 mm inner diameter is 1.0–1.2 T. One of the unique features for LECR4 is that its axial solenoids are winded with solid square copper wires which are immersed in a kind of special evaporative cooling medium for cooling purpose. Till now, a prototype of the cooling system has been successfully constructed and tested, which has demonstrated that the cooling efficiency of the designed system could meet the requirements of LECR4 under the routine operation conditions. All the main components of the ion source have been completed. Assembly and commissioning is ongoing. The latest developments and test results will be presented in this paper.

  4. High pressure electrides: a predictive chemical and physical theory.

    PubMed

    Miao, Mao-Sheng; Hoffmann, Roald

    2014-04-15

    Electrides, in which electrons occupy interstitial regions in the crystal and behave as anions, appear as new phases for many elements (and compounds) under high pressure. We propose a unified theory of high pressure electrides (HPEs) by treating electrons in the interstitial sites as filling the quantized orbitals of the interstitial space enclosed by the surrounding atom cores, generating what we call an interstitial quasi-atom, ISQ. With increasing pressure, the energies of the valence orbitals of atoms increase more significantly than the ISQ levels, due to repulsion, exclusion by the atom cores, effectively giving the valence electrons less room in which to move. At a high enough pressure, which depends on the element and its orbitals, the frontier atomic electron may become higher in energy than the ISQ, resulting in electron transfer to the interstitial space and the formation of an HPE. By using a He lattice model to compress (with minimal orbital interaction at moderate pressures between the surrounding He and the contained atoms or molecules) atoms and an interstitial space, we are able to semiquantitatively explain and predict the propensity of various elements to form HPEs. The slopes in energy of various orbitals with pressure (s > p > d) are essential for identifying trends across the entire Periodic Table. We predict that the elements forming HPEs under 500 GPa will be Li, Na (both already known to do so), Al, and, near the high end of this pressure range, Mg, Si, Tl, In, and Pb. Ferromagnetic electrides for the heavier alkali metals, suggested by Pickard and Needs, potentially compete with transformation to d-group metals. PMID:24702165

  5. Self-healing of unitarity in effective field theories and the onset of new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Ufuk; Anber, Mohamed M.; Donoghue, John F.

    2012-07-01

    In effective field theories it is common to identify the onset of new physics with the violation of tree-level unitarity. However, we show that this is parametrically incorrect in the case of chiral perturbation theory, and is probably theoretically incorrect in general. In the chiral theory, we explore perturbative unitarity violation as a function of the number of colors and the number of flavors, holding the scale of the “new physics” (i.e. QCD) fixed. This demonstrates that the onset of new physics is parametrically uncorrelated with tree-unitarity violation. When the latter scale is lower than that of new physics, the effective theory must heal its unitarity violation itself, which is expected because the field theory satisfies the requirements of unitarity. In the chiral theory, the self-healing results in a resonant structure with scalar quantum numbers. In the electroweak variant of this argument, the structure must have the properties of the Higgs and must couple proportional to the mass in both gauge boson and fermion scattering. A similar example can be seen in the case of general relativity coupled to multiple matter fields, where iteration of the vacuum polarization diagram restores unitarity. We present arguments that suggest the correct identification should be connected to the onset of inelasticity rather than unitarity violation. We describe how the onset of inelasticity can occur in the effective theory, although it does not appear possible to predict the onset reliably.

  6. Evaluation of physical activity web sites for use of behavior change theories.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Amol; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, James F; Calfas, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) Web sites were assessed for their use of behavior change theories, including constructs of the health belief model, Transtheoretical Model, social cognitive theory, and the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior. An evaluation template for assessing PA Web sites was developed, and content validity and interrater reliability were demonstrated. Two independent raters evaluated 24 PA Web sites. Web sites varied widely in application of theory-based constructs, ranging from 5 to 48 on a 100-point scale. The most common intervention strategies were general information, social support, and realistic goal areas. Coverage of theory-based strategies was low, varying from 26% for social cognitive theory to 39% for health belief model. Overall, PA Web sites provided little assessment, feedback, or individually tailored assistance for users. They were unable to substantially tailor the on-line experience for users at different stages of change or different demographic characteristics.

  7. A theory manual for multi-physics code coupling in LIME.

    SciTech Connect

    Belcourt, Noel; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Hooper, Russell Warren

    2011-03-01

    The Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment (LIME) is a software package for creating multi-physics simulation codes. Its primary application space is when computer codes are currently available to solve different parts of a multi-physics problem and now need to be coupled with other such codes. In this report we define a common domain language for discussing multi-physics coupling and describe the basic theory associated with multiphysics coupling algorithms that are to be supported in LIME. We provide an assessment of coupling techniques for both steady-state and time dependent coupled systems. Example couplings are also demonstrated.

  8. Foundations for a Post-Modern Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William E., Jr.

    This paper suggests that present-day curriculum, based on Newtonian thought, has been rendered obsolete by the holistic and interactive "post-modern" world view based on quantum physics, nonlinear mathematics, general systems theory, and Ilya Prigogine's nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The Newtonian world view, which is linear and reductionist, is…

  9. What's wrong with relativity theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2014-03-01

    Relativity theory is the most successful theory in modern physics but insofar we have not be able to reconcile relativity theory and quantum physics. Through reevaluation results in literature we found hints leading to a new understanding of the basics of quantum physics. By reinterpretation quantum physic we have successfully conduced a photon-photon collision experiment which gives us support on our reinterpretation of quantum physics which in turn suggested relativity theory is in-complete and fell into a paradoxical trap. This helps us a new understanding of mass and gravity.

  10. From Leo Strauss to Collapse Theory: Considering the Neoconservative Attack on Modernity and the Work of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper locates the work of Leo Strauss within the broader conservative assault on modernity and especially its roots in liberalism. Four themes from Strauss's work are identified, then hermeneutically engaged for their relevance to educational practice in global times. The four themes are: (1) the liberal/modern concept of an open society is…

  11. Bounds on the power of proofs and advice in general physical theories

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ciarán M.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum theory presents us with the tools for computational and communication advantages over classical theory. One approach to uncovering the source of these advantages is to determine how computation and communication power vary as quantum theory is replaced by other operationally defined theories from a broad framework of such theories. Such investigations may reveal some of the key physical features required for powerful computation and communication. In this paper, we investigate how simple physical principles bound the power of two different computational paradigms which combine computation and communication in a non-trivial fashion: computation with advice and interactive proof systems. We show that the existence of non-trivial dynamics in a theory implies a bound on the power of computation with advice. Moreover, we provide an explicit example of a theory with no non-trivial dynamics in which the power of computation with advice is unbounded. Finally, we show that the power of simple interactive proof systems in theories where local measurements suffice for tomography is non-trivially bounded. This result provides a proof that QMA is contained in PP, which does not make use of any uniquely quantum structure—such as the fact that observables correspond to self-adjoint operators—and thus may be of independent interest. PMID:27436976

  12. Bounds on the power of proofs and advice in general physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ciarán M.; Hoban, Matty J.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum theory presents us with the tools for computational and communication advantages over classical theory. One approach to uncovering the source of these advantages is to determine how computation and communication power vary as quantum theory is replaced by other operationally defined theories from a broad framework of such theories. Such investigations may reveal some of the key physical features required for powerful computation and communication. In this paper, we investigate how simple physical principles bound the power of two different computational paradigms which combine computation and communication in a non-trivial fashion: computation with advice and interactive proof systems. We show that the existence of non-trivial dynamics in a theory implies a bound on the power of computation with advice. Moreover, we provide an explicit example of a theory with no non-trivial dynamics in which the power of computation with advice is unbounded. Finally, we show that the power of simple interactive proof systems in theories where local measurements suffice for tomography is non-trivially bounded. This result provides a proof that Q M A is contained in P P , which does not make use of any uniquely quantum structure-such as the fact that observables correspond to self-adjoint operators-and thus may be of independent interest.

  13. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  14. Physical Education Teachers' Subjective Theories about Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmann, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    As well as other school subjects, physical education (PE) is emerging in terms of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into regular classes. Such innovative teaching practices that implement ICT in PE involve diverse parties that are affected by these teaching processes. Students, principals, districts, parents,…

  15. Quiton/Perceptron Physics: A Theory of Existence, Perception, and Physical Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    Attempts to answer fundamental questions of being, time, space, existence, perception, and physical phenomena are presented. Mass, empty space, reality, gravitational attraction, continuity, discontinuity, and relativity are among the "things" and "nonthings" for which relationships and explanations are provided. A reality model is constructed of…

  16. Predicting moral behavior in physical education classes: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Emmanouilidou, Maria

    2005-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the potential of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict moral behavior in primary school physical education classes. Primary school children (N=611) completed a questionnaire including the Theory of Planned Behavior variables. Also, 21 teachers filled in an adapted version of Horrocks' Prosocial Play Behavior Inventory which assesses five moral behavior facets. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that attitudes toward moral behavior and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention towards moral behavior (54%). Intention and perceived behavioral control predicted teacher-reported moral behavior (41%). The present results indicated that the theory provides a valuable framework for study of primary school children's moral behavior. PMID:16158692

  17. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  18. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  19. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications. PMID:26931978

  20. Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…

  1. Applications of Achievement Goal Theory to Physical Education: Implications for Enhancing Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treasure, Darren C.; Roberts, Glyn C.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the basic tenets of achievement goal theory, analyzing research in physical education that focuses extensively on instructional practice and strategies that may improve the quality of students' motivation. Comments on the potential utility of adopting an achievement goal approach to understanding and enhancing motivation in physical…

  2. Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in…

  3. Contradictions between the Virtual and Physical High School Classroom: A Third-Generation Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Manzanares, Maria A. Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a third-generation Activity Theory perspective to gain insight into the contradictions between the activity systems of the physical and virtual high school classroom from the perspective of teachers who had transitioned from one system to the other. Data collection relied on semi-structured interviews conducted with e-teachers as…

  4. A Test of Self-Determination Theory in School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2005-01-01

    Background: Contemporary research conducted in the context of school physical education (PE) has increasingly embraced various tenets of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991). Despite this increase in research attention, some postulates of the framework remain unexplored (e.g. impact of a need-supportive climate). As such, the…

  5. Self-Identity as a Component of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Predicting Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Francis; Hein, Vello; Pihu, Maret; Armenta, Jose Manuel Sevillano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-identity, defined as salient and enduring aspects of one's self-perception (Sparks, 2000), in relation to adolescent physical activity (PA) intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). School students aged 12 to 18 from two cultural groups (Estonia and Spain) completed measures of…

  6. Adolescents' Decisions About Verbal and Physical Aggression: An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberto, Anthony J.; Meyer, Gary; Boster, Franklin J.; Roberto, Heather L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the ability of the theory of reasoned action to explain and predict adolescents' verbal (i.e., insulting) and physical (i.e., fighting) aggression, as well as behaviors that encourage aggression such as watching a fight or telling others about a fight that is going to happen. Reveals that attitudes and subjective norms predicted…

  7. Exploring Physical Activity by Ethnicity and Gender in College Students Using Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip; Rhodes, Ryan; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention;The psychological determinants of physical activity (PA) among college students may vary by ethnicity and gender, but few studies have considered these characteristics. This study tested constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by ethnicity and gender to explain differences in PA. A total of 231 Blacks (70% female) and 218 White…

  8. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  9. Motivation in Physical Education Classes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Standage, Martyn

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of empirical studies in school physical education (PE) that have employed self-determination theory (SDT) and, where relevant, proposes ideas for future research in this area. First, we review research on teachers' interpersonal style and its relation to students' motivation. Second, we discuss intervention…

  10. Fitting Multidimensional Amotivation into the Self-Determination Theory Nomological Network: Application in School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Katartzi, Ermioni S.; Kontou, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the nomological validity of the Amotivation Inventory-Physical Education (Shen, Wingert, Li, Sun, & Rukavina, 2010b) scores by examining the associations of ability, effort, value, and task characteristics amotivation beliefs with self-determination theory variables. Data were collected from 401 fifth- and…

  11. Panel discussion: Models and methods: Can theory meet the B physics challenge?

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich Nierste

    2004-01-21

    The b physics experiments of the next generation, BTeV and LHCb, will perform measurements with an unprecedented accuracy. Theory predictions must control hadronic uncertainties with the same precision to extract the desired short-distance information successfully. I argue that this is indeed possible, discuss those theoretical methods in which hadronic uncertainties are under control and list hadronically clean observables.

  12. Can Control Theory Explain the Link between Parental Physical Abuse and Delinquency? A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebellon, Cesar J.; Van Gundy, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Although a growing literature suggests that physical abuse is associated with delinquency, little empirical research has attempted to probe the nature of the mechanism that underlies the apparent relationship. Moreover, because the theoretical literature tends to invoke learning and strain theories as explanations for the apparent relationship,…

  13. Complexity Theory: Supporting Curriculum and Pedagogy Developments in Scottish Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jess, Mike; Atencio, Matthew; Thorburn, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how complexity theory principles relating to self-emergence and connectivity have been employed to inform our recent developmental work in Scottish physical education. We suggest that these complexity principles have purchase in postmodern times characterised by uncertainty, multiplicity and contradiction. We cite examples…

  14. Theory-Based Interventions in Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Literature in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied. Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  15. Theory-based interventions in physical activity: a systematic review of literature in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied .Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  16. Brief report: the theory of planned behaviour applied to physical activity in young people who smoke.

    PubMed

    Everson, Emma S; Daley, Amanda J; Ussher, Michael

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical activity and all TPB components. Physical activity behaviour was significantly explained by both intention and perceived behavioural control (PBC), with both intention and PBC making significant contributions to the model. Intention was significantly explained by attitude, subjective norm (SN) and PBC, with attitude, SN and PBC all making significant contributions to the model. The TPB may be a useful framework for guiding physical activity interventions among young smokers.

  17. String Theory, the Crisis in Particle Physics and the Ascent of Metaphoric Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, Bert

    This essay presents a critical evaluation of the concepts of string theory and its impact on particle physics. The point of departure is a historical review of four decades of string theory within the broader context of six decades of failed attempts at an autonomous S matrix approach to particle theory. The central message, contained in Secs. 5 and 6, is that string theory is not what its name suggests, namely a theory of objects in space-time whose localization is string-instead of pointlike. Contrary to popular opinion, the oscillators corresponding to the Fourier models of a quantum-mechanical string do not become embedded in space-time and neither does the "range space" of a chiral conformal QFT acquire the interpretation of stringlike-localized quantum matter. Rather, string theory represents a solution to a problem which enjoyed some popularity in the 1960s: find a principle which, similar to the SO(4,2) group in the case of the hydrogen spectrum, determines an infinite component wave function with a (realistic) mass/spin spectrum. Instead of the group theory used in the old failed attempts, it creates this mass/spin spectrum by combining an internal oscillator quantum mechanics with a pointlike-localized quantum-field-theoretic object, i.e. the mass/spin tower "sits" over one point and does not arise from a wiggling string in space-time. The widespread acceptance of a theory whose interpretation has been based on metaphoric reasoning had a corroding influence on particle theory, a point which will be illustrated in the last section with some remarks of a more sociological nature. These remarks also lend additional support to observations on connections between the discourse in particle physics and the present Zeitgeist of the post-Cold War period that are made in the introduction.

  18. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A.; Maguire, C.F.

    1995-10-01

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

  19. [Habermas' and Giddens' modernization theories applied to homes for the aged and to somatic nursing homes. The long road toward greater equivalence between residents and staff].

    PubMed

    Belderok, J J

    1997-12-01

    The situation in homes for the elderly and nursing homes is for the residents both alarming and tragic. Recent Dutch legislation supports the movement towards more self-determination and autonomy for the residents. The staff are dedicated to making the living situation as good as possible for the residents. Nevertheless many publications describe how the dependence and helplessness of the residents stil continue. In this paper this helplessness is placed within the broader framework of modern society by application of Habermas' theory of communicative action and Giddens' structuration theory. Both theories show that the key to improve dependent making structures should be sought principally in the behaviour of both staff and residents. Habermas offers a perspective to more equivalent communicative action between residents and staff. Giddens draws attention to the knowledgeability of residents, with which they should be able to interact on an equal basis with professionals. This presupposes much dedication of both staff and residents.

  20. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Victor BA; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). Objective The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. Methods We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. Results The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. Conclusions There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend

  1. Aspects of the Gravitational and Thermal Physics of Solitons in Field Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Christopher M.

    We numerically study classical soliton solutions to two physically relevant field theories in an astrophysical setting, and through the Euclidean path integral formalism of finite-temperature field theory, we develop a new analytical method to study solitons semiclassically in a cosmological setting. By carefully considering non-Abelian gauge theories coupled to classical Einstein gravity, we demonstrate how black hole solutions to such theories can have nontrivial field structure outside the event horizon, despite the widely held belief to the contrary known as the "no-hair" conjecture. We next obtain numerical particle-like soliton and black hole solutions in the spontaneously broken phase of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs system, which consists of an SU(2) gauge field coupled to a Higgs doublet (the electroweak standard model without hypercharge). We also obtain such solutions to the related Einstein-Non-Abelian -Proca theory as a prelude to the gauge field case. Using the bosonic part of the low-energy heterotic string action, we then construct string-inspired regular and black hole solutions to Einstein-Yang-Mills theory coupled to massive dilaton and axion fields. Though we present numerical solutions only for the case of a trivial axion field, we analyze the full system and discuss the feasibility of additional solutions. Shifting from classical to quantum field theory, we next develop a general method utilizing collective coordinates and Euclidean functional constraints to study solitons semiclassically in the path integral formulation of Euclidean quantum field theory. Our method is an extension of the existing semiclassical method, which does not accomodate Euclidean time or the usual canonical Euclidean formalism, and applies to both time-independent solitons and solitons with time-dependence arising from global charge symmetries. We illustrate the method through an example finite-temperature field theory calculation: the one-loop partition function for

  2. N=2, 4 supersymmetric gauge field theory in two-time physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak; Kuo, Y.-C.

    2009-01-15

    In the context of two-time physics in 4+2 dimensions we construct the most general N=2, 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theories for any gauge group G. This builds on our previous work for N=1 supersymmetry (SUSY). The action, the conserved SUSY currents, and the SU(N) covariant SUSY transformation laws are presented for both N=2 and N=4. When the equations of motion are used the SUSY transformations close to the supergroup SU(2,2|N) with N=1, 2, 4. The SU(2,2)=SO(4,2) subsymmetry is realized linearly on 4+2 dimensional flat spacetime. All fields, including vectors and spinors, are in 4+2 dimensions. The extra gauge symmetries in 2T field theory, together with the kinematic constraints that follow from the action, remove all the ghosts to give a unitary theory. By choosing gauges and solving the kinematic equations, the 2T field theory in 4+2 flat spacetime can be reduced to various shadows in various 3+1 dimensional (generally curved) spacetimes. These shadows are related to each other by dualities. The conformal shadows of our theories in flat 3+1 dimensions coincide with the well known counterpart N=1, 2, 4 supersymmetric massless renormalizable field theories in 3+1 dimensions. It is expected that our more symmetric new structures in 4+2 spacetime may be useful for nonperturbative or exact solutions of these theories.

  3. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  4. [Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics]. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute State Univ. , Blacksburg

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.

  5. Motivating children with developmental coordination disorder in school physical education: the self-determination theory approach.

    PubMed

    Katartzi, Ermioni S; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the research in PE demonstrating links between teachers' interpersonal style, teaching methods, and outcomes relating to both students' motivation and motor skill improvement. Second, we outline the SDT mechanism through which the practices employed by PE teachers to support students' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness may effect positive changes in the motivation and the physical activity behaviour of children with DCD. Third, we present an overview of findings on the effectiveness of need-supporting practices used by PE teachers. Fourth, we provide directions for future motivational research using the SDT principles in school physical education for children with DCD. PMID:21742467

  6. Motivating children with developmental coordination disorder in school physical education: the self-determination theory approach.

    PubMed

    Katartzi, Ermioni S; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the research in PE demonstrating links between teachers' interpersonal style, teaching methods, and outcomes relating to both students' motivation and motor skill improvement. Second, we outline the SDT mechanism through which the practices employed by PE teachers to support students' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness may effect positive changes in the motivation and the physical activity behaviour of children with DCD. Third, we present an overview of findings on the effectiveness of need-supporting practices used by PE teachers. Fourth, we provide directions for future motivational research using the SDT principles in school physical education for children with DCD.

  7. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  8. Understanding Physical Activity Intention in Canadian School Children and Youth: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummery, W. Kerry; Spence, John C.; Hudee, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how well the theory of planned behavior could predict students' physical activity intention. Surveys indicated that direct measures of the theory of planned behavior explained 47 percent of variability in the measure of physical activity intention. Differences surfaced in the relative contributions of three predictors (attitude,…

  9. Theory and application of deterministic multidimensional pointwise energy lattice physics method

    SciTech Connect

    Zerkle, M.L.

    1999-10-05

    The theory and application of deterministic, multidimensional, pointwise energy lattice physics methods are discussed. These methods may be used to solve the neutron transport equation in multidimensional geometries using near-continuous energy detail to calculate equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is described which reduces the computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem.

  10. Uniform diffracted fields from a perfectly conducting cylindrical reflector with modified theory of physical optics.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, Uğur; Sarnık, Mücahit

    2013-01-01

    The uniform diffracted fields are calculated on PEC cylindrical reflector by Modified Theory of Physical Optics (MTPO). It is aimed to convert the noncontinuous solution to a continuous solution by finding a uniform equation which does not contain any expression converging to 0 in the denominator part. Three axioms of MTPO theory are used to construct the integral equations for the perfectly electrically conducting surface application. The "edge-point" technique is used to find the diffracted field, and uniform solution is to be found via "detour parameter(s)." Finally, the obtained results are to be compared with the nonuniform ones, numerically. PMID:23766679

  11. Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bellac, Michel

    2006-03-01

    Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises

  12. Humans, Intentionality, Experience And Tools For Learning: Some Contributions From Post-cognitive Theories To The Use Of Technology In Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jonte

    2007-11-01

    Human cognition cannot be properly understood if we do not take the use of tools into account. The English word cognition stems from the Latin "cognoscere," meaning "to become acquainted with" or "to come to know." Following the original Latin meaning we should not only study "what happens in the head" if we want to study cognition. Experientially based perspectives, such as pragmatism, phenomenology, phenomenography, and activity theory, stress that we should study person-world relationships. Technologies actively shape the character of human-world relationships. An emergent understanding in modern cognitive research is the co-evolution of the human brain and human use of tools and the active character of perception. Thus, I argue that we must analyze the role of technologies in physics education in order to realize their full potential as tools for learning, and I will provide selected examples from physics learning environments to support this assertion.

  13. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    PubMed

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  14. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    PubMed Central

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns. PMID:25717313

  15. Experiment and theory in particle physics: Reflections on the discovery of the tau lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    This article is thoughts from the author on particle physics work from his perspective. It is not a summary of his work on the tau lepton, but rather a look at what makes good science, experimental and theoretical, from his experiences in the field. The section titles give a good summary on the topics the author chooses to touch upon. They are: the state of elementary particle physics; getting good ideas in experimental science; a difficult field; experiments and experimenting; 10% of the money and 30% of the time; the dictatorship of theory; technological dreams; last words.

  16. New physics contribution to B{yields}K{pi} decays in soft collinear effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huitu, K.; Khalil, S.

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the 5{sigma} difference between the CP asymmetries of the B{sup 0{yields}}K{sup +{pi}-} and B{sup +{yields}}K{sup +{pi}0} decays within the soft collinear effective theory. We find that in the standard model, such a big difference cannot be achieved. We classify then the requirements for the possible New Physics models, which can be responsible for the experimental results. As an example of a New Physics model we study minimal supersymmetric models, and find that the measured asymmetry can be obtained with nonminimal flavor violation.

  17. Children's Deviant Behavior in Primary Education: Comparing Physical Educator's Implicit Theory With Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Efstratopoulou, Maria A; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-06-11

    Objective: Physical educators' implicit theory of children's deviant behavior in primary education was investigated and compared with diagnostic criteria. Method: A total of 60 physical education (PE) teachers reported deviant behaviors during lessons. Experts sorted these behaviors together with the official diagnostic criteria into categories based on perceived similarity in content. Results: Hierarchical cluster analysis on the derived similarity matrix among the behaviors suggested that PE teachers focus more on attention problems, disobedience, and aggressiveness when internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and low energy, were less reported. Conclusion: PE teachers may be important and useful informants on children's behavior in school settings. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX).

  18. The Relationship between Chinese High School Students' Implicit Theories of Ability in Sports and Perceived Enjoyment in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    According to theory, students' implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit…

  19. Temporal self-regulation theory: a neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Peter A.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Dominant explanatory models for physical activity behavior are limited by the exclusion of several important components, including temporal dynamics, ecological forces, and neurobiological factors. The latter may be a critical omission, given the relevance of several aspects of cognitive function for the self-regulatory processes that are likely required for consistent implementation of physical activity behavior in everyday life. This narrative review introduces temporal self-regulation theory (TST; Hall and Fong, 2007, 2013) as a new explanatory model for physical activity behavior. Important features of the model include consideration of the default status of the physical activity behavior, as well as the disproportionate influence of temporally proximal behavioral contingencies. Most importantly, the TST model proposes positive feedback loops linking executive function (EF) and the performance of physical activity behavior. Specifically, those with relatively stronger executive control (and optimized brain structures supporting it, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC)) are able to implement physical activity with more consistency than others, which in turn serves to strengthen the executive control network itself. The TST model has the potential to explain everyday variants of incidental physical activity, sport-related excellence via capacity for deliberate practice, and variability in the propensity to schedule and implement exercise routines. PMID:25859196

  20. A physical model for earthquakes. III - Thermodynamical approach and its relation to nonclassical theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rundle, John B.

    1989-01-01

    An earthquake theory based on fundamental thermodynamical considerations was developed using two principles. The first principle is that physical systems, including fault systems, tend toward a state of minimal Helmholtz free energy, which corresponds to static equilibrium. The second postulate is that, if the system is not at minimal free energy, thermodynamic forces arise which drive the system back toward a minimum. According to this theory, the propagation of a fracture, or the formation of a slip on a frictional surface, are manifestations of the physics which attempt to return the system to minimal free energy. It is shown that the process of return to minimal free energy by the system corresponds to the production of entropy, thereby rendering the process irreversible.

  1. QCD axion as a bridge between string theory and flavor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.

    2016-04-01

    We construct a string-inspired model, motivated by the flavored Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axions, as a useful bridge between flavor physics and string theory. The key feature is two anomalous gauged U (1 ) symmetries, responsible for both the fermion mass hierarchy problem of the standard model and the strong C P problem, that combine string theory with flavor physics and severely constrain the form of the F- and D-term contributions to the potential. In the context of supersymmetric moduli stabilization we stabilize the size moduli with positive masses while leaving two axions massless and one axion massive. We demonstrate that, while the massive gauge bosons eat the two axionic degrees of freedom, two axionic directions survive to low energies as the flavored PQ axions.

  2. "Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory," by Wim J. van der Linden and Ronald K. Hambleton [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry

    1998-01-01

    This book provides a historical overview of item-response theory (IRT) and contains a compendium of item-response-theory research. Each of its six sections deals with a unique application of a model or a family of models. Requires a strong psychometric background to understand some of the discussions. (SLD)

  3. Simulating parameters of lunar physical libration on the basis of its analytical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, N.; Zagidullin, A.; Nefediev, Yu.

    2014-04-01

    Results of simulating behavior of lunar physical libration parameters are presented. Some features in the speed change of impulse variables are revealed: fast periodic changes in р2 and long periodic changes in р3. A problem of searching for a dynamic explanation of this phenomenon is put. The simulation was performed on the basis of the analytical libration theory [1] in the programming environment VBA.

  4. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  5. How to take particle physics seriously: A further defence of axiomatic quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Doreen

    Further arguments are offered in defence of the position that the variant of quantum field theory (QFT) that should be subject to interpretation and foundational analysis is axiomatic quantum field theory. I argue that the successful application of renormalization group (RG) methods within alternative formulations of QFT illuminates the empirical content of QFT, but not the theoretical content. RG methods corroborate the point of view that QFT is a case of the underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence. I also urge caution in extrapolating interpretive conclusions about QFT from the application of RG methods in other contexts (e.g., condensed matter physics). This paper replies to criticisms advanced by David Wallace, but aims to be self-contained.

  6. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics.

    PubMed

    Becke, Axel D

    2014-05-14

    Since its formal inception in 1964-1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development.

  7. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold

    2005-05-01

    Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.

  8. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Becke, Axel D.

    2014-05-14

    Since its formal inception in 1964–1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development.

  9. Applying Motor-Control Theory to Physical Therapy Practice: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Mary T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This case report describes the application of an integrated, systems-based theory of motor control to physical therapy practice. Client Description: The patient was a 5-year-old boy with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy who was entering kindergarten. Parent concerns related to the child's safety in playground activities such as playing on the slide. Interventions: Motor-control theory, including factors related to the task, the environment, and the individual, was used to guide and direct physical therapy management related to the patient goal of safely and effectively climbing the ladder to the playground slide. Patient Outcomes: When the child entered kindergarten, he was able to safely ascend the ladder to the playground slide, using a modified movement pattern, when distractions were minimized. However, attentional issues continued to affect task execution when other children were present. Implications: This case report demonstrates a means by which current knowledge and theory can be integrated into clinical practice. Future Directions: Applying motor-control theory to this case led to the development of clinical questions for future research. PMID:22654241

  10. Chapter 2: Theoretical Models for Understanding Physical Activity Behavior among Children and Adolescents--Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical activity behavior in youth generally lacks a sufficient theoretical foundation for examining variables that influence that behavior. This is a major limitation because theory guides the search for determinants of behavior and the subsequent interplay between research findings and application. Theory offers a systematically…

  11. Aesthetic Modernism in the Post-Colony: The Making of a National College of Art in Pakistan (1950-1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarar, Nadeem Omar

    2008-01-01

    With the formation of Pakistan as a modern Islamic republic in 1947, the institutions of art and design education were transformed under the sway of modernization theories of development. A conceptual and physical infrastructure was put in place to modify existing institutions and to create new ones for encouraging modern art and artists in the…

  12. Predicting Physical Activity of First-Year University Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to apply Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) and a measure of past physical activity behavior to predict first-year students' physical activity intentions and behavior. Participants and Methods: First-year university students (N = 212) completed measures of TPB variables and past physical activity at…

  13. Predicting physical activity and outcome expectations in cancer survivors: an application of Self-Determination Theory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M; Nehl, Eric; Baker, Frank

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of autonomous and controlled motives drawn from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum Press: New York, 1985; Handbook of Self-determination Research. University of Rochester Press: New York, 2002) towards predicting physical activity behaviours and outcome expectations in adult cancer survivors. Participants were cancer-survivors (N=220) and a non-cancer comparison cohort (N=220) who completed an adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire modified for physical activity behaviour (TSRQ-PA), an assessment of the number of minutes engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) weekly, and the anticipated outcomes expected from regular physical activity (OE). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that autonomous motives was the dominant predictor of OEs across both cancer and non-cancer cohorts (R(2adj)=0.29-0.43), while MVPA was predicted by autonomous (beta's ranged from 0.21 to 0.34) and controlled (beta's ranged from -0.04 to -0.23) motives after controlling for demographic considerations. Cancer status (cancer versus no cancer) did not moderate the motivation-physical activity relationship. Collectively, these findings suggest that the distinction between autonomous and controlled motives is useful and compliments a growing body of evidence supporting SDT as a framework for understanding motivational processes in physical activity contexts with cancer survivors. PMID:16304621

  14. Predicting physical activity and outcome expectations in cancer survivors: an application of Self-Determination Theory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M; Nehl, Eric; Baker, Frank

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of autonomous and controlled motives drawn from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum Press: New York, 1985; Handbook of Self-determination Research. University of Rochester Press: New York, 2002) towards predicting physical activity behaviours and outcome expectations in adult cancer survivors. Participants were cancer-survivors (N=220) and a non-cancer comparison cohort (N=220) who completed an adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire modified for physical activity behaviour (TSRQ-PA), an assessment of the number of minutes engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) weekly, and the anticipated outcomes expected from regular physical activity (OE). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that autonomous motives was the dominant predictor of OEs across both cancer and non-cancer cohorts (R(2adj)=0.29-0.43), while MVPA was predicted by autonomous (beta's ranged from 0.21 to 0.34) and controlled (beta's ranged from -0.04 to -0.23) motives after controlling for demographic considerations. Cancer status (cancer versus no cancer) did not moderate the motivation-physical activity relationship. Collectively, these findings suggest that the distinction between autonomous and controlled motives is useful and compliments a growing body of evidence supporting SDT as a framework for understanding motivational processes in physical activity contexts with cancer survivors.

  15. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  16. A RE-AIM evaluation of theory-based physical activity interventions.

    PubMed

    Antikainen, Iina; Ellis, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

  17. Physical activity adoption to adherence, lapse, and dropout: a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan L

    2014-05-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, we aimed to explore and identify key motivational processes involved in the transition from a physically inactive to an active lifestyle, and the processes involved in lapse and dropout behavior within a walking program. We implemented a qualitative, longitudinal case study method, using semistructured interviews and theoretical thematic analyses. Fifteen women were interviewed over 10 months and three profiles were generated: (a) nonadherence, (b) lapse/readoption of physical activity, and (c) adherence. Internalization of walking behavior was key to adherence. Satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness were central for participation during exercise at the adoption stages, and autonomy was particularly pertinent in facilitating adherence. Those who lapsed and restarted physical activity experienced feelings of autonomy at the point of readoption. Sources of support were driving forces in the adoption and adherence phases.

  18. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  19. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 30 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    On 30 November 2011, a scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Ivchenko E L (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems"; (2) Golub L E (A F Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin transport in heterostructures"; (3) Levchenko A A (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Capillary turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids"; (4) Babin S A (Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the RAS) "New generation modes in fiber lasers"; (5) Kurt V G (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium"; (6) Lukash V N (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmological flow generation in general relativity".Papers written on the basis of oral reports 1-3, 5, and 6 are presented below. • Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems, E L Ivchenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 808-814 • Spin transport in heterostructures, L E Golub Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 814-818 • Kinetic and discrete turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids, L V Abdurakhimov, M Yu Brazhnikov, A A Levchenko, I A Remizov, S V Filatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 818-825 • Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium, V G Kurt, E N Mironova Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 825-831 • Generation of cosmological flows in general relativity, V N Lukash, E V Mikheeva, V N Strokov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 831-837

  20. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    On 23 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Ionin A A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-power infrared and ultraviolet lasers and their applications"; (2) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser-induced acceleration of the forbidden captures of orbital electrons by nuclei"; (3) Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory"; (4) Shchur L N (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Computational physics and the verification of theoretical predictions". Articles written on the base of oral reports 1, 2, and 4 are published below. • High-power IR- and UV-laser systems and their applications, A A Ionin Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 721-728 • Laser radiation enhancement of forbidden orbital electron captures and of neutrinoless double electron captures by nuclei, M Yu Romanovskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 728-733 • Computational physics and testing theoretical predictions, L N Shchur Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 733-738

  1. Locally covariant quantum field theory and the problem of formulating the same physics in all space-times.

    PubMed

    Fewster, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    The framework of locally covariant quantum field theory is discussed, motivated in part using 'ignorance principles'. It is shown how theories can be represented by suitable functors, so that physical equivalence of theories may be expressed via natural isomorphisms between the corresponding functors. The inhomogeneous scalar field is used to illustrate the ideas. It is argued that there are two reasonable definitions of the local physical content associated with a locally covariant theory; when these coincide, the theory is said to be dynamically local. The status of the dynamical locality condition is reviewed, as are its applications in relation to (i) the foundational question of what it means for a theory to represent the same physics in different space-times and (ii) a no-go result on the existence of natural states.

  2. Colloquium: Random first order transition theory concepts in biology and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, T. R.; Thirumalai, D.

    2015-01-01

    The routine transformation of a liquid, as it is rapidly cooled, resulting in glass formation, is remarkably complex. A theoretical explanation of the dynamics associated with this process has remained one of the major unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. The random first order transition (RFOT) theory, which was proposed over 25 years ago, provides a theoretical basis for explaining much of the phenomena associated with glass forming materials. It links or relates multiple metastable states, slow or glassy dynamics, dynamic heterogeneity, and both a dynamical and an ideal glass transition. Remarkably, the major concepts in the RFOT theory can also be profitably used to understand many spectacular phenomena in biology and condensed matter physics, as illustrated here. The presence of a large number of metastable states and the dynamics in such complex landscapes in biological systems from molecular to cellular scale and beyond leads to behavior, which is amenable to descriptions based on the RFOT theory. Somewhat surprisingly even intratumor heterogeneity arising from variations in cancer metastasis in different cells is hauntingly similar to glassy systems. There are also deep connections between glass physics and electronically disordered systems undergoing a metal-insulator transition, aging effects in which quantum effects play a role, and the physics of superglasses (a phase that is simultaneously a superfluid and a frozen amorphous structure). It is argued that the common aspect in all these diverse phenomena is that multiple symmetry unrelated states governing both the equilibrium and dynamical behavior—a lynchpin in the RFOT theory—controls the behavior observed in these unrelated systems.

  3. A Model of Contextual Motivation in Physical Education: Using Constructs from Self-Determination and Achievement Goal Theories To Predict Physical Activity Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Examines a study of student motivation in physical education that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Self-determined motivation was found to positively predict, whereas amotivation was a negative predictor of leisure-time physical activity intentions. (Contains 86 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  4. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Michelle S; Duda, Joan L; Guerin, Eva; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2012-03-02

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

  5. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751

  6. Development of the applied mathematics originating from the group theory of physical and mathematical problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.; Beyer, W.; Louck, J.; Metropolis, N.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Group theoretical methods are a powerful tool both in their applications to mathematics and to physics. The broad goal of this project was to use such methods to develop the implications of group (symmetry) structures underlying models of physical systems, as well as to broaden the understanding of simple models of chaotic systems. The main thrust was to develop further the complex mathematics that enters into many-particle quantum systems with special emphasis on the new directions in applied mathematics that have emerged and continue to surface in these studies. In this area, significant advances in understanding the role of SU(2) 3nj-coefficients in SU(3) theory have been made and in using combinatoric techniques in the study of generalized Schur functions, discovered during this project. In the context of chaos, the study of maps of the interval and the associated theory of words has led to significant discoveries in Galois group theory, to the classification of fixed points, and to the solution of a problem in the classification of DNA sequences.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  8. Causality, Symmetry, Brain, Evolution, DNA and a new Theory of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissanetzky, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    THEORY. Except for black holes, our world is causal. In Physics, causal sets formalize causality. The easiest way to explain the importance of causets is: all finite algorithms and computer programs are causets. Let S be a causet model of a dynamical system. S has a symmetry of the action: set P of legal permutations of S. Hence all causets have conservation laws. Permutations in P represent trajectories in state space. But P is non-conservative. New Physics: an action functional F was observed. When F is minimized over P, conservative subset P* is obtained. In P*, conserved quantities emerge as group-theoretical block systems over S. Block systems are also causets, and iteration leads to a network of blocks. This is a new theory of Physics. PREDICTIONS. (1) Brain's dendritic trees must be optimally short. Cuntz (June 2012) observed a 2/3 optimally short power law. (2) Causal hierarchies. Fuster(2005) observes identical hierarchies in cortex. DNA (Sept 2012) is described as hierarchical networks. (3) Action functional. Lerner (Aug 2012) proposed an action functional and minimum entropy on trajectories of dynamical processes. Friston (2003) proposed an energy functional. (4) Simple computer-brain experiments (Pissanetzky 2011a). REFERENCES: www.SciControls.com.

  9. Testing a Longitudinal Integrated Self-Efficacy and Self-Determination Theory Model for Physical Activity Post-Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shane N; Fortier, Michelle S; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Blanchard, Chris M; Boulay, Pierre

    2014-01-13

    Self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory are prominent theories in the physical activity literature, and studies have begun integrating their concepts. Sweet, Fortier, Strachan and Blanchard (2012) have integrated these two theories in a cross-sectional study. Therefore, this study sought to test a longitudinal integrated model to predict physical activity at the end of a 4-month cardiac rehabilitation program based on theory, research and Sweet et al.'s cross-sectional model. Participants from two cardiac rehabilitation programs (N=109) answered validated self-report questionnaires at baseline, two and four months. Data were analyzed using Amos to assess the path analysis and model fit. Prior to integration, perceived competence and self-efficacy were combined, and labeled as confidence. After controlling for 2-month physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation site, no motivational variables significantly predicted residual change in 4-month physical activity. Although confidence at two months did not predict residual change in 4-month physical activity, it had a strong positive relationship with 2-month physical activity (β=0.30, P<0.001). The overall model retained good fit indices. In conclusion, results diverged from theoretical predictions of physical activity, but self-determination and self-efficacy theory were still partially supported. Because the model had good fit, this study demonstrated that theoretical integration is feasible. PMID:26973926

  10. Testing a Longitudinal Integrated Self-Efficacy and Self-Determination Theory Model for Physical Activity Post-Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shane N; Fortier, Michelle S; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Blanchard, Chris M; Boulay, Pierre

    2014-01-13

    Self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory are prominent theories in the physical activity literature, and studies have begun integrating their concepts. Sweet, Fortier, Strachan and Blanchard (2012) have integrated these two theories in a cross-sectional study. Therefore, this study sought to test a longitudinal integrated model to predict physical activity at the end of a 4-month cardiac rehabilitation program based on theory, research and Sweet et al.'s cross-sectional model. Participants from two cardiac rehabilitation programs (N=109) answered validated self-report questionnaires at baseline, two and four months. Data were analyzed using Amos to assess the path analysis and model fit. Prior to integration, perceived competence and self-efficacy were combined, and labeled as confidence. After controlling for 2-month physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation site, no motivational variables significantly predicted residual change in 4-month physical activity. Although confidence at two months did not predict residual change in 4-month physical activity, it had a strong positive relationship with 2-month physical activity (β=0.30, P<0.001). The overall model retained good fit indices. In conclusion, results diverged from theoretical predictions of physical activity, but self-determination and self-efficacy theory were still partially supported. Because the model had good fit, this study demonstrated that theoretical integration is feasible.

  11. Testing a Longitudinal Integrated Self-Efficacy and Self-Determination Theory Model for Physical Activity Post-Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Shane N.; Fortier, Michelle S.; Strachan, Shaelyn M.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Boulay, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory are prominent theories in the physical activity literature, and studies have begun integrating their concepts. Sweet, Fortier, Strachan and Blanchard (2012) have integrated these two theories in a cross-sectional study. Therefore, this study sought to test a longitudinal integrated model to predict physical activity at the end of a 4-month cardiac rehabilitation program based on theory, research and Sweet et al.’s cross-sectional model. Participants from two cardiac rehabilitation programs (N=109) answered validated self-report questionnaires at baseline, two and four months. Data were analyzed using Amos to assess the path analysis and model fit. Prior to integration, perceived competence and self-efficacy were combined, and labeled as confidence. After controlling for 2-month physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation site, no motivational variables significantly predicted residual change in 4-month physical activity. Although confidence at two months did not predict residual change in 4-month physical activity, it had a strong positive relationship with 2-month physical activity (β=0.30, P<0.001). The overall model retained good fit indices. In conclusion, results diverged from theoretical predictions of physical activity, but self-determination and self-efficacy theory were still partially supported. Because the model had good fit, this study demonstrated that theoretical integration is feasible. PMID:26973926

  12. Practised Intelligence Testing Based on a Modern Test Conceptualization and Its Reference to the Common Intelligence Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubinger, Klaus D.; Litzenberger, Margarete; Mrakotsky, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The question is to what extent intelligence test-batteries prove any kind of empirical reference to common intelligence theories. Of particular interest are conceptualized tests that are of a high psychometric standard--those that fit the Rasch model--and hence are not exposed to fundamental critique. As individualized testing, i.e., a…

  13. "Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory" edited by Wim J. van der Linden and Ronald K. Hambleton [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    1997-01-01

    This handbook contains 27 chapters, each containing a description of a single Item Response Theory (IRT) model written by the author who originally proposed it. All chapters use the same notation and follow the same format, making the book an excellent source for information about IRT models. (SLD)

  14. Wim J. van der Linden and Ronald K. Hambleton. Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry

    2001-01-01

    This book is a compendium of recent item response theory (IRT) research that reviews 27 IRT models. The book contains a historical overview of IRT followed by six sections that deal with the application of a particular IRT model or set of models. (SLD)

  15. ORACLS - A modern control theory design package. [Optimal Regulator Algorithms for Control of Linear Systems computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program (ORACLS) for implementing the optimal regulator theory approach to the design of controllers for linear time-invariant systems is described. The user-oriented program employs the latest numerical techniques and is applicable to both the digital and continuous control problems.

  16. Forming Modern Citizens in the 1960s: Comparative Analysis of Teaching in Natural Sciences, Physical Sciences and Physical Education throughout France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Michael; Guedj-Chauchard, Muriel; Saint-Martin, Jean; Savaton, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Reforms made to France's education system structures during the 1960s resulted in a repositioning of academic subjects within study plans. This article looks at three relatively similar subjects (physical sciences, natural sciences and physical education) and throws light on the arguments put forward to defend the purpose of each of them in the…

  17. Cartan's Spiral Staircase in Physics and, in Particular, in the Gauge Theory of Dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Markus; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2010-10-01

    In 1922, Cartan introduced in differential geometry, besides the Riemannian curvature, the new concept of torsion. He visualized a homogeneous and isotropic distribution of torsion in three dimensions (3d) by the “helical staircase”, which he constructed by starting from a 3d Euclidean space and by defining a new connection via helical motions. We describe this geometric procedure in detail and define the corresponding connection and the torsion. The interdisciplinary nature of this subject is already evident from Cartan’s discussion, since he argued—but never proved—that the helical staircase should correspond to a continuum with constant pressure and constant internal torque. We discuss where in physics the helical staircase is realized: (i) In the continuum mechanics of Cosserat media, (ii) in (fairly speculative) 3d theories of gravity, namely (a) in 3d Einstein-Cartan gravity—this is Cartan’s case of constant pressure and constant intrinsic torque—and (b) in 3d Poincaré gauge theory with the Mielke-Baekler Lagrangian, and, eventually, (iii) in the gauge field theory of dislocations of Lazar et al., as we prove for the first time by arranging a suitable distribution of screw dislocations. Our main emphasis is on the discussion of dislocation field theory.

  18. International Symposium on Computational Electronics—Physical Modeling, Mathematical Theory, and Numerical Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming

    2007-12-01

    This symposium is an open forum for discussion on the current trends and future directions of physical modeling, mathematical theory, and numerical algorithm in electrical and electronic engineering. The goal is for computational scientists and engineers, computer scientists, applied mathematicians, physicists, and researchers to present their recent advances and exchange experience. We welcome contributions from researchers of academia and industry. All papers to be presented in this symposium have carefully been reviewed and selected. They include semiconductor devices, circuit theory, statistical signal processing, design optimization, network design, intelligent transportation system, and wireless communication. Welcome to this interdisciplinary symposium in International Conference of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering (ICCMSE 2007). Look forward to seeing you in Corfu, Greece!

  19. Quantum electronic stress: density-functional-theory formulation and physical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Liu, Miao; Wang, Z F; Zhu, Junyi; Wu, Dangxin; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng

    2012-08-01

    The concept of quantum electronic stress (QES) is introduced and formulated within density functional theory to elucidate extrinsic electronic effects on the stress state of solids and thin films in the absence of lattice strain. A formal expression of QES (σ(QE)) is derived in relation to deformation potential of electronic states (Ξ) and variation of electron density (Δn), σ(QE) = ΞΔn as a quantum analog of classical Hooke's law. Two distinct QES manifestations are demonstrated quantitatively by density functional theory calculations: (1) in the form of bulk stress induced by charge carriers and (2) in the form of surface stress induced by quantum confinement. Implications of QES in some physical phenomena are discussed to underlie its importance.

  20. Book review: Modern Plasma Physics, Vol. I: Physical Kinetics of Turbulent Plasmas, by Patrick H. Diamond, Sanae-I. Itoh and Kimitaka Itoh, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), 2010, IX, 417 p., ISBN 978-0-521-86920-1 (Hardback)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, B. V.

    If you want to learn not only the most fundamental things about the physics of turbulent plasmas but also the current state of the problem including the most recent results in theoretical and experimental investigations - and certainly many physicists and astrophysicists do - this series of three excellent monographs is just for you. The first volume "Physical Kinetics of Turbulent Plasmas" develops the kinetic theory of turbulence through a focus on quasi-particle models and dynamics. It discusses the concepts and theoretical methods for describing weak and strong fluid and phase space turbulence in plasma systems far from equilibrium. The core material includes fluctuation theory, self-similar cascades and transport, mean field theory, resonance broadening and nonlinear wave-particle interaction, wave-wave interaction and wave turbulence, strong turbulence theory and renormalization. The book gives readers a deep understanding of the fields under consideration and builds a foundation for future applications to multi-scale processes of self-organization in tokamaks and other confined plasmas. In spite of a short pedagogical introduction, the book is addressed mainly to well prepared readers with a serious background in plasma physics, to researchers and advanced graduate students in nonlinear plasma physics, controlled fusions and related fields such as cosmic plasma physics

  1. Mediation of personality influences on physical activity within the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Sutton, Stephen; Myers, Lynn

    2010-11-01

    This study estimated the effect of extraversion, conscientiousness and variables from a modified two-component Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) on prospective self-reported physical activity (N = 397). Mediation analysis using structural equation modelling with bootstrapping suggested that only conscientiousness had significant effects on intention and behaviour. Affective attitude and perceived behavioural control partially mediated the effect on intention. The effect on behaviour was significantly mediated by TPB variables consistent with partial or total mediation. The modified TPB mediates the effects of conscientiousness on intention and behaviour; it is unclear whether it is sufficient to mediate all of the effect on behaviour.

  2. Involving High School Students in Computational Physics University Research: Theory Calculations of Toluene Adsorbed on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Jonas; Husmark, Teodor; Mathiesen, Christoffer; Sepahvand, Benjamin; Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research. PMID:27505418

  3. Dirichlet's Principle as an Historical Test Case for Analytic and Harmonic Function Theory in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Lydia

    2004-03-01

    Dirichlet's Problem concerns the boundary conditions for certain harmonic functions. Dirichlet's Principle gives a solution to the Dirichlet problem for the Laplacian by reducing the problem to a minimization problem in a Hilbert space. At the time that he proposed it Dirichlet's problem caused an interesting historical rift between mathematicians such as Karl Weierstrass who pressed for more rigor in distinguishing between a minimum and a greatest lower bound, and physicists such as Hermann von Helmholtz who argued that for any given physical solution the above distinction is immaterial. I will present the historical context of the problem leading up to its eventual solution (for certain limited cases) by David Hilbert. In so doing I will underline how Hilbert was able to identify certain functions for which Dirichlet's Principle holds true, and will evaluate the historical significance of Hilbert's solution for analytic and harmonic function theory in physics.

  4. Involving High School Students in Computational Physics University Research: Theory Calculations of Toluene Adsorbed on Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär

    2016-01-01

    To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research. PMID:27505418

  5. Development and validation of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tirado González, Sonia; Neipp López, M Carmen; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the main theoretical models in the study of the different variables, which influence in the practise of physical activity. The aim in this study was to develop a questionnaire based on TPB in physical activity context providing evidence for the validity of the obtained measures. The instrumental project included three independent studies. The first study entailed the construction and qualitative assessment of the items. In the second study, the analysis of factorial structure was performed by means of exploratory measures, and it showed that the reliability of measures was adequate. The third study provided evidence on the dimensionality of the scale. The confirmatory factorial analysis guaranteed the stability of factorial structure proposed by the TPB and provided evidence for the internal validity of the inventory. Moreover, this study provided evidence of its external validity.

  6. Chandrasekhar limit: an elementary approach based on classical physics and quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In a brief article published in 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made public an important astronomical discovery. In his article, the then young Indian astrophysicist introduced what is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit. This limit establishes the maximum mass of a stellar remnant beyond which the repulsion force between electrons due to the exclusion principle can no longer stop the gravitational collapse. In the present article, we create an elemental approximation to the Chandrasekhar limit, accessible to non-graduate science and engineering students. The article focuses especially on clarifying the origins of Chandrasekhar’s discovery and the underlying physical concepts. Throughout the article, only basic algebra is used as well as some general notions of classical physics and quantum theory.

  7. Involving High School Students in Computational Physics University Research: Theory Calculations of Toluene Adsorbed on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Jonas; Husmark, Teodor; Mathiesen, Christoffer; Sepahvand, Benjamin; Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research.

  8. Microscopic phenomena and a modern approach to turbulence. [using arc driven shock tubes to support the kinetic theory of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. A., III; Chen, S.; I, L.; Jones, W.; Ramaiah, R.; Santiago, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of an arc driven shock tube as a technique in the study of turbulence and evidence to support a kinetic theory of turbulence are described. Topics covered include: (1) reaction rate distortion in turbulent flow; (2) turbulent bursts in a shock tube; (3) driver gas flow with fluctuations; (4) improving the Mach number capabilities of arc driver shock tubes; and (5) resonant absorption in an argon plasma at thermal equilibrium.

  9. 'What's Psychology got to do with it?' Applying psychological theory to understanding failures in modern healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care. PMID:26401049

  10. 'What's Psychology got to do with it?' Applying psychological theory to understanding failures in modern healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care.

  11. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Maróthi, Rebeka

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009

  12. New perspectives on the theory of justice: implications for physical therapy ethics and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2011-11-01

    Recent revisions of physical therapy codes of ethics have included a new emphasis concerning health inequities and social injustice. This emphasis reflects the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. This perspective article suggests that there is a "disconnect" between the societal obligations and aspirations expressed in the revised codes and the individualist ethical frameworks that predominantly underpin them. Primary health care is an approach to health care arising from an understanding of the nexus between health and social disadvantage that considers the health needs of patients as expressive of the health needs of the communities of which they are members. It is proposed that re-thinking ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics can both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. This perspective article provides a new focus on the ethical principle of justice: the ethical principle that arguably remains the least consensually understood and developed in the ethics literature of physical therapy. A relatively recent theory of justice known as the "capability approach to justice" is discussed, along with its potential to assist physical therapy practitioners to further develop moral agency in order to address situations of health inequity and social injustice in clinical practice.

  13. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme to promote physical activity: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2005-12-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior provides a useful framework to study attitudes toward participation in physical activity. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention in manipulating the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and exercise habits with 366 high school students (M = 14.2 yr., SD = .7; 201 boys and 165 girls). The students were divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire to measure components of the theory, and the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Activity measuring exercise habits, were administered. The intervention lasted 12 wk. and included posters and lectures promoting participation in physical activity. Analyses showed the intervention was effective in improving attitudes towards physical activity, perceived behavioral control, intention, and self-reported actual behavior, but it was ineffective for improving attitude strength, subjective norms, and role identity. The results provide useful information for physical education teachers interested in promoting students' positive attitudes towards physical activity. PMID:16491680

  14. The Viewpoints of Physics Teacher Candidates towards the Concepts in Special Theory of Relativity and Their Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Umit; Gurbuz, Fatih; Salar, Riza; Toman, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the viewpoints of physics teacher candidates at undergraduate level towards the concepts in special theory of relativity and the interpretations they made about these concepts were investigated. The viewpoints of the teacher candidates towards the concepts in the subject of special theory of relativity were revealed with six open…

  15. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  16. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  17. Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African American women who are physically active and those who are not.

    PubMed

    Carter-Parker, Kathleen; Edwards, Karethy A; McCleary-Jones, Voncella

    2012-01-01

    Many people have positive intention to engage in physical activity but fail to act. In general, Physical activity (PA) levels among Americans are declining. However, when compared to all other racial groups, middle aged African American women (AAW) have the lowest rate of PA participation. The lack of physical activity has dire illness consequences for AAW Despite significant efforts to increase physical activity to levels that benefit health, the need to understand successful translation of intention to engage in physical activity, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control is warranted in order to design theoretically derived culturally tailored interventions to increase physical activity participation among middle aged AAW. Moreover, there is a paucity of studies that use theoretical underpinnings to elucidate the differences between middle aged AAW who are physically active and those who are not physically active. Therefore, the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) measuring the constructs of intention, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control was used to guide the design of this study. One-hundred-fifty-three respondents completed the socio-demographic profile, a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire (TPBQ), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated the highest correlation between intention and attitude r (137) = .740, p < .001. The correlation between intention and perceived behavior control was r (137) = .546, p < .001; intention and physical activity r (137) = .439, p < .001; attitude and perceived behavior control r (137) = .487, p < .001; and attitude and physical activity r (137) = .429, p < .001 demonstrated a moderately strong positive relationship. Subjective norm and perceived behavior control demonstrate the smallest correlational significance r (137) = .264, p <.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed attitude towards physical

  18. Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African American women who are physically active and those who are not.

    PubMed

    Carter-Parker, Kathleen; Edwards, Karethy A; McCleary-Jones, Voncella

    2012-01-01

    Many people have positive intention to engage in physical activity but fail to act. In general, Physical activity (PA) levels among Americans are declining. However, when compared to all other racial groups, middle aged African American women (AAW) have the lowest rate of PA participation. The lack of physical activity has dire illness consequences for AAW Despite significant efforts to increase physical activity to levels that benefit health, the need to understand successful translation of intention to engage in physical activity, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control is warranted in order to design theoretically derived culturally tailored interventions to increase physical activity participation among middle aged AAW. Moreover, there is a paucity of studies that use theoretical underpinnings to elucidate the differences between middle aged AAW who are physically active and those who are not physically active. Therefore, the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) measuring the constructs of intention, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control was used to guide the design of this study. One-hundred-fifty-three respondents completed the socio-demographic profile, a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire (TPBQ), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated the highest correlation between intention and attitude r (137) = .740, p < .001. The correlation between intention and perceived behavior control was r (137) = .546, p < .001; intention and physical activity r (137) = .439, p < .001; attitude and perceived behavior control r (137) = .487, p < .001; and attitude and physical activity r (137) = .429, p < .001 demonstrated a moderately strong positive relationship. Subjective norm and perceived behavior control demonstrate the smallest correlational significance r (137) = .264, p <.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed attitude towards physical

  19. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  20. The physical meaning of transmission-line parameters in a full-wave theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambousky, Ronald; Nitsch, Jürgen; Tkachenko, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    In the potential-current representation, transmission-line parameters in the Transmission-Line Super Theory (TLST) do not have a direct physical meaning - they are gauge dependent, i.e.: they are different in the Lorenz and Coulomb gauge. However, they retain traces of their classical origin: They are constituted of capacitances and inductances for forward and backward running waves along the lines. Therefore their corresponding matrices are not symmetrical as in the case of classical transmission-line theory. In the charge-current representation the parameter matrices have a physical meaning: their elements consist of damping functions due to the non-uniformities of the lines and of the propagation functions along the lines, incorporating conductor and radiation losses. The transmission line parameters also contribute to the total radiated power of the lines. The attempt to quantize radiation locally, fails because radiation describes a long-range (integral) interaction, and therefore affects all conductor parts of all lines. However, it can be stated that at stronger inhomogeneities the local contributions to radiation increase, and are particularly recognizable along the risers.

  1. Motivational profiles in physical education and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined "profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined "profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined "profile. Key PointsA "self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation.A "non self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement).In the context of the "non self-determined profile "we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population.

  2. Foucault test: shadowgram modeling from the physical theory for quantitative evaluations.

    PubMed

    Villa, Jesús; Rodríguez, Gustavo; de la Rosa, Ismael; Ivanov, Rumen; Saucedo, Tonatiuh; González, Efrén

    2014-12-01

    The physical theory of the Foucault test has been investigated to represent the complex amplitude and irradiance of the shadowgram in terms of the wavefront error; however, most of the studies have limited the treatment for the particular case of nearly diffraction-limited optical devices (i.e., aberrations smaller than the wavelength). In this paper we discard this restriction, and in order to show a more precise interpretation from the physical theory we derive expressions for the complex amplitude and the irradiance over an optical device with larger aberrations. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time an expression is obtained in closed form. As will be seen, the result of this derivation is obtained using some properties of the Hilbert transform that permit representing the irradiance in a simple form in terms of the partial derivatives of the wavefront error. Additionally, we briefly describe from this point of view a methodology for the quantitative analysis of the test.

  3. Motivational Profiles in Physical Education and Their Relation to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a “self-determined ”profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a “non self- determined ”profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to “non self-determined ”profile. Key Points A “self-determined ”profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation. A “non self-determined ”profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement). In the context of the “non self-determined profile ”we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population. PMID:24149164

  4. Conceptualizing autonomy in the context of chronic physical illness: relating philosophical theories to social scientific perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mars, Godelief M J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Janssen, Peter P M; van Eijk, Jacques T M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this article is to conceptualize autonomy in the context of chronic physical illness. To this end, we compare and contrast a selection of contemporary philosophical theories of autonomy with social scientific perspectives on chronic illness, particularly models of disability and symbolic interactionism. The philosophical theories mainly depart from a positive conceptualization of autonomy, which involves actively shaping one's life and identifying with fundamental values. This conceptualization is preferred over a negative conceptualization, which defines autonomy as non-interference, for its compatibility with social models of disability and with the assumption that people are interdependent. Interference may disable, but also enable people with a chronic illness to shape their lives. What matters is that people can realize what they want to realize. We suggest that, in the context of chronic physical illness, autonomy might be conceptualized as correspondence between what people want their lives to be like and what their lives are actually like. Disturbed autonomy might be restored either by expanding opportunities to arrange life or by adjusting how one wants life to be arranged. The grounds for the latter approach might be questioned, first, if people have not adjusted what they want carefully, and second, if reorganization of the material and social environment would have made it unnecessary to adjust one's arrangement of life. PMID:18579631

  5. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  6. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  7. The Nature of Science and Its Implications for Physics Textbooks: The Case of Classical Magnetic Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Furio, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to analyse, based on common characteristics of the Nature of Science, how first year university Physics textbooks present the introduction of the concept and theories of magnetic field. It shows that despite the increasing number of studies into the Nature of Science in Science Education, Physics textbooks fail to adopt the results…

  8. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron T.

    2015-09-18

    The String theory workshop was held from March 4-7, 2015 on the University of Michigan campus. Local organizers were Gordon Kane and Aaron Pierce. Piyush Kumar (Yale), Jim Halverson (KITP), Bobby Acharya (ICTP) and Sven Krippendorf (Oxford) served as external organizers.The meeting focused on the status of work to project 10 or 11 dimensional string/M theories onto our 4 spacetime dimensions (compactification). The workshop had 31 participants, half from outside the U.S. Participants were encouraged to focus on predictions for recent and forthcoming data, particularly for Higgs physics and LHC and dark matter, rather than on the traditional approach of embedding the Standard Model particles and forces. The Higgs boson sympoosium was locally organized by James Wells (chair), Aaron Pierce and Jianming Qian. Additional input in the early stages by Stefan Pokorski (Warsaw) who was unable to attend in the end. The workshop consistent of 22 talks from experts around the world, both theoretical and experimental. Experimentalists summarized the current state of knowledge of the Higgs boson and its varients. The theory talks ranged from technical calculations of Standard Model processes to speculative novel ideas. The YHET visitor program invited weekly young visitors to the University of Michigan campus to present their work. This year 24 participants came under the program, with 17 of them receiving at least partial support for their visits.

  9. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology.

  10. Probing the post-newtonian physics of semi-conservative metric theories through secular tidal effects in satellite gradiometry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Li-E.; Xu, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The existence of relativistic secular tidal effects along orbit motions will largely improve the measurement accuracies of relativistic gravitational gradients with orbiting gradiometers. With the continuous advances in technologies related to gradiometry and the improvements in their resolutions, it is feasible for future satellite gradiometry missions to carry out precision relativistic experiments and impose constraints on modern theories of gravity. In this work, we study the theoretical principles of measuring directly the secular post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects in semi-conservative metric theories with satellite gradiometry missions. The isolations of the related PN parameters in the readouts of an orbiting three-axis gradiometer is discussed.

  11. Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.

  12. Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.

  13. Modern Optical Tests of Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Achim

    2008-05-01

    ``The speed of light is finite and does not depend on the motion of either source or observer''. This is the fundamental statement underlying Albert Einstein's theory of Special Relativity. First formulated early in the 20th century, this theory now is one of the cornerstones of our scientific understanding of the world and tightly woven into the fabric of modern physical theories. Due to this outstanding role, it always has been of prime importance to experimentally verify the validity of the underlying theory. Today, further incentive for such tests is provided by new theoretical attempts -- such as string theory or loop quantum gravity -- aiming at unifying the forces of nature, which indeed suggest small violations of Lorentz-Invariance. This talk will discuss modern tests based on optical methods, which are especially well suited for the task at hand. A specific example is a modern version of the classic Michelson-Morley experiment testing the isotropy of light propagation, where the measurement is performed by monitoring the resonance frequency of an optical resonator continuously rotating on a precision turntable. This currently allows a sensitivity at the δc / c = 10-17 level for a direction dependent variation of the speed of light, with the potential for improvements in precision by up to three orders of magnitude in the near future.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Landau Migdal theory of interacting Fermi systems: a framework for effective theories in nuclear structure physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grümmer, Frank; Speth, Josef

    2006-07-01

    We review Migdal's theory of finite Fermi systems and its application to the structure of nuclei. The theory is an extension of Landau's theory of interacting Fermi systems. In the first part the basic formulae are derived within the many-body Green functions approach. The theory is applied to isovector electric giant resonances in medium and heavy mass nuclei. The parameterizations of the renormalized effective ph-interaction and the effective operators are discussed. It is shown that the number of free parameters is restricted by conservation laws. We also present an extension of Migdal's theory, where the low-lying phonons are considered in a consistent manner. The extended theory is again applied to the same isovector electric giant resonances and to the analysis of (α, α') reaction data. We point out that the extended theory is the appropriate framework for self-consistent nuclear structure calculations starting from effective Lagrangians and Hamiltonians.

  15. A new construction technique of high granularity and high transparency drift chambers for modern high energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F.; Miccoli, A.; Panareo, M.; Pepino, A.; Pinto, C.; Primiceri, P.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G. F.

    2016-07-01

    Modern experiments for the search of extremely rare processes require high resolutions (order of 50-200 keV/c) tracking systems for particle momenta in the range of 50-300 MeV/c, dominated by multiple scattering contributions. We will present a newly developed construction technique for ultra-low mass Drift Chambers fulfilling this goal. It consists of (1) a semiautomatic wiring machine with a high degree of control over wire mechanical tensioning (better than 0.2 g) and over wire positioning (of the order of 20 μm) for simultaneous wiring of multi-wire layers; (2) a contact-less IR laser soldering tool designed for a feed-through-less wire anchoring system; (3) an automatic handling system for storing and transporting the multi-wire layers to be placed over the drift chamber end-plates. These techniques have been successfully implemented at INFN-Lecce and University of Salento and are currently being used for the construction of Drift Chamber of the MEG (μ → eγ) upgrade experiment.

  16. PHILOSOPHICAL PRESUPPOSITIONS OF AYURVEDA AND MODERN MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of Ayurveda rests on the concepts of matter, vital principle, mind, and pure consciousness. It is a holistic theory of medicine, which aims at restoration of physical and mental health, and spiritual well-being in a sick person, so that he may self-actualize himself, and eventually, realize his nature as pure consciousness. Modern Western medicine tries to reduce consciousness, and vital principle to biochemical entities. It is a value-neutral science, and considers the aim of therapy as removal of pathological symptoms. Its theoretical position is weak. Interface between medical and value science is urgently needed. PMID:22557392

  17. String theory--the physics of string-bending and other electric guitar techniques.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed. PMID:25054880

  18. String Theory - The Physics of String-Bending and Other Electric Guitar Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed. PMID:25054880

  19. String theory--the physics of string-bending and other electric guitar techniques.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed.

  20. Number-Theory in Nuclear-Physics in Number-Theory: Non-Primality Factorization As Fission VS. Primality As Fusion; Composites' Islands of INstability: Feshbach-Resonances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility/ factorization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 x 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5 +1)=(fission)=6[=2 x 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 x 4 = 2 x 2 x 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 x 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16, ... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Possible applications to: quantum-information/ computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses proof as Goodkin BEC intersection with graph-theory "short-cut" method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics; ...abound!!! Watkins [www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/] "Number-Theory in Physics" many interconnections: "pure"-maths number-theory to physics including Siegel [AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.# 973-60-124] inversion of statistics on-average digits' Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(14-16)-Benford(38)-law to reveal both the quantum and BEQS (digits = bosons = digits:"spinEless-boZos"). 1881 1885 1901 1905 1925 < 1927, altering quantum-theory history!!!

  1. On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dylan J

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning.

  2. On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Dylan J

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning. PMID:19183466

  3. Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-06-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.

  4. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  5. Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancor, Rachael

    2014-06-01

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in pedagogical discourse (i.e., textbooks and the science education literature): energy as a substance that can be accounted for, can flow, can be carried, can change forms, can be lost, and can be an ingredient, a product or stored in some way. Each of these conceptual metaphors highlight and obscure various characteristics of energy, and provide a set of frameworks that each afford a different understanding of the energy concept.

  6. Physics on the Smallest Scales: An Introduction to Minimal Length Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Martin; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Many modern theories which try to unify gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, such as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: the existence of additional space dimensions; the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide…

  7. The general practitioner's role in promoting physical activity to older adults: a review based on program theory.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Timo; Brach, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Positive influences of physical activity both on many chronic diseases and on preservation of mobility are well documented. But chronically ill or mobility restricted elderly living in their own homes are difficult to reach for interventions. The general practitioner's (GP) surgery offers one of the few opportunities to give advice for physical activity to those people. We used program theory to sound out knowledge on GP-centered physical activity counseling. The "conceptual theory" (evidence for training effects in old age) and the "implementation theory" (unique position of the GP) were reviewed narratively. The "action theory" (effects of GP counseling) was reviewed systematically. According to program theory, appropriate MeSH (Medical subject headings) concepts were Aged OR Aged, 80 and over (Target group), Physicians, Family OR Primary Health Care (Implementation/Setting), Counseling OR Patient Education as Topic OR Disease Management OR Health promotion (Intervention), Exercise OR Motor Activity OR Physical Fitness OR Sports (Determinants). The resulting six review papers (Pubmed, 2000-2009) were presented using the STARLITE mnemonic. Authors agree, that the GP plays a central role in the promotion of physical activity to elderly people, but there is conflicting evidence concerning counseling effectiveness. Utilizing behavioral change strategies and the collaboration between GPs and specialised professions are recommended and currently under research.

  8. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  9. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  10. Topics in Cosmic String Physics and Vacuum Stability of Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Indranil

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis I examine aspects of the vacuum state of quantum field theories. Namely, I study topological defects in the vacuum which appear as localized regions of non-zero energy density if the model system is unable to relax to a homogeneous and isotropic ground state because of topological constraints. I also examine the stability of the so called false vacua in theories that have multiple vacuum states with different energy densities. I first consider topological defects in the form of strings and independently the decay of false vacua in models of particle physics where the presence of either defects or of false vacua leads to interesting phenomenology. Then I describe a situation in which the defects arising from topological properties of the vacuum in turn affect the stability of the vacuum itself. In the first part of this work (chapters 2 and 3), I explore the phenomenology of cosmic strings. I introduce new string-like topological defects that resemble pairs of strings bound together. I give an existence proof of these 'binary strings' and then develop their cosmological properties in detail. I then propose a simple extension of the Standard Model in which cosmic strings may form and then decay through baryon number violating interactions leading to baryogenesis. I show that the model has distinct and testable signatures. In the second part of this work (chapters 4 and 5), I examine the vacua of several proposed models of gauge mediated dynamical supersymmetry breaking and show that the viable vacua are often unstable. I develop a rigorous theory for approximating vacuum tunneling rates in multi-scalar field theories and by computing bounds on the decay rate of the vacua in these models obtain useful constraints on the parameter space. In the final part of this work (chapter 6), I develop a theory of vacuum tunneling induced by topological defects. I show that defects can speed up vacuum tunneling rates by seeding new kinds of bubbles during a first

  11. Theory of DNA electrophoresis in physical gels and entangled polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Thomas; Viovy, Jean Louis

    1994-03-01

    A scaling theory is presented for the electrophoretic mobility of DNA in sieving media that form dynamically evolving meshworks, such as physical gels and solutions of entangled polymers. In such media, the topological constraints on the DNA's motion are perpetually changing as cross links break and rejoin or as the polymers diffuse. It is shown that if the rate of constraint release falls within a certain range (which depends on the field strength), fractionation can be extended to higher molecular weights than would be feasible using a permanent gel of equivalent pore size. This improvement is a consequence of the disruptive effect that constraint release has on the mechanism of molecular orientation. Numerical simulations support the predictions of the theory. The possibility of realizing such a system in practice, with the aim of improving on current electrophoresis methods, is commented upon. It is suggested that semidilute polymer solutions may be a versatile medium for the rapid separation of long single-stranded DNA molecules, and the particular quality of solution required is identified.

  12. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual.

  13. PREFACE: HITES 2012: 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments, and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This volume contains the contributions of the speakers of an international conference in honor of Jerry Draayer's 70th birthday, entitled 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'. The list of contributors includes not only international experts in these fields, but also many former collaborators, former graduate students, and former postdoctoral fellows of Jerry Draayer, stressing innovative theories such as special symmetries and supercomputing, both of particular interest to Jerry. The organizers of the conference intended to honor Jerry Draayer not only for his seminal contributions in these fields, but also for his administrative skills at departmental, university, national and international level. Signed: Ted Hecht University of Michigan Conference photograph Scientific Advisory Committee Ani AprahamianUniversity of Notre Dame Baha BalantekinUniversity of Wisconsin Bruce BarrettUniversity of Arizona Umit CatalyurekOhio State Unversity David DeanOak Ridge National Laboratory Jutta Escher (Chair)Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jorge HirschUNAM, Mexico David RoweUniversity of Toronto Brad Sherill & Michigan State University Joel TohlineLouisiana State University Edward ZganjarLousiana State University Organizing Committee Jeff BlackmonLouisiana State University Mark CaprioUniversity of Notre Dame Tomas DytrychLouisiana State University Ana GeorgievaINRNE, Bulgaria Kristina Launey (Co-chair)Louisiana State University Gabriella PopaOhio University Zanesville James Vary (Co-chair)Iowa State University Local Organizing Committee Laura LinhardtLouisiana State University Charlie RascoLouisiana State University Karen Richard (Coordinator)Louisiana State University

  14. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual. PMID:22943555

  15. Application of Effective Field Theories to Problems in Nuclear and Hadronic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereghetti, Emanuele

    The Effective Field Theory formalism is applied to the study of problems in hadronic and nuclear physics. We develop a framework to study the exclusive two-body decays of bottomonium into two charmed mesons and apply it to study the decays of the C-even bottomonia. Using a sequence of effective field theories, we take advantage of the separation between the scales contributing to the decay processes, 2mb >> mc >> ΛQCD. We prove that, at leading order in the EFT power counting, the decay rate factorizes into the convolution of two perturbative matching coefficients and three non-perturbative matrix elements, one for each hadron. We calculate the relations between the decay rate and non-perturbative bottomonium and D-meson matrix elements at leading order, with next-to-leading log resummation. The phenomenological implications of these relations are discussed. At lower energies, we use Chiral Perturbation Theory and nuclear EFTs to set up a framework for the study of time reversal (T) symmetry in one- and few-nucleon problems. We consider T violation from the QCD theta term and from all the possible dimension 6 operators, expressed in terms of light quarks, gluons and photons, that can be added to the Standard Model Lagrangian. We construct the low energy chiral Lagrangian stemming from different TV sources, and derive the implications for the nucleon Electric Dipole Form Factor and the deuteron T violating electromagnetic Form Factors. Finally, with an eye to applications to nuclei with A ≥ 2, we construct the T violating nucleon-nucleon potential from different sources of T violation.

  16. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict the Physical Activity of Children: Probing Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the association between TPB variables and the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of children in Shanghai, China. Gender differences were also explored. Methods. The participants were 353 children (180 boys and 173 girls) aged 9 to 13 years from three primary schools in Shanghai. Accelerometers were used to measure the MVPA duration of the children. Questionnaires that focused on attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related to MVPA engagement were completed by the participants. Results. Regression analyses revealed that intention, and not PBC, accounted for 9% of the variance in MVPA. Meanwhile, attitude and PBC explained 33% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA. In terms of gender differences, TPB performed better in the physical activity (PA) domain for boys than for girls. Furthermore, attitude and PBC were significantly associated with intention among boys, whereas only PBC was significantly related to intention among girls. Conclusion. Practitioners should consider tailoring intervention to address gender differences to increase leisure-time PA participation of children. PMID:26649307

  17. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population. PMID:26300537

  18. Optimising physical activity engagement during youth sport: a self-determination theory approach.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests participation in youth sport does not guarantee physical activity (PA) guidelines are met. Studies indicate few children achieve recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during their youth sport involvement, and habitual levels of MVPA are below the recommended 60 min per day. Informed by self-determination theory, this study examined whether the coach-created social environment and related player motivation predict variability in objectively measured MVPA within the youth sport setting. Seventy three male youth sport footballers (Mean age = 11.66 ± 1.62) completed a multisection questionnaire assessing their perceptions of the social environment created in youth sport (autonomy supportive and controlling) and motivation towards their football participation (autonomous and controlled). Intensity of PA during youth sport was measured using accelerometers (GT3X, ActiGraph). Results supported a model in which perceptions of autonomy support significantly and positively predicted autonomous motivation towards football, which in turn significantly and positively predicted youth sport MVPA (% time). A significant indirect effect was observed for perceptions of autonomy support on youth sport %MVPA via autonomous motivation. Results have implications for optimising MVPA engagement during youth sport and increasing daily MVPA towards recommended and health-enhancing levels on youth sport days. PMID:26873162

  19. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.

  20. Optimising physical activity engagement during youth sport: a self-determination theory approach.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests participation in youth sport does not guarantee physical activity (PA) guidelines are met. Studies indicate few children achieve recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during their youth sport involvement, and habitual levels of MVPA are below the recommended 60 min per day. Informed by self-determination theory, this study examined whether the coach-created social environment and related player motivation predict variability in objectively measured MVPA within the youth sport setting. Seventy three male youth sport footballers (Mean age = 11.66 ± 1.62) completed a multisection questionnaire assessing their perceptions of the social environment created in youth sport (autonomy supportive and controlling) and motivation towards their football participation (autonomous and controlled). Intensity of PA during youth sport was measured using accelerometers (GT3X, ActiGraph). Results supported a model in which perceptions of autonomy support significantly and positively predicted autonomous motivation towards football, which in turn significantly and positively predicted youth sport MVPA (% time). A significant indirect effect was observed for perceptions of autonomy support on youth sport %MVPA via autonomous motivation. Results have implications for optimising MVPA engagement during youth sport and increasing daily MVPA towards recommended and health-enhancing levels on youth sport days.

  1. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY14

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron T.

    2014-04-01

    The workshop was held from September 23-25, 2013 on the University of Michigan campus. Local organizers were Dragan Huterer, Katherine Freese, and Heidi Wu (University of Michigan). Marilena Lo Verde (University of Chicago) also served as an external organizer. This workshop sought to gather experimentalists and theorists to discuss and define directions in cosmology research after the 1st year release of Planck data. The workshop included 35 invited (non-U-M) cosmologists, most of them relatively junior. The workshop was notable for spirited discussion of various theoretical ideas and experimental developments, and particularly on how one could test theory with ongoing and future experiments. In our follow-up poll, 95% of participants reported that interactions with other participants at the workshop may lead to further collaboration. Most participants (again about 95%) reported that they are very satisfied with the quality of the program, information they received, and the logistical support. Slides are available on line at: http://www.umich.edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/2013/CAP13/program.html. The YHET visitor program invited weekly young visitors to the University of Michigan campus to present their work. This year 23 participants came under the program. Slides are available on line for talks when applicable: http://mctp.physics.lsa.umich.edu/brown-bag-seminar-history/winter 2014 and http://mctp.physics.lsa.umich.edu/brown-bag-seminar-history/fall-2013.

  2. The Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory at Caltech and the creation of the modern rocket motor (1936-1946): How the dynamics of rocket theory became reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibit, Benjamin Seth

    This thesis explores and unfolds the story of discovery in rocketry at The California Institute of Technology---specifically at Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory---in the 1930s and 1940s. Caltech was home to a small group of engineering students and experimenters who, beginning in the winter of 1935--1936, formed a study and research team destined to change the face of rocket science in the United States. The group, known as the Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory (GALCIT, for short) Rocket Research Group, invented a new type of solid-rocket propellant, made distinct and influential discoveries in the theory of rocket combustion and design, founded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and incorporated the first American industrial concern devoted entirely to rocket motor production: The Aerojet Corporation. The theoretical work of team members, Frank Malina, Hsueh-shen Tsien, Homer J. Stewart, and Mark Mills, is examined in this thesis in detail. The author scrutinizes Frank Malina's doctoral thesis (both its assumptions and its mathematics), and finds that, although Malina's key assertions, his formulae, hold, his work is shown to make key assumptions about rocket dynamics which only stand the test of validity if certain approximations, rather than exact measurements, are accepted. Malina studied the important connection between motor-nozzle design and thrust; in his Ph.D. thesis, he developed mathematical statements which more precisely defined the design/thrust relation. One of Malina's colleagues on the Rocket Research Team, John Whiteside Parsons, created a new type of solid propellant in the winter of 1941--1942. This propellant, known as a composite propellant (because it simply was a relatively inert amalgam of propellant and oxidizer in non-powder form), became the forerunner of all modern solid propellants, and has become one of the seminal discoveries in the field of Twentieth Century rocketry. The latter chapters of this dissertation discuss the

  3. Development of analytical theory of the physical libration for a two-layer Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Natalia; Barkin, Yurii; Gusev, Alexander; Ivanova, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    Investigation is being carried out in the frame of Russian-Japanese grant and directed onto providing of the future observations in the frame of the ILOM-project which is planned onto the end of the second decade. The analytical theory presents both scientific interest in its own right and can be useful as a base for the lunar annual in a future, as a clue to lunar interiors and to processes inside the lunar body. A comparison of the libration's analytical theory with new observations will allow to refine the parameters of lunar interiors: an existence or absence of a core, its size, composition and state of aggregation, Love numbers, qualitative parameter Q, etc. Contrary to the usual application of numerical libration models for analyses of observations, the analytical model is able to predict the new harmonics, early unknown and not observed (owing to the insufficient accuracy of observations) in libration's series of observations. As part of the investigation the following results were achieved. Development of the analytical theory of the Lunar Physical Libration (LPhL) were performed using the Poisson Series Processor (PSP). The base solution is realized for the 'main problem' of the LPhL in view of 4-th harmonic of selenopotential. Data on a dynamical figure of the Moon are incorporated in the theory on the basis of new observations of the Lunar gravitational field, received in a frame of space projects Clementine (1994, NASA), Lunar Prospector (1999, NASA) and the SELENE (2007 - 2009, Japan). On the basis of the constructed theory the following actions were done: 1) analyses of the present dynamical models; 2) modeling of stars trajectories in the field of view of the future optical telescope, which is planned to be placed on one of the Lunar poles in the second stage of the Japanese project SELENE-B - ILOM. Results of modeling have shown opportunities of determination of LPhL-parameters with the desirable accuracy 0.001 arc seconds planned in the ILOM

  4. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  5. Does Physics Need Special and General Relativity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning-Davies, Jeremy

    Here it is intended to reconsider briefly some of the objections which have arisen over the years to both the Special and General Theories of Relativity before raising the question of whether or not either of these two theories is actually required by modern physics.

  6. How media campaigns influence children's physical activity: expanding the normative mechanisms of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Hove, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study explicates mechanisms of media campaign effectiveness in the context of children's physical activity. The authors' model expands the theory of planned behavior by integrating injunctive and descriptive norms into its normative mechanism. Analysis of a 3-wave nationally representative evaluation survey among 1,623 tweens indicates that campaign exposure is significantly related, but only indirectly, to both physical activity intention and physical activity behavior. Instead, campaign exposure seems more strongly related to perceived behavioral control and attitudes toward physical activity. By contrast, perceived behavioral control and descriptive norms are strongly related to behavioral intention. The findings suggest that integrating normative mechanisms with the theory of planned behavior can improve efforts to predict and explain a health behavior.

  7. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2015-01-01

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group. PMID:25948459

  8. Influences of personality traits and continuation intentions on physical activity participation within the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the theory of planned behaviour is insufficient in capturing all the antecedents of physical activity participation and that continuation intentions or personality traits may improve the predictive validity of the model. The present study examined the combined effects of continuation intentions and personality traits on health behaviour within the theory of planned behaviour. To examine these effects, 180 university students (N = 180, Male = 87, Female = 93, Age = 19.14 years, SD = 0.94) completed self-report measures of the theory of planned behaviour, personality traits and continuation intentions. After 5 weeks, perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and actual participation in physical activities were assessed. Results supported discriminant validity between continuation intentions, conscientiousness and extroversion and indicated that perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation after controlling for personality effects, past behaviour and other variables in the theory of planned behaviour. In addition, results indicated that conscientiousness moderated the effects of continuation intentions of failure on physical activity such that continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation among conscientious and not among less conscientious individuals. These findings suggest that the effects of continuation intentions on health behaviour are contingent on personality characteristics.

  9. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-11-30

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group.

  10. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  11. How to manage future groundwater resource of China under climate change and urbanization: An optimal stage investment design from modern portfolio theory.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shanshan; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Min; Zhang, Chang; Yuan, Yujie; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Ping; Liu, Jiayu; Huang, Lu

    2015-11-15

    Groundwater management in China has been facing challenges from both climate change and urbanization and is considered as a national priority nowadays. However, unprecedented uncertainty exists in future scenarios making it difficult to formulate management planning paradigms. In this paper, we apply modern portfolio theory (MPT) to formulate an optimal stage investment of groundwater contamination remediation in China. This approach generates optimal weights of investment to each stage of the groundwater management and helps maximize expected return while minimizing overall risk in the future. We find that the efficient frontier of investment displays an upward-sloping shape in risk-return space. The expected value of groundwater vulnerability index increases from 0.6118 to 0.6230 following with the risk of uncertainty increased from 0.0118 to 0.0297. If management investment is constrained not to exceed certain total cost until 2050 year, the efficient frontier could help decision makers make the most appropriate choice on the trade-off between risk and return.

  12. How to manage future groundwater resource of China under climate change and urbanization: An optimal stage investment design from modern portfolio theory.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shanshan; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Min; Zhang, Chang; Yuan, Yujie; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Ping; Liu, Jiayu; Huang, Lu

    2015-11-15

    Groundwater management in China has been facing challenges from both climate change and urbanization and is considered as a national priority nowadays. However, unprecedented uncertainty exists in future scenarios making it difficult to formulate management planning paradigms. In this paper, we apply modern portfolio theory (MPT) to formulate an optimal stage investment of groundwater contamination remediation in China. This approach generates optimal weights of investment to each stage of the groundwater management and helps maximize expected return while minimizing overall risk in the future. We find that the efficient frontier of investment displays an upward-sloping shape in risk-return space. The expected value of groundwater vulnerability index increases from 0.6118 to 0.6230 following with the risk of uncertainty increased from 0.0118 to 0.0297. If management investment is constrained not to exceed certain total cost until 2050 year, the efficient frontier could help decision makers make the most appropriate choice on the trade-off between risk and return. PMID:26295936

  13. Is It Possible To Obtain Coupled Cluster Quality Energies at near Density Functional Theory Cost? Domain-Based Local Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster vs Modern Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Dimitrios G; Neese, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The recently developed domain-based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) delivers results that are closely approaching those of the parent canonical coupled cluster method at a small fraction of the computational cost. A recent extended benchmark study established that, depending on the three main truncation thresholds, it is possible to approach the canonical CCSD(T) results within 1 kJ (default setting, TightPNO), 1 kcal/mol (default setting, NormalPNO), and 2-3 kcal (default setting, LoosePNO). Although thresholds for calculations with TightPNO are 2-4 times slower than those based on NormalPNO thresholds, they are still many orders of magnitude faster than canonical CCSD(T) calculations, even for small and medium sized molecules where there is little locality. The computational effort for the coupled cluster step scales nearly linearly with system size. Since, in many instances, the coupled cluster step in DLPNO-CCSD(T) is cheaper or at least not much more expensive than the preceding Hartree-Fock calculation, it is useful to compare the method against modern density functional theory (DFT), which requires an effort comparable to that of Hartree-Fock theory (at least if Hartree-Fock exchange is part of the functional definition). Double hybrid density functionals (DHDF's) even require a MP2-like step. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the cost vs accuracy ratio of DLPNO-CCSD(T) against modern DFT (including the PBE, B3LYP, M06-2X, B2PLYP, and B2GP-PLYP functionals and, where applicable, their van der Waals corrected counterparts). To eliminate any possible bias in favor of DLPNO-CCSD(T), we have chosen established benchmark sets that were specifically proposed for evaluating DFT functionals. It is demonstrated that DLPNO-CCSD(T) with any of the three default thresholds is more accurate than any of the DFT functionals. Furthermore, using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set and

  14. Density Functional Theory in High Energy Density Physics: phase-diagram and electrical conductivity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2007-06-01

    Atomistic simulations employing Density Functional Theory (DFT) have recently emerged as a powerful way of increasing our understanding of materials and processes in high energy density physics. Knowledge of the properties of water (equation of state, electrical conductivity, diffusion, low-energy opacity) is essential for correctly describing the physics of giant planets as well as shock waves in water. Although a qualitative picture of water electrical conductivity has emerged, the necessary quantitative information is scarce over a wide range of temperature and density. Since experiments can only access certain areas of phase space, and often require modeling as a part of the analysis, Quantum Molecular Dynamics simulations play a vital role. Using finite-temperature density functional theory (FT-DFT), we have investigated the structure and electronic conductivity of water across three phase transitions (molecular liquid/ ionic liquid/ superionic/ electronic liquid). The ionic contribution to the conduction is calculated from proton diffusion and the electronic contribution is calculated using the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The calculations are performed with VASP, a plane-wave pseudo-potential code. There is a rapid transition to ionic conduction at 2000 K and 2 g/cm^3, whereas electronic conduction dominates at temperatures at and above 6000 K&[tilde;1]. Contrary to earlier results using the Car-Parrinello method&[tilde;2], we predict that the fluid bordering the superionic phase is conducting above 4000 K and 100 GPa. Our comprehensive use of FT-DFT explains the new findings. The calculated conductivity is compared to experimental data. I gratefully acknowledge Mike Desjarlais, my collaborator in this effort. The LDRD office at Sandia supported this work. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL

  15. A Prospective Study of Participation in Optional School Physical Education Using a Self-Determination Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether contextual and personal motivational variables, taken from self-determination theory, could predict student cognitive and affective experiences in school physical education (PE), as well as participation in optional PE in the following school year. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 302 British…

  16. Students' Motivational Processes and Their Relationship to Teacher Ratings in School Physical Education: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we used a model of motivation grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000a, 2000b, 2002) to examine the relationship between physical education (PE) students' motivational processes and ratings of their effort and persistence as provided by their PE teacher. Data were obtained from 394…

  17. Perceived Teaching Behaviors and Self-Determined Motivation in Physical Education: A Test of Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koka, Andre; Hagger, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the effects of specific dimensions of perceived teaching behaviors on students' self-determined motivation in physical education. In accordance with the tenets of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), we expected the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness would mediate these…

  18. Gender Differences in College Leisure Time Physical Activity: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Integrated Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Jill M.; Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Jackson, John C.; Lian, Brad E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and…

  19. Closing the Theory-Practice Gap: Physical Education Students' Use of Jigsaw Learning in a Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Nick; Wattison, Nicole; Edwards, Toni; Bryan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Recognising that the theory-practice gap remains problematic in the preparation of physical education (PE) teachers, this study sought to explore three undergraduate students use of jigsaw learning teaching gymnastics during a secondary school placement. Specifically, the research attempted to identify those issues that arose using this learning…

  20. Teaching Practice of Physical Education Teachers for Students with Special Needs: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Min; Wen, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the teaching behavior of physical education (PE) teachers in teaching students with special needs and the factors that determine their teaching behaviour. An extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was utilised as the theoretical framework. Three secondary and two high school PE teachers participated in the study. Data…